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WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry
1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, source of truth, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks
Chapter 6 1 President Barack Obama, “Transparency and Open Government,” January 21, 2009, www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_oﬃce/Transparency andOpenGovernment. 2 President Barack Obama, “Freedom of Information Act,” January 21, 2009, www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_oﬃce/FreedomofInformationAct. 3 William Branigin, “Democrats Take Majority in House; Pelosi Poised to Become Speaker,” The Washington Post, November 8, 2006, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/07/ AR2006110700473.html. 4 A full list of participants in the Open House Project can be found here: www.theopenhouseproject.com/press/launch. 5 John Wonderlich, “Open House Project Retrospective,” The Open House Project, October 14, 2008, www.theopenhouseproject.com/2008/10/14/ open-house-project-retrospective. It’s also worth noting that press credentialing for citizen journalists and bulk access to congressional ﬂoor and committee video were two recommendations that the project made the least progress on. 6 Micah L. Sifry, “Obama as Crowdsourcer; Organizing the Country for Change and Accountability,” techPresident.com, February 8, 2009, http://techpresident.com/blog-entry/obama-crowdsourcer-organizingcountry-change-and-accountability. 7 Clint Hendler, “Obama on Recovery.gov,” Columbia Journalism Review, February 9, 2009, www.cjr.org/the_kicker/obama_on_recoverygov.php. 8 Edward Luce and Tom Braithwaite, “US stimulus tsar to unleash 1m inspector-generals,” The Financial Times, August 20, 2009, www.ft.com/ cms/s/0/e731fd52-8db0-11de-93df-00144feabdc0.html#axzz1 AZfFLMQT. 9 Earl Devaney, “Chairman’s Corner,” Recovery.gov, March 22, 2010, www. recovery.gov/News/chairman/Pages/march222010.aspx. 10 Clay Johnson, “Recovery.gov: Stop with the Data Defense, Start with the Conversation,” March 30, 2010, http://sunlightlabs.com/blog/2010/ recoverygov-stop-data-defense-start-conversation. 11 Earl Devaney, “Chairman’s Corner,” Recovery.gov, October 27, 2010, www.recovery.gov/News/chairman/Pages/2010Oct27.aspx 197 WIKILEAKS AND THE AGE OF TRANSPARENCY 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 198 Becky Hogge, “Open Data Study,” Open Society Foundations Information Program, May 2010, www.soros.org/initiatives/information/focus/ communication/ar ticles_publications/publications/open-datastudy-20100519.
The 600,000 people who had put their hearts, minds, mousepads, and checkbooks together for Howard Dean and, at least for a time, driven a fairly obscure small-state governor to the center of the presidential campaign had just gotten a taste of their own power. “We all felt the muscle ﬂex of this new progressive movement and were stunned by it,” recalled Nicco Mele, Dean’s webmaster.6 Bloggers, the leaders of a new citizen journalism, were seeing their traﬃc multiply into the hundreds of thousands as readers ﬂocked to sites that were more participatory and transparent than traditional media. People were learning how to ferret out information and force it into public view—and embarrassing all kinds of powerful targets, from Senator Trent Lott and CBS anchor Dan Rather to the Diebold electronic voting machine company, which tried to suppress the leak of embarrassing internal emails and instead saw them spread by activists onto hundreds of servers across the web.7 (Shades of WikiLeaks!)
Since he became a political blogger, he has also 87 WIKILEAKS AND THE AGE OF TRANSPARENCY backed a few maverick candidates for oﬃce. In 2007, he ran the Social Democrats’ online campaign; he backed Ivo Josipovic in his campaign for Croatia’s (largely ceremonial) presidency; and more recently he helped an unknown candidate for mayor of Zagreb come from nowhere to grab forty percent of the vote against the incumbent. He is now looking to start a “serious citizen journalism site” that would oﬀer analytical, behindthe-news reporting, blending citizen contributions with professional moderation. I asked him why he does what he does. “It’s hard to express,” he says. “I just want to see a better country.” But he is muckraking for a harder reason too: “Croatian history is full of ‘unﬁnished’ stories, and unless we start talking and resolving them we will be forever burdened by our past.”
citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, informal economy, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, WikiLeaks
Badawy was the first person to post the before and after photos of Khaled, images that were quickly picked up by the Ayman Nour Facebook page and the online newspaper Al-Youm al-Saba`a. Badawi blogged that the police targeted Khaled because he had posted a video of a group of policemen dividing the spoils of a drug bust. Even though Khaled was not known among the community of bloggers and activists in Alexandria, the explanation of him as a brave citizen journalist picked up traction with “youth of the internet” (shabab al-internet). At the hands of seasoned activists, Khaled’s life became a blank slate on which to write a compelling story. The heroic narratives that circulated about Khaled held little resemblance to the actual person. In a richly investigated piece in Jadaliyya called “Saeeds of Revolution: De-Mythologizing Khaled Saeed,” Amro Ali reveals that the image and life of Khaled Said were “distorted almost beyond recognition.”
Even after the group disbanded, Kefaya remained a critical reference point for horizontal coalition politics. Egypt’s parliamentary and first multi-candidate presidential elections in 2005 served as crucial milestones in the evolution of online opposition politics. Young citizens took it upon themselves to document and publicize the array of fraud and intimidation against candidates and voters. Haitham, a blogger who was nineteen years old at the time, took his first steps toward citizen journalism in 2005. He explains: I was very interested in carrying out an experiment to supervise an election from inside a poll station. I went to a small village outside of Alexandria and started to monitor what was happening. I saw how people would sell their votes and write “yes” for Mubarak just for money. I took pictures and posted them on my blog. He wasn’t working for a particular political party or candidate, just acting as an independent citizen with an online voice.
People need to have access to media and an ability to campaign and get their messages out. It’s very difficult to judge the true strength of these groups in the current environment. With blogging and internet connectivity on the rise, MEPI entered into the arena of youth cyberjournalism and cyberactivist training. MEPI earmarked resources to support NGOs to train cyberactivists in how to use communication tools and internet platforms for citizen journalism and democracy-promotion activities. Alongside MEPI, the State Department was busy developing what it called “Diplomacy 2.0.” Karen Hughes, the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs from 2005 to 2007, attempted to bring public diplomacy to the digital age. She established regional media hubs in Brussels, London, and Dubai with the intention of spreading news about US foreign policy in overseas broadcast media.
We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater
1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar
In 2004 a self-organised investigation by US bloggers forced a television news network to withdraw a story claiming that President George W. Bush had received preferential treatment during his military service, by showing that the documents the network had relied upon were fakes. The website Slashdot, a meeting-place for nerds and geeks, gets 3 million visitors a day, mainly people who take part in scores of self-moderated discussions.9 OhmyNews in South Korea brings together 55,000 citizen journalists to provide a news service that rivals that of traditional, mainly conservative newspapers and television stations.10 YouTube and Flickr have enabled the widespread sharing of video and photographs and allow people to rate and sort content using tags and collaborative filters. So We-Think is vital to allow us to make the most of the extraordinary opportunities now available to us to create and contribute content.
Collaborative filtering and the book reviews and ratings on Amazon, and social tagging tools like Technorati and del.i.cious, through which people help one another find interesting material on the web, fit into this category. Only when all our five conditions come together at scale to provide a deliberate, conscious form of social creativity in which many people contribute and collaborate does Full We-Think emerge. OhmyNews, the South Korean citizen-journalist news service fits in here, as do mass computer games like World of Warcraft and scientific collaborations like the project to unravel the worm’s genome. Full We-Think is the deliberate and organised combination of contributions from a mass of distributed and independent participants. It would be silly to suggest that We-Think can work in every situation and that it is always the best organisational recipe.
Sprawling networked organisations can be thrown off balance by events in far-flung economies: British banks can be upended when lots of low-income households do not repay their mortgages in the US Midwest; the biggest oil company in the world can have its reputation tarnished by mistakes at a refinery in Alaska. Leaders in all walks of life operate in a far more open environment, under constant scrutiny from the media, regulators, their employees and now the wider world of citizen journalists, armed with their camera phones and blogs. Closed leadership is too slow for this world because too many decisions have to be passed upwards for approval. Closed leadership is also out of kilter with the increasingly democratic ethos of the times. Authority is now more likely to be questioned and less likely to be meekly followed. Employees’ support cannot be taken for granted; it needs to be renewed time and again.
American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration
Luckily, thanks to the expansion of online news sources, new media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook, and the ever-decreasing size and cost of camera phones and video cameras, the ability to commit acts of journalism is spreading to everyone. As a result, citizen journalism is rapidly emerging as an invaluable part of delivering the news. Nothing demonstrated the power of citizen journalism better than the 2009 uprising in Iran. People tweeting from demonstrations and uploading video of brutal violence taken with their camera phones were able to tell a story, in real time, that a tightly controlled mainstream media was unable to cover with the same speed and depth. Citizen journalism often works best when filling a void—attending an event that traditional journalists are kept from or have overlooked—or by finding the small but evocative story happening right next door. People are becoming increasingly creative in exploring ways to find these facts and tell these stories. New media and citizen journalists are taking traditional journalism’s ability to bear witness, and spreading it beyond the elite few—thereby making it harder for those elite few to get it as wrong as they’ve gotten it again and again.
Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, online collectivism, Parag Khanna, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks
It powers a vast range of sites from Global Voices to the Kenyan citizen media website Ushahidi, to several Arabic blogging community websites. It also powers the blogs of some of China’s most cutting-edge bloggers. One of the WordPress fans who clamored for a photo with Mullenweg at Beijing WordCamp was Zhou Shuguang, a twenty-eight-year-old vegetable seller turned blogger who writes under the pen name Zola. This “citizen journalist” has traveled the country writing about hot topics on the Chinese Internet. In 2006 he catapulted to fame as the “nailhouse blogger” whose on-site reports of a dramatic standoff between a Chongqing couple and local property developers helped break down a national media ban on the incident. In 2007 he was detained and escorted back to his home in Changsha after attempting to cover protests in the Northeast.
Though the Internet has transformed Chinese society in many ways, the regime has also succeeded in adopting technology to its advantage in ways I had not imagined—ways I have spent much time over the past several years trying to understand. After I left China in 2001 and moved to Japan as CNN’s Tokyo bureau chief, my fascination with the Internet’s effect on global politics broadened. On a trip to South Korea, I reported on how Roh Moo-hyun won the presidency in December 2002 by a narrow margin thanks to eleventh-hour online and mobile activism by readers of OhMyNews, one of the world’s first online citizen journalism ventures. In January 2003 a friend introduced me to “Where is Raed?” the blog of an Iraqi man in Baghdad writing under the pseudonym Salam Pax. As the United States and its allies prepared to invade, he ranted cynically against Saddam Hussein’s regime, the Bush administration, and almost everyone and everything else. As the web publishing magnate Nick Denton aptly put it, he was the “Anne Frank of the war . . . and its Elvis.”
April Media wasted no time in disseminating a viral video showing footage of the indignant Chinese netizens confronting the US ambassador. The video ended with a commentary condemning the United States for interfering in other countries’ affairs, and warning that the United States could turn China into yet another Iraq if the Chinese people were not vigilant. The government had no direct hand in this act of “citizen journalism” or the video; it was a spontaneous product of China’s nationalist commons. The motivations of Rao’s band of young, nationalistic media activists are similar to those of China’s patriotic hackers—often loose alliances of computer whizzes who engage in patriotic hacking missions, and whose relationship to the government is often unclear. In 2009, a team of information warfare researchers affiliated with the University of Toronto uncovered a cyber-espionage network they dubbed “GhostNet,” involving at least 1,295 infected computers in 103 countries.
Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson
Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, linked data, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar
According to research by ComScore, Six Apart and Gawker Media, 50 million people visited blog sites in the US in the first quarter of 2005 — about 30% of all US internet users or one-sixth of the entire US population. By the time you read this there will probably be 100 million blogs. What’s more, they aren’t all reading about “social-lights” like Ms Hilton; many of the most popular sites are about politics (sorry, Paris). With this self-publishing or “citizen journalist” trend in full swing, are newspapers old news? Not quite, as they are already using innovation to improve their products. Some of the best new ideas include compact formats for commuters (in the UK, The Times and the Independent were available in a choice of two sizes for a while), kids’ newspapers (four daily newspapers from Play Bac Presse in France) and newspapers written entirely by readers.
It’s still unclear at this early stage what a fully blown reader-produced newspaper would look like, but it’s certain that the amateur genie is already out of the bottle. Whether this is good or bad news depends on your point of view. Some claim that this democratization of the media is the best thing that’s happened since Gutenberg, whereas others see nothing but hyperactive half-wits writing on water. For example, citizen journalism gives no weight to expertise. Wikipedia.com — the 17thmost-visited site on the internet — is written by millions of anonymous amateurs. In contrast, Britannica.com — ranked around 5,000 — is written by over 4,000 named experts, including 100 Nobel Prize winners. One of the biggest questions arising from this type of innovation is: who owns openly created content? The answer to this question will drive new business models and radically transform the relationship between media owners and their audiences.
But while there is a symbiotic relationship developing between mainstream media companies (for example newspapers, radio and Media and Entertainment 107 television networks) and social media (for example bloggers, podcasters, vloggers and online social networks), the relationship is unequal; so-called free content is rarely free. Indeed, much social media content that is not worthless is often stolen from a mainstream media company, which paid to produce it in the first place. Hence the real cost of citizen journalism could be the death of the very sources on which it depends. Who then will hold governments and corporations to account? Famous for fifteen minutes If the cost of creating and distributing digital media content is now very low, in the future it will be practically zero. This means that anyone with an idea (and, hopefully, a rudimentary grasp of spelling) can become a one-person pundit on any topic that interests him or her.
Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, digital map, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day
Many community tweeters did not trust each other, or trusted only those they had preexisting social ties to. Eventually, Twitter feeds were clogged with advertisements and misinformation, and communities had to move on to other hashtags and develop sophistication in interpreting what was coming over their feeds. Communities rapidly develop their own hashtags and keywords and documentary techniques. The Witness Project encourages people to document the abuses they see, and coaches citizen journalists on how to use care with their work. In Monterrey, some tweeters were “halcons” or falcons, people who watched Twitter traffic at the behest of the gangs, looking for tips about police maneuvers and informants.16 Tweeters competed to break news and correct one another. Social media help people cope during civil strife. First, they follow the news and keep track of family and friends. Most of the time, people use the internet for entertainment, sports, and culture.
The startup Premise, for example, uses mobile apps to collate pricing information for the world’s food staples, from onions to milk.68 The internet of things is going to have a big impact on current events. The job of monitoring a problem, verifying that something can be done, and complying with expectations for solving it is tough, especially in global contexts. Fortunately, there is a growing number of vigilante watchers, citizen journalists, hacktivists, and whistle blowers. In many countries, the government is also the largest employer. And payroll is a big target for corrupt officials. So any system that helps the government pay its employees properly makes the entire economy a little more transparent and efficient. In Afghanistan, when the government started paying its police officers using “mobile money” through mobile phones, many officers were surprised at the size of their paychecks.
A single road, passable only during the dry season, weaves through the western part of South Sudan. But tracking technologies improve faster than these thugs’ ability to discover new hiding spots. In some cases, people are able to muster significant information resources toward undermining the credibility of poor leaders, then organize opponents for a coordinated push. These information cascades start as small examples of citizen journalism, efforts to document police abuse, or political jokes. They can grow to topple a dictator. Dirty networks are not always governments, but bad governments are often networked with drug lords, corrupt generals, or holy thugs. Social media can be used against those kinds of political actors too, as a way of undermining their control or as a way of coping during moments of extreme violence. A powerful country is going to be one that has the capacity to use big data to solve its own domestic social inequalities.
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional
The commercial pressure, corporate corruption, government distortion, and celebrity scandals that contort our public discourse are enough to make anyone wish for a massive media overthrow. It’s no wonder, then, that people find solace in the idea of an amateur utopia, a public sphere where the unsavory issue of money is sidestepped and pure-hearted citizen journalists work unsullied. Davies dismisses the vision. “The fact is that reporting is difficult—it involves real skills, some of them quite obscure; it needs resources and time; it also, I think, needs to be accountable.” There might be some very good stuff published under the auspices of citizen journalism, Davies acknowledges. “But the dangers are clear.” Idealizing citizen journalists, imagining them as necessarily agenda-less and untainted, is one such danger. But the problem, as Davies knows, goes deeper than the overblown battle of amateurs versus professionals, journalists versus bloggers, print versus digital, old media versus new, or analog immigrants versus digital natives.
Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War
Robert Cottrell, ‘My Life as a Screen Slave’, Financial Times, 15 February 2013 70. fact-checking sites include factcheck.org, fullfact.org, politifact.com and washington-post.com/blogs/fact-checker/. For one account of verification, see Malachy Browne, ‘Storyful: Verifying Citizen Journalism’, Free Speech Debate, http://freespeechdebate.com/en/discuss/verifying-citizen-journalism/ 71. Jefferson 1787 in Boyd, ed. 1950 , http://perma.cc/N4NQ-Q8RG 72. Coleman et al. 2009, 45 73. for an interesting discussion of citizen journalism, see Turi Munthe, ‘Has Demotix Democratised Journalism?’, Free Speech Debate, http://freespeechdebate.com/en/media/has-demotix-changed-the-internet/ 74. Newman et al., eds. 2014, 66 75. Gant 2007 76. U.S. Senate, ‘Senate Manual Containing the Standing Rules, Orders, Laws, and Resolutions Affecting the Business of the United States Senate’, http://perma.cc/UCA2-M9PH 77.
Chen Yi then posted a detailed statement of how the RMB 114,550 she had received in contributions had been spent—some RMB 40,000 for her mother’s surgery, the rest to a charity for children with leukaemia. Chen Yi was the one who had initially ‘gone public’, and since the public had given money there was in some sense a public interest in knowing that it had been properly spent. The irony is that it took a clear violation of her privacy to correct the ‘false light’ cast by the original citizen-journalist enquiry.46 Now consider the hounding of an apparatchik called Zhou Jiugeng, the head of the real estate department in the Jiangning district of the city of Nanjing. In December 2008, he warned that developers selling properties at a price below the actual cost would be prosecuted. A day later, a post titled ‘Eight Questions to Property Bureau Chief Zhou’ started a flesh search. Within three days, netizens had posted pictures of Zhou smoking expensive cigarettes and wearing a Vacheron-Constantin watch reportedly worth some RMB 100,000; another three days, and someone revealed that Zhou’s brother was a property developer.
The executive, the legislature and the judiciary (in British terms: government, parliament and the courts) all have a part to play, as does the media. But as we saw in chapter 4, in the internet age nobody quite knows where the media begin and end. For example, is WikiLeaks part of the media? Or is it, as the title of a film about it suggested, the fifth estate? What about networks of bloggers, citizen journalists, civil society activists and NGOs? Are they a sixth estate? Where do we fit into this picture the use of information and communications technologies, such as encryption and Tor, to counter the repressive potential of those same technologies? I shall touch only briefly on the roles that can be played by executive, judiciary and legislature, say a few words about the media and then argue that all these constraints will be inadequate without the contribution of two particular kinds of free speech: leaking and whistleblowing.
3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise
“There is now a constant ‘price tag’ on violent responses from oppressors: Somebody will catch those moments with a simple camera and upload it on YouTube,” as Srdja Popovic, a leader of the Serbian youth group Otpor! (which agitated for the overthrow of Slobodan Miloševic in the late 1990s) told The European. Do sousveillance and citizen journalism supplant traditional journalism? Not really—even the most committed citizen documentarians don’t have the time or resources to do the legwork that journalists, at their best, do. Instead, it’s become clear that citizens and traditional media have a symbiotic relationship. Because citizen journalists are more widespread, they capture things traditional media cannot. But their voices become amplified when they attract the attention of old media, with its audiences in traditional corridors of power. In the Iranian uprising of 2009 and Syrian uprising of 2011, the governments banned (or severely limited) international media, so citizen reports became the only path to foreign coverage; but those reports were given additional force when disseminated in the mainstream
In the early 1990s, I believed that as people migrated online, society’s worst urges might be uncorked: pseudonymity would poison online conversation, gossip and trivia would dominate, and cultural standards would collapse. Certainly some of those predictions have come true, as anyone who’s wandered into an angry political forum knows. But the truth is, while I predicted the bad stuff, I didn’t foresee the good stuff. And what a torrent we have: Wikipedia, a global forest of eloquent bloggers, citizen journalism, political fact-checking—or even the way status-update tools like Twitter have produced a renaissance in witty, aphoristic, haiku-esque expression. If this book accentuates the positive, that’s in part because we’ve been so flooded with apocalyptic warnings of late. We need a new way to talk clearly about the rewards and pleasures of our digital experiences—one that’s rooted in our lived experience and also detangled from the hype of Silicon Valley.
Sanger, “A Tunisian-Egyptian Link That Shook Arab History,” The New York Times, February 13, 2011, accessed March 26, 2013, www.nytimes.com/2011/02/14/world/middleeast/14egypt-tunisia-protests.html; Jillian York, “The Arab Digital Vanguard: How a Decade of Blogging Contributed to a Year of Revolution,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 13, no. 1 (Winter/Spring 2012): 33–42, accessed March 26, 2013, jilliancyork.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/33-42-FORUM-York.pdf. “Most of their marches and protests”: Sahar Khamis and Katherine Vaughn, “Cyberactivism in the Egyptian Revolution: How Civic Engagement and Citizen Journalism Tilted the Balance,” Arab Media & Society 14 (Summer 2011), accessed March 26, 2013, www.arabmediasociety.com/index.php?article=769. “Fear was embodied”: Wael Ghonim, Revolution 2.0: The Power of the People Is Greater Than the People in Power: A Memoir (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012), Kindle edition. a collective action problem: Zeynep Tufekci, “New Media and the People-Powered Uprisings,” MIT Technology Review, August 30, 2011, accessed March 26, 2013, www.technologyreview.com/view/425280/new-media-and-the-people-powered-uprisings/.
Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age by Manuel Castells
access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, call centre, centre right, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, housing crisis, income inequality, microcredit, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Port of Oakland, social software, statistical model, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game
Other critical bloggers, such as Mohamed Abbou (2005) and Slim Boukdir (2008), were jailed for their exposure of government’s wrongdoings. These growing free voices that spread on the Internet in spite of censorship and repression found a powerful ally in satellite television beyond government control, particularly Al Jazeera. There was a symbiotic relationship between mobile phone citizen journalists uploading images and information to YouTube and Al Jazeera using feeds from citizen journalism and then broadcasting them to the population at large (40 percent of Tunisians in urban centers watched Al Jazeera, since official television had been reduced to a primitive propaganda tool). This Al Jazeera–Internet link was essential during the weeks of the revolts, both in Tunisia and in relation to the Arab world. Al Jazeera went so far as to develop a communication program to allow mobile phones to connect directly to its satellite without requiring sophisticated equipment.
It contributed to a powerful demonstration effect that fed the unfolding of the uprisings in the Arab countries. While Western mainstream media lost interest in daily reporting on Egypt once Mubarak was removed from power, Al Jazeera continued to connect the Egyptian protesters to the Egyptian and Arab public opinion. The quality of Al Jazeera reporting, conducted at great risk by its journalists, was supported by the station’s openness to citizen journalism. Many of the feeds and information that it broadcast came from activists on the ground and from ordinary citizens that were recording history-making with their cell phones. By broadcasting live, and by keeping a permanent focus on developments in the public space, professional mainstream media created a certain mantle of protection for the movement against violent repression, as the international supporters of Mubarak first, and of SCAF later tried to avoid embarrassment vis-à-vis global public opinion because of unjustified repressive actions of their protégés.
Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application
It worships the creative amateur: the self-taught filmmaker, the dorm-room musician, the unpublished writer. It suggests that everyone—even the most poorly educated and inarticulate amongst us—can and should use digital media to express and realize themselves. Web 2.0 “empowers” our creativity, it “democratizes” media, it “levels the playing field” between experts and amateurs. The enemy of Web 2.0 is “elitist” traditional media. Empowered by Web 2.0 technology, we can all become citizen journalists, citizen videographers, citizen musicians. Empowered by this technology, we will be able to write in the morning, direct movies in the afternoon, and make music in the evening. Sounds familiar? It’s eerily similar to Marx’s seductive promise about individual self-realization in his German Ideology: Whereas in communist society, where nobody has one exclusive sphere of activity but each can become accomplished in any branch he wishes, society regulates the general production and thus makes it possible for me to do one thing today and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, rear cattle in the evening, criticise after dinner, just as I have a mind, without ever becoming hunter, fisherman, shepherd or critic.
And only tyrants forbid their subjects to make political criticisms—loving to hate a politician in public is hardly an expansion of democracy. It’s the result of democracy. Lessig has confused what makes democracy possible—certain political, not cultural, mechanisms—with what democracy makes possible: free “expression.” Lessig isn’t the only one singing 2.0’s praises who seems confused about fundamental terms. Jay Rosen, a professor of journalism at New York University, is maybe the most voluble booster of the “citizen journalism” that he believes fulfills the blogosphere’s social promise. Rosen has started a blog-based initiative called Assignment Zero, in which anyone, journalist or not, can file an “investigative” news article. Rosen called this “crowdsourcing” in an interview with The New York Times’s David Carr, who reported the story without expressing the slightest skepticism and without presenting an opposing view to Rosen’s.
Bebo Bell, Daniel Belting, Hans Berkman Center for Internet and Society Best Buy Bezos, Jeff Biofeedback The Biscuit Report Bishop, Jonathan Bit.ly BitTorrent BlackBerry Black Eyed Peas Blade phone Blair, Ian Blockbuster Blogger Blogging Blogosphere Bloom, Allan Bodkin, Tom Bomis Bonaventure (Saint) Bono Bookheimer, Susan boredatbaker.com Boredom Boyd, Danah Brain attention and Broca’s area in computational modeling of development of of Digital Immigrants of Digital Natives digital technology influencing evolution and experience and structures of expert reading and genetics and Google use and hypertext minds and interactivity and Internet impact on malleability of neuroplasticity in reading and retraining sensory stimulation and structure of techno, burnout and Brain gap Brand, Stewart Branson, Richard Briggs, Pam Brilliant, Larry Brin, Sergey Britannica Online Broca’s area Brooks, David Brown, Scott Budweiser Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) Bush, George W. BusyBody Butler, Judith Byrne, David CAD. See Computer-aided design Calvinism Camera phones Campaign Wiki Carl’s Jr. Carr, David Carr, Nicholas CDDB Cell phones cameras in in Kenya task switching and Centralization Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Chevy.com Chevy Tahoe Chua, Amy Cicierega, Neil Citizendium Citizen journalism Citizen media Civic causes, Net Geners and Civic disengagement Civic engagement Classmates.com Click Health Clinton, Hillary Clocks Cloudmark Club Penguin CNN CNN Pipeline Coates, Tom Cognition Digital Native differences in Internet use and multitasking and Cognitive psychology Cognitive science Cognitive surplus Cohan, Peter Cohen, Leonard Col, Cynthia Collaboration Collective intelligence collegeabc.com Comcast Company of Friends Complex adaptive networks Comprehension Compressed workweeks Computer-aided design (CAD) Computer games.
3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar
As part of my duties, I had to read hundreds of submitted articles that unveiled the worst failings of humanity, from abuse of power to accounts of serial killers to crippling corporate greed and more. The stories were so intense that I had to stop reading them at night. I came away inspired by the heroic work of many reporters who had dug into issues of enormous local, national, and global significance. And I was surprised to discover that the quality and depth of every submission transcended the vast majority of the output of bloggers or citizen journalists. Professionalism in journalism might not be sexy, it might seem old-fashioned, but it does matter. Consider what happened in the small town of Bell, California. The town’s mayor paid himself ever-larger salaries—over $800,000 a year—and engaged in the most crooked, crony capitalism, handing out other oversize salaries to his friends. Meanwhile, through a combination of lies and intimidation, he kept the largely poor, Hispanic city population in the dark, continuing to cut critical municipal services while giving himself and his buddies pay raises.
Can’t User-Generated Media Pick Up the Slack? Not necessarily. The institutions of Big News in this country emerged over the course of more than a century, fostering a culture that rewards journalism at its best through institutions like the Goldsmith Prize. Radical connectivity, by contrast, does not come with these values built in. There is no Goldsmith Prize for Investigative Reporting by a Citizen Journalist. There is no “Sources Go Direct” Award for Courage and Honesty. On the contrary, we see an impetus, if anything, to turn journalistic writing into a commodity increasingly devoid of moral content. The Huffington Post, heralded as a successful online news business built on online advertising, uses a system called Blogsmith to manage and monitor publishing. Blogsmith tracks the amount of time a writer spends composing a piece and then compares it with the advertising revenue it generates once published.
CSI (Crowd-Sourced Investigations) The Texas Tribune is an example of a new organization providing accountability journalism, but Britain’s venerable Guardian newspaper (founded in 1821) offers a compelling glimpse of an old big institution experimenting and trying to find its way. In recent years, the Guardian has offered a free blogging platform to online opinion leaders, hosted chatrooms and discussion boards, and emerged as an early convert to podcasting. The Guardian was also one of the first news organizations in the world to turn its Web site into an open platform for Web developers and aspiring citizen journalists everywhere, launching the guardian.co.uk application programming interface (API), allowing Web developers globally to use a wide range of Guardian content in their apps. Perhaps the Guardian’s most interesting innovations involve crowd-sourced investigative reporting. In 2009, more than 2 million pages of expense reports from members of Parliament in the U.K. were made available to the public.
MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams
accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, old-boy network, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar
“Most journalists are on the bus and are fed the candidates’ official lines,” she recalls. “With Off the Bus we had over twelve thousand citizen journalists acting as the real eyes and ears of the campaigns.” The innovation was popular with readers. During the last election not only was The Huffington Post the most-viewed stand-alone political news site, but HuffPo’s readership doubled in 2008 compared with 2007 and redoubled in 2009.5 The HuffPo also has media monitors keeping watch on TV and radio shows, pointing out moments and outrages worthy of comment. When the so-called Tea Parties were organized across the country in 2009, HuffPo had thousands of citizen journalists sending photographs and stories about what was happening on the ground. During the 2009 auto company bankruptcies, readers created an interactive map of GM dealerships that were closing down.
At a glance, her Huffington Post sure looks the part—an online newspaper read by more than 20 million people per month and growing at a rate of 50 percent per year.1 Huffington is the site’s cofounder and editor-in-chief, and she says it is one of the most widely read, linked to, and frequently cited media brands on the Internet. But the HuffPo, as it’s called, is not just paving the journalistic cow path, or simply turning atoms into bits. Rather, it represents a new model of content production built on a new species of community. It has a small paid staff of 150, and relies on more than 3,000 contributors2 to produce content on every conceivable topic. It has another 12,000 “citizen journalists” who are its “eyes and ears.” Its readers also produce much of the HuffPo’s content to the tune of over 2 million contributions per month.3 Huffington says her readers’ engagement and insights are essential to HuffPo’s value. Huffington cofounder Jonah Peretti believes that the news model is no longer a passive relationship of news handed down but “a shared enterprise between its producer and its consumer.”4 Huffington’s goals are clear: “We want to be the Internet newspaper, covering everything and catering to every interest,” she says, but “driving this from our distinct editorial viewpoint.”
Just as IBM’s participation in the Linux community was a factor in helping the company transition from commodity operating systems to lucrative consulting services, newspapers can exploit the power of collaborative innovation to move from commodity news to exciting new models and services that give readers and other participants a major role in value creation. Imagine the news ecosystem of the future, with thousands and perhaps millions of contributors plugging in at different levels: citizen journalists who upload photos, videos, and eyewitness accounts; feature bloggers who only get paid based on advertising revenue; professional reporters who focus on higher-value activities like investigative journalism; and a new layer of knowledge curators who repurpose or remix all this content into new offerings. With organizations like The Huffington Post, this vision is becoming reality and many more are sure to follow.
additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intangible asset, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
Elected officials and government offices now are likely to produce their own media material or communicate directly with voters online. Single-issue interest groups now throw up their own candidates rather than participating in the political process at arm’s length. With barriers to participation lower than they have ever been, the field of rivals has grown. An aspiring politician must consider alliances and anticipate attacks from a shapeshifting milieu of parties, activists, funders, opinion makers, citizen journalists, watchdogs, and advocates of all sorts. Empowering Individuals The expanding role for individuals—nonpoliticians, nonprofessionals—may be the most exciting and challenging effect of the political centrifuge. It results from the collapse of the organizational and cultural barriers that separated people in the profession of politics from those outside. The declining relevance of major political parties and the proliferation of direct, plug-and-play ways to jump into the political discourse have made those barriers obsolete.
Now, not only is that hierarchy under threat but the boundaries of journalism as a profession have fallen, as one after another upstart venture has shown itself able to compete with, if not surpass, established journalistic outlets. The Huffington Post, for example, which used to be derided by mainstream media as a rip-off aggregator, has beefed up its reporting staff and won the Pulitzer Prize for national reporting in 2012. Widespread digital and cellphone cameras and video recorders have catapulted “citizen journalism” to the forefront, with ordinary people competing with paparazzi for celebrity shots (which online brokers then market to the tabloids) or supplying raw evidence of police brutality or early images of a natural disaster. (It should be noted, however, that David Wood, the Pulitzer Prize–winner at The Huffington Post, has decades of reporting experience.) Meanwhile, the ease of publishing on the Internet has turned blogs on everything from electoral politics to fiscal policy, rock music, and business travel into credible and revenue-earning specialty sources that often outperform beat reporters and magazine analysts.
In 2012, for example, the Nieman Journalism Lab profiled three European newspaper companies that are successfully pursuing different strategies to thrive in the digital age: Sanoma, Finland’s largest news company, has pioneered new ways to profitably convert its print subscribers to digital access; Norway’s Schibsted, the world’s eighth-biggest news company, operates in twenty-eight countries and gets more than a third of its revenues from digital offerings, or about three times as much as the average newspaper; Switzerland’s Zeitung Online is experimenting with “hyperlocalism,” winning readers by ignoring stories about President Obama and world affairs in favor of those about the town mayor and canton politics. The rise of small, outsider, and citizen journalism and social networking in the media may prove complementary to some of the existing players. Among the new forces are also independent investigative groups with nonprofit funding such as ProPublica, an “independent, nonprofit newsroom” (to use its own descriptor) whose partnerships with established newspapers in the United States have already begun to win awards (in ProPublica’s case, a 2011 Pulitzer Prize).
The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen
3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
News organizations will remain an important and integral part of society in a number of ways, but many outlets will not survive in their current form—and those that do survive will have adjusted their goals, methods and organizational structure to meet the changing demands of the new global public. As language barriers break down and cell towers rise, there will be no end to the number of new voices, potential sources, citizen journalists and amateur photographers looking to contribute. This is good: With so many news outlets scaling back their operations, particularly their international footprint, such outside contributors will be needed. The global audience benefits as well, through exposure to a greater range of issues and perspectives. The effect of having so many new actors involved, connected through a range of online platforms into the great, diffuse media system, is that major media outlets will report less and validate more.
Ideally, the business of journalism will become less extractive and more collaborative; in a story about rising tide levels in Bangkok, instead of just quoting a Thai river-cruise operator, the newspaper would link its article to the man’s own news platform or personal live stream. Of course, the chance for error increases in the inclusion of new, untrained voices—many respected journalists today believe that a full-bodied embrace of citizen journalism is detrimental to the field, and their concerns are not unwarranted. Global connectivity will introduce entirely new contributors to the supply chain. One new subcategory to emerge will be a network of local technical encryption specialists, who deal exclusively in encryption keys. Their value for journalists would not be content or source related but instead would provide the necessary confidentiality mechanisms between parties.
Cain, Herman calendar reminders California camera phones Cameron, David Canada Carnegie Mellon Carvin, Andy celebrities, 2.1, 2.2 cell towers censorship, 5.1, 6.1 censorship-circumvention applications Central Asia centralized authority Chalabi, Ahmed charities Charity Navigator, 7.1, nts.1 Chavez, Hugo Chechnya, 3.1, 3.2 Chemical Weapons Convention Cherry, Steven, n Chery Automobiles Chile, 3.1, 6.1 China, 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3n, 141, 4.1, 6.1, 7.1 censorship in cyber attacks of, itr.1, 3.1, 3.2 “human-flesh search engines” in, 6.1, 6.2 intellectual property in Internet in, 3.1, 4.1 news covered up in shanzhai network in, 1.1 choices cholera Christian Science Monitor, 209 Church of Scientology CIA, 5.1, con.1 circulatory system Cisco citizen journalism citizen participation citizenship Clarke, Richard Clean-Slate Design of Resilient, Adaptive, Secure Hosts (CRASH) Clinton, Bill Clinton, Hillary, itr.1, 4.1 closed-circuit television (CCTV) cloud-based data storage, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 cloud storage CNN Effect, n Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) Code War Cohen, Rebecca Colao, Vittorio, 4.1, 4.2, 7.1 Cold War, 3.1, 6.1, 6.2 collaboration collective editing Colombia, 5.1, 7.1 commerce, 2.1, 6.1 commercial opportunities Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) communications communication technologies advance of cultural breakthroughs and Comodohacker computer modeling, n computer theft computer viruses, in Syria computer worms confirmation bias conflict-related internal migration Congo, 1.1, nts.1 warlords in connectivity, itr.1, itr.2, itr.3, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 2.1, con.1 and decline of warfare, 6.1, 6.2 education and and end of control exiles and and government maneuverability health and news enhanced by obstacles to reconstruction and, 7.1, 7.2 revolutions and, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6 for states and citizens states’ power enhanced by terrorism aided by and WikiLeaks-like platforms Constantine, Larry, n Constitutional Democratic Rally copper cables copyright, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1 Copyright Act (1987) Copyright Treaty (1996) corporations, coping strategies for privacy and security concerns corruption Côte d’Ivoire counter-radicalization.
Curation Nation by Rosenbaum, Steven
Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, future of journalism, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, means of production, PageRank, pattern recognition, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, Yogi Berra
Now this will come to video … A half hour of how-to TV that now costs X hundreds of thousands of dollars to produce can be done quite respectably—and probably with more life and immediacy—for a few thousand dollars. New content producers will pop up all over, just as they did in blogs, and now they can distribute their content freely thanks to BitTorrent. That is where I want to play.” Jarvis sees a future in which citizen journalists and consumer content creators become central figures in the creation and consumption of editorial material. What makes his perspective so rare, and refreshing, is that he had a full-on membership in the ruling media elite. For him to step outside and go from a TimeWarner–Condé Nast creator of MSM (mainstream media) to a blogger, a position of some less authority and power, is a sign of just how intoxicating the promise of personal publishing is.
She goes on, “Today we live in the linked economy, not a walled-off content economy. The challenge is to find different ways to monetize links among media through advertising or micropayment or whatever, not subscription for exclusive content. In this environment, good journalism will survive, and even flourish, though most newspapers—except for a handful of the very best papers and magazines in every national market—probably will not. There will be more bottom-up, citizen journalism, which is great.” For Huffington and a whole host of other aggregator and curators, it comes down to where the law says they can link and share content without crossing the line into stealing. Attorney and Web publisher Dan Abrams of Mediaite.com explains, “When we link, we follow the ‘fair use’ ground rules, quoting no more than two paragraphs from another medium and then linking to the original story on the original site.
The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America by George Packer
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, big-box store, citizen journalism, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, smart grid, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, urban planning, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, white picket fence, zero-sum game
It was a news aggregation site for wire service stories (you could bash the Old Media and feed off it at the same time) and a forum for truth telling, in the spirit of the Swift Boat Vets and other citizen journalists. The great thing about New Media was anybody could do it. Breitbart would fly to New York all the time and make sure he got invited to mainstream media parties, where he drank their appletinis and pinot noir and made them think he was on their side, but at the end of dinner he would get in their faces and say, “You guys don’t get it. The American people are now in control of the narrative, and you can’t grab it for yourself and drive it off the cliff.” Everything changed for Breitbart on the August day in 2009—the year the Chicago Tribune eliminated its foreign desk and The Washington Post closed its three remaining domestic bureaus in New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles—when a young citizen journalist named James O’Keefe walked into his house with a batch of raw videos.
FOR LAURA, CHARLIE, AND JULIA CONTENTS Title Page Copyright Notice Dedication Prologue PART I 1978 Dean Price Total War: Newt Gingrich Jeff Connaughton 1984 Tammy Thomas Her Own: Oprah Winfrey Jeff Connaughton 1987 Craftsman: Raymond Carver Dean Price Tammy Thomas Mr. Sam: Sam Walton 1994 Jeff Connaughton Silicon Valley 1999 Dean Price Tammy Thomas 2003 Institution Man (1): Colin Powell Jeff Connaughton PART II Dean Price Radish Queen: Alice Waters Tampa Silicon Valley 2008 Institution Man (2): Robert Rubin Jeff Connaughton Tammy Thomas Dean Price Just Business: Jay-Z Tampa PART III Jeff Connaughton 2010 Citizen Journalist: Andrew Breitbart Tampa Dean Price Tammy Thomas Tampa Prairie Populist: Elizabeth Warren Wall Street 2012 Silicon Valley Jeff Connaughton Tampa Tammy Thomas Dean Price Note A Note on Sources Acknowledgments Also by George Packer A Note About the Author Copyright PROLOGUE No one can say when the unwinding began—when the coil that held Americans together in its secure and sometimes stifling grip first gave way.
.… Khloe Kardashian forgot to get a bikini wax before her husband, Lamar Odom, came to town, so her sister Kourtney—who has been waxing herself for years—offered to do the job. The story ended with a badly burned vagina.… OBAMA SIGNS OVERHAUL OF FINANCIAL SYSTEM … REPUBLICANS WIN HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES WITH VICTORIES NATIONWIDE … I never thought about love when I thought about home / I still owe money to the money to the money I owe / The floors are falling out from everybody I know CITIZEN JOURNALIST: ANDREW BREITBART In February 1969—when the CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite, the most trusted man in America, was watched by twenty million viewers, or one in six households—a three-week-old baby boy of Irish descent was adopted in Los Angeles by a Jewish steakhouse owner and his banker wife, Gerald and Arlene Breitbart, and given the name Andrew. When Andrew was two, The New York Times and The Washington Post published the Pentagon Papers, defying threats by the Nixon White House.
The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
“Protest in an Information Society: A Review of Literature on Social Movements and New ICTs.” Information, Communication & Society 9, no. 2 (2006): 202-224. Geen, R. G. “Social Motivation.” Annual Review of Psychology 42, no. 1 (1991): 377-399. Giridharadas, Anand. “‘Buycotting’: Boycotts Minus the Pain.” New York Times, October 10, 2009. Greer, C., and E. McLaughlin. “We Predict a Riot? Public Order Policing, New Media Environments and the Rise of the Citizen Journalist.” British Journal of Criminology (2010). Harkins, S. G., and R. E. Petty. “Effects of Task Difficulty and Task Uniqueness on Social Loafing.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43, no. 6 (1982): 1214-1229. Heil, Alan L. Voice of America: A History. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. Hesse, Monica. “Facebook Activism: Lots of Clicks, but Little Sticks.” Washington Post, July 2, 2009.
Instead, it announced that it would select twenty Twitter users, ten Internet bloggers, thirty student journalists, five representatives from portal Internet sites, and five government officials to tour the wreckage by randomly picking them from among the applicants. But the South Korean government went one step further than the Chinese, allowing all participants to take photos and videos—a state-engineered triumph of citizen journalism. Their plans, however, may have been spoiled by the North Korean authorities, who were unbelievably quick to colonize the capitalist cyberspace as well. In August 2010 they took their anti-South propaganda campaign to Twitter, setting up an account—supposedly through their foreign supporters—meant to challenge the South Korean version of events a hundred forty characters at a time. What Barbara Streisand Could Teach Nicolae Ceauşescu In the last few years of the Soviet Union’s existence, its most progressive leaders were fond of touting—half-jokingly, of course—their commitment to the “Sinatra doctrine”: the notion that Central and Eastern European states were free to go their own way, very much along the lines of Sinatra’s song “My Way.”
What Would Google Do? by Jeff Jarvis
23andMe, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, clean water, commoditize, connected car, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, don't be evil, fear of failure, Firefox, future of journalism, Google Earth, Googley, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, PageRank, peer-to-peer lending, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, web of trust, Y Combinator, Zipcar
Maybe we need a new virtual currency all the world could share that could become the basis of new financial systems. How does Googlebucks sound? In Google we trust. Public Welfare St. Google’s Hospital Google Mutual Insurance St. Google’s Hospital: The benefits of publicness Too often when I find myself in a discussion about citizen journalists, some member of the press’ curmudgeonly class—thinking himself quite clever and apparently believing he just thought of this himself—will growl at me: “Why should I trust a citizen journalist? You wouldn’t want a citizen surgeon, would you?” No, I wouldn’t. But I do want health care to open up to the Google age and take full advantage of the opportunities it presents to gather and share more data; to link patients with better treatment and information; to connect them with fellow patients in a community of shared experience and need; and to use the potential of collaborative tools and the open-source movement to advance medical science.
Airbnb, bounce rate, business climate, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, digital map, Google Glasses, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, pull request, revision control, ride hailing / ride sharing, search engine result page, sharing economy, Skype, TaskRabbit, turn-by-turn navigation
Even more importantly, the Twitter API was made easily available to developers so that there are more than 100,000 companion apps for the service from client readers to photo sharing services that enhance the user experience. A tweet can be sent from a 20-year-old cell phone as a text message. There is no need to sit down at a computer. For this reason, Twitter seems to readily turn members into citizen journalists during news events and natural disasters. This lends an unusual degree of social relevance to the community that has made it even more acceptable in the eyes of mainstream culture. For instance, much of the information that reached the west from the Arab Spring democracy movement (2010-2013) did so via Twitter. Much of Twitter’s success stems from the sweet spot of having found a perfect product idea for the time that paired exceptional built-in virality with high social relevance.
The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Post-materialism, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game
(To be sure, on many broadband networks this final link is shared among several unrelated subscribers, causing miniature tragedies of the commons as a file-sharing neighbor slows down the Internet performance for someone nearby trying to watch on-demand video.) The ability to tinker and experiment without watching a meter provides an important impetus to innovate; yesterday’s playful webcams on aquariums and cubicles have given rise to Internet-facilitated warehouse monitoring, citizen-journalist reporting from remote locations, and, as explained later in this book, even controversial experiments in a distributed neighborhood watch system where anyone can watch video streamed from a national border and report people who look like they are trying to cross it illegally7 However, an absence of measurement is starting to have generative drawbacks. Because we cannot easily measure the network and the character of the activity on it, we are left incapable of easily assessing and dealing with threats from bad code without laborious and imperfect cooperation among a limited group of security software vendors.
By devising tools and practices to connect distant individuals already building upon one another’s data, we can promote the feedback loops found within functioning communities and build a framework to allow the nicely part of Benkler’s “sharing nicely” to blossom.129 Enabling Reputation Bankruptcy As biometric readers become more commonplace in our endpoint machines, it will be possible for online destinations routinely to demand unsheddable identity tokens rather than disposable pseudonyms from Internet users. Many sites could benefit from asking people to participate with real identities known at least to the site, if not to the public at large. eBay, for one, would certainly profit by making it harder for people to shift among various ghost accounts. One could even imagine Wikipedia establishing a “fast track” for contributions if they were done with biometric assurance, just as South Korean citizen journalist newspaper OhmyNews keeps citizen identity numbers on file for the articles it publishes.130 These architectures protect one’s identity from the world at large while still making it much more difficult to produce multiple false “sock puppet” identities. When we participate in other walks of life—school, work, PTA meetings, and so on—we do so as ourselves, not wearing Groucho mustaches, and even if people do not know exactly who we are, they can recognize us from one meeting to the next.
Occupying Wall Street: The Inside Story of an Action That Changed America by Writers For The 99%
Bay Area Rapid Transit, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, desegregation, feminist movement, income inequality, McMansion, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, Port of Oakland, We are the 99%, young professional
Inside the park, police with megaphones shouted, “Please get out of the park,” while passing out leaflets explaining that they were clearing the park. “Whose park? Our Park!” some responded. Others started gathering their possessions. Many reported feeling disoriented by the NYPD’s use of loud sound devices. One videographer stood filming in the middle of Cedar Street, facing the park. “For your safety, we’re asking you to move,” police demanded. “I don’t see why I have to move,” said citizen journalist Barbara Ross. “I am not scared. I am not blocking anything. I know my rights.” For the next two hours, she filmed cops pepper spraying resisters, trashing library books, wrecking the park’s sacred space, and completely demolishing the twomonth encampment. Two female officers eventually forced Barbara behind barricades on Trinity Place, where she could no longer witness the destruction. The cops fenced off the park: by 1 a.m. no one was allowed past the barricades.
Collaborative Futures by Mike Linksvayer, Michael Mandiberg, Mushon Zer-Aviv
4chan, Benjamin Mako Hill, British Empire, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative economy, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late capitalism, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, Network effects, optical character recognition, packet switching, postnationalism / post nation state, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, stealth mode startup, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application
No one can deny the scale of Internet and mobile phone penetration in the Arab World. People in the region are becoming increasingly aware of the potentials oﬀered by technology for social and political change. Artists, social workers and young intellectuals are resorting to information and communication venues in order to disseminate their work, gain wider reception and create more interaction. Despite the emergence of such highly connected communities of citizen journalists, cyber artists and digital activists, the techies who provide support and infrastructure to these communities, are still working in isolation, not really beneﬁting from this regional networking. While their social role is not always recognized by their communities and sometimes even by the techies themselves, they play a pivotal role, they are builders of communities, facilitators of communication between communities, they oﬀer support, hand holding and transfer of skills and knowledge and they are transforming into gatekeepers to an increasing diversity of voices and information.
Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks
In less than a fortnight, Julian Assange will be in this building, waiting to speak to the press about the Afghan War Logs. The man I’m waiting for today, Massachusetts-based hacker and scholar Ethan Zuckerman, is also a man who wants to take people outside their comfort zones and make them think. In 2004, along with journalist and China expert Rebecca MacKinnon, Ethan founded Global Voices, an international network of multilingual citizen journalists that works to get reporting from non-Western parts of the world more exposure on the web. While he was still a student at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, Ethan had co-founded the online community-hosting portal Tripod.com, which sold to Lycos in the late nineties. On graduation, Ethan spent a year in Ghana on a Fulbright scholarship before returning to the United States at the turn of the Millennium to found GeekCorps, a kind of VSO for geeks which sends people with technical skills to the developing world to help with computer-related projects.
Free Ride by Robert Levine
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Anne Wojcicki, book scanning, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Firefox, future of journalism, Googley, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Justin.tv, Kevin Kelly, linear programming, Marc Andreessen, moral panic, offshore financial centre, pets.com, publish or perish, race to the bottom, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
The product isn’t the problem. Online publications that Twitter on a 24-7 schedule face the same difficulties, and even the inventive start-up Politico has said it makes most of its revenue on the print edition it distributes in Washington, D.C.14 At most online start-ups, any interest in journalistic innovation seems to come from the desire to cut costs, which is why more of them are experimenting with “citizen journalism” than, say, professionally shot video. For all the talk about how people now consume information differently, the real online revolution is in advertising. For more than a century, marketers funded content without caring much about it; they just needed a way to reach consumers. (Advertising without content was called junk mail and generally ignored.) Now they can reach potential customers directly—on search results pages, through social networks, and on their own sites.
“That’s not how people are consuming news,” she said.38 This is true, of course, but mostly because the Huffington Post and other online sites use Sun stories to draw in readers. The Sun, she implied, would just have to adjust. Rather than apply regular media economics to online publications, which would involve spending more money on reporting, most technology executives push traditional publications to adapt online economics: inexpensive ads and content that costs as little as possible. Their ideas for the future of journalism include citizen journalism, nonprofit-funded reporting, and various innovations based on publicly available data. But they don’t seem to involve many journalists. Few companies have done more to promote these ideas than Google, which has used the public discussion about the future of journalism to push its own priorities. In April 2010, the Knight Commission on the Information Needs of Communities in a Democracy, a group funded by the John S. and James L.
As the media executive and news business blogger Alan Mutter pointed out, U.S. newspapers now spend $4.4 billion a year on reporting, while nonprofit journalism institutions raised only $144 million over the last four.42 “The finding about that in general is that the content is great and the funding model is very unstable,” says Nicholas Lemann, dean of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. “Then there are these experiments in crowdsourcing and other forms of social production, and my view is that they haven’t really delivered the goods.” Although nonprofit groups like the Knight Foundation have become enamored with citizen journalism projects, their track record has been uneven at best. A 2010 study by the Pew Research Center’s Project for Excellence in Journalism that examined the news “ecosystem” of Baltimore over the course of a week found that traditional media produced 95 percent of the stories with new information and that newspapers were responsible for most of them.43 (It also found that 80 percent of all stories contained no new information at all, which is damning for old and new media alike.)
The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, lifelogging, market design, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, too big to fail, US Airways Flight 1549, web application, zero-sum game
Today, an inkjet printer that costs about fifty dollars can reproduce digital photos with an unnoticeable difference in resolution. This has also happened with mainframe computing to the point where the super computer that lives in our pocket is our most powerful technological device. It’s clear that technology is disrupting industry and breaking down almost everything that was once mass. Just as large media has had to learn to share the stage with citizen journalism, the factory will soon be sharing the market with digital craftspeople operating out of their home. Desktop publishing is about to be joined by desktop manufacturing. Smart entrepreneurs are already starting to build ‘bridge industries’ for 3D printing, which will teach and build the market in the pre–saturation phase of the coming years. Online 3D digital print shops such as Ponoko — which produces what you want using your designs or those of other people and sends the finished product right to your door — are emerging.
The strategy needs to be one of embracing the unknown and of exploring all commercial possibilities. It’s hard to imagine that a build-stuff-on-demand world will ever exist. But it was probably hard for pre-industrial artisans to imagine what factories and production would eventually become, or how the first transistors would transform us into an information age. What’s certain is that social media and citizen journalism will evolve into social design and social manufacturing. It’s the way it’s always been, excluding the 200-year halcyon period of the industrial era. Dad vs daughter I’ve been thrilled to own a 3D printer for a few years now. I purchased one when they hit their Altair moment (the Altair 8800 is regarded as the first affordable personal computer and the spark of the home computer revolution).
We’re all media companies Everyone is a media company today. While not everyone has embraced it, this is true for anyone who’s connected to the internet. If we’re plugged into the web, we’re a valid form of media, plain and simple. If we have the ability to send a message to more than one recipient simultaneously, we’re the media, even at a micro level. And it doesn’t mean we have to be using the tools of citizen journalism either. People don’t have to be creating traditional media output (written words, video content, audio content) to be media. If you send a text message to a group of recipients via a web app, that’s media. You’re delivering content to a permission-based audience. You have their eyes and ears. You have their attention, and that’s the asset that matters, especially when we’re living in a world of absolute channel explosion.
The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator
Today, there are 5 million members—making it one of the largest advocacy groups in America, significantly larger than the NRA. Together, our members have given over $120 million in small donations to support causes we’ve identified together—health care for everyone, a green economy, and a flourishing democratic process, to name a few. For a time, it seemed that the Internet was going to entirely redemocratize society. Bloggers and citizen journalists would single-handedly rebuild the public media. Politicians would be able to run only with a broad base of support from small, everyday donors. Local governments would become more transparent and accountable to their citizens. And yet the era of civic connection I dreamed about hasn’t come. Democracy requires citizens to see things from one another’s point of view, but instead we’re more and more enclosed in our own bubbles.
Surrender or Starve: Travels in Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Eritrea by Robert D. Kaplan
Quite the contrary: for Gaddafi and Mengistu, a weak new government in Khartoum, which by its own definition was only “transitional,” represented an easy target rather than a credible negotiating partner. It was about this time that the Sudanese defense minister went to Tripoli to sign the “protocol.” Meanwhile, the United States, which was occupied with helicopter drops and other acts of mercy in the far west of the country, was merely a bystander to this whole process. The Libyans also were active in the west; they took bold, strategic advantage of the famine while U.S. citizens, journalists in particular, were looking the other way. On the Sabbath Friday, August 23, 1985, six days before the Buram helicopter drop, a Libyan relief convoy of forty-three trucks and trailers, escorted by Libyan soldiers, rolled into the Darfur capital of El Fasher with an undisclosed number of weapons hidden beneath sacks of grain and dried milk powder. Around the same time, tribal chiefs from other parts of Darfur and adjacent Kordofan were being invited to Tripoli as guests of Colonel Gaddafi.
The images that the antagonists project of one another are wearyingly familiar and at this point comically—or perhaps depressingly—distorted. An unwashed, sexually frustrated blogger is squirreled away in his mother’s basement, undermining the efforts of trained professionals who are, to reverse the image, lazy and entitled fat cats determined to guard their privilege from the brave and idealistic labor of citizen journalists. The hard work of thinking and writing is further imperiled by the quick, cheap, superficial trickery of aggregation and content farming. Or else the guardians and gatekeepers of the cultural elite have, at long last, been routed by an empowered and skeptical vox populi. But anyone who actually reads, including, presumably, the prophets and doomsayers who herald and bewail the rise of the new digital dispensation, knows that things are not so simple.
But What if We're Wrong? Thinking About the Present as if It Were the Past by Chuck Klosterman
a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, citizen journalism, cosmological constant, dark matter, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, George Santayana, Gerolamo Cardano, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, Isaac Newton, non-fiction novel, obamacare, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Y2K
I can imagine the cognition of my current worldview slowly dissolving, in the same way certain dreams dissolve within the same instant I wake up and realize that I was not experiencing my actual life. Every so often, minor news stories will surface suggesting something major about science is already shifting. “NASA successfully tests engine that uses no fuel [and] violates the laws of physics,” read an August 1, 2014, headline in the citizen-journalist-run Examiner. Nine months later, the Silicon Valley–based Tech Times proclaimed, “NASA may have accidentally discovered faster-than-light travel.” Both articles were about the EmDrive, an experimental rocket thruster that supposedly violates Newton’s Third Law (the conservation of momentum). By the time any reader reached the conclusion of these articles, it was clear that the alleged breakthroughs were more interesting than practical.
The End of Secrecy: The Rise and Fall of WikiLeaks by The "Guardian", David Leigh, Luke Harding
4chan, banking crisis, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, Downton Abbey, drone strike, eurozone crisis, friendly fire, global village, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Mohammed Bouazizi, offshore financial centre, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks
Because it was developed in Sweden rather than the US, the team trusts it not to have a “back door” through which the US National Security Agency can peer in on their discussions. As its name suggests, WikiLeaks began as a “wiki” – a user-editable site (which has sometimes led to confusion with the user-editable Wikipedia; there is no association). But Assange and his colleagues rapidly found that the content and need to remove dangerous or incriminating information made such a model impractical. Assange would come to revise his belief that online “citizen journalists” in their thousands would be prepared to scrutinise posted documents and discover whether they were genuine or not. But while the “wiki” elements have been abandoned, a structure to enable anonymous submissions of leaked documents remains at the heart of the WikiLeaks idea. British encryption expert Ben Laurie was another who assisted. Laurie, a former mathematician who lives in west London and among other things rents out bomb-proof bunkers to house commercial internet servers, says when Assange first proposed his scheme for “an open-source, democratic intelligence agency”, he thought it was “all hot air”.
back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional
In the ensuing months Greece ‘got’ an immigration policy—albeit one where to claim asylum you have to queue overnight on a Friday, week after week, avoid being beaten by the gangs paid by the police to disrupt the queue, and then somehow bribe your way to the front. A policy where people of colour are shamelessly picked off the streets by plainclothes police and herded onto buses to be processed. One where previously buzzing immigrant neighbourhoods like Agias Pandelemonos in Athens have become, in a matter of months, quiet, orderly, and mostly white. But it has not stopped Golden Dawn. Theodora Oikonomides, a citizen journalist at the alternative radio network Radio Bubble, who has covered the rise of Golden Dawn, voices a fear common to many: ‘Golden Dawn’s favourite themes, such as xenophobia, homophobia and anti-Semitism have now become part of Greek public discourse, whether at the political or at the social level,’ she says. ‘By failing to take action against Golden Dawn while nodding and winking to its electorate at every opportunity, the Greek politicians—who are now in power with the support of European partners—have opened a Pandora’s box that will not close any time soon.’
Against Everything: Essays by Mark Greif
1960s counterculture, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, Desert Island Discs, Donald Trump, income inequality, informal economy, Norman Mailer, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, Ronald Reagan, technoutopianism, telemarketer, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, white flight
Unlike television, to which commercials were indigenous—the skunks, mosquitos, and snakes of that particular media ecology—the compulsory commercials preceding YouTube videos now, and now interrupting at intervals the replay of long recordings, are invasive species, purely extraneous and insulting. So vandalism has come to be the flip side of this extraordinary Taj Mahal, or vast, architecturally promiscuous city, made by users—YouTube’s, the organizer’s, vandalism of what we have created. Treasured things keep disappearing even as new ones appear. Whenever a controversial or newsworthy clip is heard to be posted—as witnesses and “citizen journalists” put up footage from their camera phones, and its presence even makes it into the front-page recounting of the news, precisely the kind of thing a collective repository should exist to keep and share—one’s immediate question is: “Is it still up?” Which asks, has the They gotten to it yet and removed it? The They are always disappearing things. Who knows why: taste, corporate request, government preference?
Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff
3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
The growth game is still working, so place your bets. Evan and his partners successfully turned Twitter into a publicly traded, multibillion-dollar company and in the process sacrificed a potentially world-changing app to the singular pursuit of growth. Here was arguably the most powerful social media tool yet developed—from organizing activists in the Arab Spring and Occupy Wall Street movements to providing a global platform for citizen journalists and presidential candidates alike. And it wasn’t particularly expensive to create or maintain. It certainly didn’t require a multibillion-dollar cash infusion in order to keep functioning. Having taken in this much new capital, however, Twitter now needs to produce. It must grow. As of this writing, the $43 million Twitter profited last quarter is considered an abject failure by Wall Street.
Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies by Charlene Li, Josh Bernoff
business process, call centre, centre right, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, demand response, Donald Trump, estate planning, Firefox, John Markoff, knowledge worker, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Tony Hsieh
The entire episode was covered by the Korea Times: See “Dunkin’s Production Faces Sanitation Criticism” by Kim Rahn, Korea Times, May 4, 2007, visible at http://forr.com/gsw1-17. 18. In 2006, Forrester Research released a report called “Social Computing”: Forrester’s report was called “Social Computing: How Networks Erode Institutional Power, And What to Do About It.” In this report we argued that technology-driven social phenomena—including blogs, wikis, social networks, file sharing, customer ratings, citizen journalism, and the like—are part of a single trend toward people connecting and depending on each other, rather than on institutions. (We now call that trend the groundswell.) According to the report, “To thrive in an era of Social Computing, companies must abandon top-down management and communication tactics, weave communities into their products and services, use employees and partners as marketers, and become part of a living fabric of brand loyalists.”
An amazing short story called “Microcosmic God”: Theodore Sturgeon’s “Microcosmic God” was first published in 1941. The story appears in The Science Fiction Hall of Fame, Vol. 1, edited by Robert Silverberg (New York: Orb, 2005). 25. Seven weeks, for a total investment of $12,107.09: See Guy Kawasaki’s June 3, 2007, blog post “By the Numbers: How I built a Web 2.0, User-Generated Content, Citizen Journalism, Long-Tail, Social Media Site for $12,107.09” on the blog How to Change the World at http://forr.com/gsw1-25. 26. As Chris Anderson, author of The Long Tail: See The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business Is Selling Less of More by Chris Anderson (New York: Hyperion, 2006). The author’s blog is at www.thelongtail.com or http://forr.com/gsw1-26. 27. Here’s what one FastLane reader, for example, said about one the new Pontiac GTO: See Bob Lutz’s January 25, 2005, blog post “Sharpening the Arrowhead” on the blog GM FastLane at http://forr.com/gsw1-27. 28.
Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now by Douglas Rushkoff
algorithmic trading, Andrew Keen, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, cashless society, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, disintermediation, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, Elliott wave, European colonialism, Extropian, facts on the ground, Flash crash, game design, global supply chain, global village, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, Inbox Zero, invention of agriculture, invention of hypertext, invisible hand, iterative process, John Nash: game theory, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, Law of Accelerating Returns, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Milgram experiment, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, passive investing, pattern recognition, peak oil, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nelson Elliott, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game
This is twice the percentage who believed that in the mid-1980s, before the proliferation of the net.24 As cultural philosopher Jürgen Habermas offered during his acceptance speech of a humanitarian award in 2006, “The price we pay for the growth in egalitarianism offered by the Internet is the decentralized access to unedited stories. In this medium, contributions by intellectuals lose their power to create a focus.”25 To be sure, the rise of citizen journalism brings us information that the mainstream media lacks either the budget for or fortitude to cover. Initial reports of damage during Hurricane Katrina came from bloggers and amateur videographers. However, these reports also inflated body counts and spread rumors about rape and violence in the Superdome that were later revealed not to have occurred.26 Footage and reporting from the Arab Spring and the Syrian revolution—where news agencies were limited or banned—were almost entirely dependent on amateur journalists.
See also specific topic ownership, 168–69, 204 pacing: collaborative, 100–101; digiphrenia and, 74, 93–109; importance of, 8; multiple timescales and, 135; overwinding and, 135, 141, 170 paranoia, 204, 218, 222, 240–41, 250, 261 patterns: apocalypto and, 251, 263, 264; fractalnoia and, 7, 197–205, 209, 216, 217–19, 229, 230–41; generating of, 217–19; as nonexistent, 201, 202; recognition of, 7, 219, 230–41, 264 Paul, Ron, 53 Perren, Jeff, 60n Pew Internet and American Life Project, 52 Pew Research, 51 Pinchbeck, Daniel, 253 Pinker, Steven, 227–28 planking, 43 plastic surgery, 149–51 play. See games politics: citizen journalism and, 52–53; fractalnoia and, 209, 212, 216; generational issues and, 18; narrative collapse and, 7, 18, 28, 43–50, 52–53, 64, 67; overwinding and, 134, 157; real-time, 43–50. See also Occupy Movement popular culture, 7, 23–34, 247. See also culture pork belly trades, 185–86 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). See stress Prechter, Robert, 229–30 present/presentism: blocking out of, 17; digiphrenia and, 86; as form of time travel, 259–60; futurism and, 17; hunter-gatherer society in eternal, 76–77; impact of, 4; multiple timescales and, 135; narrative collapse and, 17, 31, 50; negation of, 85; new “now” and, 1–8; overwinding and, 141; past as wound up into, 156–57; real-time news and, 48.
Revolution 2:0: A Memoir and Call to Action by Wael Ghonim
The names of deceased citizens were used to cast false votes, and on occasion people who hadn’t voted found that their identities had been illegally appropriated and used in the ballot boxes (this happened to a friend of mine). Finally, State Security would pressure the civic workers responsible for sorting and counting the votes into rigging the results. Even so, the 2010 parliamentary elections were the worst in Egypt’s history. A group of young people sympathetic to the Muslim Brotherhood launched a Facebook page called “Monitoring—2010 Parliament.” It was delightful to see a page devoted to citizen journalism appearing on Facebook specifically to monitor the elections. They called themselves Rasd, an Arabic word that means “monitoring.” Judging from the way the page was run, its founders seemed both professional and young. I would later find out that one of the founders was actually none other than Amr El-Qazzaz, the guy to whom I had delegated the management of elshaheeed.org. What a small world!
After the thugs retreated, they climbed onto the Sixth of October Bridge to throw yet more Molotov cocktails. Then the battle became deadly: snipers began targeting protesters and firing live ammunition from the top of the bridge. Martyrs began to fall, one after another, until a group of protesters was able to climb the bridge from behind the thugs and snipers and fight with them one by one. Citizen journalism and social media played a great role in informing the world of the events in the square and many other areas across Egypt. Rasd, whose page was linked to “Kullena Khaled Said” on Jan25, had twelve admins who regularly collected information, photos, and videos from protesters. Their page quickly became one of the major news sources on the Egyptian revolution. More than 350,000 people joined the page to keep up with the minute-to-minute updates, something traditional media simply couldn’t offer.
Program Or Be Programmed: Ten Commands for a Digital Age by Douglas Rushkoff
banking crisis, big-box store, citizen journalism, cloud computing, digital map, East Village, financial innovation, Firefox, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the printing press, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, WikiLeaks
Young people who saw in social networks a way to redefine themselves and their allegiances across formerly sacrosanct boundaries are now conforming to the logic of social networking profiles and finding themselves the victims of marketers and character assassination. Bankers who believed that digital entrepreneurship would revive a sagging industrial age economy are instead finding it impossible to generate new value through capital investment. A news media that saw in information networks new opportunities for citizen journalism and responsive, twenty-four-hour news gathering has grown sensationalist, unprofitable, and devoid of useful facts. Educated laypeople who saw in the net a new opportunity for amateur participation in previously cordoned-off sectors of media and society instead see the indiscriminate mashing and mixing up of pretty much everything, in an environment where the loud and lewd drown out anything that takes more than a few moments to understand.
Two Georges by Richard Dreyfuss, Harry Turtledove
III Long before he got to the RAM headquarters in downtown New Liverpool, Bushell knew what sort of day it would be. Newsboys on every other street corner waved papers with screaming headlines. The big one was always the same, regardless of the daily: TWO GEORGES STOLEN! The number of exclamation points following the head did vary, from none in the staid New Liverpool Tory to four in the Citizen-Journal. Subheads also varied. SHAME! cried one. Another wailed, MONSTROUS CRIME! And a third declared, THE EMPIRE MOURNS! Some mentioned the Steamer King’s demise (only the Citizen-journal called him Tricky Dick, while the headline man for the Ledger was clever enough to link his murder to the theft of The Two Georges), while others went on talking about the theft itself. The newsboys were doing a land-office business. Men and women crowded round them, pressing shillings into their hands.
The real sun would be rising too soon. Bushell turned out the bedside lamp, flipped over onto his side, and did his best to sleep. In his army days, he’d had a knack for dropping off whenever he got the chance. Somewhere, over the years, he’d mislaid it. Even had he found it, it wouldn’t have done him much good. The telephone rang twice more in the waning hours of the night: a reporter from the New Liverpool Citizen-Journal and another from the Toronto American. “I’ll schedule a press conference for this afternoon.” Bushell said at last, yielding to the inevitable. Thanks to the interruptions, he’d had a bit more than an hour’s sleep when the alarm clock went off beside his head like a bomb. Groggily, he picked up the telephone. “Bushell.” Only when the clock kept on clattering did he realize what it was and turn it off.
Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta
23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management, zero-sum game
The Web site, like Google, was free and offered links to stories in the Chicago Tribune, Chicago Daily Herald, and other local papers and Web sites. Aside from inviting citizens to blog, this local online “newspaper” was little more than a collection of links to work done by others. Lerer said there was promotional value for content providers like the Tribune. True. He said the more page views their content got the more advertising they’d sell. True. He said that “citizen journalists” often provide valuable information. True. But at a time when most newspapers proclaim local news as their potential salvation, these papers were suicidally supplying the Huffington Post with their own murder weapon. By 2009, the Huffington Post was discussing similar local editions in as many as fifty cities. What to do? Eric Schmidt once told me that he thought “Apple’s iTunes is a great example of compromise” between old and new media and, of course, users pay for their music there.
The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NOTES SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX ACKNOWLEDGMENTS THERE MAY NOT be an end to the number of people who contributed to the making of this book, but there are two people who were at the beginning: Tom and Pat Gish. Tom and Pat have owned and operated the Mountain Eagle, a weekly newspaper in the mountains of Eastern Kentucky, for the past half century. Before bloggers or citizen journalists or the Web 2.0, the Gishes practiced a tough, inclusive, honest, and ultimately democratic style of journalism that has guided me since I arrived on their doorstep in 1975. Tom and Pat have shown a respect for the people of Letcher County that is unusual in journalism and almost entirely missing from public life. The Big Sort would have remained undiscovered without Bob Cushing. We met by chance, and it was due to his skill as a statistician and his curiosity as a scholar that we found the relationship between the economy, the culture, politics, and geography.
1960s counterculture, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, Donner party, East Village, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Haight Ashbury, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Menlo Park, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, Norman Mailer, pre–internet, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, upwardly mobile, working poor, yellow journalism
When President Johnson ramped up draft calls from 17,000 a month to 35,000 a month in July 1965, it triggered a wave of domestic protest that pulled in a large coalition of disparate groups, from students and businessmen to housewives and Social Security card carriers. Public figures were also starting to contribute their voices to the dissent. In 1967 the Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation sponsored the International War Crimes Tribunal, a plenipotentiary forum whose board members included novelist James Baldwin and existential philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. Using extensive testimony from Vietnamese citizens, journalists, medical experts, and military leaders, the tribunal sought to reprimand the United States for its illegal use of chemical weaponry, particularly napalm, against the North Vietnamese, comparing it to the war atrocities committed by the Nazis during World War II. The tribunal was great theater, a display of rhetorical fireworks and moving testimony. At one point Sartre branded tribunal no-show Secretary of State Dean Rusk a “mediocre functionary” and wondered how Rusk, “armed with the miserable arguments with which he amuses the press,” would fare in a face-to-face debate with Bertrand Russell.
The Science of Fear: How the Culture of Fear Manipulates Your Brain by Daniel Gardner
Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, Doomsday Clock, feminist movement, haute couture, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mandatory minimum, medical residency, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, placebo effect, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Y2K, young professional
It doesn’t take an MBA to figure out what pharmaceutical companies need to do to expand their markets and boost sales. Critics call it “disease mongering.” Australians Roy Moynihan and David Henry, a journalist and a pharmacologist, respectively, wrote in the April 2006 edition of the journal Public Library of Science Medicine that “many of the so-called disease awareness campaigns that inform contemporary understanding of illness—whether as citizens, journalists, academics or policymakers—are underwritten by the marketing departments of large drug companies rather than by organizations with a primary interest in public health. And it is no secret that those same marketing depart- ments contract advertising agencies with expertise in ‘condition branding,’ whose skills include ‘fostering the creation’ of new medical disorders and dysfunctions.” The evidence assembled by Moynihan and Henry in their book Selling Sickness: How the World’s Biggest Pharmaceutical Companies Are Turning Us All Into Patients is extensive.
Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman
1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, George Santayana, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, mandatory minimum, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day
And did these boys need to be punished for it? Absolutely.”50 When these articles were brought to Anonymous’ attention, the group made a lot of noise, in turn bringing the incident to the nation’s attention. Eventually, a special prosecutor formally filed a criminal charge against Matthew Barnett—a single count of misdemeanor child endangerment. Anonymous’ interventions in these three cases triggered searing but divided responses. Citizens, journalists, and feminists disagreed over whether Anonymous’ interventions had helped or hurt sexual abuse victims. Ariel Levy, in a scathing New Yorker article, came down hard against the Anonymous (and other online activists), asserting that the appeal of the group was rooted in the public’s naive embrace of a simple archetype: “modern-day Peter Parkers—computer nerds who put on a costume and were transformed into superhero vigilantes.”51 Other responses were more nuanced, going beyond the vigilante argument.
23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day
In Chapter 5, I mentioned the Italian company Hacking Team. Its computer and cell phone intrusion and monitoring products are used by the governments of Azerbaijan, Colombia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Oman, Panama, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Thailand, Turkey, the UAE, and Uzbekistan. The Moroccan government employed Hacking Team’s software to target the citizen journalist group Mamfakinch via an e-mail that purported to be a message from an anonymous citizen in danger; the attached file contained a payload of malware. In 2011, arrested dissidents in Bahrain were shown transcripts of their private e-mail and chat sessions, collected by the government with tools provided by Nokia and Siemens. The conference ISS World—which stands for Intelligence Support Systems—has frequent trade shows in cities like Dubai and Brasilia.
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov
3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks
What sane small online publisher will now dare publish a memoir like Clancy Martin’s if it means foregoing a stable stream of income? Guernica’s is not an isolated case. In late 2011, Omoyele Sowore, a Nigerian exile living in New York, got a similar e-mail from Google. Sowore runs a website called Sahara Reporters, which mixes editorial writings on the state of affairs in Nigeria with reported stories contributed by a network of citizen journalists on the ground. One such story focused on police brutality in the region and included a number of graphic photos. Google’s algorithms found the images too violent and informed Sowore that it was suspending the site’s participation in AdSense. Pleas to Google were met with silence. Only after an intervention from a well-placed staffer with the Committee to Protect Journalism did Google agree, perhaps sensing that the story would yield very bad publicity if pushed by activist free speech NGOs, to reconsider its treatment of Sahara Reporters.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application
In countries such as China, the variety of local social networking tools is just as bewildering, with sites such as QQ, 51, Xiaonei, Chinaren, Kaixin001, 5460, Wangyou, and others. Individuals who do tireless outreach to their large networks are deemed to be influencers and are now courted by corporations to help sell new products and socialise ideas. Even less-frequent commentators can serve as “citizen journalists”, notifying others about their concerns or experiences with organisations. The Chinese author and blogger, Han Han, has received over 300 million views to his blog, making him the most-read blogger in China, and probably the entire world. In September 2010, the British magazine, New Statesman, listed Han Han at 48th place in the list of the world’s “50 Most Influential Figures 2010”.17 Han started as a writer when he was at high school, and won literary awards such as China’s New Concept Writing Competition.
When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson
affirmative action, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, jobless men, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration
I highlight problems in order to inform the public and social policy debates. A good deal of what we call attention to as social scientists is related to the ultimate objective of our research. Social researchers who wish to inform and influence public policy are more likely to focus on a community’s problems than on its strengths. Their purpose is to stimulate thought so that policymakers, concerned citizens, journalists, and others will have a basis for understanding such problems and the need to address them. Given the reemergence of the discussion concerning the importance of genetic endowment, it is urgent that social scientists once again emphasize, for public policy purposes, the powerful and complex role of the social environment in shaping the life experiences of inner-city ghetto residents. Since the publication of The Bell Curve in late 1994, a genetic argument has resurfaced in public discussions about the plight of inner-city residents.
Nerds on Wall Street: Math, Machines and Wired Markets by David J. Leinweber
AI winter, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, butterfly effect, buttonwood tree, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Danny Hillis, demand response, disintermediation, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, financial innovation, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, information retrieval, intangible asset, Internet Archive, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, load shedding, Long Term Capital Management, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, market fragmentation, market microstructure, Mars Rover, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, negative equity, Network effects, optical character recognition, paper trading, passive investing, pez dispenser, phenotype, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, semantic web, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, smart grid, smart meter, social web, South Sea Bubble, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing machine, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Vernor Vinge, yield curve, Yogi Berra, your tax dollars at work
This is an update on the “time isn’t what it used to be” lesson seen in comparing pre- and postmodern Web-era market reaction to earnings surprise news, shown in Chapter 4. In fact, it didn’t take long for another major manipulation based on false news to occur. A legitimate news story followed a falsely planted one that had hammered Apple stock down by 5.4 percent, less than a month after the UAL presumed accident: CNN’s plunge into online citizen journalism backfired yesterday when the cable-news outlet posted what turned out to be a bogus report claiming that Apple Inc. Chief Executive Officer Steve Jobs had suffered a heart attack. Apple shares fell as much as 5.4 percent after the post on CNN’s iReport.com and rebounded after the Cupertino, California–based company said the story was false. Atlantabased CNN, owned by Time Warner Inc., disabled the user’s account and said it tried unsuccessfully to contact the individual.3 208 Nerds on Wall Str eet The effects of real news are often less dramatic.
PIMCO December 2008 Market Commentary, www.pimco.com/LeftNav/Featured +Market+Commentary/IO/2008/IO+Dow+5000+Gross+Dec+08.htm. 2. Relegence was an early first-wave company that did this. It was acquired by AOL, but remains in the news machine business (www.relegence.com/). Newcomers in 2007 and 2008 include Skygrid (www.skygrid.com) and StockMood (www.stockmood. com). Firstrain.com aggregates a wide range of services. The Text Fr ontier 225 3. James Callan, “CNN’s Citizen Journalism Goes ‘Awry’ with False Report on Jobs,” Bloomberg News, October 4, 2008. 4. Paul Tetlock, Maytal Saar-Tsechansky, and Sofus Macskassy, “More Than Words: Quantifying Language (in News) to Measure Firms’ Fundamentals,” Journal of Finance 63 (June 2008): 1437–1467. (An earlier working version is available at the Social Science Research Network, http://ssrn.com.) 5. General Inquirer is found at www.wjh.harvard.edu/˜inquirer/. 6.
3D printing, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, big-box store, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, Elon Musk, Firefox, glass ceiling, greed is good, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, QR code, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, underbanked, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar
The method of funding is determined according to the model and needs of the organization. But the blending can happen more organically, too. Take the case of YouTube or Wikipedia. No one is paid to post a video on YouTube, and yet approximately 72 hours of video are uploaded every minute. In some ways, YouTube could be considered the largest volunteer organization in the world. Or consider the rise of citizen journalism, flourishing on sites such as Wikinews and the South Korean OhmyNews, which offers anyone who has knowledge of breaking news events the opportunity to circumvent the biases that can distort so much of commercially-funded news coverage. Many of the most important markets operate across sectors. American hospitals and schools, for example, are now run by nonprofits, corporations, and governments.
The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Triumphs Over Self-Interest by Yochai Benkler
business process, California gold rush, citizen journalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, East Village, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental economics, experimental subject, framing effect, informal economy, invisible hand, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game, Zipcar
More business school courses and businesses themselves began to emphasize and experiment with organizational models that were neither strictly market-based nor as hierarchical as had been thought necessary in the past. Instead they were built around the assumption that, given the right conditions, people would opt to cooperate and collaborate to serve the collective good of the organization—of their own free will. More radical still, the rise of peer production on the Net—from free and open-source software, to Wikipedia, to collaborative citizen journalism on sites like Daily Kos or Newsvine, to social networks like Facebook and Twitter—produced a culture of cooperation that was widely thought impossible a mere five or ten years ago. These changes did not happen at the fringes of society; they arose precisely in those places, like Silicon Valley, that represented the cutting edge of our social and economic trends. The business world finally began to sit up and take notice.
Andrew Keen, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, experimental economics, experimental subject, fundamental attribution error, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, Kevin Kelly, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, social software, Steve Ballmer, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, ultimatum game
A good contemporaneous description is Jeffrey Gettleman’s “Disputed Vote Plunges Kenya into Bloodshed,” The New York Times, December 31, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/31/world/africa/31kenya.html (accessed January 6, 2010). 15 Ory Okolloh: Okollah’s role in founding Ushahidi is described by Dorcas Komo in “Kenyan Techie Honored for Role in Tracking Post-Election Violence,” Mshale: The African Community Newspaper, July 3, 2008, http://mshale.com/article.cfm?articleID=18192 (accessed January 6, 2010). 16 Ushahidi had been better at reporting acts of violence: The Harvard study was written by Patrick Meier and Kate Brodock, “Crisis Mapping Kenya’s Election Violence: Comparing Mainstream News, Citizen Journalism, and Ushahidi,” Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, October 23, 2008, http://irevolution.wordpress.com/2008/10/23/mapping-kenyas-election-violence (accessed January 6, 2010). 21 an essay in 1997 called “Romancing the Looky-Loos”: Dave Hickey’s marvelous collection of essays, including “Romancing the Looky-Loos,” is Air Guitar: Essays on Art and Democracy (West Hollywood, CA: Foundation for Advanced Critical Studies, 1997): 146-54. 23 In 2010 the global internet-connected population will cross two billion people: There are many sources for predictions of growth of internet and mobile phone use.
4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar
And the new entrants, those who have the promise of easy access to consumers dangled in front of them, may find that the platform they depend on takes the lion’s share of the money. In addition to open-source software and open cultural content, many claims about the benefits of digital openness have centered on the changes it has brought to public debate and journalism. Glenn Reynolds’ book on blogging is called An Army of Davids: How Markets and Technology Empower Ordinary People to Beat Big Media, Big Government, and Other Goliaths.36 Newspapers have suffered, and citizen journalism in the form of blogs and social media commentary have become more prominent. But here too, the rise of the amateur and the embrace of openness have not led to the promised upending of powerful entrenched industries, or to the democratization of debate. The last sentence of Matthew Hindman’s The Myth of Digital Democracy is “It may be easier to speak in cyberspace, but it remains difficult to be heard.” 37 The book was one of the first that actually collected and analyzed large data sets to investigate online trends in consumption as well as production.
How to Fix Copyright by William Patry
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, barriers to entry, big-box store, borderless world, business intelligence, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, means of production, moral panic, new economy, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, web application, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game
Congressional Quarterly and Roll Call, owned by Britain’s Economist Group have, according to the chief executive, begun an “unprecedented” hiring spree, adding thirty-ﬁve new editorial positions alone.3 Democracy ﬂourishes from the participation of the many, not from the reporting of a few legacy newspapers. Today, news reporting is also done by citizens or by journalists who have struck out on their own via websites. The popular Politico website is an LAW IS NOT THE SOLUTION TO BUSINESS PROBLEMS 147 example of this latter type of reporting. Citizen journalism can be as good quality or better than that done by people at established newspapers, and is certainly faster. Many breaking stories are reported by citizens on Twitter, Facebook, or on individual’s websites or blogs. Ordinary citizens, armed with cell phones that have camera and video capabilities, post stories with pictures as events are happening and now constitute an essential element of news reporting.
The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen
3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator
For the last quarter of a century, we’ve been told ad nauseam by tenured professors of journalism like New York University’s Jay Rosen that the Internet’s destruction of old media is a good thing because it democratizes the information economy. Making a lucrative career from peddling the idea of the online information consumer as “the People Formerly Known as the Audience,” Rosen has become a cheerleader for the decimation of the curated twentieth-century news industry. But Rosen—who was Arianna Huffington’s partner at a failed citizen journalism initiative called “OffTheBus” and who is now an “advisor” to Omidyar’s First Look Media—is wrong about the Internet’s democratization of media. “The people formerly known as the audience” are still the audience—only now they are angrier and mostly more ill-informed than ever. And “the people who used to be the media owners” remain the media owners. Only now they are called Bezos or Omidyar rather than Sulzberger, Graham, or Hearst.
The Skeptical Economist: Revealing the Ethics Inside Economics by Jonathan Aldred
airport security, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, clean water, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Diane Coyle, endogenous growth, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, framing effect, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, libertarian paternalism, new economy, Pareto efficiency, pension reform, positional goods, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, school choice, spectrum auction, Thomas Bayes, trade liberalization, ultimatum game
in Cost-Benefit Analysis: Legal, Economic and Philosophical Perspectives. M. Adler and E. Posner (eds) Chicago, Chicago University Press Frank, R. (2004) ‘How not to buy happiness.’ Daedalus Spring: 69-79 Frank, R., T. Gilovich and D. Regan (1993) ‘Does studying economics inhibit cooperation?’ Journal ofEconomic Perspectives 7(2): 159-171 Frank, R., T. Gilovich and D. Regan (1996) ‘Do economists make bad citizens?’ Journal of Economic Perspectives 10(1): 187-192 Frederick, S. and G. Loewenstein (1999) ‘Hedonic adaptation’ in Well-Being: The Foundations ofHedonic Psychology. D. Kahneman, E. Diener and N. Schwarz (eds) New York, Russell Sage Frederick, S., G. Loewenstein and T. O’Donoghue (2002) ‘Time discounting and time preference.’ Journal ofEconomic Literature 40: 351-401 Frey, B. (1997) ‘A constitution for knaves crowds out civic virtues.’
Little Brother by Cory Doctorow
airport security, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, citizen journalism, Firefox, game design, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, mail merge, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas Bayes, web of trust, zero day
Natalie and her students rewire toy robot dogs from Toys R Us and turn them into bad-ass toxic-waste detectors. They unleash them on public parks where big corporations have dumped their waste and demonstrate in media-friendly fashion how toxic the ground is. Like many of the hacks in this book, the tunneling-over-DNS stuff is real. Dan Kaminsky, a tunneling expert of the first water, published details in 2004 (www.doxpara.com/bo2004.ppt). The guru of "citizen journalism" is Dan Gillmor, who is presently running the Center for Citizen Media at Harvard and UC Berkeley -- he also wrote a hell of a book on the subject, "We, the Media" (O'Reilly, 2004). If you want to learn more about hacking arphids, start with Annalee Newitz's Wired Magazine article "The RFID Hacking Underground" (www.wirednews.com/wired/archive/14.05/rfid.html). Adam Greenfield's "Everyware" (New Riders Press, 2006) is a chilling look at the dangers of a world of arphids.
The Establishment: And How They Get Away With It by Owen Jones
anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, G4S, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, housing crisis, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Dyson, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Neil Kinnock, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular capitalism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transfer pricing, union organizing, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent
After all, such internships help to ensure that only those with prosperous parents can afford to be exploited and enter the media – or, for that matter, a whole range of other professions from politics to law. Mandating all media organizations to include a ‘conscience clause’ in their contracts would allow journalists to turn down work that was either unethical or illegal. Stronger trade unions, too, would shift the balance of power away form media barong and editors to journalists. The Internet and social media offer some hope of breaking the stranglehold of the mainstream press. Citizen journalism now has an unprecedented platform, helping to scrutinize and challenge the myths, distortions and outright lies peddled by wealthy mogul-owned media outlets. Social media is already increasingly used by activists to bypass an unsympathetic Establishment media: whether that be by organizing protests, disseminating information that is otherwise ignored, providing a platform for voices that are otherwise not heard or by challenging the narratives peddled by mainstream outlets.
The One Device: The Secret History of the iPhone by Brian Merchant
Airbnb, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John Gruber, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Lyft, M-Pesa, more computing power than Apollo, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, pirate software, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, zero day
The word selfies first appeared in 2002 on an Australian internet forum, but selfies really exploded with the iPhone, which, with the addition of the FaceTime cam in 2010, gave people, for better or worse, an easy way to snap photos of themselves and then filter the results. The deluge of integrated cameras hasn’t led solely to narcissistic indulgence, of course. Most of the time, people use the iSight to snap photos of their food or their babies or some striking-at-the-moment-not-so-much-at-home landscape shot. But it’s also given us all the ability to document a lot more when the need comes. The immensely portable high-quality camera has given rise to citizen journalism on an unprecedented scale. Documentation of police brutality, criminal behavior, systematic oppression, and political misconduct has ramped up in the smartphone era. Mobile video like that of Eric Garner getting choked by police, for instance, helped ignite the Black Lives Matter movement, and it has in other cases provided crucial evidence for officer wrongdoing. And protesters from Tahrir to Istanbul to Occupy have used iPhones to take video of forceful suppression, generating sympathy, support, and sometimes useful legal evidence in the process.
Dirty Wars: The World Is a Battlefield by Jeremy Scahill
active measures, air freight, anti-communist, blood diamonds, business climate, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, drone strike, failed state, friendly fire, Google Hangouts, indoor plumbing, Islamic Golden Age, land reform, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, private military company, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, WikiLeaks
Although part of the point was to push back against claims that al Shabab was responsible for the humanitarian disaster and had prevented aid from reaching Somalia, a special guest was also there. Introduced as the al Qaeda envoy to the humanitarian crisis in Somalia, a white man with a keffiyeh wrapped around his face was identified as Abu Abdullah al Muhajir. Local al Shabab leaders said he was an American citizen. Journalists watched as Muhajir and his allies distributed food, Islamic books and clothes at the camp, which housed more than 4,000 people. The al Qaeda delegation also brought an ambulance. “To our beloved brothers and sisters in Somalia, we are following your situation on a daily basis,” Muhajir declared in English. “And, though we are separated by thousands of kilometers, you are consistently in our thoughts and prayers.”
accounting loophole / creative accounting, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, butterfly effect, capital asset pricing model, cellular automata, central bank independence, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, collective bargaining, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental subject, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Henri Poincaré, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, iterative process, John von Neumann, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market microstructure, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, place-making, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Schrödinger's Cat, scientific mainstream, seigniorage, six sigma, South Sea Bubble, stochastic process, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, total factor productivity, tulip mania, wage slave, zero-sum game
Barber (ed.), The Works of Irving Fisher, vol. 10, London: Pickering and Chatto. Fisher, I. (1933) ‘The debt-deflation theory of great depressions,’ Econometrica, 1: 337–55. Frank, R. H., T. Gilovich and D. T. Regan (1993) ‘Does studying economics inhibit cooperation?’ Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(2): 159–71. Frank, R. H., T. Gilovich and D. T. Regan (1996) ‘Do economists make bad citizens?’ Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10(1): 187–92. Franklin, J. and A. Daoud (1988) Introduction to Proofs in Mathematics, New York: Prentice-Hall. Freeman, A. and G. Carchedi (1996) Marx and Non-Equilibrium Economics, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Freeman, S. and F. E. Kydland (2000) ‘Monetary aggregates and output,’ American Economic Review, 90(5): 1125–35. Friedman, M. (1953) ‘The methodology of positive economics,’ reprinted in B.