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The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher
Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar
And fewer people are having kids: families with children used to make up more than half of U.S. households, but by 2025 they’ll represent just a quarter, and, strikingly, we’ll have as many single-person households as families. The suburbs are built for life with kids, and we’re not having nearly as many of them. There are a variety of reasons for this that we’ll explore later, but the implication is the same: “The whole Ozzie and Harriet day has passed,” says Peter Calthorpe, the San Francisco–based architect and urban planner who pioneered the notion of transit-oriented development and who, as a cofounder of the New Urbanism movement, is one of the leading thinkers on alternative growth models to conventional suburban development. Millennials hate the burbs . . . America’s eighty million so-called millennials, defined for the purposes of this book as those born between 1977 and 1995, are an enormous group—bigger than the baby boomers.
By the early 1980s, a small group of urban planners and architects, alarmed by the rate of sprawl, started meeting to come up with solutions to it, looking to traditional European city planning as their inspiration. In 1993 they organized under the name the “Congress for the New Urbanism,” with the goal of promoting the design and building of traditional neighborhoods that were small and walkable, mixed stores and housing together, and emphasized community. Their early leaders included the San Francisco urbanist and architect Peter Calthorpe and the Miami-based husband-and-wife architect team of Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk. Over the years their leagues expanded to include hundreds, among them the author James Howard Kunstler, whose The Geography of Nowhere spoke of the “immersive ugliness of our everyday environment” and the “despair” that environment was generating among the young, and who has called suburbia “the greatest misallocation of resources in the history of the world.”
The Congress for the New Urbanism officially describes itself as “the leading organization promoting walkable, neighborhood-based development as an antidote to formless sprawl.” Organized in the early 1990s, the movement traces its roots to a group of influential designers who had become alarmed by the growth of conventional suburban development and started meeting informally to share their ideas for solutions to it. They included Peter Calthorpe, a pioneer of transit-oriented, walkable residential development, and Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, the husband-and-wife team who had risen to fame by pioneering Miami modernist architecture in the 1980s before shifting gears to focus on more traditional neighborhood development. These thinkers, along with several other founding members, believed there was a better way to build not just the suburbs but our entire environment, and they were looking to formalize principles they had begun to use in their residential work—mixed-use zoning, pedestrian-friendly village development, more robust public transit, and the incorporation of the kinds of urban design methods that were common before World War II.
Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, American ideology, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
It was conceptualized as a determinant of neighborhood size in the classic 1929 New York City Regional Plan, but it has existed as an informal standard since the earliest cities, from Pompeii to Greenwich Village. If one were to map the neighborhoods of most prewar cities, they would average about one-quarter mile from edge to center. While some flexibility is advisable—the West Coast designer Peter Calthorpe recommends a ten-minute walk in order to engage a larger number of households to a transit stop, and college students seem to put up with twenty minutes, even in icy Wisconsin—most new traditional town plans are designed around the five-minute measure. One-quarter mile is usually the distance from which you can actually spot your destination. More important, experience suggests that it is a distance short enough that most Americans simply feel dumb driving, making it a perfect rule of thumb for our auto-dependent times.
In the recent intensification of the war against sprawl, a number of journalists and authors have worked continually to keep the subject prominent in the public discourse. These include Peter Katz, Philip Langdon, and James Kunstler, who have been our partners in arms for many years. Mr. Kunstler’s dyspeptic rants never fail to rally his friends in their efforts.dy We must also acknowledge the many idealistic professionals who have joined us in battle, most notably our colleagues in the Congress for the New Urbanism. Our co-founders of the Congress—Peter Calthorpe, Liz Moule, Stef Polyzoides, and Daniel Solomon—have played no small part in the development of the ideas advanced here. Before there was a Congress for the New Urbanism, this book’s principles were nurtured over many years in two extremely supportive environments. One is the University of Miami, where a true school of historically informed architectural practice has developed around the shared objective of building community.
Finally, for their tremendous assistance in the completion of this book, we thank Corey Drobnie at Duany Plater-Zyberk & Co., Neeti Madan at Charlotte Sheedy Literary Agency, and our skillful and patient editor, Ethan Nosowsky, at North Point Press/Farrar, Straus and Giroux. NOTES 3. THE HOUSE THAT SPRAWL BUILT 1 From the U.S. Census Bureau’s 1997 report on Geographical Mobility. 2 Edward Blakely and Mary Gail Snyder, Fortress America, 24. 3 Ibid., 7. 4 Peter Calthorpe, The Next American Metropolis, 19. 4. THE PHYSICAL CREATION OF SOCIETY 1 “Parking Lot Pique,” A26. 2 Jonathan Franzen, “First City,” 91. 3 Jonathan Rose, “Violence, Materialism, and Ritual,” 145. 4 Le Corbusier, The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning, 129. 5 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 129. 5. THE AMERICAN TRANSPORTATION MESS 1 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 183. 2 Donald D.T.
Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand
agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, lateral thinking, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, William Langewiesche, working-age population, Y2K
Chances are you’ve come across Sausalito waterfront creativity in the writings of Annie Lamott, Alan Watts, Paul Hawken, or Green architect Sim Van Der Ryn; in the cartoons of Shel Silverstein or Phil Frank; in Otis Redding’s “Sittin’ on the Dock of the Bay”; in the Antenna Theater- produced Audio Tours that guide you around the world’s museums and historic sites; in the biological paintings of Isabella Kirkland; and in any town or city reshaped by what is called New Urbanism. That last item is my example. • In 1983, architect Peter Calthorpe gave up on San Francisco, where he had tried and failed to organize neighborhood communities, and moved to a houseboat on the end of South Forty Dock, where I live. He found he was in a place that had the densest housing in California, where no one locked their doors—where most of the doors didn’t even have locks. Without trying, it was an intense, proud community. When Calthorpe looked for some element of design magic that made it work, he decided it was the dock itself, and the density.
Every city in Asia and Latin America has an industry based on gathering up old cardboard boxes.” There’s a whole book on the subject: The World’s Scavengers (2007), by Martin Medina. Lagos, Nigeria, widely considered the world’s most chaotic city, has an Environment Day on the last Saturday of every month. From seven to ten A.M. nobody drives, and the entire city, including the slums, tidies itself up. • In his 1985 article that introduced the idea of walkability, Peter Calthorpe made a statement that still jars most people: “The city is the most environmentally benign form of human settlement. Each city-dweller consumes less land, less energy, less water, and produces less pollution than his counterpart in settlements of lower densities.” “Green Manhattan” was the inflammatory title of a 2004 New Yorker article by David Owen. “By the most significant measures,” he wrote,New York is the greenest community in the United States, and one of the greenest cities in the world. . . .
(It’s the best line in the song: “O beautiful for patriot dream / That sees beyond the years / Thine alabaster cities gleam / Undimmed by human tears.”) Some environmentalists already are proponents of urban compactness. Sierra Club’s magazine reports that in Vancouver, “Mayor Sam Sullivan’s EcoDensity program includes zoning changes to allow ‘secondary suites,’ or in-law apartments; triplexes; and narrow streets with houses that abut property lines.” Peter Calthorpe’s “walkability” has become a real estate selling point, with walkable neighborhoods able to charge premium prices. A proven way to encourage walking and use of public transit is with a “congestion tax” on cars in the downtown streets. In 2002 London followed the lead of Singapore and Hong Kong and adopted the practice of charging cars £8 a day to drive in the central city. Complaints died away when everybody’s travel times in and out of the city went down dramatically.
The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler
A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism
The other architects involved were Doug Kelbaugh, chairman of the Uni versity of Washington School of Architecture; Robert Small, also of the University of Washington; Harrison Fraker, University of Minnesota; Mark Mack and Daniel Solomon, University of California, Berkeley; Don Prowler, University of Pennsylvania; and David Sellers, in private practice in Ver mont (formerly Yale University). The idea was formally developed at a charrette, or design workshop, held at the University of Washington in the Spring of 1988. The documents were subsequently published under the title, The Pedestrian Pocket Book, edited by Mr. Kelbaugh. Solomon, "Fixing Suburbia," Peter Calthorpe, et aI. , The Pedestrian Pocket Book, p. 29. Peter Calthorpe, "The Post-Suburban Metropolis," Whole Earth Review, Winter 1991. Hiss, The Experience of Place, p. 214. 2 8 0 _ Bibliography Alexander, Christopher. The Timeless Way of Building. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. Alexander, Christopher; Ishikawa, Sara; Silverstein, Murry; et al. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Arendt, Randall G.; Brabec, Elizabeth A. ; Dodson, Harry L. ; Yaro, Robert D.
The TND, in fact, is now being used as the model for future development across Florida. "We get dozens of requests a week," Duany said. "The fight hasn't been terribly difficult because the world is ready for change. Over the past twenty years, enormous strides have been made in preserving the environment. Where we've failed is in the human ecology. It's this human ecology movement that must really be the agenda for the years ahead. " Pedestrian Pockets ... Peter Calthorpe, the San Francisco architect and planner, is the main figure behind Pedestrian Pockets, a scheme to retool the suburbs. 6 Calthorpe and his colleagues bring a distinctly West Coast point of view to the task. In their part of the country there is very little traditional town fabric dating from before World War II, so good models are few. Rather, most people on the West Coast have always lived in sprawling automobile suburbs, and never experienced an alternative to it.
Some of the aesthetic considerations, I thought, depended on a public consensus that doesn't really exist. Our buildings look ridiculous largely because they are built to serve cars, not people, and because they stand in isolation, unconnected with communities of other buildings. To get hung up on building materials without repairing underlying bad rela tionships would result, it seems to me, in just the sort of exercise in nostalgia that Peter Calthorpe was talking about: using old forms with out the supporting principles, hamburger joints dolled up to look like little white churches, in the middle of a parking lot. I aired these doubts with Randall Arendt over lunch in the UMass faculty club. We talked about the town planning ideas being pushed by Duany and others, and how, if implemented, these ideas could go a long way toward saving rural land by putting development where it be longed : in coherent towns with walkable streets, housing for all income groups, and places to shop and work, all mixed together.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
While it was on its deathbed, the Stapleton Foundation issued the “Green Book,” an open call for someone willing to step up and build “compact, mixed-use communities that are walkable and transit-oriented,” communities with as many jobs as residents and a thousand acres set aside for parks. The foundation held a bake-off in 1998 to select a master developer, spurning the highest of four bidders in favor of Forest City Enterprises, which pledged a twenty-year marriage to the project and paid its dowry up front to prove it. In turn, it drafted Peter Calthorpe, a founding father of New Urbanism, to help patch the battered and polluted site back into the urban fabric. Following his movement’s scripture, Calthorpe’s plan dutifully broke down the site into zones, or “transects,” of various densities. Neighbor-hoods and schools comprised the south side of the airfield, where Brian Tellinghuisen lived, while parks of both the green and office variety would vie for the center.
It was six years ago to the week, he noted absently, as if remembering an old friend’s birthday, that construction on Tellinghuisen’s house had begun. We got to talking about what made this place tick and, by extension, how one would go about building it anew someplace else. It was something he’d thought about before briefing visting members of Parliament on how they might go about rehabbing Heathrow. “ ‘New Urbanism’ is a funny term, because it’s really the old urbanism,” he said. “Peter [Calthorpe] would tell you you can have New Urbanism anywhere.” And so would Gleason’s boss, Jon Ratner. The youngest member of the Ratner clan is arguably its most radical. Having started work at Stapleton in his twenties, he’d since risen to the post of director of sustainability, in charge of the firm’s triple bottom line: “people, planet, and profit.” “We’re hoping to use the ingenuity of the private sector and the fiscal resources of the public one to build a new vision for what a city can be,” he told me.
I think we’ll see New Urbanist communities in places like China and India on a scale that will blow away anything we’ve seen.” They’ll have to top an even bigger bet his family placed in another mountain mega, twenty square miles of desert named Mesa del Sol. Lying on the south side of Albuquerque atop a mammoth plateau, it’s the last parcel of its size in America so close to the airport and downtown. Peter Calthorpe drafted a sequel to Stapleton, with a few twists thrown in. For one, it’s three times the size of the original, adding a hundred thousand residents to a city of less than a million. Another is on-site employers any mayor (or governor) would kill for, including a film studio and a maker of solar cells that opened a $100 million factory there last year. But taking their cue from Stapleton’s tenants, the Ratners expect that nearly everyone here will work from home.
The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt
anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Peter Calthorpe, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional
In fact, it is the biggest neighborhood in Denver. The houses spread out over most of its 4,700 acres, a blend of Victorian and Craftsman, Colonial, and Mediterranean revival. All of them are on small lots, none larger than a quarter acre. The fact that Stapleton was built this way, rather than as one more cookie-cutter suburban subdivision, is a tribute of sorts to the city of Denver, circa 1995; its master planner, Peter Calthorpe; and its developers, Forest City Enterprises. Moreover, it has generally been a success. Prior to the recession, its 3,600 occupied units were increasing in value at a rate of roughly 10 percent a year. There are ten thousand residents of Stapleton now, out of a projected population of thirty thousand people two decades from now, a fair proportion of them empty nesters but a startling number of families.
It was the way to live a life of sociability that placed walking at the center of the urban experience. Many public officials and planning professionals were first introduced to the principles of New Urbanism through the vehicle of lectures and slide shows documenting the ugliness of suburban sprawl and the intelligence of urban design as practiced in many places in the preautomobile era. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Peter Calthorpe, and a handful of coconspirators carried these slides to countless audiences all over the country in the early and mid-1990s. As a model of their intentions, they offered Seaside, the residential community in north Florida that was designed by Duany and Plater-Zyberk in the 1980s, complete with sidewalks, front porches, a town square, and a whole array of other reminders of the old-fashioned, pedestrian-friendly American small town.
The New Class Conflict by Joel Kotkin
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bob Noyce, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Graeber, deindustrialization, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, energy security, falling living standards, future of work, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, McJob, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Buchheit, payday loans, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional
“Even mild to moderate deviations in either price or supply will crush our economy and make the logistics of daily life impossible.”79 Small wonder that he and other environmentalists view suburbs as “the greatest misallocation of resources in the history of the world,” one that, fortunately, “has now entered a state of terminal decline.”80 In what resembles a kind of religious certainty, much of the Clerisy, particularly among architects and planners, has divined a direct relationship between climate change and U.S. housing patterns. “What is causing global warming is the lifestyle of the American middle class,” says new urbanist architect Andrés Duany, a major developer of dense housing himself.81 Densification, claims influential architect Peter Calthorpe, is no less than “a climate change antibiotic.”82 Yet these statements ignore the fact that American carbon emissions are falling and that much of the world’s increase is occurring in densely packed places like India and China.83 To be sure, we should work to control emissions here in the United States. But the real driver of increased emissions is now in the developing world and may not require the kind of radical remaking of metropolitan life being demanded throughout much of the Clerisy.84 In reality, densification and related strategies have been found to provide little in greenhouse gas emissions reduction, while the costs are exorbitant.
Irvin Dawid, “New Urbanism Examined by Time Magazine, Andrés Duany,” Planetizen, December 24, 2007, http://www.planetizen.com/node/29063; Brian Stone, “Land Use as Climate Change Mitigation,” Environmental Science and Technology, November 12, 2009; Ronald D. Utt, “The Oberstar Transportation Plan: A Costly Exercise in Lifestyle Modification,” Heritage Foundation Web Memo, November 10, 2009. 82. Peter Calthorpe, “Urbanism in the Age of Climate Change: Urbanism Expanded,” StreetsBlogSF, February 1, 2011, http://sf.streetsblog.org/2011/02/01/urbanism-in-the-age-of-climate-change-urbanism-expanded. 83. Lindsay Wilson, America’s Carbon Cliff: Dissecting the Decline in U.S. Carbon Emissions,” report, Shrink That Footprint, March 2013, http://shrinkthatfootprint.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Americas-Carbon-Cliff.pdf. 84.
Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic by John de Graaf, David Wann, Thomas H Naylor, David Horsey
big-box store, Community Supported Agriculture, Corrections Corporation of America, Donald Trump, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, God and Mammon, greed is good, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Mark Shuttleworth, McMansion, medical malpractice, new economy, Peter Calthorpe, Ralph Nader, Ray Oldenburg, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, The Great Good Place, trade route, upwardly mobile, Yogi Berra, young professional
FORTRESS AMERICA What happens when affluenza causes communities to be pulled apart (for example, when a company leaves town and lays off hundreds of people), or crippled by bad design? We “cocoon,” retreating further and further inward and closing the gate behind us. Including secured apartment dwellers, residents of gated communities, prison inmates, and residential security system zealots, at least a fifth of the country now lives behind bars. “Socially, the house fortress represents a self-fulfilling prophecy,” says community designer Peter Calthorpe. “The more isolated people become and the less they share with others unlike themselves, the more they do have to fear.”16 Sociologist Edward Blakely would agree. “We are a society whose purported goal is to bring people of all income levels and races together, but gated communities are the direct opposite of that,” he writes in the book Fortress America. “How can the nation have a social contract without having social contact?”
Irish Independent, September 26, 2003, as quoted in Richard Freeman and Arthur Ticknor, “Wal-Mart Is Not a Business, It’s an Economic Disease,” Executive Intelligence Review, November 14, 2003. 13. Stacy Mitchell, Institute for Local Self-Reliance, in discussion with David Wann, February 2000. 14. Jeff Milchen, Boulder Independent Business Alliance, in discussion with David Wann, February 2000. 15. Al Norman in discussion with David Wann, February 2000. 16. Peter Calthorpe in discussion with David Wann, October 1998. 17. Edward J. Blakely and Mary Gail Snyder, Fortress America: Gated Communities in the United States (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1997). 18. Dyan Machan, in an interview with Daniel Yankelovich, Forbes, November 16, 1998, 194. 19.Putnam, Bowling Alone. 20. Marc Miringoff in discussion with David Wann, May 2000. CHAPTER 9 1.
The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century by Ronald Bailey
3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Climatic Research Unit, Commodity Super-Cycle, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, double helix, energy security, failed state, financial independence, Gary Taubes, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, phenotype, planetary scale, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, yield curve
As a result, the researchers conclude that while the need for action is urgent, there is still time to rescue and restore the biodiversity of the oceans. Cities Spare Nature Another extremely positive megatrend with regard to protecting and restoring nature is urbanization. In his 2010 article “How Slums Can Save the Planet,” prominent environmental thinker Stewart Brand cited architect Peter Calthorpe’s 1985 assertion that “[t]he city is the most environmentally benign form of human settlement. Each city dweller consumes less land, less energy, less water, and produces less pollution than his counterpart in settlements of lower densities.” By 2010, the majority of people lived in cities for the first time in history. Demographers expect that 80 percent of people will live in urban areas by 2050 or so.
Jackson, “Ecological Extinction and Evolution in the Brave New Ocean,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105, supp. 1 (August 12, 2008): 11458–11465. www.pnas.org/content/105/Supplement_1/11458.full. “halts, and even reverses”: Christopher Costello, Steven D. Gaines, and John Lynham, “Can Catch Shares Prevent Fisheries Collapse?” Science 321.5896 (September 19, 2008): 1678–1681. www.sciencemag.org/content/321/5896/1678.short . “The city is the most environmentally benign form”: Stewart Brand, citing Peter Calthorpe in “How Slums Can Save the Planet.” Prospect, January 27, 2010. www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/magazine/how-slums-can-save-the-planet/#.U7sUp6goxyg. a globally interconnected world: Paolo D’Odorico et al., “Feeding Humanity Through Global Food Trade.” Earth’s Future 2.9 (September 2014): 458–469. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014EF000250/abstract. “we will need to find a way to reintegrate”: Jeremy Rifkin, “The Risks of Too Much City.”
Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life by Richard Florida
active measures, assortative mating, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, Celebration, Florida, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, edge city, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, extreme commuting, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, invention of the telegraph, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-work, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, World Values Survey, young professional
Edge cities now face a number of challenges, the first and foremost being how to transform themselves into real communities. How to reduce the reliance on cars as the way of getting around? How to increase density? How to make them more pedestrian friendly and accessible by mass transit? How to transform them from subdivisions amid shopping malls to integrated live-work-learn-play communities? Newburbia is another option. The brainchild of architects like Andres Duany and Peter Calthorpe, newburbia is a designed community with a traditional feel.7 The houses are clustered tightly together but surrounded by lots of green space. These places are typically oriented to pedestrian traffic (they restrict the use of cars) and shaped around town centers. One of the most famous examples is Celebration, Florida, on the outskirts of Disney World. But even though they have town centers, these new urbanist communities can lack diversity.
Human Transit: How Clearer Thinking About Public Transit Can Enrich Our Communities and Our Lives by Jarrett Walker
Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, congestion charging, demand response, iterative process, jitney, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, Silicon Valley, transit-oriented development, urban planning
In other cases, however, the proposed site of a development may be so unworkable for transit that it’s simply the wrong place for anything that aims to be transit friendly. In that case, the best transit outcome may be to build low-density, car-based development on such a site, so that the market for transit-friendly denser housing can be encouraged to locate in more transit-friendly places. That’s the case with one of the most famous early efforts at “Transit-Oriented Development” (TOD). Designed in the late 1980s by Peter Calthorpe, Laguna West, south of Sacramento, featured the now-familiar neo-traditional ideals for new suburbs. A gridded town center would consist of offices or housing over retail on pleasant, walkable streets, all surrounding a station for attractive rapid transit. Extending outward, densities would gradually fall, allowing for the large area of single-family homes that the market demanded while ensuring the greatest possible concentration of activity close to the transit stop (figure 14-5a).
Mysteries of the Mall: And Other Essays by Witold Rybczynski
additive manufacturing, airport security, Buckminster Fuller, City Beautiful movement, edge city, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Jane Jacobs, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Silicon Valley, the High Line, urban renewal, young professional
New Urbanism represents a turning away from the principles that have characterized American urban design since the 1950s and a rediscovery of the virtues of traditional, gridded streets scaled to the pedestrian and of cities that integrate a diversity of urban uses—commercial and industrial as well as residential—rather than being zoned according to single functions. So far, the accomplishments of architects and planners like Peter Calthorpe, Daniel Solomon, and Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk have been predominantly suburban and aimed at an upper-middle-class clientele, but the commercial successes of New Urbanism are evidence of its broad appeal to consumers and developers alike. It seems appropriate that such a mainstream, pragmatic approach should be applied to the remedial design of public housing. An appealing feature of New Urbanism is architectural design whose flavor is regional rather than international.
The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin
autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional
Author James Howard Kunstler boldly predicted that high energy costs would make “the logistics of daily life impossible” in the suburbs.160 Yet the prospect of an energy-driven suburban collapse has become increasingly unlikely, in large part due to recent advances in US oil and gas production that have driven prices down.161 Unable to wait for energy shortages to do their work, retro-urbanists increasingly base their opposition to suburbs on concerns over climate change instead.162 Densification, claims influential architect Peter Calthorpe, is no less than “a climate change antibiotic.”163 This strong linkage of suburbs to climate change proves somewhat extravagant and perhaps more than a little self-serving. In reality, carbon emissions in low-density America are falling, largely due to the use of natural gas over coal, while much of the world’s increases in carbon emissions are occurring in densely packed places like India, China, and even supposedly ultra-green Europe.164 Cramming, notes a recent National Academy of Sciences report, can do relatively little to reduce US greenhouse gas emissions—perhaps as little as reducing them by only 2 percent.165 Implementing less intrusive policies such as those requiring better mileage on cars—including electric-, natural gas-, or hydrogen-propelled cars—would be far more impactful, not to mention practical.166 These steps, suggests a report from McKinsey & Company and The Conference Board, could ensure significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions without any “downsizing of vehicles, homes or commercial space” and without any changes in the number of miles traveled.
Straphanger by Taras Grescoe
active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar
A fundamental—and self-fulfilling—belief among developers is that the average American will not walk more than 600 feet to get to a parked car. No Vacancy There is something fatally dingy about the catchphrase “transit-oriented development” (TOD). For too many people, the whole notion of living in close proximity to transit carries the stink of cabbage-scented tenements in the overcrowded slums of some nineteenth-century industrial city. The term, poputartzed by architect and urban planner Peter Calthorpe, describes relatively high-density neighborhoods with a mix of residences and businesses, often with an emphasis on multistory and multifamily dwellings. In theory, a transit-oriented dwelling is located within half a mile of a light-rail platform, a subway station, or a high-frequency bus line. It should also be close enough to shopping and schools so that residents can reduce their driving, or even get by without a car altogether.
City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae
agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, creative destruction, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration
See also Henry Ford, My Life and Work (Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday Page 1922). 27. “History of Orange: Sesquicentennial, 1822–1972” (Orange, Conn.: Town of Orange, 1972). 28. Trolley service was close to hand. 29. The book’s website, www.endofurbanism.com, contains an inventory of over eight hundred suburban developments in the towns around New Haven from 1872 to 2001. 30. Dana, New Haven’s Problems. 31. Ibid., 17–18. 32. Peter Calthorpe, The New American Metropolis (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1986). Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation (New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 2000); Thomas Hylton, Save Our Land, Save Our Towns (Harrisburg, Pa.: Seitz and Seitz, 1995); Katz, New Urbanism; Philip Langdon, A Better Place to Live (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994). 33. The calculation is made using the Bureau of Labor Statistics inflation calculator at www.bls.gov.