Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness

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The Most Human Human: What Talking With Computers Teaches Us About What It Means to Be Alive by Brian Christian

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4chan, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, carbon footprint, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, complexity theory, crowdsourcing, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, George Akerlof, Gödel, Escher, Bach, high net worth, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, job automation, l'esprit de l'escalier, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Skype, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

Greenberg, and Bennett Battaile, “Modeling the Interaction of Light Between Diffuse Surfaces,” Computer Graphics (SIGGRAPH Proceedings) 18, no. 3 (July 1984), pp. 213–22. 2 Devon Penney, personal interview. 3 Eduardo Hurtado, “Instrucciones para pintar el cielo” (“How to Paint the Sky”), translated by Mónica de la Torre, in Connecting Lines: New Poetry from Mexico, edited by Luis Cortés Bargalló and Forrest Gander (Louisville, Ky.: Sarabande Books, 2006). 4 Bertrand Russell, “In Praise of Idleness,” in In Praise of Idleness, and Other Essays (New York: Norton, 1935).

.: MIT Press, 2004), and his famous criticism of the Loebner Prize is “Lessons from a Restricted Turing Test,” Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, April 1993. 24 “The art of general conversation”: Russell, Conquest of Happiness. 25 Shunryu Suzuki, Zen Mind, Beginner’s Mind (Boston: Shambhala, 2006). 26 “Commence relaxation”: This was from a television ad for Beck’s beer. For more information, see Constance L. Hays, “Can Teutonic Qualities Help Beck’s Double Its Beer Sales in Six Years?” New York Times, November 12, 1998. 27 Bertrand Russell, “ ‘Useless’ Knowledge,” in In Praise of Idleness, and Other Essays (New York: Norton, 1935); emphasis mine. 28 Aristotle on friendship: In The Nicomachean Ethics, specifically books 8 and 9. See also Richard Kraut, “Aristotle’s Ethics,” in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Edward N.

— The Dangers of Purpose The art of general conversation, for example, brought to perfection in the French salons of the 18th century, was still a living tradition forty years ago. It was a very exquisite art, bringing the highest faculties into play for the sake of something completely evanescent. But who in our age cares for anything so leisurely? … The competitive habit of mind easily invades regions to which it does not belong. Take, for example, the question of reading. –BERTRAND RUSSELL For some reason I begin enjoying books much less when I’m almost done with them, because some inner drive starts yearning for “completion.” The beginning of the book is about pleasure and exploration, the end is about follow-through and completeness, which interest me much less.10 Somehow I’m particularly susceptible to this notion of purpose or project completion. Some weeks ago a few friends of mine all met up at one of our houses, and we’d decided to walk to a bar from there.


pages: 235 words: 62,862

Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman

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autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

Branko Milanovic, “Global Inequality: From Class to Location, from Proletarians to Migrants,” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper (September 2011). http://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/book/10.1596/1813-9450-5820 2 A 15-Hour Workweek 1. John Maynard Keynes, “Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren” (1930), Essays in Persuasion. http://www.econ.yale.edu/smith/econ116a/keynes1.pdf 2. John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy with some of their Applications to Social Philosophy (1848), Book IV, Chapter VI. http://www.econlib.org/library/Mill/mlP61.html 3. Quoted from Bertrand Russell’s essay, “In Praise of Idleness” (1932). http://www.zpub.com/notes/idle.html 4. Benjamin Kline Hunnicutt, “The End of Shorter Hours,” Labor History (Summer 1984), pp. 373-404. 5. Ibid. 6. Samuel Crowther, “Henry Ford: Why I Favor Five Days’ Work With Six Days’ Pay,” World’s Work. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/HENRY_FORD:_Why_I_Favor_Five_Days’_Work_With_Six_Days’_Pay 7. Andrew Simms and Molly Conisbee, “National Gardening Leave,” in: Anna Coote and Jane Franklin (eds), Time on our side.

Consider the costs of training, retirement plans, unemployment insurance, and healthcare costs (the latter especially in the U.S.) Most countries have seen these “hour-invariant costs” rise in recent years. See: Juliet Schor, “The Triple Dividend,” p. 9. 56. Nielsen Company, “Americans Watching More TV Than Ever.” http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/news/2009/americans-watching-more-tv-than-ever.html See also: http://www.statisticbrain.com/television-watching-statistics 57. Bertrand Russell, In Praise of Idleness (1932). 3 Why We Should Give Free Money to Everyone 1. This is a very conservative estimate. A study conducted by the British government put the amount at £ 30,000 per homeless person per year (for social services, police, legal costs, etc.). In this case the amount would even have been much higher as they were the most notorious vagrants. The study cites sums as high as £400,000 for a single homeless person per year.

Without utopia, we are lost. Not that the present is bad; on the contrary. However, it is bleak, if we have no hope of anything better. “Man needs, for his happiness, not only the enjoyment of this or that, but hope and enterprise and change,” the British philosopher Bertrand Russell once wrote. Elsewhere he continued, “It is not a finished Utopia that we ought to desire, but a world where imagination and hope are alive and active.” To be able to fill leisure intelligently is the last product of civilization. BERTRAND RUSSELL (1872–1970) 2 A 15-Hour Workweek Had you asked the greatest economist of the 20th century what the biggest challenge of the 21st would be, he wouldn’t have had to think twice. Leisure. In the summer of 1930, just as the Great Depression was gathering momentum, the British economist John Maynard Keynes gave a curious lecture in Madrid.


pages: 1,327 words: 360,897

Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall

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agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Graeber, feminist movement, garden city movement, hive mind, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, liberation theology, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Naomi Klein, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the market place, union organizing, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

., The Anarchist Papers (Montréal: Black Rose, 1986) Roussopoulos, Dimitrios, ed., The Radical Papers (Montréal: Black Rose, 1987) Rubin, Jerry, Do It! (Cape, 1970) Russell, Bertrand, Principles of Social Reconstruction (1916) (Allen & Unwin, 1971) Russell, Bertrand, Roads to Freedom; Socialism, Anarchism, Syndicalism (1918) (Allen & Unwin, 1973) Russell, Bertrand, In Praise of Idleness and Other Essays (1935) (Allen & Unwin, 1963) Russell, Bertrand, Power: A New Social Analysis (Basis Books, 1940) Russell, Bertrand, Authority and the Individual (Allen & Unwin, 1949) Russell, Bertrand, History of Western Philosophy (Allen & Unwin, 1962) Russell, Bertrand, The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell, 2 vols. (Allen & Unwin, 1968) Sampson, Ronald, The Anarchist Basis of Pacifism (Peace Pledge Union, 1970) Sampson, Ronald, Tolstoy on the Causes of War (Peace Pledge Union, 1987) Santillan, D.

., p. 73 12 Russell, ‘A Free Man’s Worship’ (1903), Mysticism and Logic (1918) (Harmonds-worth Penguin, 1953), p. 51 13 Russell, Power: A New Social Analysis (1938) (Basis Books, 1940), p. 9 14 Preface to Roads to Freedom, op. cit., p. 14 15 Russell, Authority and the Individual (Allen & Unwin, 1949) pp. 89, 109 16 See Nicolas Walter, Freedom (21 April 1962) 17 Russell, Autobiography, op. cit., II, 154 18 Harper, ‘Russell and the Anarchists’, op. cit., p. 75 19 Russell, In Praise of Idleness (1932) (Allen & Unwin, 1963), p. 11 20 Preface to Principles of Social Reconstruction, op. cit. 21 Aldous Huxley, Ends and Means (Chatto & Windus, 1937), p. 63 22 Ibid., p. 70 23 Ibid. 24 Huxley, Science, Liberty and Peace (Chatto & Windus, 1947), p. 6 25 Ibid., p. 41 26 Ibid., p. 44 27 Huxley, Island (Frogmore, St Albans: Triad/Panther, 1976), p. 169 28 Ibid., p. 171 29 Ibid., p. 249 30 Ibid., p. 97 31 Quoted in Philip Thody, Aldous Huxley (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1973), p. 128 32 Martin Buber, ‘Society and the State’ (1950), reprinted in Anarcky 54 (August 1965), pp. 241–2 33 Martin Buber, Paths in Utopia (1949) (Boston: Beacon Press, 1958), p. 39 34 Ibid., pp. 137, 134 35 See John Ellerby, ‘Martin Buber’, Anarcky, 54 (August 1965), p. 230 36 Lewis Mumford, ‘Authoritarian and Democratic Technics’, Questioning Technology, eds.

., p. 110 13 Friedrich Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty, (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1960), p. 137 14 Pierre Limeux, Du Libéralisme à l’anarcho-capitalisme (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1983), p. 32 15 See Henri Arvon, Les Libertariens américans: de l’anarchisme à l’anarcho-capitalisme (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1983), p. 9 Chapter Thirty-Seven 1 Quoted in Vivian Harper, ‘Bertrand Russell and the Anarchists’, Anarchy, 109 (March 1970), pp. 68, 77 2 Mrs Gerald Brenan to Russell, November 1938, The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell (Allen & Unwin, 1968), II, 210 3 Russell, Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism, and Syndicalism (1918), 3rd edn. (Allen & Unwin, 1973), pp. 38–9 4 Ibid., p. 15 5 Russell, Principles of Social Reconstruction (1916) (Allen & Unwin, 1971), p. 34 6 Roads to Freedom, op. cit., p. 97 7 See Harper, ‘Bertrand Russell and the Anarchists’, Anarchy, op. cit., p. 71 8 Russell to Emma Goldman, 8 July 1922, Autobiography, op. cit., II, 123 9 Freedom, quoted in Harper, ‘Bertrand Russell and the Anarchists’, op. cit., p. 73 10 Russell to Goldman, ibid., p. 74 11 Freedom, ibid., p. 73 12 Russell, ‘A Free Man’s Worship’ (1903), Mysticism and Logic (1918) (Harmonds-worth Penguin, 1953), p. 51 13 Russell, Power: A New Social Analysis (1938) (Basis Books, 1940), p. 9 14 Preface to Roads to Freedom, op. cit., p. 14 15 Russell, Authority and the Individual (Allen & Unwin, 1949) pp. 89, 109 16 See Nicolas Walter, Freedom (21 April 1962) 17 Russell, Autobiography, op. cit., II, 154 18 Harper, ‘Russell and the Anarchists’, op. cit., p. 75 19 Russell, In Praise of Idleness (1932) (Allen & Unwin, 1963), p. 11 20 Preface to Principles of Social Reconstruction, op. cit. 21 Aldous Huxley, Ends and Means (Chatto & Windus, 1937), p. 63 22 Ibid., p. 70 23 Ibid. 24 Huxley, Science, Liberty and Peace (Chatto & Windus, 1947), p. 6 25 Ibid., p. 41 26 Ibid., p. 44 27 Huxley, Island (Frogmore, St Albans: Triad/Panther, 1976), p. 169 28 Ibid., p. 171 29 Ibid., p. 249 30 Ibid., p. 97 31 Quoted in Philip Thody, Aldous Huxley (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1973), p. 128 32 Martin Buber, ‘Society and the State’ (1950), reprinted in Anarcky 54 (August 1965), pp. 241–2 33 Martin Buber, Paths in Utopia (1949) (Boston: Beacon Press, 1958), p. 39 34 Ibid., pp. 137, 134 35 See John Ellerby, ‘Martin Buber’, Anarcky, 54 (August 1965), p. 230 36 Lewis Mumford, ‘Authoritarian and Democratic Technics’, Questioning Technology, eds.


pages: 209 words: 89,619

The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing

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8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, old age dependency ratio, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional

Hedonistic happiness based on jobs and play is dangerous. Endless play would be tedious. The pleasure is transient and self-limiting. We stop when we think we have had enough. As pleasure from play is ephemeral, people who depend on it are doomed to fail. Hedonism is self-defeating – the hedonistic treadmill. Hedonists fear boredom. The great philosopher Bertrand Russell understood the need for boredom, expressed best in his wonderful essay In Praise of Idleness. Hedonistic happiness through play and ‘pleasure’ eventually induces addiction and intolerance of anything other than pleasure, a point brought out by behavioural biologist Paul Martin in his book Sex, Drugs and Chocolate: The Science of Pleasure (2009). Satisfaction is contentment with life in general and with one’s relationships. However, making a fetish of happiness is not a prescription for civilised society.

But it costs society much more to police and punish the tiny minority than would be gained by forcing them to do some low-productivity job. Moreover, a little idleness would not be bad. How do we know that one person’s apparent idleness is not his moment A POLITICS OF PARADISE 161 of repose or contemplation? Why do we feel it necessary to presume and condemn? Some of the greatest minds in history had spells of idleness, and anybody who has read Bertrand Russell’s essay In Praise of Idleness should be ashamed to demand frenetic labour from others. One should not lose a sense of proportion. Labour is needed; jobs are needed. It is just that they are not the be-all-and-end-all of life. Other forms of work and time uses are just as important. John Maynard Keynes, the greatest economist of the twentieth century, forecast that by now people in rich societies would be doing no more than 15 hours a week in jobs.

(Maltby) 138 Canada 79, 114 capital funds 176–7 Capitalism and Freedom (Friedman) 156 care work 61, 86, 125–6 careers, leisure 129 cash transfers 177 see also conditional cash transfers (CCTs) CCTs (conditional cash transfer schemes) 140 Cerasa, Claudio 149 Channel 4, call centre programme (UK) 16 charities 53 children, care for 125 China 28 and contractualisation 37 criminalisation 88 deliberative democracy 181 education 73 immigrants to Italy 4–5 invasion of privacy 135 migrants 96, 106–9, 109–10 old agers 83 191 192 INDEX China 28 (Continued) Shenzhen 133, 137 and time 115 wages 43 youth 76 see also Chindia China Plus One 28 Chindia 26, 27–9, 83 see also China Chrysler Group LLC 43 circulants 90, 92 Citizens United vs Federal Election Commission (US) 152–3 civil rights 14, 94 class, social 6–8, 66–7 Coase, Ronald 29 Cohen, Daniel 57, 66, 69 collaborative bargaining 168 collective attention deficit syndrome 127 commodification of companies 29–31 of education 67–72 and globalisation 26 labour 161–2 of management 40 of politics 148–53 re- 41–2 conditional cash transfers (CCTs) 140 see also cash transfers conditionality 140, 175 and basic income 172–3 and workfare 143–5, 166–7 connectivity, and youth 127 contract status 35, 36, 37, 44, 51, 61 contractors, independent/ dependent 15–16 contractualisation 37 counselling for stress 126 Crawford, Matthew 70 credit 44 crime 5, 129–30 criminalisation 14, 145, 146 crystallised intelligence 85 cultural rights 14 de Tocqueville, Alexis 145 de-industrialisation 5, 37–8 debt, and youth 73–4 Delfanti, Alessandro 78 deliberative democracy 180–1, 182 denizens 14, 93–102, 105, 113, 117, 157–8 Denmark 150 dependent/independent contractors 15–16 deskilling 17, 33, 40, 124 developing countries 12, 27, 60, 65, 105–9 disabled people 86–7, 89, 170 discrimination age 84–5 disability 81 gender 60, 123 genetic profiling 136–7 and migrants 99, 101–2 disengagement, political 24 distance working 38, 53 dole (UK) 45 Duncan Smith, Iain 143 Durkeim, Emile 20 economic security 157, 171, 173–6 The Economist 17–18, 33, 52, 137 economy, shadow 56–7 education 10, 67–73, 135–6, 159–60 Ehrenreich, Barbara 21, 170–1 elites 7, 22, 24, 40, 50 criminality 152 and democracy 181 ethics 165 Italian 148 and the Tea Party (US) 151 empathy 22–3, 137 employment agencies 33 employment security 10b, 11, 17, 36, 51, 117 Endarkenment 70 Enlightenment 24, 70 enterprise benefits 11, 12 environmental issues 167 environmental refugees 93 Esping-Andersen, G. 41 ethics 23–4, 121–2, 165 ethnic minorities 86 EuroMayDay 1, 2, 3, 167 European Union (EU) 2, 39, 146, 147 and migrants 97, 103, 105 and pensions 80 see also individual countries export processing zones 105–6 Facebook 127, 134, 135 failed occupationality 21 INDEX family 27, 44, 60, 65, 126 fear, used for control 32 fictitious decommodification 41 financial capital 171, 176–7 financial sector jobs 39–40 financial shock 2008-9 see Great Recession Financial Times 44, 55, 121, 155 firing workers 31–2 Fishkin, James 180 Fletcher, Bill 170–1 flexibility 18 labour 23–4, 31–6, 53, 60, 61, 65 labour market 6, 120–1, 170 Ford Motor Company 42, 43 Foucault, Michel 88, 133 Foxconn 28–9, 43, 105, 137 see also Shenzhen France criminalisation 88 de-industrialisation 38 education 69 leisure 129 migrants 95, 97, 101–2, 114 neo-fascism 149 and old agers 85 pensions 79 shadow economy 56 Telecom 11 youth 65–6 fraternity 12, 22, 155 freedom 155, 167–70, 172 freelance see temporary employment freeter unions 9 Friedman, Milton 39, 156 functional flexibility 36–8, 52 furloughs 36, 50 gays 63–4 General Motors (GM) 42, 43, 54 genetic profiling 136 Germany 9 de-industrialisation 38 disengagement with jobs 24 migrants 91, 95, 100–1, 114 pensions 79 shadow economy 56 temporary employment 15, 35 wages 40 and women 62 youth and apprenticeships 72–3 193 Glen Beck’s Common Sense (Beck) 151 Global Transformation 26, 27–31, 91, 115 globalisation 5–7, 27–31, 116, 148 and commodification 26 and criminalisation 87–8 and temporary employment 34 Google Street View 134 Gorz, Andre 7 grants, leisure 180–2 Great Recession 4, 49–51, 63, 176 and education 71 and migrants 102 and old agers 82 and pensions 80 and youth 77–8 Greece 52, 56, 117, 181 grinners/groaners 59, 83–4 Habermas, Jürgen 179 Haidt, J. 23 Hamburg (Germany) 3 happiness 140–1, 162 Hardt, M. 130 Hayek, Friedrich 39 health 51, 70, 120, 126 Hitachi 84 Hobsbawm, Eric 3 hormones 136 hot desking 53 Howker, Ed 65 Human Rights Watch 106 Hungary 149 Hurst, Erik 128 Hyatt Hotels 32 IBM 38, 137 identity 9 digital 134–5 work-based 12, 15–16, 23, 158–9, 163 Ignatieff, Michael 88 illegal migrants 96–8 In Praise of Idleness (Russell) 141, 161 income security 10b, 30, 40, 44 independent/dependent contractors 15–16 India 50, 83, 112, 140 see also Chindia individuality 3, 19, 122 informal status 6–7, 57, 60, 96, 119 inshored/offshored labour 30, 36, 37 194 INDEX International Herald Tribune 21 internet 18, 127, 139, 180, 181 surveillance 134–5, 138 interns 16, 36, 75–6 invasion of privacy 133–5, 167 Ireland 52–3, 77 isolation of workers 38 Italy education 69 neo-fascism 148–9 pensions 79 Prato 4–5 and the public sector 52, 53 shadow economy 56 and temporary employment 34 youth 64 Japan 2, 30 and Chinese migrants 110 commodification of companies 30 and migrants 102, 103 multiple job holding 119–20 neo-fascism 152 pensions 80 salariat 17 subsidies 84 and temporary employment 15, 32–3, 34–5, 41 and youth 66, 74, 76, 77 job security 10b, 11, 36–8 Kellaway, Lucy 83–4 Keynes, John Maynard 161 Kierkegaard, Søren 155 Klein, Naomi 148 knowledge 32, 117, 124–5, 171 labour 13, 115, 161–2 labour brokers 33–4, 49, 110, 111, 167, 168 labour flexibility 23–4, 31–45 labour intensification 119–20 labour market flexibility 6 labour security 10–11, 10b, 31 Laos 112 lay-offs see furloughs Lee Changshik 21 legal knowledge 124–5 legal processing 50 Legal Services Act of 2007 (UK) (Tesco Law) 40 leisure 13, 128–30 see also play lesbians 63–4 Liberal Republic, The 181 Lloyds Banking Group 50–1 localism 181–2 long-term migrants 100–2 loyalty 53, 58, 74–5 McDonald’s 33 McNealy, Scott 69 Malik, Shiv 65 Maltby, Lewis 138 Manafort, Paul 152 management, commodification of 40 Mandelson, Peter, Baron 68 Maroni, Roberto 97 marriage 64–5, 92 Martin, Paul 141 Marx, Karl 161 masculinity, role models for youth 63–5 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 68–9 Mayhew, Les 81 Mead, Lawrence 143 mergers, triangular 30 Mexico 91 Middle East 109 migrants 2, 13–14, 25, 90–3, 145–6 and basic income 172 and conditionality 144 denizens 93–102, 157–8 government organised 109–13 internal 105–9 and queuing systems 103–5 and recession 102–3 Mill, John Stuart 160 Morris, William 160, 161 Morrison, Catriona 127 multinational corporations 28, 92 multitasking 19, 126–7 National Broadband Plan 134 near-sourcing/shoring 36 Negri, A. 130 neo-fascism 25, 147–53, 159, 175, 183 Netherlands 39, 79, 114, 149–50 New Thought Movement 21 New York Times 69, 119 News from Nowhere (Morris) 161 Niemöller, Martin 182 INDEX non-refoulement 93 Nudge (Sunstein/Thaler) 138–9 nudging 138–40, 155–6, 165, 167, 172, 178, 182 numerical flexibility 31–6 Obama, Barack 73, 138–9, 147, 148 Observer, The 20 occupations associations of 169–70 dismantling of 38–40 freedom in 162–4 obsolescence in 124 offshored/inshored labour 30, 36, 37 old agers 59, 79– 86, 89 old-age dependency ratio 80–1 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 27 origins of the precariat 1–5 outsourcing 29, 30, 33, 36, 37, 49 Paine, Thomas 173 panopticon society 132–40, 142–3 Parent Motivators (UK) 139–40 part-time employment 15, 35–6, 51, 61, 82 Pasona 33 paternalism 17, 29, 137, 153, 178, 182 nudging 138–40, 155–6, 165, 167, 172, 178, 182 pensions 42, 51, 52, 76–7, 79–81, 84–6 PepsiCo 137 personal deportment skills 123 Philippines 109 Phoenix, University of 71 Pigou, Arthur 117, 125 play 13, 115, 117, 128, 141 pleasure 141 Polanyi, K. 163, 169 political engagement/disengagement 24, 147 Portugal 52, 56 positive thinking 21, 86 Prato (Italy) 4–5 precariat (definition) 6, 7–13 precariato 9 precariatisation 16–18 precarity traps 48–9, 73–5, 114, 129, 144, 178 pride 22 prisoners 112, 146 privacy, invasion of 133–5, 167 private benefits 11 productivity, and old age 85 proficians 7–8, 15, 164 proletariat 7 protectionism 27, 54 public sector 51–4 qualifications 95 queuing systems 103–5 racism 97–8, 101, 114, 149 Randstad 49 re-commodification 41–2 recession see Great Recession refugees 92, 93, 96 regulation 23, 26, 39–40, 84, 171 Reimagining Socialism (Ehrenreich/ Fletcher) 170–1 remote working 38, 53 rentier economies 27, 176 representation security 10b, 31 retirement 42, 80–3 rights 14, 94, 145, 163, 164–5, 169 see also denizens risk management 178 Robin Hood gang 3 role models for youth 63–5 Roma 97, 149 Rossington, John 100 Rothman, David 88 Russell, Bertrand 141, 161 Russell, Lucie 64 Russia 88, 115 salariat 7, 8, 14, 17, 32 Santelli, Rick 150 Sarkozy, Nicolas 69, 97, 149 Sarrazin, Thilo 101 Schachar, Ayelet 177 Schneider, Friedrich 56 Schwarzenegger, Arnold 71 seasonal migrants 98–100 security, economic 157, 171, 173–6 self-employment 15–16, 66, 82 self-esteem 21 self-exploitation 20, 122–3 self-production 11 self-regulation 23, 39 self-service 125 services 37–8, 63 195 196 INDEX Sex, Drugs and Chocolate: The Science of Pleasure (Martin) 141 sex services 63 sexism, reverse 123 shadow economy 56–7, 91 Shenzhen (China) 133, 137 see also Foxconn Shop Class as Soulcraft (Crawford) 70 short-time compensation schemes 55–6 side-jobs 119–20 skill reproduction security 10b skills 157, 176 development of 30, 31, 40 personal deportment 123 tertiary 121–4 Skirbekk, Vegard 85 Smarsh 138 Smile or Die (Ehrenreich) 21 Smith, Adam 71 snowball theory 78 social class 6–8, 66–7 social factory 38, 118, 132 social income 11–12, 40–5, 51, 66 social insurance 22, 104 social memory 12, 23, 129 social mobility 23, 57–8, 175 social networking sites 137 see also Facebook social rights 14 social worth 21 sousveillance 134, 135 South Africa, and migrants 91, 98 South Korea 15, 55, 61, 75 space, public 171, 179–80 Spain BBVA 50 migrants 94 and migrants 102 pensions 79 and the public sector 53 shadow economy 55–6 temporary employment 35 Speenhamland system 55, 143 staffing agencies 33–4, 49, 110, 111, 167, 168 state benefits 11, 12 status 8, 21, 32–3, 94 status discord 10 status frustration 10, 21, 63, 67, 77, 78, 79, 89, 114, 123, 160 stress 19, 126, 141, 141–3 subsidies 44, 54–6, 83–6, 176 suicide, work-related 11, 29, 58, 105 Summers, Larry 148 Sun Microsystems 69 Sunstein, Cass 138–9 surveillance 132–6, 153, 167 see also sousveillance Suzuki, Kensuke 152 Sweden 68, 110–11, 135, 149 symbols 3 Taking of Rome, The (Cerasa) 149 taxes 26 and citizenship 177 France 85 and subsidies 54–5 Tobin 177 United States (US) 180–1 Tea Party movement 150–1 technology and the brain 18 internet 180, 181 surveillance 132–6 teleworking 38 temporary agencies 33–4, 49, 110, 111, 167, 168 temporary employment 14–15, 49 associations for 170 Japan 9 and numerical flexibility 32–6 and old agers 82 and the public sector 51 and youth 65 tertiarisation 37–8 tertiary skill 121–4 tertiary time 116, 119 tertiary workplace 116 Tesco Law (UK) 40 Thailand, migrants 106 Thaler, Richard 138–9 therapy state 141–3, 153 Thompson, E.P. 115 time 115–16, 163, 171, 178 labour intensification 119–20 tertiary 116, 119 use of 38 work-for-labour 120–1 titles of jobs 17–18 Tobin taxes 177 Tomkins, Richard 70 towns, company 137 INDEX toy-factory incident 108–9 trade unions 1, 2, 5, 10b, 26, 31, 168 and migration 91 public sector 51 and youth 77–8 see also yellow unions training 121–4 triangular mergers 30 triangulation 34 Trumka, Richard 78 trust relationships 8–9, 22 Twitter 127 Ukraine 152 undocumented migrants 96–8 unemployment 145 benefits 45–8, 99, 104 insurance for 175 voluntary 122 youth after recession 77 uniforms, to distinguish employment status 32–3 unions freeter 9 yellow 33 see also trade United Kingdom (UK) 102–3 benefit system 173 Channel 4 call centre programme 16 company loyalty 74–5 conditionality 143–5, 166–7 criminalisation 88 de-industrialisation 38 disabled people 170 and education 67, 70, 71 financial shock (2008-9) 49–51, 71 labour intensification 119 Legal Services Act (2007) (Tesco Law) 40 leisure 129 migrants 91, 95, 99, 103–5, 114, 146 neo-fascism 150 paternalism 139–40 pensions 43, 80 and the public sector 53 public spaces 179 and regulation of occupational bodies 39 shadow economy 56 and social mobility 56–8 and subsidies 55 197 temporary employment 15, 34, 35 as a therapy state 142 women 61–2, 162 workplace discipline 138 youth 64, 76 United States (US) care for children 125 criminalisation 88 education 69, 70–1, 73, 135–6 ethnic minorities 86 financial shock (2008-9) 49–50 migrants 90–1, 93, 94, 97, 103, 114 neo-fascism 150–1, 152–3 old agers 82–3, 85 pensions 42, 52, 80 public sector 52 regulation of occupational bodies 39 social mobility in 57–8 subsidies 55, 56 taxes 180–1 temporary employment 34, 35 volunteer work 163 wages and benefits 42 women 62, 63 youth 75, 77 universalism 155, 157, 162, 180 University of the People 69 University of Phoenix 71 unpaid furloughs 36 unpaid leave 50 uptitling 17–18 utilitarianism 88, 132, 141, 154 value of support 11 Vietnam 28, 111–12 voluntary unemployment 122 volunteer work 86, 163–4 voting 146, 147, 181 Wacquant, L. 132 wages 8, 11 and benefits 41–2 family 60 flexibility 40–5, 66 individualised 60 and migrants 103 and temporary workers 32, 33 Vietnam 28 see also basic income Waiting for Superman (documentary) 69 Wall Street Journal 35, 163 198 INDEX Walmart 33, 107 Wandering Tribe 73 Weber, Max 7 welfare claimants 245 welfare systems 44 Wen Jiabao 105 Whitehead, Alfred North 160 Williams, Rob 62 wiretapping 135 women 60–5 and care work 125–6 CCTs (conditional cash transfer schemes) 140 labour commodification 161 and migration 92 multiple jobholding 119–20 reverse sexism 123 work 115, 117, 160–1 and identity 158–9 and labour 13 right to 145, 163, 164–5 security 10b work-for-labour 120–1, 178 work-for-reproduction 124–7 work–life balance 118 worker cooperatives 168–70 workfare 143–5, 166–7 working class 7, 8 workplace 116, 122, 130, 131 discipline 136–8 tertiary 116 Yanukovich, Victor 152 yellow unions 33 youth 59, 65–7, 89, 156 commodification of education 67–72 connectivity 127 and criminality 129–30 generational tension 76–7 and old agers 85 precarity traps 73–5 prospects for the future 78–9 and role models 63–5 streaming education 72–3 zero-hour contracts 36


pages: 279 words: 87,910

How Much Is Enough?: Money and the Good Life by Robert Skidelsky, Edward Skidelsky

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banking crisis, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, lump of labour, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Paul Samuelson, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, union organizing, University of East Anglia, Veblen good, wage slave, wealth creators, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Evidently, its persuasive power declines in conditions of abundance, when cheapness is no longer the main consideration. Notes INTRODUCTION 1. John Maynard Keynes, Essays in Persuasion, The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, vol. 9 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978), p. 293. 2. George Orwell, The Road to Wigan Pier (London: Penguin, 1989), p. 182. 3. W. Stanley Jevons, The Theory of Political Economy (London: Macmillan, 1911), p. 37. 4. Bertrand Russell, In Praise of Idleness and Other Essays (London: Routledge, 2004), p. 11. 5. Charles Baudelaire, Journaux intimes (Paris: Mercure de France, 1938), p. 61. 6. John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, vol. 7 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973), p. 374. 7. IMSciences.net, accessed 09/09/11. 8. H. J. Johnson, “The Political Economy of Opulence,” Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, vol. 26, pt. 4 (1960), p. 554. 9.

Athens and Rome had citizens who, though economically unproductive, were active to the highest degree—in politics, war, philosophy and literature. Why not take them, and not the donkey, as our guide? Of course, Athenian and Roman citizens were schooled from an early age in the wise use of leisure. Our project implies a similar educational effort. We cannot expect a society trained in the servile and mechanical uses of time to become one of free men overnight. But we should not doubt that the task is in principle possible. Bertrand Russell, in an essay written just two years after Keynes’s effort—a further illustration of the stimulating effects of economic crisis—put the point with his usual clarity: It will be said that, while a little leisure is pleasant, men would not know how to fill their days if they had only four hours of work out of the twenty-four. In so far as this is true in the modern world, it is a condemnation of our civilization; it would not have been true at any earlier period.

But they would be astonished beyond measure that we view such things, not as vile deformations, but as a normal and indispensable part of the social mechanism, even as marks of vitality. Aristotle knew of insatiability only as a personal vice; he had no inkling of the collective, politically orchestrated insatiability that we call growth. The civilization of toujours plus, as the French philosopher Bertrand de Jouvenel termed it, would have struck him as moral and political madness. Economic Attitudes in Europe and Asia Aristotle is often, and with some reason, dismissed as the ideologist of a slave-owning oligarchy. His vision of the good life is very much of its time and place. It has no room for the joys of nature, of solitude, of artistic creation or religious ecstasy, for all the things that Christianity and romanticism have taught us to appreciate.


pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

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Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Then I’d [consider], ‘But if you think about it, the stars are really far away,’ then you try to imagine the world from the stars. Then you sort of zoom in and you’re like, ‘Oh, there’s this tiny little character there for a fragment of time worrying about X.’” TF: This is similar to the “star therapy” that BJ Miller describes on page 401. I use a combination of both each night before bed. ✸ Book recommendations In Praise of Idleness and Other Essays by Bertrand Russell The Joyous Cosmology by Alan Watts Maxims and Reflections by Goethe: “I was traveling around the world at the age of 18, which is what people in England do between high school and university. In my coat, I had Goethe’s aphorisms, his short little thoughts in my pocket. I read and reread this book. . . . It’s actually had quite a fundamental [impact] on my life because these are his little snippets of wisdom on almost any imaginable topic, and all of them are brilliant.

Covey), The Denial of Death (Ernest Becker) Catmull, Ed: One Monster After Another (Mercer Mayer) Chin, Jimmy: Musashi: An Epic Novel of the Samurai Era (Eiji Yoshikawa and Charles Terry), A Guide to the I Ching (Carol K. Anthony), Missoula: Rape and the Justice System in a College Town (Jon Krakauer) Cho, Margaret: How to Be a Movie Star (William J. Mann) Cooke, Ed: The Age of Wonder (Richard Holmes), Touching the Rock (John M. Hull), In Praise of Idleness: And Other Essays (Bertrand Russell), The Sorrows of Young Werther; Theory of Colours; Maxims and Reflections (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe), The Joyous Cosmology (Alan Watts) Cummings, Whitney: Super Sad True Love Story (Gary Shteyngart), The Drama of the Gifted Child (Alice Miller), The Fantasy Bond (Robert W. Firestone), The Continuum Concept (Jean Liedloff) D’Agostino, Dominic: Personal Power (Tony Robbins), Tripping Over the Truth (Travis Christofferson), The Language of God (Francis Collins), The Screwtape Letters (C.S.

Harris), Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy; Little Drummer’s Girl; The Russia House; The Spy Who Came in from the Cold (John le Carré), The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine (Michael Lewis), The Checklist Manifesto (Atul Gawande), all of Lee Child’s books Godin, Seth: Makers; Little Brother (Cory Doctorow), Understanding Comics (Scott McCloud), Snow Crash; The Diamond Age (Neal Stephenson), Dune (Frank Herbert), Pattern Recognition (William Gibson) AUDIOBOOKS: The Recorded Works (Pema Chödrön), Debt (David Graeber), Just Kids (Patti Smith), The Art of Possibility (Rosamund Stone Zander and Benjamin Zander), Zig Ziglar’s Secrets of Closing the Sale (Zig Ziglar), The War of Art (Steven Pressfield) Goldberg, Evan: Love You Forever (Robert Munsch), Watchmen; V for Vendetta (Alan Moore), Preacher (Garth Ennis), The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy (Douglas Adams), The Little Prince (Antoine de Saint-Exupéry) Goodman, Marc: One Police Plaza (William Caunitz), The 4-Hour Workweek (Tim Ferriss), The Singularity Is Near (Ray Kurzweil), Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies (Nick Bostrom) Hamilton, Laird: The Bible, Natural Born Heroes (Christopher McDougall), Lord of the Rings (J.R.R. Tolkien), Deep Survival (Laurence Gonzales), Jonathan Livingston Seagull (Richard Bach and Russell Munson), Dune (Frank Herbert) Harris, Sam: A History of Western Philosophy (Bertrand Russell), Reasons and Persons (Derek Parfit), The Last Word; Mortal Questions (Thomas Nagel), Our Final Invention (James Barrat), Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies (Nick Bostrom), Humiliation; The Anatomy of Disgust (William Ian Miller), The Flight of the Garuda: The Dzogchen Tradition of Tibetan Buddhism (Keith Dowman), I Am That (Nisargadatta Maharaj), Machete Season: The Killers in Rwanda Speak (Jean Hatzfeld), God Is Not Great; Hitch-22 (Christopher Hitchens), Stumbling on Happiness (Daniel Gilbert), The Qur’an Hart, Mark: Mastery (Robert Greene), The Art of Learning (Josh Waitzkin), The 4-Hour Body (Tim Ferriss) Hof, Wim: Jonathan Livingston Seagull (Richard Bach and Russell Munson), Siddhartha (Hermann Hesse), The Bhagavad Gita, The Bible Hoffman, Reid: Conscious Business: How to Build Value Through Values (Fred Kofman), Sapiens (Yuval Noah Harari) Holiday, Ryan: Meditations (Marcus Aurelius), The War of Art (Steven Pressfield), What Makes Sammy Run?


pages: 372 words: 152

The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin

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banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

Roediger, David, and Foner, Philip, Our Own Time: A History of American Labor and the Working Day (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1989), p. 243. 29. Engels, Frederick, "Socialism, Utopian and Scientific," in Ten Classics of Marxism (New York: International Publishers, 1946), pp. 62-63. 30. Kimball, Dexter S., "The Social Effects of Mass Production," Science 77, January 6, 1933), p. 1. 31. Hunnicutt, p. 83. 32. Ibid., p. 76. 33. Russell, Bertrand, In Praise of Idleness and Other Essays (London, 1935), P.17. 34. Bergson, Roy, "Work Sharing in Industry: History, Methods and Extent of the Movement in the United States, 1929-33" (unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1933), pp. 7-8. 35. Hunnicut, P·148. 36. "The Death of Kellogg's Six-Hour Day," Hunnicutt, Benjamin Kline (Iowa City: University of Iowa) p. 9. 37. Ibid., p. 22. 38.

Labor leaders viewed technological unemployment as "a natural result of increased efficiency, economic surpluses, and limited markets."32 They argued that if the nation were to avoid widespread and permanent unemployment it was necessary for the business community to share the productivity gains with its workers in the form of reduced working hours. Redistribution of hours was increasingly seen as a survival issue. If new technologies increased productivity and led to fewer workers and overproduction, the only appropriate antidote was to reduce the number of hours worked so that everyone would have a job and enough income and purchasing power to absorb the increases in production. Bertrand Russell, the great English mathematician and philosopher, stated labor's case. "There should not be eight hours per day for some and zero for others but four hours per day for all."33 On July 20, 1932, the AFL Executive Council, meeting in Atlantic City, drafted a statement calling on President Hoover to convene a conference of business and labor leaders for the purpose of implementing a thirty-hour workweek to "create work opportunities for millions of idle men and women."34 Anxious to stimulate consumer purchasing power, and seeing no other viable solution on the horizon, many business leaders reluctantly joined the campaign for a shorter workweek.

., 156-57 Ricardo, David, xi Roach, Stephen, 92, 143, 153 Robinson, 64 Robodoc,158 Robotics in agriculture, 115-17 in automobile industry, 131-32 in medicine, 158 in retail industry, 153 Rocard, Michel, 224 Rogoff, Martin H., 126 Rohatyn, Felix, 264 ROMPER (Robotic Melon Picker), 115 Roos, Daniel, 94-95, 96, 99,100 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 28-29, 30 Rubber industry, automation in, 136-37 Rucci, Anthony, 153 Rudney, Gabriel, 241 Russell, Bertrand, 26 Russia, 214-15, 279 Sadan, Ezra, 115 Saffo, Paul, 148, 177 Samuelson, Paul, 37 Sarvodaya Sharanadana Movement (SSM), 281 Saturday Evening Post, 51 Saturn, 104 Saunders, Lee A., 266-67 Savory, Thomas, 59 Say, Jean Baptiste, 15, 113 Schlilein, Peter, 224 Schmidt, Helmut, 199 Schor, Juliet, 222-23 Schraggs,Steven,159 Science, 116 Scientific management, 50 Scott, Jerry, 171 Sculley, John, 7 Sears, Roebuck, 26, 153 347 Second Industrial Revolution, 60 Secretaries, impact of automation on, 148-49 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 51 Self-Employed Women's Association (SEWA),280 Senegal, third/volunteer sector in, 281 Service sector banking industry, 144-45 changes in the traditional office, 146-51 growth in, xii-xiii impact of automation on, 141-62 insurance industry, 145-46 in New York City, 143-44 telecommunications industry, 141-42 Shaiken, Harley, 204, 205 Share the work movement, 25-29 Sheinkman, Jack, 139-40 Shiva, Vandana, 286 Siemens, 4 Silberman, Charles, 84 Simons, Geoff, 187 Sismondi, Simonde de, xi Skerritt, John c., 7 Slaughter, Jane, 185 Sloan, Alfred, 93 Small companies, job growth in, 9-10 Smith, Alan A., 68 Smith, John F., Jr., 130 Sobow, Richard, 6 Social diSintegration, 177- 80 Social economy, 242 globalizing, 275-93 Social income theory, 259-67 Social Security Act (1935), 31 Social wages, provision for, 258 - 67 Social welfare programs international, 202-3 overhaul proposals for U.S., 265- 67 Society National Bank (Cleveland), 144 Soil Conservation Act (1936), 31 Sony, 204 Sorj, Bernardo, 123 Sous vide, 154 Soviet Union, third/volunteer sector in, 279 Space age, 55 Spain, unemployment in, 199 Sri Lanka, third/volunteer sector in, 281 Standard Oil, 26 Starr, Frederick, 279 Steam power, role of, 59 - 60 Steel industry, automation in the, 132-36 Steel Workers Union, 67 Stockman, David, 40 Strasser, Susan, 21 Stress biorhythms and burnout, 186-90 impact of high-tech, 182-86 Student Community Service Program, 262,263 Suburbs, mass consumption and role of, 22-23 Sugrue, Thomas J., 75 Sultan, Arthur, 193 Sumitomo, 133, 136-37 Sunkist, 268 Suris, Peter, 156 Sweden, layoffs in, 4 Synthesizers, 160 Syre, Alfred, 196-97 Tabulating Machine Co., 64 Tax credits for third/volunteer sector, 264-65 Tax deductions/shadow wages for third/ volunteer sector, 256-58, 272-73 Taylor, Frederick w., 50, 94 Technocrats, 54-56 Technology.