British Empire

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pages: 469 words: 146,487

Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World by Niall Ferguson


British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, imperial preference, income per capita, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, night-watchman state, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, zero-sum game

., The Dynamics of Global Dominance: European Overseas Empires 1415–1980 (New Haven, 2001) Brown, Judith M. and Louis, Wm. Roger (eds.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, vol. IV: The Twentieth Century (Oxford/New York, 1999) Canny, Nicholas (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, vol. I: The Origins of Empire (Oxford/New York, 1998) Fieldhouse, David, The Colonial Empires (London, 1966) Harlow, Barbara and Carter, Mia, Imperialism and Orientalism: A Documentary Sourcebook (Oxford/ Malden, Massachusetts, 1999) Hyam, Ronald, Britain’s Imperial Century, 1815–1914 (Basingstoke, 1993) James, Lawrence, The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (London, 1994) Judd, Dennis, Empire: the British Imperial Experience from 1765 to the Present (London, 1996) Lloyd, Trevor, Empire: The History of the British Empire (London, 2001) Maddison, Angus, The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (Paris, 2001) Marshall, P.

I: The Origins of Empire (Oxford/New York, 1998) Fieldhouse, David, The Colonial Empires (London, 1966) Harlow, Barbara and Carter, Mia, Imperialism and Orientalism: A Documentary Sourcebook (Oxford/ Malden, Massachusetts, 1999) Hyam, Ronald, Britain’s Imperial Century, 1815–1914 (Basingstoke, 1993) James, Lawrence, The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (London, 1994) Judd, Dennis, Empire: the British Imperial Experience from 1765 to the Present (London, 1996) Lloyd, Trevor, Empire: The History of the British Empire (London, 2001) Maddison, Angus, The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective (Paris, 2001) Marshall, P. J. (ed.), The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire (Cambridge, 1996) — (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, vol. II: The Eighteenth Century (Oxford/New York, 1998) Morris, James, Heaven’s Command: An Imperial Progress (London, 1992 [1973]) —, Pax Britannica: The Climax of an Empire (London, 1992 [1968]) —, Farewell the Trumpets: An Imperial Retreat (London, 1992 [1979]) Pagden, Anthony, Peoples and Empires: Europeans and the Rest of the World, from Antiquity to the Present (London, 2001) Palmer, Alan, Dictionary of the British Empire and Commonwealth (London, 1996) Porter, Andrew N. (ed.), Atlas of British Overseas Expansion (London, 1991) (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, vol. III: The Nineteenth Century (Oxford, New York, 1999) Winks, Robin W.

III: The Nineteenth Century (Oxford, New York, 1999) Winks, Robin W. (ed.), The Oxford History of the British Empire, vol. V: Historiography (Oxford, New York, 1999) CHAPTER 1 Andrews, Kenneth R., ‘Drake and South America’, in Thrower, Norman J. W. (ed.), Sir Francis Drake and the Famous Voyage, 1577–1580 (Berkeley/Los Angeles/London, 1984), pp. 49–59 Armitage, David, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire (Cambridge, 2000) Barua, Pradeep, ‘Military Developments in India, 1750–1850’, Journal of Military History, 58/4(1994), pp. 599–616 Bayly, C. A., Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire (Cambridge, 1988) —, Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World, 1780–1830 (London, 1989) Bernstein, Jeremy, Dawning of the Raj: The Life and Trials of Warren Hastings (London, 2001) Boxer, C. R., The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600–1800 (London, 1965) Brenner, Robert, ‘The Social Basis of English Commercial Expansion, 1550-1650’, Journal of Economic History, 32/1 (1972), pp. 361–84 Brigden, Susan, New Worlds, Lost Worlds (London, 2000) Carlos, Ann M. and Nicholas, Stephen, ‘Agency Problems in Early Chartered Companies: The Case of the Hudson’s Bay Company’, Journal of Economic History, 50/4 (1990), pp. 853–75 Carnall, Geoffrey and Nicholson, Colin (eds.), The Impeachment of Warren Hastings: Papers from a Bicentenary Commemoration (Edinburgh, 1989) Cell, Gillian T.

pages: 637 words: 117,453

Empire Lost: Britain, the Dominions and the Second World War by Andrew Stewart


British Empire, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, Monroe Doctrine, union organizing

Sir Edward Campbell believed that 'it is a horrid term for the greatest Empire the world has ever known' and, despite being informed that the phrase had been first used over 40 years ago, the irate parliamentarian resolved that he would continue to use 'British Empire'. Flight-Lieutenant Raikes, by his own description a right-wing member of the House, was of a similar mind. He welcomed the continuing use of the term and believed that there had been 'a gasp of relief' from many countries upon learning that 'the British still believe in something which they are prepared to hold and fight for'. Mr Emmott, the Member from eastern Surrey, was also troubled and as he put it: 'Are the British not to be permitted to acknowledge their pride in the British Empire, their determination to defend it against those who would destroy it and their will to make all sacrifices for it?' He believed that the British public was actually mystified by 'a pestilent doctrine which teaches men to be apologists for the British Empire, to be ashamed of it, to explain it away as part of the old world'.

Slim, The Evolution of the Modern Commonwealth, 1902-1980 (London, 1982), pp. 11, 21; Donald Gordon, The Dominion Partnership in Imperial Defense, 1870-1914 (Baltimore, 1965), p. 194. 8 Martin Kitchen, The British Empire and Commonwealth (London, 1996), pp. 61-3; Judd, Empire: The British Imperial Experience (London, 1996), pp. 214-25; James Joll, The Origins of the First World War (London, 1985), pp. 148-54; Robert Holland, Britain and the Commonwealth Alliance, (London, 1981), pp. 1-4; James Williamson, Great Britain and the Commonwealth (London, 1965), pp. 178-80; BBC Research Manuals, 'Number 4, The Development of Self-Government in the British Empire', Abrams Papers (Churchill College, Cambridge), ABMS1/7/9, p. 3. 9 Mansergh, The Commonwealth Experience, p. 21. 10 Hyam, 'The British Empire in the Edwardian Era' in OHBE4, pp. 56-7. 11 Paul Hayes, 'British Foreign Policy and the Influence of Empire, 1870-1920', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History (Vol. 12; 1984), pp. 113-14. 12 Max Beloff, Imperial Sunset, Vol. 1: Britain's Liberal Empire, 1897-1921 (New York, 1970), pp. 191-3. 13 Judd and Slim, The Evolution of the Modern Commonwealth, pp. 39-40; Porter, Britain, Europe and the World, (London, 1987), p. 79; Porter, The Lion's Share, (London, 1975), p. 228. 14 C.

Lord Ismay (1960), Memoirs, London: Heinemann. Jackson, Ashley (2006), The British Empire and the Second World War, London: Hambledon Continuum. James, Lawrence (1994), The Rise and Fall of the British Empire, London: Little, Brown and Company. James, R. (ed.) (1976), Victor Cazalet, London: Collins. Jeffries, Charles (1938), The Colonial Empire and its Civil Service, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jeffries, Sir Charles (1956), The Colonial Office, London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd. Jenkins, Roy (2001), Churchill, London: Macmillan. Joll, James (1984), The Origins of the First World War, London: Longman. Joske, Sir Percy (1978), Sir Robert Menzies: A New Informal Memoir, Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Judd, Denis (1968), Balfour and the British Empire: A Study in Imperial Evolution, 1874-1932, London: Macmillan. -(1996), Empire: The British Imperial Experience, London: Harper Collins. -(2004), The Lion and the Tiger, The Rise and Fall of the British Raj, 1600-1947, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

pages: 427 words: 124,692

Empire: What Ruling the World Did to the British by Jeremy Paxman


British Empire, call centre, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Etonian, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kibera, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, mass immigration, offshore financial centre, polynesian navigation, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

: Anti-Imperialism and Exhibitions in Interwar Britain’, p. 78. 251 ‘the fate of’: Quoted in MacKenzie, Propaganda and Empire, p. 234. 251 ‘respect the right’: Louis, Imperialism at Bay, pp. 123–4. 251 ‘I have not’: Churchill, ‘The End of the Beginning’ speech, Mansion House, 10 November 1942, quoted in Sandbrook, Never Had It So Good, p. 281. 252 ‘sturdy British infantrymen’: The Times, 8 December 1941. 253 ‘the survival of’: Quoted in James, The Rise and Fall of the British Empire, p. 491. 253 ‘the possibility of’: Churchill, The Second World War, vol. IV: The Hinge of Fate, p. 43. 253 ‘I trust you’ll’: Morris, Farewell the Trumpets, p. 452. 254 ‘Thus’, Churchill proclaimed: Quoted in ibid., p. 451. 254 ‘until after protracted’: Quoted in Gilbert Churchill: A Life, p. 716. 255 ‘the end of’: Quoted in Brendon, The Decline and Fall of the British Empire, p. 422. 256 ‘The British Empire’: Quoted in Judd, Empire, p. 310. 256 ‘We have always’: Attlee, quoted in the Daily Herald, 16 August 1941. 256 The Labour manifesto: Dale, ed., Labour Party General Election Manifestos, pp. 52, 59, 72. 257 ‘their cookery from Paris’: Orwell, The Lion and the Unicorn, p. 63. 258 ‘I hate Indians’: John Barnes and David Nicholson, eds., The Empire at Bay: The Leo Amery Diaries, 1929–1945, quoted in Louis, ‘Churchill and the Liquidation of the British Empire’. 258 ‘if Christ came’: Churchill, ‘Our Duty in India’, speech, 18 March 1931, printed in the Spectator, 6 June 1931, p. 533. 259 ‘the chatterboxes who’: Callahan, Churchill, p. 28. 259 ‘War has been’: Daily Mail, 16 November 1929, quoted in Herman, Gandhi & Churchill, p. 323. 259 ‘a monstrous monument’: Mansergh, The Commonwealth Experience, p. 267n. 259 a peevish telegram: Wavell, Wavell: The Viceroy’s Journal, p. 78. 259 ‘on the subject’: Barnes and Nicholson, eds., The Empire at Bay, pp. 988, 993. 260 ‘territory over which’: Hansard, 5th series, vol. 426, cols. 1256–7, 1 August 1946, quoted in Louis, ‘Churchill and the Liquidation of the British Empire’. 260 ‘men of straw’: Quoted in Louis, ‘Churchill and the Liquidation of the British Empire’. 260 ‘Britain’s desertion of’: Quoted in Sarvepalli Gopal, ‘Churchill and India’, in Blake and Louis, eds., Churchill, pp. 470–71. 261 ‘melancholy event’: Quoted in Herman, Gandhi & Churchill, p. 591. 261 ‘not aware of’: Churchill note of 6 July 1945, quoted in Sherman, Mandate Days, p. 171. 262 ‘it surely is’: W.

., The Empire at Bay: The Leo Amery Diaries, 1929–1945, quoted in Louis, ‘Churchill and the Liquidation of the British Empire’. 258 ‘if Christ came’: Churchill, ‘Our Duty in India’, speech, 18 March 1931, printed in the Spectator, 6 June 1931, p. 533. 259 ‘the chatterboxes who’: Callahan, Churchill, p. 28. 259 ‘War has been’: Daily Mail, 16 November 1929, quoted in Herman, Gandhi & Churchill, p. 323. 259 ‘a monstrous monument’: Mansergh, The Commonwealth Experience, p. 267n. 259 a peevish telegram: Wavell, Wavell: The Viceroy’s Journal, p. 78. 259 ‘on the subject’: Barnes and Nicholson, eds., The Empire at Bay, pp. 988, 993. 260 ‘territory over which’: Hansard, 5th series, vol. 426, cols. 1256–7, 1 August 1946, quoted in Louis, ‘Churchill and the Liquidation of the British Empire’. 260 ‘men of straw’: Quoted in Louis, ‘Churchill and the Liquidation of the British Empire’. 260 ‘Britain’s desertion of’: Quoted in Sarvepalli Gopal, ‘Churchill and India’, in Blake and Louis, eds., Churchill, pp. 470–71. 261 ‘melancholy event’: Quoted in Herman, Gandhi & Churchill, p. 591. 261 ‘not aware of’: Churchill note of 6 July 1945, quoted in Sherman, Mandate Days, p. 171. 262 ‘it surely is’: W.

(London, 1835) Sidney, Henry, A Viceroy’s Vindication? Sir Henry Sidney’s Memoir of Service in Ireland, 1556–78, ed. Ciaran Brady (Cork, 2002) Simms, Brendan, Three Victories and a Defeat: The Rise and Fall of the First British Empire (London, 2008) Smith, A. Donaldson, Through Unknown African Continents: The First Expedition from Somaliland to Lake Lamu (London, 1897) Smith, Adam, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (London, 1776) Smith, George, ‘Christian Missions, Especially in the British Empire’, in William Sheowring, ed., The British Empire Series, 5 vols. (London, 1899–1902) Smith, John, Captain John Smith: A Select Edition of his Writings, ed. Karen Ordahl Kupperman (Chapel Hill, 1988) ____, Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England and the Summer Iles (London, 1624) ____, Works, ed.

pages: 670 words: 169,815

Ghosts of Empire: Britain's Legacies in the Modern World by Kwasi Kwarteng


Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Etonian, illegal immigration, imperial preference, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, sceptred isle, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

Its avowed values could not be further removed from those of the British Empire. As I hope to show in many of the examples of imperial history I outline in the following chapters, the anarchic individualism and paternalism which underpinned the British Empire led to messy outcomes. Transitions from British rule to independence were difficult, because the Pax Britannica was itself transient and without any firm foundation. The British Empire was nothing more than a series of improvisations conducted by men who shared a common culture, but who often had very different ideas about government and administration. There is very little unifying ideology in this imperial story. It was grand and colourful but it was highly opportunistic, dominated by individualism and pragmatism. The British Empire is a bizarre model to follow for fostering stability in today’s world.

I place the British Empire in this category. By putting institutions in their own context, I am arguing against a rather Whiggish view of history in which the past is merely a prologue to the present, where one thing leads inevitably to another, in a steady ascent of progress. History is more interesting and complicated than that. The British Empire is not some prelude to a modern twenty-first-century Western world of democracy, multiculturalism and liberal economics. The British Empire was something different. Some of its aspects, its hierarchy, its open disavowal of the idea of human equality and its snobbery, would strike the metropolitan reader of twenty-first-century London or New York as unpleasant and alien. Others, while recognizing the hierarchical nature of the British Empire, have said that conditions in the empire merely matched conditions in Britain itself.

The paper was entitled ‘On the Petroleum Situation in the British Empire’, and it was dated 29 July 1918, three months before the war’s end. Oil was needed – there was no doubt about that. It was ‘twice as economical as coal’. The problem was that there was very little to be found in the British Empire. Even before the war, Slade argued, Britain got 62 per cent of its oil from the United States. Romania and Russia were responsible for nearly 20 per cent, while the rest was obtained from far-flung, unreliable places like Mexico and the Dutch colonies in the Far East. The only way to secure the strategic position, or, in Sir Edmund’s stately phrase, to keep ‘our hold over the sea communications of the world in the event of another war’, was to find oil within the British Empire. If such a source could be found, then ‘the predominance now enjoyed by foreign oil corporations will be a thing of the past’.

pages: 699 words: 192,704

Heaven's Command (Pax Britannica) by Jan Morris


British Empire, Cape to Cairo, centralized clearinghouse, Corn Laws, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Magellanic Cloud, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, trade route

WHITE SETTLERS: Lord Durham and the colonials, 8. AN ACT OF GOD: The Irish Famine, a negation of empire. 9. ‘WHAT A FINE MAN!’: Character and the growth of power. Part Two THE GROWING CONVICTION: 1850–1870 10. GROOVES OF CHANGE: Technology and the British Empire. 11. THE EPIC OF THE RACE: The Indian Mutiny. 12. PAN AND MR GLADSTONE: An Adriatic interlude, 13. THE IMPERIAL STYLE: Taking a Gothic turn. 14. ILLUSTRIOUS FOR THE NILE: Exploration and the death of Speke. 15. GOVERNOR EYRE: ‘Old ’Angsman’ and the Jamaica Rebellion. 16. ‘AIN’T THE PENTATEUCH QUEER: Religion and the British Empire. 17. THE HUMILIATION OF THE METIS: The subjection of an alien culture. 18. IN THE PACIFIC: Sailing safe in the American ocean, Part Three THE IMPERIAL OBSESSION: 1870–1897 19. A FIXED PURPOSE: The ideology of Empire. 20.

There were evangelists who believed in empire as the instrument of Christian duty, and social theorists who believed in emigration as the instrument of enlightened progress, and merchants unconvinced of the advantages of Free Trade, and activists of the West India Interest and the India lobby, and soldiers bored after a decade of peace, and adventurers coveting fresh opportunities of self-advantage. There were fighting patriots, and speculators of exotic preference, and there were even ornamental visionaries, half a century before their time, who conceived a new British Empire framed in symbolism, and endowed with a grand and mystic meaning. One of these was Robert Martin, who standing back from his immense collection of imperial facts, and contemplating his engravings of colonial seals and charters, concluded that the British Empire of 1837, ramshackle and disregarded though it seemed, would prove to be one of the great accomplishments of history, ‘on whose extension and improvement, so far as human judgement can predict, depends the happiness of the world’.1 Another was J. M. Gandy, an able but erratic architect of grandiloquent style.

In the British view the Voortrekkers were renegades from the imperial authority: by the Cape of Good Hope Punishment Act of 1836 the British Empire had claimed jurisdiction over all British subjects south of the 25th parallel—which ran hundreds of miles to the north. Her Majesty’s Government were accordingly perturbed to hear that these particular subjects were now stirring up trouble and establishing pretensions among the native peoples so far along the coast. The nearest imperial forces were at Grahamstown, and the notion of such uncouth Calvinists butchering Basutos or subverting honest Zulu kings was profoundly disquieting to Whitehall. So it was that on November 14, 1838, Sir George Napier, Governor of Cape Colony, announced after all the annexation to the British Empire of Port Natal—‘in consequence of the disturbed state of the Native tribes in the territories adjacent to that part, arising in a great degree from the unwarranted occupation of parts of those territories by certain emigrants from this colony, being Her Majesty’s subjects, and the probabilities that those disturbances will continue and increase’.

pages: 219 words: 61,334

Brit-Myth: Who Do the British Think They Are? by Chris Rojek


Bob Geldof, British Empire, business climate, colonial rule, deindustrialization, demand response, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Isaac Newton, Khartoum Gordon, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, post-industrial society, Red Clydeside, sceptred isle, Stephen Hawking, the market place, urban planning, Winter of Discontent

They expose the brutality of Empire, without saying anything meaningful about the positive contribution of Empire to its colonies. Perhaps Gibson was influenced in forming a negative view of the British Empire by his history lessons as a boy in Australia. After all, it was the first British governor of the colony, Arthur Phillips, who famously declared the interior of the Australian continent to be Terra Nullius (literally ‘land without owners’), thus eradicating the land rights and dismissing the culture of the Aboriginals at a stroke. Here British interests were identified as the only legitimate issues and British judgement was given unquestionable precedence over all others. It is one of the most one-sided and shameful acts of legislation in the whole history 126 BRIT-MYTH of the British Empire. Nor, sadly, does it stand alone. In Imperial Reckoning (2005), Caroline Elkins has recently reminded the world of the British slaughter of as many as 50,000 Kenyans in the Mau Mau Rebellion between 1952 and 1960.

The British history of religious dissent and nonconformity provided a cogent pre-configuration of these myths, which perhaps accounts for why the architects of Empire could take them over so readily and transpose them into a secular context. The vehemence of the belief in the absolute individuality, superiority and charm of the Empire is so totally irrational and disproven by history that it can only be of primitive religious origin. To be sure, before the history of the British Empire there was a history of the British Empire of religious ideas that is not often considered in the context of questions of Empire. John Wyclif ’s bible, which appeared in the fourteenth century, was a precursor of Protestant Reformation and emblazoned English style and individualism as thorny issues for Rome and Europe. In sixteenth-century religious literature, this was supplemented by John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs (1563).

It brought effective systems of sanitation, health and education to countries in which these public benefits had been curtailed by despotism and dictatorship. Despite the fact that it waged many small wars, Ferguson credits the British Empire with administering a level of global peace that has been unmatched since its demise. In short, there is good reason for British nationalists to be proud of their history of Empire. The diametrically opposite view associates guilt and recrimination with the Empire ‘adventure’. For example, in After Empire (2004) Paul Gilroy argues that the British Empire was founded upon organized racism and maintains that its history was thoroughly ‘bloodstained’ and 178 BRIT-MYTH ‘xenophobic’ (p. 164). On this reading, the civilizing mission of Empire was fraudulent. In the context of the colonies, British doctrines of individualism, justice and fair play were masking devices that hid the ‘systematic brutality’ of ‘ethnic absolutism’ which tolerated the treatment of nonwhites as inferior races.

pages: 325 words: 99,983

Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum


Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Norman Mailer, Parag Khanna, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile

To patriotic Britons, war with France was now a defence of a way of life against godless, kingless, trouserless revolutionary egalitarians. Pitt’s policy would encourage Britain’s European allies to engage the enemy on the Continent while using sea power to defeat the French everywhere else. This strategy was the making of the second British empire and the promotion of the global brand known to cartoonists as ‘Britannia’, the vindication of every nationalist’s hopes. The surge in Britain’s fortunes was palpable. In 1792 there were just 23 British colonies; in 1816 there were 43. Similarly, in 1750 the first British empire amounted to some 12.5 million inhabitants, but by 1820 that figure had soared to 200 million. The scale of the fighting involved is important, too. The Napoleonic Wars bore much the same relation to the Seven Years War as the Second World War bears to the First, and they had the same kind of democratizing effect.

‘The history of empires’, declared Edward Gibbon in his first published sentence, ‘is the history of human misery.’ Even such a passionate conservative as Edmund Burke could only justify the conduct of empire if it was based on ancient values. ‘The British Empire’, he wrote, ‘must be governed on a plan of freedom, for it will be governed by no other’. This strange clash of English tradition with Victorian ambition resulted in a highly eccentric liberal empire that would be celebrated by its apologists at the old queen’s Diamond Jubilee in 1897 as the work of ‘the greatest governing race the world has ever seen’. From a twenty-first-century perspective, the British empire is now long gone, but its power and influence linger in the national imagination. A surprising number of British families will have at least one distant relative who served as a colonial civil servant, or died serving the Union Jack under a tropical sun.

.), The English Language, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1966 and 1969). Piers Brendon, The Decline and Fall of the British Empire, 1781–1997 (London, 2007). Susan Brigden, New Worlds, Lost Worlds: The Rule of the Tudors, 1485–1603 (London, 2000). Elizabeth Buettner, Empire Families (Oxford, 2004). Kathleen Burk, Old World, New World: The Story of Britain and America (London, 2007). Ian Buruma, Voltaire’s Coconuts, or Anglomania in Europe (London, 1999). Angus Calder, The People’s War: Britain 1939–1945 (London, 1969). David Cannadine, Ornamentalism: How the British Saw their Empire (London, 2001). Peter Carey, Wrong about Japan (London, 2005). George Clark, English History: A Survey (Oxford, 1971). Peter Clarke, The Last Thousand Days of the British Empire (London, 2007). Sue Clifford and Angela King, England in Particular (London, 2006).

pages: 796 words: 242,660

This Sceptred Isle by Christopher Lee


agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, failed state, financial independence, glass ceiling, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, Northern Rock, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, urban decay

The idea was simple: cheap and rare goods in and British goods out. This trading principle did not always run smoothly but by the death of Victoria and the reign of her son, Edward VII, the British Empire was at its strongest and most profitable. Without the breadth of colonial trading Britain would have been financially embarrassed. Nation-states tumble from historical peaks yet the early years of the twentieth century did not obviously suggest it was right to talk of the Empire sliding away; in fact, there is evidence to suggest that the British Empire was even expanding certainly in terms of its influence in the conduct of the Great War. The 1914–18 conflict was a world war because it was a battle of empires: the British Empire, the German Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Japanese and to a lesser extent, the Italian colonies. When the war ended, the colour-coding of the globe changed.

If Stuart England under its first monarch was a dour society, the whole period of Stuart dynasty was far more important in the nation’s imperial history than the seemingly more romantic Elizabethan age. The years between the start of the Stuarts in 1603 and the Hanoverians in 1714 was the founding century of the counting house that was the British Empire. For example, twelve of the thirteen American colonies28 were established in that period. In the West Indies, the British-held islands produced enormous wealth, mainly through sugar plantations. Lancaster’s East India Company overwhelmed anything that the Dutch, and before them the Portuguese, had managed in Asia. By the time the Hanoverians arrived the first British Empire was established and the Treaty of Utrecht (1713–14) that followed the Duke of Marlborough’s victories in Europe would simply consolidate that imperial holding. This first stage of empire building had much to do with the ability to fight for what the British wanted and more importantly it had a lot to do with the British character which reflected the nation’s religious intolerance and commercial greed.

None was imprisoned; the survivors were allowed to resume their way of life. The Dutch Reform Church would be paramount, the courts and schools and councils would use Dutch as their first language. True, the Boers were very much part of the British Empire, but the way in which they were administered was to be left to a constitutional commission and even the original British objection to the Boers’ treatment of blacks was to be left for further discussion. Little wonder that after the ruthlessness of the conflict there was an impression that it had come to its various conclusions by gentleman’s agreement. This was the final of the wars of the British Empire. There would be further skirmishes, battles, even campaigns that were the result of Britain having had an empire – for example, the war against Mau Mau in Kenya, Communist confrontation in Malaya, indirectly anti-terrorist campaigns in Palestine and Aden and against the separatists in Cyprus.

pages: 354 words: 92,470

Grave New World: The End of Globalization, the Return of History by Stephen D. King

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, paradox of thrift, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Skype, South China Sea, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Office: Europe Office: Set in Minion Pro by IDSUK (DataConnection) Ltd Printed in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall Library of Congress Control Number: 2017936404 ISBN 978-0-300-21804-6 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 To Yvonne, Helena, Olivia and Sophie CONTENTS Prologue: A Victorian Perspective on Globalization Introduction: The Andalucían Shock Part One Paradise Lost 1 False Prophets, Harsh Truths 2 The New Imperium 3 Relative Success 4 Pride and the Fall Part Two States, Elites, Communities 5 Globalization and Nation States 6 The Spirit of Elitism 7 Competing Communities, Competing Histories Part Three Twenty-First-Century Challenges 8 People and Places 9 The Dark Side of Technology 10 Debasing the Coinage Part Four Globalization in Crisis 11 Obligations and Impossible Solutions Epilogue: A 2044 Republican Fundraiser Notes Bibliography Acknowledgements Index PROLOGUE A Victorian Perspective on Globalization … we have now reached the third stage in our history, and the true conception of our Empire. What is that conception? As regards the self-governing colonies we no longer talk of them as dependencies. The sense of possession has given place to the sense of kinship. We think and speak of them as part of ourselves, as part of the British Empire, united to us, although they may be dispersed throughout the world, by ties of kindred, of religion, of history, and of language, and joined to us by the seas that formerly seemed to divide us. But the British Empire is not confined to the self-governing colonies and the United Kingdom. It includes a much greater area, a much more numerous population in tropical climes, where no considerable European settlement is possible, and where the native population must always outnumber the white inhabitants … Here also the sense of possession has given way to a different sentiment – the sense of obligation.

For the most part, nations act in their self-interest – enlightened or otherwise – in an uncertain and sometimes chaotic world, creating temporary alliances that may last weeks, months, years or decades, but which are always in danger of eventually crumbling. Each country’s self-interest, meanwhile, is determined by its own mythology and history – and how that mythology and history is reinterpreted over time. For someone born in the UK at the turn of the twentieth century, the British Empire was a source of wonder and pride. For someone born in the UK at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the British Empire is more likely to be regarded as a source of considerable embarrassment.2 Mythology and history go a long way to explain why the European and US views of the ‘international community’ are not fully aligned, even though the two sides of the North Atlantic are ostensibly close allies. The US may have been a big supporter – both politically and financially – of major international institutions since the end of the Second World War, but on many occasions has opted not to be governed by those institutions.

(i) Trump, Donald election as president (i), (ii) his simple explanation (i) isolationism and (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Mexican wall (i), (ii) populist approach of (i) Republican policy and (i) route to White House (i) secures Republican nomination (i) TPP and (i), (ii) Tsipras, Alexis (i) tuberculosis (i) Turkey (i) Turks (i), (ii) see also Ottoman Empire; Seljuk Turks Twitter (i), (ii) Uganda (i), (ii), (iii) Ukraine (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Umayyad Caliphate (i) unemployment (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) United Arab Emirates (i) United Kingdom (UK) see also Brexit; British Empire 16th century (i) bankers to the world (i) Blair and Brown (i) corporate scandals (i) extradition treaty with US (i) IMF and (i) immigration into (i) inflation (i), (ii) internal inequality (i) joins EEC (i) living standards (i) Mossadeq (i) post-First World War (i) social welfare (i) ‘special relationship’ with US (i) Suez (i) Thatcher and Reagan (i) United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) (i), (ii) United Nations (UN) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi)n9 United States (US) 1930s bank failures (i) absence of firm leadership (i) brand name companies (i) changing fortunes since Second World War (i) checks and balances (i) China and (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) complaints against (i) corporate scandals (i) dismantling the British Empire (i) dollar see American dollar excess Chinese capital (i) First World War view (i) immigration into (i) imperial activities of (i)n1 (Introduction) inflation through war (i) Iraq (i) living standards (i) Locke and the constitution (i) Marshall Plan (i) Middle East inconsistencies (i) middle-income earners (i) military presence in Europe (i) military spending (i) Moscow Olympics (i) naval power (i) 9/11 (i) PACOM (i) Pearl Harbor (i) Plaza Accord (i) population censuses (i) post-First World War (i) post-Second World War initiatives (i) Reagan and Thatcher (i) social mobility (i) Soviet Union and (i) strength of position (i) sub-prime mortgages (i) taxation (i) TPP and (i), (ii) vetoing UN Security Council (i) ‘Washington Consensus’ (i), (ii), (iii) Uruguay Round (GATT) (i) Uzbekistan (i) Varoufakis, Yanis (i), (ii) Vasco da Gama (i), (ii) Venezuela (i) Venice (i) Versailles, Palace of (i) Versailles, Treaty of (i), (ii) Vickers Report (i) Vienna, Congress of (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Vietnam (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Vietnam War (i) Vikings (i), (ii) Visigoths (i) Vladivostok (i) Volcker, Paul (i) Vote Leave (i) Wales (i), (ii) Wall Street (i), (ii) Wall Street Journal (i) Walt Disney Productions (i) ‘War on Terror’ (i) Wars of the Roses (i) warships (i) Washington, DC (i), (ii) ‘Washington Consensus’ (i), (ii), (iii) water shortages (i) Waterloo, Battle of (i) Weimar Republic (i) welfare states (i) Wells, H.G.

pages: 681 words: 214,967

A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East by David Fromkin


anti-communist, British Empire, colonial rule, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, Monroe Doctrine, trade route

With the addition of Palestine and Mesopotamia, the Cape Town to Suez stretch could be linked up with the stretch of territory that ran through British-controlled Persia and the Indian Empire to Burma, Malaya, and the two great Dominions in the Pacific—Australia and New Zealand. As of 1917, Palestine was the key missing link that could join together the parts of the British Empire so that they would form a continuous chain from the Atlantic to the middle of the Pacific. The Prime Minister, of course, saw it the same way. As he wrote later, "For the British Empire, the fight with Turkey had a special importance of its own . .. The Turkish Empire lay right across the track by land or water to our great possessions in the East—India, Burma, Malaya, Borneo, Hong Kong, and the Dominions of Australia and New Zealand."12 Amery, who was about to advise the Cabinet that continued Ottoman (and thus German) control of Palestine was a future danger to the British Empire, believed, with the Prime Minister, that Palestine ought to be invaded immediately—and that Smuts was the general to do it.

Lord Curzon, who in 1918 had said that "the great power from whom we have most to fear in future is France," claimed in 1920 that "the Russian menace in the East is incomparably greater than any-thing else that has happened in my time to the British Empire."16 It was not that Russia was particularly powerful; war, revolution, and civil war had taken too great a toll for that to be true. Rather it was that the Bolsheviks were seen to be inspiring dangerous forces every-where in the East. With Russian encouragement, Djemal Pasha, Enver's colleague in the Young Turk government, went out to Afghanistan in 1920 to serve as a military adviser; and his mission illuminated what the British government most feared. The C.U.P., the continued influence of Germany even in defeat, pan-Islam, Bolshevism, Russia—all had come together and were poised to swoop down upon the British Empire at its greatest points of vulnerability. Thus the Soviets were supporting Persian nationalism against Britain.

Just as Britain's Middle Eastern policy had led France to re-evaluate and eventually to repudiate her alliance with Britain, so now France's policy caused the leaders of the British Empire to look at France through new and apprehensive eyes. A short time later the Prime Minister of South Africa wrote to the then Prime Minister of Britain that "France is once more the leader of the Continent with all the bad old instincts fully alive in her . . . The French are out for world power; they have played the most dangerous anti-ally game with Kemal; and inevitably in the course of their ambitions they must come to realise that the British Empire is the only remaining enemy."33 Another unnerving aspect of the crisis was the apparently reckless conduct of the inner group in the Cabinet: Lloyd George, Birkenhead, Churchill, Chancellor of the Exchequer Sir Robert Home, and the Conservative leader Austen Chamberlain.

pages: 382 words: 127,510

Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire by Simon Winchester


borderless world, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, Edmond Halley, European colonialism, illegal immigration, Khyber Pass, laissez-faire capitalism, offshore financial centre, sensible shoes, South China Sea, special economic zone, the market place

To them and to my ever-tolerant family and friends, who put up with a lot, my deepest gratitude. S. B. A. W. Iffley, Oxford August, 1986 Further Reading For anyone fortunate enough to be able to contemplate a journey to these last specks of the British Empire there are, sad to say, rather few relevant books that are worth taking. I have ploughed through scores of works that linger over the stately decline of the Empire and any number of papers that suggest fates for those islands that, for one reason or another, escaped the great retreat. But most are a little dull; I would be loath to advise any friend bound for Montserrat or Tristan; for instance, to lug along The Cambridge History of the British Empire, or Mr D. J. Morgan’s Guidance Towards Self-Government in British Colonies 1941–1971, invaluable though they were for me. So I have omitted that kind of book, meaning no disrespect to the authors.

Patrick Leigh Fermor, The Traveller’s Tree, John Murray, 1950 John Brooks, The South American Handbook, Trade and Travel Publications, updated annually THE FALKLAND ISLANDS Michael Mainwaring, From the Falklands to Patagonia, Allison and Busby, 1983 Ian Strange, The Falkland Islands, David and Charles, 1972 Natalie Goodall, Tierra del Fuego, Ushuaia, 1979 John Brooks, The South American Handbook, Trade and Travel Publications, updated annually THE FALKLAND ISLANDS DEPENDENCIES AND BRITISH ANTARCTIC TERRITORY Robert Fox, Antarctica and the South Atlantic, BBC, 1985 THE PITCAIRN ISLANDS Robert Nicolson, The Pitcaimers, Angus and Robertson, 1966 AND IN GENERAL George Woodcock, Who Killed the British Empire? Jonathan Cape, 1974 Colin Cross, The Fall of the British Empire, Hodder and Stoughton, 1968 James Morris, Farewell the Trumpets, Faber, 1978 If there is room for just a single volume, pack the last. About the Author SIMON WINCHESTER was a geologist at Oxford and worked in Africa and on offshore oil rigs before becoming a full-time globe-trotting correspondent and writer. He lives on a small farm in the Berkshires in Massachusetts and in the Western Isles of Scotland.

Outposts Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire Simon Winchester For Elaine Contents Map Introduction 1 The Plan 2 British Indian Ocean Territory and Diego Garcia 3 Tristan 4 Gibraltar 5 Ascension Island 6 St Helena 7 Hong Kong 8 Bermuda 9 The British West Indies 10 The Falkland Islands 11 Pitcairn and Other Territories 12 Some Reflections and Conclusions Acknowledgements Further Reading About the Author Praise Other Books by Simon Winchester Copyright About the Publisher Map Introduction The world has changed a very great deal since 1984, the year during which I wrote the following affectionate, in many ways rather poignant, and on occasion sentimental account of my wanderings to and around the British-run relics of the greatest of all modern Empires.

pages: 767 words: 202,660

Two Georges by Richard Dreyfuss, Harry Turtledove


British Empire, citizen journalism, clean water

“And when it does, it will light our country - America, our country - and all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can truly light the world.” “My country,” Bushell answered, “is the British Empire, ruled by His Majesty the King-Emperor, Charles III. If the rest of the NAU didn’t feel the same way, the Independence Party would win elections and no one would need to read Common Sense .” “Elections are bought,” Kennedy said with a scornful sniff. “That works - for a while. But those who make peaceful revolution impossible will make violent revolution inevitable.” “Mr. Kennedy - “ Bushell let it drop. The publisher had composed so many editorials for his magazine, he even talked like one. You’d make Kennedy’s brother the archbishop a Baptist before you convinced him the British Empire did more good than harm, and persisted for that very reason. Perhaps a straight search for information might yield something.

the fellow’s companion asked, chuckling. “There’s one I’d wager the Archbishop of Canterbury has never pondered.” Meteor Crater did not remind Thomas Bushell of a golfer’s divot. To him, it looked like a gunshot wound on the face of the world. Murders by gunfire, thankfully, were rare in the civilian world, but he’d seen more gunshot wounds than he cared to remember in his days in the Royal North American Army. The British Empire and the Franco-Spanish Holy Alliance were officially at peace, so skirmishes between the North American Union and Nueva España seldom made the newspapers or the wireless, but if you got shot in one, you died just as dead as if it had happened in the full glare of publicity. The waiter returned and went through the lounge with a silver tray. When he came to Bushell, he said, “Jameson over ice,” and handed him the glass.

“There they put the tables on gimbals, to keep the food from winding up in the passenger’s laps. And it would be a pity to waste this lovely wine on my trousers. They haven’t the palate to appreciate it.” He chuckled wheezily. Bushell raised his goblet in salute. “His Majesty, the King-Emperor!” he said. He and his companion both sipped their wine to the traditional toast heard round the world in the British Empire. “I drink to headwinds,” the fat man said, lifting his glass in turn. “If they make us late getting into New Liverpool, we shall be able to enjoy another supper in this splendid establishment.” “I shouldn’t drink to that one,” Bushell said. “I have enough work ahead of me to want to get to it as soon as I can. However - ” He paused, remembering supper the night before, then brought the goblet to his lips.

pages: 649 words: 181,179

Diamonds, Gold, and War: The British, the Boers, and the Making of South Africa by Martin Meredith


back-to-the-land, banking crisis, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, liberation theology, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, trade route

‘Africa is still lying ready for us [and] it is our duty to take it . . . more territory simply means more of the Anglo-Saxon race, more of the best, the most human, most honourable race the world possesses.’ To accomplish this feat of empire-building, Rhodes proposed the formation of a secret society, similar to the Jesuit order, a society with ‘members in every part of the British Empire working with one object and one idea’; in effect, a ‘Church for the extension of the British Empire’. He described the kind of men who would make suitable recruits and outlined how they would work to ‘advocate the closer union of England and her colonies, to crush all disloyalty and every movement for the severance of our Empire’. He also proposed that the society should purchase newspapers, ‘for the press rules the mind of the people’. These ideas found their way into a will that Rhodes drew up in Kimberley in September 1877 - one of many wills that he was to write.

On a visit to Kimberley in 1877, Joseph Orpen, an Irish-born surveyor, magistrate and politician, recorded remarks Rhodes made at a dinner party he gave at his two-roomed corrugated iron cottage. Sitting at the head of the table, Rhodes began: ‘Gentlemen, I have asked you to dine . . . because I want to tell you what I want to do with the remainder of my life.’ He intended, he said, to devote it to the defence and extension of the British Empire. ‘I think that object a worthy one because the British Empire stands for the protection of all the inhabitants of a country in life, liberty, property, fair play and happiness . . . Everything is now going on happily around us. The Transvaal is much happier [since annexation] and much better off than it was and is quietly settled under government. The Free State is perfectly friendly and can join us when and if it likes.

To the consternation of the Colonial Office, as the succession of frontier wars with the Xhosa continued, this became an increasingly costly exercise. In his review of the history of British policy at the Cape published in 1853, a former colonial secretary, Earl Grey, concluded that the government’s commitment to British settlement made in 1819 on the grounds of being an economy measure proved to be among the most expensive in the annals of the British empire. What British officials found especially aggravating was that Britain had no vital interest in the Cape other than its naval facilities on the peninsula. ‘Few persons would probably dissent from the opinion that it would be far better for this country if the British territory in South Africa were confined to Cape Town and Simon’s Bay,’ observed Earl Grey. A long-serving senior Colonial Office official, James Stephen, described the Cape interior as ‘the most sterile and worthless in the whole Empire’, with no commercial significance.

pages: 618 words: 180,430

The Making of Modern Britain by Andrew Marr


anti-communist, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business climate, Corn Laws, Etonian, garden city movement, illegal immigration, imperial preference, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Red Clydeside, rent control, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, V2 rocket, wage slave, women in the workforce

He then trickily cajoled both his cabinet’s hard-line free traders and Chamberlain into resigning, and survived himself, undignified but placid, for longer than seemed possible. Just as the row was hotting up, Churchill wrote to a constituent: It would seem to me a fantastic policy to endeavour to shut the British Empire in a ringed fence. It is very large, and there are a good many things which can be produced in it, but the world is larger & produces some better things than can be found in the British Empire. Why should we deny ourselves the good and varied merchandise which the traffic of the world offers . . . Our planet is not a very big one compared with the other celestial bodies, and I see no particular reason why we should endeavour to make inside our planet a smaller planet called the British Empire, cut off by impassable space from everything else. Churchill had but recently returned from making money in America, and had an American mother, but it was not self-interest that led him to worry in another letter, this time to a free-trade Tory in Chamberlain’s back yard, that a tariff wall would cut off Britain from the United States if it ever came to a European war: ‘I do not want a self-contained Empire.’17 For a man often caricatured as a simple-minded imperial jingo in his earlier career, it was a lucid and noble argument which would soon lead Churchill to desert not just Chamberlain – who was hurt by Winston’s defection – but the Conservative Party itself.

Index abdication crisis (1936) ref1, ref2 Abyssinia ref1 Addison Act (1919) ref1 Addison, Christopher ref1 adultery ref1 advertising ref1 air races ref1 air travel ref1 arguments over airspace ref1, ref2 early passenger services ref1 establishment of Imperial Airways and routes ref1 and flying boats ref1 air-raid protection (ARP) wardens ref1 aircraft production ref1 and Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Aitken, Sir Max see Beaverbrook, Lord Alexander, Sir Harold ref1, ref2 Alexandra, Queen ref1, ref2 Allenby, General ref1, ref2 Amritsar massacre (1919) ref1 Anglo-Persian Oil Company ref1 anti-communist organizations ref1 anti-Semitism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Anti-Slavery Society ref1 appeasement ref1, ref2 arguments for ref1 Chamberlain’s meeting with Hitler ref1 and Halifax’s visit to Germany ref1 and Munich ref1 public support for ref1, ref2 Arab revolt (1917) ref1, ref2 architecture ref1, ref2, ref3 aristocracy ref1, ref2 defending of position against House of Lords reform ref1 in economic retreat ref1 and far-right politics ref1 Lloyd George’s attacks on ref1, ref2 post-war ref1 selling of estates ref1, ref2 Armistice Day ref1 Armour, G.D. ref1 Arnim, Elizabeth von ref1 art: Edwardian ref1 inter-war ref1, ref2 Artists’ Rifles ref1 Asquith, Helen (first wife) ref1 Asquith, Herbert ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 downfall ref1, ref2 and First World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and Home Rule ref1 and House of Lords reform ref1, ref2 loses seat in 1918 election ref1 and loss of son ref1 marriages ref1, ref2 and press ref1 relationship with Venetia Stanley ref1 succession as prime minister ref1 and tariff reform ref1, ref2 and women’s suffrage ref1, ref2 Asquith, Margot (second wife) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Asquith, Raymond (son) ref1 Asquith, Violet (daughter) ref1 Ataturk, Kemal ref1 Atlantic Charter ref1 Attlee, Clement ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Auchinleck, General Claude ref1, ref2 Audemars, Edmond ref1 Australia and First World War ref1 Automobile Association ref1 Automobile Club ref1 Aveling, Edward ref1 back-to-nature movement ref1 Baden-Powell, Sir Robert ref1, ref2 Balcon, Michael ref1 Baldwin, Stanley ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and abdication crisis ref1, ref2, ref3 and broadcasting ref1 characteristics ref1 and Churchill ref1 conflict with Rothermere and Beaverbrook ref1, ref2 and General Strike ref1, ref2 and India ref1 and Lloyd George ref1 and protectionism ref1 resignation ref1 succession as prime minister ref1 Balfour, A.J. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Balfour, Betty ref1 Balfour Declaration (1917) ref1 Bank of England ref1, ref2, ref3 banks ref1 Barnes, Fred ref1 Barry, Sir John Wolfe ref1 Basset Hound Club Rules and Studbook ref1, ref2 Battle of the Atlantic ref1, ref2 Battle of Britain ref1 Battle of the Somme (film) ref1 battleships ref1 see also Dreadnoughts Bauhaus movement ref1 Bax, Arnold ref1 BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) ref1, ref2 and abdication crisis ref1 creation ref1 development under Reith ref1, ref2 early announcers and tone of voice ref1 and General Strike (1926) ref1 receives first Royal Charter (1927) ref1 and Second World War ref1 ‘BBC English’ ref1 beach holidays ref1 Beamish, Henry Hamilton ref1 Beatty, Admiral David ref1, ref2, ref3 Beaufort, Duke of ref1 Beaverbrook, Lord (Max Aitken) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 Beck, Harry ref1 Beckwith-Smith, Brigadier ref1 BEF (British Expeditionary Force) and First World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3 Belgian Congo ref1 Bell, Bishop ref1 Belloc, Hilaire ref1 Benn, Tony ref1 Bennett, Arnold ref1 Whom God Hath Joined ref1 Benz, Karl ref1 Beresford, Lord Charles ref1 Besant, Annie ref1 Bethmann-Hollweg, Chancellor ref1, ref2 Bevan, Nye ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Beveridge, William ref1, ref2 Bevin, Ernie ref1, ref2 Billings, Pemberton ref1 ‘bird flu’ ref1 birth control see contraception Bismarck ref1 black Americans arrival in Britain during Second World War ref1 Black and Tans ref1 Blackshirts ref1, ref2, ref3 Blake, Robert ref1 Bland, Hubert ref1, ref2 Bland, Rosamund ref1 Blast (magazine) ref1 Blatchford, Robert ref1, ref2 Bletchley Park ref1 Bluebird Garage ref1 Blunt, Wilfred Scawen ref1, ref2 ‘Bob’s your uncle’ phrase ref1 Boer War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Boggart Hole riot (Manchester) (1906) ref1, ref2 Bolsheviks ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Bomber Command ref1, ref2 ‘Bomber Harris’ see Harris, Sir Arthur Bonar Law, Andrew ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 Booth, Charles ref1, ref2 Boothby, Bob ref1 Bottomley, Horatio ref1 Bowser, Charlie ref1 Boy Scouts see scouting movement Boys Brigade ref1 Bradlaugh, Charles ref1 Braithwaite, W.J. ref1 Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of (1918) ref1 Bristol Hippodrome ref1 British Broadcasting Corporation see BBC British Empire ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 British Empire Exhibition (1924) ref1 British Empire Union ref1 British Eugenics Education Society ref1 British Expeditionary Force see BEF British Gazette ref1, ref1 British Grand Prix ref1 British Legion ref1 British Union of Fascists see BUF Britons, The ref1 Brittain, Vera ref1 Britten, Benjamin ref1 broadcasting ref1 see also BBC Brooke, Sir Alan ref1, ref2, ref3 Brooke, Raymond ref1 Brooke, Rupert ref1 Brown, Gordon ref1 Brownshirts ref1 Buchan, John Prestor John ref1 BUF (British Union of Fascists) ref1, ref2, ref3 Burma ref1 Butler, R.A. ref1, ref2 Cable Street, Battle of (1936) ref1, ref2 Cadogan, Sir Alexander ref1 Cambrai, Battle of (1917) ref1 Campbell, Donald ref1 Campbell, Malcolm ref1 Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry ref1, ref2 camping and caravanning ref1 Camping Club of Great Britain and Ireland ref1 Canterbury, Archbishop of ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Carnarvon, Lord ref1 cars ref1, ref2, ref3 benefits of ref1 developments in ref1, ref2 first accident involving a pedestrian and ref1 Fordist mass-production ref1 motorists’ clothing ref1 rise in number of during Edwardian era ref1 Carson, Edward ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Casement, Sir Roger ref1, ref2 Cat and Mouse Act ref1 cavity magnetron ref1 Cecil, Hugh ref1 CEMA ref1 censorship Second World War ref1, ref2 Chamberlain, Arthur ref1 Chamberlain, Joe ref1 background and early political career ref1 and Boer War ref1 breaks away from Liberals ref1 characteristics ref1 fame of ref1 sets up Liberal Unionist organization ref1 stroke ref1, ref2 and tariff reform debate ref1, ref2, ref3 Chamberlain, Neville ref1, ref2, ref3 and appeasement ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 as Chancellor ref1 and Churchill ref1 downfall and resignation ref1, ref2 failure of diplomacy towards Hitler ref1 and Munich ref1 and Second World War ref1, ref2 Channel Islands ref1 Channon, Sir Henry (‘Chips’) ref1 Chaplin, Charlie ref1, ref2 Chatsworth ref1 Chequers ref1 Cherwell, Lord (Frederick Lindemann) ref1 Cheshire, Leonard ref1 Chesterton, G.K. ref1, ref2 Childers, Erskine execution of by IRA ref1 The Riddle of the Sands ref1 Chindits ref1 Christie, Agatha ref1, ref2 Churchill, Clementine ref1 Churchill, Randolph ref1, ref2 Churchill, Winston ref1, ref2 and abdication crisis ref1 as air minister ref1 anti-aristocracy rhetoric ref1 at Board of Trade ref1 and Boer War ref1 and Bolsheviks ref1 and bombing of German cities during Second World War ref1 and Chamberlain ref1 as Chancellor of the Exchequer under Baldwin ref1 and Empire theatre protest ref1 and eugenics ref1, ref2 as First Lord of the Admiralty and build-up of navy ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and First World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and Gallipoli campaign ref1 and General Strike ref1, ref2 and George V ref1 and German invasion threat prior to First World War ref1 and Hitler ref1, ref2 and Home Rule ref1, ref2, ref3 and India ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and Lloyd George ref1, ref2, ref3 loses seat in 1922 election ref1 political views and belief in social reform ref1 public calls for return to government ref1 rejoins Tory Party ref1 relationship with Fisher ref1 relationship with United States during Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 resignation over India (1931) ref1 and return to gold standard ref1, ref2 and Rowntree’s book on poverty ref1 and Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 and Sidney Street siege ref1 speeches during Second World War ref1, ref2 steps to becoming Prime Minister ref1 suffragette attack on ref1 and tariff reform ref1, ref2 threatening of European peace by Hitler warning and calls for rearmament ref1, ref2, ref3 and Tonypandy miners’ strike (1910) ref1 cinema ref1 Citizens’ Army ref1 City of London Imperial Volunteers ref1 civil service ref1 Clark, Alan The Donkeys ref1 Clark, Sir Kenneth ref1, ref2 Clarke, Tom ref1 class distinctions in Edwardian Britain ref1 divisions within army during First World War ref1 impact of Second World War on ref1, ref2 and politics in twenties ref1 clothing motorists’ ref1 and Second World War ref1 and status in Edwardian Britain ref1 in twenties ref1 Clydebank, bombing of ref1 Clydeside ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 coal miners strike (1912) ref1 Coliseum (London) ref1 Collins, Michael ref1, ref2, ref3 Colville, Jock ref1, ref2, ref3 Common Wealth ref1, ref2 Communist Party of Great Britain ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 communist revolution, fear of ref1 communists ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Conan Doyle, Arthur ref1, ref2 The Hound of the Baskervilles ref1 Concorde ref1, ref2, ref3 Congo Reform Association ref1 Connolly, James ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Connor, William (‘Cassandra’) ref1 Conrad, Joseph ref1, ref2 Heart of Darkness ref1 The Secret Agent ref1 conscientious objectors First World War ref1 Second World War ref1 Conservatives ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 contraception ref1, ref2, ref3 Coolidge, President Calvin ref1, ref2 Cooper, Duff ref1, ref2, ref3 Corrigan, Gordon ref1 Coventry, bombing of ref1, ref2 Coward, Nöel ref1 crash (1929) ref1, ref2 Cripps, Sir Stafford ref1, ref2 Crookes, Sir William ref1 Crooks, Will ref1 Crystal Palace fire (1936) ref1 Curzon, Lord ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Czechoslovakia ref1, ref2 Dacre, Harry ref1 Daily Express ref1, ref2, ref3 Daily Mail ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Ideal Home Exhibition ref1 Northcliffe’s article on shells crisis during war ref1 Daily Mirror ref1, ref2 Daimler, Gottfried ref1 ‘Daisy, Daisy, Give Me Your Answer Do’ ref1, ref2 Darwin, Charles ref1 Darwin, Erasmus ref1 Darwin, Major Leonard ref1 Davidson, J.C.C. ref1, ref2 Davison, Emily Wilding ref1 Davos Ski Club ref1 De Havilland ref1 De La Warr Seaside Pavilion (Bexhill) ref1 de Nyevelt, Baron de Zuylen ref1 de Valera, Eamon ref1, ref2, ref3 Debrett’s Peerage ref1 Defence of the Realm Act see DORA Dickens, Charles ref1 Dimond, Phyllis ref1 distributism ref1 Distributist League ref1 ditchers ref1, ref2 divorce ref1 Divorce Law Reform Association ref1 Dock, Wharf, Riverside and General Labourers’ Union ref1 dockers’ strikes ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Doenitz, Admiral ref1 DORA (Defence of the Realm Act) ref1, ref2, ref3 Douglas, Clifford ref1 Dowding, Sir Hugh ‘Stuffy’ ref1, ref2 Dreadnoughts ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Dresden, bombing of (1945) ref1 drug taking, in twenties ref1 Dunkirk ref1, ref2, ref3 Dunlop, John Boyd ref1 Dyer, General ref1 Easter Rising (1916) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Eckersley, Peter ref1, ref2, ref3 economy and gold standard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 impact of crash (1929) ref1 post-First World War ref1, ref2 Eden, Anthony ref1, ref2, ref3 Edinburgh Castle pub (London) ref1 Edmunds, Henry ref1 education Edwardian era ref1 inter-war years ref1, ref2 Education Act (1902) ref1 Edward VII, King ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Edward VIII, King ref1 abdication ref1, ref2 affair with Mrs Dudley Ward ref1 enthusiasm for Nazi Germany ref1 love for Wallis Simpson ref1, ref2 and social reform ref1 Egypt ref1, ref2, ref3 Eighth Army ref1, ref2 Eisenhower, General ref1 El-Alamein, Battle of ref1, ref2 elections (1906) ref1 (1910) ref1, ref2 (1918) ref1 (1922) ref1, ref2 (1923) ref1 (1924) ref1 (1931) ref1 (1935) ref1 Elgar, Sir Edward ref1 Eliot, T.S. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 ‘Burnt Norton’ ref1 The Wasteland ref1 Ellis, Havelock ref1 emigration Edwardian era ref1 inter-war years ref1 Empire Day ref1 Empire theatre (London) ref1 Enigma ref1, ref2 ENSA (Entertainments National Service Association) ref1 eugenics ref1 evolution ref1 explorers ref1 Fabian Society ref1, ref2, ref3 Fairey Battle bombers ref1, ref2 fascism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 see also BUF Fawcett, Millicent Garrett ref1, ref2 Feisal, Emir ref1, ref2 Fenians ref1 film industry see cinema Film Society ref1 finger prints ref1 Finland ref1 First World War (1914) ref1, ref2 aftermath ref1 and alcohol ref1 Balkans campaign ref1 Baltic plan ref1 and Battle of Jutland ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and BEF ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 British blockade of Germany ref1, ref2, ref3 and burial of the Unknown Soldier ref1 class divisions in army ref1 collapse of German army ref1 comparison with Second World War ref1 conscription ref1; criticism of by UDC ref2 Dardanelles campaign ref1, ref2, ref3 death toll and casualties ref1, ref2, ref3 early military failures ref1 and film industry ref1 and Fisher ref1 food shortages and rationing ref1 formation of coalition government ref1, ref2 French campaign ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Gallipoli campaign ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 German raids ref1 and Haig ref1 impact of on British people ref1 and Middle East ref1 munitions factories ref1 Orpen’s paintings of ref1 and Passchendaele ref1 post-war attack on military chiefs ref1 post-war impact of ref1 preparations for ref1 and press/journalists ref1 public support for ref1 recruitment ref1, ref2 revisionists and ref1 Sassoon’s protest at ref1 scenario if Germany had won ref1 at sea ref1 seeking alternative strategies to Flanders campaign ref1 shells crisis and Daily Mail article ref1 sinking of German battleships by Germany at end of ref1 sinking of Lusitania ref1 slaughter in ref1 steps leading to and reasons for Britain’s declaration of war on Germany ref1 struggle to comprehend meaning of ref1 surrender of Germany ref1; trench warfare ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 U-boat campaign ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and United States ref1, ref2, ref3 use of convoys ref1 use of horses ref1 and women ref1, ref2 Fisher, First Sea Lord ‘Jackie’ ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Fleming, Sir Alexander ref1 Fleury ref1 flying boats ref1 flying circuses ref1 folk dancing ref1 food imports ref1 Foot, Michael ref1 Ford, Ford Madox ref1 Ford, Henry ref1, ref2 Forde, Florrie ref1 Formby, George ref1 ref2 43 (nightclub) ref1, ref2 France and First World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3 franchise ref1 and women ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 free trade ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 French, Sir John ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Fyfe, Hamilton ref1, ref2 gaiety, in twenties ref1 Gallacher, William ref1 Gallipoli crisis ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Galsworthy, John ref1 Galton, Francis ref1, ref2 gambling ref1 Gandhi, Mohandas ref1, ref2 garages ref1 garden cities ref1, ref2 Gardiner, Rolf ref1 Garnett, Theresa ref1 Garsington Manor ref1 Gaumont Palaces ref1 Gawthorpe, Nellie ref1 General Strike (1926) ref1, ref2, ref3 and BBC ref1 gentlemen’s clubs ref1 George III, King ref1 George IV, King ref1, ref2 George V, King ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 George VI, King ref1 German Naval Law (1912) ref1 Germany ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 of (1914) ref1 building of battleships ref1 early state-welfare system ref1 and eugenics ref1 fear of invasion by in Edwardian Britain ref1 and First World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 national welfare system ref1 navy ref1 and planned Irish uprising ref1 and Versailles Treaty ref1 Wandervogel youth groups ref1 see also Second World War ‘GI brides’ ref1 Gibbon, Lewis Grassic ref1, ref2 Gibbs, Philip ref1, ref2, ref3 Gibson, Guy ref1 Gifford, Grace ref1 Gill, Eric ref1 GIs ref1 Gladstone, William ref1, ref2 Glasgow ‘forty hours strike’ (1919) ref1 Goering, Hermann Wilhelm ref1, ref2 gold standard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Gort, Field Marshal ref1 Gough, General Hubert ref1, ref2 Graf Spee ref1 Graves, Robert ref1 Goodbye to All That ref1 Grayson, Victor ref1, ref2 Great Depression ref1, ref2 Great War see First World War Greece and Second World War ref1 Greenshirts (Social Credit) ref1, ref2, ref3 Gregory, Maundy ref1, ref2, ref3 Gresley, Sir Nigel ref1 Grey, Sir Edward ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Grieve, Christopher Murray see McDiarmid, Hugh Grigg, John ref1 Guest, Freddy ref1, ref2 Guilty Men ref1 Gunn, Neil ref1 guns and Edwardian Britain ref1 Haggard, Sir Rider ref1 Haig, Sir Douglas ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Halifax, Lord (Irwin) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Handley Page, Frederick ref1, ref2 Hanfstaengel, Ernst ‘Putzi’ ref1 Hankey, Maurice ref1 Hannington, Wal ref1 Hardie, Keir ref1, ref2, ref3 Hardy, Thomas ref1 Hargrave, John ref1, ref2, ref3 Harmsworth, Alfred see Northcliffe, Lord Harmsworth, Harold see Rothermere, Lord Harris, Sir Arthur (‘Bomber Harris’) ref1, ref2 Harrisson, Tom ref1 Hart, Basil Liddell ref1 Hastings, Max ref1 headwear ref1 hedgers ref1, ref2 Henderson, Arthur ref1 Henderson, Sir Nevile ref1 Hepworth, Cecil ref1 Hindenburg, General ref1 Hipper, Admiral ref1, ref2 Hippodrome (London) ref1 Hitchcock, Alfred ref1 Hitler, Adolf ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 appeasement towards ref1 and Churchill ref1, ref2 and Edward VIII ref1 and Halifax visit ref1 and Lloyd George ref1 and Munich meeting ref1 and Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 suicide of ref1 support of by ‘Cliveden set’ ref1 and Unity Mitford ref1, ref2 Ho Chi Minh ref1 Hobhouse, Emily ref1 Hoesch, Leopold von ref1 Holden, Charles ref1 Hollywood ref1 Holtzendorff, Admiral Henning von ref1 Home Guard ref1, ref2, ref3 Home Rule (Ireland) ref1, ref2 honours selling for cash by Lloyd George ref1 Honours (Prevention of Abuses) Act (1925) ref1 Hood (battleship) ref1 Hoover Building ref1 Hore-Belisha, Leslie ref1 Houdini, Harry ref1 House of Lords ref1 reform of by Liberals ref1, ref2 housing ref1, ref2, ref3 Housing Manual (1919) ref1 Howard, Ebenezer ref1 Howard, Peter ref1 Hughes, Billy ref1 hunger marches ref1 Hurricanes ref1, ref2 ‘Hymn of Hate’ ref1 Hyndman, Henry ref1 Ibn Saud ref1 illegitimacy ref1 Illustrated London News ref1, ref2, ref3 immigration Edwardian Britain ref1 inter-war years ref1 Immigration Act (1924) (US) ref1 Imperial Airways ref1 income tax ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Independent Labour Party (ILP) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 India ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Indian National Congress ref1 industry Second World War ref1 Victorian Britain ref1 Inskip, Sir Thomas ref1 Instone ref1 International Brigade ref1 International Congress of Eugenics ref1 International Fascist League ref1 ‘ Invasion of 1910, The’ ref1 invasion fear of in Edwardian Britain ref1 IRA (Irish Republican Army) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Iraq ref1, ref2, ref3 Ireland ref1 civil war (1922) ref1 a nd Easter Rising (1916) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and First World War ref1 formation of independent Da´il in southern ref1 and Home Rule ref1, ref2 and Second World War ref1 war against British and negotiation of peace treaty (1921) ref1 Irish nationalists ref1, ref2, ref3 Irish Republican Army see IRA Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Irish Volunteers ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Ironside, Lord ref1 Irwin, Lord see Halifax, Lord Islam ref1 Ismay, General ref1 Italian futurists ref1 Italians interment of during Second World War ref1 ‘ It’s a Long Way to Tipperary’ ref1 Jackson, Derek ref1 James, Henry ref1, ref2 Japanese and Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Jarrow Crusade (1936) ref1 jazz ref1 Jellicoe, John ref1, ref2, ref3 Jerusalem ref1 Jewish People’s Council Against Fascism ref1 Jews ref1, ref2 see also anti-Semitism ‘ jingo’ ref1 Johnston, Edward ref1 Johnston, Tom ref1 journalism ref1 see also press Joyce, James ref1 Joynson-Hicks, Sir William ref1, ref2 Jutland, Battle of ref1, ref2, ref3 Kandahar Ski Club ref1 Karno, Fred ref1 Keating, Sean ref1 Kemal, Mustapha ref1 Kendall, Mary ref1 Kennedy, Joseph ref1 Kenney, Annie ref1 Kent, Duke of ref1 Keppel, Alice ref1 Key, Edith ref1 Keynes, John Maynard ref1, ref2, ref3 Kibbo Kift ref1, ref2, ref3 Kinship in Husbandry ref1 Kipling, Rudyard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Kitchener, Lord ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11 Knight, John ref1 Krupskaya, Nadezhda ref1 Labour Party ref1, ref1, ref1, ref1, ref1, ref1, ref1, ref1 Labour Representation Committee ref1, ref2 Lancastria, bombing of ref1 Land Army girls ref1 land speed records ref1 Landsdowne House ref1 Landsdowne, Lord ref1, ref2 Lane, Allen ref1 Lansbury, George ref1 Larkin, James ref1 Laszlo, Philip de ref1 Lauder, Harry ref1, ref2, ref3 Lawrence, D.H. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Lawrence, Katie ref1 Lawrence, T.E. ref1, ref2, ref3 Le Queux, William ref1 League of Isis ref1 League of Nations ref1, ref2 Lebanon ref1 Lee, Arthur ref1 Leeper, Reginald ref1 Leese, Arnold ref1 Left Book Club ref1 Leigh-Mallory, Air Vice Marshal ref1 Lenin, Vladimir ref1, ref2, ref3 Lenton, Lilian ref1 Leopold, King of Belgium ref1 Letchworth ref1, ref2 Lewis, Rosa ref1 Liberal Party ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Liberal Unionist organization ref1 Liddell-Hart, Basil ref1 Lissauer, Ernst ref1 literature ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Little Tich ref1 Liverpool strikes ref1 Liverpool Mersey Tunnel ref1 Llanfrothen Burial Case ref1 Lloyd George, David ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 anti-landlord rhetoric ref1, ref2 and Boer War ref1, ref2 as Chancellor of the Exchequer ref1 in charge of munitions ref1, ref2 and Churchill ref1, ref2, ref3 downfall ref1, ref2 and First World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and Hitler ref1 hostility towards Haig ref1 and Ireland ref1 Orange Book ref1 and People’s Budget ref1, ref2 personal life ref1 political career ref1 as prime minister and wartime regime under ref1, ref2, ref3 rise to power ref1, ref2 and Second World War ref1 selling of honours for cash ref1 share dealing ref1 and tariff reform debate ref1 vision of welfare system ref1 visit to Germany ref1 wins 1918 election ref1, ref2 and women’s vote ref1 Lloyd, Marie ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Lockyer, Sir Norman ref1 London ref1 fog in Edwardian era ref1 music halls ref1 as refuge for revolutionaries abroad in Edwardian era ref1 London Blitz ref1 London Pavilion theatre ref1 London Transport ref1 London Underground map ref1 Loos, Battle of ref1 Lubetkin, Berthold ref1 Ludendorff ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Luftwaffe ref1, ref2, ref3 Lunn, Arnold ref1, ref2 Lunn, Sir Henry ref1 Lusitania ref1 Lynn, Vera ref1 MacColl, Ewan ref1 MacCormick, John ref1, ref2 McDiarmid, Hugh (Grieve) ref1 MacDonagh, Michael ref1 MacDonald, Ramsay ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 background ref1 and formation of National Government ref1, ref2 and Mosley ref1 vilification of ref1, ref2 MacInnes, Colin ref1 McKenna, Reginald ref1 Mackenzie, Compton ref1, ref2 Maclean, John ref1, ref2 Macmillan, Harold ref1 McNabb, Father Vincent ref1 McShane, Harry ref1 Madoff, Bernard ref1 ‘mafficking’ ref1 Major, John ref1 Malins, Geoffrey ref1 Mallard locomotive ref1 ‘Manchester Rambler, The’ ref1 Manners, Lady Diana ref1, ref2 marching ref1 Marconi, Guglielmo ref1 Marconi scandal (1911) ref1 Markiewicz, Countess ref1, ref2 Marlborough, Duke of ref1 Martin, Captain D.L. ref1 Marx, Eleanor ref1 Marx, Karl ref1 Mass Observation system ref1, ref2 Matcham, Frank ref1 Maude, Aylmer ref1 Maurice, Sir Frederick ref1 Maxse, Leo ref1, ref2 Maxton, Jimmy ref1, ref2 May, Phil ref1 medical science ref1 Melba, Dame Nellie ref1 Melbourne, Lord ref1 memorials ref1 Mendelsohn, Erich ref1 metro-land ref1 Meyrick, Kate ref1, ref2, ref3 Middle Classes Union ref1 Middle East ref1, ref2 Mill, John Stuart ref1 Millais, Sir John Everett ref1 Milner, Lord ref1, ref2, ref3 miners dispute (1926) ref1, ref2 Mitchell, Hannah ref1 The Hard Way Up ref1 Mitchell, Reginald ref1, ref2, ref3 Mitford, Deborah ref1 Mitford, Diana see Mosley, Diana Mitford girls ref1 Mitford, Jessica ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Mitford, Nancy ref1, ref2 Wigs on the Green ref1 Mitford, Pamela ref1 Mitford, Tom ref1 Mitford, Unity ref1, ref2, ref3 modernism ref1, ref2, ref3 Montacute House (Somerset) ref1 Montagu, Edwin ref1, ref2, ref3 Montgomery, General Bernard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Morel, Edmund ref1, ref2 Morrel, Ottoline ref1, ref2 Morris, William (car maker) ref1, ref2 Morris, William (craftsman) ref1 Morrison, Herbert ref1, ref2 Morton, Desmond ref1 Morton, E.V. ref1 Mosley, Cimmie (first wife) ref1, ref2 Mosley, Diana (née Mitford) (second wife) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Mosley, Oswald ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 and anti-Semitism ref1 background and early life ref1 and Battle of Cable Street ref1 and fascism ref1 funding from Mussolini ref1 imprisonment ref1 launching of British Union of Fascists ref1 and MacDonald ref1 marriage to Diana Mitford ref1 and New Party ref1 and Olympia riot (1934) ref1 plans and ideas ref1 resignation from Labour ref1 and Rothermere ref1 Muir, Edwin ref1, ref2 Munich ref1 Munnings, Alfred ref1 Murdoch, Rupert ref1 Murray, Lord ref1 music ref1, ref2 music hall ref1 Mussolini, Benito ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 national debt, post-war ref1 National Government ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 National Insurance Bill (1911) ref1 National Party of Scotland ref1 National Unemployed Workers Movement (NUWM) ref1 National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) ref1 navy see Royal Navy Navy League ref1 Nazi Germany ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 see also Hitler, Adolf Nehru, Jawaharlal ref1 Nesbit, Edith (Daisy) ref1, ref2, ref3 The Amulet ref1 Five Children and It ref1 The Railway Children ref1 Nevill, Captain ref1 New Party ref1, ref2 newspapers see press Nicholson, William ref1, ref2 nightclubs ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 1922 committee ref1 Nivelle, General ref1, ref2 No-Conscription Fellowship ref1 Nordics ref1 Norman, Sir Montagu ref1, ref2, ref3 Northcliffe, Lord (Alfred Harmsworth) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 background ref1 and Daily Mail ref1 Daily Mail article on shells shortage ref1 and downfall of Asquith ref1 last days and death ref1 Motor Cars and Driving ref1 northern industrial cities, decline of ref1 Northern Ireland ref1 see also Ireland Norway and Second World War ref1, ref2 nostalgia ref1 nuclear bomb ref1, ref2 nudism ref1 O’Connor, General ref1, ref2 Ogilvie-Grant, Mark ref1 Olympia Garage ref1 organic food movement ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Orpen, William ref1, ref2 Orwell, George ref1, ref2, ref3 Homage to Catalonia ref1 The Road to Wigan Pier ref1 Ottoman Empire ref1, ref2, ref3 outdoors ref1 Owen, Frank ref1 Owen, Wilfred ref1, ref2, ref3 Oxford Automobile Company ref1 Oxford Union debate (1933) ref1, ref2 Paget, Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur ref1, ref2 Palace Theatre (London) ref1 Palestine ref1 Panahards ref1, ref2 Pankhurst, Adela ref1 Pankhurst, Christabel ref1, ref2, ref3 Pankhurst, Emmeline ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Pankhurst, Sylvia ref1 paperbacks ref1 Paris peace conference ref1, ref2 Park, Keith ref1 Parliament during Second World War ref1 Passchendaele ref1 Patton, General ref1, ref2 Peace Pledge Union ref1, ref2 Pearl Harbor ref1, ref2, ref3 Pearse, Padraig ref1, ref2 Pearson, George ref1 peerages ref1 selling for cash ref1 peers ref1 Penguin Books ref1 pensions ref1 People’s Budget (1909) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Pétain, Marshal ref1 pianos ref1 Pick, Frank ref1 Piper, John ref1 Pistols Act (1903) ref1 Plunkett, Joseph ref1, ref2 Plymouth, bombing of ref1 political extremism ref1 Ponzi, Charles ref1 Poor Law Guardians ref1, ref2 poor/poverty ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Rowntree’s investigation and book on conditions in York ref1 Pound, Ezra ref1, ref2, ref3 Cantos ref1 Powell, Enoch ref1 Powys, John Cowper ref1, ref2 Preece, Sir W.H. ref1 press ref1, ref2 and abdication crisis ref1 and Daily Mail ref1 destruction of Liberal government by ref1 and First World War ref1 see also Beaverbrook, Lord; Northcliffe, Lord; Rothermere, Lord Price, G.

The corn fields of Sussex had been out-shouted by the terraces of Oldham. But shrewd observers knew that once a tax on imported corn was announced in spring 1902 to help pay for the Boer War, the argument for a much larger wall around the British Empire was bound to return. Chamberlain had spent much of the past decade worriedly observing Germany, whose industry, prosperity and social welfare had been built up behind high tariff walls; the same was true of France and Italy and the Austro-Hungarian Empire; America’s tariffs were even higher, and her growth was even faster. So perhaps it was now time to accept that the world was one of rival trade blocks, and build a barrier round the British Empire too? Real wages were stagnating and British industry was growing too slowly. Chamberlain proposed that food should come in cheaply from South Africa, Canada, New Zealand and Australia; anything else should be taxed severely.

pages: 344 words: 93,858

The Post-American World: Release 2.0 by Fareed Zakaria


affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, new economy, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional, zero-sum game

Lawrence James, The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996), 212. 5. Paul Kennedy, “Why Did the British Empire Last So Long?,” in Strategy and Diplomacy, 1870–1945: Eight Studies (London: Allen & Unwin, 1984), 197–218. 6. The facts on Britain’s economic situation come largely from Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of Great Powers (New York: Random House, 1987), 151–200. Maddison and Barnett (see below) are also useful sources. 7. This theory on the British decline is fleshed out in Correlli Barnett, The Collapse of British Power (Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing, 1997). 8. Niall Ferguson, The Pity of War (New York: Penguin Books, 1998). 9. Kennedy, Rise and Fall of Great Powers, 317. 10. James, Rise and Fall of the British Empire, 464. 11. Michael W. Holman, Profiting from International Nanotechnology (Lux Research, Dec. 2006). 12.

There was a “big two” plus one brilliant political entrepreneur who was able to keep himself and his country in the game, so that Britain maintained many elements of great powerdom well into the late twentieth century. Of course, it came at a cost. In return for its loans to London, the United States took over dozens of British bases in the Caribbean, Canada, the Indian Ocean, and the Pacific. “The British empire is handed over to the American pawnbroker—our only hope,” said one member of Parliament. The economist John Maynard Keynes was more enraged, describing the Lend-Lease Act as an attempt to “pick out the eyes of the British empire.” Less emotional observers saw that it was inevitable. Arnold Toynbee, by then a distinguished historian, consoled Britons that America’s “hand will be a great deal lighter than Russia’s, Germany’s, or Japan’s, and I suppose these are the alternatives.” The fundamental point is that Britain was undone as a great global power not because of bad politics but because of bad economics.

They became, depending on your view, ideological or idealistic. European institutions, practices, and ideas were introduced and imposed, though always maintaining racial preferences—the British court system was brought to India, for example, but Indian magistrates could not try whites. Over time, the European impact on its colonies was huge. And it then spread well beyond the colonies. Niall Ferguson has argued that the British empire is responsible for the worldwide spread of the English language, banking, the common law, Protestantism, team sports, the limited state, representative government, and the idea of liberty.11 Such an argument might gloss over the hypocrisy and brutality of imperial control—economic looting, mass executions, imprisonments, torture. Some—the Dutch and the French, for example—might quibble with the exclusively English provenance of such ideas.

pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

But the so-called Springtime of the Peoples was not confined to Europe. Like so many other Western ideas in the nineteenth century, French-style revolution swiftly became a global phenomenon. Across the British Empire there was unrest – in Ceylon, Guiana, Jamaica, New South Wales, the Orange River Sovereignty, the Punjab and Van Diemen’s Land.27 Even more remarkable were the events in French West Africa. There, unlike in British colonies, radical political change had the backing of a revolutionary government in the metropolis. All this serves to illuminate the most distinctive feature of French imperialism: its enduring revolutionary character. The British Empire was by instinct socially conservative; with every passing year its administrators grew fonder of local elites, more comfortable with indirect rule through tribal chiefs and ornamental maharajahs.

Some forty years later Spanish rule was ended in Latin America. Yet while one revolution cemented the democratic rights of property-owners, and brought into being a federal republic that within a hundred years was the world’s wealthiest country, the South American revolutions consigned all of America south of the Rio Grande to two centuries of division, instability and underdevelopment. Why was that? Both the Spanish and the British empires experienced crises in the late eighteenth century. The increased regulation of transatlantic trade by the imperial authorities and the high cost of the Seven Years’ War (1756–63) paved the way for colonial revolts. Those that broke out in Britain’s American colonies in the 1770s had their counterparts in Spain’s: Túpac Amaru II’s Andean Rebellion of 1780–83 and the Comunero Revolt in New Granada (present-day Colombia) in 1781.

To appreciate why it was that race became such a preoccupation of the West’s interaction with other civilizations, we must now turn to Africa itself, which was to become the focal point of European imperial expansion in the period. In the speech with which this chapter began, Churchill – whose own imperial career had started in the Sudan and South Africa – asked a question that was in many ways central to the lives of an entire generation of empire-builders: ‘Why should not the same principles which have shaped the free, ordered, tolerant civilization of the British Isles and British Empire be found serviceable in the organization of this anxious world?’ Civilization as he understood it had successfully taken root in North America – as successfully in those parts that remained under British rule as in the United States. It had flourished in the arid wilderness of Australia. Why not in Africa, too? In America four European powers had tried their hands at planting their civilizations in foreign soil (five if we count the Dutch in Guiana and ‘New Amsterdam’, six if we count the Swedes in Saint-Barthélemy, seven including the Danes in the Virgin Islands, and eight with the Russian settlements in Alaska and California), with widely varying degrees of success.

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The Taste of War: World War Two and the Battle for Food by Lizzie Collingham

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial exploitation, distributed generation, European colonialism, fixed income, full employment, global village, indoor plumbing, labour mobility, land reform, mass immigration, means of production, profit motive, rising living standards, trade route, V2 rocket, women in the workforce

Jackson, The British Empire, pp. 49, 86. 21 The Production of Food Crops, p. 6. 22 Tunzelmann, Indian Summer, p. 138. 23 Smith, Conflict over Convoys, p. 156. 24 The Production of Food Crops, pp. 7, 8, 11. 25 Wilmington, The Middle East Supply Centre, p. 50. 26 Ibid., p. 16; Lloyd, Food and Inflation, p. 91. 27 Chandos, The Memoirs, pp. 222–3. 28 Ibid., p. 238. 29 Wilmington, The Middle East Supply Centre, p. 83. 30 Ibid., pp. 81, 83. 31 Ibid., p. 45. 32 Lloyd, Food and Inflation, p. 89. 33 Cooper, Cairo, p. 162. 34 Wilmington, The Middle East Supply Centre, p. 25. 35 Lloyd, Food and Inflation, p. 129. 36 Ibid., p. 88. 37 Wilmington, The Middle East Supply Centre, p. 117. 38 Jackson, The British Empire, pp. 120–1; Lloyd, Food and Inflation, p. 30. 39 Jackson, The British Empire, pp. 166, 198. 40 Lloyd, Food and Inflation, pp. 55, 58, 65. 41 Milward, War, Economy and Society, p. 280. 42 Wilmington, The Middle East Supply Centre, p. 81. 43 Ibid., p. 121. 44 Ibid., p. 124. 45 Ibid., p. 106. 46 Ibid., p. 112. 47 Ibid., p. 84. 48 50.8 million to 19.4 million net registered tons.

., p. 201. 66 Davis and Engerman, Naval Blockades, p. 286. 67 Smith, Conflict over Convoys, p. 177. 68 Hammond, Food and Agriculture, p. 187. 69 Costello and Hughes, The Battle of the Atlantic, p. 215. 70 French, Waging War, p. 51. 71 Ibid., pp. 21–2. 72 Ibid., p. 61. 73 Ibid., p. 113. 74 Ibid., p. 139. 75 Costello and Hughes, The Battle of the Atlantic, p. 215. 76 Ibid., p. 216. 77 Rahn, ‘The war at sea’, p. 341. 78 Hammond, Food and Agriculture, p. 185. 79 Ibid., p. 187. 80 Smith, Conflict over Convoys, p. 177. 81 Ibid., p. 154. 7 Mobilizing the British Empire 1 Stephens, Monsoon Morning, p. 180. 2 Jackson, The British Empire, p. 22. 3 Beaumont, ‘Australia’s war: Europe and the Middle East’, p. 9. 4 Jackson, Botswana, pp. 36, 40. 5 Beaumont, ‘Australia’s war: Asia and the Pacific’, p. 47. 6 Jackson, Botswana, pp. 132–3. 7 Kerslake, Time and the Hour, p. 163. 8 Crowder, ‘The 1939–45 war’, pp. 596, 611. 9 Pearce, ‘The colonial economy’, p. 276. 10 Kamtekar, ‘A different war dance’, p. 195; Bayly and Harper, Forgotten Armies, p. 301. 11 Kamtekar, ‘A different war dance’, p. 204. 12 Ibid., pp. 206–7. 13 Wright, The World and a Very Small Place in Africa, p. 196. 14 Jackson, Botswana, pp. 138–41. 15 Ibid., pp. 143–4. 16 Sen, Poverty and Famines, pp. 155–6. 17 Wright, The World and a Very Small Place in Africa, p. 195. 18 Jackson, Botswana, p. 156. 19 Killingray, ‘African civilians’, p. 141. 20 28 per cent of land in Mauritius was turned over to food crops.

* Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. 88 Ibid., pp. 38–9. 89 Ibid., p. 73. 90 Beaumont, ‘Australia’s war: Europe and the Middle East’, pp. 17–18; Jackson, The British Empire, p. 2. 91 The papers of G. R. Page, Department of Documents, IWM, p. 30. 92 Crimp, The Diary of a Desert Rat, pp. 20–21. 93 Bierman and Smith, Alamein, p. 151. 94 Crimp, The Diary of a Desert Rat, pp. 38–9. 95 Bierman and Smith, Alamein, pp. 151–2. 96 Levenstein, Paradox of Plenty, p. 93. 97 Jackson, Botswana, p. 76. 98 The papers of G. R. Page, Department of Documents, IWM, p. 30. 99 Lloyd, Food and Inflation, pp. 273–7; Bayly, ‘Spunyarns’, p. 33. 100 Jackson, The British Empire, p. 105. 101 Collier, ‘The logistics of the North African campaign’, pp. 202–3. 102 The papers of G. R. Page, Department of Documents, IWM, p. 47. 103 Ibid. 104 Walker, The Clinical Problems of War, p. 321; Bullard, ‘ “The great enemy” ’, pp. 219–20. 105 Brune, Those Ragged Bloody Heroes, p. 45. 106 Walker, ‘The writers’ war’, pp. 149–50. 107 Brune, Those Ragged Bloody Heroes, p. 101; Dornan, The Silent Men, p. 146. 108 Richmond, The Japanese Forces in New Guinea, p. 369. 109 Brune, Those Ragged Bloody Heroes, p. 93. 110 Ibid., p. 89. 111 Walker, The Clinical Problems of War, p. 321. 112 Beaumont, ‘Australia’s war: Asia and the Pacific’, p. 40. 113 Ibid.; Drea, In the Service of the Emperor, p. 70. 114 Walker, The Island Campaigns, p. 229. 115 Ibid., p. 227. 116 The Australian Army at War, p. 70. 117 ‘Appendix.

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The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class by Kees Van der Pijl


anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, deskilling, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, imperial preference, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, North Sea oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit maximization, RAND corporation, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty

When in the context of World War Two, a comparable conjuncture again presented itself to the American ruling class, the Roosevelt forces seized the opportunity to reorient the New Deal from its national–corporatist format to a more liberal-internationalist strategy of expansion, in which domestic working-class demands could be in part evaded, in part compromised, while American economic power was brought to bear on both the British Empire and the Soviet Union in order to force them into compliance with US preferences for an open world. The Lend-Lease policy, then, inaugurated an era in which the two elements in combination–the generalization of Fordism and an offensive diplomacy of Wilsonian inspiration–materialized as a process of class formation on the North Atlantic level, guided by successive formulations of Atlantic unity.

From this perspective, the history of Atlanticism, as both ideology and an actual process of class formation, must be related to the three successive strategies of Atlantic unity which corresponded to the different offensive periods of American capitalism. The first was Roosevelt’s concept of Atlantic Universalism, which derived its specific Atlantic dimension from the European focus of World War Two and the key position of the British Empire in the world America wanted to expand into. The second version of Atlantic unity was the Atlantic Union idea which surfaced at the time of the Marshall Plan and combined a status-quo approach to control of the periphery with a high-pitched Cold War unity against the Soviet Union. The third Atlanticist strategy was the Atlantic Partnership scheme promulgated by President Kennedy in an attempt to restore unity of purpose to an Atlantic world in which the establishment of a restrictive EEC demonstrated the degree to which Western European capital had emancipated itself from American tutelage and was intent on carving out a sphere-of-interest of its own.

But Wilson’s universalism, explicitly conceived as a bourgeois-reformist alternative to the call of the October Revolution, soon lost its relevance in the interwar years as US economic foreign policy was shaped, first, by Wall Street rentier interests, then, by the state-monopolist pursuit of an American sphere-of-interest. Even at the beginning of US involvement in World War Two, as Roosevelt began his epic wheeling-dealing to pry the economic assets of the British Empire from Churchill, US geopolitical goals continued to be framed within a basically sphere-of-interest concept that took the division of the world market for granted. Thus the Council on Foreign Relations commissioned research to determine the minimal size of the informal empire necessary for the survival of US private capitalism in terms of raw material supplies, domestic employment and export outlets.

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The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor by William Easterly


air freight, Andrei Shleifer, battle of ideas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, Edward Glaeser,, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, M-Pesa, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, risk/return, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey, young professional

Perhaps it helps to understand this contradiction to learn that the main author of the soaring language of the charter was Jan Smuts, the long-time South African leader and long-time advocate of white rule in Africa. At the conference in San Francisco, Smuts praised the United Kingdom as the “greatest colonial power” in the world. Smuts saw the United Nations as serving “men and women everywhere, including dependent peoples, still unable to look after themselves.”54 The “international machinery” to promote “advancement” of “dependent peoples” included the British Empire. At the time of the UN’s founding, the United Nations and the British Empire were mutually supportive international organizations. W.E.B. DuBois accused Smuts and the other UN founders of “lying about democracy when we mean imperial control of 750 millions of human beings in colonies.”55 Friedrich Hayek had questioned the moral value of any real power given to an international organization in The Road to Serfdom in 1944. Hayek, with his realism about the Allies wielding such power and his suspicion of unchecked power at any level, reacted a lot like the left-wing anti-imperialist DuBois.

One of many examples this book gave was that of Lord Hailey, who during World War II stressed material development as a way to avoid a discussion of racism in the British Empire. He emphasized material development to avoid a discussion of the political rights of colonial subjects under the absolute power of the empire. He focused on material development to avoid a discussion of equal rights of whites and nonwhites. We discussed how Hailey was able to strike an implicit deal with the Americans: he would not embarrass them about their denial of equal rights to African Americans at home if the Americans would not embarrass the British Empire about its denial of equal rights to Africans. Both would agree to talk only about improved material well-being and not talk about rights. This strategy had already been part of FDR’s New Deal approach toward racial issues, when he needed support from both blacks and Southern segregationists.

Racism and Development The second decision at Versailles—not to endorse racial equality—also had lasting consequences for China and for the formation of development ideas. The Japanese, as the first nonwhite Great Power, wanted respect and proposed a declaration of racial equality at Versailles in 1919. The British and the Americans shot down the equality proposal. The British did not want international attention on racial discrimination within the British Empire. Woodrow Wilson was a segregationist at home who also did not want international interference in white Americans’ treatment of blacks. What is important about this decision is that the idea of development solidified while the West was still unapologetically racist during the interwar period of 1919 to 1939, as we will see with the example of China in this chapter. Racism would be even more at the center in colonial Africa in World War II, as we will discuss in the next chapter.

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The English by Jeremy Paxman


back-to-the-land, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, Etonian, game design, George Santayana, global village, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Own Your Own Home, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Right to Buy, sensible shoes, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

The vast retail chains which will within a few decades have driven the small tradesmen out of business are there, but if you dropped into the chain of Boots chemists, it might as easily have been to change your books at the library. In the evening, maybe a visit to the cinema. There is a strong case for agreeing with Churchill that the Second World War had been his country’s ‘finest hour’. He was talking about Britain and the British Empire, but the values of that empire were the values which the English liked to think were something which they had invented. Certainly, the war and its immediate aftermath are the last time in living memory when the English had a clear and positive sense of themselves. They saw it reflected back in films like In Which We Serve, Noël Coward’s fictionalized account of the sinking of HMS Kelly. As the survivors of the destroyer, sunk by German dive-bombers, lie in their life-raft they recall the ship’s history.

One political party after another has made promises to restore the integrity and standing of the country, which have turned out to be outrageous lies. It would not matter in Italy, where they don’t believe in the state anyway and where the institutions which do matter to them – family, village, and town – remain demonstrably alive. The English put their faith in institutions, and of these, the British Empire has evaporated, the Church of England has withered away and Parliament is increasingly irrelevant. And it is not merely that the external sureties have gone, so, it seems, have internal certitudes. I once asked the author Simon Raven what he thought being English meant and he replied with a disconsolate caveat, ‘I’d always hoped it meant gentle manners, cricket, civility between the classes, lack of malice towards others, fair dealing with women, and fair dealing with enemies.

Huxley, the philosopher Herbert Spencer, 5 dukes, 10 earls, 26 MPs, 17 admirals, 59 generals, 200 clergymen and 600 other worthies.12 This insularity gave the English a great self-confidence, but it did nothing for their sophistication. It is hard to escape the conclusion that, deep down, the English don’t really care for foreigners. Before it was necessary for foreign visitors to reverence the British Empire, one visitor after another commented on the remarkable vanity of the English. In 1497, a Venetian noticed that ‘the English are great lovers of themselves, and of everything belonging to them; they think that there are no other men than themselves and no other world but England; and whenever they see a handsome foreigner they say “he looks like an Englishman” and that “it is a great pity that he should not be an Englishman” ’.13 In describing a visit to England by Frederick, Duke of Württemberg in 1592, a German author commented upon the fact that ‘the inhabitants … are extremely proud and overbearing … they care little for foreigners, but scoff and laugh at them’.14 Another visitor, the Dutch merchant Emmanuel van Meteren, noticed the same arrogance when he listed the qualities of the English character.

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How We Got Here: A Slightly Irreverent History of Technology and Markets by Andy Kessler


Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, automated trading system, bank run, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, Bretton Woods, British Empire, buttonwood tree, Claude Shannon: information theory, Corn Laws, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, fiat currency, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Grace Hopper, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, packet switching, price mechanism, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, railway mania, RAND corporation, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, Turing machine, Turing test, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Growth protected, and created, by its own declining price elasticity. Put that in your pipe and smoke it. We’ll see it again with semiconductors and integrated circuits in another couple of hundred years. Transportation Elasticity, Sea and Rail Even in the early 1800’s, the British Empire got off to a slow start. The transatlantic slave trade was abolished in 1807, but it wasn’t until another 20 years later that the British would declare the slave trade a form of piracy, punishable by death. In 1833, slavery was abolished in the entire British Empire, after a 5-year trial period, leading to the more commonly known date of abolishment in 1838. The delay didn’t hurt the engine. The plantations in the American South still had slaves, until 1865, and were cranking out cotton for the British textile mills. But there were still a lot of costs to be wrung out of the system, mainly in transportation costs, which could sometimes run three quarters of the price of English goods in foreign markets.

This set up the incredible simplification of computers in the 20th century, which only had to deal with 2 digits, 1’s and 0’s, true and false, on and off, instead of 10 numbers. This is a major inflection point in harnessing Logic and Memory for computers. Dealing with two instead of ten states lowered the complexity of computing devices by at least a factor of 10. *** Meanwhile, the Industrial Revolution kept cranking. Amazing as it sounds, the British Empire really began with the invention of affordable, comfortable clothing. Silk was comfortable but painfully expensive, since there was no way to push productivity out of worms. Wool was cheaper, and warm, but way too itchy. We all know that. It was the act of substitution that fired the economic engine. Cotton was itchy too, until it was stretched and wound into thread and yarn by the Crompton Spinning Mule.

Well, limited protection, one to 20 years, but there are always exceptions to the exceptions. The “protection under law” of ideas prompted individualism, self-interested folks who could work hard knowing they could reap the benefit of their own work. Adam Smith would note this much later, but for now, it set off a wave of invention. A strong and liquid capital market became an important component to enable the British Empire. They almost didn’t have one. Capital Markets and Bubbles Today, money sloshes around the globe quite easily, from Zanzibar to Berkeley Square in milliseconds. But back in the 18th century, money was a local instrument. Almost by necessity, precious metals such as gold and silver were the de facto currency for trade - no one trusted much else. Monarchies and their governments created their own currencies, backed by gold, first as a convenience -- a titan of industry would need wheelbarrows filled with gold to do his business.

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A History of the World in 6 Glasses by Tom Standage


Berlin Wall, British Empire, Colonization of Mars, Copley Medal, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, Lao Tzu, multiplanetary species, out of africa, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

Is it any surprise that the current center of coffee culture, the city of Seattle, home to the Starbucks coffeehouse chain, is also where some of the world's largest software and Internet firms are based? Coffee's association with innovation, reason, and networking—plus a dash of revolutionary fervor—has a long pedigree. A coffeehouse in late-eighteenth-century Paris TEA and the BRITISH EMPIRE 9 Empires of Tea Better to be deprived of food for three days than of tea for one. —Chinese proverb Thank God for tea! What would the world do without tea? How did it exist? —Sydney Smith, British writer (1771-1845) The Drink That Conquered the World w WITH FAR-FLUNG TERRITORIES stretched around the world, the British Empire was famously described in 1773 by Sir George Macartney, an imperial administrator, as "this vast empire on which the sun never sets." At its height, it encompassed a fifth of the world's surface and a quarter of its population.

The Library of Congress has cataloged the hardcover edition of this book under LCCN: 2004061209 eISBN: 978-0-802-71859-4 First published in the United States in 2005 by Walker & Company This paperback edition published in 2006 Visit Walker & Company's Web site at Book design by Chris Welch Typeset by Coghill Composition Company Printed in the United States of America by Quebecor World Fairfield 8 10 9 7 To my parents Contents Introduction. Vital Fluids Beer in Mesopotamia and Egypt 1. A Stone-Age Brew 2. Civilized Beer Wine in Greece and Rome 3. The Delight of Wine 4. The Imperial Vine Spirits in the Colonial Period 5. High Spirits, High Seas 6. The Drinks That Built America Coffee in the Age of Reason 7. The Great Soberer 8. The Coffeehouse Internet Tea and the British Empire 9. Empires of Tea 10. Tea Power Coca-Cola and the Rise of America 11. From Soda to Cola 12. Globalization in a Bottle Epilogue. Back to the Source Acknowledgments Appendix. In Search of Ancient Drinks Notes Sources Introduction Vital Fluids There is no history of mankind, there are only many histories of all kinds of aspects of human life. —Karl Popper, philosopher of science (1902-94) THIRST is DEADLIER than hunger.

Tea provided the basis for the widening of European trade with the East. Profits from its trade helped to fund the advance into India of the British East India Company, the commercial organization that became Britain's de facto colonial government in the East. Having started as a luxury drink, tea trickled down to become the beverage of the working man, the fuel for the workers who operated the new machine-powered factories. If the sun never set on the British Empire, it was perpetually teatime, somewhere at least. With its associated drinking rituals of genteel afternoon tea and the worker's tea break, tea perfectly matched Britain's self-image as a civilizing, industrious power. How odd, then, that this quintessentially English drink initially had to be imported at great cost and effort from China, that vast and mysterious dominion on the other side of the world, and that the cultivation and processing of tea were utter mysteries to its European drinkers.

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After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin


agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade

The British were pushed into formalizing their claims, and sometimes backing them up by displays of force. As ever more of the world was partitioned, they acquired fresh sets of potentially troublesome neighbours, newfences to maintain, and a newneed for vigilance. The result was paradoxical. Although the British Empire became larger and larger, the diplomats and strategists charged with protecting it became more and more anxious. Because the British had so much territory scattered round the world, they seemed always at odds with everyone else. The British Empire was like a huge giant, moaned a senior official, ‘with gouty fingers and toes stretching in every direction’. The minute it was approached by anyone else, the giant would scream with fear at the expected pain.48 It was a poor recipe for diplomatic harmony. The strategists were just as nervous.

After Tamerlane BY THE SAME AUTHOR Britain, Egypt and the Middle East: Imperial Policy in the Aftermath of War 1918–1922 Britain and Decolonization: The Retreat from Empire in the Post-War World The End of the British Empire: The Historical Debate JOHN DARWIN After Tamerlane The Global History of Empire since 1405 ALLEN LANE an imprint of PENGUIN BOOKS ALLEN LANE Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England Penguin Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, USA Penguin Group (Canada), 90 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 700, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4P 2Y3 (a division of Pearson Penguin Canada Inc.) Penguin Ireland, 25 St Stephen’s Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) Penguin Group (Australia), 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi – 110 017, India Penguin Group (NZ), 67 Apollo Drive, Rosedale, North Shore 0632, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England First published 2007 1 Copyright © John Darwin, 2007 The moral right of the author has been asserted All rights reserved.

The imperial burden of guarding India against attack from within and without seemed heavier. But there were mass ive compensations. After 1860, with the spread of railways, India developed much more rapidly as a source of raw materials and the greatest market for Britain’s greatest export, cotton textiles. And if the burden of garrisoning India was heavy, it cost the British taxpayer nothing. Indeed, after 1860 two-thirds of the standing army of the British Empire (a total of some 330,000 British and Indian soldiers) was a charge on Indian not British revenues, and the forces in India could be (and were) used everywhere from Malta to Shanghai. As the partition of Afro-Asia speeded up after 1880, India’s geopolitical, as well as its economic, value became an axiom of British policy. An uncertain empire had become indispensable. THE RACE AGAINST TIME What had happened in India was a warning, if warning were needed, of what could follow elsewhere in Eurasia and Africa once the Europeans arrived in the neighbourhood with their range of new weapons – commercial, cultural and military.

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Citizens of London: The Americans Who Stood With Britain in Its Darkest, Finest Hour by Lynne Olson


Alistair Cooke, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, financial independence, full employment, imperial preference, indoor plumbing, jobless men, old-boy network, South China Sea, V2 rocket

Even before the United States entered the war, the president made his position clear, telling his son Elliott: “We’ve got to make clear to the British from the very outset that we don’t intend to be simply a good-time Charlie who can be used to help the British empire out of a tight spot…. I think I speak as America’s President when I say that America won’t help England in this war simply so that she will be able to continue to ride roughshod over colonial peoples.” During Churchill’s first visit to Washington, Roosevelt raised the issue of self-determination for India, the most precious jewel in the British empire’s crown. Churchill reacted so negatively, he later wrote, that the president never brought up the subject again. That was not exactly the case. In future meetings and in his correspondence with the prime minister, FDR repeatedly raised the question of India and of British imperialism in general.

Such a radical idea, he said, should be adopted only “if we wished to make some striking gesture for the purpose of shaming the Americans.” The prime minister and other British officials repeatedly warned the Roosevelt administration that they were running out of dollars, but the U.S. government refused to believe them. The president, Treasury Secretary Henry Morgenthau, and Secretary of State Cordell Hull were convinced that the riches of the British empire were virtually limitless. If the British needed more cash, they could simply liquidate some of their investments in North and South America. Morgenthau, in particular, pressed the British to sell to American investors such blue-chip companies as Shell Oil, American Viscose, Lever Brothers, and Dunlop Tires. When the British government protested that such sales (presumably at fire-sale prices) would be a serious blow to the country’s postwar economy, Morgenthau snapped that this was no time to be concerned about such matters.

When World War II broke out and the president began a correpondence with Churchill, who had risen from the political dead as first lord of the admiralty, FDR told Kennedy he had done it only because “there is a strong possibility that he will become prime minister, and I want to get my hand in now.” Once Churchill assumed the premiership, Kennedy, who detested him, reinforced Roosevelt’s already unfavorable impression with repeated assertions that Churchill was anti-American and anti-FDR. Another of Kennedy’s claims—that the prime minister was trying to lure the United States into the war solely to preserve the British empire—reinforced the president’s long-held suspicions of British imperialism. To Roosevelt, the ambassador characterized Churchill as a man “always sucking on a whisky bottle,” a view also held by undersecretary of state Sumner Welles, who called Churchill “a drunken sot” and a “third or fourth-rate man.” Roosevelt apparently accepted the view of Churchill as a serious tippler; when informed of his accession to 10 Downing Street, the president quipped that he “supposed Churchill was the best man that England had, even if he was drunk half of the time.”

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Sugar: A Bittersweet History by Elizabeth Abbott


agricultural Revolution, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, flex fuel, land tenure, liberation theology, Mason jar, Ralph Waldo Emerson, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working poor

See Tinker, A New System of Slavery. 526. Adamson, “Immigration into British Guiana,” in Saunders, Indentured Labour in the British Empire, p. 45. 527. Quoted in Adamson, Sugar without Slaves, p. 51. 528. Adamson, Sugar without Slaves, p. 51. 529. E. Williams, History of the People of Trinidad and Tobago, p. 108. 530. Quoted in Tinker, A New System of Slavery, p. 119. 531. Quoted in ibid., p. 52. 532. Jenkins, The Coolie, p. 194. 533. Sewell, The Ordeal of Free Labor in the West Indies, pp. 123–24. 534. Jenkins, The Coolie, p. 388. 535. Quoted in ibid., p. 424. (Italics in original.) 536. Quoted in Adamson, “The Impact of Indentured Immigration on the Political Economy of British Guiana,” in Saunders, Indentured Labour in the British Empire, p. 49. 537. Quoted in Adamson, Sugar without Slaves, p. 147. 538. Both quotations in Adamson, “The Impact of Indentured Immigration,” p. 49. 539.

This cruelty proceeded from their having them for three years only, which made them spare the Negroes rather than these poor creatures!”48 Map of the West Indies & c. Mexico or New Spain. Also ye Trade Winds and ye several Tracts made by the Galeons and Flota from place to place. From Atlas Minor, London, 1736, by influential Tory cartographer Herman Moll. This map, his masterpiece, portrayed the West Indies as a region with enormous commercial potential at the core of the developing British Empire. The map also assisted British buccaneers who preyed on Spanish shipping. In Barbados, planter William Dickson recalled, the indentured servants were “stinted in their diet, and otherwise ill treated.”49 In a petition to Parliament in 1659, begging for relief, white servants indentured in Barbados described lives spent “grinding at the mills and attending the furnaces, or digging in this scorching island; having nothing to feed on (notwithstanding their hard labour) but potato roots, nor to drink, but water with such roots washed in it … being bought and sold still from one planter to another, or attached as horses and beasts for the debts of their masters, being whipt at the whipping post (as rogues) for their masters’ pleasure, and sleeping in sties worse than hogs in England.”

Chapter 5 Sugar Stirs the Universe THE SUGAR INDUSTRY AT WORK IN EUROPE Across the Atlantic, at the other end of the bridge that carried the Old World to the New, the metropolises were bound up in their colonies’ fortunes. Britain in particular had its sugar colonies and its people’s voracious sweet tooth to thank for its expanding empire. Together with the tea and coffee it sweetened, sugar was one of the most important founding blocks of the British Empire. The eighteenth-century Abbé Raynal went further, exclaiming that the “scorned [sugar] islands … double perhaps triple the activity of the whole of Europe. They can be regarded as the principal cause of the rapid movement which stirs the Universe.”280 The slave-sugar complex was all-pervasive. It linked field slaves and slave boilers to colonial carters and dock workers; seamen, captains and ship’s bursars to freight forwarders, insurance agents and customs agents; harbour officials, longshoremen and carters to refiners, grocers, confectioners; people who took sugar in their tea and spread jam on their bread to refiners, packagers and bakers; and shipbuilders and shipyard workers to brokers and commercial agents known as factors.

pages: 1,205 words: 308,891

Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, endogenous growth, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, greed is good, Howard Zinn, income per capita, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, long peace, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Economic Geography, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, V2 rocket, very high income, working poor, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

Pomeranz and Topik are not wrong to note the exploitation when, say, rising demand for binding twine to bale American wheat straw led to Mayans and Yaqui Indians being bound in the Yucatán to harvest cactus to make the twine.39 But they are often wrong in assigning (without argument) the exploitation to the innovation itself rather than to the pre-capitalist structures of power that 28 allowed the tyrants to exploit the opportunity to trade in twine or coffee or sugar or rubber. Such pre-existing evils, exploited in other ways before the evil market appeared, were often enough eroded by capitalism itself — if by nothing else than by the sheer rise of world incomes per head and the political power to ordinary folk that it brought in its train. And the liberal bourgeoisie, after all, supported early and uniquely the ending of slavery, as in the British Empire in 1833, and the protections for free speech, in the American First Amendment in 1789, and the various other liberties overturning the ancien régime in the French Revolution of that same fruitful year. In other words, anti-globalization writers such as Pomeranz and Topik (among many of my left-wing friends) have less interest than they should in the gigantic gains from bourgeois dignity and liberty.

You take the money paid by your employer and spend it at the grocery store (and the store, too, has a “drain,” a surplus of exports over imports, relative to you: does that make you the exploiting Raj over the grocery store?) Or else, like the Indians, you keep your money in gold necklaces in Pushkar or bank balances in London. The world is composed of such “drains,” between your house and the neighbors, between Ealing and Hampstead. All exchange, 100 percent of it, becomes on balance a shameful exploitation. That’s what I mean by “wacky.” In short, the average person in Britain got little or nothing out of the British Empire. Yet in 1876 Queen Victoria loved becoming an Empress and Disraeli loved making her one, and so imperial India was born (and in the same year five million Indians died of famine). Acquiring Cape Town in 1814 was an important part of protecting the sea routes to India, of course, as was messing about in Egypt from 1869 on, and various other imperial projects from Gibraltar to Suvah Bay. But such ventures were no more “profitable” than India itself.

British taxpayers at home 1877-1948 paid for the half of naval expenditure that 216 was for imperial defense, a by-no-means negligible part of total British national income each year.14 *** Give the figure They paid for the First War against the Boer republics (1880-1881, lost but cheap) and the Second (1899-1902, won but expensive). They paid for the imperial portions of World Wars I and especially II. They paid for protection of Jamaican sugar during the eighteenth century and special deals for British engineering firms in India during the nineteenth. They paid in fatalities, 800,000 in the First World War and 380,000 in the Second, and lost all their foreign assets, too. For the great British Empire the great British public paid and paid and paid. What were the vaunted benefits to the British people? Essentially nothing of material worth. They got bananas on their kitchen tables, as I said, that they would have got anyway by free trade — the Danes did, via London or Amsterdam — or at a slightly higher cost if trade had not been entirely free. They got employment for unemployable twits from minor public schools.

pages: 184 words: 54,833

Why Orwell Matters by Christopher Hitchens


anti-communist, British Empire, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Etonian, hiring and firing, land reform, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes

That this is a strong prefiguration of the mentality of Winston Smith in Nineteen Eighty-Four will be obvious; that it is no exaggeration is confirmed by the memoir of Orwell’s friend and contemporary Christopher Hollis, who visited him in Burma in 1925 and discovered him mouthing the platitudes of law-and-order: ‘He was at pains to be the imperial policeman, explaining that these theories of punishment and no beating were all very well at public schools, but that they did not work with the Burmese... ’ Four years later, in the pages of Le Progrès Civique in Paris, a certain ‘E. A. Blair’ contributed an essay in French entitled ‘Comment on exploite un peuple: L’Empire britannique en Birmanie’ (‘How a Nation is Exploited: The British Empire in Burm’). The article could justly be described as workman-like; it commences with a careful account of the country’s topography and demography and proceeds to a meticulous examination of the way the colonial power fleeces the Burmese of their natural resources and the fruits of their labour. It is, in all essentials, a study in deliberate underdevelopment and the means by which raw materials are used to finance another country’s industrial progress.

The claim is partly justified by an incisive review he wrote in June 1938, discussing Eugene Lyons’s journalistic memoir Assignment in Utopia: To get the full sense of our ignorance as to what is really happening in the U.S.S.R., it is worth trying to translate the most sensational Russian event of the past two years, the Trotskyist trials, into English terms. Make the necessary adjustments, let Left be Right and Right be Left, and you get something like this:Mr. Winston Churchill, now in exile in Portugal, is plotting to overthrow the British Empire and establish Communism in England. By the use of unlimited Russian money he has succeeded in building up a huge Churchillite organisation which includes members of Parliament, factory managers, Roman Catholic bishops and practically the whole of the Primrose League. Almost every day some dastardly act of sabotage is laid bare — sometimes a plot to blow up the House of Lords, sometimes an outbreak of foot and mouth disease in the Royal racing-stables.

Of course it is exactly this that excites the jealousy of the ordinary patriotic middle class. I know people who automatically switch off the radio as soon as any American news comes on, and the most banal English film will always get middle-class support because ‘it’s such a relief to get away from those American voices.’ Americans are supposed to be boastful, bad-mannered and worshippers of money, and are also suspected of plotting to inherit the British Empire. (Orwell forgot that last bit when he muttered, shortly after the war, about the new American empire that was ‘advancing behind a smoke-screen of novelists’.) In other words, he could reprobate simplistic anti-Americanism in others even when not completely eliminating it in himself. This ambiguity, as I’ve already tried to point out, occurs in almost all his discussions of prejudice. In one of his letters to Partisan Review, Orwell gave his office address and home telephone number and issued an open invitation to any readers of the magazine to come and call upon him.

pages: 710 words: 164,527

The Battle of Bretton Woods: John Maynard Keynes, Harry Dexter White, and the Making of a New World Order by Benn Steil


activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, fiat currency, financial independence, floating exchange rates, full employment, global reserve currency, imperial preference, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, margin call, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, open economy, Paul Samuelson, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, psychological pricing, reserve currency, road to serfdom, seigniorage, South China Sea, special drawing rights, The Great Moderation, the market place, trade liberalization, Works Progress Administration

The following day President Roosevelt delivered his famous war message to Congress, declaring December 7, 1941, to be “a date that will live in infamy.… No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.” Churchill, when informed by the president of the horrendous casualties, responded “What a holocaust!”95 But in private he called the Japanese assault “a blessing.… Greater good fortune has never happened to the British Empire.” He had finally gotten what he had so desperately sought. America was in the war. “I went to bed and slept the sleep of the saved and thankful.”96 Over in Moscow, sentiments were similar. “We sighed a deep sigh of relief,” recalled the head of the American desk of the NKVD Intelligence Directorate, Vitali Pavlov.97 Yet this was not merely cheerleading from the sidelines. Pavlov had, secretly, been part of the game.

Churchill did not, and never would, have a sophisticated grasp of monetary issues, but he was ultimately swayed by the widely held view that a renunciation of the prewar parity would have been a “repudiation” of Britain’s solemn obligation to maintain the convertibility of the pound.48 This would, in his mind, have had serious geopolitical ramifications. “If we had not taken this action,” he said in announcing it, “the whole of the rest of the British Empire would have taken it without us, and it would have come to a gold standard, not on the basis of the pound sterling, but a gold standard of the dollar.” As it turned out, a “gold standard of the dollar” would result anyway, but with Britain bearing great economic costs in maintaining what was clearly an overvalued exchange rate from 1925 until 1931, when the country was ignominiously driven off gold again.

Key to this plan was American financing of British military purchases in the United States, which he insisted must be in the form of grants rather than loans. Britain could not once again be forced to bear “the dishonour and the reproaches of default” while allowing the United States to sell at its convenience to foreign markets supplied by the British, thereby cutting off British means of repayment. The government had to guard “against the present emergency being used as an opportunity for picking the eyes out of the British Empire.”110 The underlying assumption of the memo was that the United States was an ally in the war, though one that needed to be trained to behave like one. Such an assumption suffered from two key weaknesses: the United States was not yet at war with anyone, and was not about to be lectured as to what it was allowed to do in playing the role Keynes assigned to it. This he was about to learn in May 1941, on his first official visit to Washington since World War I.

Racing With Death by Beau Riffenburgh


British Empire, David Attenborough, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society

But even rigging sails on the sledges made from the floorcloth of the tent did not help their progress greatly, and they continued to make only about four miles per day. They did buck up temporarily on the morning of 17 October when they reached Cape Bernacchi, a low, rocky promontory dominated by pure white crystalline marble. Here, with a flag that motor-car driver Bernard Day had made out of a jumble of fabrics, they took possession of Victoria Land for the British Empire. Almost a week later, they were still crawling at a snail’s pace over slowly decaying sea ice while the Sound gradually broke up to their one side and the mountains loomed over them on their other. Frustrated, Mawson proposed that they forsake the Magnetic Pole altogether and concentrate on ‘what I had understood was to be the work of the expedition provided the Mag Pole were not reasonably obtainable … the coast geographic and magnetic survey with detailed geological reconnaissances at picked spots, the whole allowing us to return to Dry Valley.’

Mawson determined that if they waited where they were for twenty-four hours, the Pole would likely come to them, but rather than do this, they decided to push on thirteen miles to where he calculated the mean position to lie. The next day, they continued until lunch, after which, leaving behind all gear other than a flag and a camera, they trudged the final five miles to Mawson’s ‘mean position’ at 72°15'S, 155°16'E. There, at a height of 7,260 feet, they hoisted the flag made by Day, claimed the area for the British Empire, and gave three cheers. David pulled a string attached to the camera to snap a picture of them. This done, there was no reason to linger, so they did an immediate about-turn. Their major task now was to reach the coast in time for the ship to collect them. Only a week before, 1,114 statute miles farther south, Shackleton, Wild, Marshall, and Adams had held a similar ceremony. Their journey had begun on 29 October, when they left Cape Royds, each leading a pony hauling a sledge.

Speaking to the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), he explained how multiple bases spread along the Antarctic coast would engage in meteorological, magnetic, geological, and geographical work to open up the mysteries of what he called ‘the Australian Quadrant’ of the Antarctic. In addition, he claimed other benefits would accrue: a ship-based oceanographic programme, the expansion of Australian whaling and sealing, the establishment of meteorological stations for weather forecasting, and the verification of Australia as a key component of the British Empire. Within days, with the backing of David Orme Masson, professor of chemistry at the University of Melbourne and president of the AAAS, Mawson was voted £1,000, one-third of the Association’s liquid assets. In addition, a special committee for the expedition was organised to arrange the details of the scientific work and officially to appoint expedition members. With Professor David as chairman, and Masson as another key member, Mawson had powerful scholarly and political backing, as was immediately shown when, within days, he met with Australian Prime Minister Andrew Fisher, who proved most positive.

pages: 471 words: 124,585

The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World by Niall Ferguson


Admiral Zheng, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, commoditize, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deglobalization, diversification, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, hindsight bias, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, iterative process, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour mobility, Landlord’s Game, liberal capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Parag Khanna, pension reform, price anchoring, price stability, principal–agent problem, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, seigniorage, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, structural adjustment programs, technology bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, value at risk, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War

., Jr. 256-8 Blankfein, Lloyd 1-2 Bleichroeder (Arnhold & S.) 315 Bloch, Ivan 297 Bloomfield, Arthur 305 Blunt, John 155-6 BNP Paribas 272 Bolivia 2 Bolsheviks 107 bonds and bond markets 64 benefits of 3 bond insurance companies 347 boom 332 bundled mortgages see securitization collateral for 94 compared with mortgages (spread) 241-2 compared with stock markets 124-5 cotton-backed 94-6 crises and defaults 73 definitions 65-9 emerging market bonds see emerging markets face value (par) 73 future of 115-16 government see government bonds history 65-7 importance and power of 67-9 inflation and 105 insurance companies and 198 interest rates 67 liquidity 71 and mortgage rates 68 and pensions 67 perpetual bonds 76 Right- and Left-wing critics of 89-90 Rothschilds and 80-91 and savings institutions 116 and taxes 68 vulnerability of 99 war and 69-75 widening access to 100 bonds and bond markets - cont. and First World War 297 Bonn Consensus 312 bookkeeping 44-5 Borges, Jorge Luis 111 borrowing see credit; debt Boston 266 Botticelli, Sandro 42 ‘bottomry’ 185 Brady, Nicholas 165 Brailsford, Henry Noel 298 Brazil 18. see also BRICs Bretton Woods 305-8 Bretton Woods II 334 Briand, Aristide 159 BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, China: Big Rapidly Industrializing Countries) 284 Britain: and American Civil War 94-5 banknotes 27 banks and industrialization 48-9 business failures 349 colonies see British Empire compared with France 141 compared with Japan 209-11 cost of living 26 cotton industry 94-6 East Indies trade 134; see also East India Company economy 210-11 finances for Napoleonic wars 80-84 financial ignorance 11-12 financial sector’s contribution to GDP 5 fiscal system 75 foreign investment 287 foreign investment in 76 Glorious Revolution 75-6 house prices and property ownership 10. housing policies 251-3 inflation 108 institutional investors and 196-8 and insurance 4 mortgage interest relief 252 national debt 80 pensions see welfare state below poverty in 13 savings glut 293 Spanish Empire and 26 stock market 125 and sub-prime mortgages 8 voting rights 234 welfare state 199 and First World War 101-2 see also British Empire; English-speaking countries; Scotland British Empire: and bond market 101 control of colonies 294-6 corporate finance as foundation of 3 and investment 98-9 as narco-state 290 nationalist and independence movements 295 see also Britain broad money 62 brokers 153-4 Bronowski, Jacob 2 bronze 24 Bruegel, Pieter the Elder 70 Bruges 47 Bubble Act 156 bubbles: asset-price 163 five stages of 8; displacement 143-4 history of 121-2 international pressures and 167 Kaffir (gold mine) 297 Mississippi 126-7 monetary policy and 166-7 property price 233 reflexivity of 316 South Sea 154 super 342 technology ( 6 see also financial crises Büchi, Hernán 216 Buckingham, Dukes of 236-40 Buenos Aires 98 Buffett, Warren 228 building societies 247. see also mutual associations Bulgaria 101 bulls (stock market) 121 Bunn, Matthew 223 bureaucracy 275 burial societies 184 Bush, President George W. 117-18.

Far from being the work of mere leeches intent on sucking the life’s blood out of indebted families or gambling with the savings of widows and orphans, financial innovation has been an indispensable factor in man’s advance from wretched subsistence to the giddy heights of material prosperity that so many people know today. The evolution of credit and debt was as important as any technological innovation in the rise of civilization, from ancient Babylon to present-day Hong Kong. Banks and the bond market provided the material basis for the splendours of the Italian Renaissance. Corporate finance was the indispensable foundation of both the Dutch and British empires, just as the triumph of the United States in the twentieth century was inseparable from advances in insurance, mortgage finance and consumer credit. Perhaps, too, it will be a financial crisis that signals the twilight of American global primacy. Behind each great historical phenomenon there lies a financial secret, and this book sets out to illuminate the most important of these. For example, the Renaissance created such a boom in the market for art and architecture because Italian bankers like the Medici made fortunes by applying Oriental mathematics to money.

A 5 per cent consol purchased by Anna Hawes in January 1796 Given that she paid £101 for a £100 consol, Mrs Hawes was securing an annual yield on her investment of 4.95 per cent. This was not an especially well-timed investment. April that year saw the first victory at Montenotte of a French army led by a young Corsican commander named Napoleon Bonaparte. He won again at Lodi in May. For the next two decades, this man would pose a greater threat to the security and financial stability of the British Empire, not to mention the peace of Europe, than all the Habsburgs and Bourbons put together. Defeating him would lead to the rise of yet another mountain of debt. And as the mountain rose, so the price of individual consols declined - by as much as 30 per cent at the lowest point in Britain’s fortunes. The meteoric rise of a diminutive Corsican to be Emperor of France and master of the European continent was an event few could have predicted in 1796, least of all Mrs Anna Hawes.

pages: 424 words: 140,262

Blood, Iron, and Gold: How the Railways Transformed the World by Christian Wolmar


banking crisis, Beeching cuts, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, invention of the wheel, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Mahatma Gandhi, railway mania, refrigerator car, side project, South China Sea, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, urban sprawl

Beyer, a self-made young man, had travelled to England in 1834 to study textile machinery and despite offers of employment in Germany had returned to work in the drawing office of the Manchester-based Sharp, Roberts & Company which had built a locomotive for the Liverpool & Manchester. Although this had been rather unsuccessful, the company established itself as a pioneering manufacturer and Beyer spent nearly twenty years there before founding his own firm, Beyer Peacock & Company, which would later build locomotives for the early London Underground lines and ultimately construct 8,000 locomotives, many for the British Empire, till the firm’s demise in 1966. As with the early railways in Britain and France, the train service on the completed stub of a line between Leipzig and Althen was an immediate success. Within a couple of months, there were six daily trains each capable of carrying 150 people in each direction every Sunday, more than on any other day, suggesting not only that the tourist market was dominant, but also that, unlike in the UK, there were no concerns about religious objections to Sunday running.

Consequently, as Michael Robbins puts it, ‘Until about 1870… Britain was the heart and centre of railway activity throughout the world’, 1 and while Britain’s own network suffered from unnecessary duplication and a proliferation of lines that could never be viable because the government deliberately eschewed planning or any attempts to control the private companies building the network, its lead was such that its technology, expertise and finance were exported to many countries, including very unlikely ones such as several in Latin America and Asia with little previous connection with the British Empire. British technology, therefore, was widely imitated and its finance in the last quarter of the century became vitally important for many systems, but the British style of laissez-faire planning for the railways, characterized by lack of interest from the state, was rarely imitated. Ireland, then part of the United Kingdom, was the most obvious country to be influenced by British technology, but oddly this did not extend to the choice of gauge.

Both these railways were clearly intended to be the start of a network, linking Bombay with Pune and eventually Madras, and Calcutta with Delhi and later through the newly conquered Punjab right through to Lahore in what is now Pakistan. Dalhousie had been pressing for the creation of a strategic rail network since his appointment as Governor General. He was the sort of dynamic modernizer which the British Empire occasionally threw up and he later claimed he had unleashed in India the ‘great engines of social improvement, which the sagacity and science of recent times had previously given to Western nations – I mean railways, uniform postage and the electric telegraph’. 11 Indeed, he had a past interest in the railways, having chaired a Parliamentary Committee in 1844–5 which attempted to put some order into the chaotic situation when at the height of the railway mania Parliament had been literally inundated with bills petitioning to build lines.

pages: 183 words: 17,571

Broken Markets: A User's Guide to the Post-Finance Economy by Kevin Mellyn


banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, index fund, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, lump of labour, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, mobile money, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, Real Time Gross Settlement, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, seigniorage, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, the payments system, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, underbanked, Works Progress Administration, yield curve, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Hence, the Chinese dismissal of the first British attempts to open trade under Lord Macartney’s diplomatic mission of 1792–1794 was entirely rational because China didn’t need to trade (much less finance) outside its borders. The British Empire by contrast was a merchant-state, where trade, finance, and diplomatic influence vastly outweighed territory or military power. The United States was originally part of that empire and essentially remains a merchantstate, but an inward-looking one, given its vast internal market. Modern China is, whether it likes it or not, a merchant-state built on globalization, just as the British Empire was during the first great age of globalization it led from 1815 to 1914.This global merchant-state role is totally new to China as first a self-contained empire and then a victim of predatory merchant-states such as Britain and Japan.

Of course, today we call integration of markets for goods, services, and money “globalization,” and for much of the last decade we have debated whether it was a good thing or a bad thing. Actually, to the Victorians, including Marx, global markets were a fact of life, and barriers to moving capital were almost nonexistent. Between 1815 and 1914, especially in the second half of the period, the combination of a British Empire committed to free trade, the pound sterling backed by gold as anchor currency for the world, and London as the world’s money market allowed capital to go anywhere it could make a good return. Contemporaries called this system of free markets and the limited constitutional government that went with it liberalism, almost the opposite of how the word is used in America today. Looking back, in this first great age of globalization, finance capital radiating out of London built the modern industrial world and ushered in the greatest 3 4 Chapter 1 |  The Rise and Fall of the Finance-Driven Economy rise in living standards in human history.

The direction of credit and investment linked to industrial policy (and social policy) is simply how choices get made. Subsidized green energy is but an extreme example, since the Eisenhower national highway system, subsidies for home ownership, and student loans are all examples of using the financial system for essentially nonmarket, noneconomic ends. This kind of thing goes back to the day when royal monopolies Broken Markets were given to joint stock companies to build out the British Empire for broke British monarchs, and it is not going away any time soon. It is all a matter of degree and balance. In the Victorian Era, the markets became free and global for several generations, but that was an anomaly backed by British wealth and sea power along with an almost mystical British belief in free trade. In the 1980s, as Daniel Yergin’s now incredibly dated documentary The Commanding Heights relates, the financial markets regained some of their freedom after half a century of financial repression and industrial policy.

pages: 267 words: 81,108

Happy Valley: The Story of the English in Kenya by Nicholas Best


British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Etonian, out of africa, Scramble for Africa

Yet there was more to it than adventure, much more. Although Thomson had been prepared to wander through Masai Land simply for the hell of it, the hard-nosed businessmen of the Royal Geographical Society who had put up the cash for his expedition were far more interested in what might come of it in the way of trade. Trade, and ensuing profit for the motherland, was the only reason for the existence of the British Empire. The great powers of Europe were beginning to look towards Africa as a massive counter in the absorbing game of politics. Thomson’s journey raised the question of just how much profit could be squeezed from this vast new territory, at present under no country’s sphere of influence. Thomson himself, a romantic pure and simple, vigorously opposed the idea of opening up the area to commerce.

Von Lettow knew that the real war would be fought out in the mud and blood of Belgium and northern France. If he could divert stores and badly needed troops from the Western Front and bog them down in the malarial and disease-ridden bush of East Africa, he would be doing more than his bit for his country. He acted swiftly. Immediately after the shelling of Dar-es-Salaam by the Astraea and Pegasus, a small force of commandos crossed into Kenya, the only part of the British Empire to be invaded by Germans during the entire war. They had orders to blow up railway bridges, cut telegraph wire and confuse the enemy. The men were led by Tom von Prince, a Scotsman with a German mother, who had taken service with the Germans after being turned down for a commission by the British army. The ‘von’ was a personal present from the Kaiser, a reward for the considerable fighting qualities he had displayed during a long and colourful career.

He would only commit to a battle when he judged that the outcome would justify the loss of irreplaceable men and equipment. Live to fight another day was the Schutztruppe motto. Von Lettow’s men obeyed the order with alacrity. Whenever the invading British moved forward in strength, the Germans would linger just long enough to inflict heavy casualties before slipping away into the bush, leaving their enemies to pick up the pieces and plod on with the advance as best they could. By January 1916 the number of British Empire troops on active service in East Africa had swelled from a few thousand to two divisions, totalling more than thirty thousand men. A large percentage of these lost their lives during the campaign, not from enemy action, but from disease. If malaria did not claim them, then bacillary or amoebic dysentery did. Chills, heatstroke, blackwater fever and rotting feet caused by jigger fleas were commonplace.

pages: 641 words: 182,927

In Pursuit of Privilege: A History of New York City's Upper Class and the Making of a Metropolis by Clifton Hood


affirmative action, British Empire, David Brooks, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, family office, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, jitney, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Scientific racism, selection bias, Steven Levy, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, urban planning, We are the 99%, white flight

New York was merely a bargaining chip for these great powers, and the account of the treaty signing that ran in the London Gazette did not mention the restoration of New York City.33 New York continued to benefit by way of its “Dutch connection” with places in the West Indies like Curaçao, where the Dutch trade remained important, but England was a rising power that was beginning to exercise economic and political authority abroad and to organize an empire, and the city prospered as part of the British Empire. Its merchants thus became avid participants in a cultural and economic system called “gentlemanly capitalism.”34 British historians such as P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins attribute the origins of the British Empire to the effects of this gentlemanly capitalism, which they identify as a set of cultural, political, and economic forces that was propelled by a group of merchants and financiers who used overseas trade as a means to acquire the wealth, prestige, and connections they needed to reach a higher social level.

It helps us interpret the masses of letters, diaries, articles, and other textual materials of upper-class New Yorkers that have been deposited in archives and libraries and made available on the Web. I follow Bourdieu in viewing cultural tastes and social measures as tools that people wield in their efforts to possess these goods, with the definition and boundary marking of high-status categories (such as “upper class”) among the most precious stakes up for grabs.9 We start in the 1750s, when New York City was a lesser seaport and provincial capital in the British Empire and when its upper class consisted of royal officials, merchants, planters, and leading professionals. 1 “THE BEST MART ON THE CONTINENT” The 1750s and 1760s AN APPRAISAL OF NEW YORK CITY IN 1753 In 1753 William Livingston wrote a pamphlet entitled A Brief Consideration of New York that proclaimed the superiority of his native province and its major city over other colonies. The scion of one of the richest families in British North America, he grew up on Livingston Manor, a landed estate that occupied more than 150,000 acres near Albany.

However, the standing of merchants within this New York upper class was compromised by the code of gentility and by the place of royal officials atop the status hierarchy. The incompatibility of gentility with overly aggressive moneymaking and the privileged status of royal administrators relegated merchants to a secondary position in that upper class. In the end, what did not change in the 1750s and 1760s proved more important than what did change. Despite New York’s newfound centrality in the British Empire, the Seven Years’ War represents a false dawn in the history of the city. The war did not expand New York’s economy or its population, alter the social composition or the status hierarchy of the upper class, or stimulate new ways of acting and thinking on the part of its merchants. Those transformations would begin later, during the nation-building efforts of the 1780s and 1790s, and would accelerate with the economic growth of the nineteenth century.

pages: 414 words: 128,962

The Marches: A Borderland Journey Between England and Scotland by Rory Stewart

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, connected car, Etonian, glass ceiling, Isaac Newton, Khyber Pass, land reform, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley

* At lunch on the third day, I asked my father, ‘Do you think that you felt proud of the British Empire in the way in which Romans felt proud of the Roman Empire?’ ‘Well, it is very difficult to answer that kind of question,’ he said. ‘We were imperialists, no doubt. I was very proud of the Empire. Even my aunties in Kirriemuir liked the idea of “the Empire on which the sun never sets”.’ ‘And was it a Scottish empire?’ I asked. ‘Absolutely. Our heroes were Scots connected to Empire: that chieftain, for example, not Lord Lovat – the other one – Maclean. Fitzroy Maclean. We Scots dominated almost half the Diplomatic List – and we were the best soldiers in the army. And so on. But we didn’t want to be a separate Scotland – we’d have thought it was boring – we wanted to be part of a British Empire.’ He talked about humming bagpipe tunes to keep his spirits up under bombardment in Hanoi.

The Northumbrian peat had also preserved a play-horse on wheels, a toddler’s shoes – small enough to sit in the palm of an adult hand – and, fittingly for a child of a Roman soldier, a wooden toy sword. It was not much, but enough perhaps to question whether the Romans were really as unsentimental about their children as the stern, unbending marble statues of imperial heroes might suggest. * Although I was born in Hong Kong and brought up in Malaysia, I did not feel I had been brought up as a child of the British Empire. My father’s time in the Malayan Colonial Service was over before I was born. The pictures of him in his white uniform, with his pith helmet and ceremonial sword, seemed to resemble to the last detail the Sargent portrait of Sir Frank Swettenham in 1904, which was also on the dust jacket of a book in our house. So it surprises me, writing this, to realise that when we returned to Malaysia from London in 1979 (he had by then left ‘the office’ and become the director of the Rubbers Growers’ Association) it was still only just over twenty years since independence.

Wasn’t this like the early policies of the Malayan Emergency, where he had cleared the Chinese population from the villages and relocated them to houses in fenced compounds, so that they could be prevented from providing assistance to the insurgents? Again, he simply replied, ‘Not my subject.’ I wondered whether his reluctance to engage with my criticism of the Roman Empire was that it came too close to a criticism of the British Empire, but perhaps he simply felt that he did not know enough about Rome, and was exhausted by my questions. Or were my analogies just not that interesting? I thought that Roman Britain was a profound and powerful symbol for our age, and that what I was saying was very important, because I felt that such flimsy arguments had dragged us into the terrible humiliations of Iraq and Afghanistan. But Iraq had ended, and Afghanistan was ending, and it must all have seemed, even for people like my father, yesterday’s news.

pages: 561 words: 87,892

Losing Control: The Emerging Threats to Western Prosperity by Stephen D. King


Admiral Zheng, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Naomi Klein, new economy, old age dependency ratio, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, statistical model, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

How else can we hope to understand the re-emergence of China and India, the growing influence of Russia and the closer integration into the world economy of nations in Latin America, the Middle East, Africa and Eastern Europe? Through much of the twentieth century, political systems prevented economies from becoming more integrated: indeed, they pushed economies further apart. The collapse of the British Empire, the destruction associated with the First World War, the rise of nationalism, fascism and communism, the horrors of the Second World War and the stalemate of the Cold War all contributed to the destruction of economic relationships. These relationships are now rapidly being rebuilt. Changing patterns of trade and investment opportunities around the world provide compelling evidence of this shift.

As its ventures in India became more complex, so it built up a large private army to protect its interests (matching the earlier behaviour of the Dutch East India Company). It wasn’t long before a commercial operation turned into political ambition, thereby providing an early example of today’s state capitalism, a theme I explore in greater detail in Chapter 7. The mercenaries of the private army became regular soldiers, and India was absorbed into the British Empire. The Opium Wars of the nineteenth century provide a similar example. Again, the East India Company was involved, increasingly exporting opium to a lucrative Chinese market. Again, the British government supported Britain’s commercial interests. The rising demand in Britain for Chinese luxuries such as porcelain and silk had to be paid for somehow. As a consequence, the UK became the world’s biggest drug dealer.

International relations in the nineteenth century were shaped by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 (following the Napoleonic Wars), at which Europe was divided into spheres of influence, primarily reflecting the interests of the victorious Great Powers – the UK, Austria, Russia and Prussia (although, even after Napoleon’s departure following mounting defeats, France somehow still managed to get a seat at the table through the efforts of Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, Louis XVIII’s envoy, who used his wily diplomatic skills to create friction between the victors). The voices of the people went unheeded and unheard. This was a world of empires and imperfect suffrage. Under the influence of self-determination, sponsored by an increasingly powerful US hostile to colonial influence, the empires of the nineteenth century collapsed in the wars and economic crises that followed. The biggest casualty, most obviously, was the British Empire. The Ottoman Empire went the same way and, with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, so did the Soviet Union’s twentieth-century empire. The result was a huge proliferation of nation states. According to Freedom House, there were only fifty-five sovereign countries in 1900, alongside thirteen empires. That compares with the 192 states which, in 2009, were members of the United Nations. Of today’s nations, 113 used to be part of colonial and imperial systems, while a further thirty-three were parts of other states.

Imperial Ambitions: Conversations on the Post-9/11 World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian


British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Westphalian system

Subsequent territorial expansions, at least up to World War II, followed pretty much the same pattern. Think of Mexico, large parts of which we took over in the 1840s, or Hawaii, which was stolen by force and guile in 1898. In both cases the native population was pretty much replaced, they weren’t colonized. Again, not totally replaced. The indigenous people are still there, but they’ve essentially been taken over. Also, if you look at the traditional empires, say, the British empire, it’s not so clear that the population of Britain gained from it. It’s a very difficult topic to study, but there have been a couple of attempts. And for what it’s worth, the general conclusion is that the costs and the benefits pretty much balanced out. Empires are costly. Running Iraq is not cheap. Somebody’s paying. Somebody’s paying the corporations that destroyed Iraq and the corporations that are rebuilding it.

If you look at the rest of the aid, very little of the money left the United States. It just moved from one pocket to another. The Marshall Plan aid to France just about covered the costs of the French effort to reconquer Indochina. So the U.S. taxpayer wasn’t rebuilding France. They were paying the French to buy American weapons to crush the Indo-Chinese. And they were paying Holland to crush the independence movement in Indonesia. Returning to the British empire, the costs to the British people may have been about on a par with the benefits that the British people received from it, but for the guys who were running the East India Company the empire led to fantastic wealth. For the British troops who were dying out in the wilderness somewhere, the costs were serious. To a large extent, that’s the way empires work. Internal class war is a significant element of empire.

. … The twenty-first-century imperium is a new invention in the annals of political science, an empire lite, a global hegemony whose grace notes are free markets, human rights and democracy, enforced by the most awesome military power the world has ever known. “14 Of course, the apologists for every imperial power have said the same thing. So you can go back to John Stuart Mill, one of the most outstanding Western intellectuals. He defended the British empire in very much those words. Mill wrote the classic essay on humanitarian intervention.15 Everyone studies it in law schools. He argued that Britain is unique in the world. It’s unlike any country in history. Other countries have crass motives and seek gain and so on, but the British act only for the benefit of others. In fact, he said, our motives are so pure that Europeans can’t understand us.

pages: 387 words: 120,092

The Idea of Israel: A History of Power and Knowledge by Ilan Pappe


affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, double helix, facts on the ground, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, mass immigration, New Journalism, one-state solution, postnationalism / post nation state, stem cell, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

Amud Ha’Esh, a TV documentary series directed by Yigal Lusin for the first, and that time the only, Israeli TV channel in 1981, gives the viewer a good sense of why the Israelis call the 1948 war the War of Independence. That year is described as the culmination of an anti-colonialist struggle against the evil British Empire. The British were defeated and so, according to this narration, left Palestine because they could not withstand the Jewish resistance against them. Meanwhile, the professional historiography indicated that the British decision to withdraw from Palestine arose from the overall and inevitable global collapse of the British Empire. This wider context informed the financial and regional strategic decisions that led to the end of British rule in Palestine.22 The lengthiest feature film on 1948 during those years was He Walked Through the Fields, based on a novel by Moshe Shamir.

In Israel, this revolt usually appeared as a chapter in the history of Palestinian terrorism.28 In both Palestinian and less biased historiography, it appeared as the first, and in many ways, one of the few, successful popular revolts of the Palestinians that achieved some significant political gains, notably the British White Paper of 1939, which limited Jewish immigration and land purchase. This new British policy, together with the emergence of Nazism in Europe, led to a Jewish Zionist revolt against the British Empire. It was a heroic deed against all odds in Israeli historiography, amounting to terrorism in the eyes of not only the Mandatory government of the day but subsequently, leaders of the Irgun and the Stern Gang, such as Menachem Begin and Yitzhak Shamir, were regarded as personae non gratae in the United Kingdom because of their terrorist past in Palestine. An episode in the life of al-Hajj Amin al-Husayni, in which he cooperated with the Nazi regime in Germany, succeeded in further demonising the Palestinians and facilitating a depiction of him as not merely a terrorist but also a Nazi.

Research in British archives done during the 1970s by sensible Zionist historians such as Gavriel Cohen and Michael J. Cohen revealed a far more pragmatic and sensible Bevin than was depicted in the myth.13 Nevertheless, the narrative became an intricate sequence of interdependent elements. Thus, while the Yishuv (the Jewish community in Mandatory Palestine) faced annihilation from a barbaric Arab world, as a hostile British Empire and an indifferent international community looked on, it had no time to bother with the indigenous population. According to this narrative, these native people became refugees because their own leaders, and those of the Arab League, told them to leave, paving the way for an all-Arab invasion. Only then could they return to the liberated Palestine. Into this collective remembrance were interwoven the individual recollections of Jewish leaders and city dwellers who urged their fellow inhabitants – their Arab neighbours – not to leave and who, alas, failed in convincing them not to do so.14 The story culminates in the image of a moral war, one that produced the most famous Israeli oxymoron: the ‘purity of arms’.

pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, digital map, Edward Snowden,, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

The Pax Britannica was a period of history, between Napoleon’s defeat and World War I, during which the British Empire managed global affairs. London was the center of power, the British navy controlled the most important sea-trading routes, and relatively efficient bureaucracies put the world’s resources and people into the Empire’s service. Several aspects of the Pax Britannica may actually describe our future as much as that moment of our past. The British were strong because their network infrastructure gave them unparalleled levels of political, economic, and cultural control. The Pax Britannica was hardly a period of universal peace—it was a period of stability more than peace. There were nasty, violent brushfire wars throughout the British Empire as poor communities resisted the oppression of colonial masters. Rival kings, separatist movements, nationalist causes, and radical socialists (and anarchists, for that matter) constantly challenged the authority of the British crown.

And the infrastructure that allowed the Romans to have an extended period of political and economic stability was territorially bounded. It was an extensive network, but good roads and public works projects ended where the Visigoths began. Rome was not and could not be everywhere. Having power during the Pax Romana meant having some control over the nodes in the Empire’s networks, and as a city, Rome was the confluence of these networks of power. Similarly, in the British Empire, London served as the node, and the big corporate players all managed their affairs from the capital. The fashions, designs, and innovations of London radiated outward to the colonial seats of British power. Cultural exports from the United States were an important part of the Pax Americana: Hollywood movies, television programs, music, and advertising techniques had a significant impact on the values of viewers, listeners, and consumers around the world.

See also M-Pesa Barlow, John Perry, 163 behavior, prediction of, 141 Beinecke, Jessica, 194 Belarus, protests in, 85, 115 Belgium, minorities in, building collective identity, 145 Ben Ali, Zine el-Abidine, 50, 216, 221 Bennett, Lance, 138–39 Berners-Lee, Tim, 37–38 big data, 61, 295; analyzing, 176, 179, 180–81; in authoritarian regimes, 195; bringing stability, 68; collection of, overseeing, 112; definition of, 141; growth of, 179, 256; management of, 256; providing collective security, 112, 140–45; providing connective security through, 107; solving social problems with, 176, 178; taking down dirty networks, 99; tracking international criminal activity, 177–78 bin Laden, Osama, 38, 53, 60–61, 114, 176 Bitcoins, 56 Black Code (Deibert), 179 blogging, 76–78, 84–85, 127, 130, 171 Bloomberg News, 192 Blue Coat Systems, 215 Boeing, 115, 212 Boko Haram, 81, 83, 135 Bolivia, 215 Bosykh, Alexander, 198–99 botnets, 2–4, 202–3, 205 bots: attacking security companies, 32; dominating digital networks, 34; evolution of, 203–4; in financial markets, 34; identifying, 210–11; political, 204–11, 233, 234; as political tools, 29–33; pro-regime, 29–30; threats posed by, 208, 209–11; Twitter-based, 30–31; types of, 203; usage of, by country, 206–7; use of, 203–8; wartime use of, 34 bot wars, 53 Bouazizi, Mohamed, 50–51, 137, 221 Bouteflika, Abdelaziz, 92 Brazil: elections in, 128–29; internet rights in, 165 Breivik, Anders Behring, 216 Bretton Woods system, 231 Bring Back Our Girls, 81 British Empire, 1, 4–5, 15, 67, 107–8, 146–47, 231 broadcast licenses, 249–50 Brown Moses. See Higgins, Eliot Bulgaria, 41, 97 Burma, protests in, 86. See also Myanmar Bush, George W., 128 camps, international, 179 Canada: elections in, 205; minorities in, building collective identity, 145; surveillance in, 133 CANVAS, 164 Carna Bot, 3–4, 32, 203 Castels, Manuel, 126 Castro, Raúl, 92 Catalans, self-governance and, 145 CCTV, 201 censorship, 157; programs and systems for, 87, 133–34, 253 Center for Democracy and Technology, 163 Chad, 94 Chávez, Hugo, 92 Chiapas, uprising in.

pages: 432 words: 85,707

QI: The Third Book of General Ignorance (Qi: Book of General Ignorance) by John Lloyd, John Mitchinson


Albert Einstein, British Empire, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, dark matter, double helix, epigenetics, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, music of the spheres, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route

It’s still true that the sun never sets on the British Empire – but only just. The UK currently covers nine time zones. The most easterly is the British Indian Ocean Territory, a collection of atolls midway between Indonesia and Tanzania and home to the Diego Garcia military base. It is six hours ahead of the UK. The most westerly is the Pitcairn Islands, and it’s thanks to these four tiny volcanic islands in the Pacific, inhabited by descendants of the mutineers from the Bounty, that the British can still make this claim. When the sun sets on the Cayman Islands in the western Caribbean, it’s 13 hours before it rises on the British Indian Ocean Territory. But on Pitcairn it’s still daylight. The first person to use the phrase about the British Empire was the statesman and diplomat George Macartney (1737–1806).

The tiny oribatid mite, a member of the spider family as little as a fifth of a millimetre (0.007 inch) long, can resist a pull of 1,180 times its own weight. Alternatively known as moss mites or beetle mites, they can also pull something 530 times their own weight up a vertical surface, using only two of their eight legs. To test this, researchers from the University of Tübingen fixed the mites to a pin with superglue and measured how much force it took to pull them off. Isn’t science fun! STEPHEN What would you say if I said to you that the British Empire was built on diarrhoea? RICH HALL I’d say you were full of shit. Any word that ends in ‘rhoea’ is just bad news, isn’t it? Diarrhoea, pyorrhoea, gonorrhoea. North Korea. What’s the worst thing a swan can do to you? A number of alarming things, but it can’t break your arm. Swans may make threatening noises but your arms are safe with them. A bird’s bones are not only smaller and thinner than human ones; they’re also hollow.

Many were prefabricated and could be bought by mail order. You could have corrugated iron stables, gymnasia, hunting lodges, billiard rooms and laundries. In 1890 the catalogue of David Rowell & Co. was offering a cricket pavilion for £63.50 (£6,000 today), a two-storey cottage for £166 (£16,000 today) or a theatre for £695 (£67,000 today). Corrugated iron churches (or ‘tin tabernacles’) sprang up all over the British Empire: several are still in use as listed buildings today. The craze reached its height in 1851, when Prince Albert ordered a corrugated iron ballroom for Balmoral Castle. It’s still there, now used as a carpenter’s workshop. It wasn’t universally popular. William Morris, founder of the Arts and Crafts Movement, wrote that it was spreading ‘like pestilence over the country’, and some bishops were reluctant to consecrate iron churches.

pages: 208 words: 74,328

The Road to Wigan Pier by George Orwell


anti-work, British Empire, Etonian, place-making, Upton Sinclair

Even the right-wing ‘intellectual’, who is not definitely in revolt against British imperialism, pretends to regard it with a sort of amused detachment. It is so easy to be witty about the British Empire. The White Man’s Burden and ‘Rule, Britannia’ and Kipling’s novels and Anglo-Indian bores – who could even mention such things without a snigger? And is there any cultured person who has not at least once in his life made a joke about that old Indian havildar who said that if the British left India there would not be a rupee or a virgin left between Peshawar and Delhi (or wherever it was)? That is the attitude of the typical left-winger towards imperialism, and a thoroughly flabby, boneless attitude it is. For in the last resort, the only important question is, Do you want the British Empire to hold together or do you want it to disintegrate? And at the bottom of his heart no Englishman, least of all the kind of person who is witty about Anglo-Indian colonels, does want it to disintegrate.

I remember a night I spent on the train with a man in the Educational Service, a stranger to myself whose name I never discovered. It was too hot to sleep and we spent the night in talking. Half an hour’s cautious questioning decided each of us that the other was ‘safe’; and then for hours, while the train jolted slowly through the pitch-black night, sitting up in our bunks with bottles of beer handy, we damned the British Empire – damned it from the inside, intelligently and intimately. It did us both good. But we had been speaking forbidden things, and in the haggard morning light when the train crawled into Mandalay, we parted as guiltily as any adulterous couple. So far as my observation goes nearly all Anglo-Indian officials have moments when their conscience troubles them. The exceptions are men who are doing something which is demonstrably useful and would still have to be done whether the British were in India or not: forest officers, for instance, and doctors and engineers.

And unless Socialist doctrine, in an effective form, can be diffused widely and very quickly, there is no certainty that Fascism will ever be overthrown. For Socialism is the only real enemy that Fascism has to face. The capitalist-imperialist governments, even though they themselves are about to be plundered, will not fight with any conviction against Fascism as such. Our rulers, those of them who understand the issue, would probably prefer to hand over every square inch of the British Empire to Italy, Germany and Japan than to see Socialism triumphant. It was easy to laugh at Fascism when we imagined that it was based on hysterical nationalism, because it seemed obvious that the Fascist states, each regarding itself as the chosen people and patriotic contra mundum, would clash with one another. But nothing of the kind is happening. Fascism is now an international movement, which means not only that the Fascist nations can combine for purposes of loot, but that they are groping, perhaps only half consciously as yet, towards a world-system.

pages: 240 words: 75,304

Time Lord: Sir Sandford Fleming and the Creation of Standard Time by Clark Blaise


British Empire, creative destruction, Dava Sobel, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Khartoum Gordon, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair

But the Scotch, like the country they had left and the new territory they were building, were negotiating a very tight passage between proud survival and overt surrender. They were “emigrants,” not immigrants. They had known poverty in their homeland, but overnight, it seemed, had been transformed into hardy transplants in Canada, the United States, or in England itself. Fleming’s life is one long demonstration of competing loyalties to Canada, to Scotland, and to the idea of the British Empire. As a prime example of the successful emigrant, he nevertheless lamented on return visits to Scotland the loss of his distinctive accent, and even his ear for the purer strains of the “north of Tweed” dialect. Only in Kirkcaldy was he taken for a native. The Fleming brothers nearly died on that forty-four-day passage in 1845. On one fearful night in the midst of a North Atlantic gale, Sandford took readings of wind speed and direction, calculated the ship’s heading and tonnage, and determined that they might not survive until morning.

They followed one another, and in fact rails could not function adequately without the telegraph. But cables were infinitely faster and more adaptable. The moment had come, now that the rails were in sight of the ocean, to continue the cables under the Pacific, just as they had already crossed the Atlantic. Vancouver would be connected to Fiji and Australia, Australia with India and South Africa. A glance at any map confirmed the fact that the red patches on the earth, the British Empire, fairly begged for connection. Without abandoning standard time, he would now take up the final great scheme of his life, the laying of the trans-Pacific and worldwide, all-British cable. His vision had always been one of one-world and instantaneous communication. The time zones were but a rough sketch of what he next planned to do. What good is time if it can’t be put to work? IN 1895 Sandford Fleming, then sixty-eight years old and on the brink of achieving the great success for which he would be knighted two years later, was visiting County Mayo, Ireland.

Geographically I was in a remote corner of a country where I was entirely unknown, and I discovered myself telegraphically with my friends in London. Ever since my visit to Blacksod Bay I have had visions of the extension of the use of the electric telegraph and have regarded it as a heaven sent means of communication. I have asked myself the question can we bring the Dominion telegraphically as near England as Ireland and Scotland are today? Can we bring the whole worldwide British Empire telegraphically into one neighborhood? Miraculous as it must have seemed at the time, it is about as far as the marriage between steam and electricity can be pushed. The coordinated efforts involved, brought into focus that day, are also indicative of the mechanical disadvantage of steam technology, then entering its unacknowledged decline. The diesel engine had been invented two years earlier, the telephone was already widely in use, and the compact power of electricity was all the rage, from incandescent lights to the phonograph, oscillating fans, and motion pictures.

pages: 249 words: 79,740

The Next Decade: Where We've Been . . . And Where We're Going by George Friedman


airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

Empires are rarely planned or premeditated, and those that have been, such as Napoleon’s and Hitler’s, tend not to last. Those that endure grow organically, and their imperial status often goes unnoticed until it has become overwhelming. This was the case both for Rome and for Britain, yet they succeeded because once they achieved imperial status, they not only owned up to it, they learned to manage it. Unlike the Roman or British Empire, the American structure of dominance is informal, but that makes it no less real. The United States controls the oceans, and its economy accounts for more than a quarter of everything produced in the world. If Americans adopt the iPod or a new food fad, factories and farms in China and Latin America reorganize to serve the new mandate. This is how the European powers governed China in the nineteenth century—never formally, but by shaping and exploiting it to the degree that the distinction between formal and informal hardly mattered.

To create alliances in which the United States maneuvers other countries into bearing the major burden of confrontation or conflict, supporting these countries with economic benefits, military technology, and promises of military intervention if required. To use military intervention only as a last resort, when the balance of power breaks down and allies can no longer cope with the problem. At the height of the British Empire, Lord Palmerston said, “It is a narrow policy to suppose that this country or that is to be marked out as the eternal ally or the perpetual enemy of England. We have no eternal allies, and we have no perpetual enemies. Our interests are eternal and perpetual, and those interests it is our duty to follow.” This is the kind of policy the president will need to institutionalize in the coming decade.

Where he cannot fail is in his responsibility to guide the United States in a hostile world. CHAPTER 2 REPUBLIC, EMPIRE, AND THE MACHIAVELLIAN PRESIDENT The greatest challenge to managing an empire over the next decade will be the same challenge that Rome faced: having become an empire, how can the republic be preserved? The founders of the United States were anti-imperialists by moral conviction. They pledged their lives, fortunes, and sacred honor to defeat the British Empire and found a republic based on the principles of national self-determination and natural rights. An imperial relationship with other countries, whether intended or not, poses a challenge to those foundational principles. If you believe that universal principles have meaning, it follows that an anti-imperial republic can’t be an empire and retain its moral character. This has been an argument made in the United States as far back as the 1840s and the Mexican-American war.

pages: 736 words: 210,277

1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War by Benny Morris


Albert Einstein, British Empire, family office, friendly fire, illegal immigration, mass immigration

About 20 percent of the IDF Medical Corps at the end of 1948 were foreign volunteers.37 The Yishuv entered the civil war with one large militia and two very small paramilitary or terrorist organizations: the Haganah, the military arm of the mainstream Zionist parties, especially the socialist Mapai and Mapam, with thirty-five thousand members; and the IZL, the military arm of the Revisionist movement and its youth movement, Betar, and the LHI, which was composed, somewhat unnaturally, of breakaways from the IZL and left-wing revolutionaries who regarded the British Empire as their chief enemy. The IZL had between two and three thousand members and the LHI some three to five hundred. During the civil war, the three organizations occasionally coordinated their operations and did not clash with one another. The Haganah, which as of 1 June 1948 was renamed the Israel Defense Forces, was the organization that counted. During the first months of the civil war, while defending the Jewish settlements and lines of communication, it reorganized.

The withdrawal-promoting Security Council resolution of 4 No vember was buttressed by a memorandum by Bunche defining and endorsing the truce lines of 14 October.6 Israel initially demanded that Egypt withdraw from the areas its troops still occupied in Palestine-that is, the Gaza Strip and the Bethlehem area-and that the future armistice boundary between the two countries be based on the old international Egypt-Palestine frontier, agreed between the British Empire (effectively governing Egypt) and the Ottomans (ruling Palestine) in 19o6. The Egyptians initially sought what amounted to sovereignty over the central and southern Negev-partly in order to restore the historic territorial contiguity of the Arab and Islamic worlds-and demanded that Israel withdraw from the areas of Beersheba, Bir Asluj, and Auja. The southern Negev and Beersheba, they said, could be demilitarized.

Ernest Bevin to Douglas Busk, "Conversation with the Iraqi Foreign Minister," 23 December 1947, PRO FO 371-61893. 2. Bandman, When Will Britain Withdraw from Jerusalem? 12. 3. Cohen, Palestine and Great Powers, 223. 4. Freundlich, From Destruction to Resurrection, 62. 5. Hurewitz, Struggle for Palestine, 281-282. 6. Niv, Battles of the IZL, 5:161-163, 274-280. 7. Cohen, Palestine and Great Powers, 245. 8. Louis, British Empire in the Middle East, 475. 9. Cohen, Palestine and Great Powers, z45. 10. Sela, "Question of Palestine," 317-322; Ben-Dror, "UNSCOP," 20-21. 11. Unsigned, "Jewish Displaced Persons and Refugees May 1947," undated, CZA S25-5353- 12. Text of Andrei Gromyko's speech, Documents on Israeli-Soviet Relations, 19411953, 1:189-196. 13. Ben-Dror, "UNSCOP," 39-55. 14. Urquhart, Bunche, 140 (quoting Bunche to his wife, Ruth, 29 June 1947). 15.

pages: 484 words: 120,507

The Last Lingua Franca: English Until the Return of Babel by Nicholas Ostler


barriers to entry, BRICs, British Empire, call centre,, European colonialism, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mass immigration, open economy, Republic of Letters, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, trade route, upwardly mobile

What has perturbed the even flow of English as it has spread along with the interests of its speaker communities, making it seem to have a life of its own, or rather a life constrained and defined by interests and activities expressed in other languages? Looking round the world for places where English is notable for its rarity, our gaze First lights on three countries that had once hosted massive use of the language, since they were colonies within the British Empire, but have since moved to promote other languages in its place. They are distributed round the Indian Ocean: Malaysia in the east, ri Lanka centrally, and Tanzania in the west. Each of these countries had multiple language communities when the British took over, and so in each of them English might have been considered able to go on playing a convenient, almost natural, role as a neutral lingua-franca for the whole country.

In the area that became Tanzania, however, this Swahili language (named from Arabic saw hil ‘coasts’, and referring to itself as kiSwahili) had spread particularly widely as a lingua-franca, originally from the coastal region round Zanzibar. It had been picked up and reinforced by European (mainly German) missionaries’ schools in the nineteenth century and carried on under British administration after 1918. Essentially, it was the de facto lingua-franca in the country that had preceded the British Empire’s widespread introduction of English. Ever since the country became an independent and united state (over the period 1961– 64), its First president, Julius Nyerere, had been keen to promote it as the national language, and an effective lingua-franca for all Tanzanians, bridging the gaps among the more than a hundred languages they spoke with a distinctively African medium that avoided any recourse to the colonial language English.* Luckily for Swahili, in Tanzania there was no tribe or tribes much larger or more dominant than the others, as the Luo or Kikuyu were and are in Kenya, or the Baganda in Uganda.

But both the UK and U.S. markets, and especially the latter, had been developed at home; the industrial revolutions that drove them were domestic, and the resources that they exploited were likewise largely mined or grown at home, or (in Britain’s case) in colonies that were under their own management. Outside India and China, these developments that favored English-speaking powers had not required them to solicit the cooperation of foreigners who did not speak their language.* By contrast, third parties who wanted to join in had to make themselves understood. Just as Indians and other British colonial citizens who wanted to get a piece of the action in the British Empire had to strive to learn English, so other foreigners too had to take an interest in the language to make contact. Official(and Semi-official) Languages by Size—EU and Global (Credit: Nicholas Ostler, based on Eurobarometer data) Western Powers’ Shares of World Manufacturing, 1750–1900. (Credit: Nicholas Ostler, based on data from Kennedy 1988) Another cliché of nineteenth-century Britain was that “trade follows the flag”: imperial control of a territory was a useful precursor to getting British business to take an interest in it, as witness Hong Kong for Far Eastern commerce, or New Zealand for wool and dairy products.

pages: 1,445 words: 469,426

The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power by Daniel Yergin


anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, energy security, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, fudge factor, informal economy, joint-stock company, land reform, liberal capitalism, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, postnationalism / post nation state, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Thomas Malthus, Yom Kippur War

[2] Pahlavi, Shah's Story, p. 39 ("miraculous failure"); Ervand Abrahamiam, Iran Between Two Revolutions (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1982), pp. 249-50 ("the Great"); Interview with George McGhee; Louis, British Empire, pp. 636, 596 ("infant prodigy" and "nineteenth-century"); George McGhee, Envoy to the Middle World: Adventures in Diplomacy (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), pp. 320 ("kindly feeling"); Acheson, Present at the Creation, p. 646 ("stupidity"). [3] Berthoud memo, April 18, 1951, EP 1531/204, FO 371/91527; Bevin to Frank, April 12, 1950, EP 1531/37, FO 371/82395, PRO. "The Iranian Oil Crisis," 3460, DeGolyer papers; Raymond Vernon, "Planning for a Commodity Oil Market," in Daniel Yergin and Barbara Kates-Garnick, eds., The Reshaping of the Oil Industry: Just Another Commodity? (Cambridge: Cambridge Energy Research Associates, 1985), pp. 25-33 ("Minister and Manager"); Louis, British Empire, p. 56 ("no power or influence"); Francis Williams, A Prime Minister Remembers: The War and Postwars of Earl Attlee (London: Heinemann, 1961), pp. 178-79; Robert Stobaugh, "The Evolution of Iranian Oil Policy, 1925-1975," in Iran Under the Pahlavis, ed.

Brands, Inside the Cold War: hoy Henderson and the Rise of the American Empire, 1918-1961 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming), chap. 18 (fainting spells); Anthony Eden, Full Circle (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1960), p. 219 ("Old Mossy"); Painter, Oil and the American Century, p. 173 ("colonial exploiter"); Acheson, Present at the Creation, p. 651 ("great actor"); Interviews with George McGhee and Peter Ramsbotham ("Moslem"); Vernon Walters, Silent Missions (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1978), p. 262; C. M. Woodhouse, Something Ventured (London: Granada, 1982), pp. 113-14; Louis, British Empire, pp. 651-53 ("lunatic" and "cunning"); Paul Nitze, From Hiroshima to Glasnost, pp. 130-37. [7] Interviews; Louis, British Empire, pp. 667-74 ("Suez Canal"); Notes, June 27, 1951, EP 1531/ 870, FO 371/ 91555, PRO (Churchill); Alistair Home, Harold Macmillan, vol. 1, 1894-1956, (New York: Viking, 1988), p. 310; H. W. Brands, "The Cairo-Tehran Connection in Anglo-American Rivalry in the Middle East, 1951-1953," International History Review, 11 (1989), pp. 438-40 ("scuttle and surrender")

On Levy's proposals, see Logan memo, July 31,1951, with Minute, July 29,1951, EP 1531/1290, FO 371/ 91575 ("camouflage"); Shepherd to Foreign Office, October 10, 1951, EP 1531/1837, FO 371/91599 (John Kennedy); Cabinet Minutes, July 30, 1951, CM (51), CAB 128/20, PRO. Acheson, Present at the Creation, p. 655; Louis, British Empire, p. 677, n. 5 ("mongrelization" and "dilute"); Walters, Silent Missions, pp. 247-56 ("crafty," "Where else?," "certain principles" and Kashani); FRUS: Iran, 1951-1954, pp. 145 ("dream world"). [9] Louis, British Empire, p. 678 ("jolly good"); Fergusson to Stokes, October 3,1951, with Fergusson to Makins, October 4, 1951, EP 1531/1839, FO 371/91599; Ramsbotham to Logan, August 20, 1951, EP 1531/1391, FO 371/91580, PRO. Interview with Peter Ramsbotham ("last act of Figaro"); Peter Ramsbotham to author, July 4, 1990; Painter, Oil and American Century, p. 177.

pages: 224 words: 12,941

From Gutenberg to Google: electronic representations of literary texts by Peter L. Shillingsburg


British Empire, computer age, double helix, HyperCard, hypertext link, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, means of production, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Saturday Night Live, Socratic dialogue

He called it ‘‘The Collection of British Authors,’’ which by the outbreak of the War had published 5,372 works, keeping many of them in print for the entire period of its existence. One must turn to The Modern Library from Random House, the Everyman’s Library, and Penguin or Oxford Classics in the twentieth century for endeavors of a comparable scale. In his day, the Baron had no enduring competitors. The inception and growth of his series parallels the development of the British Empire – a relevant context in at least two respects. The first is that the British Empire spanned the globe in ways that created a global market-demand for the English language and for British literature. Englishmen were invading the four corners of earth in what now is generally viewed, usually with disapproval, as moral, economic, military, 7 8 Robert Patten, Charles Dickens and his Publishers (Oxford: Clarendon, 1978); Peter Shillingsburg, Pegusus in Harness (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992); June Steffensen Hagen, Tennyson and his Publishers (London: Macmillan, 1979); Simon Gatrell, Hardy the Creator (Oxford: Clarendon, 1988) and R.

He purchased advanced proof sheets and in some cases manuscripts in order that his books would appear in the bookstores before any of his Continental competitors – such as Jugel in Frankfurt, Galigniani or Baudry in Paris, or Robertson and Schroder in Brussels – could even obtain a printed copy to reprint from. By the time competitors could print their so-called pirated (though not in fact illegal) editions, Tauchnitz already had his cheap paperback versions in the stores of Germany, France, Italy, and the approaches to and egresses from the British empire. The first publisher gets the most sales. This part of the story is recounted, deliberately, in disapproving terms to show that the initial praiseful remarks could easily be turned against 9 Simon Nowell-Smith, International Copyright Law and the Publisher in the Reign of Queen Victoria (London: Oxford University Press, 1968) provides a classic account. Victorian fiction: shapes shaping reading 133 the entrepreneur.

Index abridgment 32 access to texts 85 open source 106, 108 adaptation 20, 85 aesthetic object 5, 169, 174–6, 178, 182, 186 author’s 174 editor’s 184 intended 174 aesthetics 22, 23, 188 agnosia, tonal 48 Altick, Richard 128 aphasia 47–8 archives 4, 34, 82, 85 CD-based 121 archivists 4, 12 Aristotle 29 artifacts 13, 24, 26, 169, 174–5, 178, 182, 186–7 assumptions 191 Austin, J.L. 46 Australian Colonial Texts Series 36 authenticity 23 author 6, 53, 174 commentary 158 European 186 function 53 German 176 literary 63 putative 34–6, 45 authoring 50 authority 6, 32, 174, 177 author’s 52 in script acts 56 mixed 182–4 unmixed 184 authorship 130 economics of 130 Barthes, Roland 60 Barwell, Graham 10, 141 Beardsley, Monroe 60 Beckett, Samuel Samuel Beckett project 108 Beowulf project 4, 108 Bernays, M. 170 Berrie, Phill 10, 91, 118, 124, 142 bibliographic codes 16–18, 72 Bickerton, Derek 42–3 Binder, Henry 84 biography 60 Birney, Earle 187 Blake, William 4, 142 book 12–14 ‘‘bookness’’ of’ 139 buyers 6, 135 electronic 1–2, 28–9, 65; complexity of 28; as distinguished from print books 29; quality of 29–30 physical condition of 129 as physical object 12, 49, 127, 135 print book 1, 65; advantages 29; as copytext 168; as distinguished from electronic books 29; survival rate 27 production 6, 64 virtual 141 book collecting 151 book historians 136 book history 158 goal of 135 Boorstin, Daniel 193 Bordalejo, Barbara 10 Bornstein, George 8, 16 Bowden, Ann 133–4 Bowers, Fredson 9, 25, 153, 185 Bradbury and Evans 36 Braddon, Mary Elizabeth 147 Bradford, Robin 153 Bree, Linda 10 British Empire 131 Brown, Charles Brockden 164 Brown-Rau, Alexandra 108 Bryant, John 8–9 209 210 Index Burton, Anthony 123 Byron, George Gordon, Lord 16, 72, 185 Caldwell, Price 10, 75, 77 Calvin, William H. 43, 46 Cambridge, Ada 36 Carlyle, Thomas 161, 170 Carey, Peter 64 Caxton, William 179 censorship 33 Center for Editions of American Authors (see Modern Language Association) Cervantes 29 Chaucer, Geoffrey 4, 87, 179–84 Chaucer project 142, 144 The General Prologue on CD-ROM 87 Chesnutt, David 142 Chopin, Kate 36 Clark, Marcus 120 Cockran, Patti 142 codex 29, 85 Cohen, Morton 131 Colby, Robert 122 Cole, Gavin 10 collation Hinman Collator 110 historical 164 Lindstrand Comparator 110 sight 22, 110 software 107 Committee on Scholarly Editions (see Modern Language Association) communication 7, 41–2, 45 event 67 of determinate effects 63 theory 140 Communist Manifesto, the 16–18 compositors 181 computer files legacy research materials 109, 112, 115, 122; quality control 116 computer technology 26–8, 139 (see also software and markup) Contemporary German Editorial Theory 9, 169 context 31, 54, 66, 78, 146, 191 functional 67 generative 54 generic 55 historical 59, 130 matter 54 place 54 relevant 74 sense-making 73 thematic 55 time 54 contextualization 55 conventionality 41 conventions 50–1 copyright 139 copyright law 132 costing 2 Crane, Stephen 84 criticism, literary 12, 63, 83, 151 junk 75 Marxist 130 New 60, 75 Practical 60 psychological 60 reader response 45 textual (see textual criticism) critics literary (see criticism) textual (see textual critics) Cross, Nigel 127, 128 cultural engineering 163 deconstruction 51–3 Descartes, René 198 Dedner, Burghard 26 Deppman, Jed 10 Derrida, Jacques 43, 51, 60 de Saussure, Ferdinand 60 de Smedt, Marcel 91, 108 Dewey, John 196 Dickens, Charles Clarendon Dickens editions 134 Dickinson, Emily 4, 65, 75 Emily Dickinson project 142 Dijksterhuis, E.

pages: 469 words: 97,582

QI: The Second Book of General Ignorance by Lloyd, John, Mitchinson, John


Ada Lovelace, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, clean water, double helix, Etonian, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, Lao Tzu, Louis Pasteur, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, out of africa, the built environment, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, traveling salesman, US Airways Flight 1549

There are also 150 aboriginal languages which are still spoken (compared to the 600 or so spoken in the eighteenth century). Of these, all but twenty are likely to disappear in the next fifty years. Attempting to declare English the official language risks looking insensitive. The Vatican is the only country in the world that has Latin as an official language. When did Parliament make slavery illegal in England? 6 April 2010. With a few minor exceptions, slavery was abolished throughout the British Empire in 1833, but it wasn’t thought necessary to outlaw it at home. In 1067, according to the Domesday Book, more than 10 per cent of the population of England were slaves. The Normans, perhaps surprisingly, were opposed to slavery on religious grounds and within fifty years it had virtually disappeared. Even serfdom (a kind of modified slavery) became increasingly rare and Queen Elizabeth I freed the last remaining serfs in 1574.

At the same time, Britain was becoming a colonial power and it was the height of fashion for returning Englishmen to have a ‘black manservant’ (who was in fact, of course, a slave). This unseemly habit was made illegal by the courts in 1772 when the judge, Lord Mansfield, reportedly declared: ‘The air of England is too pure for any slave to breathe’, with the result that thousands of slaves in England gained their freedom. From that moment, slavery was arguably illegal in England (though not in the British Empire) under Common Law, but this was not confirmed by Parliament until the Coroners and Justice Act. Previous acts of Parliament dealt with kidnap, false imprisonment, trafficking for sexual exploitation and forced labour, but never specifically covered slavery. Now, Section 71 of the Coroners and Justice Act (which came into force on 6 April 2010) makes it an offence in the UK, punishable by up to fourteen years’ imprisonment, to hold a person in ‘slavery or servitude’.

‘If Imperial Japan had not started the war,’ he said, ‘how could we communists have become mighty and powerful?’ Which nationality invented the ‘stiff upper lip’? It wasn’t the British. Unlikely as it may sound, it was the Americans. To keep a stiff upper lip is to remain steadfast and unemotional in the face of the worst that life can throw at you. Though long associated with Britain – and especially the British Empire – the oldest-known uses of the term are all from the USA, beginning in 1815. Americans were going around with ‘stiff upper lips’ in Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) and in the letters of Mark Twain (1835–1910) and it was only towards the end of the nineteenth century that the expression first appeared in print in Britain. By 1963, when P. G.Wodehouse published his ninth Jeeves and Wooster novel, Stiff Upper Lip, Jeeves!

pages: 261 words: 103,244

Economists and the Powerful by Norbert Haring, Norbert H. Ring, Niall Douglas


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, bank run, barriers to entry, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, central bank independence, collective bargaining, commodity trading advisor, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, diversified portfolio, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, illegal immigration, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, law of one price, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, new economy, obamacare, old-boy network, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Renaissance Technologies, rolodex, Sergey Aleynikov, shareholder value, short selling, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, ultimatum game, union organizing, Vilfredo Pareto, working-age population, World Values Survey

Only through having been caught so blatantly with their noses in the troughs (e.g. the 2011 Academy Award–winning documentary Inside Job) has the American Economic Association finally been forced to adopt an ethical code, and that code is weak and incomplete compared with other disciplines. Increasingly, and especially during the past ten years, there is evidence that the US is beginning to doctor the numbers for measures such as productivity and GDP to make itself look stronger and more powerful than it actually is. In this it is copying its forebear, the British Empire, which increasingly began to tell itself lies as it failed to arrest its relative economic decline after the recession of 1873–79, until the Second World War bankrupted and broke up its global hegemony. Economics is supposed to be about revealing truth such that society learns to become better than it was before. In this, it is supposed to be like physics or medicine. It is not supposed to be another tool for the powerful to enrich themselves at the expense of others.

This use of distinguished economists for the purposes of promotion was of course not new. The great British founder of neoclassicism, Alfred Marshall, was the undisputed leader in economics from the death of Jevons in 1882 until his own death in 1924, and was famous for his evenhandedness and avoidance of controversy. But even he got involved in media campaigning against imperial initiatives, such as the 1903 tariff reform movement that aimed to turn the British Empire into a single free trade zone in order to inhibit the rise of the United States and Germany. The big change, however, was that Bernays was merely having distinguished economists put in appearances at media events completely unconnected with economics. This, over time, caused the American public to begin to see distinguished economists as a type of THE ECONOMICS OF THE POWERFUL 17 celebrity, especially as Bernays found that the typically male experts of that time were particularly likely to put in appearances at events where famous actresses would be present.

For calculating profits, salaries and bonuses are treated as an expense, even though treating the aboveaverage part of them as a way to disburse excessive profits might be closer to the truth. After all, financial sector salaries have risen to twice the average in the economy, whereas three decades ago they were equal to this average (Johnson 2009). The only time that finance has been known to have been as profitable for as long as they have been during the past 30 years was in the UK during the period leading up to 1913, as the British Empire stagnated MONEY IS POWER 101 (Imlah 1952; Dimson et al. 2002). Are sustained abnormal banking profits a sign of hidden local economic stagnation as capital is redirected to more profitable locations in the world? Perhaps with the long British experience of finance in mind, the British Warwick Commission noted that a bloated financial sector is a disaster waiting to happen as well as a continuous drag on the economy.

pages: 605 words: 110,673

Drugs Without the Hot Air by David Nutt


British Empire, double helix,, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, offshore financial centre, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), War on Poverty

Even when pipe-smoking of tobacco became more common, and cannabis started being used as a medicine, there was almost no recreational use of the drug in Britain until the late 19th century, and levels remained very low until the 1960s. Of course, the British government did encounter widespread use of the drug as the British Empire expanded into Asia. Here it was viewed as a commodity, which, because it was seen as an essential daily item by many Indians, could be used as a means of social control. Just as the East India company cornered the market in salt, they shut down the local production of cannabis, forcing people to buy their “bhang” from the British. (When you factor-in the opium trade in China, and the vast profits made from trading tea, coffee and alcohol, the British Empire was easily the largest drug dealer in the history of the world!) When cannabis entered the physician’s medicine chest in Britain in the 1840s, it was 18overshadowed by the more potent painkilling properties of opium, partly because opium was easier to convert into other forms such as laudanum, morphine and heroin.

Iverson, Oxford University Press, 2000 17 THC levels were at one point as high as 21%, they soon dropped back down to 15%• Cannabis: classification and public health, ACMD, April 2008 18 overshadowed by the more potent painkilling properties of opium• Indian Hemp and the Dope Fiends of Old England: A sociopolitical history of cannabis and the British Empire 1840–1928, Sean Blanchard and Matthew J Atha, URL-28, 1994 19 Indian Hemp Drugs Commission report in 1894• Indian Hemp Drugs Commission report in 1894, Indian Hemp Drugs Commission, available online on the Medical History of British India website, URL-29, accessed December 7th 2011 20 In 1945 there were a total of 4 prosecutions for cannabis offences, and it wasn’t until 1950 that the number of prosecutions for cannabis (86) outnumbered those for opium and other manufactured drugs (83).• Indian Hemp and the Dope Fiends of Old England: A sociopolitical history of cannabis and the British Empire 1840–1928, Sean Blanchard and Matthew J Atha, URL-28, 1994 21 The situation was very different in the USA• Illegal drugs: a complete guide to their history, chemistry, use and abuse, Paul M Ghalinger, Plume, 2003 22 diverting prescriptions from their doctors• Necessity or nastiness?

pages: 335 words: 107,779

Some Remarks by Neal Stephenson


airport security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, British Empire, cable laying ship, call centre, cellular automata, edge city, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, music of the spheres, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, packet switching, pirate software, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, Socratic dialogue, South China Sea, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, X Prize

Cable & Wireless has an institutional memory stretching all the way back to 1870, when it laid the first cable from Porthcurno to Australia, and the British maritime industry as a whole possesses a vast fund of practical experience that is the legacy of the Empire. One can argue that, in the end, the British Empire did Britain surprisingly little good. Other European countries that had pathetic or nonexistent empires, such as Italy, have recently surpassed England in standard of living and other measures of economic well-being. Scholars of economic history have worked up numbers suggesting that Britain spent more on maintaining its empire than it gained from exploiting it. Whether or not this is the case, it is quite obvious from looking at the cable-laying industry that the Victorian practice of sending British people all over the planet is now paying them back handsomely. The current position of AT&T versus Cable & Wireless reflects the shape of America versus the shape of the British Empire. America is a big, contiguous mass, easy to defend, immensely wealthy, and basically insular.

The strings of fireworks kept blowing themselves out, so as I backed slowly toward the Oil Tiger I was treated to the sight of excited Chinese software engineers lunging into the firestorm holding their cigarettes out like fencing foils, trying to reboot the strings without sacrificing eyes, fingers, or eardrums. BACK IN SHENZHEN, WHEN I’D HAD ABOUT ALL I COULD TAKE OF THE SPECIAL Economic Zone, I walked over a bridge across the Shen Zhen and found myself back in the British Empire again, filling out forms in a clean well-lit room with the Union Jack flying overhead. A twenty-minute trip in one of Hong Kong’s quiet, fast commuter trains took me through the New Territories, mostly open green land with the occasional grove of palm trees or burst of high-rise development, and into Kowloon, where I hopped into a taxi. On the approach to the tunnel between Kowloon and Hong Kong, stuck in traffic beneath a huge electronic billboard showing animated stock market graphs in white, emerald, and ruby, I gazed into the next lane at a brand-new gray BMW 733i, smooth and polished as a drop of molten glass.

America is a big, contiguous mass, easy to defend, immensely wealthy, and basically insular. No one comes close to it in developing new technologies, and AT&T has always been one of America’s technological leaders. By contrast, the British Empire was spread out all over the place, and though it controlled a few big areas (such as India and Australia), it was basically an archipelago of outposts, let us say a network, completely dependent on shipping and communications to stay alive. Its dominance was always more economic than military—even at the height of the Victorian era, its army was smaller than the Prussian police force. It could coerce the natives, but only so far—in the end, it had to co-opt them, give them some incentive to play along. Even though the Empire has been dissolving itself for half a century, British people and British institutions still know how to get things done everywhere.

pages: 356 words: 103,944

The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Dani Rodrik


affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round,, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, George Akerlof, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, night-watchman state, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, savings glut, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey

Recall how the East India Company was superseded by the British Raj when the former proved unable to handle local insurgency, or how the Hudson’s Bay Company’s police powers were handed over to the Dominion of Canada. The British Empire brought law and order to societies that lacked them, argues the Harvard historian Niall Ferguson: “no organization in history has done more to promote the free movement of goods, capital and labor,” he writes, “than the British Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.”13 One does not need to buy into Ferguson’s glowing take on the British Empire to agree with his assertion that imperialism was a tremendously powerful force for economic globalization. A recent statistical study found that two countries that were members of the same empire had twice the volume of trade between them compared to trade with others outside the empire, holding as many things constant as is feasible in this kind of quantitative work.

If the locals proved insufficiently in awe of Smith and Ricardo’s ideas, gunships standing at the ready could always provide the necessary persuasion. So Britain signed a treaty with Ottoman Turkey in 1838 that forced the country to restrict import duties to a maximum of 5 percent and abolish import prohibitions and monopolies. The British also fought the so-called “Opium War” with China in 1839–42 to open up the country to imports of opium and other goods exported from the British Empire. Commodore Matthew C. Perry signed a treaty with Japan on behalf of the United States in 1854 to open the country to foreign shipping and trade. These and other similar treaties would impose ceilings on import duties (one-sided, of course), restrict the ability of the less powerful countries to conduct their trade policies independently, grant foreign traders legal privileges, and enforce foreigners’ access to ports.

pages: 363 words: 94,139

Jony Ive: The Genius Behind Apple's Greatest Products by Leander Kahney


Apple II, banking crisis, British Empire, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Computer Numeric Control, Dynabook, global supply chain, interchangeable parts, John Markoff, Jony Ive, race to the bottom, RFID, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the built environment, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple

His government commissioned official reports to find the economic potential of design in its industries and found that design-centered companies “saw a turnover rise by fourteen percent and profits by nine percent.”22 No doubt Jony’s father, Mike, had made a huge contribution to the rise of design in his native land and he was honored thusly. In 1999, in recognition of his contributions to British design education, Mike Ive was awarded the Order of the British Empire (OBE). In 2003, Jony was appointed a member of Royal Designers for Industry; in 2004, he was awarded the RSA Benjamin Franklin Medal; and in 2005, he won what was to be the first in a string of prestigious awards from the British Design & Art Direction (D&AD). In 2006, he was named Commander of the Order of the British Empire (a higher award than his father’s OBE). Jony didn’t make a public comment about the award at the time, but in a statement, Apple said: “We are as proud as could be that Jony is receiving such a prestigious commendation.”23 • • • Although his designs were drawing much notice, bigger work (quite literally) was still ahead.

By the end of January, a single share of Apple cost $447.61. Apple was riding high, having surpassed ExxonMobil as the most valuable publicly held company in the world. Sir Jony Ive The year 2012 began auspiciously for Jony Ive, as it had for Apple, despite Jobs’s passing. Jony was named a Knight Commander of the British Empire (KBE) in the Queen’s New Year Honours List, for services to design and enterprise. It was the second time he had been recognized in the honors list, having been made a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in 2005. The second highest order of chivalry, the KBE entitled its new bearer to style himself Sir Jonathan Ive. Jony described the honor as “absolutely thrilling” and said he was “both humbled and sincerely grateful.” In a rare interview with the Daily Telegraph, he said he was “the product of a very British design education,” adding that, “even in high school, I was keenly aware of this remarkable tradition that the UK had of designing and making.

pages: 241 words: 90,538

Unequal Britain: Equalities in Britain Since 1945 by Pat Thane


Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, equal pay for equal work, full employment, gender pay gap, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, old-boy network, pensions crisis, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, unpaid internship, women in the workforce

In the twentieth century between World Wars 1 and 2, a substantial population of African and Asian seamen, recruited from the Empire to the merchant navy during World War I, settled in Britain, especially in port cities such as Liverpool and Cardiff. They experienced discrimination in the labour market and the benefits system when they sought to exercise their rights as British citizens.1 Historically, anyone born within the vast British Empire was a British subject of the British monarch and entitled to the same rights as those who were born in Britain.2 However, registration of births was not complete throughout the Empire, and immigrants from poorer backgrounds often could not provide evidence of their place of birth, which could disqualify them from claiming their rights. Throughout the nineteenth and much of the twentieth centuries, especially following the famine of the 1840s, there was substantial immigration to England, Scotland and Wales from Ireland due to poverty.

Similarly, the Indian Workers’ Association (in Hindustani, Mazdoor Sabha) was founded in Coventry in 1938, then formed branches in London and elsewhere. It existed to promote the cause of Indian independence, and to fight for the rights of Indian workers in Britain and against all forms of discrimination. POST-WAR IMMIGRATION The British Nationality Act 1948 confirmed the right of 800 million colonial citizens to enter the United Kingdom. It was designed to reinforce the long-established principle that everyone born within the British Empire had equal rights of citizenship throughout Britain and the colonies. However, few expected that non-White colonial citizens would take up their rights in large numbers, since they had not done so in the past. Even the relatively small number of immigrants who arrived from the Caribbean on the SS Windrush in 1948 provoked some panic.7 West Indians began to migrate to Britain in large numbers in the 1950s.

However, prosecutions were concentrated in a few police districts,41 and the increase was partly due to Home Secretary David Maxwell-Fyffe’s drive for greater uniformity in prosecutions and the use by the police of entrapment techniques and conspiracy charges to ensnare homosexual men.42 The press sensationalized and disseminated the details of a series of successful prosecutions of prominent men, often on flimsy evidence. In 1952, the mathematician Alan Turing, who received an Order of the British Empire (OBE) for his work on cracking the Enigma code during the war, was arrested for homosexual offences. He accepted hormone treatment instead of a prison sentence, but committed suicide in 1954.43 In 1953, the novelist and playwright Rupert Croft-Cooke was sentenced to nine months in prison on the testimony of two sailors. While in prison, he wrote The Verdict of You All, describing the climate of fear at the time: As the witch-hunt of homosexuals ordered, or at least countenanced by the Home Secretary raised its disgusting hue and cry, the prisons began to house a new kind of victim, men of the highest probity and idealism who’d been dragged from useful lives . . . found themselves stunned and baffled in prison.44 Shortly before his release from prison, Croft-Cooke was asked, but refused, to return his war medals.45 The most spectacular scandal was the trial and conviction of Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, his cousin Michael Pitt-Rivers and Daily Mail diplomatic correspondent Peter Wildeblood for homosexual activity in 1954.

When the Money Runs Out: The End of Western Affluence by Stephen D. King


Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, congestion charging, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, endowment effect, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market clearing, mass immigration, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population

The US went one better: its population enjoyed average per capita incomes by the beginning of the twenty-­first century fully 50 per cent higher than those in Germany and three times higher than those in Argentina. What accounts for Argentina’s spectacular fall from grace? Argentina was a major outperformer between 1870 and the outbreak of the First World War, thanks largely to the free-­trade instincts of the late nineteenth-­century British Empire, new scientific advances and the mass migration of people in the late nineteenth century. It may have been a long way away from Europe and the US but Argentina was able to take full advantage of the Royal Navy’s commitment to keep international sea lanes open. New refrigerator technologies – and faster ships – meant its beef could be 14 4099.indd 14 29/03/13 2:23 PM Taking Progress for Granted exported to destinations many thousands of miles away.

In an attempt to reduce Argentina’s high dependency on developments – both good and bad – elsewhere in 15 4099.indd 15 29/03/13 2:23 PM When the Money Runs Out the world economy, Argentine politicians in the 1930s moved rapidly to push through their version of economic autarky. Rejecting international linkages – which were increasingly blamed for Argentina’s woes – Buenos Aires tried to develop its own manufacturing capacity behind closed doors, an approach ruled out by both the Canadians and Australians thanks to their privileged access to the markets of the British Empire and, indeed, to Britain’s own influence on their behaviour.4 To do this, a labyrinthine arrangement of tariffs and capital controls was developed, leading in turn to huge distortions in the allocation of resources. With domestic activity aimed primarily at satisfying immediate demands for higher consumption, Argentina increasingly became a ‘hand to mouth’ economy. Short of domestic savings and absent a sensible export strategy, Argentina was simply unable to afford the capital goods that might have led to faster long-­term growth.

Given these political upheavals, it’s hardly surprising that, over the last century or so, Argentina went from one financial crisis to the next: from 1890 through to the beginning of the twenty-­first century, Argentina had to cope with five debt defaults or restructurings6 and 17 4099.indd 17 29/03/13 2:23 PM When the Money Runs Out six stock-­market crashes that led, in turn, to sustained periods of economic contraction.7 Argentina ended the twentieth century with one of the worst financial records in history. Claims on future Argentine economic output have often ended up totally worthless. In hindsight, it is easy to see why, in the interwar period, Argentina went down an ultimately doomed road to autarky: international financiers had seemingly let Argentina down, the crumbling British Empire no longer offered the certainties of old, the Americans preferred to invest at home rather than abroad and the slow march towards another war in Europe persuaded Argentina that self-­sufficiency was best. The argument was seductive. It was also, sadly, wrong. Self-­sufficiency beckoned only because Argentina’s engagement with other nations in the interwar period – nations that, themselves, were increasingly heading towards a more protectionist model – had been so damaging.

pages: 168 words: 35,753

Ye Olde Britain: Best Historical Experiences by Lonely Planet Publications


Albert Einstein, British Empire, Isaac Newton, Winter of Discontent

Robert Walpole becomes Britain’s first prime minister. 1745–46 The culmination of the Jacobite uprisings sees Bonnie Prince Charlie land in Scotland, gather an army and march southwards, to be eventually defeated at the Battle of Culloden. 1749 Author and magistrate Henry Fielding founds the Bow Street Runners, cited as London’s first professional police force. A 1792 Act of Parliament allowed the Bow Street model to spread across England. 1776–83 The American War of Independence is the British Empire’s first major reverse. 1799–1815 The Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon threatens invasion of Britain, but his ambitions are curtailed by Nelson and Wellington at the famous battles of Trafalgar (1805) and Waterloo (1815). 1858 & 1860 The first modern national eisteddfods are held in Llangollen and Denbigh – although earlier ones had been organised from the end of the 18th century as part of a Welsh cultural revival. 1837–1901 The reign of Queen Victoria. The British Empire – ‘the empire on which the sun never sets’ – expands from Canada through Africa and India to Australia and New Zealand. 1847 Publication of a government report, dubbed the ‘Treason of the Blue Books’, suggesting the Welsh language is detrimental to education in Wales, and fuelling the Welsh-language struggle. 1900 James Keir Hardie (usually known as just Keir Hardie) becomes the first Labour MP, winning a seat in the Welsh mining town of Merthyr Tydfyl. 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria is assassinated in the Balkan city of Sarajevo – the final spark in a decade-long crisis that starts the Great War, now called WWI. 1916 The Welsh Liberal MP David Lloyd George becomes the British prime minister in an alliance with the Conservative Party, having built a reputation for championing the poor and needy. 1925 Plaid (Cenedlaethol) Cymru, the Welsh Nationalist Party, is formed, initiating the struggle for Welsh self-governance and laying the foundations for the modern-day party. 1926 Increasing mistrust of the government, fuelled by soaring unemployment, leads to the General Strike.

pages: 96 words: 33,963

Decline of the English Murder by George Orwell


British Empire, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, Lao Tzu, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thorstein Veblen

I have seen a young coal miner, for instance, a lad who had already worked a year or two underground, eagerly reading the Gem. Recently I offered a batch of English papers to some British legionaries of the French Foreign Legion in North Africa; they picked out the Gem and Magnet first. Both papers are much read by girls,* and the Pen Pals’ department of the Gem shows that it is read in every corner of the British Empire, by Australians, Canadians, Palestine Jews, Malays, Arabs, Straits Chinese, etc. etc. The editors evidently expect their readers to be aged round about fourteen, and the advertisements (milk chocolate, postage stamps, water pistols, blushing cured, home conjuring tricks, itching-powder, the Phine Phun Ring which runs a needle into your friend’s hand, etc. etc.) indicate roughly the same age; there are also the Admiralty advertisements, however, which call for youths between seventeen and twenty-two.

Here is the stuff that is read somewhere between the ages of twelve and eighteen by a very large proportion, perhaps an actual majority, of English boys, including many who will never read anything else except newspapers; and along with it they are absorbing a set of beliefs which would be regarded as hopelessly out of date in the Central Office of the Conservative Party. All the better because it is done indirectly, there is being pumped into them the conviction that the major problems of our time do not exist, that there is nothing wrong with laissez-faire capitalism, that foreigners are unimportant comics and that the British Empire is a sort of charity-concern which will last for ever. Considering who owns these papers, it is difficult to believe that this is unintentional. Of the twelve papers I have been discussing (i.e. twelve including the Thriller and Detective Weekly) seven are the property of the Amalgamated Press, which is one of the biggest press-combines in the world and controls more than a hundred different papers.

Nuclear War and Environmental Catastrophe by Noam Chomksy


American Legislative Exchange Council, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, energy security, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

The principles that were established were very interesting and explicit, and later implemented. They devised the concept of what they called the Grand Area, which the US must dominate. And within the Grand Area, there can be no exercise of sovereignty that interferes with US plans—explicit, almost those words. What’s the Grand Area? Well, at a minimum, it was to include the entire Western Hemisphere, the entire Far East, and the whole British Empire—former British Empire—which, of course, includes the Middle East energy resources. As one high-level advisor later put it: “If we can control Middle East energy, we can control the world.”59 Well, that’s the Grand Area. As the Russians began to grind down the German armies after Stalingrad, they recognized that Germany was weakened—at first, they thought that Germany would emerge from the war as a major power.

pages: 407 words: 121,458

Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce


additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Kibera, mass immigration, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

His name is Iqbal Ahmed, or ‘Mr Prawn’ as he is known in the trade, after one of his brands. He is a big fish in the British Bangladeshi community, and a hero among restaurant owners. I went to see him at his headquarters in Droylsden, right by Manchester City football stadium. In the boardroom, surrounded by photographs of him shaking hands with royals and political leaders, and collecting his Order of the British Empire from Prince Charles, he fed me plates of breaded prawns and the story of his success. Iqbal is the son of Bangladeshi parents who fell on hard times and moved to Britain. ‘Our family were landlords, but we lost our land,’ he said. In Britain, his father ran a small grocery shop in nearby Oldham, ‘open all hours’. Iqbal has restored family fortunes by creating a £200-million prawn business, called Seamark, which has two processing plants, one in Chittagong, the main port in Bangladesh, and the other in Manchester.

Over a couple of centuries, some 4 million Africans were kidnapped by slave traders and shipped to the Caribbean to work on the sugar plantations of Barbados and Jamaica, Haiti and Cuba. All to satisfy Europe’s sugar craving. Though the involvement of Mr Tate and Mr Lyle started after slavery ended, their company is the inheritor of that trade, and still gets most of its sugar from the Caribbean and other former British colonies such as Swaziland, Mauritius and Fiji. Tate & Lyle sold off its plantations in the 1960s and 1970s, as the British Empire itself dissolved. And we have other sources of sugar now, such as home-grown European sugar beet, sold under the brand name Silver Spoon by a subsidiary of the food giant Associated British Foods. But Tate & Lyle is still the dominant buyer from a string of countries that remain hugely dependent on growing sugar cane. And that makes those countries hugely dependent on Tate & Lyle. Take Swaziland.

Sloane, who later gave his name to a famous square in London and created a treasure trove of foreign delights that formed the basis for the British Museum collection, also brought opium and cannabis and Chinese rhubarb to Britain. But none took so well to the British palate as milk chocolate. From Sir Hans Sloane’s milk chocolate, it was a small step to Mr Cadbury’s Dairy Milk and Mr Fry’s Chocolate Cream. And the British Empire did the rest. The cocoa bean from the forests of Central America became one of the world’s most profitable and addictive commodities, loved by hundreds of millions of chocoholics round the world. The human race consumes around 3 million tonnes of cocoa beans a year – half a kilo for everyone on the planet. The business of meeting our predilection employs 14 million people, 10 million of them in Africa.

pages: 476 words: 144,288

1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen


anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, land reform, long peace, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip

In 1946 Britain had a million and a quarter men (and a very few women) under arms, albeit down from around five million at the height of the war; fleets in the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Indian Ocean; a China station based in Hong Kong, and other bases in a dozen countries and colonies from the West Indies to Aden and Malaya, as well as one hundred and twenty full RAF squadrons. All would be retained, despite acute financial hardship at home. The American Ambassador to Britain, John Winant, cabled back to Under Secretary of State in Washington, William Clayton, after the loan terms were finalised: ‘The British are hanging on by their fingernails. . . in the hope that somehow or other, with our help, they will be able to preserve the British empire and their leadership of it.’12 * In Britain, the end of the war was not Zero Hour, but the general election of 1945 had seemed like a clear break from the past. The overwhelming scale of the Labour victory might have shocked Joseph Stalin and Winston Churchill, but few people in Britain were all that surprised. Voters had not passed judgment on the six years of war, but on the decade before that.

‘Stalin looked at me as if I was an idiot and ended the conversation.’14 The Soviet dictator was frequently impatient about the ‘hypocrisy’ of the Western leaders, who so often lectured the Soviets with fine rhetoric about self-determination for smaller, weaker countries, and about democracy. He would point out that when the US and the UK had signed the Atlantic Charter, earlier in the war, which contained a sweeping statement about the freedom of people to choose the form of government they wished, Churchill had insisted on an assurance that the Charter would not apply to any of the colonies in the British Empire, including India, where a popular independence movement had long been campaigning for freedom. The Monroe Doctrine gave the US a self-appointed right to stop others interfering anywhere in the Americas – and the Americans permitted nobody else any say in the future of Japan. From Stalin’s point of view the other Allies had limited rights to interfere in Poland, a country so clearly important to the USSR.

Everybody knows it as the ‘Iron Curtain Speech’ but Churchill had titled it ‘The Sinews of Peace’. Of course he knew which sound-bite would receive the most attention, but only a small part of the speech referred directly to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Most of it was about the ‘fraternal association’ between the English-speaking peoples, the ‘special relationship’ he mentioned several times in the text, and the need for ‘the British Empire’ and the US to unite more closely to create a lasting peace. He did not specifically mention the American loan to Britain, which was then being debated in Congress, though it was clearly a factor in what he was saying. He spoke about sharing military bases, manufacturing interchangeable weapons, building institutions together – eventually sharing a common citizenship. He was the first major statesman in the world to speak openly in strong terms about the breakdown of the Big Three’s wartime alliance, and that hit the front pages.

pages: 516 words: 159,734

War Without Mercy: PACIFIC WAR by John Dower


anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, labour mobility, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Scientific racism, South China Sea, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway

In Burma and other tropical areas, the Japanese soldier–who was supposed to be night-blind and afraid of supernatural creatures in the jungle–suddenly became transformed in Allied eyes to what Yank, the Army weekly, referred to as “a ‘born’ jungle and night fighter.” In General Slim’s words, they became the “superbogeymen of the jungle,” while the British forces fell into a massive “inferiority complex”—an experience unprecedented in the history of the British Empire. Indeed, the marvels that occurred in this imaginary world beggared belief, as is implicit in a newspaper headline during the months when sentiment against the Japanese-Americans was being pumped up. “Caps on Japanese Tomato Plants Point to Air Base” trumpeted the Los Angeles Times in an article purporting to uncover local farmers plotting to guide Japanese attack planes to their targets. Gone in a flash were the nearsighted, wobbly Japanese flyers of yesterday.

Many others agreed that placing China under the normal quota system for immigration would not only right a historic injustice but also help avert a potential disaster (“combine canniness with good manners,” as the Saturday Evening Post phrased it), for there was no reason to believe that China’s will to resist the Japanese was unshakable. The Chinese Nationalists had fought long. They had suffered grievously. They had seen the United States and England supply military goods to Japan until almost the eve of Pearl Harbor and pursue a “Europe first” policy thereafter. They had listened to Churchill proclaim his intention to restore the British Empire, and listened in vain for a clear American disavowal of support for this plan to reconstruct the status quo ante of the white man’s imperium. Lawmakers such as Walter Judd of Minnesota and Mike Mansfield of Montana, who were respected by their colleagues for their special expertise on Asia, spelled this out carefully, and the implications were well understood. Despite all the hoopla about the close relationship between Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist regime and the United States, it was not difficult to envision the Nationalists’ morale cracking–and if China fell from the Allied side, the consequences would be incalculable.29 In this manner, a rather arcane debate about immigration laws soon came to involve the old visions of the Yellow Peril, but now in a concrete setting that pointed to the way in which China might tip the scales one way or another in a global conflagration.

The quotations are from the Pyramid editions of the first, second, and ninth Fu Manchu novels: The Insidious Dr. Fu Manchu (1913), 71, 104; The Return of Dr. Fu Manchu (1916), 34, 87, 162; The Drums of Fu Manchu (1939), 46. The Island of Fu Manchu (1941) was the tenth in the series. In the fourth novel, The Daughter of Fu Manchu (1931), one of Rohmer’s characters observed that “a great federation of Eastern States affiliated with Russia–a new Russia–is destined to take the place once held by the British Empire.” In the eighth novel, President Fu Manchu (1936), the evil genius was plotting to seize the presidency of the United States through a front organization. In The Drums of Fu Manchu, the ninth in the series, the extraordinary plot hinged on saving a thinly disguised Hitler from assassination by Fu Manchu and his legions of colored henchmen. For the MGM teaser, see Miller, The Unwelcome Immigrant, 9.

pages: 252 words: 80,636

Bureaucracy by David Graeber


3D printing, a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, David Graeber, George Gilder, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, means of production, music of the spheres, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Parkinson's law, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, union organizing, urban planning, zero-sum game

But America’s advent as a power on the world stage at the end of the century corresponded to the rise of a distinctly American form: corporate—bureaucratic—capitalism. As Giovanni Arrighi pointed out, an analogous corporate model was emerging at the same time in Germany, and the two countries—the United States and Germany—ended up spending most of the first half of the next century battling over which would take over from the declining British empire and establish its own vision for a global economic and political order. We all know who won. Arrighi makes another interesting point here. Unlike the British Empire, which had taken its free market rhetoric seriously, eliminating its own protective tariffs with the famous Anti–Corn Law Bill of 1846, neither the German or American regimes had ever been especially interested in free trade. The Americans in particular were much more concerned with creating structures of international administration.

The Americans in particular were much more concerned with creating structures of international administration. The very first thing the United States did, on officially taking over the reins from Great Britain after World War II, was to set up the world’s first genuinely planetary bureaucratic institutions in the United Nations and the Bretton Woods institutions—the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and GATT, later to become the WTO. The British Empire had never attempted anything like this. They either conquered other nations, or traded with them. The Americans attempted to administer everything and everyone. British people, I’ve observed, are quite proud that they are not especially skilled at bureaucracy; Americans, in contrast, seem embarrassed by the fact that on the whole, they’re really quite good at it.14 It doesn’t fit the American self-image. We’re supposed to be self-reliant individualists.

pages: 221 words: 71,449

Not My Father's Son: A Memoir by Alan Cumming


British Empire, colonial rule, Downton Abbey, financial independence, friendly fire, Skype

Sensing my desire for more, the historian piped up, “This is a gallantry award of which you should feel very proud.” But then something else was revealed that connected with me even more. The Military Medal Tommy Darling had been awarded was such a high honor that he had been invited to Buckingham Palace in 1941 to receive it. Sixty-eight years later, I, his grandson, had also been to Buckingham Place to pick up a medal. I was awarded the OBE (Officer of the British Empire) in the Queen’s Honors List of 2009 for “services to film, theatre and the arts and to activism for equal rights for the gay and lesbian community,” a tad less heroic and gallant than my grandfather’s, but an honor nonetheless. My mum, my brother, and my husband all came to the palace that day with me. I remember Mary Darling bubbling with excitement and pride like a little girl in a fairy tale, a feathery fascinator perched on her head as she sat between Tom and Grant in the front row and waited for me to appear to collect my medal.

There, the Highlanders found themselves tested in entirely new ways. They were trained in jungle warfare. The Japanese had entered the war in 1941 after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, and very quickly developed a reputation for total lack of fear, and of fighting to the death. Edgar now pulled out a map and showed me that by March 1944 the Japanese forces had advanced through Burma and had their sights set firmly on neighboring India, the jewel in the British Empire’s crown. They crossed over the northeastern border and amassed their troops around the mountain town of Kohima with the aim of pushing west to take Delhi. I had a feeling this was not going to end well. The Cameron Highlanders were on the front lines of the battle at Kohima, made to push through Japanese forces that had taken positions on a hillside. The Highlanders fought mortar fire, grenades, snipers . . . all with the knowledge that the Japanese took no prisoners.

Maybe the horrors he had encountered in his career were so ingrained in him that he could no longer function unless he had access to their potential. But whatever the reasoning, he was about to walk into the middle of the most brutal of colonial wars. {Courtesy of iStock, ©studiocasper.} Malaya, or Malaysia as it is now known, was bordered to the north by Thailand and in turn is just a bridge’s distance north of the island of Singapore. It had been part of the British Empire since the early nineteenth century, and its huge rubber and tin resources made it a hugely valuable asset to the UK. But after the Second World War, Malaya saw growing unrest as its economy suffered, and soon the Malayan National Liberation Army, the military arm of the Malayan Communist Party, began a campaign to disrupt British trade in an attempt to overthrow its colonial rule. In 1948 three European plantation managers were murdered and what became known as the Malayan Emergency began.

pages: 826 words: 231,966

GCHQ by Richard Aldrich


belly landing, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, illegal immigration, index card, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, New Journalism, packet switching, private military company, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

GC&CS worked on the cyphers of many countries in the interwar period, including those of France, the United States and Japan, since they all shed light on international affairs; but the most important were those of Russia.8 Both MI5 and SIS, together with intelligence officers from the three armed services, were obsessed with the threat from Bolshevik Russia in the interwar period. GC&CS followed suit. There were good reasons for making Moscow the pre-eminent target. Bolshevik agents were actively seeking to subvert the British Empire, and sigint produced operational intelligence that could be used to thwart these plots. Alastair Denniston enjoyed a major advantage, having recruited Ernst Fetterlein, the Tsar’s leading code-breaker, when he fled Russia after the Revolution of 1917, and in the 1920s GC&CS was successfully reading Soviet diplomatic cyphers. Several times during that decade the British government directly accused the Soviets of underhand activities in London, making use of these intercepts and referring to them openly.

In 1929 he was brought back to London to lead an expanded operation against Comintern communications (which were code-named ‘Mask’). This allowed the British government to learn of the secret subsidies paid by Moscow to the Communist Party of Great Britain and its newspaper, the Daily Worker. It also contributed to important successes against major Comintern agents in imperial outposts and international centres such as Singapore and Shanghai.12 Faced with the real threat of active subversion throughout the British Empire by the Comintern, GC&CS paid limited attention to military matters or the rise of the Axis until the mid-1930s. Germany, Italy and Japan were a remarkably low priority. Admittedly, a small naval section of GC&CS had been set up in 1925, and its most important work was done overseas by naval officers like Eric Nave, based in Hong Kong. From here they had ample practice at following military operations, because of the extensive fighting in Manchuria during the 1930s.

Remarkably, it was not yet working on German traffic.3 Moreover, in January 1942, and again in early 1943, the British and the Americans were discussing the mutual exchange of intercepted material from ‘Slavic nations’.4 Soviet cyphers had been the core business for Britain’s interwar code-breakers, and work on this material never stopped completely during the Second World War. To understand why, we must cast our minds back to the approach of the war. During the 1930s, GC&CS continued to follow the traffic of the Comintern even after other Soviet systems were lost. This revealed persistent efforts to subvert the British Empire in locations such as India, Malaya and Hong Kong. Indeed, the Soviet Union appeared to be in league with Germany after the Nazi–Soviet Pact of August 1939. It is often forgotten that Poland was invaded by Germany and the Soviet Union together. For a nightmare period between August 1939 and June 1941, many suspected that Germany, Italy, Japan and the Soviet Union would act in uneasy concert, dividing the spoils of the world between them.

pages: 851 words: 247,711

The Atlantic and Its Enemies: A History of the Cold War by Norman Stone


affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, central bank independence, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, illegal immigration, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, long peace, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, V2 rocket, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, éminence grise

That had in effect allowed dollars to be spent - even on the import of timber for ‘social’ (‘Council’) housing - but it had come with the condition that the pound could be changed into dollars, free of wartime restrictions. The historian Kenneth Morgan even claims that it made the Labour programme possible. There was an implication, too, that the Americans would be able to trade freely with the British Empire, which, in places, had vital raw materials still priced in pounds. In 1947 convertibility was introduced, and foreigners, in droves, changed their pounds into dollars. Almost £200m was being lost every week. The Labour government was in effect broken by this: there was never the same drive in it again; its huge majority collapsed at the next election, in 1950, and in 1951 it lost. The money ran out, but it had already been so programmed domestically that there was no room for going back: the various reforms that constituted the ‘Welfare State’ were mainly in place.

The Germans in a way were fortunate, in that they experienced that winter before any post-war social reforms had taken place: their state was constructed without the illusions of 1945. However, the worst position for a Cabinet minister to be in was probably the Foreign Office. The country may have been badly weakened internally but there was no end to its responsibilities, and these were turning very sour. The problems went back to the first post-war period, in 1919, when men had joyously assumed that Empire made them rich, and the British Empire, already enormous, received a considerable extension in the Middle East. In 1929, the world slump in the end particularly affected agricultural prices, such that lambs were simply slaughtered rather than eaten, because the profit margins were lost in transport costs. India, ‘the jewel in the Crown’, became instead a liability and the nationalist leader there, Gandhi, rightly said that the Empire consisted of millions of acres of bankrupt real estate.

A civil war soon developed, with a Communist insurgency that was largely Chinese, and Malaya was not stabilized until 1960. The Americans faced problems of the same sort in the Philippines, to which they gave an independence with certain limits. The nightmare of nightmares was Palestine. Whatever the British did would be wrong. As with India, it is obvious that a few more years of Empire would have been desirable for an orderly transfer of power to occur. But to whom? Here again, as with other parts of the British Empire, there was much strength in the argument that the Empire kept order, tried to assure legal rights, and sent out honest people. But there was an original sin at the centre of the Palestinian question, and it lay in the context of the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which had offered the Jews a national home in what was then Arab (or Ottoman) territory: the aim being essentially to keep the French away from the Suez Canal.

pages: 1,169 words: 342,959

New York by Edward Rutherfurd


Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, illegal immigration, margin call, millennium bug, out of africa, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, rent control, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, the market place, urban renewal, white picket fence, Y2K, young professional

And his father looked awkward and muttered, “Well, it all depends.” But Miss Clara just said, very quiet, “No, it is never right.” And with her character, I knew she wouldn’t be changing her mind about that. Indeed, I heard her say to her husband once that she wouldn’t be sorry if the whole business of slavery came to an end. But he answered that as things stood, he reckoned a good part of the wealth of the British Empire depended on the slaves in the sugar plantations, so it wouldn’t be ended any time soon. I stayed with Miss Clara and her husband through that year. During that time there was an outbreak of yellow fever in the city, but fortunately it didn’t touch our house. And I remained with them most of the next. Back in England, both Queen Mary and her husband, Dutch King William, had now died, and so the throne was given to Mary’s sister, Anne.

For when the two judges saw it—though they were friends of Governor Cosby themselves—they threw the stooges out and started again. The new jury was not rigged. The trial would be honest. British fair play. New York might be a long way from London, but it was English, after all. The whole colony was waiting with baited breath. Not that it mattered. The defendant hadn’t a hope. The third day of August, the year of Our Lord 1735. The British Empire was enjoying the Georgian age. For after Queen Anne, her equally Protestant kinsman, George of Hanover, had been asked to take the throne; and soon been followed by his son, a second George, who was ruler of the empire now. It was an age of confidence, and elegance, and reason. The third day of August 1735: New York, on a hot and humid afternoon. Seen from across the East River, it might have been a landscape by Vermeer.

My Dutch grandfather intended to free the only two slaves he had.” Eliot bowed his head noncommittally. A mischievous twinkle came into the merchant’s eye. “But at the same time, cousin,” he continued, “you may acknowledge that we British are also guilty of a mighty hypocrisy in this matter. For we say that slavery is monstrous, yet only if it takes place on the island of Britain. Everywhere else in the British Empire, it’s allowed. The sugar trade, so valuable to England, entirely depends upon slaves; and British vessels carry thousands every year.” “It cannot be denied,” Eliot politely acknowledged. “Does it concern you, sir,” Kate now ventured, “that New York is so dependent upon a single trade?” The merchant’s blue eyes rested upon her, approvingly. “Not too much,” he answered. “You’ve heard of the Sugar Interest, I’ve no doubt.

pages: 1,152 words: 266,246

Why the West Rules--For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future by Ian Morris


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Doomsday Clock,, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, Francisco Pizarro, global village, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, market bubble, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pink-collar, place-making, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, upwardly mobile, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

It should have been madness for a mere naval captain to put a prime minister on the spot like this, but Elliot knew he could rely on the business community to lobby Parliament to recover the money. And so it was that personal, political, and financial interests thickened around Melbourne until he had no choice but to pay up and then send an expedition to make the Chinese government reimburse Britain for the confiscated opium (Figure I.2). This was not the British Empire’s finest hour. Contemporary analogies are never precise, but it was rather as if in response to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency making a major bust, the Tijuana cartel prevailed on the Mexican government to shoot its way into San Diego, demanding that the White House reimburse the drug lords for the street value of the confiscated cocaine (plus interest and carriage charges) as well as paying the costs of the military expedition.

It promptly plucked Brigadier Mortimer Wheeler off the beach at Salerno, where an Anglo-American force had just invaded Italy, and dropped him into New Delhi to administer a million and a half square miles of territory that was almost as archaeologically rich as Egypt. Wheeler was a larger-than-life character. He fought in both world wars, left a trail of broken hearts across three continents, and revolutionized British archaeology with his meticulous excavations of Roman sites. All the same, eyebrows were raised at this appointment. The British Empire was clearly on its last legs, so why, Indian nationalists asked, inflict on us some pensioned-off Colonel Blimp, more at home on muddy Roman sites in Britain than in the land of the Buddha? Wheeler had a lot to prove, and as soon as he landed in Mumbai (known to the British as Bombay) he set off on a whirlwind archaeological tour. Arriving at Chennai (colonial Madras) as it sweltered in the heat of the impending monsoon, Wheeler found the government offices closed and decided to kill time at the local museum.

“Our bells are threadbare with ringing of victories,” one well-placed Briton bragged in 1759, and in 1763 the exhausted French had no option but to sign away most of their overseas empire (Figure 9.8). Figure 9.8. All the world’s a stage: the global setting of the War of the West, fought by Britain and its allies against France between 1689 and 1815. Crossed swords mark some of the major battles; the British Empire as it was in 1815 is marked by dots. The War of the West, though, was barely half done. Even Britain was feeling the financial strain, and when a poorly thought-out scheme to get the American colonists to pick up part of the check for the war set off a revolt in 1776, France was there with the cash and ships that made all the difference for the rebels. Not even Britain’s credit could master determined rebels three thousand miles from home and another great power.

pages: 401 words: 122,457

Salt by Mark Kurlansky


British Empire, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, domestication of the camel, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, invention of movable type, long peace, Mahatma Gandhi, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route

Then they tried to grow sea island cotton, but that failed also. On these flat, arid little islands, everything failed except salt. Salt makers brought in livestock: donkeys to haul carts of salt to the wharves, and cattle to feed themselves as they made salt. All that these small, salt-making islands had was their location in shipping lanes, sunshine, and marshes that trapped seawater. Yet for a time they prospered because the British Empire needed salt. CHAPTER THIRTEEN Salt and Independence THE ENGLISH, THE Dutch, and the French hunted for salt, the magic elixir that could turn their new American seas of limitless fish into limitless wealth. The Dutch gave incentives to colonists and, in 1660, granted a colonist the right to build saltworks on a small island near New Amsterdam, known as Coney Island. The French learned from the indigenous people the location of licks, springs, and marshes.

In a less corporate age, oil men used to take glee in pointing out that the three most important discoveries in the history of American oil—Titusville, Spindletop, and the East Texas Field—were all drilled against the advice of geologists. As Brownrigg had predicted in the mid–eighteenth century, “Old arts are improved and new ones daily invented.” The quest for salt had turned unexpected corners and created dozens of industries. CHAPTER TWENTY The Soil Never Sets On . . . WHEN THE BRITISH Empire was at its height, “Liverpool salt” was the salt of the empire, a prestigious product known all over the world. As in Cardona, Hallein, and Wieliczka, a visit to the Cheshire salt mines was a special treat for visiting aristocrats. These elite guests were lowered into the mines in enormous brine buckets. The candlelit bucket passed through the narrow shaft and when it came out at the mine below, the visitors were greeted by the word welcome spelled out by the workers with candles on the salt floor.

Lord Winterlon, the undersecretary of state for India, assured the British government that there was no reason for concern about the salt issue. Not everyone in England agreed. In British Parliament, Sir Henry Craik argued that the salt tax was causing serious hardship in India and that this hardship was leading to civil unrest. Some suggested that the revenue from the salt tax was not worth the threat that unrest posed to the British Empire. Labour members warned that the salt tax could be leading them into another Irish situation in India. In 1930, Orissa seemed near open rebellion. And so, contrary to popular belief today, it was not an entirely original idea to focus rebellion on salt, when that idea was seized upon by an entirely original man named Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. GANDHI WAS BORN on October 2, 1869, at Porbandar, a small west coast town, capital of a princely state of the same name, on the Gujarat peninsula, not far from the Rann of Kutch.

pages: 488 words: 150,477

Lemon Tree: An Arab, a Jew, and the Heart of the Middle East by Sandy Tolan


Albert Einstein, British Empire, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, colonial rule,, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, one-state solution, The Spirit Level, Yom Kippur War

The British high commissioner's monthly telegram to the secretary of state for the colonies reported "no genuine political developments" among the Jews and "on the surface no political activity on the Arab side." The commissioner expressed concern over possible Arab recruiting efforts for a postwar conflict. He mused over the exile of Hajj Amin al-Husseini. The now ex-mufti had resumed his nationalist struggle against the British and the Zionists by taking up with the archenemy of the British Empire: Nazi Germany. The ex-mufti was now in Berlin. In his February report on the state of Palestine, the high commissioner worried about a Jewish "pseudo-political terrorist gang known as the Stern group," which had begun carrying out assassinations. But mostly the commissioner advised London, "Public interest, both Arab and Jewish, has tended once again to concentrate more on the cost of living and the supply situation": food rationing, the price of yarn, the supply of shoes, and the number of meatless days per week.

In February 1947, when the ship Exodus arrived in Palestine's Haifa port, British authorities refused to bend their immigration limits, denying entry to the 4,500 Jewish refugees and forcing them to board other ships and return to Germany. A French newspaper called the ships a "floating Auschwitz." The incident shocked the Western world and deepened support for the Zionist movement. The earlier cooperation between the British Empire and the Zionists had all but vanished, and like the leaders of the Arab Rebellion of the 1930s, Jewish leaders in Palestine wanted the British out. The Jewish Agency had been authorized by the British to create a "national home for the Jewish people." Now, nearly three decades later, the Jewish community in Palestine had grown into a potent economic and political force in the midst of its Arab neighbors and British overseer.

During the tsena, the Ministry of Supply and Rationing moved to the center of Israeli public life. The ministry's job was to regulate the limited supply of food so that no one went hungry. Israel's rapid growth required it to import 85 percent of its food. Although before 1948 the Jewish Agency had direct (if unofficial) trade relations with other states, Israel's sudden entry into the world economy proved jarring. The state had reduced its trade with the markets of the British Empire, and the Arab countries had imposed economic and political boycotts. Egypt was blockading cargo to and from Israel through the Suez Canal, despite a UN resolution calling for free passage through the vital waterway. Israel had to depend on wheat and processed flour, and imported meats, seasonally discounted fish, and even olive oil, from the United States, Canada, and Australia. With the demise of many of the Arab groves, Israel could supply only 8 percent of its own olive oil demands.

pages: 498 words: 153,927

The River at the Centre of the World by Simon Winchester


British Empire, Deng Xiaoping, Khartoum Gordon, offshore financial centre, out of africa, placebo effect, South China Sea, trade route

PENGUIN BOOKS THE RIVER AT THE CENTRE OF THE WORLD Simon Winchester was born and educated in England, has lived in Africa, India and China, and now lives in the Berkshire Hills of western Massachusetts. Having reported from almost everywhere during more than thirty years as a foreign correspondent, he now contributes to a variety of American and British magazines and makes regular broadcasts for the BBC. Simon Winchester's other books include Outposts: Travels to the Remains of the British Empire; Korea: A Walk through the Land of Miracles; The Pacific; Pacific Nightmare, a fictional account of the aftermath of the Hong Kong hand-over; Prison Diary, Argentina, the story of three months spent in a Patagonian jail on spying charges during the Falklands war; The River at the Centre of the World – A Journey up the Yangtze, and Back in Chinese Time; the number-one international bestseller The Surgeon of Crowthorne; and The Map that Changed the World, which tells the extraordinary story of William Smith, pioneering geologist of the British Isles.

Purple Stone Hero, yes, that's it! We defeated it! All Chinese know the story. You came as pirates and we made you run! You were forced to leave a part of your precious ship behind, here in Zhenjiang. You destroyed a passenger ship on your way out. Killed many people. Yes, I had forgotten. We will find the piece you left behind here as proof. The anchor – you're right! It was a great humiliation for your precious British Empire.’ I reeled slightly from this unexpected onslaught. Not that Lily was entirely correct. Nor entirely wrong, for that matter. The facts – or at least, the facts as presented to us as schoolchildren – had cast the whole affair in a very different light. His Majesty's Ship Amethyst was a sloop-cum-frigate of 1500 tons, and in 1949 – an exceptionally dangerous year, considering the vicious civil war going on between the Kuomintang and the Communists – she was assigned to a task on the Yangtze.

Although this rather accelerated the pace of my backward progress through history (so far in voyaging from Shanghai I had passed back sixty years, to 1937, which was roughly what I had expected), I had always known that this was going to happen: the historical aspect of this journey was only approximate, at best. And while I felt reasonably comfortable in paying only slight attention here to the Nanking Incident of 1927, and the Taiping Rebellion of the 1860s, it was impossible to ignore either the Japanese assault of 1937 or, as in this last excursion, the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. I told Lily this is what I wanted to see. ‘Oh my God,’ she wailed. ‘Your bloody British Empire again!’ The memorial was tucked away off a side street, not far from the old British Embassy (which is now a seedy two-star hotel and from where a local businessman was trying to sell debentures in a new golf club, at $20,000 apiece). It is in a tiny temple known as the Jing Hui Shi, which was made famous five centuries before when Cheng Ho, the country's most famous explorer, stayed there before he took off on his famous sailing trip to Mogadishu.* It is now called simply the Nanjing Treaty Museum, and it is looked after by an elderly lady named Mrs Chen.

pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna


1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

pai1.26 Supply Chains are Becoming More Dispersed and Complex. Created by University of Wisconsin–Madison Cartography Laboratory. Natural Earth; SourceMap; thegatewayonline.​com. pai1.27 Which Role Model for China? Created by University of Wisconsin–Madison Cartography Laboratory. Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415–1580; Natural Earth; The Penguin Historical Atlas of the British Empire; The Twentieth Century, The Oxford History of the British Empire Volume IV; Wikipedia. pai1.28 A Map of Minerals. Map created by Jeff Blossom. BP Statistical Review; CIA World Factbook; Mineral Map of the World; PRIO Diamond Resources; U.S. Geological Survey. pai1.29 World Food Supplies. Map created by Jeff Blossom. USDA; FAOSTAT; CropMapper. pai1.30 Does Russia Have Europe Over a Barrel? Created by University of Wisconsin–Madison Cartography Laboratory.

A better articulation came from Tony Blair a decade earlier after the July 2005 Islamist terrorist attack in London, when he declared that there is a “British way of life” that would not bend to cultural enclaves seeking to impose their practices on others or create parallel systems of justice. The former sought an unrealistic exclusivity, while the latter suggested a progressive and inclusive civic pluralism. Societies built on immigrant assimilation strive toward common identity despite racial differences. Singapore became a cosmopolitan hub through historical migrations from China and Indians circulating across the British Empire and then by design as Lee Kuan Yew insisted on multiethnic public housing to prevent any ghettos from forming. Today Singapore ranks as one of the world’s most religiously diverse cities, with a surfeit of monuments for each religion. Only half of Singapore’s population is citizens, and more than 20 percent of marriages are mixed race, mostly Chinese-Indian—creating a growing number of “Chindians” each generation.

In the coming decade, even more automated check-in, security, and border control systems are planned such that passengers around the world are cleared for exit on arrival before they even take off.*4 Could digital technology and economic necessity bring us back to the bygone era of free mobility? For centuries before World War I, people traveled the world without passports. The fluidity of imperial zones such as the British Empire nurtured generations of cultural intelligibility among millions of people moving across colonies from East Africa to Southeast Asia. At the same time, European settlers arrived in North America as pilgrims fleeing monarchy or migrants fleeing famine. Passports were actually seen as feudal relics meant to tie people to the land they tilled. In 1871, the Italian merchant Giovanni Bolis wrote that eliminating passports would greatly improve commercial relations by liberating travelers from “harassment and hindrances.”

pages: 868 words: 147,152

How Asia Works by Joe Studwell


affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, financial deregulation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, land tenure, large denomination, liberal capitalism, market fragmentation, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, purchasing power parity, rent control, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Ronald Coase, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, working-age population

But even these states are not clear exceptions, as much of their success depends on the industrial processing of their agricultural output. 10. The British Empire’s treasury understood the logic of offshore centres and consistently argued the case for them in preference to larger colonies, which were favoured by aggrandising politicians and entrepreneurs who wanted government to subsidise their activities by paying for infrastructure and the like. Today’s offshore financial industry is rooted in the string of little islands that were beloved of the accountants of an economically predatory empire. (Not all the small islands of the British Empire have remained as offshore financial centres. Bombay and Lagos were originally settled by the British because they were islands. In south-east Asia, Penang gave way as the original offshore centre to Singapore.)

The Prussians sought military security by drawing other German-speaking states into their orbit, and dreamed of avenging past defeats and territorial losses to Napoleon Bonaparte.17 Similarly, the samurai warrior class launched its coup against the Tokugawa shogunate with the aim of stitching together all of Japan’s han – its large, semi-feudal domains – in a unitary nation that would be able to fight back against colonial encroachment. The means to military security in both places was economic development. Nineteenth-century Germany was the first state to articulate clearly a set of conclusions about development that had been reached by the Americans when they had split from the British Empire. The German view was put forward by the so-called Historical School, an informal affiliation of intellectuals that was the dominant force in the political economy and jurisprudence departments of German universities in the mid nineteenth century. The group held that the history of Britain showed that a successful developing state had to deploy protectionist industrial policies in order to nurture its manufacturers.

None the less, some important businessmen like Soichiro Honda were from farm families while the leading auto-maker, Toyota, was very much a rural-based business. 126. James Rorty, ‘The Dossier of Wolf Ladejinsky’, Commentary, April 1955, pp. 326–34. 127. The New York Times, 23 December 1954. 128. ‘Indentured’ labour, subject to long-term contracts, was the ‘liberal’ nineteenth-century replacement for slavery in the British Empire. 129. Michael Lipton, ‘Towards a Theory of Land Reform’, in David Lehmann (ed.), Agrarian Reform and Agrarian Reformism (London: Faber & Faber, 1974), p. 288, observes: ‘There is now abundant evidence that ‘output per unit of land is inversely related to farm size.’ He provides a long list of academic studies to support this assertion, covering east and south Asia and Africa. Interestingly, even a World Bank study of South Africa stated that ‘the literature contains no single example of economies of scale arising for farm sizes exceeding what one family with a medium tractor could comfortably manage’.

The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good by William Easterly


airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, end world poverty, European colonialism, failed state, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, George Akerlof, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Live Aid, microcredit, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, publication bias, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

The governor-general of India from 1828 to 1835 spoke of the “improvement” of India, “founding British greatness on Indian happiness.26 A British commentator on India concurred in 1854: “when the contrast between the influence of a Christian and a Heathen government is considered; when the knowledge of the wretchedness of the people forces us to reflect on the unspeakable blessings to millions that would follow the extension of British rule, it is not ambition but benevolence that dictates the desire for the whole country.27 The nineteenth-century economist John Stuart Mill saw the British empire as furnishing what sounds like a colonial combination of the Big Push and structural adjustment: “a better government: more complete security of property; moderate taxes; a more permanent…tenure of land…the introduction of foreign arts…and the introduction of foreign capital, which renders the increase of production no longer exclusively dependent on the thrift or providence of the inhabitants themselves.28 Refuting criticism that Manchester capitalists dictated imperial policy, Lord Palmerston said in 1863, “India was governed for India and…not for the Manchester people.29 In India, the British doubled the area under irrigation from 1891 to 1938, introduced a postal and telegraph system, and built forty thousand miles of railroad track.30 Railways had been part of India’s “development plan” since the 1820s, the key to “opening up” the country to commerce.31 The Indian civil servant Charles Trevelyan in 1853 had told a Commons committee that railways would be “the greatest missionary of all.32 The development efforts were not any more successful than today’s foreign aid or nation-building, however: Indian income per capita failed to rise from 1820 to 1870, grew at only 0.5 percent per annum from 1870 to 1913, then failed to grow again from 1913 to independence in 1947.33 In the American empire in the Philippines, American teachers and their Filipino successors imparted at least a rough education, raising literacy and making English the lingua franca in the ethnically fragmented islands.

The imperialists also built railways throughout Africa, using public money because of the lack of private interest (except in the Belgian Congo). The French built the first railway in Senegal in 1883. Later railways in French West Africa connected plantations in the interior to ports on the coast. The copper mines of the Belgian Congo shipped ore south after 1910, putting out a spur to meet the railways emanating from South Africa. The British empire planner Cecil Rhodes called railways and the telegraph “the keys to the continent.34 Railways reduced Africa’s ancient curse of high transport costs by as much as 90 percent.35 The advent of roads in the twentieth century reduced the transport cost from farms to railheads by a similar amount.36 Among other benevolent actions, the French colonial minister Albert Sarraut launched a program in 1923 to improve general hygiene and medical care in the African colonies, including clinics, training centers, maternity homes, and ambulances.

.: World Bank, January 2002, p. 21. 27.Deepa Narayan and Patti Petesch, Voices of the Poor: From Many Lands (vol. 3), Washington, D.C.: World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 383. 28.Ibid., p. 86. 29.Ibid., p. 63. 30.Quoted in Gilbert Rist, The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global Faith, London: Zed Books, 1997, pp. 38–39. 31.Quoted in Lawrence James, The Rise and Fall of the British Empire, New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1994, p. 186. 32.Quoted in Klaus Knorr, British Colonial Theories, 1570–1850, London: Frank Cass, 1968, p. 380. 33.Quoted in William J. Barber, British Economic Thought and India, 1600–1858:A Study in the History of Development Economics, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975, p. 138. 34.Niall Ferguson, Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons from Global Power, New York: Basic Books, 2003, p. 236. 35.

pages: 452 words: 135,790

Seeds of Hope: Wisdom and Wonder From the World of Plants by Jane Goodall

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, European colonialism, Google Earth, illegal immigration, language of flowers, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, phenotype, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade

“one slave ship left Britain” “Tobacco and Slavery: The Vile Weed,” Slavery in America, accessed August 19, 2013, 39. “destined to toil” Philip D. Morgan, Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998). 40. “captured to work in the tobacco fields” Kenneth Morgan, Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 18–21. 41. “death rate among them was high” Alan Gallay, The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the British Empire in the American South, 1670–1717 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002). 42. “many of the tribes of the southeastern United States” Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fate of Human Societies (New York: W. W. Norton, 1999), 101. 43. “formed a confederation to resist capture” Donald Fixico, “A Native Nations Perspective on the War of 1812,” Public Broadcasting System, accessed October 28, 2013, 44. “ ‘green gold’ ” Thomas Ayres, That’s Not in My American History Book: A Compilation of Little-Known Events and Forgotten Heroes (Lanham, MD: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2000), 58. 45.

For those plant hunters were, without doubt, among the most fearless—and the most crazy—of all the explorers. I did not know much about them until I read The Plant Hunters by Michael Tyler-Whittle and became utterly fascinated by the tales of those extraordinary men of a bygone era, when the mania for collecting plants spread across Europe. Their travels took place during the years when the British empire was being built, when France and Holland, Spain and Portugal, were also sending out expeditions to discover and lay claim to the various islands, territories, and whole countries that would become their colonies overseas. Those expeditions gave many of the early plant hunters their opportunity to collect (or “hunt”) plants abroad when they were appointed as botanist to some of the great sailing vessels.

Hall, The Products and Resources of Tasmania as Illustrated in the International Exhibition (London: Hobart, 1862). Candice Goucher, Charles LeGuin, and Linda Walton, “The Tentacles of Empire: The New Imperialism and New Nationalism in Asia, Africa, and the Americas,” in In the Balance: Themes in Global History (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 1998). James Beattie, “Recent Themes in the Environmental History of the British Empire,” History Compass 10 (February 2012): 129–39. 4. “Britain, France, Holland” David Ormrod, The Rise of Commercial Empires: England and the Netherlands in the Age of Mercantilism, 1650–1770 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003). Robert Tigner et al., “Reordering the World, 1750–1850,” in Worlds Together, Worlds Apart (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2010), 3rd ed. Philip D. Curtin, Essays in Atlantic History (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 2nd ed. 5.

pages: 329 words: 85,471

The Locavore's Dilemma by Pierre Desrochers, Hiroko Shimizu


air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, edge city, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, intermodal, invention of agriculture, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, land tenure, megacity, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, profit motive, refrigerator car, Steven Pinker, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl

Writing in 1923, the British professor of agriculture Thomas Hudson Middleton observed that his compatriots were “chiefly fed upon imported food, and are interested in the quality and price of their foodstuffs rather than in its origins, the ordinary consumer takes little interest in the well-being of agriculture.”46 (Most of his compatriots did not even care whether or not foodstuffs were produced in the British Empire, thus prompting the creation of an “Empire Marketing Board” in 1926.) Despite the fact that they have been conditioned to provide SOLE answers when formally quizzed on their shopping habits, today’s British consumers are apparently still behaving like previous generations. 47 This, we will argue, is the right path for all consumers to pursue. Getting the most for your hard-earned dollar is not only enlightened self-interest, but also the best way to create a better world. 1 The Globalization of the Food Supply Chain and Its Discontents The railroad, the steamship, the telephone, and the tele- graph have opened to us a world market and world com- merce.

And that is a sound practical reason for “shopping within the Empire” yourself. Every time you buy Canadian salmon, Australian fruit, New Zealand lamb, South African wine, Indian tea, you are dealing with the very people who go out of the way to spend money on the goods made in your own country, and so to create em- ployment, pay wages and increase prosperity here. Buy Empire Goods. Ask—Is it British? —EMPIRE MARKETING BOARD, proposed advertisement for British newspapers, 19261 Perhaps the most appealing claim of locavores is that diverting consumer dollars once spent on “distant” food items towards others produced nearby will boost local employment. But as with all protectionist schemes that keep more affordable foreign products out of a local economy and undermine the production of things in the locations where they make the most economic sense, locavorism can only deliver poorly paid jobs and massive wealth destruction.

World Perspectives, Inc. (May), p. 2. 44 USDA website. Food CPI, Prices and Expenditures: Expenditures on Food, by Selected Countries (various tables) Chapter 3 1 Quoted in Kaori O’Connor. 2009. “The King’s Christmas Pudding: Globalization, Recipes and the Commodities of Empire.” Journal of Global History 4 (1): 127–155, p. 143. The [British] Empire Marketing Board’s (1926–1933) mission was to encourage “local” Empire shopping campaigns. A collection of posters produced by this organization is available on the website of the Manchester Art Gallery at 2 Interview with Michael Pollan. 2008. Bill Moyers Journal.

pages: 323 words: 92,135

Running Money by Andy Kessler


Andy Kessler, Apple II, bioinformatics, Bob Noyce, British Empire, business intelligence, buy low sell high, call centre, Corn Laws, Douglas Engelbart, family office, full employment, George Gilder, happiness index / gross national happiness, interest rate swap, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Long Term Capital Management, mail merge, Marc Andreessen, margin call, market bubble, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, packet switching, pattern recognition,, railway mania, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Toyota Production System, zero-sum game

The British frigate eventually sank, captain and all. “There is no way this would have happened,” a short, balding, British investor screamed in my ear. “Why not?” I didn’t like anyone bursting my childhood pirate fantasies. “Because we Brits had Wilkinson cannons.” “You mean Wilkinson swords.” “You Americans watch too much TV. Wilkinson, the Iron Master. The Board of Ordnance loved Wilkinson. He was the great hero of the British Empire.” I was about to ask why, but my right ear was temporarily deaf from the big finale. It didn’t take me long to figure out that John Wilkinson was the Iron Master of Shropshire, which sounds like a walk-on part in the Lord of the Rings trilogy. But in 1774, it turns out, Wilkinson had a serious problem and the Industrial Revolution almost didn’t happen. There are history buffs in every country, the slightly off types who dress up in period costumes and reenact battles.

The U.S. exports high-margin intellectual property, which others add sweat to and sell back to us at tiny markups. It’s one of those funny win-wins that drives economists crazy (crazier?). You may ask, “Uh, someone said something about my needing to drive a Beemer?” OK, OK. It takes lots of dollars to buy chips and software and Viagra and McNuggets and Jerry Lewis movies. No problem, we just have to buy something from other countries, to put dollars in their hands. In the early 19th century, the British Empire was almost stillborn. In 1815, the long inflationary Napoleonic Wars ended, and sure enough, wheat prices collapsed. Farmers began turning in their pitchforks and moving to 271 272 Running Money the cities in droves to work in manufactories. Steam engines were driving textile mills to allow the British to sell cheap and comfortable clothing to the world. In fact, one particular machine, Samuel Crompton’s spinning mule, hooked up to a Boulton & Watt steam engine, would repeatedly stretch and wind cotton thread and yarn until it was as “smooth as silk,” like Kessler Whiskey.

Workers started starving because they were not making enough in the factory to pay for now expensive bread. But factory owners couldn’t raise wages because they were having trouble selling their manufactured goods overseas. Why? Because the French and Germans were paying for these goods with their wheat and corn, and the British taxed them out of affordability. How stupid—this almost killed the British Empire in its infancy. With any foresight, the landowners should have dumped their unprofitable farms and invested the proceeds in highly profitable joint stock companies making pottery, shirts and potbelly stoves. England should have gladly bought French wheat and Dutch flowers and German barley and hops so that consumers in these countries could have turned around with the money they received and bought British manufactured goods.

pages: 364 words: 102,225

Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep


battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, creative destruction, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal

And chief among these were scores of young men who turned up now and again in the city’s security videos, often wearing distinctive khaki uniforms. They were Pakistan Boy Scouts, including Sunni Muslims, Hindus, even Christians. The Scouts were a familiar presence in Karachi. They had been for generations. A British general had begun the worldwide Scouting movement in 1908, and it spread across much of the British Empire at the same time it was spreading to America. In the 1920s, a Hindu businessman paid for the Karachi Boy Scouts’ handsome stone headquarters. In 1947, the founder of the nation, Jinnah himself, accepted the designation of Pakistan’s chief Scout, a title that passed to his successors. The current chief Scout was President Asif Ali Zardari, whose mustached image graced the inside of the Karachi headquarters right next to Jinnah’s portrait, and who would, early in the following year, issue a statement urging young Scouts to help battle terrorism.

The main street that we know as Jinnah Road was called Bandar Road then, bandar being the word for “port” in the language of the ethnic Sindhis who had lived in this province for generations. Then as now, the city hall was a stone pile topped with onion-shaped domes. British officers commanded the Army of India, whose Karachi-based soldiers rested at Napier Barracks, named for the Victorian general who conquered Sindh and added it to the British Empire. Bandar Road, the future Jinnah Road, mid-twentieth century. [] Karachi was the closest Indian port to the sea lanes leading toward England. And so for the British it was a gateway to the greatest and most outrageous of all the prizes seized in the age of colonialism: an entire subcontinent ruled from afar. The British in India traded in everything from textiles to opium.

They established courts under British law, and extracted taxes from the Indians themselves to pay for the whole enterprise. Indian soldiers fought in British armies around the world, while great figures in British history spent years in India: the Duke of Wellington, Rudyard Kipling, Winston Churchill. Indians traveled the other way to London, among them a student named Gandhi, who was a devoted subject of the British Empire before his life moved in unexpected directions. Now the grand hallucination of British India was about to disappear—that mixture of tradition, firepower, and sheer bluff that the British called prestige, which allowed handfuls of men to rule hundreds of millions. In a few days the king’s final viceroy was planning to surrender the subcontinent, bowing to decades of Indian demands for freedom.

pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt


anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

To the inhabitants of Ottakring, the Ringstrasse must have seemed thousands of miles away. • • • WHEN WE SHIFT our focus to London, the third of the great European cities of the early twentieth century, we are looking at an altogether different sort of place from Paris or Vienna. There were no great boulevards for the affluent to use as promenades; there was no Haussmann or Emperor Franz Josef to impose any plan for urban greatness. “If the British empire was the most powerful the world had ever known,” the historian Jonathan Schneer wrote, “it yet lacked an emperor whose every vision of London could become an architect’s command.” London, like Vienna and Paris, was an enormous magnet. It brought millions of people together for reasons of economics, government, and culture. But it didn’t have a center in the way Paris or Vienna did. Until the very end of the nineteenth century it had few large apartment buildings, and no grand streets to place them on.

It was a vast expanse of six-story tenements with as many as half a dozen people sleeping in rooms no larger than ten by twelve feet. One writer described it as a place “where filthy men and women live on penn’orths of gin, where collars and clean shirts are decencies unknown, where every citizen wears a black eye, and none ever combs his hair.” The journalist Will Crooks is said to have remarked that the sun that never sets on the British Empire never rises on the dark alleys of east London. This was no welfare population; to all intents and purposes, there was no welfare. Most of these people worked. The main employers were sweatshop clothing makers, but many East End residents worked on the London docks, loading and unloading ships at the world’s greatest port, twenty-six square miles of territory along the Thames, lined with huge warehouses, some of them six stories tall and an acre across.

., p. 227. 15 “the great ordering system”: James Howard Kunstler, The City in Mind: Meditations on the Urban Condition (New York: Free Press, 2002), p. 3. 16 “Second Empire Paris became”: Loyer, Paris Nineteenth Century, p. 232. 17 “For hours I could stand”: Carl Schorske, Fin-de-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture (New York: Vintage, 1981), p. 46. 18 “the Minister-President or the richest magnate”: Stefan Zweig, The World of Yesterday (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1964), p. 15. 19 “The first glance”: Ibid., p. 14. 20 “It is a sort of democratic club”: Ibid., p. 39. 21 “dismal tenement landscape”: Frederic Morton, A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888/1889 (New York: Penguin, 1980), p. 58. 22 “If the British empire was the most powerful”: Jonathan Schneer, London 1900: The Imperial Metropolis (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999), p.19. 23 “a true Londoner”: Ford Madox Ford, quoted in Peter Ackroyd, London: The Biography (New York: Nan A. Talese, 2000), p. 569. 24 “The Strand of those days”: H. B. Creswell, quoted in Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992), p. 341. 25 “The leisure class in London”: Olsen, The City as a Work of Art, p. 217. 26 “The East End became a terra incognita”: Tristram Hunt, Building Jerusalem (New York: Henry Holt, 2005), p. 390. 27 “where filthy men and women live”: Arthur Morrison, quoted in Asa Briggs, Victorian Cities (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), p. 326. 28 “a great mysterious movement”: H.

pages: 326 words: 103,170

The Seventh Sense: Power, Fortune, and Survival in the Age of Networks by Joshua Cooper Ramo


Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Google Chrome, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, market bubble, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, packet switching, Paul Graham, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Metcalfe, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Vernor Vinge, zero day

(It also tips us off to this: As a general rule, no credible grand strategy starts with the word “don’t.”) 7. So we should say it coldly: America has, as of yet, no strategy. The country has no shared picture of the world as it might be. And the experience of other empires that quickly collapsed should offer an urgent lesson. “The struggle to survive,” the historian John Darwin has written of the British Empire, “was waged in an age of revolution: a Eurasian revolution that cumulatively (but very quickly) destroyed almost all the global preconditions on which the British system had depended since the 1830s.” So it is in our age. Many of the essential determinants of American power are being revolutionized by new, connected forces. Will the changes reduce the United States as they once shrank Britain, or can the country draw on them to establish a longer, more durable order?

With each passing year, Europe’s engines of science and industry were grinding out tools of unprecedented destruction. Napoleon’s greatest victories were enabled as much by the industrial strength of French artillery factories as they were by the liberated masses of the French Revolution. The very name of France’s levée en masse hinted at the size of what might be assembled when citizens and not merely mercenaries or aristocrats took to the lines. When France was unseated by the British Empire, it was manufacturing scale and naval depth that tipped the balance. Germany’s blood-and-iron commercial engines challenged London’s clubby mastery of the globe. Size and scale and safety became linked, a lesson finally confirmed by America’s global mastery. The undeniable power of American industry was Winston Churchill’s only real comfort for two nervous years after 1939. “I knew the United States was in the war, up to the neck and in to the death,” he wrote the day after Pearl Harbor.

‘Mesopotamia… yes… oil… irrigation… we must have Mesopotamia; Palestine… yes… the Holy Land… Zionism… we must have Palestine; Syria… h’m… what is there in Syria? Let the French have that.’” This sort of charmless arrogance—The Holy Land… we must have that—doesn’t much suit our age. Gatekeepers, after all, depend on the good will of the gatekept. But Lloyd George’s comprehensive view should be a model. What oil and irrigation and Suez were to the British Empire, finance and data flows and gates are to our age. 4. Hard Gatekeeping echoes the postures of some of the most enduring orders in human history—the “defense in depth” of the Roman Empire, for instance, or the protective isolation of Tokugawa Japan or the walls of Han China. The aim of these systems was to survive through defense. Strategists of those empires learned they should avoid attack except when absolutely necessary; a defensive posture was safer.

pages: 316 words: 103,743

The Emperor Far Away: Travels at the Edge of China by David Eimer


back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, mass immigration, megacity, offshore financial centre, open borders, South China Sea

The outside world tends to regard the country as a culturally and ethnically homogeneous entity. But until the CCP took power, China’s leaders acknowledged their imperial role openly. The Qing dynasty, which ruled from 1644 to 1912, established a separate bureaucracy called the Lifan Yuan, or Court of Colonial Affairs, to manage the minorities who populated the far-flung regions it conquered. It functioned much like the former Colonial Office in the UK, which administered the British empire. Shaking off the perspective that equates China solely with the Han Chinese is difficult. The Han-dominated CCP assiduously encourages a view of the country that relegates the other ethnic groups to the fringes. Just as they exist at the geographical edges of China, so they occupy an uneasy space at the margins of society. The Chinese like to think of themselves as one vast family with their unelected leaders, whether the emperors of the past or the CCP, as its patriarchs.

It was yet another route that Francis Younghusband had travelled. He led his invasion force of British, Indian and Gurkha soldiers through the pass in late 1903. From the mid-nineteenth century on, as the Qing’s hold on power grew progressively weaker, the British were able to sidle into Tibet, motivated by its proximity to India and fears that the Russians might use it as a backdoor route to undermine the British empire. They mapped the country secretly and in 1903 sent Younghusband and his soldiers to force the Dalai Lama to agree to a trade treaty. In March 1904, outside Gyantse, they ran into a 3,000-strong Tibetan force armed with ancient matchlock muskets, weapons over 200 years out of date. The British carried machine guns, and in a matter of minutes they left around 700 Tibetans dead. Four months later, Gyantse was the site of a more glorious battle.

Of all China’s dynasties, the Qing were the most fervent colonisers and in their early pomp they pushed the boundaries of China further than ever before. By the eighteenth century, Chinese merchants were trading in Pu’er tea from Simao, just north of Banna. That, though, was as far as they went. The Qing officials nominally in charge of Banna were based in Simao and ventured south just once a year. Only in 1899 was Sipsongpanna formally annexed by Beijing, although by then the French and British empires had already absorbed its southern and western fringes into Laos and what was then Burma. Banna was granted autonomous status within the Chinese realm and its Dai king continued to rule until 1953. But if the kingdom of Sipsongpanna disappeared when he was forced to abdicate by the CCP, the Dai still remember the state they had for at least eight centuries and how far it spread. ‘There are many Dai people here,’ said Hai Yan, one of the Dai crewmen, pointing to both the left- and right-hand side of the Mekong’s banks.

pages: 209 words: 58,466

Breakfast of Champions by Kurt Vonnegut


Albert Einstein, British Empire, dematerialisation, Maui Hawaii, traveling salesman

And when another Nigger high school was built after the Second World War, it was named after George Washington Carver, a black man who was born into slavery, but who became a famous chemist anyway. He discovered many remarkable new uses for peanuts. But the black people wouldn’t call that school by its proper name, either. On the day it opened, there were already young black people wearing jackets which looked like this from the back: • • • I have to explain, too, see, why so many black people in Midland City were able to imitate birds from various parts of what used to be the British Empire. The thing was, see, that Fred T. Barry and his mother and father were almost the only people in Midland City who could afford to hire Niggers to do the Nigger work during the Great Depression. They took over the old Keedsler Mansion, where Beatrice Keedsler, the novelist, had been born. They had as many as twenty servants working there, all at one time. Fred’s father got so much money during the prosperity of the twenties as a bootlegger and as a swindler in stocks and bonds.

Through Fred’s father, those gangsters bought almost every desirable property in Midland City for anything from a tenth to a hundredth of what it was really worth. And before Fred’s mother and father came to the United States after the First World War, they were music hall entertainers in England. Fred’s father played the musical saw. His mother imitated birds from various parts of what was still the British Empire. She went on imitating them for her own amusement, well into the Great Depression. “The Bulbul of Malaysia,” she would say, for instance, and then she would imitate that bird. “The Morepark Owl of New Zealand,” she would say, and then she would imitate that bird. And all the black people who worked for her thought her act was the funniest thing they had ever seen, though they never laughed out loud when she did it.

pages: 251 words: 44,888

The Words You Should Know to Sound Smart: 1200 Essential Words Every Sophisticated Person Should Be Able to Use by Bobbi Bly


Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Anton Chekhov, British Empire, Columbine, Donald Trump, George Santayana, haute couture, Honoré de Balzac, John Nash: game theory, Network effects, placebo effect, Ralph Waldo Emerson, school vouchers, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs

“But if, both for your love and skill, your name / You seek to nurse at fullest breasts of Fame, / Stella behold, and then begin to INDITE.” – Sir Philip Sidney, English courtier, soldier, and poet ineffable (in-EF-uh-bull), adjective Something so fantastic, incredible, or difficult-to-grasp it cannot be described in words. Poet Ezra Pound wrote of “the infinite and INEFFABLE quality of the British empire.” ineluctable (In-el-LUCK-tah-bull), adjective Unavoidable, inevitable, with a sense of being unfortunate, sad, or even tragic. Our inability to procure Pratesi linens for our Colorado ski lodge created an INELUCTABLE sadness among the members of our family. inexorable (in-eks-ZOR-ah-bull), adjective Inevitable; unavoidable; relentless; persistent; unstoppable. “I know enough to know that most of the visible signs of aging are the result of the INEXORABLE victory of gravity over tissue.” – Isaac Asimov, Russian-born American author and biochemist inextricably (in-eks-TRIK-uh-blee), adverb Something that is strongly linked to something else, with the bond between quite difficult to break.

tincture (TINK-cherr), noun A trace amount or slight tinge. The tragic opera was leavened with a TINCTURE of comic relief. titillate (TIT-l-ate), verb To excite in an agreeable way. With its stirring performance of Beethoven’s Eroica Symphony, the full orchestra TITILLATED us at the Van Gelder’s gala. titular (TITCH-uh-luhr), adjective A person who is a leader by title only, but lacks any real power. The Queen is the TITULAR head of the British empire. tombolo (TOM-bo-low), noun A split that joins an offshore island to the mainland. Until they decide to build a bridge, the single-lane road on the TOMBOLO is the only way on to and off of the island. tome (TOAM), noun A large or scholarly book. “She carries a book but it is not / the TOME of the ancient wisdom, / the pages, I imagine, are the blank pages / of the unwritten volume of the new.” – Hilda Doolittle, American poet and memoirist toothsome (TOOTH-suhm), adjective Voluptuous and sexually alluring.

pages: 708 words: 196,859

Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World by Liaquat Ahamed


Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Etonian, full employment, German hyperinflation, index card, invisible hand, Lao Tzu, large denomination, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mobile money, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, rolodex, the market place

Though Lord Esher had been offered numerous high positions in government, he preferred to remain merely deputy constable and lieutenant governor of Windsor Castle while exerting his considerable influence behind the scenes. Most important, he was a founding member of the Committee of Imperial Defense, an informal but powerful organization formed after the debacles of the Boer War to reflect and advise on the military strategy of the British Empire. In February 1912, the committee conducted hearings on issues related to trade in time of war. Much of the German merchant marine was then insured through Lloyds of London, and the committee was dumbfounded to hear the chairman of Lloyds testify that in the event of war, were German ships to be sunk by the Royal Navy, Lloyds would be both honor-bound and, according to its lawyers, legally obliged to cover the losses.

I reflect with a good deal of satisfaction that because our rulers are as incompetent as they are mad and wicked, one particular era of a particular kind of civilization is very nearly over.” When the war ended, Keynes was appointed the principal Treasury representative at the Paris Peace Conference. Though his official titles included deputy to the chancellor of the exchequer on the Supreme Economic Council, chairman of the Inter-Allied Financial Delegates in the Armistice negotiations, and representative of the British Empire on the Financial Committee, he soon found himself completely excluded from the most important economic negotiations at Paris, those on reparations. He had to watch impotently from the sidelines as the “nightmare” of the Peace Conference was played out. As he later wrote, “a sense of impending catastrophe overhung the frivolous scene.” When the terms of the treaty were finally announced in the middle of May, exhausted and disgusted, he felt he had no alternative but to resign.

Meanwhile, prices in the United States and the UK, even after the postwar deflation, were still 50 percent higher than before the war, which meant that in effect the real purchasing power of gold reserves had contracted by almost 25 percent. FIGURE 2 In 1922, Norman worked with officials at the British Treasury to develop a plan whereby some of the European central banks would, as did many countries in the British Empire, hold pounds rather than gold as their reserve asset—in much the same way that many central banks hold dollars nowadays. He argued that substituting pounds for gold would allow the world to economize on the precious metal and thus reduce the risk of worldwide shortage. Few people failed to notice that by creating a captive source of demand for sterling, the plan would add to its privileged position in the constellation of currencies and greatly ease his job of returning the pound to gold.

pages: 636 words: 202,284

Piracy : The Intellectual Property Wars from Gutenberg to Gates by Adrian Johns


active measures, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, commoditize, Corn Laws, demand response, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edmond Halley, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, full employment, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Marshall McLuhan, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, pirate software, Republic of Letters, Richard Stallman, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, software patent, South Sea Bubble, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, traveling salesman, Whole Earth Catalog

The titles they reprinted were in truth open to all, they insisted, and their enterprise was vital to the future of Scotland, and for that matter Britain. Henry Home – later Lord Kames, one of the major figures of the Scottish Enlightenment – took up the cudgels too from the bench. Home announced that Millar wanted to “crush this Manufacture in the Bud” before it could develop an export market in the colonies. He proceeded to use the case to question the political economy of the British Empire itself. If the Londoners won their case for literary property, Home insinuated, then Scotland’s book trade would be relegated to a colonial status. The real English plan was to “inslave” Scottish booksellers by restricting them to mere printing and retailing – the fate of the majority of London’s bookmen. That would have disastrous effects for enlightenment. With superb irony, he singled out as an example of those effects one of the works cited by the Londoners in their complaint – a Gardener’s Dictionary originally published in two folio volumes.

This was the domestic readership that the reprint industry addressed and in turn spurred. Reprinting took its identity from the politics of the Irish capital. These were politics of fragile prosperity, religious tension, and growing nationalism. On the one hand, the city was a cultural hub. It was the home of the Irish parliament and the location of Trinity College, and the second largest city in the British Empire. Its parliament building, built to the latest neoclassical style, projected confidence in the stability and prosperity of the order it represented – that alliance of parliament, established church, and imperialism known as the “Protestant ascendancy.” But on the other hand, that confidence was more fragile than it looked. It never took much to incite fears of a repeat of the kind of massacre many Protestants believed to have taken place in the uprising of 1641, which had helped spark the civil wars.

Abolitionists would soon proclaim that the only way to achieve this was to do away with such costs altogether. It is therefore slightly ironic that what gave the initial spur to the antipatent campaign was a move by the British government to do just that in one instance. Specifically, the immediate cause of tension was a new relation that the 1852 law defined between Britain and its colonies. The 1852 law expressly excluded the colonies of the British Empire from having to honor patents filed in the home country. Colonial manufacturers could now adopt the latest technologies from Britain without paying royalties. This decision derived in large part from earlier struggles over slavery, especially in the West Indies. The West Indian colonies had been slaveplantation economies until emancipation in 1834. The owners of sugar plantations there had then faced the prospect of addressing labor costs for the first time.

pages: 823 words: 206,070

The Making of Global Capitalism by Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin


accounting loophole / creative accounting, active measures, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, continuous integration, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global value chain, guest worker program, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, oil shock, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

The American state’s own “founding myth” determined that its empire would be an informal one, not only leaving it free to appear as a champion of “national liberation” against colonialism, but also ensuring that the annexation of Hawaii and the establishment of colonies in Puerto Rico and the Philippines were seen to be, as in fact they eventually proved to be, “a deviation . . . from the typical economic, political and ideological forms of domination already characteristic of American imperialism.”59 Of course, the main business was that of establishing the political conditions for capital accumulation in what was now defined as the American sphere of influence. In this it was following what the British had sometimes done with their own informal empire, but whereas in the British Empire this still was more the exception than the rule, for the American empire it was taken as the modular form—including, as Emily Rosenberg says, by the new professionals, business managers and government officials, all of whom championed the global spread of market exchange [as] part of an expansive vision of an American civilizing mission and the inevitability of market-driven progress. Its supporters came not just from the Eastern-based business and professional elite but also from small-town Main streets, mid-level managers, and aspiring professionals throughout the country.

The first US multinational corporations had established branch plants to jump over the Canadian tariff barrier and get access to a rich domestic market which, in terms of social structure and political regime, resembled the American Midwest. Whereas in 1812 Jefferson had seen conquering Canada as the only way of preventing “difficulties with our neighbors,” exactly a century later President Taft could celebrate the “greater economic ties” that were making Canada “only an adjunct of the USA.”69 US economic penetration of Canada had the added advantage of “providing access to unfettered trade within the British Empire which could look like part of the scaffolding of a new world order, all the more as American capital had a growing stake in it.”70 Yet the latitude that even Canada could claim within the American informal empire was demonstrated in 1911 when Canadian voters (spurred by fears of annexation) rejected a free trade agreement with the US, and when Canada immediately entered into World War I in support of Britain, while the US initially stayed out.71 It was nevertheless a mark of the status of Canada as a “rich dependency” within the American empire that Canadian banks were virtually unique internationally in utilizing the dollar as a reserve currency, and maintained large external balances in New York as a source of liquidity and to cover the massive flow of goods and capital across the border.

Moreover, as early as April 1940, Alvin Hansen (who had led the shift to Keynesianism in the Treasury) had proposed to the Council on Foreign Relations’ economic planning group the establishment of an international monetary fund to anchor the free convertibility of currencies in a system of international payments based on the American dollar.26 Harry Dexter White, who became head of the Treasury’s newly created Division of Monetary Research in the mid 1930s, could draw on all this experience when he was charged, only a week after Pearl Harbor, with developing the Treasury’s plan for what Morgenthau called a “New Deal in international economics.”27 The Path to Bretton Woods The British Empire may have been acquired in a fit of absentmindedness, but the American empire that emerged after World War II was the product of considerable planning. The blueprints for the postwar international order drawn up by US wartime policymakers sought to graft “the philosophy, substance, and form of the New Deal regulatory state onto the world,” recapitulating many of its legal and administrative forms in “virtually every issue area, ranging from the Food and Agricultural Organization to the projected International Trade Organization.”28 But above all, these blueprints were infused with a liberal conception of the rule of law, and also reflected the projection abroad of the New Deal’s “grand truce with capital.”

pages: 56 words: 17,340

Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda by Noam Chomsky


British Empire, declining real wages, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker

A more reasonable answer was given by a number of sources, including the Vatican, and was spelled out by the preeminent Anglo-American military historian, Michael Howard, last October. Actually, it's published in the current issue of Foreign Affairs (January-February 2002); that's the leading establishment journal. Now Howard has all the appropriate credentials, a lot of prestige; he's a great admirer of the British Empire, even more extravagantly of its successor in global rule, so he can't be accused of moral relativism or other such crimes. Referring to September 11, he recommended a police operation against a criminal conspiracy whose members should be hunted down and brought before an international court, where they could receive a fair trial, and if found guilty be awarded an appropriate sentence. That was never contemplated, of course, but it sounds kind of reasonable to me.

pages: 239 words: 56,531

The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld


Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

He was by nature a solitary person, but proved to be a great patriot when he helped England and its allies crack German codes 17 CHAPTER 2 during World War II. Turing was, in fact, a perfect example of how both sides in the conflict harnessed the greatest minds of their generation to do both basic and applied research for the war effort. For his brilliant code breaking, Turing won the Order of the British Empire in 1945. Written just before the war, Turing’s master’s thesis, “On Computable Numbers,” was his greatest contribution to computer science. In it, he proposed the questions that still remain central to the discipline decades later. Turing suggested that it should be possible to make a “Universal Machine,” a computer that could simulate the performance of any other device. The fact that the analog machines of the late 1930s and early 1940s were far too slow to function as Universal Turing Machines did not affect his faith that such devices would come into existence.

Intergalactic Computer Network and, 108, 152, 168 Machine Histories, 64 Macintosh computer, 165–167 Macrotelevision, 56–60 Madonna, 63 Madrid, 100, 130 Mahabharata, 28 MAKE magazine, 68–69 MAKER Faires, 68–69 Manchester Mark I computer, 18 “Man-Computer Symbiosis” (Licklider), 151 Mandela, Nelson, 113 Mandiberg, Michael, 41–42 Manhattan Project, 150 Manual labor, 3 Many Eyes, 126, 193n37 Mao Zedong, 86 Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso, 44 Markets bespoke futures and, 97–104, 118, 207 INDEX Markets (continued) 120, 127, 131–132, 137–138 capitalism and, 13, 66, 75, 97–100, 104–105 (see also Commercial culture) culture machine and, 156, 161–167, 173 empowerment and, 8 entrepreneurs and, 99, 109, 156–157, 174 FIRE, 99–100 Global Business Network (GBN) and, 113, 115, 191n18 Great Depression and, 107 Greed and, 100 Internet television and, 9 mass culture and, 184n16 NASDAQ, 99 New Economy and, 97, 99, 104, 131, 138, 144–145, 190n3 prosumers and, 120–121 retail, 103–105 scenario planning and, 111–119, 191n19, 192n20 September 11, 2001 and, 99–101, 130 Slow Food and, 5–6 social campaigns and, 190n8 stickiness and, 13, 16, 24, 30–33, 37 technofabulism and, 99–100 textile, 11 unimodernism and, 45, 48, 58–59, 71, 75 Web n.0 and, 81, 83, 86, 90 Martha Stewart Living magazine, 69 MaSAI (Massively Public Applications of the Imagination), xvi, 112, 120–123, 127, 193nn32 Masai tribe, 193n32 Mashing, 25, 54–55, 57, 74 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 71, 117, 144, 148, 151 Matrix, The (film series), 39 Mau, Bruce, 55–56, 102, 190n8 Mauchly, John, 148 McDonald’s, 5 McLuhan, Marshall, 2, 14, 116 Meaningfulness, xvi, 173 bespoke futures and, 119, 123, 128– 129, 133 categorization of, 29–30 defining, 27–29 disrupting flow and, 23–24 Enlightenment and, 129–139 play and, 32–34 power and, 32–34 stickiness and, 14, 17, 20 (see also Stickiness) toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, 32–35, 185nn22,23 unimodernism and, 42, 67, 77 uploading and, xvi, 29 Web n.0 and, 79 Mechanical calculator, 149 Mechanization, 44–45 Medium specificity, 56–57 Meliorism, xvi, 127–129, 133, 137–138 Melodium label, 27 Memex, 108, 149–151 Memory, 46–47, 60, 67, 71, 109, 149, 194nn1,6 Metcalfe, Bob, 86–87 Metro Pictures gallery, 41 Michnik, Adam, 104 Mickey Mouse, 65, 88–90 Mickey Mouse Protection Act, 90 Microcinema, 56–60 Microfilm, 149–150 Microsoft, 144–145, 163–166, 172–173, 175, 196n21 Middle-class, 44 Mindfulness, 77, 79, 183n6 bespoke futures and, 123, 129 capitalism and, 4, 13, 66, 75, 90, 103–105 208 INDEX Mindfulness (continued) disrupting flow and, 23–24 info-triage and, xvi, 20–23, 121, 132, 143 stickiness and, 14, 17, 20–24, 27–29, 42 Mobility, 81–82, 128 Modders, 69–70 “Model B32” (Breuer), 45 Modernism, 36–37, 105–108 Modern Times (film), 45 Moore, Gordon, 156 Moore’s law, 156, 195n13 Morpheus, 92 Moses, Robert, 84 Motorola, 116 Moulin Rouge (Luhrmann), 60–63 Mouse, 158–159 MP3s, 2, 27 MS-DOS, 165–166 MTV, 31, 63 Murakami, Takashi, 49 Murger, Henri, 61 Musée du quai Branly, 66 Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), 42, 117 Music bebop, 25–27 calypso, 35–37 hip-hop, 53–54, 61 jazz, 25–27, 160 Napster and, 54, 92 remixing and, 53–55 (see also Remixing) Mutually assured destruction, xi MySpace, 81 Napoleonic Wars, 21 Napster, 54, 92 Narrative, 2, 8 bespoke futures and, 108, 110, 129–139 blogosphere and, xvii, 30, 34, 49, 68, 80, 92–93, 101, 175, 177, 181n7 capitulationism and, 7, 24, 182n1 209 development of computer and, 143– 145, 174, 178 Enlightenment Electrified and, 129–139 gaming and, 188n25 isotypes and, 44, 125, 193n34 negative dialectics and, 29–30 Oprah and, xv, 180nn3,4 samizdat and, 59 storyline and, 59 unimodernism and, 58–59, 67, 71, 76 NASA, 51, 123 NASDAQ, 99 National Center for Biotechnology Information, 81 “Nature Boy” (Cole), 62 Nelson, Ted, 145, 168, 52 Netscape, 169 Networks bespoke futures and, 98–101, 108, 112–113, 116, 119–126, 133, 137 commercial, 4–5 (see also Commercial culture) culture machine and, 143–144, 152, 167–168, 172–175, 178 development of computer, 8–9 flexibility of digital, 10 Global Business Network (GBN) and, 113, 115, 191n18 Intergalactic Computer Network and, 108, 152, 168 Metcalfe’s corollary and, 86–87 patio potato and, 10, 13 peer-to-peer, 15, 54, 92, 116, 126 stickiness and, 16–17, 22, 24, 29–36 unimodernism and, 39, 47–48, 54–57, 60, 64–65, 68–69, 73–74 Web n.0 and, 79–95 Neurath, Otto, 44, 125 New Economy, 190n3 bespoke futures and, 97, 99, 104, 131, 138 INDEX New Economy (continued) dot-com bubble and, 145 fantasies of, 104 Hustlers and, 144 Newtonian physics, 118 New York City, 25–26, 84–86, 100, 130 New Yorker, 135 New York Museum of Modern Art, 42 New York Times, 61, 103 NeXT Cube, 167–168 Nirvana, 62 NLS (oN-Line System), 160 Nobel Prize, 156 Norman, Don, 16 Nouvel, Jean, 66 Noyce, Philip, 156 “Nude on a Red Background” (Léger), 45 Obama, Barack, 31 Odyssey (Homer), 28, 94–95 Offenbach, Jacques, 62 Ogilvy, Jay, 113–114 Open source, 36, 189n12 Creative Commons and, 90–93, 123, 173 development of computer and, 144, 170–173, 177 GNU and, 171, 173 Linux and, 75, 169–173, 197n27 Raymond and, 172 Stallman and, 170–171 Torvalds and, 144, 167–173 unimodernism and, 61, 69, 74–75 Web n.0 and, 116, 121–126 Opera, 40, 45, 60–63, 187n18 Oppenheimer, J. Robert, 150 Oracle, 172–173 Order of the British Empire, 18 Otivion, 101 Ourobors, 175 Oxford Internet Institute, 83 Packard, Dave, 145, 157 Pac-Man game, 71 Page, Larry, 144, 174–176 Paris, 66 Parker, Charlie “Bird,” 25 Participation affordances and, 16–17 bespoke futures and, 98–99, 120–121, 129 culture machine and, 143–147, 151, 156–165, 170, 175–178 fan-based production and, 28–32 Licklider and, 151–152 MP3s and, 27 simulation and, 15–17 stickiness and, 15–17, 27–35 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 unimodernism and, 54, 66–67, 74–80 Web n.0 and, 79–95 Patio potatoes, 9–10, 13 Patriarchs Bush and, 52, 108, 144, 147–152, 157 description of term, xv development of computer and, 143–144, 147–158, 162–163, 166–168 Licklider and, 108, 144, 147–148, 151–152, 158, 163, 168 Paul, Frank R., 109, 109–110 PBS, 68 PDP minicomputer, 71 Peer-to-peer networks, 15, 54, 92, 116, 126 Perot, Ross, 145 Perpetual beta, 36 Personal digital assistants (PDAs), 17 Petrini, Carlo, 5–6 Photography, 15, 40–42, 46–47, 64, 109, 150, 176 Photoshop, 131 Picasso, Pablo, 93 210 INDEX Pico Swap Mart, 105 Pirate Bay, 92 Pixar, 167 Pizza Hut, 5 Plagiarism, 41 Play, 188n25 bespoke futures and, 110–111, 130–131 culture machine and, 143, 153, 160–163 gaming and, 15, 23, 33–34, 57, 67, 70–74, 72, 188n25 meaningfulness and, 32–34 modders and, 69–70 power and, 32–34 rejuveniles and, 67 running room and, 74–77 stickiness and, 13, 15, 32–34, 70–74 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185n22, 185n23 unimodernism and, 39, 53, 55, 62, 64, 67–77 video games and, 15, 23, 33–34, 57, 67, 72, 188n25 Web n.0 and, 85, 88 Play space, 74–77 Plug-in Drug, The (Winn), xii Plutocrats culture machine and, 144, 152–159, 163–166, 170 description of term, xv Hewlett and, 145, 157 Moore and, 156 Noyce and, 156 Packard and, 145, 157 profit and, xv Watsons and, 144, 153–157, 165–166 Plutopian meliorism, xvi, 127–129, 133, 137–138 Poetry, 14, 18–19, 136, 145 Politics African National Congress and, 113 211 Berlin Wall and, xvi, 85, 97, 99, 104 Communism and, 97–98, 103 copyright and, 88–93 Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi fantasies of, 104 New Economy and, 104 propaganda and, 31, 103, 124 scenario planning and, 111–119, 191n19, 192n20 Slow Food and, 5–7 Soviet Union and, xi, 31, 49–52, 59, 73, 85, 88, 97, 102–107, 146 Tiananmen Square and, 104 Velvet Revolution and, 104 Pong, 71 Popper, Karl, 107 Popular Mechanics magazine, 69 Pop-up ads, 23 Positivism, 10, 125 Postmodernism, 29–30, 39–41, 74, 79, 130, 135 PostScript World, 55–56, 102 Poststructuralism, 29–30 Power, 8 bespoke futures and, 98–103, 112– 116, 119–126, 129–130, 136–137 culture machine and, 143, 147, 150– 151, 155–156, 163, 166, 169, 175 meaningfulness and, 32–34 play and, 32–34 stickiness and, 13, 17, 22, 30–34 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 unimodernism and, 39, 49–50, 62, 71–75 Web n.0 and, 81–87, 90–95 PowerBook, 39 Pro bono work, 111 Production appropriation and, 28, 31, 35, 41 balance and, 13 collaborative, 30 INDEX Production (continued) continuous partial, 34 DIY movements and, 67–70 fan culture and, 28–32, 48 mashing and, 25, 54–55, 57, 74 mechanization and, 44–45 modders and, 69–70 open source, 36, 61, 69, 74–75, 91–92, 116, 121–126, 144, 170– 173, 177, 189n12 plagiarism and, 41 remixing and, 27, 35, 39, 53–54, 62–63, 70, 92–94, 129, 189n12 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 unfinish and, xvi, 34–37, 51, 67, 70, 76–79, 92, 127–129, 136 WYMIWYM (What You Model Is What You Manufacture) and, 64–67, 74, 131 Propaganda, 31, 103, 124 Prosumers, 120–121 Psychology culture machine and, 151, 161 Gestalt, 42–43 Licklider and, 151 propaganda and, 31, 103, 124 scenario planning and, 111–119, 191n19, 192n20 stickiness and, 16, 21–22 unimodernism and, 42–44, 56 Public domain, 91 Publishing, 31, 190n8 bespoke future and, 109–110, 112 culture machine and, 146, 148–149, 168 DIY movement and, 67–69 Gutenberg press and, 11, 137–138 unimodernism and, 55–65, 68 Puccini, Giacomo, 61 Punk aesthetic, 46, 67–68, 87, 110 Quantum theory, 148 Radio, 8 Radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), 65 Radiohead, 39 Ramayana, 28 Rand, Paul, 43 Raymond, Eric, 172 Raytheon, 149 Rear Window (film), 44 Relativity, 49–50, 186n4 Religion, xi, 1, 13, 76, 130–135, 138 Remixing, 27, 94, 129, 189n12 appropriation and, 28, 31, 35, 41 Creative Commons and, 92 Moulin Rouge and, 60–63 unimodernism and, 39, 53–54, 53–55, 62–63, 70 Renaissance, 60 Rent (Larson), 61 Reperceiving, 112–113 Reuters Spectracolor Board, 9 Revivalism, 60 Reyner Banham Loves Los Angeles (BBC documentary), 10 Rheingold, Howard, 145 Rick’s Café, 90 Roberts, Alwyn “Lord Kitchener,” 25–27 Robot butlers, xiv Rockefeller, John D., 166 Rolling Stone magazine, 67 Romanticism, 103 Romeo and Juliet (hip-hop version), 61 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 148 Rope (film), 44 Roux, A., 11 Royal Dutch Shell, 112, 112–113 Royal Library of Alexandria, 89 R-PR (Really Public Relations), xvi, 123–127 RSS feeds, xvii Rumsfeld, Donald, 99 Running room, 74–77 Run time, 57 212 INDEX environmental perception and, 16 memes and, 19, 53–54, 76, 87, 91, 98, 113, 143–144, 149–150, 156–162, 165–170, 178, 194n1 mimicry and, xvii MP3s and, 27 participation and, 15–17 stickiness and, 15–19, 27, 32, 35 unimodernism and, 39, 49, 53–54, 57, 71–76 Sinatra, Frank, 63 Skype, 15 Skyscrapers, xiv Slow movements, 5–7, 181n7 Slurpees, 4 “Smells Like Teen Spirit” (Nirvana), 62 Smith & Hawken, 113 Snakes on a Plane (film), 30 Snow White (Disney film), 20 Social issues advertisement and, 23, 52, 57, 59, 107, 175–177, 184nn12,15 Aquarians and, xv, 144, 152, 157, 159–169 atomic age and, xi (see also Atomic age) Berlin Wall and, 85, 97, 99, 104 bespoke futures and, xvi, 97–139 blogosphere and, xvii, 30, 34, 49, 68, 80, 92–93, 101, 175, 177, 181n7 capitalism and, 4, 13, 66, 75, 90, 97–100, 103–105 capitulationism and, 7, 24, 182n1 cell phones and, xiii, 23, 42, 53, 56, 76, 101 Communism and, 97–98, 103 computers and, xvi, 5, 15–19 (see also Computers) Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi dangers of overabundance and, 7–10 desk jobs and, 3 89/11 and, xvi, 97, 100–102, 105, 130 Enlightenment and, xvi, 129–139 Sacred texts, 28 Saint Laurent, Yves, 60 Saks Fifth Avenue, 31 Samizdat, 59 Scenario planning bespoke futures and, 111–119, 191n19, 192n20 chaos theory and, 117–119 crafting of, 113–116 Ogilvy and, 113–114 Schwartz and, 113–114 Scènes de la vie Bohème (Murger), 61 Schindler, Rudolph, 45 Schrödinger, Erwin, 49 Schwartz, Peter, 113–115, 119 Scott, Ridley, 107 Scratching, 53 Searchers, 167, 177–178 Brin and, 144, 174–176 description of term, xv–xvi Page and, 144, 174–176 Sears, 103–105 September 11, 2001, xvi–xvii, 99–101, 130 SETI@home, 122 Sex, 7, 19, 88, 129–130, 167 Shakespeare, William, 28, 44 Shannon, Claude, 148 Shockley, William, 156 Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, 156 Silicon Valley, 149, 161, 164 Silly Symphonies (Disney film), 88 Simon, John, Jr., 39 Simulation, xvi, 2, 11 affordances and, 16–17 bespoke futures and, 98, 121, 124, 126–127 buttons/knobs and, 16 communication devices and, 15–16 culture machine and, 143–144, 147– 152, 156–160, 166–168, 175–178 downloading and, 143, 168 emulation and, 183n3 213 INDEX Social issues (continued) figure/ground and, xvi, 42–43, 46, 102 folksonomies and, 80–81 hackers and, 22–23, 54, 67, 69, 162, 170–173 Holocaust and, 107 Hosts and, xv, 144, 167, 175 hypercontexts and, xvi, 7, 48, 76–77 information overload and, 22, 149 MaSAI and, xvi, 112, 120–123, 127, 193nn32 meaningfulness and, xvi, 14, 17, 20, 23–29, 42, 67, 77, 79, 119, 123, 128–129, 133, 173 narrative and, xv, 2, 7–8, 58–59, 67, 71, 76, 108, 110, 130–132, 143– 145, 174, 178, 180n4, 188n25, 193n34 personal grounding and, xiv–xv play and, xvi, 13, 15, 32–34, 39, 53, 55, 62, 64, 67–77, 85, 88, 110–111, 130–131, 143, 153, 160–163, 185n22, 188n25 Plutocrats and, xv, 144, 152–159, 163–166, 170 plutopian meliorism and, xvi, 127–129, 133, 137–138 power and, xvi, 8, 13, 17, 22 (see also Power) relationship with data and, 32 religion and, xi, 1, 13, 76, 130–135, 138 R-PR (Really Public Relations) and, xvi, 123–127 Searchers and, xv–xvi, 144, 167, 174–178 suburbs and, 3, 8 television and, xii (see also Television) terrorism and, 99–101, 130–131, 134, 137 unfinish and, xvi, 34–37, 51, 67, 70, 76–79, 92, 127–129, 136 urban planning and, 84–86 utopia and, 36, 73, 97, 101, 104, 108, 110, 120, 127–129, 138 wants vs. needs and, 13, 37, 57 wicked problems and, 158 World War I era and, 21, 107, 123, 146, 190n1 World War II era and, xi, 18, 25, 32, 47, 73, 107–108, 144–150, 157, 170 Socialists, 102–105 Software platforms, 15, 164, 170 Sontag, Susan, 135 Sopranos, The (TV show), 7 Soundscapes, 53–55 Soviet Union, 31, 85, 88, 146 Berlin Wall and, 85, 97, 99, 104 Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi Exhibition of the Achievement of the Soviet People’s Economy (VDNX) and, 102–105 fall of, 104 gulags of, 107 samizdat and, 59 unimodernism and, 49–52, 73 Space Invaders, 71 Spacewar!

pages: 274 words: 66,721

Double Entry: How the Merchants of Venice Shaped the Modern World - and How Their Invention Could Make or Break the Planet by Jane Gleeson-White


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, British Empire, carbon footprint, corporate governance, credit crunch, double entry bookkeeping, full employment, Gordon Gekko, income inequality, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Islamic Golden Age, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, Naomi Klein, Ponzi scheme, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, source of truth, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile

Belcher’s grand Baroque design—one of the first neo-Baroque buildings in London—borrowed from the buildings of more established professions such as medicine and the law, giving the fledgling profession an aura of gravitas and permanence, while its site near banks, gentlemen’s clubs and the buildings of Sir Christopher Wren lent it dignity by association. Similar accounting societies soon spread throughout the British Empire, the first being established in Canada in 1880. The Antipodes took to the new profession with astonishing enthusiasm. By 1899 six institutes of accountants had been established in Australia. In 1905 in Australia and New Zealand there was one chartered accountant for every 4000 people, a striking figure when compared to Scotland’s one accountant for 6500 people, Italy’s one for 13,000, and England and Wales’ one for 10,500.

The bank would work to offset this by maintaining balance of payments equilibriums (an equivalence between the wealth flowing into and out of a nation) between each member country and the rest of the world. As Skidelsky says, for Keynes the ‘real “heart of the matter”—in global as well as in domestic policy—was to prevent unemployment by reducing the attractions of holding money’. Keynes’s idea was taken up in Washington, but remodelled in favour of the United States (just as Keynes’s original concept had favoured the British Empire) and transformed into two international bodies: the Bank for Reconstruction and Development (which became the World Bank) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). It was the creation of these and other international organisations after the Second World War that made the gathering of national income statistics an essential task for every nation involved and prompted an era of national income accounting.

pages: 256 words: 15,765

The New Elite: Inside the Minds of the Truly Wealthy by Dr. Jim Taylor


British Empire, call centre, dark matter, Donald Trump, estate planning, full employment, glass ceiling, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Louis Pasteur, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, means of production, passive income, performance metric, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ronald Reagan, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Previously, those areas conE V E R Y O N E A L I V E T O D AY 155 156 The New Elite sisted of very small states or territories, often ruled by monarchies, and had no defining language because they shared the culture and language of neighboring principalities (some of these ‘‘micro-states’’ survive to the present day, such as French-speaking Monaco and German-speaking Liechtenstein). Much of the world outside Europe was colonized as part of large multiethnic empires such as the British Empire, leaving local residents with little self-determination. The nation-state arrived in these parts of the world much later, and often only after considerable conflict. Today the nation-state is ensconced throughout the world, and in our minds. But change is coming. The nation-state is slowly, silently fading. In many ways, our world is splintering, and broad social structures defined by geography are quietly being replaced by self-forming micro-cultures defined more by lifestyles, values, and interests.

But she was guillotined nevertheless, and massive disparities of wealth were certainly key factors in the French 202 The New Elite Revolutions of 1789 and 1848. But as Kevin Phillips points out in Wealth and Democracy, massive inequality has been a harbinger of significant but more gradual declines among each of the world’s most dominant powers since the Renaissance: Spain in the early 1500s, Holland in the early 1600s, and the British Empire of the 1800s. The future of any plutonomy, along with its social and political implications, depends on a number of factors. First, while the rich have gotten richer, has everybody else gotten richer as well? At the extremes, two scenarios suggest themselves. First, if the economy approximates a zero-sum game, in which the gains of the elite come at the expense of the vast majority, then resentment and class warfare would be more likely.

pages: 270 words: 81,311

In the Devil's Garden: A Sinful History of Forbidden Food by Stewart Lee Allen


anti-communist, British Empire, clean water, East Village, European colonialism, Filipino sailors, Golden Gate Park, haute cuisine, trade route

The Hindu soldiers went wild and started massacring not just the English officials, but women and children. The British responded with a lamentable lack of restraint. They killed innocent children and shot rebelling soldiers out of cannons. Taking up the culinary motif, they sewed some Hindu soldiers into cow carcasses and left them to suffocate. Their behavior was so louche that the British government decided to take India away from the East India Company and make it a member of the British Empire. In fact, this early revolution probably failed only because the Indian soldiers, who outnumbered the English twenty-five to one, refused to use the hated Enfield rifles during the fight. Revolutions over cow fat, riots over roast beef—it strikes Westerners as preposterous until you realize that we, too, have massacred and tortured thousands over the exact same issue. The first known portrait of God is a horned figure dancing on the walls of a Paleolithic cave in France.

“New Analysis of Breast Feeding Studies Suggests a Boost in IQ of 3 to 5 Points.” Los Angeles Times (Sept. 23, 1999). Mazzoni, Cristina. Saint Hysteria: Neurosis, Mysticism and Gender in European Culture. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1996. McCance, Robert. Breads, White and Brown: Their Place in Thought and Social History. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1956. McCulloch, J. R. A Descriptive and Statistical Account of the British Empire. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1847. McIlwaine, Shields. The Southern Poor White Trash: From Lubberland to Tobacco Road. Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma, 1939. Melchert, Christopher, Director of Regulatory and Technical Affairs for Snack Food. Personal interview. Mennell, Stephen. All Manners of Food: Eating and Taste in England and France from the Middle Ages to Present.

pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg


active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

We can all live much more satisfying and productive lives in supportive communities at lower levels of distances consumed and this is the objective of deleting mobility (i.e. more distance travelled) and replacing it with accessibility (many more things can be reached at a lower time, financial and environmental cost). Politically an argument in favour of reducing mobility has a lot in common with an argument in late 18th century Liverpool, Bristol and Lancaster for abolishing the slave trade. Why would any right-minded person want to abolish something that played such a large part in national life, in the ideology of the British Empire and in the economic viability of several cities? Those that argued for abolition of the slave trade and then slavery itself had a tough time but they succeeded (Hague, 2008). History is littered with dramatic examples of paradigm shift and there is no reason to suppose that the mobility paradigm will not follow slavery, children working down coal mines, the denial of voting rights to women and other ridiculous examples of 19th and early 20th century norms and be consigned to the dustbin.

All of these are part of the same love affair with the car and mobility and all require the promotion of so-called “active travel” which is gaining public health support globally. Like all major examples of social change, inevitability goes with the requirement for constant repetition, persuasion, reinforcement and engagement. Britain did not abolish the slave trade and then slavery itself because it woke up one morning and decided it was the right thing to. Abolition followed serious, sustained effort to bring about that change. The British Empire did not wake up one morning and suddenly agree with the “Quit India” campaign. The decision to abandon “the jewel in the crown” was the result of sustained effort and by major political changes that made it inevitable. A similar story can be told about the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the reunification of Germany. Sorting out mobility, transport, urban design and public health may not be as momentous as slavery, India and Berlin but it is up there with a list of major social changes and paradigm shifts that have happened or are waiting to happen and it will happen.

pages: 270 words: 73,485

Hubris: Why Economists Failed to Predict the Crisis and How to Avoid the Next One by Meghnad Desai


3D printing, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gunnar Myrdal, Home mortgage interest deduction, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, negative equity, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, women in the workforce

Alfred Marshall had the energy and spirit to fight academic battles in Cambridge. Through his skirmishes he carved out a separate space for economics – downplaying the importance of history, even economic history, in the economics curriculum. He created an Economics Tripos degree at Cambridge, the first of its kind, which gave students the opportunity to specialize in economics. This model was copied across many English-speaking universities within the British Empire and in the US as well. Marshall built up the basic corpus of economics as it came to be taught. He had the clever idea of using mathematics in his arguments but hiding it in the footnotes and appendices. He translated his mathematical results in lugubrious prose and pretended that he was writing for the practical businessman. Nothing was to be stated too elegantly or with mathematical precision, even if it was precise.

Marshall taught the growth of firms and the expansion of whole industries in the same gentle prose he used to explain how the price of tea was determined. Economics was to be a useful subject dealing with the daily business of life. And yet behind this easy facade was the certainty that whatever the economic problem, the answer could be readily found. English-speaking economists stopped reading German or French books. It was the heyday of the British Empire and it seemed easy to say “It is all in Marshall.” Marshall made the ideas of marginal and average costs familiar to economists. He established that the most efficient outcome for a firm was where the marginal cost of producing a good equaled its price. Competition between many small firms producing an identical product (farmers of wheat, for example) would result in an identical price for every producer/seller and in the end profits would be minimal thanks to competition.

pages: 261 words: 81,802

The Trouble With Billionaires by Linda McQuaig

battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Build a better mousetrap, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, employer provided health coverage, financial deregulation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, laissez-faire capitalism, land tenure, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Vanguard fund, very high income, wealth creators, women in the workforce

The ‘non-dom’ law allows Saudi princes, Greek shipping magnates, Russian oligarchs, Indian steel tycoons and billionaires of all kinds to live in London and pay almost no tax. The UK has also been deeply implicated in tax haven activity worldwide through its close connection with well-known tax haven jurisdictions. Britain’s Crown Dependencies, the Channel Islands of Jersey and Guernsey and the Isle of Man, are well-known secrecy jurisdictions. Many of its Overseas Territories, remnants of the British Empire, such as the Cayman Islands and the British Virgin Islands, are notorious tax havens. Two UK-based independent organizations, Christian Aid and the Tax Justice Network, have published a Financial Secrecy Index that ranks countries on the basis of their accommodation of tax evaders through secrecy provisions. In the most recent ranking, the UK itself was in thirteenth position among seventy-three countries, but the authors note that if the entire British network were considered, it would easily be ranked as the world’s number one secrecy jurisdiction.

In the most recent ranking, the UK itself was in thirteenth position among seventy-three countries, but the authors note that if the entire British network were considered, it would easily be ranked as the world’s number one secrecy jurisdiction. In his book Treasure Islands: Tax Havens and the ‌Men Who Stole the World,32 Nicholas Shaxson tells the story of how the UK became the centre of a web of tax havens in the 1950s in a deliberate attempt to funnel illicit funds from the crumbling British Empire to the City of London. While it’s impossible to estimate accurately the revenue loss from granting non-domicile status to the super-rich living in London, it probably amounts to ‌billions of pounds a year33 – an unconscionable loss at a time when ordinary UK citizens are being subjected to austerity measures to reduce the deficit. Presumably, the policy has been maintained because of the political influence of the fantastically wealthy non-doms, who have reportedly contributed millions of pounds to political parties.

pages: 1,072 words: 297,437

Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader


agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

A supplementary document from the State Department underlined the American position, to the extent of declaring that a timetable to independence should be drawn up: ‘It is accordingly, the duty and purpose of each nation having political ties with colonial peoples… to fix at the earliest practicable moment, dates upon which the colonial peoples shall be accorded the status of full independence…’ American public opinion echoed the sentiment, with the press to the fore. In an open letter to the English people the editors of Life magazine declared in 1942: ‘One thing we are sure we are not fighting for is to hold the British empire together…’10 Whatever Churchill may have told the House of Commons, his government was fully aware that American enthusiasm for independence probably entailed the end of the British Empire.11 But for all its fine sentiment, a clause in the Atlantic Charter calling for ‘access on equal terms to the trade and to the raw material of the world’ indicates that Roosevelt's noble demands were not wholly without self-interest. The war gave a tremendous boost to the growth of American technological, industrial, and financial power.

Not for the last time, a white South African minority faced the problem of reconciling its need for security with its dependence on the labour of conquered people.24 Afrikaner commandos attempted to stem the inflow by making intimidatory attacks on neighbouring African populations, and in 1841 their leaders decreed that not more than five African families should live on one farm and that ‘surplus’ Africans should be removed. The Afrikaners lacked the means of enforcing these decrees, but their apparent determination to persist with slavery in Natal aroused British concern. Gunships were dispatched to Port Natal and the republic was annexed by Britain in 1843. The document of submission which brought the Afrikaner Natal Republic into the British Empire included the stipulation ‘that there shall not be in the eye of the law any distinction of colour, origin, race, or creed; but that the protection of the law, in letter and in substance, shall be extended impartially to all alike’.25 After the British annexation of Natal, nearly all the Afrikaners trekked back to the high veld and distributed themselves throughout the interior – down to the Orange River and across the Vaal – creating an extensive but thinly populated frontier zone where they could sustain themselves but neither they, nor the indigenous communities, nor, for that matter, the British colonial authorities, could establish undisputed political control.

For £9,000 and 10,000 shares in his British South Africa Company.34 In writing of the deal Rhodes remarked that he did think the price excessive; which gives some clue to the scale of his ambitions in Africa in 1889. Rhodes was already immensely rich; he had gained overall control of the Kimberley diamond mines, and had major interests in the development of the gold-mining industry in the Transvaal. Wealth and ruthless business acumen had brought political influence and fuelled grandiose plans for a British Empire in Africa, stretching from the Cape to Cairo, as magnificent as the Indian Raj, ruled by Rhodes and his men. But first he had to have exclusive rights to the land. And at a time when the European powers were scrambling for spheres of influence around the world, that meant keeping others out. The granting of Protectorate status had kept the Germans out of Bechuanaland; an agreement with Lobengula forestalled Boer and Portuguese ambitions in Matabeleland; but what of Barotseland?

pages: 1,309 words: 300,991

Vanished Kingdoms: The Rise and Fall of States and Nations by Norman Davies


anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, Corn Laws,, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, labour mobility, land tenure, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Red Clydeside, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, trade route, urban renewal

Most of Albert and Victoria’s nine children were married into Europe’s most prestigious ruling families. They and their progeny were to occupy the thrones not only of the British Empire but also of Germany, Russia, Norway, Spain, Romania and Bulgaria. Uncle Leopold’s line of Saxe-Coburgs held its own in Belgium for five generations, and extended its tentacles as far as Mexico; the Saxe-Coburg-Koharys were prominent in Hungary, and gave rise to the Coburg-Braganzas who ruled Portugal until 1910. The Palais Coburg in Vienna, built between 1840 and 1845 for General Ferdinand Sachsen-Coburg-Kohary, was one of the architectural treasures of the Habsburg capital; and Saxe-Coburg soup, made from Albert’s favourite Brussels sprouts, was a worthy counterpart to the Brown Windsor soup on which the British Empire was said to have been built. Albert’s homeland did not enjoy the formal status of a kingdom, but it was a hereditary monarchy, and was accepted as a constituent member of the German Empire from 1871 to 1918.

AD 1000 15 The imperial Kingdom of Arles from 1032 16 The modern linguistic region Arpitania 17 The disintegration of imperial Burgundy 18 The Duchy and County of Burgundy in the fourteenth century 19 The States of Burgundy, fourteenth–fifteenth centuries 20 The Imperial Circles of the Holy Roman Empire 21 Pyrenees 22 Marches of Charlemagne’s Empire, ninth century 23 The cradle of the Kingdom of Aragon, 1035–1137 24 The Iberian peninsula in 1137 25 The heartlands of the Crown of Aragon 26 Aragonese Empire 27 The two medieval Sicilies 28 The Kingdom of Mallorca 29 The union of Castile and Aragon, 1479 30 Belarus 31 The ‘Land of the Headwaters’ 32 The Principalities of Polatsk, c. twelfth century 33 The Grand Duchy of Lithuania under Mindaugus (mid-thirteenth century) 34 The Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the other Jagiellonian lands, c. 1500 35 The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1572 36 The Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1572–1795 37 The Partitions of Poland-Lithuania, 1772–1795 38 Western gubernias of the Russian Empire in the nineteenth century 39 Istanbul and the Bosporus 40 Contraction of the Byzantine Empire 41 Kaliningrad oblast 42 Borussia – land of the Moravia 43 The Teutonic State, 1410 44 Royal and Ducal Prussia after 1466 45 Brandenburg-Prussia in 1648 46 The growth of the Hohenzollern Kingdom, 1701–1795 47 The Kingdom of Prussia, 1807–1918 48 The Eastern frontline, 1944–1945 49 Rome 50 Savoy and Piedmont 51 The Kingdom of Sardinia, c. 1750 52 Italy, 1859–1861 53 Northern Italy, spring 1860 54 West Ukraine 55 The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, c. 1900 56 Galicia in Austria-Hungary, c. 1914 57 Florence 58 The Kingdom of Etruria, 1801–1807 59 Napoleonic Italy, 1810 60 Free State of Thüringia and Northern Bavaria 61 Saxon mini-states, c. 1900 62 Montenegro, 2011 63 The tribes of Montenegro, c. 1900 64 Montenegro and neighbours, 1911 65 Yugoslavia after 1945 66 Modern Zakarpattia (Carpatho-Ukraine) 67 Czechoslovak Republic, 1920–1938 68 The Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine, 1939 69 Ireland, 2011 70 Northern Ireland in the late twentieth century 71 Estonia 72 The Baltic States between the wars 73 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1945–1991 74 Russia’s western ‘near abroad’ after 1991 Introduction All my life, I have been intrigued by the gap between appearances and reality. Things are never quite as they seem. I was born a subject of the British Empire, and as a child, read in my Children’s Encyclopaedia that ‘our empire’ was one ‘on which the sun never set’. I saw that there was more red on the map than any other colour, and was delighted. Before long, I was watching in disbelief as the imperial sunset blazed across the post-war skies amidst seas of blood and mayhem. Reality, as later revealed, belied outward appearances of unlimited power and permanence.

An Iron Age fort once stood atop the Rock; over the millennia, sentinels have watched the processions of coracles, boats and battleships that have sailed in on the rising tide or sailed out on the ebb. In late Roman times, they would have warned of the approach of the Hibernian pirates, whom the Romans called Scotti.* In the ninth century they would have gasped in awe at the fearsome fleets of Viking longships. In more recent times, they would have seen the troopships and merchantmen that formed the sinews of the British Empire, and the stately Cunard liners steaming out to the Atlantic. Not surprisingly, the town under the shadow of the Rock lived for much of its career from ship-building. The shipyard at Dumbarton was itself too small to accommodate the great ocean liners that were built at nearby Clydebank; instead, it specialized in the smaller steamships and paddleboats that have plied their trade on the Clyde for the last 200 years.

pages: 932 words: 307,785

State of Emergency: The Way We Were by Dominic Sandbrook

anti-communist, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, David Attenborough, Doomsday Book, edge city, estate planning, Etonian, falling living standards, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, feminist movement, financial thriller, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, German hyperinflation, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, sexual politics, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Winter of Discontent, young professional

If he had opened a newspaper, he would have been taken aback by the complacent assumptions of abundance – the classified offers of second-hand cars and old appliances, the endless promises of bargain-bonanza sales, the features on gardening, motoring and DIY, the glossy advertisements for cigars, liqueurs and foreign holidays. But if he had looked at a map, he would have been stunned to see so many new countries, and probably horrified by the apparent extinction of the British Empire. And if he had plucked up the courage to go into a pub, to buy a drink – perhaps lager or keg beer, not the bitter or mild he usually drank – he would have recognized some of his neighbours’ conversation, but not all of it. He might remember the name of Harold Wilson, a youthful President of the Board of Trade back in Mr Attlee’s day, but the names of Edward Heath and Enoch Powell, Jeremy Thorpe and Jim Callaghan, would be entirely unfamiliar to him.

What was more, elements within the Irish government – notably Charles Haughey and Neil Blaney, but possibly even the Taoiseach, Jack Lynch, himself – arranged for Irish Army intelligence to buy and ship guns to the Provisionals in the spring of 1970, an extraordinarily reckless and dangerous decision, given what was to follow. Finally, any group claiming the mantle of the IRA could expect considerable moral and financial support from across the Atlantic, where Irish families still toasted the Easter Rising and damned the British Empire. In particular, it was American money that paid for the massive shipments of Armalite rifles to the Provos in the early 1970s, with most of the cash coming from the Provo front organization NORAID. Smugglers even used the cruise liner QE2 as cover, bringing over half a dozen Armalites with every voyage, sometimes tucked down the legs of their trousers. By the late summer of 1970, therefore, the Provos had enough weapons to start a small war.

This was the United Kingdom in December 1971.38 7 Love Thy Neighbour The stink of the blacks made him sick. He hated spades – wished they’d wash more often or get the hell back where they came from. This was his London – not somewhere for London Transport’s African troops to live. – Richard Allen, Skinhead (1970) AGGRO BRITAIN: ‘Mindless Violence’ of the Bully Boys Worries Top Policeman – Daily Mirror, 14 June 1973 By the beginning of the 1970s, the British Empire had been consigned to history. As one colonial possession after another had declared independence during the 1950s and 1960s, so the swathes of imperial pink that had once covered maps in classrooms across the country had vanished. When Edward Heath flew to Singapore for the first Commonwealth Conference in January 1971, it was as the chief executive of a rusting industrial conglomerate, once a market leader but left now with just a handful of tiny, scattered subsidiaries: Hong Kong, the Seychelles, St Vincent, the Falkland Islands.

pages: 94 words: 26,453

The End of Nice: How to Be Human in a World Run by Robots (Kindle Single) by Richard Newton


3D printing, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Clayton Christensen, crowdsourcing, deliberate practice, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Paul Erdős, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Y Combinator

That won’t happen because this is permanent. Permanent acceleration is our new normal. Change will come at us faster and faster. The 40-60 hour work week, one-track careers, growing wealth inequality and the shape of modern capitalism and society have all come to be seen as the inevitable, inescapable, and natural order of things. The same was once said of the divine rule of kings, the flatness of the Earth, the reach of the British Empire, the inferiority of small-screen drama to the silver screen, blind men climbing Everest and the infallible genius of well-heeled bankers. This is what the figure at the door is warning you: Nothing lasts forever and the Nice Age is over. A bright future truly awaits and getting there is what this book is about, but it will not be reached by doing more of the same because “the same” will not exist.

pages: 488 words: 144,145

Inflated: How Money and Debt Built the American Dream by R. Christopher Whalen


Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, California gold rush, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, debt deflation, falling living standards, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global reserve currency, housing crisis, interchangeable parts, invention of radio, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, non-tariff barriers, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, special drawing rights, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, women in the workforce

Chapter 1 Free Banking and Private Money In his December 1776 pamphlet The Crisis, Thomas Paine famously said, “These are the times that try men’s souls.” He then proceeded to lay out a detailed assessment of America’s military challenges in fighting the British. But after the fighting was over, America faced the task of creating a new, independent state separate from British trade and especially independent from the banks of the City of London. The story of money and debt in America is the chronicle of how a fragment of the British empire broke off in the late 1700s and supplanted and surpassed Great Britain in economic terms by the end of WWI. Though Britain for centuries was the dominant economic system in the world, America would come to lead the global economy by the early twentieth century. The English pound was not the first great global currency, nor will the dollar likely be the last. Mankind has been through cycles of inflation and deflation more than once, going back to before Greek and Roman times.

But while the large banks fought the legislation, a growing majority of Americans knew that the recurring financial crises in the United States and the lack of a central bank to supply credit to the financial system generally was a serious disadvantage for the U.S. economy, as well as for individual businesses and consumers. In the early 1900s, for example, when American companies purchased goods from overseas, they often paid for the imports using a letter of credit drawn on a London bank. Because the credit of U.S. banks was considered to be so inferior and because British banks were set up to do business throughout the British empire, London held a tight grip over the financing of American commerce more than a century after the Declaration of Independence. Indeed, while there were many reasons for the Anglo-centric view of the House of Morgan and its strong ties to the London banking market, sheer necessity was one of the most important. Morgan was seen as a giant in New York, but in some circles in the City of London, it was still viewed as a colonial upstart right up until WWI.

The Marshall Plan and Bretton Woods would create a structure for global trade and finance that was measured in and supported by the dollar, a construct that supposed the existence of an international currency based upon the economy of just one large, politically dominant nation. The Bretton Woods agreement of 1944 also marked the end of Great Britain as a significant global power in financial and strategic terms. With the financial collapse of the United Kingdom after the war, the United States assumed responsibility for much of the colonial possessions of the British Empire and, once again, bailed out London financially. The mechanism for the bailout was a regime of fixed exchange rates pegged to the dollar, with the U.S. currency retaining some residual link to gold. The guns in Europe had barely fallen silent before the United Kingdom was seeking accommodation with respect to its obligations under the Lend Lease Act of WWII. The British also sought further loans or grants-in-aid and justified these requests as consideration for the suffering of Britain at the hands of the German air force.

pages: 637 words: 128,673

Democracy Incorporated by Sheldon S. Wolin


affirmative action, Berlin Wall, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, invisible hand, mass incarceration, money market fund, mutually assured destruction, new economy, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, single-payer health, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen

There were periods of dictatorship, a first empire under Napoleon, restoration of a monarchy combined with a parliament, a second empire and dictatorship under Louis Napoleon, then a series of republics interrupted in the twentieth century by the Vichy dictatorship (1940–44) sponsored by and beholden to the Nazis. Nor is American experience an exception. The thirteen colonies were originally part of the British Empire; the colonial system was overthrown by a confederation of the former colonies; it was succeeded by a new federal system and national government that would be challenged in the next century by a secessionist movement that culminated in a civil war and two systems of government. Throughout the nineteenth century the structure, even the form, of the American system, including its politics, was continually changing as new states from the Midwest, Southwest, and West, some with cultures strikingly different from that of the eastern states, were admitted—and all this against the background of Indian “wars,” the first chapter in the national commitment to eradicating terrorists while extending the reach of its government.

Recall as well, however, that the Founders favored a republic over a democracy because the latter could not be accommodated to an “enlarged sphere,” to a huge geographical expanse. And recall that the American citizenry has a long history of being complicit in the country’s imperial ventures. The imperial impulse is not a tic afflicting only the few. The difference may be that, unlike, say, the Roman and British empires, the American empire is repressed in the national ideology. Virtually from the beginnings of the nation the making of the American citizen was influenced, even shaped by, the making of an American imperium. The nineteenth-century expansion of the country to the west and southwest was achieved by military victories over various Indian nations and Mexico. It brought new opportunities for enterprise, exploitation, and ownership.

The proof was in the failure of postwar Reconstruction: despite military occupation democracy and racial equality failed to take hold in the South. x Today this failed assumption, that free politics could be reconciled peaceably with an ever-increasing scale, has been demonstrated again by the imperial ambitions of Superpower and its distinctive nonterritorial conception of empire. It used to be said of the late British Empire that it was not the consequence of a premeditated plan but casually established in “a fit of absent-mindedness.” There were, of course, “imperialists” who dreamed of empire, and some of them, such as Cecil Rhodes and Winston Churchill, who consciously fought for its realization. But there is a larger truth in the notion of an empire that begins without much forethought or conscious intention at work: empire building is likely to have contributing causes other than, or in addition to, the conscious intentions of imperialists.

pages: 428 words: 117,419

Cyclopedia by William Fotheringham


Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, Fall of the Berlin Wall, intermodal, Northern Rock, éminence grise

Round Ireland in Low Gear, Eric Newby Pretty eccentric tale, as the travel-writing great sets off in the depths of winter with wife Wanda to contend with Irish weather, Irish signposts, and their shared lack of cycling experience. Round the World on a Wheel, John Foster-Fraser Kipling or Baden Powell should have written this account of one of the first around-the-world trips. If you want to get an idea of the mindset that made the British Empire what it was—in the best and worst senses—it’s all there in this book, reissued in 1982. An excellent Boys’ Own-style caper at the time, now a period piece. Into the Remote Places, Ian Hibell One of the original and best “ridden there” books. Hibell cannot match Moore for humor, or Newby for observation, but no holds are barred, from bust-ups with his (male) companions, to his love affair with a (female) companion, not to mention the extreme experience of crossing the Darien Gap, slashing the jungle, bike on his back, with a septic leg oozing pus.

As a footnote, cycling has had links with Colombia’s drugs syndicates; down-on-their-luck pros traveling to Europe were employed as couriers, while in one of the most dramatic passages in Rendell’s Kings of the Mountains he interviews Roberto Escobar, brother of the notorious drug king Pablo. Roberto, a fine cyclist, watched Coppi and Koblet on their racing trip to Colombia and ended up making bikes and running teams. His brother, meanwhile, had a velodrome built in his hometown of Medellin so he could bet on the races held there. COMMONWEALTH GAMES There was no cycling in the inaugural British Empire Games of 1930; bike races appeared four years later. The Games take place on a four-year cycle which alternates with the Olympics. It was not until 1974, after various name changes, that the name Commonwealth Games was settled upon. Women’s cycling did not appear until 1990, while the 1998 Games in Kuala Lumpur saw the introduction of team events, and in 2002, in Manchester, events for athletes with disability were introduced.

The war with Moulton ended when Raleigh bought its competitor out. With two hugely successful models, the Chopper, an iconic kids’ bike, and the Twenty, a small-wheel shopping bike, the 1970s saw the company boom again. Raleigh profited from a massive increase in the market in the UNITED STATES and had other overseas operations including the Gazelle company in Holland and large sales of classic old roadsters across the former British empire. By 1975 its site in Nottingham covered 75 acres. In Europe, Raleigh sponsored the most successful professional team of the late 1970s and early 1980s, managed by the Dutchman Peter Post but barely ever including more than one British cyclist in its lineup. Post brought the company world titles in 1978 and 1979 and the Tour de France title with Joop Zoetemelk in 1980, with 77 stage wins in the Tour between 1976 and 1983.

pages: 561 words: 120,899

The Theory That Would Not Die: How Bayes' Rule Cracked the Enigma Code, Hunted Down Russian Submarines, and Emerged Triumphant From Two Centuries of Controversy by Sharon Bertsch McGrayne


Bayesian statistics, bioinformatics, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, double helix, Edmond Halley, Fellow of the Royal Society, full text search, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, linear programming, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, p-value, Pierre-Simon Laplace, placebo effect, prediction markets, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Ronald Reagan, speech recognition, statistical model, stochastic process, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

There Karl Pearson and Ronald Fisher were developing statistics—the mathematics of uncertainties—into the first information science. Early in the twentieth century, as they created new ways to study biology and heredity, theoreticians would change their attitudes toward Bayes’ rule from tepid toleration to outright hostility. Karl Pearson (I repeat his first name because his son Egon figures in Bayes’ story too) was a zealous atheist, socialist, feminist, Darwinist, Germanophile, and eugenicist. To save the British Empire, he believed the government should encourage the upper middle class to procreate and the poor to abstain. Karl Pearson ruled Britain’s 30-odd statistical theorists for years. In the process he introduced two generations of applied mathematicians to the kind of feuding and professional bullying generally seen only on middleschool playgrounds. Contentious, unquenchably ambitious, and craggily determined, Karl Pearson was ambivalent about few things, but Bayes’ rule was one of them.

But in straightening out inconsistencies in Karl Pearson’s work, Fisher pioneered the first comprehensive and rigorous theory of statistics and set it on its mathematical and anti-Bayesian course. The enmity between these two volatile men is striking because both were fervent eugenicists who believed that the careful breeding of British supermen and superwomen would improve the human population and the British Empire. To help support his wife and eight children on a subsistence farm, Fisher accepted funds from a controversial source, Charles Darwin’s son Leonard, who, as honorary president of the Eugenics Education Society, advocated the detention of “inferior types, . . . the sexes being kept apart” to prevent them from bearing children.26 In return for his financial help, Fisher published more than 200 reviews in Darwin’s magazine between 1914 and 1934.

Only when the Soviets replaced their Lorenz machines with new cryptosystems was Bletchley Park’s story revealed. The secrecy had tragic consequences. Family and friends of Bletchley Park employees went to their graves without ever knowing the contributions their loved ones had made during the war. Those connected with Colossus, the epitome of the British decryption effort, received little or no credit. Turing was given an Order of the British Empire (OBE), a routine award given to high civil servants. Newman was so angry at the government’s “derisory” lack of gratitude to Turing that he refused his own OBE. Britain’s science, technology, and economy were losers, too. The Colossi were built and operational years before the ENIAC in Pennsylvania and before John von Neumann’s computer at the Institute for Advance Study in Princeton, but for the next half century the world assumed that U.S. computers had come first.

pages: 410 words: 122,537

Engines of War: How Wars Were Won & Lost on the Railways by Christian Wolmar


anti-communist, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Khartoum Gordon, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, V2 rocket

Fighting the Dervishes was primarily a matter of transport. The Khalifa was conquered on the railway.’16 At the other end of the putative but never completed Cape to Cairo,17 the railways were also about to play a major, if very different, part in a war. The Boer War18 was another eminently preventable clash which started off with patriotic cheers, and ended with much soul searching about the state of the British Empire. At the turn of the century, the current Republic of South Africa was divided into four territories: Natal and the Cape Colony, which were British colonies, and two Boer republics, the Transvaal and Orange Free State.19 To the north, Rhodes had created the British South Africa Company, which became Rhodesia. South Africa had been initially colonized by the Dutch and Germans, but the British arrived in the early nineteenth century and tensions between the two groups were at the root of the Boer wars.

The Boers eventually surrendered in May 1902, ground down by the gradual progress of the British through their territory, and with little room to manoeuvre as the soldiers in the ever lengthening strings of blockhouses provided increasingly detailed intelligence on the whereabouts of the enemy. The Boers were harried and, unable to fight, forced into finally accepting peace terms which the British had offered several times previously. After lengthy negotiations, the Boer republics were incorporated into the British Empire a few years later, but the cost of dragooning the Boers into Britain’s fold had been high. Far from being the short conflict which the politicians expected, it turned out to be the bloodiest and most costly of Britain’s wars between 1815 and 1914. In railway terms the Boer War was a dress rehearsal for the forthcoming world war, even though the nature of the conflict was quite different, but in the intervening period another war was fought alongside a single long stretch of track in which the railway played an even more central part.

A standard-gauge railway struck north to Parbatipur on the foothills of the Himalayas, and then a metre-gauge line continued across Eastern Bengal to the banks of the Brahmaputra river, where there was only a ferry to connect with another narrow-gauge railway, which wound up the valley to Dimapur, the supply base in the north-eastern corner of Assam. The Allied forces in China were supplied by an airlift over the Himalayas from airfields close to the north-east end of the railway. According to the historian of the line, John Thomas, ‘the fate of India and to a degree the British Empire depended on this slender line of communication’,28 which was inevitably slow given that goods had to be manhandled three times between the various modes of transportation. To speed the flow of goods on the line, 400 British railway troops were brought over in early 1943, followed at the start of 1944 by ten times that number of Americans. By improving the line and building passing loops to accommodate the massive trains of 120 wagons pulled by imported locomotives, the capacity of the railway increased more than tenfold, from just 600 to 7,000 tons per day.

pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

Over the next century, British traders in over 11,000 ships transported more than two and a half million slaves.50 The profits generated from the slave trade and the plantations brought new wealth to Britain, generating a new class of wealthy traders, as well as a range of new products, which as production increased became entrenched in the British diet, such as sugar, potatoes, tea, coffee, and tobacco.51 Only a small fraction of the African slaves were brought to Britain—an estimated 40,000 by the 1770s—and although they were legally free in Britain, they were barred from engaging in work and therefore dependent on the bonded contracts with their employers. The British Slave Trade Act of 1807 made the transportation of slaves on British ships illegal, but it was the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 that banned slavery within the British Empire. The Abolition Act was the product of decades of political campaigning, which started in earnest with the formation in 1787 of the Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade—primarily involving humanitarian-minded British Quakers and Anglicans. The Society used public meetings, newspaper articles, popular boycotts, and political lobbying to press their humanitarian message, best incarnated in their logo of a chained kneeling slave asking, “Am I not a man and a brother?”

Britain took special measures to actively discourage emigration from “New Commonwealth” countries (in Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean) without openly changing its immigration policy. 28 During World War I, millions of colonial subjects were recruited for the war effort. Over 1.4 million Indians and other South Asian soldiers fought for the Allies in World War I. Canada, the Caribbean, South Africa, Australia, and other parts of the British Empire sent an additional million or more men to fight for the Allies. Following the war, however, the Indian and Caribbean soldiers who had fought for Britain found they were “shooed off home with undisguised alacrity” after being officially purged from representation in the grand London victory parade.29 Population Separation While certain states sought to limit migration on the basis of race, others promoted migration in order to “unmix” their populations.

As Jewish displacement from Europe became increasingly severe in the mid-1930s, the number of refugees arriving in Palestine rose to 200,000 between 1933 and 1936.43 The systematic murder, persecution, and displacement associated with Hitler's Third Reich in Germany would increasingly propel Europe's Jews toward Palestine—despite restrictions by the British Mandate government—and ultimately pave the way for the creation of the state of Israel, accompanied by the forced displacement of the Palestinian people. THE INTERWAR PERIOD: ECONOMIC DECLINE AND REGULATED MIGRATION Following World War I, the Treaty conference at Versailles involved negotiation over the creeping exclusions that signaled the end of open borders. Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the British Empire all insisted on their right to limit migration (often on the basis of race). Despite Japanese, Chinese, and Indian demands for the free movement of labor, the new League of Nations did not include any institutional support for international migration.44 Efforts advanced through the League to liberalize or abolish the new passport system were ultimately unsuccessful.45 Government opposition meant that the International Labour Organization stayed away from the issue of migration, and the efforts of the International Federation of Trade Unions to create an International Office on Migration failed.46 Instead, within a climate of nationalism and economic stagnation, states reserved their right to increasingly regulate migration and impose restrictions on the rights of foreigners within their borders.

pages: 632 words: 159,454

War and Gold: A Five-Hundred-Year History of Empires, Adventures, and Debt by Kwasi Kwarteng


accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, California gold rush, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Etonian, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, market bubble, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, quantitative easing, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War

As for Britain, while its resources were ‘quite adequate to meet the liability for the war debt which was assumed in 1923 . . . the amount of lease-lend aid was far greater, and the country’s resources far more heavily depleted’, wrote Ralph Hawtrey, the retired British Treasury official, in 1946.21 The prostrate position of Great Britain after the war, in economic terms, has often been seen by historians as a perfect opportunity for America to extend its dominance over the world. Keynes’s most significant biographer goes so far as to suggest that ‘America’s main war aim, after the defeat of Germany and Japan, was the liquidation of the British Empire.’22 Regardless of the motivations of the Americans, the relative strength of the two countries’ position was obvious. The Bretton Woods Agreement reflected White’s scheme rather than Keynes’s ‘not because it was technically superior, but because the Americans had the power’.23 Behind the scenes, the British were undoubtedly frustrated by their subordinate position. None was more conscious of Britain’s relative weakness than Keynes himself.

Keynes’s public career can be neatly fitted into the twenty-seven years between the publication of The Economic Consequences of the Peace in 1919 and his death in 1946. His public career had been entirely shaped by the two world wars. Despite his immense prestige and charisma, Keynes had not managed to stem the tide of American dominance in world affairs. Rather like Winston Churchill, he had been brought up in the high confidence of the upper classes of the British empire. Like Churchill’s, his life had been conducted almost exclusively in the elite institutions of British public life. Eton, Cambridge, the Treasury and, latterly, the House of Lords had been the scenes of his life’s work. Churchill’s life was almost entirely spent at Harrow, in the British army and in the House of Commons. They both reached their age of maturity in the reigns of Victoria and Edward VII.

These countries treated ‘London not merely as the place where they keep their currency reserves but also as their banking centre’.8 It would mean that those countries would resort ‘to any means at their disposal to push their exports’. This would threaten the interests of the United States or, in Martin’s more diplomatic language, ‘set up numerous points of friction in the trade relations between this country and the British Empire at a most inopportune time’.9 The British loan itself was controversial and split opinion across many levels of American politics. John Wesley Snyder, Fred Vinson’s successor as US Secretary of the Treasury, and a close personal friend of President Truman, later recalled that Anglophiles like George Kennan, an official in the US State Department, believed that the ‘resources of the United States were inexhaustible and that they should be employed to the greatest extent to relieving some of the economic and financial problems of Great Britain’.

Alone on the Ice: The Greatest Survival Story in the History of Exploration by David Roberts


British Empire,

Even as early as 1909, Mawson, along with other scientists, knew that the magnetic poles shifted position slightly on a daily basis. An “exact” magnetic pole could not be determined. It was good enough for the played-out trio. At 4:15 p.m., they hoisted a Union Jack they had fabricated in the hut over the winter. David uttered an official proclamation: “I hereby take possession of this area now containing the Magnetic Pole for the British Empire.” Mawson set up the expedition camera with a string attached to the shutter for a group portrait. With the Union Jack on a pole planted in the snow, all three men took off their helmets and stared into the camera. David, in the middle, pulled the string. The photograph remains one of the most famous images ever exposed in Antarctica. In it, exhaustion radiates from the haggard faces of all three men.

In 1929 and 1930, Mawson led two more expeditions to the Antarctic. The British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition, or BANZARE, would produce its own slew of scientific reports, and would make further discoveries on the southern continent, but a principal motivation for the journeys was to forestall an aggressive thrust by the Norwegians to claim territory that the Australians felt belonged to them, or at least to the British Empire. Captain John King Davis was once again the pilot for the expedition ship on the 1929 voyage, during which he and Mawson fell out so angrily that they stopped speaking to each other, trading notes instead. The quarrel wrote a doleful finis to what ought to have been a lifelong friendship cemented by the two men’s loyalty to each other on the AAE. Though BANZARE made significant contributions to the further exploration of Antarctica, by 1930 the heroic age was over.

., 86 bridge, 166 British, Australian and New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition (BANZARE), 301–2 British Antarctic Expedition (BAE; Nimrod expedition; 1907–09), 40, 43–45, 47–86, 94, 109, 118, 289, 307 area claimed in, 71 base camp in, 49, 55–57, 60, 75 book manufactured by, 263 cairns built in, 63, 67, 74 failure of, 80, 82 first exploratory deed of, 49–56 funding of, 40, 47, 87 impetus for, 47 landfall problems of, 48–49 McMurdo Sound base denied to, 45, 47–48, 87 motorcar in, 57–58, 96, 183 Nimrod rescues in, 76–78, 81, 93 relief party in, 81–82 Shackleton’s confusing instructions in, 59–60, 69, 75 supply depot problem in, 49 trek to South Magnetic Pole in, 57–72, 82–84, 111 trek toward South Pole in, 57–58, 60, 79–80 Wild in, 57–58, 79–82, 94, 118, 163, 164 wintering-over pattern in, 56–57 British Commonwealth, 92, 175 British Empire, 199, 301 Brocklehurst, Philip, 53–56 Broken Hill, 43, 85, 86, 90 Bunger, David, 198–99 Bunger Hills, 198–99 bunks, bunkmates, 125, 127–28, 163, 248, 306 burberry, 37, 146, 306 burberry trousers, loss of, 210, 216–17, 218, 226 burial services, 36, 37, 224 Butter Point, 62, 75 Byrd, Richard E., 199 “cags,” 56–57 cairns, 191, 206, 239–40, 242 of BAE, 63, 67, 74 “calcutta sweep,” 141 cannibalism, 41 Cape Adare, 88–89, 96, 108 Cape Denison (Winter Quarters), 15, 16, 18, 23, 111–21, 124–62, 202–8, 252–85 bunkmates at, 127–28, 248 cargo unloaded at, 114–17, 189 deadline for return to, 26, 171, 177, 181, 208, 222, 229 delayed departures from, 171, 182 distance from, 15, 32, 33, 36, 208, 215, 216, 222 egalitarianism at, 128, 139 entertainment at, 127, 129–30, 144–45, 267–68 guarding of hut in, 161, 170 hut erected at, 124–27, 126, 131, 248, 254 hut temperature at, 132 interpersonal tensions at, 151–60 location of, 96, 111–13 Mawson’s return to, 244–49 naming of, 113 newspaper published at, 262–68 other structures erected at, 131 parting between the men at, 207–8 quasi-military regimen at, 139–40 Western Base compared with, 163, 164, 169 Western Party’s return to, 187–88, 208 wind at, 132–39, 141, 145, 146, 148–49, 152, 159, 160, 164, 259, 260, 268, 283 Cape Evans, 203 Cape Freshfield, 32, 180, 295 Cape Royds, 49, 55–58, 63, 75, 76, 78, 79, 118 deadline for, 60, 68, 80 Nimrod’s departure from, 82 wintering over at, 56–57, 125, 133 Cape Washington, 60, 76 Caroline Cove, 99–100, 103, 105 Aurora’s return to, 107–8 cars, 57–58, 96, 183 Caruso (dog), 131 Cathedral Grotto, 182, 183, 186 celebrations, 172, 288 birthday, 56, 144, 152, 269–70 Christmas, 175, 185, 192, 198, 199, 215–16 Challenger expedition (1872–74), 117 champagne, 289, 290 “championship,” 145, 265 China, 57, 58 chocolate, 141, 173, 217, 237, 238 Christmas celebrations, 175, 185, 192, 198, 199, 215–16 chronometers, 64, 185 Churchill, Winston, 299 cigarettes, 141 Cleland, John, 224–25 climate, 55, 138–39 climbing equipment, 50–51 Close, John “Hollow-leg”; “Terror,” 130, 142, 149, 158–61, 170 Mawson’s view of, 154, 158, 161 in Near Eastern Party, 161, 177 clothing, 16, 37, 38, 67, 78 in Aladdin’s Cave, 179 of David, 62, 63, 73 of Hurley, 137 of Mawson, 227, 231, 289–90 of Mertz, 210, 216–17, 218, 226, 305 of search party, 205–6 Clyde (ship), shipwreck of, 102–3 coal, 76, 78, 97, 201 discovery of, 180 fear of shortage of, 110, 111, 119, 120, 252 for stove, 132, 140, 254 “Commercial Resources of Antarctica, The” (Mawson), 265 Commission Internationale de Ravitaillement, 298 Commonwealth Bay, 113–16, 138, 161, 181, 186, 189, 249, 277, 281, 284–85 Aurora’s returns to, 202, 203, 207, 242, 247, 284 Davis’s departure deadline from, 205 walks on, 267–68 compass, 58, 59, 81, 175, 238, 239 conjunctivitis, 211 continental drift, 307 Cook, Frederick A., 156 cooking, cooks, 98, 139, 141–42, 157, 158, 196, 216, 256 in Aladdin’s Cave, 179 of Jeffryes, 256, 270, 280 of Mawson, 128, 221, 223, 229, 270 coral atolls, 39 cornea, 22 Correll, Percy, 149, 203, 298, 306 in Eastern Coastal Party, 179–82 cotton: burberry, 37, 146 japara, 173, 210 crampons, 50–51, 73, 134, 138 improvised, 240–43, 305 Mawson’s throwing away of, 236, 240 “Cremation of Sam McGee, The” (Service), 129 crevasses, 24–30, 32–36, 137, 178, 282 BAE and, 54, 66, 67, 75, 78, 79–80 Far Eastern Party return and, 211, 230–33, 235–36, 241, 309 Madigan’s Eastern Coastal Party and, 180 Mawson’s close calls with, 230–33, 305, 311–12 Ninnis’s close call with, 25, 27 Ninnis’s death in, 35–36, 208–9, 211, 215, 216, 230, 231, 248, 296, 308, 309 open vs. hidden, 24 sledge accidents in, 27–29, 34–36, 208–9, 309 Southern Party and, 174–75 Western Coastal Party and, 190 Western Party and, 166, 167 Wild’s Eastern Coastal Party and, 194, 195, 196, 199, 209 “crook cooks,” 128 cyanide, 232 Dante, 196 David, T.

pages: 497 words: 153,755

The Power of Gold: The History of an Obsession by Peter L. Bernstein


Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Bretton Woods, British Empire, California gold rush, central bank independence, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, Francisco Pizarro, German hyperinflation, Hernando de Soto, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, large denomination, liquidity trap, long peace, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit motive, random walk, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route

In view of Britain's economic leadership in foreign trade, other countries began to give serious consideration to shifting to a pure gold standard like Britain'sbut the difficulty of disposing of their stocks of silver in an oversupplied market was a major deterrent. Germany was especially eager to make the changeover to gold, for the Germans wanted to be perceived by the world as a great power. Germany also wanted to be on the same standard as Britain in order to meet the growing need for sterling to pay for raw material imports from the outposts of the British Empire. Ludwig Bamberger, a politician who played a major role in putting Germany on the gold standard, admitted as much when he declared, "We chose gold, not because gold is gold, but because Britain is Britain.""' Germany seized on the opportunity provided by its victory over France in 1871. The indemnity paid by the French relieved the Germans of the necessity of liquidating silver in order to finance its purchases of gold.

But he claimed to have had experience with weighing the arguments of experts and he gave great weight to the judgments of "the men who have managed the currency so well" and who told him it would have been impossible to manage it up to this point if they had not had the return to gold as their goal. He emphasized that the decision was essential "for the revival of international trade and inter-Imperial trade [and] for the financial center of the world." And then, in a fine Churchillian flourish, he finished with these ringing words: "If the English pound is not to be the standard which everyone knows and can trust ... the business not only of the British Empire but of Europe as well might have to be transacted in dollars instead of pounds sterling. I think that would be a great mis- fortune."18 The Gold Standard Act of 1925 did not completely restore the old arrangements. Bank notes remained legal tender but were no longer convertible into gold coin at the Bank. In other words, the ancient right to bring gold to the bank for minting into coin was abolished.

Shaw, 1928, p. 263. 2. Jevons, 1875, pp. 231-232. 3. Wall Street Journal, Op-Ed page, December 10, 1999. 4. From a lecture delivered at Saint Vincent College, Latrobe, Pa., on March 13, 1997. Andrews, Kenneth, 1978. The Spanish Caribbean: Trade and Plunder, 1530-1630. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Andrews, Kenneth, 1984. Trade, Plunder and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480-1630. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Arnon, Arie, 1991. Thomas Tooke: Pioneer of Monetary Theory. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Attman, Artur, 1962. American Bullion in the European World Trade, 1600-1800. Goteborg: Kungl. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhallet. (I drew on the information in this book as provided in Kindleberger, 1989.) Austen, Ralph A., 1990. "Marginalization, Stagnation, and Growth: The Trans- Saharan Caravan Trade in the Era of European Expansion, 1500-1900."

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The Subterranean Railway: How the London Underground Was Built and How It Changed the City Forever by Christian Wolmar


British Empire, full employment, invention of the telephone, profit motive, railway mania, South Sea Bubble, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, women in the workforce

Most visitors to the site were more interested by the cycle track and the sports ground laid out around the tower or were content simply to view from the ground what soon became known as Watkin’s folly. By the time the park opened, Watkin, weakened by his stroke, was too ill to push the project forward and the tower was never completed, but its first stage survived for a decade before being demolished. The site was used after the First World War for the British Empire Exhibition and the internationally famous football stadium, which would have pleased Watkin as they both attracted considerable railway traffic. Another boost to Underground use was the growing entertainment market. Theatres were booming and, more significantly in terms of numbers, music halls were springing up everywhere in London: by the early 1890s there were thirty-five, with total audiences of 45,000 nightly.

In the centre were two banks of escalators leading to and from the lines, all lit by the characteristic uplighters which created the welcoming glow that became a feature of the Underground system and its publicity material. Although there was a commercial element, with shop displays around the outer perimeter of what Holden called his ‘ambulatory’, the main theme was London as the centre of the world, an appropriate sentiment given that the British Empire was still at its height. On the wall above the top of the escalators were oil paintings featuring a map of the world, with side panels showing the objectives of Underground travelling: business and commerce, outdoor pleasure, shopping, and amusements of the town. Later, a world clock map was installed, showing the time at various places around the world. The self-confidence and panache of the whole station is still largely noticeable today, even though the uplighters have been removed and the numbers using the station, night and day, are so enormous that there is little chance of getting a perspective on Holden’s great work.

John, ref1 Belsize Park, ref1 Bennett, Arnold, ref1 Berlin, ref1, ref2 Bermondsey, ref1 Bethnal Green, ref1, ref2, ref3 Betjeman, John, ref1, ref2 Bevin, Ernest, ref1 Beyer, Peacock locomotives, ref1, ref2 Big Wheel, ref1 Birkenhead, ref1 Birmingham, ref1, ref2 Birmingham, Bristol & Thames Junction Railway, ref1 Birmingham New Exchange, ref1 Bishop’s Road, ref1, ref2, ref3 Bishopsgate, ref1, ref2 Blackfriars, ref1, ref2 Blackfriars Bridge, ref1, ref2, ref3 Blake, Charles, ref1 Blumenfeld, R.D., ref1 Blumenthal, J.D., ref1 Boer War, ref1 boiler explosions, ref1 Bonar Law, Andrew, ref1 Bond Street, ref1, ref2 booking clerks, ref1 Borough, ref1 Bounds Green, ref1 Bow, ref1, ref2 Bramwell, Frederick, ref1 Brandon-Thomas, Jevan, ref1 Brent, ref1 Brent Valley viaduct, ref1 Brighton, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 British Empire Exhibition, ref1 British Freehold Land Company, ref1 British Museum, ref1, ref2 British Transport Commission (BTC), ref1, ref2, ref3 Brixton, ref1, ref2 Broad Street, ref1, ref2 Bromley, ref1, ref2 Brompton & Piccadilly Circus Railway, ref1, ref2 see also Piccadilly Line Brompton Road, ref1 Brown, Gordon, ref1, ref2 Brunel, Isambard and Marc, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Buckingham Palace, ref1 Budapest, ref1 building societies, ref1 Burnt Oak, ref1 bus conductors, ref1 bus fares, ref1, ref2 bus stops, ref1 buses (motor), ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 and London Regional Transport, ref1 and London Transport, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and network integration, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 pirate operators, ref1 see also omnibuses Bushey, ref1 Bushey Heath, ref1 Byers, Stephen, ref1 cable railways, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 ‘call boys’, ref1 Camden Town, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Campden Hill, ref1 Canada Water, ref1 Canary Wharf, ref1 Cannon Street, ref1, ref2, ref3 Canons Park, ref1 Carr, Jonathan, ref1 Cassel, Ernest, ref1 Catford, ref1 Cave, Sir George, ref1 Cecil Park, ref1 Central Line competition with Metropolitan Line, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 construction and opening, ref1, ref2 extensions, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 fares, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 finances, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 gradients, ref1 hand signals, ref1 improvements, ref1 interchanges, ref1 locomotives, ref1, ref2, ref3 parcels service, ref1 passenger numbers, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 safety, ref1 stations, ref1, ref2, ref3 travelling conditions, ref1, ref2 Twopenny Tube nickname, ref1 UERL takeover, ref1, ref2, ref3 and wartime, ref1, ref2 working hours, ref1 workmen’s trains, ref1 Central London Railway, see Central Line Chalk Hill, ref1, ref2 Chamberlain, Neville, ref1 Chancery Lane, ref1 Channel Tunnel, ref1, ref2, ref3 Chaplin, Charlie, ref1 Chapman, James, ref1 Charing Cross, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 flood barriers, ref1 interchanges, ref1, ref2, ref3 and Jubilee Line, ref1 station collapse, ref1 terrorist attacks, ref1 Charing Cross & Waterloo Electric Railway, ref1 Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway alternate trains, ref1 construction and opening, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 express trains, ref1 extensions, ref1, ref2, ref3 integration into Northern Line, ref1 interchanges, ref1 passenger numbers, ref1 see also Northern Line Cheam, ref1 Chelsea, ref1, ref2, ref3 Chesham, ref1 Chicago, ref1, ref2, ref3 Chingford, ref1 Chiswick Park, ref1 choke damp, ref1 Chorley Estate, ref1 Churchill, Winston, ref1 Circle Line, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 completion, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 costs per mile, ref1 electrification, ref1 open-air sections, ref1 opening, ref1 passenger numbers, ref1 siding dispute, ref1 terrorist attacks, ref1 travelling conditions, ref1, ref2 and wartime, ref1, ref2 circuses, ref1 City & South London Railway compared with Central, ref1 construction, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and electric power, ref1, ref2 fares, ref1, ref2 finances, ref1, ref2 integration into Northern Line, ref1, ref2, ref3 passenger numbers, ref1 stations, ref1, ref2 travelling conditions, ref1, ref2 UERL takeover, ref1, ref2, ref3 and wartime, ref1, ref2 see also Northern Line City Imperial Volunteers, ref1 City Road, ref1 Clan na Gael, ref1 Clapham, ref1 Clapham Junction, ref1, ref2, ref3 Clark, Charles, ref1, ref2 Clerkenwell Vestry, ref1 Cockfosters, ref1 Combine, the, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 see also Underground Electric Railways Company Communist Party, ref1 commuting, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Continental Passenger Railway Company, ref1 Cornhill, ref1 Cornwall Sir Edwin, ref1 cost-benefit analysis, ref1 costs per mile, ref1, ref2 costermongers, ref1 council housing, ref1 Courtenay, Irving, ref1 Covent Garden, ref1 Cromwell curve, ref1, ref2 Cross, George, ref1 Crossrail, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Croxley, ref1 Croydon, ref1, ref2, ref3 Crystal Palace, ref1 crystal railways, ref1 Cunningham, Granville, ref1, ref2 Cunningham, James, ref1 Daily Mail, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Daily Mirror, ref1 Daily News, ref1 Daily Telegraph, ref1, ref2 Daily Worker, ref1 Dalston, ref1 Dawkins, Sir Clinton, ref1 deep tube lines, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Dell, Robert, ref1 Denham, ref1 Denton, Rev.

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A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World by William J. Bernstein


Admiral Zheng, asset allocation, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, British Empire, call centre, clean water, Columbian Exchange, Corn Laws, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, domestication of the camel, double entry bookkeeping, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, ice-free Arctic, imperial preference, income inequality, intermodal, James Hargreaves, John Harrison: Longitude, Khyber Pass, low skilled workers, non-tariff barriers, Paul Samuelson, placebo effect, Port of Oakland, refrigerator car, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, working poor, zero-sum game

In Europe, peaceful trade was the province of rich and powerful nations such as Spain and the Netherlands, who had a vested interest in keeping the seas free from piracy. Like many poor, weak, backward states, Britain in the late sixteenth century could not afford the luxury of permitting foreign merchantmen to sail undisturbed; there was simply too much profit in plunder. The majestic, liberal, and free-trading British Empire was more than two centuries in the future; Tudor England was a nation of bankrupt monarchs, crown monopolies distributed to court favorites, and royal letters of marque granting freebooters a piece of the action. The most valuable cargo landed that day at Plymouth was neither spices nor silver, but rather intellectual capital. Early in Drake's odyssey, he had captured the Portuguese vessel Santa Maria near the Cape Verde Islands, off the west coast of Africa.

In the early 1600s, the EIC commanded only a small portion of the all-important spice trade; its major business was in Persian silks, shipped by camel over the Syrian desert to Turkish ports. Before long, the EIC began tapping the Indian fabric markets as well. At that early stage, no one could imagine that the trade in these textiles would eventually ignite the Industrial Revolution, destroy Indian textile manufacturing, spark a controversy over free trade in Britain as contentious as any seen in today's globalized economy, and, last but not least, give birth to the British Empire. Within several decades of the Company's chartering by Elizabeth I on the last day of the sixteenth century, England was gazing at a kaleidoscope of fabrics, colors, and patterns the like of which had never been seen before in Europe. England's traditional heavy, monochrome woolens could not compete with clothes, drapery, and upholstery made of the light, gaily colored printed Indian fabric.

(Bombay derives its name from Bom Baia, or "good bay," the name given to it by the Portuguese. In 1661, England's Charles II had acquired it as a dowry from his Portuguese bride, Catherine of Braganza, and the port soon overshadowed nearby Surat.35) In 1690, under Child's leadership, a third presidency was established in Calcutta. Eventually, these trading posts, whose main purpose was the purchase of textiles, would become the cornerstone of the British Empire. An unabashed admirer of the Dutch system of fortified trading posts, Child rapidly built up the EIC's military presence at the three presidencies. This policy paid off during the conflict between the Mughals and Hindu Marathas that raged between 1681 and 1707. He also solidified the complex "trading rules" required by the two-year "feedback loop" between the initial departure of cargoes of silver and trade goods from England and the arrival back home of calicoes.

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It's Our Turn to Eat by Michela Wrong


Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, Doha Development Round, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, Kibera, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shock, out of africa, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, upwardly mobile, young professional, zero-sum game, éminence grise

Professor Paul Collier, an expert on African economies, had come to the rescue with a not particularly demanding senior associate's post on its East African Studies programme. It was exactly the kind of academic berth John needed at this juncture, offering him accommodation, a work space and – crucially – the time in which to gather his thoughts. One of his first acts there was highly symbolic. Just as his government experience had been at its sourest, he had been named Chief of the Burning Spear, Kenya's equivalent of the Order of the British Empire. Coming when it did, the award had felt part consolation prize, part bribe. Now he arranged for it to be sent to an old Kenyan friend, Harris Mule. Mule, a former permanent secretary at the finance ministry, had been a loyal civil servant who had refused to play the political game. When he had fallen into disfavour, he had quietly accepted his fate. John had consulted him when things got difficult, drinking in his wise advice.

Opening up the hinterland would not only allow its riches to be tapped, it would also, Mackinnon maintained, mean the eradication of the vile Arab slave trade, saving the region for Christian missionaries. The magnate and his politician friends applied a broad brush when it came to geopolitics, their rough imaginary strokes stretching across half the globe. The recently opened Suez Canal, they argued, held the key to the British Empire's all-important trade with India. If that waterway were to be guaranteed, then the headwaters of the Nile must be secured, and that meant establishing a link between Lake Victoria – source of the Nile – and the coast, controlled by the Sultan of Zanzibar. Above all, a railroad would shore up Britain's position in its long race for regional supremacy with Germany, whose agents lusted after the promised ‘new India’ just as ardently as Mackinnon.

In 1903 there were only around a hundred settlers; by the late 1940s the number had risen to 29,000, boosted by demobilised British soldiers. It would peak at 80,000 in the 1950s. And as the new arrivals marked up their farms, everything began to change for the more than forty local tribes. Back in Britain, the citizen's right not to have his taxes raised or property confiscated on the whim of a greedy ruler had been recognised since the Magna Carta. But these fundamental principles did not apply to the British Empire's African subjects. A series of regulations passed at the turn of the century decreed that any ‘waste and unoccupied land’ belonged to the Crown, which could then dispose of it as it wished, usually in the form of 99-and 999-year leases to settlers. In order to force Africans to take paid work on white-owned farms, which were desperately short of labour, the colonial authorities levied first a hut tax and then a poll tax.

pages: 525 words: 131,496

Near and Distant Neighbors: A New History of Soviet Intelligence by Jonathan Haslam


active measures, Albert Einstein, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, falling living standards, John von Neumann, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Valery Gerasimov, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, éminence grise

Thus normal interstate relations with capitalist governments were not paramount; instead, subverting the West through covert action was seen as essential to the survival of the new Soviet régime. This myth seemed all the more plausible because world war had dislocated relations between the great powers and undermined social and economic stability across the face of Europe. The second myth, held by the leading Great Powers, most notably France, the British Empire, and, momentarily, the United States, was that the agreements negotiated to end the First World War—most notably the Treaty of Versailles (June 28, 1919)—would forge a stable peace. This would be done by subjugating Germany for the indefinite future; an international outcast, it would be stripped of its ability to wage war and economically crippled through the payment of reparations. Yet this policy was bought at a high price by the victors.

Reilly was executed on November 3.62 His corpse lies to this day under a courtyard within the Lubyanka.63 Moscow and London reached an uneasy truce after mutual diplomatic recognition was achieved in March 1921, and ambassadors were even exchanged in 1924, during Ramsay MacDonald’s short-lived Labour government. But relations rapidly deteriorated under the strain of accelerated Comintern activity within the British Empire, including, importantly, in the treaty ports of China. China mattered greatly. It was Britain’s second-largest trading partner and the second-largest recipient of British investment. Stanley Baldwin’s die-hard Conservative government (1924–1929) swept to power on the back of the Zinoviev Letter, which purported to be an instruction from Comintern to instigate mutiny in the armed forces. Pressure from the backbenches in Parliament forced a breach in diplomatic relations on May 26, 1927.64 This unusual step, invariably a precursor to war, was preceded shortly before by a police raid on the premises of the Soviet trade delegation in London.

No doubt to Liza’s silent horror, Blyumkin was condemned to death on November 3, 1929: the first victim within the Party to lose his life as a result of Stalin’s very personal vendetta against Trotsky.23 Operation Tarantella Artuzov may not himself have invented the Trust, but he did turn it into a legend, though its demise ultimately proved impossible to avert. Operations on a similar scale were now contemplated to neutralise Moscow’s main foreign adversary, the British Empire, through disinformation on a grand scale. This led to the birth of Operation Tarantella in the summer of 1930. Artuzov’s Italian roots no doubt made this an amusing choice of title: the tarantella is by legend a Neapolitan dance designed to drive men mad.24 The operation’s broad aim was to convince London that the industrialisation of the Soviet Union was a huge success. That this soon began to work is apparent from the switch in the focus of MI6 in 1932 from predominantly military intelligence (including the counterfeits produced by the army staff in Moscow) to planned industrialisation and the foreign and domestic policies of the Soviet government.25 Aside from media manipulation and carefully orchestrated foreign tourist visits, one target was Viktor Bogomolets, a key figure in MI6 operations against the Soviet Union based in southeastern Europe, known as HV/109.26 Bogomolets had also been asked in 1930 to make contact with Polish intelligence through the MI6 resident (Ilychyov) for authorisation of British operations into the Soviet Union from Polish soil.

pages: 369 words: 120,636

Commuter City: How the Railways Shaped London by David Wragg


Beeching cuts, British Empire, financial independence, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Louis Blériot, North Sea oil, railway mania, Right to Buy, South Sea Bubble, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Winter of Discontent, yield management

And the horse-drawn bus, we should remember, was no humble convenience as it was very much the mode of transport of the middle classes, who could afford the fares, while the working classes walked. The one obvious relief to all of this pressure on the streets was the River Thames. This was the main source of many of the supplies needed by London. True, London grew as a great international trading port, and its growth matched that of the British Empire, but much of the cargo handled in London came from elsewhere in England and was intended for the consumption of Londoners and London business. Coal came from Newcastle by sea, and salted fish from ports much closer in East Anglia and Kent. It was not just cargo that came and went using the Thames. If one wanted to travel between London and, say, Edinburgh or Aberdeen, the more comfortable and sometimes safer alternative to the stage and mail coaches was by sea.

Having a railway land on its doorstep was as big a godsend to a hard-pressed local authority in the nineteenth century as having a major airport would be today, but in the case of the railways, central government also saw its opportunity to raise revenue, and took it just as surely as in recent years it has begun to tax travellers by air. Given that London was the capital of a major empire, and that business did not feel itself constrained to remain within the bounds of that empire, the impact of London as a financial centre on railways was not confined to the British Isles or to the British Empire, but to countries that were independent of it and had no ties of language or culture. British companies were active in Latin America and Asia, developing railways and tramways. The first trunk lines arrive It was not just the fact that London was already heavily built-up that was a problem for the new railways as they attempted to get as close as possible to the centres of the City and of the West End, some of the railways had to approach through the better class of area where important property owners held sway.

The population of the London Passenger Transport area actually fell by 2.7 million to 7,147,000 between 1939 and 1944, largely due to evacuation, and the reduced travel caused by the blackout and German bombing, reduced traffic substantially at first. On the other hand, heavy movement of forces personnel brought heavy and sometimes unpredictable traffic peaks, while for service personnel from the British Empire and, later, the United States, even without the bright lights London continued to be the prime destination when on leave. This service leave traffic was encouraged with the offer of a ticket, costing a shilling, which gave visiting service personnel the use of most of London Transport’s bus, tram, trolleybus and underground services for a day, starting at 10.30 am. Because of the original mass evacuation of children, the war started busily enough for the underground network, with London Transport and the four mainline railway companies told to make arrangements to evacuate 1¼ million people, mainly children, although in the end only 600,000 were moved.

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The Case Against Sugar by Gary Taubes


Albert Einstein, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, epigenetics, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Gary Taubes, Isaac Newton, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, the new new thing, the scientific method, Works Progress Administration

The result, as the historian of science Robert Proctor has written about tobacco and taxation, was a “second addiction”—both the British and U.S. governments came to be vigorous promoters of the sugar industry because of the revenues they could garner by taxing it. Sugar was an ideal target of taxation: production was localized to tropical colonies, so its import could be controlled, and it was in universal demand but not (yet) considered a necessity of life. (The same was true of tea; the sweetening of tea and the burgeoning tea industry in India also drove sugar consumption through the British Empire in this era.) The British government began taxing sugar imports from the Caribbean, along with tobacco, in the late seventeenth century. The Americans followed a century later, after the Revolution, and after realizing how much money could be raised from sugar to help get a fledgling country on its feet. For the sugar islands in the Caribbean, sugar production was so profitable that it seemed worthwhile to grow almost exclusively sugar and to import anything else needed for life.

Trowell and Burkitt preferred to call them “Western diseases” for what in retrospect was an obvious reason: “It proved obnoxious,” they wrote, “to teach African and Asian medical students that their communities had a low incidence of these diseases because they were uncivilized.” It’s their terminology that’s still with us today. These diseases have tended to increase in prevalence through the twentieth century and into the twenty-first, and many of them are closely associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. We can think of Burkitt and Trowell’s provisional 1981 list as a product of the collective medical consciousness of the British Empire. One of the advantages of having colonies, protectorates, dominions, and territories scattered over much of the planet is that it allows for the physicians working in these far-flung locales—“where the conditions of life differ so widely,” Joseph Chamberlain, colonial secretary (and father of Neville), would phrase it in 1903 with the founding of the British Cancer Research Fund—to compare and contrast their clinical experiences and inpatient records with those of their colleagues working in the home country.

In 1902, the British government founded the Cancer Research Fund*4 to work with both the Royal College of Physicians and the Royal College of Surgeons in investigating “all matters connected with, or bearing on, the causes, preventions, and treatment of Cancer and Malignant Disease.” The implicit message was that cancer appeared to be an increasingly common disease, and that action had to be taken to understand what was happening and why. A committee of investigators would now carefully examine the records of malignant disease in hospitals throughout the U.K., Europe, and Asia, and in missionary and colonial hospitals throughout the British Empire. A series of dispatches were circulated to the governors and commissioners of all the British colonies and protectorates worldwide, directing missionary and colonial physicians to report back on the prevalence of cancer in their patient populations and, if possible, ship specimens of any cancers that might be newly diagnosed and surgically removed (“placed in formalin immediately after removal from the body”) back to London for careful microscopic investigation.

America Right or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism by Anatol Lieven

British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, income inequality, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, moral panic, new economy, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, World Values Survey, Y2K

Neither set of voters mentioned foreign policy as such.29 As the New York Times commented on Bush's neglect of these issues: "But then, Bush may have decided that too much talk about foreign policy is bad business. He has talked often to friends and acquaintances about his father's loss to Bill Clinton eight years ago, when the elder Bush focused on foreign affairs and the Arkansas neophyte emphasized the economy."30 An unwillingness on the part of the masses to make serious sacrifices for empire is not new. Until World War I the British empire was conquered and run very much on the cheap (largely by local native auxiliaries—not unlike the situation for the United States in Afghanistan after 2001), and this was true of the other colonial empires as well. The Royal Navy was of course expensive, but then it doubled as the absolutely necessary defense of the British Isles themselves against invasion or blockade. 25 AMERICA RIGHT OR WRONG Then as now, given the overwhelming superiority of Western firepower and military organization, enormous territories could be conquered at very low cost and risk.

A great many nations throughout history—perhaps even the great majority—have had a sense of themselves as especially "chosen" by God, or destiny, for great and special "tasks," and often have used remarkably similar language to describe this sense of mission.62 Indeed, some of the most articulate proponents of America's universal mission have been British subjects, repeating very much the same lines that their fathers and grandfathers used to employ about the British empire.63 In the words of Herman Melville (1819-1891): "We Americans are the peculiar chosen people—the Israel of our time; we bear the ark of the liberties of the world. God has predestined, mankind expects, great things from our race; and great things we feel in our souls. The rest of the nations must soon be in our rear. We are pioneers of the world; the advance guard, sent on through the wilderness of untried things, to break a path into the New World that is ours."64 As the leading religious historian Conrad Cherry writes, "The development of the theme of chosen people in both Germany and the United States between 1880 and 1920 illustrates the protean character of the myth of religious nationalism.

Every European country before 1914 had its own repeated and carefully stoked panics concerning the enemy's military capabilities, such as the "Missile Gap" scare that the Democrats created as a weapon against Eisenhower with the help of intellectual allies including the nuclear scientist and arch-Cold Warrior Edward Teller.30 In the United States, one of the first employers of this tactic was Senator Lyndon lohnson when chairman of the Senate's Preparedness Subcommittee during the Korean War. Since then it has become a fixed and recurring feature of American political theater.31 Such moves can be used either by the opposition to discredit the government in power or by the government to whip up patriotic support and discredit the opposition. Lord Salisbury, several times British premier at the height of the British empire, once remarked sourly that if British generals and their political allies had their way, he would have to pay to "fortify the Moon against an attack from Mars."32 Indeed, in 1897 a British magazine published a story with a title which could have been written by Charles Krauthammer—"How Britain Fought the World in 1899"—in which France and Russia invade Britain. In the words of its publisher, this story was "no wild dream of the imaginative novelist, this threat of an invasion of our beloved shore.

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What's Left?: How Liberals Lost Their Way by Nick Cohen

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, centre right, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, haute couture, kremlinology, liberal world order, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, profit motive, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, the scientific method, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

‘Propaganda is to a democracy what the bludgeon is to a totalitarian state,’ he declared. The theory of false consciousness assumes their rival media owners unite in a political pact to brainwash the masses and keep the elite in power. George Orwell subscribed to it. In his essay on boys’ comics he said that their tales of upper-class boarding schools and ripping adventures in the service of the British Empire were part of a plot ‘by capitalist newspaper proprietors’ to indoctrinate the young ‘in the interest [of maintaining] the class structure of society’. An amused Evelyn Waugh replied that ‘a study of those noblemen’s more important papers reveals a reckless disregard of any such obligation’. The same applies today. The majority of British newspaper proprietors are as right wing as they were in the Forties.

The ‘heroic’ years of the Left show that you should never underestimate the effect of parochialism on small minds that can’t get beyond a hatred of injustice in their own countries. There was much more to hate in the Britain of 1940 with its poverty and imperial conquests than the Britain of today, and a good deal of what the supporters of the convention said was true. Many from the old gang of the Thirties were still in power in 1940 and 1941. In Churchill’s mind the Second World War was as much a war to defend the British Empire as defeat Nazi Germany. Londoners didn’t always show grim determination during the Blitz and they had no guarantee that they wouldn’t face mass unemployment again when the war was over. What the vicars, trade unionists and celebrities couldn’t understand was that the democratic system offered the chance of rectifying these evils. Then (and with far less justification now) political hatred moved from a rational complaint to an irresistible obsession that left the afflicted unable to fight against abuses in their own country while recognizing that there were greater abuses of power which they must defend the best of their country’s democratic beliefs against.

Scott 98–9 Armstrong, Sir William 56 Ash, Lucy 121 al-Askari, Abdel-Qadir 51 Astor, Lord and Lady 217 asylum seekers 7 Atta, Mohamed 83, 255–7, 260, 269, 273 Auden, W.H. 122, 219, 220, 223, 224–5, 238, 335, 358–9 Australia 258 Axelrod, Pavel 103 al-Ayyeri, Yussuf 270 Aziz, Hind 34 Aziz, Tariq 292 Baath Party (Iraq) 24, 25, 33–4, 352, 365 alliance with Islamists after war to form ‘insurgency’ 8, 32, 286–7 and conspiracy theory 35–6 ideology 33, 35 and indoctrination 33–5, 41 and Iraqi communists 37–8 killings by 4–5, 31–2, 37 program against Iraqi Jews 36–7 purges of by Saddam 35, 42–4 seizure of power 22 and Soviet Union 37–8, 40 tyrannizing of Iraqis and forces of oppression 7, 33, 37, 41–2 Baath Party (Syria) 31 backlash politics 196–7 Bad Writing Contest 99–100 Bagehot, Walter English Constitution 189–90 al-Bakr, Ahmad Hasan 36 Baldwin, Stanley 220 Bali bar bombings (2002) 258 al-Banna, Hassan 265–6 al-Barak, Fadhil 35, 36 Barruel, L’Abbé Augustin 340, 341, 343, 345, 346 Memoirs to Serve for a History of Jacobinism 340 Battle of Britain 225 Baudrillard, Jean 110 Bazoft, Farzad 5, 53 BBC 159, 244, 304, 367, 368, 369, 379 Beard, Mary 274–5 Bell, Clive 228, 235 Bellow, Saul Ravelstein 80 Benaissa, Mohamed 352 Benenson, Peter 322 Benn, Hilary 367 Benson, Ophelia 101 Berman, Paul 249, 250, 312 Beslan school hostage crisis (2004) 259–60 Betjeman, John 221 Bevin, Ernie 231, 232, 233, 246 bin Laden, Osama 257, 258, 261, 267–8, 276, 365, 367 Birthler, Marianne 331 Blair, Cherie 205 Blair, Tony 54, 114, 185, 201, 277, 290, 297, 359, 364, 379 and Amnesty 322–3 and Iraq war 8, 202, 203, 280, 284, 285, 297, 300 and Kosovo war 151 and 9/11 257 Blakeney, Kate 63, 66 Bleasdale, Alan 184 blogosphere 270–1 Bloomsbury Group 192, 227, 228, 229, 235 Blum, Leon 249, 251 Blythe, Ronald The Age of Illusion 230 Boggan, Steve 40–1 Bosnian war 10, 127–51, 153–4, 168, 172, 370 atrocities committed 128, 129, 130, 131–2, 134 denial of crimes committed 171–8 ending of 151 lack of international help 135 Omarska prison camp 129, 130–1, 174 photograph of ‘emaciated men behind barbed wire’ 134, 174–5 pressure on Major government from Americans to intervene 145–9 prevention of action in by Major government 139–43, 144–5, 153–5, 168 siege of Sarajevo 153–4 Srebrenica massacre (1995) 130–1, 149–50, 171, 177–8 Trnopolje camp 131–4, 171, 174, 175–6 Bridget Jones’s Diary 313 Britain 138–9 and Euroscepticism 139 possibility of Bolshevik revolution in 1970s 55–7 prevention of action in Bosnian War by Major government 139–41, 144–5, 153–5, 168 radicalism in 58 trade unions 298–9 British Empire 162 British Muslims 369–72, 378 British National Party (BNP) 294, 310–11 British People’s Party 235–6 Brittain, Vera 248–9 Brown, Gordon 201, 297 Buchan, James High Latitudes 95 Burchill, Julie 207 Buruma, Ian and Margalit, Avishai Occidentalism 268 Bush, George (senior) 169 Bush, George W. 8, 9, 83, 85, 201, 209, 274, 284, 320, 321, 358, 359, 365, 373 Butler inquiry 285 Butler, Judith 100, 111 Butt, Hassan 371–2 Caldwell, Christopher 336–7 Cambodia 93, 166–7 Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament 230–1 Campbell, Professor David 176 Campbell, Sir Menzies 74 Camus, Albert 29 capitalism 22, 119–20, 195 Carey, Professor John 189 Castro, Fidel 93, 293 ‘Cato’ 225 Celebrity Big Brother 288–90 centralized regulation 194–5 Chamberlain, Houston Stewart 227, 266–7 Chamberlain, Neville 144, 217–18, 220, 227, 233 Chamcha, Saladin 184 Chechnya 259–60 Chemical Ali see al-Majid, Ali Hassan China 93, 94, 117 Chirac, Jacques 150 Chomsky, Noam 14, 155–62, 164–8, 170, 179–80, 258, 376 American Power and the New Mandarins 156–7 anti-Americanism 156–7 background 155–6 and Bosnian War atrocities denial 178–9 condemning of Kosovo War 170–1 and Hiroshima 156, 157 and Holocaust denial theory 164–6 and Khmer rouge killings in Cambodia 167–8 and media propaganda 157–8, 160–1 support of Johnstone’s Fools’ Crusade 178, 179 Christian Democrats 14 Churchill, Caryl 184 Churchill, Winston 2, 33, 218, 219, 245, 246 Clearances (Scottish Highlands) 118 Cliff, Tony 54 Clinton, Bill 83, 87, 145, 150, 201, 211, 273 Clwyd, Ann Saddam’s Iraq 40 Cockburn, Alexander 73 Coe, Jonathan 184 Cohn, Norman 345 Cohn, Professor Werner 174 Cold War 4, 88, 97, 143 Collard, Dudley 242 Collins, Michael 205–6 Columbia Journalism Review 159–60 communalism 309 communism 3–4, 89, 373–4 collapse of 87–8 and fascism 89, 237 killing of by communists 248 Communist Party (Britain) 238 attempt to rally support for Hitler after Soviet-Germany pact 239–46 People’s Convention 239, 242–6, 247 support of war effort after invasion of Soviet Union by Germany 246 Communist Party (Iraq) 37–8 Conquest, Robert 29, 103 Conservatives 2–3, 10, 53, 113 conspiracy theory 339–40 and Freemasons 35, 340–2, 345–6 and Jews 35–6, 65, 77, 343–6, 350–1 consumer leftism 373–6 consumerism 12, 221 Cook, Robin 285, 313 Cooper, Robert 136 council house waiting lists 200, 201 Critical Terms for Literary Study 100 Croatia 127 Crusaders 340 cults, political 60–3 Daily Mail 197 Daily Worker 240–1 Dalrymple, Theodore 229 Darfur 50, 117, 381 Dawkins, Richard 318 Dawson, Geoffrey 217 de Beauvoir, Simone 103 de Pauw, Cornelius 262–3 Declaration of Independence 317, 343 Deichmann, Thomas 174–5, 176, 177 democracy 193–4, 268, 342, 362, 365, 379, 380 fascism’s case against 268–70 Democrats 14, 211 Dench, Geoff 199 denial 162–3 and Bosnian war 171–8 and fascists 163–4 Holocaust 163–5, 179 Denmark 212 al-Din, Salah 33 Disneyland 110 Dole, Bob 145, 147, 150 Domvile, Admiral Sir Barry 235, 236 Dorfman, Ariel 283 Dostoevsky 67 dowry-murders 101, 102, 121–3 Drabble, Margaret 263 Dutton, Denis 99–100 Dzandarova, Zalina 259 East End/East Enders 198–201 East Timor 161, 170, 258, 275, 283 economists 114 education 204–5 Egypt 349, 350 Eliot, George 333 Eliot, T.S. 219 Empire (Hardt and Negri) 109–10 Engels, Friedrich 158 ‘Englishness’ 206 Enlightenment 35, 106, 109, 343, 355, 357 environment movement 356–7 epistemic relativism 105–6 Equity 57–8 Estikhbarat 40 ethnic cleansing 128, 365 ethnic minorities 11 eugenics 198 European Court of Human Rights 136, 212 European Exchange Rate Mechanism 3, 139 European Social Forum (2003) 115, 119–20, 301 European Union 10, 127, 135–8, 212, 214, 365, 379 Euroscepticism 139 Euston Manifesto 361–3 Fabians 190, 192, 193, 198 Fahrenheit 9/11 321–2 Fallacy of the Superior Virtue of the Oppressed 78–9 false consciousness, theory of 158–9, 374–5 Falwell, Jerry 261 family attempt to weaken influence of by political cults 61 fascism/fascists 3–4, 10, 268 case against democracy 268–70 and communism 89, 237 and denial 163–4 Faurisson, Robert 163–5 feminism/feminists 12, 90–1, 111, 112 in India 120 Ferguson, Euan 282–3 First World War 220 Fischer, Joschka 332 Fisk, Robert 271–2 ‘fisking’ 271 Foot, Michael 225, 232–3 Forster, E.M. 244 Foucault, Michel 107–8, 109, 377, 379 Fox, Dr Myron L. 97–8 Fox, John 146–7 France 47, 206, 212, 218, 281 Franco, General Francisco 1, 35, 50, 346 Frank, Thomas 209, 210–11, 212 Franks, General Tommy 72 Frayn, Michael 182–3 Freemasons 35, 38, 269, 340–2, 345–6, 350, 351 French left 249, 327 French Revolution 42, 355 French socialists and Hitler 249–52 Gaddafi, Colonel 68 Galbraith, Peter 50, 52 Galloway, George 74, 290–3, 300–1, 302, 310 game theory 97 Gaullists 14 Gavron, Kate 199 genocide against Iraqi Kurds 5, 7, 24, 48–9, 50–2, 127 defined by United Nations 129 Geras, Norman 325 Germany anti-war demonstrations 281 and Iraq war 329 see also Nazi Germany Globalise Resistance 296 globalization 141, 374, 376 see also anti-globalization movement Gold Standard 219 Gollancz, Victor 240–1 Goodlad, Alistair 153 Gorazde (Bosnia) 154 Gore, Al 273 Gorst, Irene 59–60 Gourlay, Walter 215 grammar schools 205 Grant, Ted 54 Great Depression 195, 218, 220–1, 356 Great Leap Forward 49 Greece anti-war demonstrations 281 Green movement 119, 356 Griffiths, James 234 Griffiths, Richard 236 Griffiths, Trevor 55 The Party 55–6, 57 Guantanamo Bay 324 Guardian 117, 179–80, 294, 304, 337–8 Guevara, Che 93 Guilty Men 225–7, 240 Gulf War (1991) 71, 89 Halabja 50–2, 292 Hamas 259 constitution 348–9 Hamza, Abu 351 Hardt, Michael and Negri, Antonio Empire 109–10 Hare, Sir David 184, 206 Harrington, Michael 82 Hawley, Caroline 46 Hayek, Friedrich 294 The Road to Serfdom 194–5 Healy, Gerry 53–5, 57–9, 61, 63–4, 66–8, 301 hegemonic 110–12 Heidegger, Martin 263–4 heroes/heroines 19–20 Herman, Edward S. 166, 168, 170, 176 Hezbollah 293–4, 366 Hiroshima 156, 157 Hitchens, Christopher 247, 253 Hitler, Adolf 4, 35, 49, 50, 246, 248, 250 appeasement of by Chamberlain 217–18, 220, 227, 233, 233–4, 276 and France 251 and Jews 30, 346 meeting with Lansbury 234 Mein Kampf 345, 346 pact with Stalin 358 rise of 231 seen as a bulwark against communism 217 Hizb-ut-Tahir 370 Ho Chi Minh 93 Hoare, Marko Attila 169–70, 171 Hobsbawm, Eric 103, 185, 241–2 Hoggart, Simon 299–300 Hollinghurst, Alan The Line of Beauty 184 Holocaust 336 denial of 163–5, 179 homosexuality 11, 105, 111 ‘honour killings’ 378 Horta, Hose Ramos 283–4 Houellebecq, Michel 213 Howard, Peter 225 human rights 39–40, 88, 106, 143, 312, 313, 316, 324–5, 362 Human Rights Watch 52, 312, 325–6 Hume, Mick 176 Hurd, Douglas 140–1, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 169, 370 Husain, Ed The Islamist 369–70 Hussain, Azfar 101–2, 104 Hussein, Saddam see Saddam Hussein el-Husseini, Haj Amin 347–8 Huxley, Aldous 235 identity politics 376–7 Independence Party 294 Independent 304, 320, 335, 366 Index on Censorship 335 India 75, 120–1, 162 dowry-murders and persecution of women 101, 102, 121–3 feminist movement 120 partition of 143 Indict 292 individualism 356 Indochina 166 Indonesia 81 Information Research Bureau 246 Institute for Public Policy Research 207 international criminal states 313 International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 130 International Monetary Fund 117 Internet 270–1 Iran 22, 25–6, 81, 82, 374, 377, 379 revolution (1979) 26–7, 107–8, 380 war against Iraq 28, 32, 44, 47–8 women in 357–8 Iraq 4–6, 7, 20–6, 40, 72–3 alliance between Baathists and Islamists after war to form ‘insurgency’ 8, 32, 286–7 American assistance in war with Iran 46–8 Baath Party regime see Baath Party genocide of Kurds 5, 7, 24, 48–9, 50–2, 127 invasion of Kuwait 6, 70, 72–3 ‘oil-for-food’ programme 72 pull back by America in (1991) 71, 72, 80, 81, 87 sanctions issue 74–5 seen as only country to take on Israel 76–7 shift in attitude towards by left 30, 74–5, 89–91 and Soviet Union 37–8 terrorizing of Shia majority by Sunni Islamists 287 trade union movement 297–8, 301, 302–3 war against Iran 28, 32, 44, 47–8 weapons sales to 47 and Workers’ Revolutionary Party 65–6, 67, 68 see also Saddam Hussein Iraq Memory Foundation 330 Iraq war (2003) 4, 7–9, 84, 299–300, 357, 364–5, 381 aftermath 285–6, 381 anti-war movement/ demonstrations 169–70, 280–311, 313–14, 357 and Blair 8, 202, 203, 280, 284, 285, 297, 300 liberal opposition to 46, 202, 312–32 Iraqi Communist Party 334 Iraqi Federation of Trade Unions 298, 302 Ireland 212 anti-war demonstrations 281 Irvin, Jeremy 129, 133 Isherwood, Christopher 219, 224, 233 Islam 9, 107, 367 Islamic Combatant Group 258–9 Islamism/Islamists 260, 261–2, 264–6, 267, 269–70, 273, 343–4, 347, 352, 360, 365–6, 368, 371–2, 374, 381 Israel 21, 76, 77, 170, 335, 336, 338–9, 346, 347, 351–2, 353 Italy anti-war demonstration 280 Izetbegovic, Alija 154 jahilyya 265, 267 Jamaat-i-Islaami party 266, 351, 369, 371, 377 Jarman, Derek 184 Jarrow hunger marches 218 Jehovah Witnesses 296 Jelacic, Nerma 172–3 Jewish Chronicle 65 Jews 10, 35, 36, 269 attack on by Iraq’s Baath Party 36–7 conspiracy theory involving 35–6, 65, 77, 343–6, 350–1 and Hitler 30, 346 and Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion 36, 344, 345, 346, 349 and tsarist Russia 344–5 see also antisemitism Johnson, Hewlett 243 Johnstone, Diana Fools’ Crusade 176–7, 178 Jong-Il, Kim 39 journalists 159–60 July bombings (London) 10, 257–8 Kagan, Robert 136, 315–16, 317 Kanaan, Jean-Sélim 326 Kansas 209, 209–10 Karadzic, Radovan 128, 129, 131, 169 Kelikian, Dr Hampar 148 Kenneth, John 50 Keynes, John Maynard 114, 228, 377 Economic Consequences of the Peace 228 Khan, Irene 324 Khan, Mohammad Sidique 258 Khmer Rouge 167, 167–8 Khomeini, Ayatollah 27, 28, 70, 107, 108, 184 Kianouri, Noureddin 27 Kirwan, Celia 246 Kissinger, Henry 47 Klein, Naomi No Logo109 Knights Templars 340–1, 342 Kosovo war 10, 151, 168, 170–1 Kouchner, Bernard 326 Kumari, Ranjana 121 Kurds 36 attempts to rally international support for 50 genocide against by Saddam Hussein 5, 7, 24, 48–9, 50–2, 127 use of poison gas against at Halabja 50–2, 292 Kuwait invasion of by Iraq (1990) 6, 70 Labour Party 93, 182, 220, 231–3 see also Blair, Tony; New Labour Labour Party conference (2004) 297, 299–300 Lader, Philip 367 Lansbury, George 199, 229–32, 233–4 Laski, Harold 21, 240 Lawrence, D.H. 219 League of Nations 231 Left Book Club 219, 240, 243 Leigh, Mike 184 Lenin, Vladimir 50, 54 Leslie, Ann 333 Lewis, C.

pages: 464 words: 139,088

The End of Alchemy: Money, Banking and the Future of the Global Economy by Mervyn King

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, distributed generation, Doha Development Round, Edmond Halley, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, the payments system, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, yield curve, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

When empires or nations split up, the associated monetary union also tends to dissolve. That was true of the Roman Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and, more recently, the Soviet Union.8 When the latter broke up in 1991, the IMF recommended that the successor states continue to use the rouble. But within a short time, they had all adopted new currencies. Less spectacularly, but no less completely, when the British Empire metamorphosed into the British Commonwealth during the post-war period, the sterling area faded away. When Czechoslovakia was divided into the Czech Republic and Slovakia in 1993, the two new states soon moved to distinguish their currencies, and in 2009 Slovakia joined the euro area. That was a relatively amicable divorce. Much less happy was the break-up of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, ultimately into seven successor states, each with its own monetary arrangements.9 Monetary unions comprising more than one sovereign state all ran into trouble.

Not surprisingly, the resulting lack of trust between its members undermined political support for the LMU and from 1878 it was little more than an agreement to conform to the gold standard.10 Inspired by the example of the LMU, Sweden and Denmark set up the Scandinavian Monetary Union in 1873, with Norway joining two years later. It came to an end in 1914 when Sweden decided to abandon the gold standard. The case of Ireland is also telling. After the Easter Rising of 1916, and the subsequent political and military struggle, Irish independence became a reality. The 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty recognised the Irish Free State but implied that it would remain part of the British Empire. That interpretation was not accepted in Dublin, although the new Free State continued to use sterling as its currency. It made no attempt to design or issue banknotes because those printed by the Bank of England, at that time a private company, did not depict the UK sovereign.11 When distinctive Irish coins were introduced in 1928, with inscriptions entirely in the Irish language and depictions of animals instead of British heraldry and the King’s head, they ‘were intended to be unambiguous in declaring a distinct Irish identity and in announcing the arrival of a new sovereign state to the community of nations’.12 Following independence, the Irish Republic maintained an informal monetary union with the United Kingdom but left in 1979, first to cohabit with and then formalise its relationship with the euro area.

Abe, Shinzo, 363 ABN Amro, 118 Acheson, Dean, 368 Ahmed, Liaquat, The Lords of Finance, 158 AIG, 142, 162 alchemy, financial, 5, 8, 10, 40, 50, 91, 191–2, 257, 261, 263–5, 367, 369; illusion of liquidity, 149–55, 253–5; maturity and risk transformation, 104–15, 117–19, 250–1, 254–5; pawnbroker for all seasons (PFAS) approach, 270–81, 288, 368 Ardant, Henri, 219 Arrow, Kenneth, 79–80, 295 Asian financial crisis (1990s), 28, 349, 350 Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, 349–50 Australia, 74, 259, 275, 348 Austria, 340, 341 Austro-Hungarian Empire, 216 Bagehot, Walter, 212, 218, 335; Lombard Street (1873), 94–5, 114–15, 188, 189, 190, 191–2, 202, 208, 251, 269 Bank for International Settlements, 31, 255, 276, 324 Bank of America, 103–4, 257 Bank of England, 169, 217, 275, 280, 320–1; Bank Charter Act (1844), 160, 198; during crisis, 36, 37–8, 64, 65, 76, 118, 181–3, 184, 205, 206; Financial Policy Committee, 173; garden at, 73–4; gold reserves, 74, 75, 77, 198; governors of, 6, 12–13, 52–3, 175–6, 178; granting of independence to (1997), 7, 166, 186; history of, 92, 94, 156–7, 159, 160, 180–1, 186, 188–201, 206, 335; inflation targeting policy, 7, 167, 170, 322; Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), 173, 329–31; as Old Lady of Threadneedle Street, 75; weather vane on roof, 181 bank runs, 37–8, 93, 105–8, 187–92, 253–4, 262 Bankia (Spanish bank), 257–8 banking sector: balance sheets, 31, 103–4; capital requirements, 137–9, 255–6, 258, 280; commercial and investment separation, 23, 98, 256, 257; creation of money by, 8, 59–63, 86–7, 91, 161, 253, 263; as dangerous and fragile, 8, 23, 33, 34, 36–7, 91–2, 105, 111, 119, 323–4; deposit insurance, 62, 107–8, 137, 254–5, 328; European universal banks, 23–4; and ‘good collateral’, 188, 190, 202–3, 207, 269; history of, 4–5, 18–19, 59–60, 94–5, 187–202, 206–7; implicit taxpayer subsidy for, 96–7, 107, 116–17, 191–2, 207, 254–5, 263–4, 265–6, 267–8, 269–71, 277; interconnected functions of, 95–6, 111–12, 114–15; levels of equity finance, 103, 105, 109, 112, 137–9, 173, 202, 254–9, 263, 268, 280, 368 see also leverage ratios (total assets to equity capital); liquidity support stigma, 205–7; misconduct scandals, 91, 100, 118, 151, 256; narrow and wide banks, 263–5, 266–7, 279; political influence of, 3, 6, 288–9; recapitalisation of (October 2008), 37–8, 201; taxpayer bailouts during crisis, 4, 38, 41, 43, 93, 94, 106, 118, 162, 243, 247, 261, 267–8; ‘too important to fail’ (TITF), 96–7, 99, 116–17, 118, 254–5, 263–4, 279–80; vast expansion of, 23–4, 31–3, 92–4, 95, 96–9, 115–18; visibility of, 92–3, 94; see also alchemy, financial; central banks; liquidity; regulation Banque de France, 159 Barclays, 95 Barings Bank, 137, 193 ‘behavioural economics’, 132–4, 308, 310 Belgium, 201, 216, 340 Benes, Jaromir, 262 Bergsten, Fred, 234 Berlusconi, Silvio, 225 Bernanke, Ben, 28, 44, 91, 158, 175–6, 183, 188, 287 bills of exchange, 197–8, 199 bitcoins, 282–3 Black, Joseph, 56 Blackett, Basil, 195–6 Blair, Tony, 186 Blakey, Robert, The Political Pilgrim’s Progress (1839), 251–3 Blinder, Alan, 164 BNP Paribas, 35 Brazil, 38 Brecht, Bertolt, The Threepenny Opera (1928), 88, 93 Bremer, Paul, 241 Bretton Woods system, 20–1, 350, 352 British Empire, 216, 217 Bryan, William Jennings, 76, 86–7 Buffett, Warren, 102, 143 building societies, 98 Bunyan, John, Pilgrim’s Progress (1678), 251 Cabaret (film, 1972), 52, 83 Cambodia, 246 Cambridge University, 12, 83, 292–3, 302 Campbell, Mrs Patrick, 220 Campbell-Geddes, Sir Eric, 346 Canada, 116, 167, 170 capitalism, 2, 5, 8, 16–21, 42, 155, 366; as best way to create wealth, 17, 365–6, 369; and end of Cold War, 26–7, 365; money and banking as Achilles heel, 5, 16–17, 23–6, 32–9, 40–1, 50, 369–70; Schumpeter’s ‘creative destruction’, 152; see also market economy Carlyle, Thomas, 16 Carney, Mark, 176 Caruana, Jaime, 324 central banks, 156–9; accountability and transparency, 158, 168, 169–70, 175–6, 178–80, 186, 208; and ‘constrained discretion’, 169–70, 186; creation of ‘emergency money’, 48, 65–6, 71, 86, 172, 182–3, 189, 196–7, 201–7, 247, 275; during crisis, 36–9, 64, 65, 76, 113, 118, 158, 159, 162, 181–4, 205, 206, 335; and disequilibrium, 46–7, 171–2, 175, 208, 329–32; exclusive right to issue paper money, 160, 165, 283; and expectations, 28, 176–8, 304; forecasting by, 179–80, 304–5; future of, 207–10; gold reserves, 74–5, 77, 198; history of, 159–60, 161–2, 180–1; independence of, 5–6, 7, 22, 71, 165–7, 169–70, 185–6, 209–10, 357; industry of private sector watchers, 178; integrated policy framework, 187, 208–9, 288; as ‘lenders of last resort’ (LOLR), 94–5, 109–10, 163, 187–97, 202–7, 208, 259, 268, 269–70, 274–5, 288; and ‘macro-prudential policies’, 173–5, 187; monetary policy rules, 168–9; and money supply, 63, 65–6, 76, 86–7, 162, 163, 180–4, 192, 196–201; pawnbroker for all seasons (PFAS) approach, 270–81, 288, 368; in post-crisis period, 43–4, 63, 76, 162–3, 168–9, 173, 175, 179–80, 183–6; printing of electronic money by, 43, 52, 359; proper role of, 163, 172, 174–5, 287; and swap agreements, 353; see also Bank of England; European Central Bank (ECB); Federal Reserve central planning, 20, 27, 141 Chiang Mai Initiative, 349 ‘Chicago Plan’ (1933), 261–4, 268, 273, 274, 277–8 China, 2–3, 22, 34, 77, 306, 322, 338, 357, 362–3, 364; banking sector, 92, 93; export-led growth strategy, 27–8, 319, 321, 323–4, 356; falling growth rates, 43–4, 324, 363; medieval, 57, 68, 74; one child policy in, 28; problems in financial system, 43–4, 337, 362–3; savings levels in, 27–8, 29, 34; trade surpluses in, 27–8, 46, 49, 319, 321, 329, 364 Chou Enlai, 2 Churchill, Winston, 211, 366 Citigroup, 90, 99, 257 Clark, Kenneth, 193 Clinton, President Bill, 157 Cobbett, William, 71–2 Cochrane, John, 262 Coinage Act, US (1792), 215 Cold War, 26–7, 68, 81–2, 350, 365 Colley, Linda, 213–14 communism, 19, 20, 27 Confucius, 10 Cunliffe, Lord, 178, 193 currencies: break-up of sterling area, 216; dollarisation, 70, 246, 287; ‘fiat’, 57, 283; during government crises, 68–9; monetary unions, 212–18, 238–49 see also European Monetary Union (EMU, euro area); optimal currency areas, 212–13, 215, 217, 248; ‘sterlingisation’ and Scotland, 244–7, 248; US dollar-gold link abandoned (1971), 73; virtual/digital, 282–3; see also exchange rates cybercrime, 282 Cyprus, 363–4 Czech Republic, 216 Debreu, Gerard, 79–80, 295 debt, 140; bailouts as not only response, 343–4; as consequence not cause of crisis, 324–5; forgiveness, 339–40, 346–7; haircut on pledged collateral, 203, 204, 266, 269, 271–2, 275, 277–8, 280; household, 23, 31, 33–4, 35; importance of for real economy, 265–6; as likely trigger for future crisis, 337–8; and low interest rates, 337; quantitative controls on credit, 173, 174–5; rise in external imbalances, 22–3, 24–5, 27–31, 33–4, 45–7, 48–9, 236, 306–7, 319–24, 329–30, 338, 364; and rising asset prices, 23, 24, 31–2; role of collateral, 266–7, 269–81; see also sovereign debt decolonisation process, 215 deflation, 66, 76, 159, 164, 165 demand, aggregate: ‘asymmetric shocks’ to, 213; disequilibrium, 45–9, 316, 319–24, 325–7, 329–32, 335, 358–9; in EMU, 221, 222–3, 229, 230, 236; during Great Stability, 319–24; and Keynesianism, 5, 20, 41, 293, 294–302, 315–16, 325–6, 327, 356; and monetary policy, 30, 41–9, 167, 184–5, 212–13, 221, 229–31, 291–2, 294–302, 319–24, 329–32, 335, 358; nature of, 45, 325; pessimism over future levels, 356, 357–60; price and wage rigidities, 167; and radical uncertainty, 316; rebalancing of, 357, 362–3, 364; saving as source of future demand, 11, 46, 84–5, 185, 325–6, 356; as weak post-crisis, 38–9, 41–2, 44–5, 184–5, 291–2, 337, 350, 356–60 democracy, 26–7, 168, 174, 210, 222, 318, 348, 351; and euro area crisis, 224–5, 231, 234–5, 237–8, 344; and paper money, 68, 77; rise of non-mainstream parties in Europe, 234–5, 238, 344, 352 demographic factors, 354, 355, 362 Denmark, 216–17, 335 derivative instruments, 32–3, 35–6, 90, 93–4, 97–8, 100, 101, 117, 141–5; desert island parable, 145–8 Dickens, Charles, 1, 13–14, 233 disequilibrium: and aggregate demand, 45–9, 316, 319–24, 325–7, 329–32, 335, 358–9; alternative strategies for pre-crisis period, 328–33; and central banks, 11–12, 46–7, 171–2, 175, 208, 329–32; continuing, 42, 45–8, 49, 171–2, 291, 334–5, 347, 353, 356–70; coordinated move to new equilibrium, 347, 357, 359–65; definition of, 8–9; euro area at heart of, 248, 337; and exchange rates, 319, 322–3, 329, 331, 364; high- and low-saving countries (external imbalances), 22–3, 24–5, 27–31, 33–4, 45–7, 48–9, 236, 307, 319–24, 329–30, 338, 364; in internal saving and spending, 45–8, 49, 313–16, 319–21, 324, 325–6, 329–30, 356; and ‘New Keynesian’ models, 306; the next crisis, 334–5, 336–8, 353, 370; and paradox of policy, 48, 326, 328, 333, 357, 358; and stability heuristic, 312–14, 319–21, 323, 331, 332; suggested reform programme, 359–65 division of labour (specialisation), 18, 54–5 Doha Round, 361 Domesday Book, 54, 85 dotcom crash, 35 ‘double coincidence of wants’, 55, 80, 82 Douglas, Paul, 262 Draghi, Mario, 225, 227, 228 Dyson, Ben, 262 econometric modelling, 90, 125, 305–6 economic growth: conventional analysis, 44–5, 47; as low since crisis, 11, 43–4, 290–2, 293, 324, 348, 353–7; origins of, 17–21; pessimism over future levels, 353–7; in pre-crisis period, 329, 330–1, 351–2; slowing of in China, 43–4, 324, 362; stability in post-war period, 317–18 economic history, 4–5, 15–21, 54–62, 67–77, 107–9, 158–62, 180–1, 206–7, 215–17, 317–18; 1797 crisis in UK, 75; 1907 crisis in US, 159, 161, 196, 197, 198, 201; 1914 crisis, 192–201, 206, 307, 368; 1920-1 depression, 326–7; 1931 crisis, 41; ‘Black Monday’ (19 October 1987), 149; Finnish and Swedish crises (early 1990s), 279; German hyperinflation (early 1920s), 52, 68, 69, 86, 158–9, 190; Latin American debt crisis (1980s), 339; London banking crises (1825-66), 92, 188–90, 191–2, 198, 201; panic of 1792 in US, 188; see also Great Depression (early 1930s) The Economist magazine, 108–9 economists, 78–80, 128–31, 132–4, 212, 311; 1960s evolution of macroeconomics, 12, 16; forecasting models, 3–4, 7, 122–3, 179–80, 208, 305–6; Keynes on, 158, 289; see also Keynesian economics; neoclassical economics Ecuador, 246, 287 Egypt, ancient, 56, 72 Eliot, T.S., Four Quartets, 120, 290 emerging economies, 39, 43, 337, 338, 361; export-led growth strategy, 27–8, 30, 34, 319, 321, 324, 349, 356; new institutions in Asia, 349–50; savings levels in, 22–3, 27–8, 29, 30; ‘uphill’ flows of capital from, 30–1, 40, 319; US dollar reserves, 28, 34, 349 ‘emotional finance’ theory, 133–4 Engels, Friedrich, 19 Enron, 117 equity finance, 36, 102, 103, 140, 141, 143, 266, 280; and ‘bail-inable’ bonds, 112; in banking sector, 103, 105, 109, 112, 137–9, 173, 202, 254–9, 263, 268, 280, 368 see also leverage ratios (total assets to equity capital); and limited liability, 107, 108, 109 European Central Bank (ECB), 137, 162, 166, 232, 339; and euro area crisis, 203–4, 218, 224–5, 227–8, 229, 231, 322; and political decisions, 218, 224–5, 227–8, 231–2, 235, 344; sovereign debt purchases, 162, 190, 227–8, 231 European Monetary Union (EMU, euro area), 62, 217–38, 337–40, 342–9, 363–4; creditor and debtor split, 49, 222–3, 230–1, 232–7, 338, 339–40, 342–4, 363–4; crisis in (from 2009), 138, 203–4, 218, 223–31, 237–8, 276, 338, 339–40, 3512, 368; disillusionment with, 234–5, 236, 238, 3444; divergences in competitiveness, 221–3, 228, 231, 232–3, 234; fiscal union proposals (2015), 344; at heart of world disequilibrium, 248, 337; inflation, 70, 221–2, 232, 237; interest rate, 221–2, 232, 237, 335; launch of (1999), 22, 24–5, 218, 221, 306; main lessons from, 237; and political union issues, 218, 220, 235, 237–8, 248–9, 344, 348–9; ‘progress through crisis’ doctrine, 234; prospects for, 232–3, 345–6; sovereign debt in, 162, 190, 224, 226–8, 229–31, 258, 338, 339–40, 342–4; transfer union proposal, 224, 230, 231, 233, 234, 235, 237, 344; unemployment in, 45, 226, 228, 229–30, 232, 234, 345; value of euro, 43, 228–9, 231, 232, 322 European Stability Mechanism (ESM), 228 European Union, 40, 235–6, 237–8, 247, 248–9, 348–9; no-bailout clause in Treaty (Article 125), 228, 235–6; Stability and Growth Pact (SGP), 235, 236 Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), 219, 220 exchange rates: and disequilibrium, 319, 322–3, 329, 331, 364; and EMU, 222, 228–9, 338–9, 363–4; exchange controls, 21, 339; fixed, 20–1, 22–3, 24–5, 72–3, 75–6, 339, 352, 353, 361; floating, 21, 338, 353, 361–2; and ‘gold standard’, 72–3, 75–6; risk of ‘currency wars’, 348; and wage/price changes, 213 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), 62, 137, 328 Federal Open Market Committee, 179 Federal Reserve, 45, 65, 74, 137, 157–8, 162, 168–70, 175, 178–9, 320; in 1920s/30s, 192, 326–7, 328, 349; during crisis, 39, 76, 107, 113, 183, 184; discount window, 206; dual mandate of, 167–8; opening of (1914), 60, 62, 159–60, 194–5, 196, 197 Ferrer, Gaspar, 193 Field, Alexander, 355 Financial Conduct Authority, UK, 260 financial crises, 11–12, 34; and demand for liquidity, 65–6, 76–7, 86, 106, 110, 119, 148, 182, 187–92, 194, 201–7, 253–4, 367; differing causes of, 307, 316–17, 327–8; frequency of, 2, 4, 20, 92, 111, 316–17; and ‘gold standard’, 75, 165, 195; and Minsky’s theory, 307–8, 323; narrative revision downturns, 328, 332–3, 356, 357, 58–9, 364; the next crisis, 334–5, 336–8, 353, 370; as test beds for new ideas, 49–50; see also economic history financial crisis (from 2007): articles and books, 1–2, 6; central banks during, 36–9, 64, 65, 76, 113, 118, 158, 159, 162, 181–4, 205, 206, 335; desire to blame individuals, 3, 89–90; effects on ordinary citizens, 6, 13, 41; the Great Panic, 37–8; interest rates during, 150–1, 181, 335; LIBOR during, 150–1; liquidity crisis (2007-8), 35–8, 64–5, 76, 110; money supply during, 181–3; parallels with earlier events, 90–2, 193; post-crisis output gap, 42, 291, 337; short-term Keynesian response, 39, 41, 48, 118–19, 326, 328, 356; ‘small’ event precipitating, 34–5, 323; unanswered questions, 39–43; underlying causes, 16–17, 24–5, 26–39, 40, 307, 319–26, 328; weak recovery from, 43–4, 48, 291–2, 293, 324, 337, 355, 364, 366 financial markets, 64–5, 113, 117–18, 141–5, 149, 184, 199–200, 314–15; basic financial contracts, 140–1; desert island parable, 145–8; and radical uncertainty, 140, 143, 144–5, 149–55; ‘real-time’ trading, 153–4, 284; see also derivative instruments; financial products and instruments; trading, financial financial products and instruments, 24, 35–6, 64, 99–100, 114, 117, 136–7, 258, 278, 288; see also derivative instruments Finland, 159, 279 First World War, 88–9, 153, 164, 178, 200–2, 307; financial crisis on outbreak of, 192–201; reparations after, 340–2, 343, 345–6 fiscal policy, 45, 184, 347–8, 352, 358; and Keynesianism, 78, 181, 292, 300, 356; in monetary unions, 222–3, 235; short-term stimulus during crisis, 39, 118–19, 356 Fisher, Irving, 163, 261 fractional reserve banking, 261 France, 93, 201, 216, 219, 221, 236, 248, 348, 364; and euro area crisis, 228–9, 231, 236, 322; occupation of Ruhr (1923), 340; overseas territories during WW2, 242; revolutionary period, 68, 75, 159 Franklin, Benjamin, 58, 127 Friedman, Milton, 78, 130, 163, 182, 192, 262, 328 Fuld, Dick, 89 futures contracts, 142, 240–1, 295–6 G20 group, 39, 255, 256, 351 G7 group, 37–8, 351 Garrett, Scott, 168–9 Geithner, Timothy, 267 George, Eddie, 176, 330 Germany, 93, 161, 162, 184, 219, 322, 341, 357; Bundesbank, 166, 219, 228, 232; and EMU, 219–22, 224, 227, 228, 230, 231–2, 234–6, 248, 338, 340, 342–3, 345; export-led growth strategy, 222, 319, 363–4; hyperinflation (early 1920s), 52, 68, 69, 86, 158–9, 190; Notgeld in, 201–2, 287; reunification, 219, 342; trade surpluses in, 46, 49, 222, 236, 319, 321, 356, 363–4; WW1 reparations, 340–2, 343, 346 Gibbon, Edward, 63, 164 Gigerenzer, Professor Gerd, 123, 135 Gillray, James, 75 global economy, 349–54, 361; capital flows, 20–1, 22, 28, 29, 30–1, 40, 319, 323; rise in external imbalances, 22–3, 24–5, 27–31, 33–4, 45–7, 48–9, 236, 307, 319–24, 329–30, 338, 364; see also currencies; exchange rates; trade surpluses and deficits Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, Faust, 85–6 ‘gold standard’, 72–3, 75–6, 86, 165, 195, 200–1, 216–17, 348, 352 Goldman Sachs, 98, 109, 123, 257 Goodwin, Fred, 37, 89 Grant, James, 327 Great Depression (early 1930s), 5, 16, 20, 158, 160, 226, 348, 355; dramatic effect on politics and economics, 41; Friedman and Schwartz on, 78, 192, 328; and ‘gold standard’, 73, 76; US banking crisis during, 90–1, 108, 116, 201 Great Recession (from 2008), 6, 38–9, 163, 290–2, 326 Great Stability (or Great Moderation), 6, 22, 45–7, 71, 162, 208, 305, 313–14, 318–24, 325–6; alternative strategies for pre-crisis period, 328–33; monetary policies during, 22, 25, 46–7, 315 Greece, 216, 221, 222, 225–31, 338–40, 364; agreement with creditors (13 July 2015), 230–1, 346; crisis in euro area, 223–4, 225–7, 229, 230–1, 236, 258, 338–40; debt restructured (2012), 226–7, 229, 236, 339, 343–4, 346; national referendum (July 2015), 230; sovereign debt, 224, 226–7, 339–40, 342–4, 346–7; Syriza led government, 229, 235 Greenspan, Alan, 157–8, 164, 175, 317 Gulf War, First (1991), 238 Hahn, Frank, 79 Halifax Bank of Scotland (HBoS), 37, 118, 206, 243 Halley, Edmund, 122 Hamilton, Alexander, 188, 202, 215 Hankey, Thomas, 191–2 Hansen, Alvin, Full Recovery or Stagnation?

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A History of Future Cities by Daniel Brook

Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, joint-stock company, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pearl River Delta, Potemkin village, profit motive, rent control, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

An agent provocateur pasted the cartoon to the door of the city’s main mosque, the Jama Masjid, during Friday prayers. When the congregants emerged, they grew enraged and attacked Parsis indiscriminately. Moreover, Muslims influenced by the austere Wahhabi movement, the brainchild of a conservative theologian on the Arabian Peninsula named Mohammed Ibn Abd al-Wahhab, had been restive throughout the British Empire in the nineteenth century. The British worried Bombay’s Islamic community merited what they termed their “Wahhabi phobia”—imperial fear of radicalized anti-Western Muslims—especially now that rumors ran rampant that the British had forced Indian Muslims to unwittingly consume pork. Yet the Eid al-Adha holiday commemorating Ibrahim’s willingness to sacrifice his son passed without incident in the summer of 1857.

No matter how large Shanghai grew, China’s greatest city would always be dwarfed by the countryside’s hundreds of millions of peasants, many of whom were now armed under Mao Zedong with China’s capitalist heart in their crosshairs. 6 THE CITY UNDER PROGRESS’S FEET Bombay, 1896–1947 Eros Cinema On June 22, 1897, Queen Victoria celebrated her Diamond Jubillee, the sixtieth anniversary of her ascension to the throne. The British Empire was at its peak, encompassing fully one-quarter of the world’s population. As the new day dawned in each British holding from New Zealand in the east to Canada in the west, carefully coordinated celebrations erupted. In India, the fulsome festivities befit its status as the jewel of the empire. In Hyderabad, every tenth convict was set free; in Bangalore, a new statue of the porcelain-complected Empress of India was unveiled.

Tillotson, The Tradition of Indian Architecture: Continuity, Controversy and Change since 1850 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989), 33. 103 “The classes most advanced in English education”: Thomas Metcalf, Ideologies of the Raj (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 49. 103 “the admission to the legislative body”: Basil Worsfold, Sir Bartle Frere: A Footnote to the History of the British Empire (London: Thornton Butterworth, 1923), 29. 104 before him there was no British architecture: Christopher London, Bombay Gothic (Mumbai: India Book House, 2002), 129. 105 “a trust from God”: Worsfold, Sir Bartle Frere, 40. 105 “meet the most pressing wants”: London, Bombay Gothic, 28. 105 “As our administration”: Metcalf, An Imperial Vision, 1. 106 “grown up in sunshiny regions”: ibid., 98. 107 “one long line of array”: Norma Evenson, “An Architectural Hybrid,” in Bombay: Mosaic of Modern Culture, ed.

Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport


active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mega-rich, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, period drama, place-making, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

A 1792 Act of Parliament allowed the Bow Street model to spread across England. 1776–83 The American War of Independence is the British Empire’s first major reverse, forcing England to withdraw – for a while, at least – from the world stage, a fact not missed by French ruler Napoleon. 1799–1815 The era of the Napoleonic Wars. A weakened Britain inspires Napoleon to threaten invasion, but his ambitions are curtailed by heroes Nelson and Wellington at the famous Battles of Trafalgar (1805) and Waterloo (1815), respectively. 1820–70s Industrial development across Britain, notably in the English Midlands, the Scottish Lowlands and the valleys of south Wales. 1837–1901 Under the reign of Queen Victoria, the British Empire expands from Canada through Africa and India to Australia and New Zealand – billed as ‘the Empire where the sun never sets’. 1884 Greenwich Mean Time (named for the Royal Observatory, in the village of Greenwich outside London, where the primary meridian was first established) is adopted internationally. 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria is assassinated in the Balkan city of Sarajevo – the final spark in a decade-long crisis that starts the Great War, now called WWI. 1916 Welsh politician David Lloyd George becomes prime minister of Britain.

* * * Charles II (the exiled son of Charles I) came to the throne, and his rule – known as ‘the Restoration’ – saw scientific and cultural activity bursting forth after the straight-laced ethics of Cromwell’s time. Exploration and expansion were also on the agenda. Backed by the army and navy (which had been modernised by Cromwell), colonies stretched down the American coast, while the East India Company set up headquarters in Bombay (now Mumbai), laying foundations for what was to become the British Empire. The next king, James II, had a harder time. Attempts to ease restrictive laws on Catholics ended with his defeat at the Battle of the Boyne by William III, the Protestant ruler of Holland, better known as William of Orange. Ironically, William was married to James’ own daughter Mary, but it didn’t stop him doing the dirty on his father-in-law. * * * THE JACOBITE REBELLIONS Despite, or perhaps because of, the 1707 Act of Union, anti-English feeling in Scotland refused to disappear.

By the mid-18th century, struggles for the British throne seemed a thing of the past, and the Hanoverian kings increasingly relied on Parliament to govern the country. As part of the process, from 1721 to 1742 a senior parliamentarian called Sir Robert Walpole effectively became Britain’s first prime minister. Return to beginning of chapter THE EMPIRE STRIKES OUT Stronger control over the British Isles was mirrored by even greater expansion abroad. The British Empire – which, despite its official title, was predominantly an English entity – continued to grow in America, Canada and India. The first claims were made to Australia after Captain James Cook’s epic voyage in 1768. The Empire’s first major reverse came when the American colonies won the War of Independence (1776–83). This setback forced Britain to withdraw from the world stage for a while, a gap not missed by French ruler Napoleon.

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When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques


Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, one-China policy, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

Even during the Cold War its economy was far more advanced than, and more than twice as large as, that of the Soviet Union, while its military capability and technological sophistication were much superior.1 Following the Second World War, the US was the prime mover in the creation of a range of multinational and global institutions, such as the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund and NATO, which were testament to its new-found global power and authority. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 greatly enhanced America’s pre-eminent position, eliminating its main adversary and resulting in the territories and countries of the former Soviet bloc opening their markets and turning in many cases to the US for aid and support. Never before, not even in the heyday of the British Empire, had a nation’s power enjoyed such a wide reach. The dollar became the world’s preferred currency, with most trade being conducted in it and most reserves held in it. The US dominated all the key global institutions bar the UN, and enjoyed a military presence in every part of the world. Its global position seemed unassailable, and at the turn of the millennium terms like ‘hyperpower’ and ‘unipolarity’ were coined to describe what appeared to be a new and unique form of power.

In the longer run, however, it seems likely that South Korea will continue to move closer to China and further away from the United States, perhaps to the point where eventually the US-Korean alliance will be dissolved - but that is unlikely to happen within less than a decade, probably rather longer.79 In the meantime, it is possible that the United States will eventually withdraw its troops from the Korean Peninsula if and when a solution is found to the present crisis.80 The rapprochement between China and South Korea is a powerful echo of earlier times when Korea was a close and important tributary state of China, a situation that lasted many centuries until China’s defeat in the Sino-Japanese War.81 Australia cannot be counted as part of East Asia, but belongs more properly to Asia-Pacific, which embraces that region together with the Pacific countries. One of the great geo-cultural anomalies is that a country that lies just to the south of Indonesia has an overwhelmingly white majority and has long been considered a Western country. Though historically part of the British Empire, ever since 1942 it has enjoyed an extremely close relationship with the United States, for most of that period being its closest and most loyal ally in the Asia-Pacific region. Over the last decade, however, China’s growing economic power has exercised a mesmerizing effect on the island continent. By far the most important reason for this is China’s voracious appetite for Australia’s huge deposits of raw materials, especially iron ore.

To what extent the other characteristic of the tributary system - an acceptance of China’s cultural superiority - might also become a factor is more difficult to judge, although, in light of the Chinese mentality, there will certainly be powerful elements of this. It is important, however, to place these points in a broader context. China’s rise will be accompanied by that of other major developing countries, such as India and Brazil, and these are likely to act in some degree as a constraint on China’s power and behaviour. WEIGHT OF NUMBERS At the height of the British Empire in 1913, Britain accounted for only 2.5 per cent of the world’s population, while Western Europe represented 14.6 per cent. By 2001 Western Europe’s share had fallen to 6.4 per cent. In 2001, when the United States was the world’s sole superpower, it comprised a mere 4.6 per cent of the world’s population. The proportion accounted for by the West as a whole - including Eastern Europe and countries like Australia but excluding the former USSR - was 13.9 per cent in 2001.

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The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby


1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

He described it as “a pacific system” that worked “to cordialise mankind, by rendering nations, as well as individuals, useful to each other.”52 When Paine wasn’t writing incendiary tracts, he was working on a design for an iron bridge that was eventually built. He joined his radical political platform to an enthusiasm for economic progress. His targets were the vestigial injustices of an aristocratic society, not the new abuses of an industrial society. His writings influenced the history of capitalism not just because he helped push the American colonies out of the British Empire but also because he made the attack on tradition a popular cause. Men like Paine admired the entrepreneurial economy because it was open to talents rather than reserved for those of inherited status. This remains true today, even if it is harder to get access to capital. The threat from old enemies faded slowly—at least in the imagination. Paine continued to lash out at England’s aristocrats while the new industrialists were consolidating much greater power than they had had.

London became the glittering world capital of finance, trade, and fashion with a civil society enlivened by association meetings, demonstrations, the theater, and popular magazines, big and small. Even shorn of its continental American colonies, Great Britain retained its preeminence as a seaborne power with colonies in the Caribbean, Canada, Singapore, Australia, and India. Contemporaries captured its global reach when they observed that “the sun never sets on the British Empire.” Industrialization was creating a new incentive for controlling raw materials that could be brought home to be worked up into finished goods. Its continental American colonies lost to an independent United States, Britain turned its attention to India, which enhanced the importance of its naval station in South Africa. Yet this nineteenth-century chapter in the history of capitalism will not focus on British success but rather tell how Germany and the United States were able to pass Britain and take a commanding lead among world economies.

The pressure Britain’s neighbors (and rivals) felt to follow its lead was acute, for that most ancient of political strengths, military power, now depended upon industrial capacity. First Britain’s challengers had to figure out how to get their hands on their marvelous machines, leaving them with little choice but to engage in industrial espionage. Societies that enjoyed sufficient isolation from the Western European center of wealth and war making could ignore British gains, and they did, unless they were drawn into the British Empire. Those closer could not. Once Britain’s spectacular new machines could be seen, it was possible to imagine replicating them. Such an appropriation had haunted private investors as well as British officials, but theirs was too open a society to be very successful at keeping secrets. The steam engines that revolutionized old ways of making tools and spinning cotton attracted spies from France, Germany, even Britain’s quondam colonies in America.

pages: 556 words: 46,885

The World's First Railway System: Enterprise, Competition, and Regulation on the Railway Network in Victorian Britain by Mark Casson


banking crisis, barriers to entry, Beeching cuts, British Empire, combinatorial explosion, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, intermodal, iterative process, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, knowledge economy, linear programming, Network effects, New Urbanism, performance metric, railway mania, rent-seeking, strikebreaker, the market place, transaction costs

British workers valued autonomy—a status very much associated with the skilled artisan—and resented the military-style discipline of the factory. If labour had been cheap then factory owners could simply have ignored the wishes of their workers, but their workers had alternatives to factory employment; not only emigration, but employment in service industries such as transport, retailing, and banking. Factory production became steadily less economic as a result. Infrastructure, on the other hand, prospered. The British Empire was growing fast, and everywhere there were new opportunities for development. Ports, railways, telegraphs, and urban investments were the key. It was not so much the factory as the engineering workshop that became the hub of British manufacturing. While the factory remained dominant in the textile trades, engineering workshops, and ‘yards’ were responsible for producing most of the sophisticated machinery that was exported overseas; in particular, ships and steam locomotives, and the pre-fabricated bridges and pipework that were exported for use in overseas projects.

Joint Lines 181 The proprietors of the Chester and Birkenhead were mainly concerned to promote Birkenhead Docks, although some also wished to promote Chester as a railway hub. Birkenhead was a rival port to Liverpool on the opposite side of the Mersey estuary. It developed into a major shipbuilding and engineering centre, and handled a large amount of Irish cattle destined for abattoirs in major English cities. It also exported coal to bunkering stations around the British Empire. In the 1830s, however, it was still in the early stages of development. Initially the Birkenhead company fed most of its traYc into the Chester and Crewe Railway, which in turn fed its traYc into the Grand Junction Railway at Crewe. The Grand Junction was a Liverpool-based company and to begin with did its best to divert traYc away from Birkenhead in favour of Liverpool, by making connections at Chester deliberately poor.

There was also a great deal of metallic ore in the area, which led to the development of metal reWning industries that provided a local use for the coal. But when these mineral ores were depleted the emphasis changed to the export of coal. Some of the valleys produced top-grade steam coal, particularly suited for steamships, and much of this coal was exported to bunkering stations around the British Empire. Horse-drawn tramways were well-established in South Wales by 1800, and were progressively converted into railways from 1830. Many of the railways up the valleys were independent concerns, and most remained independent until incorporated into the GWR at the Grouping of 1922–3. When the main trunk railways arrived in South Wales they naturally wished to tap into the coal traYc, and this led to tensions with the established local companies, such as the TaV Vale Railway (TVR) and the Rhymney Railway (RR).

pages: 563 words: 179,626

A Life in Secrets by Sarah Helm


anti-communist, British Empire, clockwatching, haute couture, large denomination, old-boy network

Across the chaos of bombed-out Germany she followed the agents' trails to the concentration camps and helped track down many of the Germans who had captured and killed them. She gave evidence at Nazi war crimes trials, and the French awarded her the Croix de Guerre in 1948 and the Légion d'Honneur in 1995. The British, by contrast, waited until 1997 to honour Vera Atkins, finally making her a Commander of the British Empire. As I listened to her, however, I realised just how sparse the known facts about Vera Atkins were. Who was this woman? How could it be that she had reached the age of ninety without anyone knowing more than this about her? I looked around, but the room contained no clues. It seemed unremarkable, quite comfortable but colourless, with a pale-green carpet. At a glance I saw a few recent family photographs and lots of flowers—some in formal vases, some in little pots.

By early March nothing had been heard from Lionel Lee, Antelme s radio operator, but strange messages had come over from Nora's radio saying that, on landing, Antelme had fractured his skull. Subsequent messages gave bizarre medical reports on his worsening condition. London sent messages back giving Antelme s medical history for the French doctors and cheering him with the news that he had won an Order of the British Empire (OBE). Antelme was “very pleased and touched by the award,” said one reply from the field. Then a week later he had “deteriorated,” and on May 2 it was announced that he “died after an attack of meningitis.” He was “buried by moonlight,” and “deepest sympathy” was sent to his family. Penelope Torr produced an analysis of these messages and even sought the opinion of a doctor, who said the position of the head fracture as described in one message was “very unusual for a landing accident.”

When Vera got home from Germany in early February 1947, she therefore had one more task to perform before finally leaving “this game of war crimes.” She was determined to put Nora up for a George Cross. Three years after the end of the war it was not easy to persuade the powers that be that Nora's recommendation for a gallantry award should be rewritten for a fourth time. First she was proposed for a George Medal, then for a member of the Order of the British Empire, and then for a Mention in Dispatches; now that the truth about her courage appeared to have emerged, she was to be put forward for the highest award for bravery anyone could receive. The correspondence between Vera and Eileen Lancey of the Honours and Awards Office showed Vera endlessly battling to prove that this time she had got the facts for the citation for Nora right. First Miss Lancey seemed to doubt the evidence that Nora had really been held in chains in Pforzheim.

Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, business climate, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global reserve currency, Howard Zinn, labour market flexibility, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage tax deduction, Paul Samuelson, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce

For example, even profitability would no longer be all that important—what would be important is living in a decent way. Look, the general population here does not gain very much from holding on to our imperial system—in fact, it may gain nothing from it. If you take a look at imperial systems over history, it’s not at all clear that they are profitable enterprises in the final analysis. This has been studied in the case of the British Empire, and while you only get kind of qualitative answers, it looks as if the British Empire may have cost as much to maintain as the profits that came from it. And probably something like that is true for the U.S.-dominated system too. So take Central America: there are profits from our controlling Central America, but it’s very doubtful that they come anywhere near the probably ten billion dollars a year in tax money that’s required to maintain U.S. domination there. 58 WOMAN: Those costs are paid by the people, though, while the profits are made by the rich.

For instance, the United States has always been a much more advanced capitalist country, by far—corporations in the modern sense were an American invention, and ever since the beginning of the industrial revolution, corporate America has always been much more powerful than its Canadian counterpart. This was a much richer country; we kept trying to invade Canada; Canada’s much more sparsely settled and much less populous than the United States; it was part of the British Empire; they have the French-English split, with Quebec there; and so on. So there are a lot of historical and other differences between the two of them, and I think it’s a good question to look into in more detail. But the fact is, there are advantages and disadvantages to the two countries. A lot of things have been won in the United States that are good, and are a model for other places—and as far as organizing is concerned, it’s the kind of thing you can do relatively freely here, free of the fear of very much direct state repression.

., because they’re going to give away everything—since their support is so weak inside the Occupied Territories, the last chance the P.L.O. leadership has to hang on to power is to be our agents, Israeli agents. Israeli doves wrote articles about that, and of course the Israeli government knew it. 89 Well, okay, that whole phenomenon led to the Oslo Agreements—and now where the P.L.O. leadership fits in is just as part of the standard Third World model: they are the ruling Third World elite. So take a classic case, look at the history of India for a couple hundred years under the British Empire: the country was run by Indians, not by British—the bureaucrats who actually ran things were Indians, the soldiers who beat people up and smashed their heads were Indians. There was an Indian leadership which became very rich and privileged by being the agents of the British imperial system—and it’s the same thing everywhere else. So for example, if you look at Southern Africa in the more recent period, the most brutal atrocities were carried out by black soldiers, who were basically mercenaries for the white racist South African regime.

pages: 709 words: 191,147

White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg


A. Roger Ekirch, back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

A court of heraldry was added to this strange brew: in overseeing marriages and maintaining pedigree, it provided further evidence of the intention to fix (and police) class identity. Pretentious institutions such as these hardly suited the swampy backwater of Carolina, but in the desire to impose order on an unsettled land, every detail mattered—down to assigning overblown names to ambitious men in the most rustic outpost of the British Empire.6 Yet even the faux nobility was not as strange as another feature of the Locke-endorsed Constitutions. That dubious honor belongs to the nobility and manor lord’s unique servant class, ranked above slaves but below freemen. These were the “Leet-men,” who were encouraged to marry and have children but were tied to the land and to their lord. They could be leased and hired out to others, but they could not leave their lord’s service.

Third, what he called a “mediocrity of fortunes” was his belief in the growth of a middle-range class condition. His farming families were not poor or self-sufficient, but engaged in some form of commercial farming, producing enough to support their families and purchase British goods.14 The most startling feature of his theory was that the class contentment he described could be achieved through natural means, or, to put it more bluntly, by letting nature take its course. The British Empire, with its well-trained ground forces and powerful navy, secured the territory. From that moment forward, the unoccupied land was the lure for settlers much like the molasses pot for the ants. In a land of opportunity, procreating came more naturally, as families felt happy and secure. Rigid class distinctions and the hoarding of resources were less likely to take place. The compression of classes persisted as long as new land was acquired in which people could spread and settle.

Mancall, Hakluyt’s Promise: An Elizabethan’s Obsession for an English America (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007), 3, 6–8, 25, 31, 38, 40, 102. 2. Ibid., 8, 63, 76–77; D. B. Quinn, ed., The Voyages and Colonizing Enterprises of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, 2 vols. (London: Hakluyt Society, 1940), 1:102; Kenneth R. Andrews, Trade, Plunder and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480–1630 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), 30–31, 200–201, 218, 294–99. 3. Mancall, Hakluyt’s Promise, 3–4, 92–100, 158, 184–94, 218, 221–31; E. G. R. Taylor, “Richard Hakluyt,” Geographical Journal 109, no. 4–6 (April–June 1947): 165–71, esp. 165–66; Kupperman, Captain John Smith, 3–4, 267. On Smith’s borrowing from Hakluyt, see David B. Quinn, “Hakluyt’s Reputation,” in Explorers and Colonies: America, 1500–1625 (London and Ronceverte, WV: Hambledon Press, 1990), 19. 4.

pages: 1,364 words: 272,257

Jerusalem: The Biography by Simon Sebag-Montefiore


anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, California gold rush, Etonian, facts on the ground, haute couture, Khartoum Gordon, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, sexual politics, spice trade, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, Yom Kippur War

They only escaped with their lives thanks to the intervention of Ottoman troops. Montefiore was not discouraged. As he left, this reborn Jew and dedicated imperialist celebrated a similar though of course different messianic fervour as Shaftesbury: 'O Jerusalem,' he wrote in his diary, 'may the city soon be rebuilt in our days. Amen.' Shaftesbury and Montefiore both believed in the divine providence of the British empire and the Jewish return to Zion. The righteousness of evangelical zeal and the reborn passion of Jewish dreams of Jerusalem dovetailed neatly to become one of the Victorian obsessions, and it happened that the painter David Roberts returned from Palestine in 1840 just in time to show the public his hugely popular romantic images of a flamboyantly Oriental Jerusalem ripe for British civilization and Jewish restoration.

In 1776, some 10 per cent of Americans were church-goers; by 1815, it was a quarter; by 1914, it was half. Their passionate Protestantism was American in character - gritty, exuberant and swashbuckling. At its heart was the belief that a person could save himself and accelerate the Second Coming by righteous action and heartfelt joy. America was itself a mission disguised as a nation, blessed by God, not unlike the way Shaftesbury and the English evangelicals saw the British empire. In little wooden churches in one-horse mining towns, farmsteads on boundless prairies and gleaming new industrial cities, the preachers in the New Promised Land of America cited the literal biblical revelations of the Old. 'In no country,' wrote Dr Edward Robinson, an evangelical academic who became the founder of biblical archaeology in Jerusalem, 'are the Scriptures better known.' The first American missionaries believed that the Native Americans were the Lost Tribes of Israel and that every Christian must perform acts of righteousness in Jerusalem and help the Return and Restoration of the Jews: 'I really wish the Jews again in Judaea an independent nation,' wrote the second US president John Adams.

He had already risked his life on three visits to Jerusalem and his doctors had advised him not to go again - 'his heart was feeble and there was poison in his blood' - but he and Judith came anyway, accompanied by an entourage of retainers, servants and even his own kosher butcher. To the Jews of Jerusalem and across the Diaspora, Montefiore was already a legend who combined the proconsular prestige of a rich Victorian baronet at the height of the British empire with the dignity of a Jew who always rushed to the aid of his brethren and had never compromised his Judaism. It was his unique position in Britain that gave him his power: he straddled the old and new societies, as much at home with royal dukes, prime ministers and bishops as he was with rabbis and financiers. In a London dominated by staid morality and evangelical Hebraism, Montefiore was the ideal of what Victorians thought a Jew should be: 'That grand old Hebrew', wrote Lord Shaftesbury, 'is better than many Christians.'

pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas


affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling,, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

International Review of Red Cross, 31 (333), 109–116. 9 United Kingdom Immigration to the United Kingdom Will Somerville and Betsy Cooper The United Kingdom (UK), in contrast to immigrant-settled countries like the United States, has had a more ambiguous experience with immigration (Somerville, 2007). Not only did the UK historically consider itself a country of refuge for the persecuted, but for generations immigration from the British Empire was unimpeded and emigration to the British Empire encouraged. It was only in the 1960s and 1970s that serious controls were put into place (Hansen, 2000). Subsequently, however, the UK has carefully controlled migration to the island, and fostered a policy of ‘‘race relations’’ to incorporate newcomers. Since 1990, sustained immigration flows have diversified the ethnic, linguistic, and religious composition of the British population.

The Industrial Period (1800–1925) This was a consequence of the first period’s economic growth and of industrialization. There was a considerable exodus of European migrants from countries such as Britain, Italy, Norway, Spain, and Sweden, to America to gain from the New World’s growing economy. The majority of migrants went to the Americas, but others went to Australia and New Zealand also. Limited Migration (1930–1960) World War I, the Great Depression and the break-up of the British Empire were some of the factors leading to this period of limited migration. Postindustrial Migration (1960s to 1990s) This period saw the expansion of human migration to a global phenomenon. Emigration from Asia, Africa, and South America increased at this time, and as the century progressed, patterns of migration became more complex, with traditionally sending countries becoming receiving countries also.

The November 2007 Transatlantic Trends poll suggested that 62 percent of those surveyed in the United Kingdom saw immigration more as a ‘‘problem’’ than as an ‘‘opportunity,’’6 a far higher figure than the comparative results found in the United States and Europe. United Kingdom Immigration Policies In this context of rising numbers and anxieties UK policy makers since 1997 have drafted radical policy responses in an attempt to manage migration. To understand these changes, it is first necessary to highlight the previous ‘‘model’’ for the sake of comparison. The Postwar Policy Model. The postwar policy model, created at a time when the British Empire was dismembering itself, was based on two pillars, each entrenched by three laws (Somerville, 2007). The first pillar, limitation, comprised three laws—enacted in 1962, 1968, and 1971—that together had the goal of ‘‘zero net immigration.’’ The 1971 Immigration Act—the single most important immigration Act of the last 50 years—made a strong statement that Britain was a country of ‘‘zero net immigration.’’

pages: 364 words: 101,286

The Misbehavior of Markets by Benoit Mandelbrot


Albert Einstein, asset allocation, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, Benoit Mandelbrot, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black-Scholes formula, British Empire, Brownian motion, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, carbon-based life, discounted cash flows, diversification, double helix, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Elliott wave, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fellow of the Royal Society, full employment, Georg Cantor, Henri Poincaré, implied volatility, index fund, informal economy, invisible hand, John Meriwether, John von Neumann, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, market microstructure, Myron Scholes, new economy, paper trading, passive investing, Paul Lévy, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nelson Elliott, RAND corporation, random walk, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, stochastic volatility, transfer pricing, value at risk, Vilfredo Pareto, volatility smile

He left school at fifteen, trained in chemistry and carpentry, and after evening classes won a scholarship to Oxford at twenty. To everyone’s surprise—as he later described it to me—he won a first-class honors degree in physics, despite a lack of early preparation in mathematics. But it was in Egypt that he found his future. As the twentieth century began, the British Empire had finally put down the fundamentalist Mahdi revolt upriver in Sudan. A period of relative peace, growth, and dam construction ensued. For most of its northward course the Nile was undisputed property of the British Empire: from Lake Victoria to Lake Albert, to the joining of the White Nile and the Blue Nile at Khartoum, over the swamps, clay, and cliff-lined basins of Sudan and southern Egypt, and out at last to the broad Delta on the Mediterranean Sea. For even as vast an empire as Britain’s, the Nile’s scale was immense.

pages: 311 words: 89,785

Crossing the Heart of Africa: An Odyssey of Love and Adventure by Julian Smith


blood diamonds, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, James Watt: steam engine, Livingstone, I presume, Scramble for Africa, trade route

The Crown’s holdings in southern Africa extended as far north as modern-day Zambia. British East Africa, a territory three times the size of the British Isles, encompassed what would become Kenya and Uganda. King Leopold II of Belgium personally controlled almost a million square miles of the Congo basin to the west. Before leaving London, Grogan had visited the Foreign Office and the War Office to see how his journey could help the British Empire directly. He left with requests for information on the activities of Portuguese, German, Belgian, and French forces, especially when it related to colonial boundaries. He also promised to bring back the first accurate map of the region around Lake Kivu and Lake Edward. “From end to end every tribe seemed at war with its neighboring tribes or with the white man,” Grogan wrote about their route.

He was the toast of London. Every time he turnedaround, it seemed, he was being wined and dined, interviewed, or asked to give a lecture or write an article about his experiences. On April 30, at age twenty-five, he became the youngest person ever to address the Royal Geographical Society. Even Grogan was nervous speaking in front of such an eminent crowd, which included the king of Sweden and some of the British Empire’s smartest and most accomplished men. “Anything more ridiculous than the possibility of my return to Africa never occurred to me as I wearily munched my ration of everlasting bully beef and rice during the Matabele war of ‘96,” he began, and proceeded to captivate his audience with his eloquence and dry wit. Harry Sharp sat in the back, happy to let his former partner have the spotlight. They had greeted each other earlier like long-lost brothers.

pages: 367 words: 99,765