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Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici
Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey
Meanwhile the number of women in jail has continued to increase, and a policy of mass incarceration has prevailed that is consistent with the return of plantation-type economies also in the heartland of industrialism. Women’s Struggle and the International Feminist Movement What are the implications of this situation for the international feminist movements? The immediate answer is that feminists should not only support the cancellation of the “Third World debt” but engage in a campaign for a policy of reparations, returning to communities devastated by “adjustment” the resources taken away from them. In the long run, feminists must recognize that we cannot expect any betterment of our lives from capitalism. For we have seen that, as soon as the anticolonial, the civil rights, and the feminist movements forced the system to make concessions, it reacted with the equivalent of a nuclear war. If the destruction of our means of subsistence is indispensable for the survival of capitalist relations, this must be our terrain of struggle.
From it we also learned to seek the protagonists of class struggle not only among the male industrial proletariat but, most importantly, among the enslaved, the colonized, the world of wageless workers marginalized by the annals of the communist tradition to whom we could now add the figure of the proletarian housewife, reconceptualized as the subject of the (re)production of the workforce. The social/political context in which the feminist movement developed facilitated this identification. Since at least the nineteenth century, it has been a constant in American history that the rise of feminist activism has followed in the footsteps of the rise of Black liberation. The feminist movement in the second half of the twentieth century was no exception. I have long believed that the first example of feminism in the ‘60s in the United States, was the struggle of welfare mothers who, led by African American women inspired by the Civil Rights Movement, mobilized to demand a wage from the state for the work of raising their children, laying the groundwork on which organizations like Wages for Housework could grow.
For after two world wars that in a space of three decades decimated more than seventy million people, the lures of domesticity and the prospect of sacrificing our lives to produce more workers and soldiers for the state had no hold on our imagination. Indeed, even more than the experience of self-reliance that the war bestowed on many women—symbolized in the United States by the iconic image of Rosie the Riveter—what shaped our relation to reproduction in the postwar period, especially in Europe, was the memory of the carnage into which we had been born. This is a chapter in the history of the international feminist movement still to be written.1 Yet, in recalling the visits that as school children in Italy we made to exhibits on the concentration camps, and the tales told around the dinner table of the many times we barely escaped being killed by bombs, running through the night searching for safety under a blazing sky, I cannot help wondering how much those experiences weighed on my and other women’s decisions not to have children and not to become housewives.
The Undoing Project: A Friendship That Changed Our Minds by Michael Lewis
Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, endowment effect, feminist movement, framing effect, hindsight bias, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, loss aversion, medical residency, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, Nate Silver, New Journalism, Paul Samuelson, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, statistical model, the new new thing, Thomas Bayes, Walter Mischel, Yom Kippur War
Those were the only two descriptions that mattered, though of course the students didn’t know that. The group given “Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement” judged it more likely than the group assigned “Linda is a bank teller.” That result was all that Danny and Amos needed to make their big point: The rules of thumb people used to evaluate probability led to misjudgments. “Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement” could never be more probable than “Linda is a bank teller.” “Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement” was just a special case of “Linda is a bank teller.” “Linda is a bank teller” included “Linda is a bank teller and activist in the feminist movement” along with “Linda is a bank teller and likes to walk naked through Serbian forests” and all other bank-telling Lindas. One description was entirely contained by the other.
1) Linda is a teacher in elementary school. 2) Linda works in a bookstore and takes Yoga classes. 3) Linda is active in the feminist movement. 4) Linda is a psychiatric social worker. 5) Linda is a member of the League of Women voters. 6) Linda is a bank teller. 7) Linda is an insurance salesperson. 8) Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. Danny passed out the Linda vignette to students at the University of British Columbia. In this first experiment, two different groups of students were given four of the eight descriptions and asked to judge the odds that they were true. One of the groups had “Linda is a bank teller” on its list; the other got “Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.” Those were the only two descriptions that mattered, though of course the students didn’t know that.
Seeing the descriptions side by side, they’d realize that it was illogical to say that anyone was more likely to be a bank teller active in the feminist movement than simply a bank teller. With something of a heavy heart, Danny put what would come to be known as the Linda problem to a class of a dozen students at the University of British Columbia. “Twelve out of twelve fell for it,” he said. “I remember I gasped. Then I called Amos from my secretary’s phone.” They ran many further experiments, with different vignettes, on hundreds of subjects. “We just wanted to look at the boundaries of the phenomenon,” said Danny. To explore those boundaries, they finally shoved their subjects’ noses right up against logic. They gave subjects the same description of Linda and asked, simply: “Which of the two alternatives is more probable?” Linda is a bank teller. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. Eighty-five percent still insisted that Linda was more likely to be a bank teller in the feminist movement than she was to be a bank teller.
Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Bretton Woods, corporate governance, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, informal economy, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, megacity, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, reserve currency, special economic zone, spectrum auction, stem cell, The Chicago School, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks
They do, but they are not a good enough prism through which to view or remotely understand the great injustices in the world we live in. Another conceptual coup has to do with foundations’ involvement with the feminist movement. Why do most “official” feminists and women’s organizations in India keep a safe distance between themselves and organizations like say the ninety-thousand-member Krantikari Adivasi Mahila Sanghatan (Revolutionary Adivasi Women’s Association) that is fighting patriarchy in its own communities and displacement by mining corporations in the Dandakaranya forest? Why is it that the dispossession and eviction of millions of women from land that they owned and worked is not seen as a feminist problem? The hiving off of the liberal feminist movement from grassroots anti-imperialist and anticapitalist peoples’ movements did not begin with the evil designs of foundations.
Urban women activists who joined these movements (like the Naxalite movement) had been influenced and inspired by the Western feminist movement, and their own journeys toward liberation were often at odds with what their male leaders considered to be their duty: To fit in with “the masses.” Many women activists were not willing to wait any longer for the “revolution” in order to end the daily oppression and discrimination in their lives, including from their own comrades. They wanted gender equality to be an absolute, urgent, and nonnegotiable part of the revolutionary process and not just a postrevolution promise. Intelligent, angry, and disillusioned women began to move away and look for other means of support and sustenance. As a result, by the late 1980s, around the time when the Indian markets were opened up, the liberal feminist movement in India had become inordinately NGO-ized.
As a result, by the late 1980s, around the time when the Indian markets were opened up, the liberal feminist movement in India had become inordinately NGO-ized. Many of these NGOs have done seminal work on queer rights, domestic violence, AIDS, and the rights of sex workers. But significantly, the liberal feminist movement has not been at the forefront of challenging the New Economic Policies, even though women have been the greatest sufferers. By manipulating the disbursement of the funds, the foundations have largely succeeded in circumscribing the range of what “political” activity should be. The funding briefs of NGOs now prescribe what counts as women’s “issues” and what doesn’t. The NGO-ization of the women’s movement has also made Western liberal feminism (by virtue of its being the most funded brand) the standard-bearer of what constitutes feminism. The battles, as usual, have been played out on women’s bodies, extruding Botox at one end and burkas at the other.
The Drunkard's Walk: How Randomness Rules Our Lives by Leonard Mlodinow
Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Atul Gawande, Brownian motion, butterfly effect, correlation coefficient, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, feminist movement, forensic accounting, Gerolamo Cardano, Henri Poincaré, index fund, Isaac Newton, law of one price, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
But now let’s focus on just three of the possibilities and their average ranks, listed below in order from most to least probable. This is the order in which 85 percent of the respondents ranked the three possibilities: Statement Average Probability Rank Linda is active in the feminist movement. 2.1 Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. 4.1 Linda is a bank teller. 6.2 If nothing about this looks strange, then Kahneman and Tversky have fooled you, for if the chance that Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement were greater than the chance that Linda is a bank teller, there would be a violation of our first law of probability, which is one of the most basic of all: The probability that two events will both occur can never be greater than the probability that each will occur individually.
Kahneman and Tversky were not surprised by the result because they had given their subjects a large number of possibilities, and the connections among the three scenarios could easily have gotten lost in the shuffle. And so they presented the description of Linda to another group, but this time they presented only these possibilities: Linda is active in the feminist movement. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. Linda is a bank teller. To their surprise, 87 percent of the subjects in this trial also ranked the probability that Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement higher than the probability that Linda is a bank teller. And so the researchers pushed further: they explicitly asked a group of thirty-six fairly sophisticated graduate students to consider their answers in light of our first law of probability. Even after the prompting, two of the subjects clung to the illogical response.
Tversky and Kahneman presented this description to a group of eighty-eight subjects and asked them to rank the following statements on a scale of 1 to 8 according to their probability, with 1 representing the most probable and 8 the least. Here are the results, in order from most to least probable: Statement Average Probability Rank Linda is active in the feminist movement. 2.1 Linda is a psychiatric social worker. 3.1 Linda works in a bookstore and takes yoga classes. 3.3 Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. 4.1 Linda is a teacher in an elementary school. 5.2 Linda is a member of the League of Women Voters. 5.4 Linda is a bank teller. 6.2 Linda is an insurance salesperson. 6.4 At first glance there may appear to be nothing unusual in these results: the description was in fact designed to be representative of an active feminist and unrepresentative of a bank teller or an insurance salesperson.
Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda by Noam Chomsky
In the 1960s the dissident culture first of all was extremely slow in developing. There was no protest against the Indochina war until years after the United States had started bombing South Vietnam. When it did grow it was a very narrow dissident movement, mostly students and young people. By the 1970s that had changed considerably. Major popular movements had developed: the environmental movement, the feminist movement, the anti-nuclear movement, and others. In the 1980s there was an even greater expansion to the solidarity movements, which is something very new and important in the history of at least American, and maybe even world dissidence. These were movements that not only protested but actually involved themselves, often intimately, in the lives of suffering people elsewhere. They learned a great deal from it and had quite a civilizing effect on mainstream America.
Everybody thought that the use of violence to suppress people out there was just right. Over the years it's changed. The sickly inhibitions have increased all across the board. But meanwhile a gap has been growing, and by now it's a very substantial gap. According to polls, it's something like twenty-five percent. What has happened? What has happened is that there is some form of at least semiorganized popular movement that women are involved in-the feminist movement. Organization has its effects. It means that you discover that you're not alone. Others have the same thoughts that you do. You can reinforce your thoughts and learn more about what you think and believe. These are very informal movements, not like a member ship organizations, just a mood that involves interactions among people. It has a very noticeable effect. That's the danger of democracy: If organizations can develop, if people are no longer just glued to the tube, you may have all these funny thoughts arising in their heads, like sickly inhibitions against the use of military force.
Statistics hacks by Bruce Frey
Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, correlation coefficient, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, game design, Hacker Ethic, index card, Milgram experiment, p-value, place-making, RFID, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Thomas Bayes
Subjects were asked to rank these statements based on high likely they were to be true: Linda is a teacher in elementary school. Linda works in a bookstore and takes Yoga classes. Linda is active in the feminist movement. Linda is a psychiatric social worker. Linda is a member of the League of Women Voters. Linda is a bank teller. Linda is an insurance salesperson. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. Kahneman and Tversky (and many others who have since replicated their work) found that people consistently ranked option 8 (a bank teller active in the feminist movement) as being more likely than option 6 (a bank teller). This is because option 8 provides more information, which seems to be more representative of Linda. Because we expect her to be politically active, but we don't expect her to be a bank teller, it seems as though the only way she could be a bank teller is if she is also politically active.
Because we expect her to be politically active, but we don't expect her to be a bank teller, it seems as though the only way she could be a bank teller is if she is also politically active. However, we know that 8 can never be more likely than options 3 or 6, because if we imagine all people active in the feminist movement, a subset of them (perhaps a small subset) will be bank tellers. Likewise, if we imagine all of the bank tellers in the world, a subset (again, perhaps a small one) will be active in the feminist movement. Thus, the likelihood of being a bank teller must be greater than the likelihood of being a bank teller who is active in the feminist movement. Makes sense, right? But your mind doesn't want to work that way. The rule that states that the probability of two events occurring together cannot be greater than the probability of either one of them occurring alone is called the conjunction rule.
The Science of Fear: How the Culture of Fear Manipulates Your Brain by Daniel Gardner
Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, Doomsday Clock, feminist movement, haute couture, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mandatory minimum, medical residency, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, placebo effect, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Y2K, young professional
So it’s very likely true and it will certainly be at or near the top of the list. Active in the feminist movement? Absolutely. It will also rank highly. But an insurance salesperson? A bank teller? There’s nothing in the profile of Linda that specifically suggests either of these is correct, so people taking this quiz rank them at or near the bottom of the list. That’s simple enough, but what about the final description of Linda as a bank teller who is also active in the feminist movement? Almost everyone who takes this quiz feels that, yes, this seems at least somewhat likely— certainly more likely than Linda being an insurance salesperson or a bank teller. When Kahneman and Tversky gave this quiz to undergraduate students, 89 percent decided it was more likely that Linda is a bank teller who is active in the feminist movement than that she is a bank teller alone.
She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. How likely is it that Linda • is a teacher in elementary school? • works in a bookstore and takes yoga classes? • is active in the feminist movement? • is a psychiatric social worker? • is a member of the League of Women Voters? • is a bank teller? • is an insurance salesperson? • is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement? Now, please rank these descriptions from most to least likely. This is one of the most famous quizzes in psychology. When Kahneman and Tversky wrote the profile of “Linda” almost forty years ago, they intended to make it strongly match people’s image of an active feminist (an image that likely stood out a little more strongly at the time).
So it has to be true that it is more likely that she is a bank teller alone than that she is a bank teller and a feminist. It’s simple logic—but very few people see it. So Kahneman and Tversky stripped the quiz down and tried again. They had students read the same profile of Linda. But then they simply asked whether it is more likely that Linda is (a) a bank teller or (b) a bank teller who is active in the feminist movement? Here, the logic is laid bare. Kahneman and Tversky were sure people would spot it and correct their intuition. But they were wrong. Almost exactly the same percentage of students—85 percent—said it is more likely that Linda is a bank teller and a feminist than a bank teller only. Kahneman and Tversky also put both versions of the “Linda problem,” as they called it, under the noses of experts trained in logic and statistics.
The Idea of Israel: A History of Power and Knowledge by Ilan Pappe
affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, double helix, facts on the ground, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, mass immigration, New Journalism, one-state solution, postnationalism / post nation state, stem cell, urban planning, Yom Kippur War
In many ways it was the most impressive import from America, a culture that more often than not had a negative impact on Israeli society. In the case of post-Zionism, however, it opened up constructive and crucial vistas of research and commitment for local scholars. As a result, during the late 1970s, under the strong influence of gender studies, feminist activism, and politics, a feminist movement emerged in Israel as well. The feminist movement grew in parallel to the American feminist movement and was greatly influenced by it. One of the main propellants was an American Jewish activist, Marcia Freedman. She was born in the United States in 1938, emigrated to Israel in 1967, and immediately became involved in left Zionist politics. A new party called Ratz, dedicated to peace and civil rights and founded by the female politician Shulamit Aloni, invited Freedman to become a candidate.
In 1991, Al-Fanar, the Palestinian feminist organisation in Israel, was established; shortly afterwards, Achoti (Sister) for Women in Israel left the overall feminist movement to represent more faithfully the particular agenda of Mizrachi women. This was a local conversation that reflected a more general one, in the Middle East as a whole, between Islamic or Muslim feminism and Western feminism. In addition, the unwillingness of Israel, the state and the society alike, to be integrated into the region – its insistence of being an integral part of the West – affected issues of gender as well. Thus, a feminism that could have been regional, could have built bridges with feminist movements in the Arab world, failed to connect with a feminism that strove to grant equal rights to young women in the army, so that they could serve as fighter pilots or commando troops, and as a result, become unacceptable to the Arab world.
Thus, a feminism that could have been regional, could have built bridges with feminist movements in the Arab world, failed to connect with a feminism that strove to grant equal rights to young women in the army, so that they could serve as fighter pilots or commando troops, and as a result, become unacceptable to the Arab world. Israeli fighter pilots and commando troops are prepared for one mission: to brutally police the occupied West Bank and the Gaza Strip, or to punish southern Lebanon. Despite these rifts, feminist activism and cooperation flourished through organisations such as Isha L’Isha (Woman to Woman), Achoti, and Al-Fanar. This does not mean that the feminist movement in Israel, whether we speak of its academic wing or its political/activist wing, did not have an impressive list of achievements. It is mainly in the sphere of legislation and changes in attitudes that these achievements are visible. However, as with so many other aspects of life in Israel, the formal and official façade covers up a far more depressing reality: a high rate of women being murdered (both in Arab and Jewish societies), occupational inequality, the growing influence of ultra-religious forces.
Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge by Cass R. Sunstein
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, availability heuristic, Build a better mousetrap, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, framing effect, hindsight bias, information asymmetry, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, market bubble, market design, minimum wage unemployment, prediction markets, profit motive, rent control, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, slashdot, stem cell, The Wisdom of Crowds, winner-take-all economy
People were asked to rank, in order of probability, eight possible futures for Linda. Six of these were fillers (psychiatric social worker, elementary school teacher); the two crucial ones were “bank teller” and “bank teller and active in the feminist movement.” In many experiments, many people said that Linda is less likely to be a bank teller than to be both a bank teller and active in the feminist movement. This is a palpable (though common!) error of logic;7 it simply cannot be the case that A (bank teller) is less likely than A and B together (bank teller and active in the feminist movement). The representativeness heuristic often works Four Big Problems / 77 well because it frequently points in the right direction; but it can also lead to severe blunders. For purposes of assessing deliberation, a central question is whether deliberating groups avoid the errors of the individuals who compose them.
A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn
active measures, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, God and Mammon, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, jobless men, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration
They began to write for magazines and newspapers, and started some ladies’ publications. Literacy among women doubled between 1780 and 1840. Women became health reformers. They formed movements against double standards in sexual behavior and the victimization of prostitutes. They joined in religious organizations. Some of the most powerful of them joined the antislavery movement. So, by the time a clear feminist movement emerged in the 1840s, women had become practiced organizers, agitators, speakers. When Emma Willard addressed the New York legislature in 1819 on the subject of education for women, she was contradicting the statement made just the year before by Thomas Jefferson (in a letter) in which he suggested women should not read novels “as a mass of trash” with few exceptions. “For a like reason, too, much poetry should not be indulged.”
When she refused to pay taxes because she was not represented in the government, officials took all her household goods in payment, even her baby’s cradle. After Amelia Bloomer, a postmistress in a small town in New York State, developed the bloomer, women activists adopted it in place of the old whale-boned bodice, the corsets and petticoats. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who was one of the leaders of the feminist movement in this period, told of how she first saw a cousin of hers wearing bloomers: To see my cousin with a lamp in one hand and a baby in the other, walk upstairs, with ease and grace while, with flowing robes, I pulled myself up with difficulty, lamp and baby out of the question, readily convinced me that there was sore need of a reform in woman’s dress and I promptly donned a similar costume.
The editor of Socialist Woman, Josephine Conger-Kaneko, insisted on the importance of separate groups for women: In the separate organization the most unsophisticated little woman may soon learn to preside over a meeting, to make motions, and to defend her stand with a little “speech”. After a year or two of this sort of practice she is ready to work with the men. And there is a mighty difference between working with the men, and simply sitting in obedient reverence under the shadow of their aggressive power. Socialist women were active in the feminist movement of the early 1900s. According to Kate Richards O’Hare, the Socialist leader from Oklahoma, New York women socialists were superbly organized. During the 1915 campaign in New York for a referendum on women’s suffrage, in one day at the climax of the campaign, they distributed 60,000 English leaflets, 50,000 Yiddish leaflets, sold 2,500 one-cent books and 1,500 five-cent books, put up 40,000 stickers, and held 100 meetings.
Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness by Richard H. Thaler, Cass R. Sunstein
Al Roth, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, availability heuristic, call centre, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, continuous integration, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, diversification, diversified portfolio, endowment effect, equity premium, feminist movement, fixed income, framing effect, full employment, George Akerlof, index fund, invisible hand, late fees, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, Mason jar, medical malpractice, medical residency, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, money market fund, pension reform, presumed consent, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Saturday Night Live, school choice, school vouchers, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, Zipcar
Then people were asked to rank, in order of the probability of their occurrence, eight possible futures for Linda. The two crucial BIASES AND BLUNDERS answers were “bank teller” and “bank teller and active in the feminist movement.” Most people said that Linda was less likely to be a bank teller than to be a bank teller and active in the feminist movement. This is an obvious logical mistake. It is, of course, not logically possible for any two events to be more likely than one of them alone. It just has to be the case that Linda is more likely to be a bank teller than a feminist bank teller, because all feminist bank tellers are bank tellers. The error stems from the use of the representativeness heuristic: Linda’s description seems to match “bank teller and active in the feminist movement” far better than “bank teller.” As Stephen Jay Gould (1991) once observed, “I know [the right answer], yet a little homunculus in my head continues to jump up and down, shouting at me—‘but she can’t just be a bank teller; read the description!’”
When to Rob a Bank: ...And 131 More Warped Suggestions and Well-Intended Rants by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbus A320, airport security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, feminist movement, food miles, George Akerlof, information asymmetry, invisible hand, loss aversion, mental accounting, Netflix Prize, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, Pareto efficiency, peak oil, pre–internet, price anchoring, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, Richard Thaler, security theater, Ted Kaczynski, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, US Airways Flight 1549
Women with kids have fared worse than women without kids. The only notable exception to the pattern is black women, who are happier today than they were three decades ago. There are a number of alternative explanations for these findings. Below is my list, which differs somewhat from the list that Stevenson and Wolfers present: 1. Female happiness was artificially inflated in the 1970s because of the feminist movement and the optimism it engendered. Yes, things have gotten better for women over the last few decades, but maybe change has happened a lot more slowly than anticipated. Thus, relative to these lofty expectations, things have been a disappointment. 2. Women’s lives have become more like men’s over the last thirty-five years. Men have historically been less happy than women. So it might not be surprising if the things in the workplace that always made men unhappy are now bedeviling women as well. 3.
., 288 visible hand in, 319–22 writing about, 287–88 Edlin, Aaron, 88 Ehrenreich, Barbara, 329, 333–34 Ehrlich, Paul, 109, 114 Eikenberry (funeral director), 46 Endangered Species Act, 165–66 Engelberger, Perfect, 40 environment: cloth vs. disposable diapers, 167 and conspicuous consumption, 184–85 and driving, 166–67 eating meat, 179–84 Endangered Species Act, 165–66 global warming, 87–89, 179–84 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 171–72, 177, 180 locavores, 168–72 and packaging, 175–78 paper vs. plastic bags, 167 petroleum extraction, 109–16 Prius “green halo,” 185 and profitability, 172–74 saving the rain forest, 174–75 veganism, 179–84 Ericsson, Anders, 199, 201 escort (high-end call girl), 261–67 evaluation function (EV), 197 experts, ten thousand hours of practice, 199, 201–2 Fanning, Dakota, 305 fear of strangers, 130–33 Feinstein, Dianne, 53 Feldman, Paul, 69 feminist movement, 346–47 Ferraz, Claudio, 33 films, animated, 305–7 Finan, Frederico, 33 first-grade data hound, 219–20 fishing, 348–49 flight attendants, 19–20 food: chicken wings, 75–77 decayed, 177 deliciousness of, 170 kiwifruits, 77–80 locavores, 168–72 nutritional value of, 170 and obesity, 116–18 packaging of, 175–78 poor service, 272–73 rancid chicken, 307–11 shrimp, 341–44 transportation inefficiencies of, 170–72 wasting, 177–78 football: Immaculate Reception, 216 loss aversion, 206–9 Pittsburgh Steelers, 212–19 rookie symposium, 239–41 Fox, Kevin, 253 Frakes, Michael, 117 Frankfurt, Harry, 276 Freakonomics (Levitt & Dubner), 1–2, 37, 40, 54, 69, 101, 105, 135, 160, 223, 253–4, 261, 274, 277, 280, 297–98, 305, 322, 351 Freakonomics.com, 1–4, 8, 233 Freakonomics radio, 268–69 Frederick, Shane, 341–43 Freed, Pam, 342 Friedman, Milton, 23 Frost, Robert, 218 Fryar, Irving, 239–40 Fryer, Roland, 228, 288, 328–29, 337, 339 Fuller, Thomas, 194–95 Gacy, John Wayne Jr., 39 Gagné, Éric, 149 gambling: on athletes, 73 backgammon, 195–98 blackjack, 189–91 on horse racing, 191, 220–22 how not to cheat, 153–55 Internet poker, 127–30, 157 on newspaper circulation, 233 one card away from final table, 192–95 Rochambeau (Rock, Paper, Scissors), 188–89 on teams, 125–26 unbreakable record, 192 World Series of Poker, 187–88, 192–95 GAME (Gang Awareness Through Mentoring and Education), 248–49 gas, moratorium on, 311–14 gas prices, 86–90 Gates, Bill, 16 Geiger, Bernice, 224 Geithner, Tim, 158 gender identity, 228 Gladstone, Bernard, 258, 259 global warming, 88–89, 179–84 Gly-Oxide, 275–76 God, in book titles, 285–87 Goeree, Jacob, 31 Goldstein, Dan, 335 golf, 198–206 Goodall, Chris, 167 Good to Great (Collins), 283–84, 285 Goolsbee, Austan, 160 Gordon, Phil, 187–89, 192, 193 Goss, Pat, 200–201 government: and gambling income, 129 paying politicians, 32–36 voting mechanisms, 29–31 Greatest Good, 28, 300–301 Greene, Mean Joe, 216 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, 171–72, 177 Grossman, Michael, 116 Gruber, Jonathan, 117 Grzelak, Mandi, 268–69 guns: anonymous tips about, 247 athletes carrying concealed weapons, 240–41 concealed weapons laws, 242 D.C. ban on, 243–45 deaths from, 245–51 illegal use of, 245 ownership of, 245 shooting intruders with, 241–43 Hagen, Ryan, 314–19 happiness, 122–23, 344–47 Harold’s Chicken Shack, 75–77 Harris, Franco, 216 Hatcher, Teri, 305 hate mail, cost of, 49–51 health care: British National Health Service, 26–29 decisions in, 122 Hemenway, David, 249–50 Henderson, Kaya, 160 herd mentality, 143–46 Hitchens, Christopher, 286 hoaxes, 282–83 Holmes, Santonio, 214–16 home, building your own, 170 home field advantage, 209–12 homelessness, 330–31 horseback riding, 101–3 horse racing, 220–22 housing prices, 67–69 Hurricane Katrina, 42–43, 325–28 Hussein, Saddam, 58 identity, concept of, 162–63 Immaculate Reception, 216 impure altruism, 328 incentives, 17, 32–36, 65, 95–96, 110, 113, 122, 136, 166, 337–40 inefficiencies, transportation, 170–72 INS (Immigration and Naturalization Service), Form N-400, 237–38 In Search of Excellence (Peters and Waterman), 284 Internet poker, 127–30, 157 iPad, 124–25 Irfan, Atif, 130–32 irrational decisions, 120–21 IRS, 11–14, 159–60, 257 Jackson, Vincent, 215 Jacob, Brian, 160 Jagger, Mick, 74 Jarden Zinc, 63 J.F.K. airport, 21–22 Jines, Linda Levitt: brother’s eulogy for, 297–301 father’s interventions, 289–97 and Freakonomics, 277, 297–98 Jingjing Zhang, 31 Johnson, Larry, 207 Johnston, David Cay, 11–12 Kaczynski, Ted (Unabomber), 287 Kahneman, Daniel, 3, 119–24, 206 Katrina (popular name), 42–43 Kennedy, Bobby, 279 Kentucky Derby, 220–22 Keyes, Alan, 279 KFC, 272–73 Killefer, Nancy, 158 kiwifruits, 77–80 Kormendy, Amy, 169 Kranton, Rachel, 162 Kulkarni, Ganesh, 140–41 Laffer curve, 72 LaGuardia Airport, 21–23 LaHood, Ray, 21, 103–6 Lake George, boat accident on, 118–19 Lancaster, Barbara, 219 Landsburg, Steven, 259 Lane, Mary MacPherson, 173 Las Vegas: blackjack, 189–91 poker, 127–30, 153–58, 187–89, 192–95 risk aversion in, 126–27 Lee, Jennifer 8., 41 Lee Hsien Loong, 32 Leeson, Peter, 314–19 Levitt, Michael, “When a Daughter Dies,” 289–97 libraries, public, 14–16 lies of reputation, 137–40 Limberhand (masturbator), 45–46 List, John, 125, 165, 228, 327–28, 338 lobbyists, 62–63 locavores, 168–72 loss aversion, 206–9 Loveman, Gary, 127 ludicity (ludic fallacy), 335 Ludwig, Jens, 246–48 Maass, Peter, 109, 114 Madoff, Bernie, 133 Malthus, Rev.
., 38–39 stock markets, capitalization of, 67 strangers, fear of, 130–33 street gangs, 229–36, 246–47, 248–49 street handouts, 328–37 Stubbs, Bob, 46 subjectivity, 170 Sullenberger, Chesley “Sully,” 82–83 SuperFreakonomics (Levitt & Dubner), 54, 101, 105, 119, 121, 261 supply and demand, 78–80, 110, 112, 115, 128, 341–44 Swift, Jonathan, 258–59 Taleb, Nassim Nicholas, 329, 334–37 tax code, 159–60 taxes: on athletes’ incomes, 72–74 cheating on, 158–60 on sex, 256–59 war on, 11–14 Taylor, Brian, 253 Taylor, Sean, 241 teachers, cheating by, 103–4, 160–61 Tejada, Miguel, 149 tenure, 16–19 Terrible Towel, 215 terrorism, 5–11, 108–9, 252 Thaler, Richard, 68, 308–9 Think Like a Freak (Levitt & Dubner), 26, 27 350.org, 178–84 ticketless travel, 141 Tierney, John, 114–16 Tinker, David, 40 tipping, and flight attendants, 19–20 Tomlin, Mike, 218 tooth decay, 275–76 Tour de France, 151–52 Travolta, John, 306 Tropicana, 174–75 TSA, 5–6, 11, 108–9, 251–53 Tversky, Amos, 206 TV viewing habits, 322–24 Twitter contest, 94–96 umbrellas, dangers of, 108–9 United States, six-word motto for, 96–99 Unlawful Internet Gambling Enforcement Act (UIGEA), 129–30 US Airways flight 1549, 82–83 Veblen, Thorstein, 184 veganism, 179–84 Velde, François, 62 Venkatesh, Sudhir, 229–36, 246–47 Vermeil, Dick, 207–8 Virgin Mobile, 63–64 voting mechanisms, 29–31 wages: and markets, 24, 25 of politicians, 32–36 and quality of applicants, 34 walking drunk, 101 Wayne (middle name), 38–40 Weber, Christopher L., 171, 172 Weller, Mark, 62–63 Werner, James, 40 Wertheim, Jon, 209–12 Weyl, Glen, 30–31 White, Byron “Whizzer,” 214 Williams, Tom, 148–49 Wilson, A.N., 282 Winfrey, Oprah, 51 Wire, The, 229–33 Witt, Robert, 225–26 Wolf, Cyril, 51–53 Wolfers, Justin, 344–47 women: feminist movement, 346–47 and happiness, 344–47 work: incentives in, 339–40 leisure vs., 168 World Preservation Foundation, 179–82, 192–95 World Series of Poker, 187–88, 192–95 Worthy, Paige, 44–45 Zelinsky, Aaron, 152–53 About the Authors STEVEN D. LEVITT, a professor of economics at the University of Chicago, was awarded the John Bates Clark medal, given to the most influential American economist under forty.
The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations by Christopher Lasch
cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, feminist movement, full employment, George Santayana, impulse control, Induced demand, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Norman Mailer, road to serfdom, Scientific racism, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, yellow journalism
feminists' own analysis of the way in which the subjection of women damages women and impoverishes the emotional life of men, men cannot possibly meet the full erotic demands of women under the existing sexual arrangements; yet feminism itself gives The Flightfrom Feeling: Sociopsychology of the Sex War : 199 198 : The Culture of Narcissism myths of the moral superiority of women thereby consoling those demands the strongest ideological support. It therefore intensifies the problem to which it simultaneously offers the solution. On the one hand, feminism aspires to change the relations , themselves for their lack of power. They appeal to the illusory solidarity of sisterhood in order to avoid arguments about the proper goals of the feminist movement. By institutionalizing between men and women so that women will no longer be forced into the role of "victim and shrew," in the words of Simone de Beauvoir. On the other hand, it often makes women more shrew- ' women s activities as " alternatives to the male death-culture " , at the they avoid challenging that culture and protect women from the need to compete with men for jobs political power, and public attention.
This contradiction remains unavoidable so long as feminism insists that men oppress women and that this oppression is intolerable, , has noted, the movement's "apparent vigor turns out to be mere busyness with self-perpetuating make-work: much of it serving in the short run to provide its more worldly experts with prestige sors but as friends and lovers. , book contracts, and grants its dreamers with an illusory matriarchal Utopia. Radical lesbians" carry the logic of separation to its ultimate , " Strategies of Accommodation Because the contradictions exposed (and exacerbated) by feminism are so painful, the feminist " movement has always found it tempting to renounce its own insights and program and to retreat into some kind of accommo dation with the existing order, often disguised as embattled militancy. In the nineteenth century, American feminists edged away from their original programs, which envisioned not only eco- nomic equality but a sweeping reform of marriage and sexual relations, into a protracted campaign for woman suffrage.
After the painful renunciation of the mother, sensuality seeks , " " only those objects that evoke no reminder of her, while the mother herself, together with other pure (socially respectable) women, is idealized beyond reach of the sensual. " " The Soul of Man and Woman under Socialism Would men and women live more happily together under some other form of social organization? Would they live more happily under socialism? The answer to this question no longer strikes many people as self-evident as it struck earlier generations of socialists The , . feminist movement has unceremoniously exposed the shallowness of the old socialist analysis according to which a revolution in property relations would automatically revolutionize the relations between men and women All but the most rigid and , . dogmatic of socialists have now admitted the justice of this feminist criticism and incorporated it into their own work, notably in 206 : The Culture of Narcissism the recent studies by Juliet Mitchell, Eli Zaretsky, and Bruce Dancis.
Mastermind: How to Think Like Sherlock Holmes by Maria Konnikova
Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, availability heuristic, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, delayed gratification, fear of failure, feminist movement, functional fixedness, Lao Tzu, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Walter Mischel
As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in antinuclear demonstrations. Linda is a teacher in an elementary school. Linda works in a bookstore and takes yoga classes. Linda is active in the feminist movement. Linda is a psychiatric social worker. Linda is a member of the League of Women Voters. Linda is a bank teller. Linda is an insurance salesperson. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. After you’ve made your ranking, take a look at two pairs of statements in particular: Bill plays jazz for a hobby and Bill is an accountant who plays jazz for a hobby, and Linda is a bank teller and Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. Which of the two statements have you ranked as more likely in each pair? I am willing to bet that it was the second one in both cases. If it was, you’d be with the majority, and you would be making a big mistake.
On Anarchism by Chomsky, Noam
That’s why unions have always been in the lead of development of social and economic progress. They bring together poor people, working people, enable them to learn from one another, to have their own sources of information, and to act collectively. That’s how everything is changed—the civil rights movement, the feminist movement, the solidarity movements, the workers’ movements. The reason we don’t live in a dungeon is because people have joined together to change things. And there’s nothing different now from before. In fact, just in the last forty years, we’ve seen remarkable changes in this respect. Go back to ’62, there was no feminist movement, there was a very limited human rights movement. There was no environmental movement, meaning rights of our grandchildren. There were no Third World solidarity movements. There was no antiapartheid movement. There was no anti-sweatshop movement.
Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman
Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Bayesian statistics, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, cognitive bias, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, demand response, endowment effect, experimental economics, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, framing effect, hindsight bias, index card, information asymmetry, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, medical residency, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, nudge unit, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, pre–internet, price anchoring, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, union organizing, Walter Mischel, Yom Kippur War
As in the Tom W problem, some ranked the scenarios by representativeness, others by probability. The Linda problem is similar, but with a twist. Linda is a teacher in elementary school. Linda works in a bookstore and takes yoga classes. Linda is active in the feminist movement. Linda is a psychiatric social worker. Linda is a member of the League of Women Voters. Linda is a bank teller. Linda is an insurance salesperson. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. The problem shows its age in several ways. The League of Women Voters is no longer as prominent as it was, and the idea of a feminist “movement” sounds quaint, a testimonial to the change in the status of women over the last thirty years. Even in the Facebook era, however, it is still easy to guess the almost perfect consensus of judgments: Linda is a very good fit for an active feminist, a fairly good fit for someone who works in a bookstore and takes yoga classes—and a very poor fit for a bank teller or an insurance salesperson.
Even in the Facebook era, however, it is still easy to guess the almost perfect consensus of judgments: Linda is a very good fit for an active feminist, a fairly good fit for someone who works in a bookstore and takes yoga classes—and a very poor fit for a bank teller or an insurance salesperson. Now focus on the critical items in the list: Does Linda look more like a bank teller, or more like a bank teller who is active in the feminist movement? Everyone agrees that Linda fits the idea of a “feminist bank teller” better than she fits the stereotype of bank tellers. The stereotypical bank teller is not a feminist activist, and adding that detail to the description makes for a more coherent story. The twist comes in the judgments of likelihood, because there is a logical relation between the two scenarios. Think in terms of Venn diagrams. The set of feminist bank tellers is wholly included in the set of bank tellers, as every feminist bank teller is0%"ustwora ban0%" w a bank teller.
We were surprised again: 85% of these respondents also ranked “feminist bank teller” as more likely than “bank teller.” In what we later described as “increasingly desperate” attempts to eliminate the error, we introduced large groups of people to Linda and asked them this simple question: Which alternative is more probable? Linda is a bank teller. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. This stark version of the problem made Linda famous in some circles, and it earned us years of controversy. About 85% to 90% of undergraduates at several major universities chose the second option, contrary to logic. Remarkably, the sinners seemed to have no shame. When I asked my large undergraduatnite class in some indignation, “Do you realize that you have violated an elementary logical rule?”
Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, business climate, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global reserve currency, Howard Zinn, labour market flexibility, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage tax deduction, Paul Samuelson, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce
But when they mention corporations, big media, banks, investment firms, law firms that cater to their interests, things like that, okay, then I think they’re on target. So, yeah, people aren’t out revolting in the streets, that’s for sure. But I think there’s plenty of potential, I mean, the environmental movement is big, and remember, it’s a movement of the Seventies, not the Sixties. The Third World solidarity movements are movements of the Eighties. The anti-nuclear movement is a movement of the Eighties. The feminist movement is Seventies and Eighties. And it’s way beyond movements—there are all kinds of people who are just cynical: they don’t have any faith in institutions, they don’t trust anybody, they hate the government, they assume they’re being manipulated and controlled and that something’s going on which they don’t know about. Now, that’s not necessarily a move to the left: that could be the basis for fascism too—It’s just a question of what people do with it.
Yeah, but we’ve had mass demonstrations too—we just had one in Washington a couple days ago [in support of abortion rights]. We know how to do that stuff; it’s not very hard. I mean, there are no big secrets about any of this: there are very few lessons to transmit, so far as I know. Look, people have been involved in very successful organizing in the United States: the Civil Rights Movement, the anti-war movement, the ecological movement, the feminist movement, all of these things have been very successful developments. MAN: What about all the West European social-welfare policies, though? It’s true, they have a lot of social-welfare programs we don’t have—but that’s true of Canada too, you don’t even have to go all the way to Europe. For instance, they have a functioning public health insurance program in Canada, which we don’t have here in the United States.
It’s not long ago that I was getting invited to somebody’s living room to talk to two or three neighbors who were ready to lynch me, or to some church where there’d be four people, including some guy who sort of wandered in because he didn’t know what to do, and two people who wanted to kill you, and the organizer—that’s not long ago, that’s 1964. And when you’re talking about other issues, like large-scale social change, well, it’s still like 1964 in that respect. But things can change—and sometimes they change very fast. Take the Civil Rights Movement in the United States: over a ten-year period, it was just a sea-change. Or take the feminist movement, which a lot of you are involved in: the changes came very fast. It went from being virtually nothing, a little nit-picking about activist groups having the women licking the stamps, and within a couple years it was a major movement, swept the country. When the time is right, things happen fast. They don’t happen without any basis—things have to have been happening for a long period. But then they can crystallize at the right time, and often become very significant.
Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall
agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Graeber, feminist movement, garden city movement, hive mind, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, liberation theology, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Naomi Klein, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the market place, union organizing, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery
N. 371, 382 Wilson, Charlotte 490 Wilson, Peter Lamborn see Bey, Hakim Winstanley, Gerrard 51, 96–104, 199, 487 Witcop, Milly 418 Wobblies see Industrial Workers of the World Wolff, Robert Paul 42, 502–3, 563–4 Wollstonecraft, Mary 134, 196–8, 200 Wombles 699 women, views on: anarcho-feminism 556–7; De Sade 148; Fourier 150, 151; Free Spirits 87; Gandhi 424; Goldman 506–9; Krnpotkin 328; Nietzsche 157; Paine 135; Paris Commune 288; Proudhon 49, 157, 256; Ranters 104–5; Reclus 341; Rousseau 128; Tolstoy 157, 366–7; Wollstonecraft 134; see also equality, feminist movement women’s movement see feminist movement Woodcock, George xi, xiii, 24, 42, 492, 589, 602, 671 Wordsworth, William 191, 195 work, views on 655–7; Bakunin 299; Kropotkin 328–9; Russell 655; Shaw 655; Tolstoy 215, 328, 655 workers’; associations 281–2, 628–9; co-operatives 300; control 288, 654–5 Workers’ Opposition 475 work-study movement in China 521 World Social Forums 698 World State 569, 572 World Trade Forum (2002) 698 World Trade Organisation summit (1999) 670, 698 Wrangel, Ferdinald Petrovich, Baron von 279 Wrangel, Pyotr Nikolayevich 475 Wu Chih-hui 520 Wycliffe, John 91 Ya Bastal 699, 702 Yasnaya Polyana 366 Yeats, William Butler x Ylppies 502, 544 Yu-Rim 528 Zabalaya Anarchist Communist Federation 701 Zaccaria, Cesare 452 Zalacosta, Francisco 509–10 Zapata, Emiliano 511–13, 702 Zapatistas 514, 701–2, 704 Zaragoza Congress (1922) 456 Zaragoza Congress (1936) 459, 467 Zen Buddhism 61–5 Zengakuren 526 Zenkoku Jiren 525–6 Zeno of Citium 70 Zerzan, John 675, 684, 685–8, 695 Zhao Ziyan 523 Zhelezniakov, Anatolli 472 Zhukovsky, Nicholas 469–70 Zola, Ernile 491 Zoroaster 86 Die Zukunft 481 Zürich: Congress (1893) 410; Dada movement 440–1 Zwingli, Huldreich 93 22 March Movement 548 WOBBLIES AND ZAPATISTAS Conversations on Anarchism, Marxism and Radical History Paperback | 5″ × 8″ | 300 pages | $20.00 | ISBN: 978-1-60486-041-2 “There’s no doubt that we’ve lost much of our history.
Umanità Nova was revived and Cesare Zaccaria helped found Volontà, which is still published today. But when the New Left emerged in Italy in the 1960s it was strictly Marxist; the terrorist Red Brigades were especially authoritarian. An international anarchist congress held in Carrara in 1968 helped revive libertarian spirits despite the failure of the students’ insurrection earlier in the year. In the seventies, with the rise of the peace, Green and feminist movements, anarchism started to make a comeback, albeit mainly amongst students and the middle class. The Unione Sindacale Italiana was relaunched in 1983 and now has groups in every province. In the following year, the city of Venice welcomed three thousand people to an international congress which revived dormant contacts, and confirmed that the ideas of anarchism thrive once again. Anarchism may no longer shape Italian working-class life, but it still challenges the Italian State, and is a considerable thorn in its side. 29 Spain TO DATE, SPAIN IS the only country in the modern era where anarchism can credibly be said to have developed into a major social movement and to have seriously threatened the State.
Their principal aim is to erode power and authority; in personal terms, they seek individual control over their own bodies and lives – ‘Power to no one, and to every one: to each power over his/her own life, and no others.’39 In the women’s movement as a whole, there are undoubtedly many ‘natural’ anarchist tendencies. Penny Kornegger contends that ‘feminists have been unconscious anarchists in both theory and practice for years’.40 From this perspective, it has been suggested that feminism practises what anarchism preaches. Indeed, it has even been argued that feminists are the only existing protest group that can honestly be called practising anarchists.41 The feminist movement which began in the late sixties developed its own organizational form and practice at the heart of which lay the small ‘consciousness-raising’ group. Spontaneous and non-competitive, without leaders and followers, they resemble the ‘affinity groups’ which played such an important part in the Spanish Civil War. As an international movement, the women’s movement has also adopted the central anarchist principles of decentralization and federalism.
Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri
Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, labour mobility, late capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning, William of Occam
More important, however, as is the case before each shift of constitutional regimes, the pressure for a return to republican principles and the original constitutional spirit was already prepared by the powerful internal social movements. Just when the United States was most deeply embroiled in an imperialist venture abroad, when it had strayed farthest from its original constitutional project, that constituent spirit bloomed most strongly at home—not only in the antiwar movements themselves, but also in the civil rights and Black Power movements, the student movements, and eventually the second-wave feminist movements. The emergence of the various components of the New Left was an enormous and powerful afﬁrmation of the principle of constituent power and the declaration of the reopening of social spaces. Beyond the Cold War During the cold war, when the United States ambiguously adopted the mantle of imperialism, it subordinated the old imperialist powers to its own regime. The cold war waged by the United States did not defeat the socialist enemy, and perhaps that was never really its primary goal.
It was the college student who experimented with LSD instead of looking for a job; it was the young woman who refused to get married and make a family; it was the ‘‘shiftless’’ African-American worker who moved on ‘‘CP’’ (colored people’s) time, refusing work in every way possible.23 The youth who refused the deadening repetition of the factory-society invented new forms of mobility and ﬂexibility, new styles of living. Student movements forced a high social value to be accorded to knowledge and intellectual labor. Feminist movements that made clear the political content of ‘‘personal’’ relationships and refused patriarchal discipline raised the social value of what has traditionally been considered women’s work, which involves a high content of affective or caring labor and centers on services necessary for social reproduction.24 The entire panoply of movements and the entire RESISTANCE, CRISIS, TRANSFORMATION emerging counterculture highlighted the social value of cooperation and communication.
What technological advance can do is shift the terrain of conﬂict and defer the crisis, but limits and antagonisms remain. Stanley Aronowitz offers a useful reassessment of the panoply of U.S. social movements in the 1960s in The Death and Rebirth of American Radicalism (London: Routledge, 1996), pp. 57–90. Again see Kelley, Race Rebels, especially pp. 17–100 on the hidden histories of resistance. On the history of the refusals posed by U.S. feminist movements in the 1960s and 1970s, see Alice Echols, Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America, 1967–1975 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989). See, for example, Judith Butler, ‘‘Merely Cultural,’’ New Left Review, no. 227 ( January–February 1998), 33–44. The most inﬂuential text for the political interpretation of ‘‘new social movements’’ along these lines is Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics (London: Verso, 1985).
The Democracy Project: A History, a Crisis, a Movement by David Graeber
Bretton Woods, British Empire, corporate personhood, David Graeber, deindustrialization, dumpster diving, East Village, feminist movement, financial innovation, George Gilder, John Markoff, Lao Tzu, late fees, Occupy movement, payday loans, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, We are the 99%, working poor
Quakers had also been active in most grassroots American social movements from Abolitionism onward, but until the 1970s they were not, for the most part, willing to teach others their techniques for the precise reason that they considered it a spiritual matter, a part of their religion. “You rely on consensus,” George Lakey, a famous Quaker pacifist activist once explained, “when you have a shared understanding of the theology. It is not to be imposed on people. Quakers, at least in the ’50s, were anti-proselytizing.”26 It was really only a crisis in the feminist movement—which started using informal consensus in small consciousness-raising groups of usually around a dozen people, but found themselves running into all sorts of problems with cliques and tacit leadership structures when those became larger in size—that eventually inspired some dissident Quakers (the most famous was Lakey himself) to pitch in and begin disseminating some of their techniques. These techniques, in turn, now infused with a specifically feminist ethos, came to be modified when adopted for larger and more diverse groups.27 This is just one example of how what has now come to be called “Anarchist Process”—all those elaborate techniques of facilitation and consensus finding, the hand signals and the like—emerged from radical feminism, Quakerism, and even Native American traditions.
So here are some practical considerations and common misunderstandings about the basic principles of consensus, which, hopefully, will make it easier for interested readers to participate in a process of figuring such things out for themselves: A QUICK CONSENSUS FAQ Q: But doesn’t all this “consensus process” just come down to manipulation by a tacit or hidden leadership clique? A: If you operate by consensus without any rules at all, then, yes, inevitably a tacit leadership will emerge—at least, as soon as your group grows larger than eight or nine people. The writer and activist Jo Freeman pointed this out back in the 1970s during the early years of the feminist movement. What we now call “consensus process” was created largely to address this problem in the wake of Freeman’s critique. The role of the facilitator is a perfect example here. The easiest way to know you’re dealing with bad process is that the same person is (a) running the meeting, and (b) making all the proposals. In any horizontal group there will be a clear understanding that the facilitator doesn’t herself bring forward any proposals.
Mindware: Tools for Smart Thinking by Richard E. Nisbett
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, big-box store, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, cosmological constant, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, endowment effect, experimental subject, feminist movement, fixed income, fundamental attribution error, glass ceiling, Henri Poincaré, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, quantitative easing, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, William of Occam, Zipcar
“Linda is thirty-one years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice and also participated in antinuclear demonstrations.” After reading this little description, people were asked to rank eight possible futures for Linda.23 Two of these were “bank teller” and “bank teller and active in the feminist movement.” Most people said that Linda was more likely to be a bank teller active in the feminist movement than just a bank teller. “Feminist bank teller” is more similar to the description of Linda than “bank teller” is. But of course this is a logical error. The conjunction of two events can’t be more likely than just one event by itself. Bank tellers include feminists, Republicans, and vegetarians. But the description of Linda is more nearly representative of a feminist bank teller than of a bank teller, so the conjunction error gets made.
Composing a Further Life: The Age of Active Wisdom by Mary Catherine Bateson
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Celebration, Florida, desegregation, double helix, estate planning, feminist movement, invention of writing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce
Each of the liberation movements of the twentieth century has had to struggle against internalized prejudices and negative images of the self or of other members of the same group, which had to be overcome in order to embrace a different vision and believe that it could be achieved. In each such transition there have been risks—risks of excessive radicalization and acting out and risks of backlash. Yet beginning with the civil rights movement at mid-century and proceeding through the feminist movement, the disability rights movement, and the gay liberation movement, group after group that was excluded from full and equal participation has stepped forward, moving from a demand for equal rights into the fulfilled promise of new contributions. Forty years ago, looking at their lives with the newly developed possibility of planning their childbearing, young women discovered the need to break out of inherited assumptions about who they were, what they could do, and what they should want in their lives.
For those who are a decade or more younger than Ted, “the war” is the Vietnam war, which has left very different memories. Jane Fonda was just over thirty and an established film star when she met her second husband, Tom Hayden, who was already deeply involved in protesting the war. She had been living in France with her first husband, Roger Vadim, and returned in the late sixties to an America in which the activism of the civil rights movement was being displaced by the anti–Vietnam war movement, with the feminist movement developing alongside. “What happened, which is part of my DNA now, was the realization of the collective power of people working together,” she told me. “I was a rugged individualist, I had no friends, women were rivals. I was not relational. It was my second act that coincided with the end of the sixties and into the seventies, when the women’s movement needed women activists, and suddenly—it was like getting into a warm bath—’only together will we make a difference,’ ‘we want to make a difference, but we can’t do it individually.’
The Two-Income Trap: Why Middle-Class Parents Are Going Broke by Elizabeth Warren, Amelia Warren Tyagi
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, business climate, Columbine, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, labor-force participation, late fees, McMansion, mortgage debt, new economy, New Journalism, payday loans, school choice, school vouchers, telemarketer, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
Except for those disquieting moments when they take out a life insurance policy or learn that a friend has lost his job, most don’t notice the growing vulnerability that has seeped into their lives and stolen their security. Turn Back the Clock? Must mothers give up their jobs and head back home if they are to escape the Two-Income Trap? We suspect that at least a few conservative commentators will draw exactly that conclusion from these pages. But as two working mothers, we confess to deep resistance to calling for such a move. We remain dedicated to the best part of the feminist movement—the rock-solid belief that women who want to work should have every opportunity to do so. But personal politics aren’t the point here. Such a mass exodus from workplace to home is about as likely as the revival of the horse-drawn buggy. Social and political forces have changed the shape of women’s expectations and their role within the family. New information about the macroeconomic implications of their entry into the workforce is unlikely to change much.
In the 1980s, sociologist Lenore Weitzman made headlines with her claim that in the immediate wake of divorce, a woman’s standard of living drops by 73 percent from her married state.1 Several scholars later showed that Weitzman overstated the extent of the decline, but there is widespread agreement about her basic conclusion: Most mothers tumble down the economic ladder after they divorce.2 Nor is the postdivorce financial tumble a phenomenon confined solely to poor women. In fact, the drop is hardest for women in the middle and upper classes, since they have farther to fall.3 A generation ago, flush with the emerging power of the feminist movement, women’s groups began to push what seemed like an obvious solution to the economic woes facing divorced mothers: Help women get more money. According to this logic, single mothers would be safe only if they earned more money in the workplace and if the laws were changed to squeeze more out of their ex-husbands. The first item on the agenda fit neatly with advancing the cause for all women, regardless of marital status.
Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong-And the New Research That's Rewriting the Story by Angela Saini
Albert Einstein, demographic transition, Drosophila, feminist movement, gender pay gap, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, out of africa, place-making, scientific mainstream, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, women in the workforce
They sit together, play chase and play wrestle, groom, share food, and have sex.” The males are usually physically larger, but by virtue of their tight bonds, bonobo females manage to take charge. Observing the bonobos in San Diego Zoo, she found that of the time females spent affiliating with other bonobos, two-thirds was with females. De Waal has even described female bonobos as a “gift to the feminist movement.” Their observations, though, still have a few critics. Chimpanzee expert Craig Stanford argues that animals in captivity don’t behave exactly the same as those in the wild, because they’re artificially forced into proximity with each other. “I’ve never seen a wild bonobo, and I work on chimps, but those of us who do fieldwork with great apes have tended to be a little skeptical of the view of those folks who say chimps are from Mars and bonobos are from Venus,” he tells me.
This doesn’t answer the question of whether male domination was always the biological norm for our species, the way it is for chimpanzees, but it does offer a perspective on the battle for equality today. For Amy Parish, the great apes are not just a window on our possible past but also an example of the different ways we could live in the future. Her work shows that male domination isn’t inevitable when females work together to establish their interests—the way that bonobos do. “It’s certainly given me hope for the human feminist movement,” she tells me. “That here we can see females actually bonding with each other, maintaining those bonds, maintaining that loyalty. And then ultimately having the power in their groups. So I think they’re a great model for that. That yes, females can be in charge. They can control the resources. They don’t need to go through males to get them. They don’t have to be subjected to sexual violence or infanticide, all because they have the upper hand.
Social Capital and Civil Society by Francis Fukuyama
Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, p-value, Pareto efficiency, postindustrial economy, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transaction costs, World Values Survey
With birth control and easier abortion, the economic consequences of sex decline dramatically for women, so they can afford to be much less selective in their choice of partners. With the movement of women into the paid labor force, abandonment of a wife and children does not have the same dramatic negative consequences as it once did. Many women prize the greater freedom that economic independence brings -hence the feminist movement -and their assertion of independence releases men from the norm of family responsibility. Males do not have to be persuaded to behave less than responsibly toward their families ; there are plenty of biological forces pushing them in this direction as it is. The growth of male irresponsibility then reinforces the female drive for independence: even if a girl wanted to grow up to be a dependent homemaker today, she would be ill-advised not to equip herself with job skills, given that her marriage partner is more likely than not to end up abandoning her and her children or else will have difficulties providing a family income.
The New Prophets of Capital by Nicole Aschoff
3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Legislative Exchange Council, basic income, Bretton Woods, clean water, collective bargaining, commoditize, crony capitalism, feminist movement, follow your passion, Food sovereignty, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, Khan Academy, late capitalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, means of production, performance metric, profit motive, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game
In her story, success comes from righteousness and hard work, not luck—so anyone can achieve it. Oprah’s biographical tale has been managed, mulled over, and mauled in the public gaze for thirty years and is a story familiar to millions of Americans. She used her precocious intelligence and wit to channel the pain of abuse and poverty into building an empire. She was on television by the age of nineteen and had her own show within a decade. The 1970s feminist movement opened the door to the domestic, private sphere, and the show walked in a decade later, breaking new ground as a public space to discuss personal troubles affecting Americans, particularly women. Oprah broached topics (divorce, depression, alcoholism, child abuse, adultery, incest) that had never before been discussed with such candor and empathy on television. The Oprah Winfrey Show was the top program in its time slot for twenty-five seasons.
Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, asset allocation, availability heuristic, backtesting, Black Swan, capital asset pricing model, cognitive dissonance, compound rate of return, computerized trading, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, distributed generation, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, hindsight bias, index fund, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Long Term Capital Management, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, p-value, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, Ralph Nelson Elliott, random walk, retrograde motion, revision control, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, riskless arbitrage, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sharpe ratio, short selling, source of truth, statistical model, systematic trading, the scientific method, transfer pricing, unbiased observer, yield curve, Yogi Berra
Which possibility is most likely? (1) Linda is a bank teller, or (2) Linda is a bank teller AND is active in the feminist movement. Astoundingly, 85 percent of the subjects responded that it was more likely that Linda was a bank teller AND active in the feminist movement 92 METHODOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, PHILOSOPHICAL, STATISTICAL FOUNDATIONS than that Linda was simply a bank teller. This conclusion ignores the logical relationship between a set and a proper subset. Subjects became so ﬁxated on the fact that Linda possessed a set of salient characteristics that matched an intuitive stereotype of a feminist, that they committed the conjunction fallacy. Clearly, the set of women who are both bank tellers and active in the feminist movement is a subset of a larger category which contains all female bank tellers including those who are feminists and those who are not.
One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness
active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War
Frances Willard, a prominent temperance activist and cyclist, famously used the corset as a rhetorical metaphor in her speech to the Women’s national Council of the United States in 1891: “She is a creature born to the beauty and freedom of Diana, but she is swathed by her skirts, splintered by her stays, bandaged by her tight waist, and pinioned by her sleeves until—alas, that i should live to say it!—a trussed turkey or a spitted goose are her most appropriate emblems.”38 The burgeoning feminist movement rallied around cycling as a way to critique victorian ideals of femininity and groups like the rational Dress Society explicitly connected women’s liberation to bicycling, via the issue of clothing. There was a significant and somewhat obvious overlap between the interests of clothing reformers, female cyclists, and feminists of the period since women were socially, economically, and quite literally constrained in their mobility.
See also Great Britain English Mods versus rockers, 153 Environmentalism: and automobility, 60, 65; and bicycling, 63, 69, 153; and environmen tal politics, 151; and transportation, 207 Environmental racism, 207 Epperson, Bruce, 70–71, 212, 249n126 Ethnic cleansing and hygiene, 28 Europe, 13, 28, 37, 47, 59–60, 67, 172 Evans, ross, 154 Fast, Tony, 166–167 Faust, Steven, 67 Federal-aid road act (1916), 240n18 Federal Highway act (1921), 240n18 Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 108 Female cycling, 26; and advertising, 21; and bloomers, 20; as empowering, 45; and fiction narratives, 21–22; as liberating, 19–21; and new woman, 21; normalization of, 22; and popular press, 21–22; resistance to, 20; and women of color, 20 Feminist movement and cycling, 20 Ferrell, Jeff, 90 Fey, Kim (aka Kim Fern), 184, 283n44 Fincham, Ben, 129 Finland, 4 Fishburne, laurence, 112 Fisher, Martin, 286n90 Fishman, Barry, 245n74 Fitzpatrick, Jim, 25 Fixed Gear Gallery (Web site), 163 Fláneur, 85 Flink, James, 16 Florida, 269n122 Flow, 200 Ford, Henry, 15, 48–49 Ford, William Clay, Jr., 210 Ford-Smith, Honor, 194 Forester, John, 71, 73, 138, 248n119, 248– 249n120, 249n124, 263n61; and cyclist-inferiority superstition, 72; and vehicular-cycling principle, 70 The 40-Year-Old Virgin (film), 111 France, 28, 237n142; bicycling in, 8 Free market capitalism, 213, 287n99; and poverty, 198, 200 Free ride, 173, 178 Friedman, Thomas, 198 Friends of the Earth, 60 Galdins, robert, 175 Garvey, Ellen, 21–22, 27, 30 Gender and mobility, 180 General Dutch Cyclists Union (anWB), 57 General Motors, 50 Gerken, John, 184 Germany: and the autobahn, 51; bicycling in, 4, 33–34; and living space mythos, 51 Get a Life (television program), 111 Ghana, 187, 191, 201, 287n98 Ghost bikes, 97; and DKny campaign, 160 Giant Bicycle Company, 214–216 Global agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GaTT), 189 Global climate change, 206 Globalization, 13, 188, 213–214 Global South, 186; and automobility, 190 Gluck, Harold, 128 Goodridge, Steven, 74 Gore, al, 206 Gorz, andré, 59, 89, 253–254n64 Graber, Don, 215 Great Britain, 134, 188, 267n104; anti-roads protests and cultural politics in, 150; bicycling in, 135, 242n29; cars and fatalities in, 135; drivers in, 130–131; pedestrian and cyclist fatalities in, 268n117.
The black women from the Deep South, the immigrant women, and the college women considering careers outside the home had something in common: they recognized that the pursuit of opportunity required independence, and achieving that independence meant avoiding—or at least postponing—motherhood. In the 1950s, women were voting in roughly equal numbers to men for the first time in American history. The radical feminist movement of Margaret Sanger’s youth was gone, but other forms of rebellion were taking root. In the South, women like Rosa Parks, Septima Clark, and Ella Baker helped spark the civil rights movement. In factory towns and in cities, women became union activists. When they married or when they had children and wished not to have more, women turned to doctors, priests, and even newspaper columnists for advice, and they did so without the same degree of shame their mothers would have felt.
In 1970, 80 percent of women with young children stayed home to care for the children and 20 percent worked. Today, those numbers have reversed. The pill today remains one of the most widely prescribed drugs in the world. It is also one of the most widely examined. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, concerns arose about health risks associated with the pill, especially blood clots, and some leaders of the feminist movement began urging women to look for alternatives. Sales dipped briefly. Today, however, most research has concluded that the pill is not only safe but perhaps even beneficial in ways beyond contraception. In 2010, British scientists released the results of a forty-year study, “Mortality Among Contraceptive Pill Users,” that showed that women taking the birth-control pill were less likely than other women to die of heart disease, cancer, and other ailments.
Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, David Graeber, Defenestration of Prague, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global village, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, late capitalism, liberation theology, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Paul Samuelson, private military company, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Richard Stallman, Slavoj Žižek, The Chicago School, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus
After the 1968 global explosion of struggles of industrial workers, students, and anti-imperialist guerrilla movements, decades passed with no new international cycle of struggles. This is not to say there were no significant instances of revolt during these years, because indeed there were and many of them extremely violent—the anti-Apartheid struggle in South Africa, the continuing rebellion against British rule in Northern Ireland, the Palestinian Intifada, feminist movements, Stonewall and the gay and lesbian movements, and numerous less-publicized local and national revolts by industrial workers, agriculturists, and oppressed populations. None of these revolts, however, formed a cycle of struggles in which the common was mobilized extensively across the globe. We should not minimize, of course, the numerous more limited instances of communication among struggles.
Increasingly, particularly in the subordinated countries, where the nation-state is not capable of guaranteeing rights, protesters appeal directly to international and global authorities, shifting the discussion from “civil rights” to “human rights.” Throughout the world today human-rights NGOs express grievances of injustices against women, racial minorities, indigenous populations, workers, fisherman, farmers, and other subordinated groups. It is especially striking how feminist movements over the past twenty years, first in the subordinated countries and then in the dominant ones, have transformed their organizations into NGOs and formulated women’s rights as human rights.61 The promise of human rights is to guarantee rights universally, with the power both to counter the injustices of national legal systems and to supplement their incompleteness. When the national authorities of Nazi Germany, to cite the classic, extreme example, conducted their project to exterminate the Jews, the universal perspective of human rights mandated overriding and countering the national legal norms and authority.
What's Left?: How Liberals Lost Their Way by Nick Cohen
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, centre right, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, haute couture, kremlinology, liberal world order, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, profit motive, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, the scientific method, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War
But most of Monbiot’s comrades prided themselves on their total opposition to everything about their societies, and as a matter of principle and point of pride were unable to say a good word about them. They were incapable of supporting reform at home because if they did they would have to admit that democracy was not broken beyond repair. More seriously, their provincialism risked betraying the very foreigners they affected to support. India has a vigorous feminist movement that fights ancient cultural and religious prejudices. Like all strong political campaigns, it does not believe that an omnipotent ‘hegemon’ makes resistance futile. It wants Indian women to enjoy the same rights as Western women, and regards those rights as universal rather than Western. It would no more accept that freedom from murderous violence was an imperialist demand from the all-powerful empire than that the right to vote was for whites only.
Scott 98–9 Armstrong, Sir William 56 Ash, Lucy 121 al-Askari, Abdel-Qadir 51 Astor, Lord and Lady 217 asylum seekers 7 Atta, Mohamed 83, 255–7, 260, 269, 273 Auden, W.H. 122, 219, 220, 223, 224–5, 238, 335, 358–9 Australia 258 Axelrod, Pavel 103 al-Ayyeri, Yussuf 270 Aziz, Hind 34 Aziz, Tariq 292 Baath Party (Iraq) 24, 25, 33–4, 352, 365 alliance with Islamists after war to form ‘insurgency’ 8, 32, 286–7 and conspiracy theory 35–6 ideology 33, 35 and indoctrination 33–5, 41 and Iraqi communists 37–8 killings by 4–5, 31–2, 37 program against Iraqi Jews 36–7 purges of by Saddam 35, 42–4 seizure of power 22 and Soviet Union 37–8, 40 tyrannizing of Iraqis and forces of oppression 7, 33, 37, 41–2 Baath Party (Syria) 31 backlash politics 196–7 Bad Writing Contest 99–100 Bagehot, Walter English Constitution 189–90 al-Bakr, Ahmad Hasan 36 Baldwin, Stanley 220 Bali bar bombings (2002) 258 al-Banna, Hassan 265–6 al-Barak, Fadhil 35, 36 Barruel, L’Abbé Augustin 340, 341, 343, 345, 346 Memoirs to Serve for a History of Jacobinism 340 Battle of Britain 225 Baudrillard, Jean 110 Bazoft, Farzad 5, 53 BBC 159, 244, 304, 367, 368, 369, 379 Beard, Mary 274–5 Bell, Clive 228, 235 Bellow, Saul Ravelstein 80 Benaissa, Mohamed 352 Benenson, Peter 322 Benn, Hilary 367 Benson, Ophelia 101 Berman, Paul 249, 250, 312 Beslan school hostage crisis (2004) 259–60 Betjeman, John 221 Bevin, Ernie 231, 232, 233, 246 bin Laden, Osama 257, 258, 261, 267–8, 276, 365, 367 Birthler, Marianne 331 Blair, Cherie 205 Blair, Tony 54, 114, 185, 201, 277, 290, 297, 359, 364, 379 and Amnesty 322–3 and Iraq war 8, 202, 203, 280, 284, 285, 297, 300 and Kosovo war 151 and 9/11 257 Blakeney, Kate 63, 66 Bleasdale, Alan 184 blogosphere 270–1 Bloomsbury Group 192, 227, 228, 229, 235 Blum, Leon 249, 251 Blythe, Ronald The Age of Illusion 230 Boggan, Steve 40–1 Bosnian war 10, 127–51, 153–4, 168, 172, 370 atrocities committed 128, 129, 130, 131–2, 134 denial of crimes committed 171–8 ending of 151 lack of international help 135 Omarska prison camp 129, 130–1, 174 photograph of ‘emaciated men behind barbed wire’ 134, 174–5 pressure on Major government from Americans to intervene 145–9 prevention of action in by Major government 139–43, 144–5, 153–5, 168 siege of Sarajevo 153–4 Srebrenica massacre (1995) 130–1, 149–50, 171, 177–8 Trnopolje camp 131–4, 171, 174, 175–6 Bridget Jones’s Diary 313 Britain 138–9 and Euroscepticism 139 possibility of Bolshevik revolution in 1970s 55–7 prevention of action in Bosnian War by Major government 139–41, 144–5, 153–5, 168 radicalism in 58 trade unions 298–9 British Empire 162 British Muslims 369–72, 378 British National Party (BNP) 294, 310–11 British People’s Party 235–6 Brittain, Vera 248–9 Brown, Gordon 201, 297 Buchan, James High Latitudes 95 Burchill, Julie 207 Buruma, Ian and Margalit, Avishai Occidentalism 268 Bush, George (senior) 169 Bush, George W. 8, 9, 83, 85, 201, 209, 274, 284, 320, 321, 358, 359, 365, 373 Butler inquiry 285 Butler, Judith 100, 111 Butt, Hassan 371–2 Caldwell, Christopher 336–7 Cambodia 93, 166–7 Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament 230–1 Campbell, Professor David 176 Campbell, Sir Menzies 74 Camus, Albert 29 capitalism 22, 119–20, 195 Carey, Professor John 189 Castro, Fidel 93, 293 ‘Cato’ 225 Celebrity Big Brother 288–90 centralized regulation 194–5 Chamberlain, Houston Stewart 227, 266–7 Chamberlain, Neville 144, 217–18, 220, 227, 233 Chamcha, Saladin 184 Chechnya 259–60 Chemical Ali see al-Majid, Ali Hassan China 93, 94, 117 Chirac, Jacques 150 Chomsky, Noam 14, 155–62, 164–8, 170, 179–80, 258, 376 American Power and the New Mandarins 156–7 anti-Americanism 156–7 background 155–6 and Bosnian War atrocities denial 178–9 condemning of Kosovo War 170–1 and Hiroshima 156, 157 and Holocaust denial theory 164–6 and Khmer rouge killings in Cambodia 167–8 and media propaganda 157–8, 160–1 support of Johnstone’s Fools’ Crusade 178, 179 Christian Democrats 14 Churchill, Caryl 184 Churchill, Winston 2, 33, 218, 219, 245, 246 Clearances (Scottish Highlands) 118 Cliff, Tony 54 Clinton, Bill 83, 87, 145, 150, 201, 211, 273 Clwyd, Ann Saddam’s Iraq 40 Cockburn, Alexander 73 Coe, Jonathan 184 Cohn, Norman 345 Cohn, Professor Werner 174 Cold War 4, 88, 97, 143 Collard, Dudley 242 Collins, Michael 205–6 Columbia Journalism Review 159–60 communalism 309 communism 3–4, 89, 373–4 collapse of 87–8 and fascism 89, 237 killing of by communists 248 Communist Party (Britain) 238 attempt to rally support for Hitler after Soviet-Germany pact 239–46 People’s Convention 239, 242–6, 247 support of war effort after invasion of Soviet Union by Germany 246 Communist Party (Iraq) 37–8 Conquest, Robert 29, 103 Conservatives 2–3, 10, 53, 113 conspiracy theory 339–40 and Freemasons 35, 340–2, 345–6 and Jews 35–6, 65, 77, 343–6, 350–1 consumer leftism 373–6 consumerism 12, 221 Cook, Robin 285, 313 Cooper, Robert 136 council house waiting lists 200, 201 Critical Terms for Literary Study 100 Croatia 127 Crusaders 340 cults, political 60–3 Daily Mail 197 Daily Worker 240–1 Dalrymple, Theodore 229 Darfur 50, 117, 381 Dawkins, Richard 318 Dawson, Geoffrey 217 de Beauvoir, Simone 103 de Pauw, Cornelius 262–3 Declaration of Independence 317, 343 Deichmann, Thomas 174–5, 176, 177 democracy 193–4, 268, 342, 362, 365, 379, 380 fascism’s case against 268–70 Democrats 14, 211 Dench, Geoff 199 denial 162–3 and Bosnian war 171–8 and fascists 163–4 Holocaust 163–5, 179 Denmark 212 al-Din, Salah 33 Disneyland 110 Dole, Bob 145, 147, 150 Domvile, Admiral Sir Barry 235, 236 Dorfman, Ariel 283 Dostoevsky 67 dowry-murders 101, 102, 121–3 Drabble, Margaret 263 Dutton, Denis 99–100 Dzandarova, Zalina 259 East End/East Enders 198–201 East Timor 161, 170, 258, 275, 283 economists 114 education 204–5 Egypt 349, 350 Eliot, George 333 Eliot, T.S. 219 Empire (Hardt and Negri) 109–10 Engels, Friedrich 158 ‘Englishness’ 206 Enlightenment 35, 106, 109, 343, 355, 357 environment movement 356–7 epistemic relativism 105–6 Equity 57–8 Estikhbarat 40 ethnic cleansing 128, 365 ethnic minorities 11 eugenics 198 European Court of Human Rights 136, 212 European Exchange Rate Mechanism 3, 139 European Social Forum (2003) 115, 119–20, 301 European Union 10, 127, 135–8, 212, 214, 365, 379 Euroscepticism 139 Euston Manifesto 361–3 Fabians 190, 192, 193, 198 Fahrenheit 9/11 321–2 Fallacy of the Superior Virtue of the Oppressed 78–9 false consciousness, theory of 158–9, 374–5 Falwell, Jerry 261 family attempt to weaken influence of by political cults 61 fascism/fascists 3–4, 10, 268 case against democracy 268–70 and communism 89, 237 and denial 163–4 Faurisson, Robert 163–5 feminism/feminists 12, 90–1, 111, 112 in India 120 Ferguson, Euan 282–3 First World War 220 Fischer, Joschka 332 Fisk, Robert 271–2 ‘fisking’ 271 Foot, Michael 225, 232–3 Forster, E.M. 244 Foucault, Michel 107–8, 109, 377, 379 Fox, Dr Myron L. 97–8 Fox, John 146–7 France 47, 206, 212, 218, 281 Franco, General Francisco 1, 35, 50, 346 Frank, Thomas 209, 210–11, 212 Franks, General Tommy 72 Frayn, Michael 182–3 Freemasons 35, 38, 269, 340–2, 345–6, 350, 351 French left 249, 327 French Revolution 42, 355 French socialists and Hitler 249–52 Gaddafi, Colonel 68 Galbraith, Peter 50, 52 Galloway, George 74, 290–3, 300–1, 302, 310 game theory 97 Gaullists 14 Gavron, Kate 199 genocide against Iraqi Kurds 5, 7, 24, 48–9, 50–2, 127 defined by United Nations 129 Geras, Norman 325 Germany anti-war demonstrations 281 and Iraq war 329 see also Nazi Germany Globalise Resistance 296 globalization 141, 374, 376 see also anti-globalization movement Gold Standard 219 Gollancz, Victor 240–1 Goodlad, Alistair 153 Gorazde (Bosnia) 154 Gore, Al 273 Gorst, Irene 59–60 Gourlay, Walter 215 grammar schools 205 Grant, Ted 54 Great Depression 195, 218, 220–1, 356 Great Leap Forward 49 Greece anti-war demonstrations 281 Green movement 119, 356 Griffiths, James 234 Griffiths, Richard 236 Griffiths, Trevor 55 The Party 55–6, 57 Guantanamo Bay 324 Guardian 117, 179–80, 294, 304, 337–8 Guevara, Che 93 Guilty Men 225–7, 240 Gulf War (1991) 71, 89 Halabja 50–2, 292 Hamas 259 constitution 348–9 Hamza, Abu 351 Hardt, Michael and Negri, Antonio Empire 109–10 Hare, Sir David 184, 206 Harrington, Michael 82 Hawley, Caroline 46 Hayek, Friedrich 294 The Road to Serfdom 194–5 Healy, Gerry 53–5, 57–9, 61, 63–4, 66–8, 301 hegemonic 110–12 Heidegger, Martin 263–4 heroes/heroines 19–20 Herman, Edward S. 166, 168, 170, 176 Hezbollah 293–4, 366 Hiroshima 156, 157 Hitchens, Christopher 247, 253 Hitler, Adolf 4, 35, 49, 50, 246, 248, 250 appeasement of by Chamberlain 217–18, 220, 227, 233, 233–4, 276 and France 251 and Jews 30, 346 meeting with Lansbury 234 Mein Kampf 345, 346 pact with Stalin 358 rise of 231 seen as a bulwark against communism 217 Hizb-ut-Tahir 370 Ho Chi Minh 93 Hoare, Marko Attila 169–70, 171 Hobsbawm, Eric 103, 185, 241–2 Hoggart, Simon 299–300 Hollinghurst, Alan The Line of Beauty 184 Holocaust 336 denial of 163–5, 179 homosexuality 11, 105, 111 ‘honour killings’ 378 Horta, Hose Ramos 283–4 Houellebecq, Michel 213 Howard, Peter 225 human rights 39–40, 88, 106, 143, 312, 313, 316, 324–5, 362 Human Rights Watch 52, 312, 325–6 Hume, Mick 176 Hurd, Douglas 140–1, 142, 143, 144, 145, 147, 169, 370 Husain, Ed The Islamist 369–70 Hussain, Azfar 101–2, 104 Hussein, Saddam see Saddam Hussein el-Husseini, Haj Amin 347–8 Huxley, Aldous 235 identity politics 376–7 Independence Party 294 Independent 304, 320, 335, 366 Index on Censorship 335 India 75, 120–1, 162 dowry-murders and persecution of women 101, 102, 121–3 feminist movement 120 partition of 143 Indict 292 individualism 356 Indochina 166 Indonesia 81 Information Research Bureau 246 Institute for Public Policy Research 207 international criminal states 313 International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia 130 International Monetary Fund 117 Internet 270–1 Iran 22, 25–6, 81, 82, 374, 377, 379 revolution (1979) 26–7, 107–8, 380 war against Iraq 28, 32, 44, 47–8 women in 357–8 Iraq 4–6, 7, 20–6, 40, 72–3 alliance between Baathists and Islamists after war to form ‘insurgency’ 8, 32, 286–7 American assistance in war with Iran 46–8 Baath Party regime see Baath Party genocide of Kurds 5, 7, 24, 48–9, 50–2, 127 invasion of Kuwait 6, 70, 72–3 ‘oil-for-food’ programme 72 pull back by America in (1991) 71, 72, 80, 81, 87 sanctions issue 74–5 seen as only country to take on Israel 76–7 shift in attitude towards by left 30, 74–5, 89–91 and Soviet Union 37–8 terrorizing of Shia majority by Sunni Islamists 287 trade union movement 297–8, 301, 302–3 war against Iran 28, 32, 44, 47–8 weapons sales to 47 and Workers’ Revolutionary Party 65–6, 67, 68 see also Saddam Hussein Iraq Memory Foundation 330 Iraq war (2003) 4, 7–9, 84, 299–300, 357, 364–5, 381 aftermath 285–6, 381 anti-war movement/ demonstrations 169–70, 280–311, 313–14, 357 and Blair 8, 202, 203, 280, 284, 285, 297, 300 liberal opposition to 46, 202, 312–32 Iraqi Communist Party 334 Iraqi Federation of Trade Unions 298, 302 Ireland 212 anti-war demonstrations 281 Irvin, Jeremy 129, 133 Isherwood, Christopher 219, 224, 233 Islam 9, 107, 367 Islamic Combatant Group 258–9 Islamism/Islamists 260, 261–2, 264–6, 267, 269–70, 273, 343–4, 347, 352, 360, 365–6, 368, 371–2, 374, 381 Israel 21, 76, 77, 170, 335, 336, 338–9, 346, 347, 351–2, 353 Italy anti-war demonstration 280 Izetbegovic, Alija 154 jahilyya 265, 267 Jamaat-i-Islaami party 266, 351, 369, 371, 377 Jarman, Derek 184 Jarrow hunger marches 218 Jehovah Witnesses 296 Jelacic, Nerma 172–3 Jewish Chronicle 65 Jews 10, 35, 36, 269 attack on by Iraq’s Baath Party 36–7 conspiracy theory involving 35–6, 65, 77, 343–6, 350–1 and Hitler 30, 346 and Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion 36, 344, 345, 346, 349 and tsarist Russia 344–5 see also antisemitism Johnson, Hewlett 243 Johnstone, Diana Fools’ Crusade 176–7, 178 Jong-Il, Kim 39 journalists 159–60 July bombings (London) 10, 257–8 Kagan, Robert 136, 315–16, 317 Kanaan, Jean-Sélim 326 Kansas 209, 209–10 Karadzic, Radovan 128, 129, 131, 169 Kelikian, Dr Hampar 148 Kenneth, John 50 Keynes, John Maynard 114, 228, 377 Economic Consequences of the Peace 228 Khan, Irene 324 Khan, Mohammad Sidique 258 Khmer Rouge 167, 167–8 Khomeini, Ayatollah 27, 28, 70, 107, 108, 184 Kianouri, Noureddin 27 Kirwan, Celia 246 Kissinger, Henry 47 Klein, Naomi No Logo109 Knights Templars 340–1, 342 Kosovo war 10, 151, 168, 170–1 Kouchner, Bernard 326 Kumari, Ranjana 121 Kurds 36 attempts to rally international support for 50 genocide against by Saddam Hussein 5, 7, 24, 48–9, 50–2, 127 use of poison gas against at Halabja 50–2, 292 Kuwait invasion of by Iraq (1990) 6, 70 Labour Party 93, 182, 220, 231–3 see also Blair, Tony; New Labour Labour Party conference (2004) 297, 299–300 Lader, Philip 367 Lansbury, George 199, 229–32, 233–4 Laski, Harold 21, 240 Lawrence, D.H. 219 League of Nations 231 Left Book Club 219, 240, 243 Leigh, Mike 184 Lenin, Vladimir 50, 54 Leslie, Ann 333 Lewis, C.
The Diet Myth: Why America's Obsessions With Weight Is Hazardous to Your Health by Paul Campos
Are we now choosing female pundits for beauty, not for experience, insight and acumen? Where are all my old friends from [political campaigns], all the women who are still eating ﬁve meals a day as they drag themselves across the country? How come I’m never paired with good-looking men? 202 Fat Politics These are excellent questions. Coming as they do from someone who has been considered a notable ﬁgure in the feminist movement, one might expect they would lead to answers that would reject the various premises that fuel the public culture that has given birth to, among other things, pundettes. But one would be wrong. Making the Case for Yourself is a profoundly antifeminist book, under even the loosest deﬁnition of what might be considered feminism. Considering the identity of its author, its contents should have caused a scandal.
“Interestingly, some of the studies that indicate women consistently overestimate their actual body size also suggest men prefer women . . .” Jacobi and Cash, “In Pursuit of the Perfect Appearance: Discrepancies Among Self-Ideal Precepts of Multiple Physical Attributes,” J Appl Soc Psychol 24, 379–96 (1994). “Where, I wonder, are the mainstream feminist organizations . . .” See Chapter Seventeen for a discussion of the feminist movement’s mixed record movement on issues of body oppression. “Yet his campaign advisers emphasized to him that he needed to lose 30 pounds . . .” A recent New Yorker proﬁle of Gore illustrates how we are becoming increasingly sensitive to superﬁcial issues of appearance when evaluating political ﬁgures: “[The crowd] took turns speculating about what clues they’d soon be called upon to interpret. Beard or no beard?
Occupying Wall Street: The Inside Story of an Action That Changed America by Writers For The 99%
Bay Area Rapid Transit, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, desegregation, feminist movement, income inequality, McMansion, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, Port of Oakland, We are the 99%, young professional
Typically, the person making the block will explain the reasoning behind their objection and offer a “friendly amendment,” designed to make the proposal under discussion something that can be supported. Like many other aspects of OWS procedures, the use of hand signals has a long history. According to Marina, “. . . the tools and language [that OWS uses] originate with the Quakers. We’re talking about generations, the anti-war movement, the feminist movement; a lot of different social movements in the U.S. have used different forms of consensus that include [facilitation] tools.” Marina also pointed out that, because they are silent, the hand gestures were particularly useful in large assemblies where clapping or cheering would use up time that could be otherwise devoted to the business of the meeting, a consideration of particular importance for proceedings being conducted at the tortoise tempo of the people’s mic.
What We Say Goes: Conversations on U.S. Power in a Changing World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian
banking crisis, British Empire, Doomsday Clock, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, informal economy, liberation theology, mass immigration, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus
That was a period of peak economic progress. Or take, say, the 1980s. For most of the population the period since the 1970s has been pretty gloomy. Real incomes have stagnated or declined. Nevertheless, there was no economic collapse in the 1980s. But it was a period of tremendous activism. For example, the Latin American solidarity movements—something new after hundreds of years of Western imperialism—developed in the 1980s. The feminist movement didn’t develop as a result of economic collapse. The global justice movements of the 1990s, which are extremely important, developed during a brief period of economic boom. I just don’t think the correlations work. In the 1980s, you and Edward Herman wrote Manufacturing Consent.29 Of course, then the Soviet Union was the archenemy of the United States. If you were revising the book today, might you insert Al Qaeda in there as the organizing principle for U.S. hegemony?
Keeping Up With the Quants: Your Guide to Understanding and Using Analytics by Thomas H. Davenport, Jinho Kim
Black-Scholes formula, business intelligence, business process, call centre, computer age, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, forensic accounting, global supply chain, Hans Rosling, hypertext link, invention of the telescope, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, margin call, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Myron Scholes, Netflix Prize, p-value, performance metric, publish or perish, quantitative hedge fund, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, six sigma, Skype, statistical model, supply-chain management, text mining, the scientific method
Let’s look at an example where the same number was interpreted in a manner that best supports prejudices: The Newsweek critic who reviewed a book, called The Better Half, about the early suffragettes, ended his critique on a thought-provoking note. He wondered rhetorically what Susan B. Anthony and the other suffragettes would have said about the fact that almost 50 years after the enfranchisement of American women, a Columbia University sociologist found that only one wife in 22 said she cast a different vote from her husband. A reader wrote saying, “I feel that they would have been quite pleased. The feminist movement must have come a long way, if after fewer than 50 years since the enfranchisement of American women, only one husband out of 22 has the courage to vote against his wife.”15 In sum, you should always question whether the numbers presented to you are appropriately interpreted with respect to the problem at hand. Be Particularly Suspicious of Causation Arguments One of the most important things to be skeptical about in analytical reasoning involves the difficulty of establishing causation.
Imperial Ambitions: Conversations on the Post-9/11 World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian
British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Westphalian system
You may remember the slogan, “Girls don’t say no to boys who won’t go,” which was on posters at the time. Young women who were part of the movement recognized there was something wrong with the fact that women were doing all the office work and so on, while the men were going around parading about how brave they were. They began to regard the young men as oppressors. And this was one of the main sources of the modern feminist movement, which really blossomed at the time. At some point, people recognize what the structure of power and domination is and commit to doing something about it. That’s the way every change in history has taken place. How that happens, I can’t say. But we all have the power to do it. How do you know your mother felt oppressed? Did she ever say so? Clearly enough. She came from a poor family with seven surviving children—a lot of children didn’t survive in those days.
On Power and Ideology by Chomsky, Noam
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, feminist movement, imperial preference, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Stanislav Petrov, union organizing
The intelligentsia also lent their talents enthusiastically to the cause after World War II, abandoning the earlier illusion that they might gain a measure of power by riding a wave of popular struggle (the Leninist dream) and recognizing that real power, and the basis for their privilege, would continue to reside in the business sectors that dominate the state capitalist system. The 1960s and early 1970s again witnessed the growth of popular activism and popular movements that might have threatened business control of the political system, with the rise of the civil rights movement, the anti-war movement, the feminist movement, ethnic movements, organization of local communities, and so on. These developments evoked immediate and serious concern on the part of elite groups. They constituted the “crisis” identified by the liberal Trilateral Commission as a major threat to “democracy,” as the term is understood within the reigning doctrinal system. As one participant in the Trilateral Commission study remarked, “Truman had been able to govern the country with the cooperation of a relatively small number of Wall Street lawyers and bankers,” but these happy days—when there was no “crisis of democracy”—seemed to be passing as popular-based groups began to enter the political arena.
3D printing, assortative mating, call centre, clean water, commoditize, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, off grid, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War
The worries of Maureen Dowd—repeated often in her columns— are simply wrong, I tried to say; most professional men don’t want to marry their secretaries—they want to marry a partner at the firm, too. True, the rates of college graduation for women have been going up as men’s have been declining over the past three decades, so an increasing number of women will have to marry down and become the breadwinners of the household— but wasn’t that part of the point of the feminist movement, after all? Dating norms and gender roles are highly plastic and will adapt to the new economic reality—if not for them, then for the group in college right now. They wouldn’t hear any of it. They knew what they knew from their own experiences and nobody could convince them otherwise. As I hope is implied by these two anecdotes that took place within a single twenty-four-hour period, a slow and steady—yet fundamental—shift has occurred over the last thirty years in the way we work and live.
accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, feminist movement, full employment, gender pay gap, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet Archive, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, occupational segregation, pets.com, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K, zero-sum game
Either the "prejudice" is rational—that is, white guys are more productive than their Others, and so deserve their wage premium—or the economy is insufficiently competitive, in which case deregulation is called for. In actual historical experience, rather than in the fantasy Uves of Chicago-school economists, prejudices have been overcome only through organized poHtical action, like the civil rights and feminist movements, with the assistance of government antidiscrimination and affirmative-action programs. There are many reasons the gaps persist. Broadly, they can be divided into what happens before individuals reach the job market (family and neighborhood background, education) and what happens once they get there (channeling into certain raced and gendered occupations—occupational crowding—and pay discrimination after the slots are fiUed).
Overdressed: The Shockingly High Cost of Cheap Fashion by Elizabeth L. Cline
big-box store, clean water, East Village, feminist movement, income inequality, informal economy, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, megacity, race to the bottom, Skype, special economic zone, trade liberalization, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, upwardly mobile, Veblen good
Mad Men is about the rise of the Madison Avenue advertising industry, and one of the accounts on the show is Jantzen swimwear. The ascent of large clothing companies, with their fat advertising budgets, did much to nudge Americans away from the sharp styles portrayed on the show. The show also documents the enormous cultural change that happened during this period as well. The social upheavals of the ’60s and especially the ’70s counterculture and feminist movements brought in streetwear and youth fashions, and Valerie Steele says that following high fashion became passé during this time. “Because of the whole hippie, antifashion revolution, people no longer were willing to be so dictated to,” she says. “They were much more choosy of which of the trends they wanted to follow.” Ready-to-wear designers such as miniskirt inventor Mary Quant were early to popularize youth-oriented fashions.
Brave New World of Work by Ulrich Beck
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, full employment, future of work, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, McJob, means of production, mini-job, postnationalism / post nation state, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game
This reminds us that people's everyday lives and work are stretched on the Procrustean bed of plural activities – a self-evident fact that is usually obscured in the perspective of a society centred upon paid employment. Paid work, writes Elisabeth Beck-Gernsheim, has always been a ‘one-and-a-half person occupation’.37 The so-called normal work situation was tailored to men who had a wife in the background to take care of ‘everything else’ – children, meals, washing and cleaning, emotional equilibrium, everyday therapy, and so on. But the feminist movement and associated researchers, in particular, have always vehemently opposed the notion that a paid job is the only kind of work that has any social significance. Nevertheless, such an opening out of the monogamous work society towards a multi-activity society requires a lot of conditions to be fulfilled. Something has to change not only in office workplaces, or in law and politics, but above all in people's (men's) heads.
Waiting for Superman: How We Can Save America's Failing Public Schools by Participant Media, Karl Weber
I’m thinking of classics like Harvest of Shame, the CBS News documentary about the plight of migrant farmworkers, or films like my dad’s short features about the civil rights movement, A Time for Justice and Nine from Little Rock. It seems as though in those days, simply revealing to people the evils and injustices of the world could spark outrage and spur people to respond with action. The civil rights, environmental, antiwar, and feminist movements of that era were all fueled, in part, by the work of socially concerned filmmakers who educated a generation of Americans about the problems our society had been ignoring for too long. Today, I think, a lot has changed. Several generations have passed, and cameras show us everything now. With the advent of twenty-four-hour cable news, the spread of tabloid journalism in both print and visual forms, and the rise of the Internet, we’ve become accustomed to seeing anything and everything on screens in front of us, from the terror of 9/11 and the horrors of Abu Ghraib to the devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina.
Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence, and the Poverty of Nations by Raymond Fisman, Edward Miguel
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, crossover SUV, Donald Davies, European colonialism, failed state, feminist movement, George Akerlof, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Live Aid, mass immigration, megacity, oil rush, prediction markets, random walk, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, unemployed young men
The enfranchisement of the politically downtrodden— women, ethnic minorities, landless workers— has been a positive byproduct of many wars, including in the United States: women got the right to vote after World War I, the African-American civil rights movement took off after World War II, and the turmoil of the Vietnam War era brought new student voices into U.S. politics and helped launch the modern feminist movement. These kinds of political changes can lead indirectly to greater investment in what economists call “public 163 CH A PTER SEVEN goods”—investments like education and health care for previously marginalized groups—that benefit society as a whole. War itself can also spur technological innovation that boosts growth down the line. In World War II, clashes on the battlefield provoked a technological arms race, as the United States and Germany worked to design faster bombers and more accurate means of delivering their payloads.
This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein
1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
The real cost lies ahead. . . . The discount education given Negroes will in the future have to be purchased at full price if quality education is to be realized. Jobs are harder and costlier to create than voting rolls. The eradication of slums housing millions is complex far beyond integrating buses and lunch counters.”8 And though often forgotten, the more radical wing of the second-wave feminist movement also argued for fundamental challenges to the free market economic order. It wanted women not only to get equal pay for equal work in traditional jobs but to have their work in the home caring for children and the elderly recognized and compensated as a massive unacknowledged market subsidy—essentially a demand for wealth redistribution on a scale greater than the New Deal. But as we know, while these movements won huge battles against institutional discrimination, the victories that remained elusive were those that, in King’s words, could not be purchased “at bargain rates.”
., 106–7 Environmental Action, 213 Environmental Coalition for NAFTA, 84 Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), 84, 191, 198, 201, 233n, 235–36, 257 carbon trading supported by, 218, 226–29 fracking supported by, 215–17, 235n, 355–56 pro-business makeover of, 207–10, 233 environmental impact assessments, 203 environmentalism: acceptable risk and, 335 astronaut’s-eye view adopted by, 286–87, 296 command and control, 204 grassroots, 305–10; see also Big Green; Blockadia Keystone pipeline and revival of, 303 top-down, failures of, 295 “environmentalism of the poor,” 202 environmental justice, 92, 155 see also climate debt environmental movement, 157, 197 cap-and-trade and, 229 golden age of environmental law in, 201–4 green consumerism and, 211–13 insider strategy of, 203–4 NAFTA supported by, 83–85 political timidity in, 184–85, 186–87 privileged origins of, 183, 201, 211–12 pro-business ideology in, 207–11, 213 radicalism in, 183–86, 201–3, 206–7 in Reagan era and following, 203–11 schisms in, 206–7 singlemindedness of, 153 see also Big Green Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 48, 118, 227, 328 Northern Cheyenne and, 390, 393 Environmental Rights Action (Nigeria), 309 Environment Canada, 325, 326–37 ethane, 328 eucalyptus, 239 eugenics, taboo against, 278 Europe: emissions from, 40, 411 program cuts in, 110 “squares movement” in, 464 wealth in, 114 European Community, environmental law in, 202 European Parliament, 91n, 114 European Transport Workers Federation, 127 European Union, 218 airline taxes considered by, 249 Emissions Trading System (ETS) of, 219, 225, 226 fuel quality standards of, 71, 248–49 renewable energy in, 138 U.S. oil and gas exports restriction and, 71 WTO challenges brought against, 65, 70 WTO challenges brought by, 68–69 executive pay, 111, 112 extinctions, 14 extractive industries, 79, 121, 133, 141, 181, 213 alienation of onetime friends by, 313 Big Green and, 191–201 billionaires’ investments in, 235–37 climate change deniers funded by, 44–45, 149 depletion of conventional reserves in, 310 divestment movement and, 206, 353–58, 365, 401, 402–3 donations to environmental groups by, 196–97, 215–16 early victories against, 348–53 ecologically and socially responsible, 447 as economic disrupters, 316, 386 economic and political power of, 149, 151, 377–80, 384–87, 400, 403, 461 emissions regulations blocked by, 200 extreme projects of, 295, 303, 304, 310, 311, 315–34, 446 free trade agreements and, 358–60 geoengineering and, 281–84 government collusion with, 297–99, 303, 306–7, 308, 360, 361–66, 378–80 grassroots opposition to, 305–10; see also Blockadia; climate movement growth as measure of, 129–30 high risk in, 324–25, 331 Indigenous land rights and, see Indigenous peoples, land rights of infrastructures of, 315–24 lawsuits against, 112, 309, 368, 371–72, 378–80, 384, 386 lax regulation of, 129, 330–31, 333 lobbying by, 149–50 local ecology ignored by, 295 nationalization of, 130, 454 new technologies developed by, 145–46, 253, 310 polluter pays principle and, 110–19, 202–3 profit-seeking imperative of, 111, 126, 129, 148, 253, 330–31 progress blocked by, 110–11, 149 publicly owned, 130 public mistrust of, 330, 332, 333, 334 reserve-replacement ratio of, 146–47 sacrifice zones in, 172–73, 310–15 self-preservation instinct of, 149, 253 shareholders of, 111, 112, 128, 129, 146–47, 148 spills and accidents in, 330–34; see also specific accidents Steyer’s walking away from, 235 subsidies for, 70, 115, 118, 127, 418 tobacco companies compared to, 355 transient culture of, 343–44 water requirements of, 346 see also fossil fuels; specific industries and operations extractivism, 161–87, 442, 443, 459, 460–61 colonialism and, 169–70 defined, 169 postcolonial, 179–82 progressive, 181–82 sustainability and, 447 Exxon, 145, 147 ExxonMobil, 44–45, 111, 113, 150, 192, 196, 234, 236, 238, 282, 283, 314 Exxon Valdez oil spill, 337–39, 426 Eyre, Nick, 90 factories: green credits for, 219 retrofitting of, 122–23 fact resistance, 37 fairness: austerity and, 117–19 individual vs. corporate, 116–18 see also climate debt famine, 270, 272, 273, 274 Fanon, Frantz, 459 Farallon Capital Management, 234–35 Farley, Joshua, 173 farming, farmers, see agriculture Farrell, John, 99–100 FedEx, 51, 208, 210 feedback loops, 14 feed-in tariffs, 67, 131, 133 Feely, Richard, 434 feminist movement, 177, 453–54 Fenberg, Steve, 98–99 Ferguson, Brian, 349 Ferris, Deeohn, 314 fertility cycle, of ecosystems, 438–39, 446–48 fertility industry, 421–22 Feygina, Irina, 57 Figueres, Christiana, 200–201 financial crisis of 2008, 5–6, 9, 39, 44, 80, 88, 110, 120–26, 151, 158, 223, 392 financial markets, instability of, 19 financial transaction tax, 114 Finkenthal, Daniel, 207 firefighting, 72, 108, 109 First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, 205 First Nations: in anti-pipeline campaigns, 340, 345, 365–66 government dismissal of pollution claims by, 326 water supplies of, 384 see also Indigenous peoples; specific peoples fisheries collapses, 14 Flannery, Tim, 176 flaring, of natural gas, 219, 305–6 Fleming, James, 263, 270 floods, 14, 72 austerity budgets and, 106–7 business opportunities in, 9 Florida, 330 Flounder Pounder, 425, 427 Foley, Jonathan, 58 Foner, Eric, 456 Food & Water Watch, 197, 356 food, 10 declining stocks of, 13 prices of, 9, 239n sovereignty, 135–36 see also agriculture; famine food chains, aquatic, 259 food miles, 78 Ford, 67 Ford Foundation, 198 Forest Ethics, 248 forests carbon sequestering by, 304 clear-cutting of, 296, 304, 310 privatization of, 8 Forster, E.
The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma by Bessel van Der Kolk M. D.
anesthesia awareness, British Empire, conceptual framework, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, false memory syndrome, feminist movement, impulse control, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, placebo effect, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), theory of mind, Yogi Berra
In 1974 Freedman and Kaplan’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry stated that “incest is extremely rare, and does not occur in more than 1 out of 1.1 million people.”16 As we have seen in chapter 2 this authoritative textbook then went on to extol the possible benefits of incest: “Such incestuous activity diminishes the subject’s chance of psychosis and allows for a better adjustment to the external world. . . . The vast majority of them were none the worse for the experience.” How misguided those statements were became obvious when the ascendant feminist movement, combined with awareness of trauma in returning combat veterans, emboldened tens of thousands of survivors of childhood sexual abuse, domestic abuse, and rape to come forward. Consciousness-raising groups and survivor groups were formed, and numerous popular books, including The Courage to Heal (1988), a best-selling self-help book for survivors of incest, and Judith Herman’s book Trauma and Recovery (1992), discussed the stages of treatment and recovery in great detail.
., 254, 261 origin of, 251 PTSD and, 248–49, 253–54, 260 sleep disorders and, 259–61 eyewitness testimony, unreliability of, 192 Fairbairn, Ronald, 109 false memories, 189, 190, 191–92 Father-Daughter Incest (Herman), 138 “Faulty Circuits” (Insel), 328 Feeling of What Happens, The (Damasio), 93 Feldenkrais, Moshe, 92 Felitti, Vincent, 143–47, 156 feminist movement, 189 fight/flight response, 30, 42, 45–47, 54, 57, 60–61, 64, 77, 78, 80, 82, 85, 96, 97, 209, 217, 218, 247, 265, 329, 408n firefighters, in IFS therapy, 282, 288–89, 291–92 Fisher, Sebern, 312–14, 316–18, 325 Fish-Murray, Nina, 105–7 Fisler, Rita, 40 flashbacks, 8, 13, 16, 20, 40, 42, 44, 45, 66–67, 68, 68, 70, 72, 101, 135, 172, 173, 176, 193–94, 196–98, 219, 227 fluoxetine, see Prozac (fluoxetine) Foa, Edna, 233 focus: in trauma recovery, 203, 347–48, 355 trauma survivors’ difficulties with, 158, 166, 245–46, 311–12, 328 Fortunoff Video Archive, 195 Fosha, Diana, 105 foster-care youth, Possibility Project theater program for, 340–42 free writing, 238–39 freeze response (immobilization), 54, 54, 82–83, 82, 85, 95, 217, 218, 265 of Ute Lawrence, 65–66, 68, 71–72, 80, 82, 99–100, 219–20 see also numbing Freud, Sigmund, 15, 27, 177, 181–82, 183, 184, 194, 219, 220, 231, 246–47 Frewen, Paul, 99 Friedman, Matthew, 159 frontal cortex, 314 frontal lobes, 57–58, 62, 176 ADHD and, 310, 320 empathy and, 58–60 imagination and, 58 PTSD and, 320 see also medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) frontal midline theta rhythm, 417n functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 39, 66 Fussell, Paul, 243–44 Galen, 77 Gazzaniga, Michael, 280–81 gene expression: attachment and, 154–55 stress and, 152, 347 genetics: mental illness and, 151–52 of rhesus monkeys, 153–54 Germany, treatment of shell-shock victims in, 185, 186–87 Glenhaven Academy, Van der Kolk Center at, 213, 401n Gottman, John, 113 Grant Study of Adult Development, 175 Gray, Jeffrey, 33 Great Depression, 186 Great War in Modern Memory, The (Fussell), 243–44 Great Work of Your Life, The (Cope), 230 Greenberg, Mark, 31, 32, 33 Greenberg, Ramon, 409n Greer, Germaine, 187 Griffin, Paul, 335, 340–42 Gross, Steve, 85 group therapy, limits of, 18 Gruzelier, John, 322 gun control, 348 Guntrip, Harry, 109 gut feelings, 96–97 Haig, Douglas, 185 Haley, Sarah, 13 Hamlin, Ed, 323 handwriting, switching in, 241–42 Harris, Bill, 155 Hartmann, Ernest, 309–10 Harvard Medical School, 40 Countway Library of Medicine at, 11, 24 Laboratory of Human Development at, 112 see also Massachusetts Mental Health Center Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 309 Head Start, 350 heart disease, 267 HeartMath, 413n heart rate, 46, 61, 66, 72, 116 heart rate variability (HRV), 77, 266–69, 268, 271, 355, 413n Heckman, James, 167, 347 Hedges, Chris, 31 helplessness, of trauma survivors, 131, 133–34, 211, 265, 289–90, 341 Herman, Judith, 138–41, 189, 296 hippocampus, 60, 69, 176 Hobson, Allan, 26, 259–60, 261 Holocaust, 43 Holocaust survivors, 99, 195, 223, 372n children of, 118–19, 293–95 Holocaust Testimonies: The Ruins of Memory (Langer), 195, 372n Hölzel, Britta, 209–10, 275 homeostasis, 56 Hopper, Jim, 266 Hosseini, Khaled, 7 human connectome, 329 humans, as social animals, 110, 166, 349 Hurt Locker, The (film), 312 Huston, John, 187, 220 hypnagogic (trance) states, 117, 187, 238, 302, 305, 326 hypnosis, 187, 220 hypothalamus, 56, 60 hysteria, 177–78, 178 Freud and Breuer on, 181–82, 194 hysterical blindness, 126 imagination: dreams and, 261 frontal lobes as seat of, 58 loss of, 17, 350 pathological, 25 psychomotor therapy and, 305 recovery of, 205 imitation, 112 immobilization, see freeze response (immobilization) immune system, 56 stress and, 240 of trauma survivors, 126–27, 291 impulsivity, 120, 164 incest survivors: cognitive defects in, 162 depression in, 162 dissociation in, 132–33, 162 distorted perception of safety in, 164 father-daughter, 20, 188–89, 250, 265 high-risk behavior in, 164 hypersensitivity to threat in, 163 immune systems of, 126–27 longitudinal study of, 161–64 misguided views of, 20, 188–89 numbing in, 162–63 obesity in, 144, 162 self-harming in, 162 self-hatred in, 163 troubled sexual development in, 162, 163 trust as difficult for, 163 India, traditional medicine in, 207 inescapable shock, 29–31 infants, 83–84 arousal in, 84, 113, 121, 161 attunement of caregivers and, 111–13, 117, 118 caregivers’ bonds with, 109–11, 113, 128–29 internal locus of control in, 113 sense of self in, 113 sensory experiences of, 93–94 VVC development in, 83–84 inferior medial prefrontal cortex, 376n Insel, Thomas, 328 Institute of the Pennsylvania Hospital, 251 insula, 91, 91, 247, 274, 274, 382 integration, of traumatic memories, 181, 219–20, 222, 228, 237, 279, 308 interdependence, 340–41 intermittent explosive disorder, 151 internal family systems (IFS) therapy, 223–24, 262, 281–95, 418n exiles in, 281–82, 289–90, 291–95 firefighters in, 282, 288–89, 291–92 managers in, 282, 286–88, 291–92, 293 mindfulness in, 283 rheumatoid arthritis and, 291–92 Self in, 224, 283–85, 288, 289, 305 unburdening in, 295 interoception, 95–96, 413n yoga and, 272–74 see also sensory self-awareness interpersonal neurobiology, 2, 58–60 intimacy: suspension of defense mechanisms in, 84–85 trauma survivors’ difficulty with, 99, 143 Iraq War: deaths in, 348 veterans of, 220, 221, 222–23, 229, 312, 332 irritability, 10 isolation, of childhood sexual abuse survivors, 131 James, William, 89–90, 93, 184, 277, 280, 296, 309 Janet, Pierre, 54, 177, 178–79, 181, 182, 184, 194, 218, 220, 312, 396n Jouvet, Michel, 259–60 Jung, Carl, 27, 280, 296 Justice Resource Institute, 339, 401n Kabat-Zinn, Jon, 209 Kagan, Jerome, 79, 237–38 Kaiser Permanente, 144 Kamiya, Joe, 315 Kandel, Eric, 26 Kardiner, Abram, 11, 187, 189, 371n Katrina, Hurricane, 54 Keats, John, 248 Keegan, John, 185 Keeping Together in Time (McNeill), 333 Keller, Helen, 234–35 Kennedy, John F., 373n Kinneburgh, Kristine, 401n Kite Runner, The (Hosseini), 7 Klonopin, 225 Kluft, Richard, 251, 281 Koch, Robert, 164 Kradin, Richard, 126 Krantz, Anne, 243 Krystal, Henry, 99 Krystal, John, 30 Kulkosky, Paul, 326, 327 Lancet, 189 Langer, Lawrence, 195, 372n language: failure of, in trauma survivors, 43–44, 243–45, 352–53 limitations of, 235–37, 243–45 mental health and, 38 self-discovery and, 234–35 in trauma recovery, 230–47, 275–76 Lanius, Ruth, 66, 90, 92, 99, 102 Laub, Dori, 372n Lawrence, T.
Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez
barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar
And when some women devote hours to driving their kids to school each morning and to activities each afternoon, they are demonstrating that they will spare no effort to care for their children. Of course, some women know a lot about cars and, likewise, some men are happy to be the family chauffeur. Our ideas about gender and gender roles, though, can add additional layers of pleasure, or at least compensation, to driving. Wherever diverse beliefs about gender may stand in the wake of the feminist movement, men and women continue to drive cars differently, to different destinations, and to enjoy them differently. While women are now the main decision makers in a bit more than half of all car buys,7 and they drive in patterns and amounts that are 22 Carjacked converging with those of men,8 the car remains a more important part of men’s lives than women’s. Men drive more miles and are responsible for almost all professional and home car repairs, and women still represent a tiny, single-digit percent of car salespeople.9 When the great majority of heterosexual couples get into a car together, the man remains more likely to sit behind the wheel, whether or not he is sitting next to a feminist or he is one himself.
23andMe, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, Asperger Syndrome, barriers to entry, brain emulation, cloud computing, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Netflix Prize, neurotypical, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, phenotype, placebo effect, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture
Kahneman conducted an experiment in which he told his test subjects to imagine that: Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice and also participated in antinuclear demonstrations.342 The subjects were then asked to rank a set of statements by the likelihood of their being true. Two such statements were: 1.Linda is a bank teller. 2.Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. Many of the subjects ranked (2) ahead of (1), even though this is logically impossible. It must be more likely that Linda is a bank teller than that she is a bank teller and is also something else. Saying that (2) is more probable than (1) is analogous to claiming that there’s a greater chance that Linda has a son than that she has a child. Kahneman performed a similar experiment in 1982 on participants at an international conference on forecasting.343 Most of the participants were professional analysts.
assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, Branko Milanovic, call centre, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, low skilled workers, lump of labour, manufacturing employment, moral hazard, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, positional goods, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Powell Memorandum, purchasing power parity, refrigerator car, rent control, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, upwardly mobile, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War
In addition, girls have had higher high school graduation rates going back to the early twentieth century.8 If girls had long outperformed boys in high school as far back as the 1950s, why were they so much less likely than boys to go to college? Do you really have to ask? Societal expectations about realizing girls’ academic and occupational potential were dismally low in the 1950s. “Women are not expected to grow up to find out who they are, to choose their human identity,” Betty Friedan wrote in her 1963 book The Feminine Mystique. “Anatomy is woman’s destiny.” Friedan’s book and the feminist movement that gradually came into being—with a strong assist by the Food and Drug Administration’s 1960 approval of the first birth-control pill—altered that destiny. Although growing percentages of women (even married women) joined the workforce throughout the twentieth century, as recently as 1970 most women still didn’t work; their participation in the civilian labor force was 43 percent. By 1980 that rate had risen to 52 percent, and since 1990 it’s hovered around 60 percent.9 Harvard’s Goldin observed a particularly dramatic change in women’s attitudes toward work around 1970, partly in reaction against the previous generation’s experience.
Half the Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity for Women Worldwide by Nicholas D. Kristof, Sheryl Wudunn
agricultural Revolution, correlation does not imply causation, demographic dividend, feminist movement, Flynn Effect, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, special economic zone, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce
There is a broad scholarly literature about social movements, and experts have noted that one of the most striking changes in recent years has been a surge in female leadership. The civil rights and anti–Vietnam War movements may have been the last such major efforts in the United States that were overwhelmingly male in their top ranks. Since then, women have led such diverse efforts as Mothers Against Drunk Driving and the pro- and anti-feminist movements. While women still lag in political, corporate, and government positions, they dominate the civil sector in much of the world. In the United States, women now lead Harvard, Princeton, and MIT, as well as the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. The groups in the National Council of Women’s Organizations represent 10 million women. The same pattern is evident abroad. In South Korea, women hold 14 percent of the seats in the National Assembly but lead 80 percent of the country’s NGOs.
Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, digital map, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day
Each year, the project had a bigger and bigger impact. More young women bloggers wanted to contribute, and each year they had more readers. They also had some difficulties along the way. Some male bloggers wrote in support of the group’s efforts, while others disparaged it. Not all of the core writers had a steady income, and as a group they had trouble funding their collective work. They were accused of being an anti-Islamic feminist movement. They probably weren’t that, but they probably were digital activists. They were an organized public effort with clear grievances who targeted authority figures and initiated campaigns using device networks. The group managed to coordinate contributors for four years.5 Members still savor a particular victory, in which they successfully campaigned to pressure a father in Saudi Arabia to allow his daughter to return to Egypt because she wanted to pursue academic studies.
On Writing Well (30th Anniversary Edition) by William Zinsser
Paragraphing is a subtle but important element in writing nonfiction articles and books—a road map constantly telling your reader how you have organized your ideas. Study good nonfiction writers to see how they do it. You’ll find that almost all of them think in paragraph units, not in sentence units. Each paragraph has its own integrity of content and structure. SEXISM. One of the most vexing new questions for writers is what to do about sexist language, especially the “he-she” pronoun. The feminist movement helpfully revealed how much sexism lurks in our language, not only in the offensive “he” but in the hundreds of words that carry an invidious meaning or some overtone of judgment. They are words that patronize (“gal”), or that imply second-class status (“poetess”), or a second-class role (“housewife”), or a certain kind of empty-headedness (“the girls”), or that demean the ability of a woman to do a certain kind of job (“lady lawyer”), or that are deliberately prurient (“divorcée,” “coed,” “blonde”) and are seldom applied to men.
Utopia Is Creepy: And Other Provocations by Nicholas Carr
Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, Airbus A320, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, computer age, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, deskilling, digital map, Donald Trump, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, factory automation, failed state, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, game design, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mental accounting, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Snapchat, social graph, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator
It’s worth remembering that Gilligan’s Island originally ran on television from 1964 through 1967, a period noteworthy not for its social passivity but for its social activism. These were years of great cultural and artistic exploration and inventiveness, and they were also years of widespread protest, when people organized into very large—and very real—groups within the civil rights movement, the antiwar movement, the feminist movement, the black power movement, the psychedelic movement, and all sorts of other movements. People weren’t in their basements; they were in the streets. If everyone was so enervated by Gilligan’s Island and other televised piffle, how exactly do you explain 1966 or 1967 or 1968? The answer is: You don’t. Indeed, once you begin contrasting 1968 with 2008, you might even find yourself thinking that, on balance, the web is not an engine for social activism but an engine for social passivity.
Au Contraire: Figuring Out the French by Gilles Asselin, Ruth Mastron
The net effect is to create almost a taboo around issues of ethnicity. (Lacorne) Similarly, the gender gap does not receive much attention in France compared with the United States, since French people tend to identify themselves as members of the same society and nation before asserting their gender differences. Despite outstanding intellectual leadership from such people as Simone de Beauvoir (Le deuxième sexe 1949), feminist movements have received limited attention in France. Women are usually more concerned with who they are and with their femininity—what makes them womanly—than with demanding particular consideration because they are women. In a discussion of the differences in gender relations between France and the United States, Elisabeth Badinter (1995) noted that universalism in France is based on a refusal to define a citizen by his or her particularity.
Priceless: The Myth of Fair Value (And How to Take Advantage of It) by William Poundstone
availability heuristic, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, equal pay for equal work, experimental economics, experimental subject, feminist movement, game design, German hyperinflation, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, index card, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, market bubble, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nash equilibrium, new economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Philip Mirowski, Potemkin village, price anchoring, price discrimination, psychological pricing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, working poor
She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. In a study at the University of British Columbia, 142 undergraduates who read this capsule description were asked which of the following was more likely to be true: Linda is a bank teller. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. Eight-five percent rated the second statement more likely than the first. That’s ridiculous. The only way Linda can be a bank teller and a feminist is if she’s also a bank teller. At the risk of beating a dead horse, I’ll draw you a diagram (opposite). Apparently, in judging how likely it is that Linda is a bank teller, people look at how well the information we have about Linda fits our preconceived notion of bank tellers.
Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner
airport security, Broken windows theory, crack epidemic, desegregation, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, George Akerlof, information asymmetry, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, mental accounting, moral hazard, More Guns, Less Crime, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, pets.com, profit maximization, Richard Thaler, school choice, sensible shoes, Steven Pinker, Ted Kaczynski, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, Thorstein Veblen, War on Poverty
An analysis of more than 160 episodes reveals that black contestants, in both the early and late rounds of the game, are eliminated at a rate commensurate with their trivia-answering abilities. The same is true for female contestants. In a way, neither of these findings is so surprising. Two of the most potent social campaigns of the past half-century were the civil rights movement and the feminist movement, which demonized discrimination against blacks and women, respectively. So perhaps, you say hopefully, discrimination was practically eradicated during the twentieth century, like polio. Or more likely, it has become so unfashionable to discriminate against certain groups that all but the most insensitive people take pains to at least appear fair-minded, at least in public. This hardly means that discrimination itself has ended—only that people are embarrassed to show it.
The End of Theory: Financial Crises, the Failure of Economics, and the Sweep of Human Interaction by Richard Bookstaber
asset allocation, bank run, bitcoin, butterfly effect, capital asset pricing model, cellular automata, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, dark matter, disintermediation, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, epigenetics, feminist movement, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Henri Poincaré, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Meriwether, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market clearing, market microstructure, money market fund, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Piper Alpha, Ponzi scheme, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk/return, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sovereign wealth fund, the map is not the territory, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing machine, Turing test, yield curve
A classic example of the problems that come from assuming away context is shown by this question posed by Tversky and Kahneman (1983), and critiqued by Gigerenzer (2008): Linda is thirty-one years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. Which of two alternatives is more probable? A. Linda is a bank teller. B. Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement. The vast majority of U.S. college students who were given this question picked B, thus scoring an F for logical thinking. But consider the context. People are told in detail about Linda, and everything points to her being a feminist. In the real world, this provides the context for any follow up. We don’t suddenly shift gears, going from normal discourse based on our day-to-day experience into the parsing of logic problems.
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism, yield management
New Yorkers imprisoned themselves in their apartments with batteries of latches and deadbolts, including the popular “police lock,” a steel bar with one end anchored in the floor and the other propped against the door. [One] section of downtown Boston … was called the Combat Zone because of its endemic muggings and stabbings.59 Though homicide rates and other important measures of crime would not decline until the 1990s, the 1970s saw the beginnings of progress in another sphere of violence—abuses against women. In a shift in cultural norms that can be partly attributed to the feminist movement of the 1970s, especially Susan Brownmiller’s 1975 bestseller Against Our Will, the incidence of rape began to decline in the late 1970s. This trend accelerated in the 1990s, and by 2009, the rate of rape was just a fifth of its 1973 level. Around the same time, other manifestations of violence against women, such as domestic violence, began trending downward.60 In the 1990s, improvements in gender-related violence were joined by more widespread gains.
.): air travel regulated by, 403–4; automobiles regulated by, 375–76, 382–83; debt of, 607, 629–30, 638; economic growth promoted by, 310–16; Interstate Highway System built by, 389–93; Medicare and Medicaid programs of, 489; Obamacare program of, 493–95; regulation by, 649; World War II manufacturing financed by, 564 Federal Housing Authority, 369 Feldstein, Martin, 650 females. See women feminist movement, 475, 477 fertility rates, 35, 505, 520 Field, Alexander: on benefits of telegraph, 179; on innovation during 1930s, 19, 547, 557, 559–61, 565 films. See movies finance companies, 297 financial industries, 582–83; artificial intelligence used in, 598; telegraph used by, 178 fire insurance, 307–8, 317 First Industrial Revolution (IR #1), 30–31, 319 fiscal policies, 651 Fishlow, Albert, 58 Flagship Detroit Foundation, 397 Flamm, Kenneth, 589 Fleming, Alexander, 465 Flexner, Abraham, 233 Flexner report (1910), 233 Floud, Roderick, 210 fluoridation of water, 486–87 flush toilets, 5, 125 Fogel, Robert, 56, 210 food: canning and freezing of, 5; changes in, 1870 to 1940, 62–63; changes in, 1970 to 2015, 8, 333–35, 370–71, 524; consumption of (1940–2015), 335–41; contaminated, 81–83; diet (1870), 51; fast food restaurants for, 344–45; marketing of, 341–43; obesity and inequality in, 345–47; prices for, 11–12; processed, 71–76; production and consumption of (1870), 39–42; refrigerated rail cars for, 136–37; sale and distribution of, 92; slaughterhouses for, 267; spending on, 37, 63–66; spoilage and adulteration of, 220–22; stature tied to, 83–85; variety added to diet, 66–71; work conditions in production of, 249; See also diet Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 207, 224, 317, 477 Ford, Henry, 150, 162, 535; assembly-line production introduced by, 11, 557, 576; on auto loans, 297; mass production of automobiles by, 374; World War II production by, 549, 553 Ford Motor Company, 297, 368; assembly line introduced by, 313; automobiles by, 153–56, 169, 382; paternalism of, 280; wages paid by, 279 Francis, Neville, 276–77 Franklin, Benjamin, 179 fraternal organizations, 307 frequent flyer plans, 404–5 frozen foods, 74–75, 334–35, 340–41 fruits, 339 Fuchs, Victor, 479 fuel economy, in automobiles, 383–84; of imports, 388 full income, 242 furniture, 37, 292–93 Gallman, Robert, 37 Garber, Alan, 479 Garfield, James, 228–29 Garland, Judy, 202 garment industry: accidents and fires in, 271–72; child labor in, 283; women working in, 273 Garrett, Richard, 557 gas (natural gas), 634 gas lamps, 116–17 gasoline: automotive fuel economy, 383–84; price of, 388; taxes on, 390 Gates, Bill, 452, 567, 572, 574 GDP (gross domestic product), 8–9; health spending in, 492–93; impact of inventions excluded from, 93; imports in, 614; information and communication technology in, 441–42, 447–48; life expectancy and, 242–44; Medicare spending in, 518; mismeasurements in, 526–28; ratio of debt to, 638; slowdown in growth in, 325–28; television in, 423 gender: labor force participation by, 32–34; wage gap by, 509–10; working class differences in (1870), 56; See also men; women General Electric (GE), 120–21, 194 General Motors (GM), 155, 375 General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC), 297 General Purpose Technology (GPT), 555, 557 General Slocum (ship) disaster, 239 general stores.
How the World Works by Noam Chomsky, Arthur Naiman, David Barsamian
affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, capital controls, clean water, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Howard Zinn, income inequality, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, labour market flexibility, land reform, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, transfer pricing, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor
The activism of the 1960s had a very civilizing effect—it brought to the fore all sorts of oppression and discrimination that had been suppressed. The killing off of the native populations—which had been pretty much ignored even in scholarship—was put on the agenda for the first time. Environmental issues (which basically have to do with the rights of future generations), respect for other cultures, the feminist movement—these had all existed in some form earlier, but they really took off in the 1970s and spread throughout the whole country. The Central America solidarity movement wouldn’t have existed in the form it did if not for what happened in the 1960s. Concerns about oppression, authority and rights can sometimes take the unhealthy forms that Gitlin is criticizing, but they needn’t, and commonly didn’t.
A Random Walk Down Wall Street: The Time-Tested Strategy for Successful Investing by Burton G. Malkiel
3Com Palm IPO, accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, asset-backed security, backtesting, beat the dealer, Bernie Madoff, BRICs, capital asset pricing model, compound rate of return, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Thorp, Elliott wave, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental subject, feminist movement, financial innovation, fixed income, framing effect, hindsight bias, Home mortgage interest deduction, index fund, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, margin call, market bubble, money market fund, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Own Your Own Home, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit maximization, publish or perish, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, survivorship bias, The Myth of the Rational Market, the rule of 72, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, zero-coupon bond
She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations. Subjects were then asked to rate the relative likelihood that eight different statements about Linda were true. Two of the statements on the list were “Linda is a bank teller” and “Linda is a bank teller and is active in the feminist movement.” Over 85 percent of subjects judged it more likely that Linda was both a bank teller and a feminist than that she was a bank teller. But this answer is a violation of a fundamental axiom of probability theory (the conjunction rule): the probability that somebody belongs to both category A and category B is less than or equal to the probability that she belongs to category A alone. Obviously, few respondents had learned much probability theory.
The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves by Matt Ridley
23andMe, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, food miles, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, packet switching, patent troll, Pax Mongolica, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, working poor, working-age population, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
In the 1950s many suburban men, returning from war, found they too could afford such an accessory, and many women were pressured into giving their battleship-welding jobs back to men. In the absence of economic change, that is probably how it would have stayed, but soon the opportunities to work outside the home grew as the time spent on increasingly mechanised housework dwindled, and it was this, as much as any political awakening, that enabled the feminist movement to gain traction in the 1960s. The lesson of the last two centuries is that liberty and welfare march hand in hand with prosperity and trade. Countries that lose their liberty to tyrants today, through military coups, are generally experiencing falling per capita income at an average rate of 1.4 per cent at the time – just as it was falling per capita income that helped turn Russia, Germany and Japan into dictatorships between the two world wars.
The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature by Matt Ridley
affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, assortative mating, Atahualpa, Bonfire of the Vanities, demographic transition, double helix, Drosophila, feminist movement, invention of agriculture, Menlo Park, phenotype, rent control, theory of mind, University of East Anglia, women in the workforce, zero-sum game
To which came this answer: of course, women pay more attention to wealth, because men control it. If women controlled wealth they would not seek it in their spouses. Buss looked again and found that American women who make more money than average pay more attention than average to the wealth of potential spouses, not less.31 Professional women value the earning capacity of their husbands more, not less, than low-earning women. Even a survey of fifteen powerful leaders of the feminist movement revealed that they wanted still more powerful men. As Buss’s colleague Bruce Ellis put it, ‘Women’s sexual tastes become more, rather than less, discriminatory as their wealth, power and social status increases.’32 Many of Buss’s critics argue that he has ignored context altogether. In different cultures and at different times different criteria of mate preference will develop. To this Buss replies with a simple analogy.
No Such Thing as Society by Andy McSmith
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Brixton riot, call centre, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, F. W. de Klerk, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, greed is good, illegal immigration, index card, John Bercow, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Live Aid, loadsamoney, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, old-boy network, popular capitalism, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Sloane Ranger, South Sea Bubble, spread of share-ownership, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Winter of Discontent, young professional
Two sisters, Annette and Charlene Maw, aged twenty-one and eighteen, admitted stabbing their drunken, abusive father, who had repeatedly beaten his wife and daughters. After one beating, Charlene picked up a bread knife, which she passed to her older sister, who sank it into their father’s neck. They pleaded guilty to manslaughter and, on 17 November 1980, were sentenced to three years in prison. The case roused an already angry feminist movement. In December, as it went to appeal in the high court in London, where Charlene’s sentence was reduced to six months, a hundred women demonstrated outside the court. ‘We are horrified by this decision. It means there is no justice at all for women in the courts of this country. Only this week a man convicted of raping a seven-year-old girl was given a suspended sentence,’11 one of them told journalists.
Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white picket fence, women in the workforce, Y2K
Some will find it tempting to say that women’s presence in certain denominations caused the flocks to stray. Who needs St. Paul’s “I permit no woman to teach or have authority over men”—if you can use empirical trends alone to prove that if you want to grow your religion, bar women clergy. But more likely, the link is that the admission of women clergy is part of a larger liberalizing trend that is itself becoming unpopular among some religious people. Women clergy, rising as they did with the feminist movement, represent the integration of progressive civil society into religion. But more and more, progressivism is not what many people are looking for on a Sunday morning. Fully 77 percent of people who regularly attend church say they go for the way it involves their hearts; only 23 percent say they go for the way it involves their heads. For political advocacy, fellowship, and shared ethics, people are figuring they can go to the Sierra Club.
Yucatan: Cancun & Cozumel by Bruce Conord, June Conord
Follow the painted tile risers and red clay steps to the inviting entry to this easy-to-see but hard-tofind new restaurant (its entrance is the doorway next to the Modatelas store under the arches). Climb to the second floor foyer decorated with old photos of Campeche and an eclectic collection of artifacts on the wall, then through the interior rooms, which are like homey old living rooms, to the outside tables. Casa Vieja, “Old House,” has a romantic ambiance with meals served on the veranda overlooking the park above Los Portales. Cuban food. $$ The feminist movement has helped open minds and kitchens to the notion that men can be at home on the range. ~ Rená Veaux, chef, Lasserre restaurant, Paris Restaurant Bar Familiar La Parroquía (Calle 55 between 10 and 12). If one restaurant says “Campeche” and everything about it, it’s La Parroquía. All at once it’s a family restaurant, a pub, a hangout and a meeting place for old men reliving their glory days or young lovers whose best is yet to come.
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War
But now Jackson played hard to get. He announced on October 1, “I’m going to vote for Senator McGovern because I cannot accept President Nixon. But I’m not going to campaign for Senator McGovern.” Jackson’s philosophy was to play “both ends against the middle for the benefit of blacks.”47 His comment revealed the problem McGovern faced with his new political allies. Many in the black movement, feminist movement, and antiwar movement were not thinking seriously about any majoritarian project for the Democratic Party. They used the party for their own ends, which were not necessarily those of the party. Hopes for the voting power of eighteen-twenty-one year olds, newly enfranchised as a result of the Twenty-sixth Amendment, ratified on July 1, 1971, were also deflated. McGovern’s appeal to students was based on his character and personality, not on his plans for students or the party.
Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman
1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, George Santayana, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, mandatory minimum, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day
You have just 34 days in which to do it (this exact number has been selected for a specific reason, it has definite practical significance). You are done. There is but one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy, abnormal fraudulent self is bared to the nation.3 The government similarly targeted many other groups: Students for a Democratic Society, white supremacists, branches of the feminist movement, the radical Puerto Rican independence movement, and countless anti-Vietnam War efforts. Their aggressive and multi-pronged methods included predatory infiltration strategies with the purpose of sabotage: sustained, planned, and organized disruption of political movements so as to stamp them out of existence. They seeded misinformation, blackmailed activists, took them to court over tax mishaps, and, less typically, even resorted to direct physical violence.
The Divided Nation: A History of Germany, 1918-1990 by Mary Fulbrook
Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, centre right, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, joint-stock company, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, Sinatra Doctrine, union organizing, unorthodox policies
It was only in 1932 that von Papen (then Chancellor) asserted political control of the radio, leaving a welcome gift for the Nazis to exploit in their propaganda efforts after January 1933. If one turns from culture, at both elite and mass levels, to society more generally in the Weimar period, then a similar range of complexities, ambiguities and conflicts appear. Women were formally 'emancipated' in what was essentially a highly progressive welfare state. But this was an 'emancipation from above': despite the existence of minority feminist movements, both bourgeois and socialist, the majority of women continued to have rather traditional conceptions of their role. Being a wife and mother was held to be the essential fulfilment of womanhood: paid employment outside the home was preferably to be undertaken only before marriage, or only if economically absolutely essential. Weimar 'emancipation' was more theoretical than real: while women gained the vote (of which they made slowly increasing use), they remained in predominantly low-paid and low-status occupations.
Endless Money: The Moral Hazards of Socialism by William Baker, Addison Wiggin
Andy Kessler, asset allocation, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, break the buck, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, capital asset pricing model, commoditize, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, debt deflation, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, fiat currency, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, housing crisis, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, McMansion, mega-rich, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage tax deduction, naked short selling, negative equity, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent control, reserve currency, riskless arbitrage, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, seigniorage, short selling, Silicon Valley, six sigma, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, the scientific method, time value of money, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra, young professional
Pop star Madonna purportedly paid 308 ENDLESS MONEY a Malawian village $3 million to rescue a 13-month-old boy whose mother died of AIDS.9 In that country 1.4 million, or one-quarter of its population under the age of 14, are orphaned; the cause is mostly the HIV epidemic.10 Two things happened beginning in the Viet Nam War era. The pill became broadly available by the 1970s, and abortion became nationally ubiquitous and more commonplace, rather than confined to certain states. Abortions jumped from 16.3 per 1,000 women in 1973 to a peak of 29.3 in 1981.11 Both became methods of birth control, permitting the feminist movement to bloom in earnest. The issue of abortion divides the nation almost evenly. As relativism would dictate, young women typically are pro choice, while the older demographic tilts toward appreciation of life above the convenience of terminating unwanted children. Another encroachment of relativism is the left’s failure to acknowledge that infanticide is in reality a form of birth control, for it is used to terminate almost one-fourth of American pregnancies.12 The flip side of abortion is illegitimacy, whose resulting cycle of poverty is caused by social pathology.
Turning the Tide by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, land reform, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Paul Samuelson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, union organizing
The hope that all of this had been put to rest in the “quiescent 70s” was quickly shattered by the popular response to Reagan’s attempt to rekindle the aggressive enthusiasms of Kennedy’s New Frontier. It is, in fact, remarkable that the 70s have so commonly been described as a period when popular movements were tamed. As many people know from their own experience, this allegedly quiescent period was one of wide-ranging activism; it was precisely in this period that the feminist movement became a vital force, with a far reaching impact on social life, along with the environmental movement and much else. The growth of the disarmament and solidarity movements in response to the “Resurgent America” programs of the later Carter and Reagan Administrations should have come as no real surprise. The fashionable talk about the “me generation” and the growth of narcissism may have some basis in reality, but it reflects more than a little wishful thinking and conscious propaganda as well.
The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom by Jonathan Haidt
crack epidemic, delayed gratification, feminist movement, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Lao Tzu, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Peter Singer: altruism, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, placebo effect, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Waldo Emerson, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, the scientific method, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game
I am not suggesting that people who voted for John Kerry are any more selfish than those who voted for George B u s h — i n d e e d , the taxation and social policies of the two candidates suggest just the opposite. But I am trying to understand the mutual incomprehension of the two sides in the culture war, and I believe that Shweder's three ethics—particularly the ethic of divinity—are the key to it. Which of the following quotations inspires you more: (1) "Self-esteem is the basis of any democracy"; (2) "It's not all about you." T h e first is attributed to Gloria Steinem,49 a founder of the feminist movement in the 1970s. It claims that sexism, racism, and oppression make particular groups of people feel unworthy and therefore undermine their participation in democracy. This quote also reflects the core idea of the ethic of autonomy: Individuals are what really matter in life, so the ideal society protects all individuals from harm and respects their autonomy and freedom of choice. The ethic of autonomy is well suited to helping people with different backgrounds and values get along with each other because it allows each person to pursue the life she chooses, as long as those choices don't interfere with the rights of others.
Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman
23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar
In 1981, the Roman Catholic priest and philosopher Ivan Illich coined the term “shadow work” to define work that’s both passed down to consumers or traditional work that’s rarely acknowledged as such. By this definition, Illich would include self-service gas stations but also domestic housework. This latter idea is particularly important, as cleaning, child care, cooking, and many other domestic tasks that are labor-intensive and time-consuming have long been diminished as not “real” work. That, in turn, helps to hollow support for feminist movements, the rights of homemakers, and a strong social safety net which, for example, would provide child-care services that would allow women to put aside their domestic labor and enter the paid workforce. The sharing economy is loaded with shadow work, which you might discover when you learn you’re required to clean out your Zipcar but not the (similarly priced) rental from Hertz or Enterprise.
Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right by Jennifer Burns
anti-communist, bank run, barriers to entry, centralized clearinghouse, collective bargaining, creative destruction, desegregation, feminist movement, financial independence, George Gilder, invisible hand, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, lone genius, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, side project, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, union organizing, urban renewal, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog
When New York State considered liberalizing its abortion laws, Rand broke from her typical position of detached analysis and urged Objectivist readers to write letters in support of the proposed change. Watching the pro-life movement take shape, Rand was aghast. “An embryo has no rights,” she insisted. The principle was basic: restrictions on abortion were immoral because they elevated a potential life over an actual life. It was essential that women be able to choose when, and whether, to become mothers.49 Despite this common political ground, Rand regarded the feminist movement as utterly without legitimacy. In a 1971 article, “The Age of Envy,” she declared, “Every other pressure group has some semi-plausible complaint or pretense at a complaint, as an excuse for existing. Women’s Lib has none.” To Rand, feminism was simply another form of collectivism, a variation on Marxism that replaced the proletariat with women, a newly invented oppressed class.50 The proof was in feminist calls for government to redress discrimination, when it was not government itself that had created the problem.
The Sovereign Individual: How to Survive and Thrive During the Collapse of the Welfare State by James Dale Davidson, Rees Mogg
affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, compound rate of return, creative destruction, Danny Hillis, debt deflation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Kevin Kelly, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, phenotype, price mechanism, profit maximization, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, school vouchers, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, spice trade, statistical model, telepresence, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto
The dominant male culture of the first half of the twentieth century centered on the survival of the nuclear family. This historically gave the husband-father at least a nominal dominance in the home, though in practice the home was often run by the wifemother with the often meek acceptance of the nominal master. It gave the male boss a real dominance in the workplace, a dominance that the feminist movement has so far challenged but not reversed. The interest of the family, and historic Christian teaching, outlawed abortion. The old morality thought abortion was unlawful killing, was never allowable, and the adherents of the traditional morality still think that. Adherents of the new morality think the opposite. In Roe v. Wade the Supreme Court based the constitutional right to abortion, which had hitherto been regarded as a question for the individual states, on the doctrine of a right to privacy, itself remote from any language actually to be found in the Constitution or its amendments.
Lila: An Inquiry Into Morals by Robert M. Pirsig
Is it better to have wisdom or is it better to be attractive to the ladies? That was a question debated by Provengal poets way back in the thirteenth century. Sidis opted for wisdom, but it seemed to Phædrus there ought to be some way you could have both. The question seemed to imply the stupidity of women but a feminist could turn it around and ask, Is it better to have wisdom or be attractive to men! That’s practically the theme song of the whole feminist movement. Although the feminists and the male Provengal poets would appear to be condemning the opposite sex, they are, in fact, both actually condemning the same thing: not men, not women, but static biological antagonism to social and intellectual Quality. Phædrus began to feel a slow rock of the boat. His own cells were sick of all this intellectualizing. They’d had enough for one day. They’d had way too much, in fact, and were starting to switch him off.
America, You Sexy Bitch: A Love Letter to Freedom by Meghan McCain, Michael Black
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, carbon footprint, Columbine, fear of failure, feminist movement, glass ceiling, income inequality, obamacare, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, white picket fence
We seem to be regressing as a culture, or at the very least have plateaued, in that subjects such as birth control and a woman’s right to have access to birth control have returned to the forefront of the political landscape. Of all the issues facing America right now, my right to have access to birth control is pretty much the last thing I would have imagined would be a discussion in this election cycle. I mean, isn’t this something we as a country already passed during the feminist movement? On a personal level, my relationship with what sex on the broader landscape means to me is probably the most difficult subject to deal with and talk about publicly. Unfortunately, the problem is that in America, women in the media are still treated as either Madonnas or whores. Men still run the media and are threatened by strong women with strong voices; and the easiest and most predictable way for a lot of men to deal with a strong woman with strong opinions is to automatically call her a slut and immediately call into question her morality and life choices.
Dreamland: The True Tale of America's Opiate Epidemic by Sam Quinones
1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, British Empire, call centre, centralized clearinghouse, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, feminist movement, illegal immigration, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, obamacare, zero-sum game
He published another glossy monthly magazine with stories about what well-known doctors were up to, along with other news, and Valium ads. Part of the campaign aimed to convince doctors to prescribe Valium, which the public saw as dangerous. Ads urged doctors to view a patient’s physical pain as connected to stress—with Valium the destresser. If a child was sick, maybe her mother was tense. Valium was marketed above all to women, pitched as way of bearing the stress of lives as wives and mothers. Before the feminist movement, women were presumed to need that kind of help for the rest of their lives, thus there was no worry then about its addictiveness. Among Arthur Sackler’s many talents was that he thought like a family practitioner. Docs were barraged with patients who were tense, worried. “The patient would walk in, ‘I’m nervous all day long, doctor.’ Or ‘My son’s in the army,’” said Win Gerson, who worked for Sackler for years and later became president of William Douglas McAdams.
Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960-2010 by Charles Murray
affirmative action, assortative mating, blue-collar work, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, George Gilder, Haight Ashbury, happiness index / gross national happiness, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, new economy, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working-age population, young professional
How many programs Kennedy could have actually passed is another question, but Harrington’s thesis was already being taken up by the liberal wing of the Democratic Party and would have become part of the policy debate even without the assassination. Other movements that would have sweeping impact on American society were already nascent in 1963. Early in the year, Betty Friedan had published The Feminine Mystique, seen now as the opening salvo of the feminist movement. Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring had appeared in 1962 and become a New York Times best seller, setting off public interest that would lead to the environmental movement. Ralph Nader had written his first attack on the auto industry in the Nation, and two years later would found the consumer advocate movement with Unsafe at Any Speed. The cultural landscape of the Sixties was already taking shape in 1963.
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, off grid, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey
To understand how thoroughly therapeutic thinking has penetrated the human psyche, consider the fact that nearly one out of every three Americans “believe[s] that an adult’s psychological problems can be traced back to his or her childhood.”99 A century ago in America, such thoughts would have been held by only a tiny minority of mostly academics. The shift to psychological consciousness resulted in the greatest single empathic surge in history—a phenomenon that swept the world in the 1960s and 1970s at the demographic peak of the post-World War II baby boom. The anticolonial struggles, the civil rights movement, the antiwar movement, the antinuclear movement, the peace movement, the feminist movement, the gay movement, the disability movement, and the ecology and animal rights movements are all testimonials (at least in part) to the new psychological emphasis on intimate relationships, introspection, multicultural perspectives, and unconditional acceptance of others. Virtually every facet of modern life was turned inside out as the first generation weaned on psychological consciousness began to share their innermost feelings, vulnerabilities, hopes, and aspirations among relatives, friends, neighbors, and even complete strangers.
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, dark matter, Donald Trump, Donner party, feminist movement, financial independence, invisible hand, Magellanic Cloud, placebo effect, Potemkin village, publish or perish, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, space pen, Stephen Hawking, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent, your tax dollars at work
STS-7 and -8 flew into history and I prayed my hallelujahs. In November our crew celebrated Hank’s fiftieth birthday at the Monday meeting. Because he wore his political leanings on his sleeve, he was an easy target to lampoon. We presented him outrageously satirical gifts, including a copy ofMs. magazine dedicated and autographed to him by Gloria Steinem, “In recognition of your support of the feminist movement.” (Sally Ride, a friend of Ms. Steinem, had secured the magazine and her autograph, a one-of-the-guys act that shocked me.) We read fake congratulatory messages from Hank’s supporters, including the ACLU, Jane Fonda, and the Nuclear Freeze Movement. There was also a congratulatory card from Yuri Andropov thanking Hank for “promoting global communism,” as well as a card from Senator Ted Kennedy thanking him for his recent donation to the Democratic party.
You know Kazakh girls—they never put out unless you are married to them.” I didn’t believe him, but I did know that many people I had met in the former Soviet Union during my previous trip had had conflicting views about Western women and very rarely had the chance to ask for themselves. The word in rural areas in particular was that either they “wore pants like men” and were highly nonsexual because of the feminist movement or they were all willing to offer themselves at will like in American movies. This was one of hundreds of such frank conversations that I would have with men, often herders in the saddle, right across the steppes. One colorful man later told me that Shymkent was his favorite city because “watermelons are twenty-five kopeks and Uzbek women two hundred.” I tried to explain to Ruslan that things were a bit more complex than what he had concluded, but another, more pressing problem had surfaced; Ruslan had clean run out of cigarettes, and he needed to think about going home.
Hard Landing by Thomas Petzinger, Thomas Petzinger Jr.
airline deregulation, centralized clearinghouse, collective bargaining, cross-subsidies, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, index card, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, price stability, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, the medium is the message, The Predators' Ball, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, yield management, zero-sum game
In 1965 Braniff Airways introduced a ritual called the “air strip,” in which stewardesses peeled away layers of their designer uniforms during the course of a flight, down to their blouses and skirts. (“Does your wife know you’re flying with us?” Braniff’s ads asked.) For the first time body language was an explicit part of airline marketing. By the early 1970s the sexual revolution was in full swing (with the feminist movement trailing slightly behind). Continental adopted the degrading motto, “We really move our tails for you!” Perhaps most infamously, National Airlines launched its “Fly Me” campaign, as in “I’m Debbie! Fly me!” Where sexiness in the seventies was concerned, however, nobody pushed it to the extreme of Southwest Airlines. The positioning of Southwest as the love airline was one of the most smashingly successful campaigns in airline history, even if almost no one outside Texas ever saw it.
The Chomsky Reader by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, business climate, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, land reform, land tenure, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, War on Poverty, zero-sum game, éminence grise
A look at what was written on these topics in the early sixties, before the New Left and the student movement made it impossible to suppress the challenge to comfortable orthodoxies, is most instructive with regard to the notable improvement in the general cultural climate. The movement against the war in Vietnam had long-lasting, I hope permanent, effects in raising the general level of insight and understanding among the general public, with an impact on scholarship and journalism as well. The civil rights movement also had significant and I presume permanent effects, as did the feminist movement, the ecological movements, and many other offshoots of the organizing and educational efforts of the 1960s. The universities were opened up quite markedly to ideas and thinking that had been effectively marginalized and suppressed. This is a phenomenon that can hardly escape notice. Despite the intense efforts undertaken in the 1970s to reverse this general cultural progress and enlightenment, much of it remains.
White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg
A. Roger Ekirch, back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration
., Crackers (1980) As identity politics rose as a force for good in the last decades of the twentieth century, authenticity was to be achieved by registering, and then heeding, the voices of previously marginalized Americans. Whites could no longer speak for people of color. Men could no long speak for women. The New Left, civil rights, and Black Power movements of the 1960s had helped to jump-start the second-wave feminist movement, yet identity politics was not the possession of the left alone. Richard Nixon rode into office in 1968 by claiming to represent the interests of the “Silent Majority” of Americans who saw themselves as hardworking, middle American homeowners dutifully paying their taxes and demanding little of the federal government.1 One could argue that identity has always been a part of politics, that aspiring people adopt identities the same way that they change their style of dress.
Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion by Gareth Stedman Jones
anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, fixed income, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, means of production, New Journalism, New Urbanism, night-watchman state, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, unemployed young men, wage slave
At the close of the 1850s, a new politics had begun to emerge, in which the radical and socialist ideas of the 1840s reappeared in a more modest and practical form. Ideals of cooperation had been reformulated; trade unionism was expanding and was seeking a more secure legal basis. Liberals and radicals had begun to collaborate in reform-minded suffrage movements, and there were signs of the renewal of a feminist movement which had first appeared in Britain and France in the 1830s. It is perhaps not surprising that, in comparison with earlier texts, the Grundrisse had so little to say about working-class movements. These were developments which Karl did his best to ignore. Karl’s condescension towards developments in political economy seems also to have been misplaced, especially when the defects of his own core arguments in the Grundrisse are considered.
State of Emergency: The Way We Were by Dominic Sandbrook
anti-communist, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, David Attenborough, Doomsday Book, edge city, estate planning, Etonian, falling living standards, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, feminist movement, financial thriller, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, German hyperinflation, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, sexual politics, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Winter of Discontent, young professional
And although television producers love to slice modern history into precise ten-year units, each with its own flavour and personality, there was much more continuity between the 1960s and 1970s – and between the 1970s and 1980s – than we commonly remember. We often think of the Heath years as the inevitable hangover after the wild party of the 1960s, a ‘prolonged “morning after” ’, in Booker’s words. Yet many of the things we associate with the 1960s only gathered momentum in the first half of the following decade. It was in the early 1970s, not the 1960s, that young single women began taking the Pill, the feminist movement really got off the ground, gay liberation first made the headlines and progressive education took hold in many schools. And to complicate matters further, many of the things we habitually associate with the 1970s actually had much deeper roots. Strikes had been a major political issue since the late 1950s, while inflation was already running out of control in the late 1960s. The conflict in Northern Ireland, which dominated the headlines in the Heath years, actually claimed its first victim in 1966, while the environmentalist movement, apparently steeped in the values of the early 1970s, drew inspiration from books published by Rachel Carson and Barbara Ward in 1962 and 1966.
How the Mind Works by Steven Pinker
affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, Buckminster Fuller, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, double helix, experimental subject, feminist movement, four colour theorem, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Henri Poincaré, income per capita, information retrieval, invention of agriculture, invention of the wheel, John von Neumann, lake wobegon effect, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Necker cube, out of africa, pattern recognition, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, random walk, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Saturday Night Live, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, sexual politics, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, Turing machine, urban decay, Yogi Berra
Surveys have shown that many doctors needlessly terrify their patients who test positive for a rare disease. • Try this: “Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy. As a student, she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice, and also participated in antinuclear demonstrations. What is the probability that Linda is a bankteller? What is the probability that Linda is a bankteller and is active in the feminist movement?” People sometimes give a higher estimate to the probability that she is a feminist bankteller than to the probability that she is a bankteller. But it’s impossible for “A and B” to be more likely than “A” alone. When I presented these findings in class, a student cried out, “I’m ashamed for my species!” Many others feel the disgrace, if not about themselves, then about the person in the street.
air freight, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, corporate raider, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, family office, feminist movement, full employment, ghettoisation, Indoor air pollution, medical malpractice, Mikhail Gorbachev, Plutocrats, plutocrats, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transaction costs, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty
From the first, frank words were spoken, led by conference chairman LeMaistre’s introductory remarks: “Many of us have been critical of the lack of concerted action to decrease illness and death from smoking. Many of us have been critical of the agencies sponsoring this conference for failure to unite in a common cause … . Never before have we been afforded collectively such an opportunity … !” Former Surgeon General Luther Terry was equally pointed in criticizing the feminist movement for failing to protest the tobacco industry’s splurge of brands and advertising aimed at women. Perhaps the most stinging remarks delivered at the conference were those jointly authored by a pair of the smartest and best-informed activists on smoking in the public-health community—former Surgeon General Jesse Steinfeld and pulmonologist David Burns, then serving as the senior consulting editor on the Surgeon General’s annual reports to Congress.
USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet
1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar
Harvey Milk (1930–78) California’s first openly gay public servant was a tireless advocate in the fight against discrimination, encouraging gays and lesbians to ‘come out, stand up and let the world know. Only that way will we start to achieve our rights’. Milk, along with San Francisco mayor George Moscone, was assassinated in 1978. Betty Friedan (1921–2006) Founder of the National Organization of Women (NOW), Friedan was instrumental in leading the feminist movement of the 1960s. Friedan’s groundbreaking book The Feminine Mystique inspired millions of women to envision a life beyond mere ‘homemaker’. Ralph Nader (1934–) The frequent presidential contender (in 2008, Nader received 738,000 votes) is one of America’s staunchest consumer watchdogs. The Harvard-trained lawyer has played a major role in insuring Americans have safer cars, cheaper medicines and cleaner air and water.