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Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, computerized markets, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, domain-specific language, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, hive mind, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammed Bouazizi, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Richard Stallman, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social graph, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Vernor Vinge, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, X Prize, Zimmermann PGP
“When they pull, so do we” E-mail from Julian Assange to John Young, January 7, 2007, available at http://cryptome.org/wikileaks/wikileaks-leak2.htm thirty times the size of every text article stored on Wikipedia Wikipedia: Database download, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Database_download “let it flower into something new” Julian Assange to John Young, January 7, 2007, available at http://cryptome.org/wikileaks/wikileaks-leak2.htm spreading free software like a hacker Johnny Appleseed Jacob Appelbaum. “Personal experiences bringing technology and new media to disaster areas.” Speech at the Chaos Communication Congress, December 2005, available here: http://events.ccc.de/congress/2005/fahrplan/events/478.en.html “As an American, I found myself feeling pretty awful about what we’d contributed to” Ibid. grabbed the remote, turned up the volume, and refused to change the channel Ibid. A man beaten in the shower. Nightly curfews, women raped. Xeni Jardin interview with Jacob Appelbaum. “Katrina: ‘Rape, murder, beatings’ in Astrodome, say evacuees.” BoingBoing.net, September 7, 2005. “The same thing, over and over again. The disconnection. The lack of humanity.” Jacob Appelbaum. “Personal experiences bringing technology and new media to disaster areas.”
JULF HELSINGIUS Finnish systems administrator and privacy advocate, Helsingius created the Penet anonymous remailer and faced legal pressure from the Church of Scientology that demanded he turn over the identity of one of his users. JIM BELL Engineer and libertarian whose 1997 essay “Assassination Politics” described a system of using encryption to facilitate anonymous, untraceable, and crowd-funded contract killings. JACOB APPELBAUM Activist, hacker, and developer for the Tor anonymity network who befriended Julian Assange and became the WikiLeaks’ primary American associate. PAUL SYVERSON Logician and cryptographer in the Naval Research Laboratory who is credited with inventing the anonymous communications protocol known as “onion routing.” NICK MATHEWSON AND ROGER DINGLEDINE Two MIT researchers who worked with Syverson to develop onion routing into a usable tool and then a nonprofit known as the Tor Project.
And he points out that the message may have also been a honey trap designed to ensnare him and put him in prison. But more frankly, May says, he simply didn’t care. He was, and remains, a hard-core libertarian looking out for his own Randian self-interest, not a whistleblower advocate trying to expose corruption. “I’m not concerned about things like that. Let the Africans kill each other,” he says flatly. “I don’t have those kinds of political interests.” When I later ask Jacob Appelbaum, one of the only Americans to associate openly with WikiLeaks, about his thoughts on BlackNet, he sees things more simply. “Tim May is a fucking racist,” he says. “And it’s really a shame. Because if he weren’t, he could have created WikiLeaks himself and made a real difference in the world.” When I repeat Appelbaum’s comment to May, he chuckles. “I call ’em as I see ’em,” he says. “If I see blacks driving themselves into the gutter, I call it as it is.”
AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP
But so far their efforts to reform the law have not been successful. The few instances where we have learned that companies fought government surveillance have not ended well. Consider just two cases—a small Internet provider, Sonic.net, and Internet giant Yahoo!. In 2011, Sonic.net went public with the fact that it had fought—and lost—a secret court order demanding the e-mail addresses of people who had corresponded with a WikiLeaks volunteer, Jacob Appelbaum, in the course of two years. Challenging the order was “rather expensive, but we felt it was the right thing to do,” said Sonic’s chief executive, Dane Jasper. By speaking to me, Jasper was defying the court’s gag order that prevented him from discussing the government’s request. (Jasper later said that he was unaware that the gag order remained in force when he spoke to me.) As for Yahoo!
All my transactions would haunt me forever, stalking me and informing the choices that were presented to me. And so, until I could find a better way, I was going to have to rely on Ida and my masked identities to settle my debts. 10 POCKET LITTER I was standing under the world clock tower on Alexanderplatz in Berlin, feeling nervous. I had just arrived in the city and had arranged to meet Jacob Appelbaum, the computer security researcher whose e-mail had been secretly investigated by the U.S. government after his involvement as a volunteer for WikiLeaks was publicly disclosed in 2010. But I didn’t have any way to get in touch with him—no cell phone number, no street address, nothing. I simply had to wait to see if he would show up at our planned meeting point. I’d flown halfway around the world for this meeting.
To use Off-the-Record, I had to download three different software programs and then convince them to cooperate with one another. First, I used Tor’s anonymizing software to connect to the Internet. Then I signed up for a Jabber instant messaging account. Then I downloaded an instant messaging program called Adium that contains the Off-the-Record messaging protocol. Then I configured Adium to work with Tor and Jabber. The only reason I was able to do any of this is because the computer security researcher Jacob Appelbaum walked me through each step and told me where to click and what to type in the settings. And yet this cobbled-together mash of free software was actually the state of the art for encrypted communications. I found that many of my sensitive journalistic sources would talk to me only over the combination of Tor, Jabber, and Off-the-Record messaging. For the most sensitive sources, actually, I sometimes used Tor, Jabber, and Off-the-Record on a clean computer that I had booted using a thumb drive containing The Amnesic Incognito Live System (Tails) operating system.
23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day
Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board (2 Jul 2014), “Report on the surveillance program operated pursuant to Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act,” http://www.pclob.gov/All%20Documents/Report%20on%20the%20Section%20702%20Program/PCLOB-Section-702-Report.pdf. Jennifer Granick (11 Feb 2014), “Eight questions PCLOB should ask about Section 702,” Just Security, https://justsecurity.org/7001/questions-pclob-section-702. the NSA targets people: Jacob Appelbaum et al. (3 Jul 2014), “NSA targets the privacy-conscious,” Panorama, http://daserste.ndr.de/panorama/aktuell/nsa230_page-1.html. the NSA chains together hops: Marcy Wheeler (15 Oct 2013), “About that May 2007 FISC opinion,” Empty Wheel, http://www.emptywheel.net/2013/10/15/about-that-may-2007-fisc-opinion. the same location as a target: Marcy Wheeler (16 May 2014), “The ‘automated query’ at the telecoms will include ‘correlations,’” Empty Wheel, http://www.emptywheel.net/2014/05/16/the-automated-query-at-the-telecoms-will-include-correlations.
Leaksource (30 Dec 2013), “NSA’s ANT Division catalog of exploits for nearly every major software/hardware/firmware,” http://leaksource.info/2013/12/30/nsas-ant-division-catalog-of-exploits-for-nearly-every-major-software-hardware-firmware. Der Spiegel (29 Dec 2013), “Inside TAO: Documents reveal top NSA hacking unit,” Der Spiegel, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/the-nsa-uses-powerful-toolbox-in-effort-to-spy-on-global-networks-a-940969.html. Jacob Appelbaum, Judith Horchert, and Christian Stöcker (29 Dec 2013), “Shopping for spy gear: Catalog advertises NSA toolbox,” Der Spiegel, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/catalog-reveals-nsa-has-back-doors-for-numerous-devices-a-940994.html. 80,000 computers worldwide: Matthew M. Aid (15 Oct 2013), “The NSA’s new code breakers,” Foreign Policy, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/10/15/the_nsa_s_new_codebreakers.
Los Angeles police even: Cyrus Farivar (8 Apr 2014), “LAPD officers monkey-wrenched cop-monitoring gear in patrol cars,” Ars Technica, http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2014/04/lapd-officers-monkey-wrenched-cop-monitoring-gear-in-patrol-cars. declining half-life of secrets: Peter Swire (5–6 Jun 2014), “The declining half-life of secrets and the future of signals intelligence,” 7th Privacy Law Scholars Conference, Washington, D.C., http://www.law.berkeley.edu/plsc.htm. the NSA spied on the cell phone: Jacob Appelbaum et al. (23 Oct 2013), “Berlin complains: Did US tap Chancellor Merkel’s mobile phone?” Der Spiegel, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/merkel-calls-obama-over-suspicions-us-tapped-her-mobile-phone-a-929642.html. Ian Traynor, Philip Oltermann, and Paul Lewis (23 Oct 2013), “Angela Merkel’s call to Obama: Are you bugging my mobile phone?” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/oct/23/us-monitored-angela-merkel-german.
The End of Secrecy: The Rise and Fall of WikiLeaks by The "Guardian", David Leigh, Luke Harding
4chan, banking crisis, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, Downton Abbey, drone strike, eurozone crisis, friendly fire, global village, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Mohammed Bouazizi, offshore financial centre, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks
First published in Great Britain in 2011 by Guardian Books Kings Place 90 York Way London N1 9GU www.guardianbooks.co.uk A CIP catalogue for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978-0-85265-239-8 CONTENTS Cast of characters Introduction Chapter 1: The Hunt Chapter 2: Bradley Manning Chapter 3: Julian Assange Chapter 4: The rise of WikiLeaks Chapter 5: The Apache video Chapter 6: The Lamo dialogues Chapter 7: The deal Chapter 8: In the bunker Chapter 9: The Afghanistan war logs Chapter 10: The Iraq war logs Chapter 11: The cables Chapter 12: The world’s most famous man Chapter 13: Uneasy partners Chapter 14: Before the deluge Chapter 15: Publication day Chapter 16: The biggest leak in history Chapter 17: The ballad of Wandsworth jail Chapter 18: The future of WikiLeaks Appendix: US Embassy Cables Acknowledgements CAST OF CHARACTERS WikiLeaks MELBOURNE, NAIROBI, REYKJAVIK, BERLIN, LONDON, NORFOLK, STOCKHOLM Julian Assange – WikiLeaks founder/editor Sarah Harrison – aide to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange Kristinn Hrafnsson – Icelandic journalist and WikiLeaks supporter James Ball – WikiLeaks data expert Vaughan Smith – former Grenadier Guards captain, founder of the Frontline Club and Assange’s host at Ellingham Hall Jacob Appelbaum – WikiLeaks’ representative in the US Daniel Ellsberg – Vietnam war whistleblower, WikiLeaks supporter Daniel Domscheit-Berg – German programmer and WikiLeaks technical architect (aka Daniel Schmitt) Mikael Viborg – owner of WikiLeaks’ Swedish internet service provider PRQ Ben Laurie – British encryption expert, adviser to Assange on encryption Mwalimu Mati – head of anti-corruption group Mars Group Kenya, source of first major WikiLeaks report Rudolf Elmer – former head of the Cayman Islands branch of the Julius Baer bank, source of second major WikiLeaks report Smári McCarthy – Iceland-based WikiLeaks enthusiast, programmer, Modern Media Initiative (MMI) campaigner Birgitta Jónsdóttir – Icelandic MP and WikiLeaks supporter Rop Gonggrijp – Dutch hacker-businessman, friend of Assange and MMI campaigner Herbert Snorrason – Icelandic MMI campaigner Israel Shamir – WikiLeaks associate Donald Böstrom – Swedish journalist and WikiLeaks’ Stockholm connection The Guardian LONDON Alan Rusbridger – editor-in-chief Nick Davies – investigative reporter David Leigh – investigations editor Ian Katz – deputy editor (news) Ian Traynor – Europe correspondent Harold Frayman – systems editor Declan Walsh – Pakistan/Afghanistan correspondent Alastair Dant – data visualiser Simon Rogers – data editor Jonathan Steele – former Iraq correspondent James Meek – former Iraq correspondent Rob Evans – investigative journalist Luke Harding – Moscow correspondent Robert Booth – reporter Stuart Millar – news editor, guardian.co.uk Janine Gibson – editor, guardian.co.uk Jonathan Casson – head of production Gill Phillips – in-house head of legal Jan Thompson – managing editor New York Times NEW YORK, LONDON Max Frankel – former executive editor Bill Keller – editor Eric Schmitt – war correspondent John F Burns – London correspondent Ian Fisher – deputy foreign editor Der Spiegel HAMBURG, LONDON Georg Mascolo – editor-in-chief Holger Stark – head of German desk Marcel Rosenbach – journalist John Goetz – journalist El País MADRID, LONDON Javier Moreno – editor-in-chief Vicente Jiménez – deputy editor Other Media Raffi Khatchadourian – New Yorker staffer and author of a major profile of Assange Saeed Chmagh and Namir Noor-Eldeen – Reuters news agency employees accidentally killed by US army pilots in 2007 David Schlesinger – Reuters’ editor-in-chief Kevin Poulsen – former hacker, senior editor at Wired Gavin MacFadyen – City University professor and journalist, London host to Assange Stephen Grey – freelance reporter Iain Overton – former TV journalist, head of Bureau of Investigative Journalism Heather Brooke – London-based American journalist and freedom of information activist Bradley Manning Bradley Manning – 23-year-old US army private and alleged WikiLeaks source Rick McCombs – former principal at Crescent high school, Crescent, Oklahoma Brian, Susan, Casey Manning – parents and sister Tom Dyer – school friend Kord Campbell – former manager at Zoto software company Jeff Paterson – steering committee member of the Bradley Manning support network Adrian Lamo – hacker and online confidant Timothy Webster – former US army counter-intelligence special agent Tyler Watkins – former boyfriend David House – former hacker and supporter David Coombs – lawyer Julian Assange Christine Hawkins – mother John Shipton – father Brett Assange – stepfather Keith Hamilton – former partner of Christine Daniel Assange – Julian’s son Paul Galbally – Assange’s lawyer during his 1996 hacking trial Stockholm allegations / extradition “Sonja Braun” – plaintiff; member of Brotherhood movement “Katrin Weiss” – plaintiff; museum worker Claes Borgström – lawyer for both women, former Swedish equal opportunities ombudsman and prominent Social Democrat politician Marianne Ny – Swedish chief prosecutor and sex crimes specialist Mark Stephens – Assange lawyer Geoffrey Robertson, QC – Assange lawyer Jennifer Robinson – lawyer in Mark Stephens’ office Gemma Lindfield – lawyer acting for the Swedish authorities Howard Riddle – district judge, Westminster magistrates court Mr Justice Ouseley – high court judge, London Government Hillary Clinton – US Secretary of State Louis B Susman – US ambassador in London PJ Crowley – US assistant secretary of state for public affairs Harold Koh – US state department’s legal adviser Robert Gates – US defence secretary Sir Sherard Cowper-Coles – former UK government special representative to Afghanistan and former ambassador to Kabul INTRODUCTION Alan Rusbridger Back in the days when almost no one had heard about WikiLeaks, regular emails started arriving in my inbox from someone called Julian Assange.
As Assange shifted from school to school he was targeted by bullies as the outsider: “His only real saviour in life or his own bedrock in life was this computer. His mother, in fact, encouraged him to use this computer … It had become an addictive instrument to him at a very early age.” Galbally describes Assange as “super smart”; not a nerdy hacker but someone unusual and flamboyant. Interestingly, some of the world’s most talented programmers come from broken families. Jacob Appelbaum, who would become WikiLeaks’ representative in the US, says he was the son of a paranoid schizophrenic mother and heroin addict father. He spent much of his boyhood in a children’s home. As a boy, he discovered a woman convulsing in his father’s bathroom with a needle sticking out of her arm. Appelbaum told Rolling Stone magazine that programming and hacking allowed him, however, “to feel like the world is not a lost place.
This uncompromising attitude appealed to Domscheit-Berg: “PRQ has a track record of being the hardest ISP you can find in the world. There’s just no one that bothers less about lawyers harassing them about content they’re hosting.” WikiLeaks’ own laptops all have military-grade encryption: if seized, the data on them cannot be read, even directly off the disk. The volunteer WikiLeaks hacker, Seattle-based Jacob Appelbaum, boasts that he will destroy any laptop that has been let out of his sight, for fear that it might have been bugged. None of the team worries deeply about the consequences of losing a computer, though, because the lines of code to control the site are stored on remote computers under their control – “in the cloud” – and the passwords they need for access are in their heads. Popular for day-by-day in-house conversations is the internet phone service Skype, which also uses encryption.
affirmative action, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Firefox, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, kremlinology, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, national security letter, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, web application, WikiLeaks
Western intelligence agencies also spied, albeit with fewer resources than the NSA. They worked closely with the US intelligence community, and had done so for decades. Germany’s domestic intelligence body, the BND, for example, shared information with Fort Meade including metadata and had even handed over copies of its two digital spy systems, Mira4 and Veras. Snowden himself flagged these close connections, telling the journalist and internet freedom activist Jacob Appelbaum that the NSA was ‘under the same roof’ as the Germans, and ‘most other western states’. The extent of this collaboration could be confusing. One BOUNDLESS INFORMANT slide, shared by Greenwald with the Norwegian tabloid Dagbladet, suggests the NSA is hoovering up 1.2 million Norwegian telephone calls daily. Norway’s military intelligence service, however, said the slide had been misread. It said Norway itself collected the calls from Afghanistan, and passed them on to Fort Meade.
He signed off: ‘I look forward to speaking with you in your country when the situation is resolved and thank you for your efforts in upholding the international laws that protect us. ‘With my best regards ‘Edward Snowden’ Days later, Harrison said goodbye to Snowden and flew to Berlin. She had been with him in Moscow for four months. On what was said to be legal advice, she declined to return to the UK. The German capital and East Berlin in particular was now a hub for a growing number of Snowden exiles: Poitras, journalist Jacob Appelbaum and Harrison. For anyone with a sense of history this was ironic. Stasiland had become an island of media freedom. Greenwald, meanwhile, announced his resignation from the Guardian to join a new media venture backed by the eBay billionaire Pierre Omidyar. What were Snowden’s prospects of exiting Moscow for a new life in western Europe? Left-leaning politicians, intellectuals and writers called on the German government to grant him asylum.
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
The Foucauldian disciplinary model describes a mode of spatial power predicated on the securing of subjects in place (securing a negative freedom of movement and a positive freedom from movement). 16. The problematics and potential of the urban operating system are well articulated by Matthew Fuller and Usman Haque in Urban Versioning System v.1.0, Situated Technologies Pamphlet series, 2008, http://www.situatedtechnologies.net/. The conflicts involved, however, are impossible to tally in real time. In their book Cypherpunks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet, Julian Assange, Jacob Appelbaum, and Andy Muller-Maguhn are alarmed that “Siemens is marketing a platform for intelligence agencies that does actually produce automated actions. So when target A is within a certain number of meters of target B according to their mobile intercept records, and target A receives an email mentioning something—a keyword—then an action is triggered.” For them the User-versus-Cloud arms race is tilted by the widespread use of cryptographic systems (including perhaps the Cryptophone, http://www.cryptophone.de/en/products/mobile/).
Katherine Harmon, “Undead-End: Fungus That Controls Zombie-Ants Has Own Fungal Stalker,” Scientific American, November 8, 2012, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/zombie-ant-fungus-parasite/. The line, “animal living inside of animal living inside animal” is Ed Keller's. III The Projects The Stack to Come Secrets are lies. —The Circle, company policy1 Surveillance is theft. —Writers against Mass Surveillance2 Autonomy is abstraction. —Chris Anderson, 3D Robotics3 Convenience means not secure. —Jacob Appelbaum, Tor project4 Fear is awareness. —Charles Manson5 68. Seeing The Stack We Have, Stacks to Come The Stack we have means: borderlines are rewritten, dashed, curved, erased, automated; algorithms count as continental divides; the opposition of chthonic versus geometric territory is collapsed by computation; interfaces upon interfaces accumulate into networks, which accumulate into territories, which accumulate into geoscapes (territories comprising territories, made and so entered into, not entered into and so made); the embedded is mobilized and the liquid is tethered down into shelter and infrastructure; the flat, looping planes of jurisdiction multiply and overlap into towered, interwoven stacks; the opaque is transcribed and the transparent is staged, dramatized, and artificialized; irregular allegiances are formalized (the enclave and exclave, for diasporic and satellite expatriates); both futurist and medievalist scenarios confiscate, one from another, the program of supercomputational utopias; and the incomplete(able) comprehensiveness of Earth's archives is folded back on itself as a promiscuous, ambient geopolitics of consumable electrons.
Dave Eggers, The Circle (San Francisco: McSweeney's, 2013). 2. Writers Against Mass Surveillance, “A Stand for Democracy in the Digital Age,” a collectively signed petition at https://www.change.org/p/a-stand-for-democracy-in-the-digital-age-3. First published December 10, 2013. 3. From Chris Anderson's talk at Google, Authors@Google: Chris Anderson (2012), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3grzYoJ2oPQ. 4. Jacob Appelbaum, “Art as Evidence” (panel at Transmediale, Haus Der Kulturen Der Welt, Berlin, January 30, 2014), http://www.transmediale.de/content/presentation-by-jacob-applebaum-at-transmediale-2014-keynote-art-as-evidence. 5. Charles Manson, “Lie,” recorded August 9, 1968, Phil Kaufman, 1970, vinyl recording. 6. A sectional tracking shot, as in Hitchcock's Rear Window, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (Paramount, 1954).
WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry
1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, source of truth, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks
In the days after the State Department cables starting leaking, not only did Senator Joe Lieberman intimidate major Internet companies into kicking WikiLeaks oﬀ their services without any serious review, the government told its own employees that they shouldn’t look at references to WikiLeaks from government computers or their home computers, and even public resources like the Library of Congress started ﬁltering searches on its computers and Wi-Fi to prevent people from reading news articles about the cables.7 The Oﬃce of Management and Budget circulated a fourteen-page memo to all government agencies requiring them to tighten their security procedures, which included suggestions that they employ psychiatrists and sociologists to measure employee “despondence and grumpiness as a means to gauge waning trustworthiness,” “capture evidence of pre-employment and/ or post-employment activities or participation in on-line media data mining sites like WikiLeaks or Open Leaks,” and require all employees to report their contacts with the media.8 It was quite an about-face from the OMB’s Open Government Directive of a year earlier, which called on agencies to “create an unprecedented and sustained level of openness and accountability.”9 And the Justice Department began pursuing a criminal investigation against WikiLeaks, demanding that Twitter turn 139 WIKILEAKS AND THE AGE OF TRANSPARENCY over the subscriber account information—including personal addresses, connections made to and from the account, IP addresses used, means of payment (though Twitter is free)— for Julian Assange, Bradley Manning, and three other people who had been involved with the group around the time that the Collateral Murder video came out: Icelandic MP Birgitta Jonsdottir, Dutch hacker Rop Gonggrijp, and American anticensorship hacker Jacob Appelbaum. This is an extremely worrisome development. For there is nothing that WikiLeaks has done that is diﬀerent from any other newspaper or media outlet that has received leaked government documents, veriﬁed their authenticity, and then published their contents and analysis. If WikiLeaks can be prosecuted and convicted for its acts of journalism, then the foundations of freedom of the press in America are in serious trouble.
Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks
“We will systematically take on each repressive country that censors its people,” he told Newsweek in August, “We have a list. Don’t piss off hackers who will have their way with you. A mischievous kid will show you how the Internet works.” But as it turned out, he didn’t have the skills to back up his claims. Though he purported to deal in cryptography, Austin turned out to be nothing but a cipher himself. After Evgeny’s piece for Foreign Policy, the code fell into the hands of Jacob Appelbaum, a hacker of considerable pedigree who had spoken on behalf of WikiLeaks at a US conference in July while Julian was in hiding (and who, for his troubles, was subsequently detained at the airport the next time he flew into the US). Appelbaum’s verdict was unequivocal, delivered via Twitter on 14 September: “Haystack is the worst piece of software I have ever had the displeasure of ripping apart.
4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar
But it is sadly typical of Silicon Valley’s outlook. There are many who still see open source software as a social movement rather than as a part of the commercial world, who believe in the liberating possibilities of open source software, and who cast a baleful glare towards the giants of Silicon Valley.13 For example, in the fallout from the Snowden revelations about NSA spying on the Internet, computer security researcher Jacob Appelbaum gave a keynote about the surveillance state at the 29C3 (“Chaos Communication Congress”) hacker conference in December 2012 and included this ringing encomium for open source development: It is possible to make a living making free software for freedom, instead of closed source proprietary malware for cops . . . Everyone that’s worked on free software and open source software . . . these are things we should try to focus on . . .
Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking by E. Gabriella Coleman
Benjamin Mako Hill, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Debian, Donald Knuth, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, ghettoisation, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Larry Wall, Louis Pasteur, means of production, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, software patent, software studies, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, web application, web of trust
We talked about how to work around the infamous XCB bug with Java and also about the future of X including OpenGL support.”32 Other hackers, who had hoped to get a significant amount of work done, entirely fail to do so, perhaps because socializing, sightseeing, nightclubs, and the occasional impromptu concert (after fixing an old church organ) prove a greater draw than late-night hacking. FIGURE 1.5. Hackers on Planet Earth, New York Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0), https://secure.flickr.com/photos/ioerror/196443446/in/set-72157594211715252 (accessed August 2, 2011). Photo: Jacob Appelbaum. Most hackers, however, intermix play with hacking, giving themselves ample opportunity to see the sights, dance the dances, play the games, eat the local cuisine, hit the parks and beaches, and stay put with computers on their laps, hacking away next to others doing the same, generally into the early morning. During hacker cons, there is a semiotic play of profound sameness and difference.
3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP
NBC New York. Accessed February 6, 2016. http://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/local/Schumer-Calls-on-Feds-to-Shut-Down-Online-Drug-Marketplace-123187958.html. 11 Jeong, Sarah. “Criminal Charges Against Agents Reveal Staggering Corruption in the Silk Road Investigation.” Forbes. March 31, 2015. Accessed June 22, 2015. http://www.forbes.com/sites/sarahjeong/2015/03/31/force-and-bridges/. 12 Assange, Julian, Jacob Appelbaum, Andy Müller-Maguhn and Jérémie Zimmermann. Cypherpunks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet. New York: OR Books, 2012. 13 Greenberg, Andy. “An Interview With A Digital Drug Lord: The Silk Road’s Dread Pirate Roberts (Q&A).” Forbes. August 14, 2013. Accessed June 22, 2015. http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2013/08/14/an-interview-with-a-digital-drug-lord-the-silk-roads-dread-pirate-roberts-qa/. 14 Cubrilovic, Nik.
Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman
1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, George Santayana, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, mandatory minimum, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day
Manning was sentenced by a military judge to thirty five years in prison, and is now at Fort Leavenworth, having spent almost a year in solitary confinement before he was sentenced.5 At the 2010 HOPE conference, there was palpable tension in the air. Rumors were swirling that Julian Assange was going to give the keynote. In a last-minute switch-up, it was not Assange who stepped out on stage, but the American hacker Jacob Appelbaum. Appelbaum gave a riveting talk and effectively outed himself, in front of everyone in attendance (including the inevitable federal agents), as an affiliate of the embattled organization. It was a bold move, given the tactics of silencing, prosecution, and intimidation leveled against the organization by US authorities. His talk contextualized WikiLeaks historically into what is now commonly called “the fifth estate”: the hackers, leakers, independent journalists, and bloggers who serve the critical role that once fell to “the fourth estate,” the mainstream media.