transatlantic slave trade

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pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

Annual slave shipments increased fourfold between 1650 and 1800 (see figure 2.2).44 In Africa, valuable European imports (such as cotton, salt, knives, brassware, and liquor) were offered as incentives for the creation of a highly organized system of slave-raiding, internal trade, and transportation in the West African states of Asante, Dahomey, Benin, and Oyo (in present-day Ghana, Benin, and Nigeria, respectively). The influx of flintlock firearms into Africa in the mid-seventeenth century gave slave raiders the tools of coercion to carry out their trade.45 Figure 2.2. Estimates of slave exports to America from Africa, I 662-1867. Herbert S. Klein. 1999. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Cambridge. UK: Cambridge University Press, p. 208, appendix table A. I. The transatlantic slave trade was one element of a trade network that European powers used to ensure a balance of payments—that their imports would be roughly equivalent to their exports. Exported manufactured goods would be traded at African ports for slaves. Slaves would be sold in the plantation regions of the Americas, and sugar, tobacco, and other agricultural goods would be shipped either to New England or to Europe.

The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World, 3rd ed. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave MacMillan: 51. 39. David Northrup. 2003. “Free and Unfree Labour Migration, 1600–1900: An Introduction,” Journal of World History 14(2): 125–130. 40. Herbert S. Klein. 1999. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 41. Ibid.: 140, table 6.2. 42. Manning, 2005: 135. 43. See Harzig, Hoerder, and Gabaccia, 2009: 35. 44. Jan S. Hogondorn. 1984. “Review Essay: The Economics of the African Slave Trade,” Journal of American History 70(4): 854–861. 45. Hogondorn, 1984. 46. Barbara L. Solow. 2001. “The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A New Census,” The William and Mary Quarterly 58(1): 9–16. 47. Scheidel, 1997, cited in Nathan Nunn. 2008. “The Long-Term Effects of Africa's Slave Trade,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 123(1): 139–176. 48.

Similarly large numbers of slaves that had been brought to work on the sugar plantations of Bahia, Brazil, were later moved farther south to establish coffee and other plantations.42 Others escaped and moved or were freed, occasionally finding passage to Africa, but more often establishing independent settlements in Brazil and elsewhere. The dramatic escalation of the transatlantic slave trade in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was related to other movements connected to Europe's ascendance. Economic growth in Europe drove colonizer migrations; these merchants and soldiers mobilized and controlled local labor for production; and the expansion of mines and plantations generated demand for external labor.43 This demand was initially met with a steady and increasing supply of slaves. Figure 2.1. African slave trade routes, 1500-1900. David Eltis and David Richardson. 2009. An Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Once slave shipments started in the early seventeenth century, the high profitability of tobacco, cotton, and sugar plantations increasingly depended on slaves.

pages: 565 words: 164,405

A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World by William J. Bernstein


Admiral Zheng, asset allocation, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, British Empire, call centre, clean water, Columbian Exchange, Corn Laws, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, domestication of the camel, double entry bookkeeping, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, ice-free Arctic, imperial preference, income inequality, intermodal, James Hargreaves, John Harrison: Longitude, Khyber Pass, low skilled workers, non-tariff barriers, Paul Samuelson, placebo effect, Port of Oakland, refrigerator car, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, working poor, zero-sum game

Calculated from Eltis, 50, table 2-2. 75. Philip Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1969), 69, 81. 76. Paul Bairoch, Economics and World History (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 146. 77. Curtin, The Rise and Fall of the Plantation Complex, 39-40. 78. David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006),90-91. 79. Ellis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas, from 176, table 7-3. 80. Quoted in Davis, Inhuman Bondage, 92. 81. Professor Curtin produced the first scientific census with the publication of his landmark The Atlantic Slave Trade in 1967. His basic conclusions were largely confirmed and refined by Professor Eltis; see The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas; "The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Reassessment," William And Marv Quarterly, 58, no. 1 (January 2001): 17-46, and David Eltis and David Richardson, "Prices of African Slaves Newly Arrived in the Americas, 1673-1865: New Evidence on Long-Run Trends and Regional Differentials," in David Eltis, ed., Slavery in the Development of the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 181-211. 82.

His basic conclusions were largely confirmed and refined by Professor Eltis; see The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas; "The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Reassessment," William And Marv Quarterly, 58, no. 1 (January 2001): 17-46, and David Eltis and David Richardson, "Prices of African Slaves Newly Arrived in the Americas, 1673-1865: New Evidence on Long-Run Trends and Regional Differentials," in David Eltis, ed., Slavery in the Development of the Americas (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 181-211. 82. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade, from 268, table 77. For a more recent, and perhaps more accurate, quantitative assessment of the transatlantic slave flow, see Eltis, "The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Reassessment," 17-46. 83. Davis, Inhuman Bondage, 80. 84. Ibid., I 1-12, 40-4 1. 85. Michael Tadman, "The Demographic Cost of Sugar: Debates on Slave Societies and Natural Increase in the Americas," American Historical Review, 105, no. 5 (December 2000): 1556. 86. Ibid., 1554-1555, 1561. 87.

So massive was this involuntary migration that as early as 1580, slaves constituted well over half of voyagers to the New World; by 1700, three-quarters; and by 1820, 90 percent. Truly, the settlement of the Americas would not have been possible without black slaves, who constituted fully 77 percent of those who crossed the Atlantic before 1820.83 Only after the mid-nineteenth century, when the institution was finally outlawed, did the majority of immigrants have white skin. Figure 10-2. Annual Transatlantic Slave Trade Surprisingly, only about four hundred thousand-about 4.5 percentcame to the British North American colonies. Table 10-1, which summarizes the proportions of slaves arriving in the New World according to destination and the proportions of their descendants living there in 1950, lays out the puzzle. First, note that in spite of the fact that the United States and Canada received fewer than one slave in twenty, these two nations now contain nearly one in three of their descendants.

pages: 332 words: 104,587

Half the Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity for Women Worldwide by Nicholas D. Kristof, Sheryl Wudunn


agricultural Revolution, correlation does not imply causation, demographic dividend, feminist movement, Flynn Effect, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, special economic zone, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce

State Department notes, its estimate doesn’t include “millions of victims around the world who are trafficked within their own national borders.” In contrast, in the peak decade of the transatlantic slave trade, the 1780s, an average of just under eighty thousand slaves were shipped annually across the Atlantic from Africa to the New World. The average then dropped to a bit more than fifty thousand between 1811 and 1850. In other words, far more women and girls are shipped into brothels each year in the early twenty-first century than African slaves were shipped into slave plantations each year in the eighteenth or nineteenth centuries—although the overall population was of course far smaller then. As the journal Foreign Affairs observed: “Whatever the exact number is, it seems almost certain that the modern global slave trade is larger in absolute terms than the Atlantic slave trade in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was.”

The British antislavery efforts led to a brief war with Brazil in 1850 and to war scares with the United States in 1841 and with Spain in 1853, as well as to sustained tense relations with France. Yet Britain did not flinch. Its example ultimately prompted France to abolish slavery in 1848, inspired the American abolitionists and the Emancipation Proclamation, and pushed Cuba to enforce a ban on slave imports in 1867, in effect ending the transatlantic slave trade. Two scholars, Chaim Kaufmann and Robert Pape, calculate that for sixty years Britain sacrificed an annual average of 1.8 percentage points of its GNP because of its moral commitment to ending slavery. That is an astonishing total, cumulatively amounting to more than an entire year’s GNP for Great Britain (for the United States today, it would be the equivalent of sacrificing more than $14 trillion), a significant and sustained sacrifice in the British standard of living.

In the same way, these days, the “serious issues” are typically assumed to be terrorism or the economy. But the moral issue of the subjugation of women isn’t frivolous today any more than slavery was in the 1790s. Decades from now, people will look back and wonder how societies could have acquiesced in a sex slave trade in the twenty-first century that, as we’ve seen, is bigger than the transatlantic slave trade was in the nineteenth. They will be perplexed that we shrugged as a lack of investment in maternal health caused half a million women to perish in childbirth each year. Leadership must come from the developing world itself, and that is beginning to happen. In India, Africa, and the Middle East, men and women alike are pushing for greater equality. These people need our support. In the 1960s, blacks like Dr.

pages: 452 words: 135,790

Seeds of Hope: Wisdom and Wonder From the World of Plants by Jane Goodall

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, European colonialism, Google Earth, illegal immigration, language of flowers, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, phenotype, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade

Thomas Clarkson, The History of the Rise, Progress, and Accomplishment of the Abolition of the Slave-Trade, by the British Parliament (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1839). “Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade,” UK National Archives, accessed August 16, 2013, 6. “12.5 million people” Ibid. “Assessing the Slave Trade: Estimates,” Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database, accessed August 16, 2013, 7. “mainly from West and Central Africa” David Eltis, “A Brief Overview of the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade,” last modified 2007, 8. “were forced to work on plantations” Ibid. 9. “sugarcane, tobacco, cotton, rice” Ibid.

The development of these plantations thus went hand in hand with the expansion of the colonies—particularly those of Britain, France, Holland, Spain, and Portugal—in tropical and subtropical countries, including those in the Caribbean and the Americas. However, in order to be economically successful, the colonial invaders needed plentiful supplies of cheap labor—and it was this that led to the transatlantic slave trade. The first African slaves were traded by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century, and during the following four hundred years or so an estimated 12.5 million people were abducted from their homes, mainly from West and Central Africa, and shipped to the European colonies. Most were forced to work on the plantations. And those plantations not only led to massive human suffering but were (and still are) extremely damaging to the environment.

Norimitsu Onishi, “The Bondage of Poverty That Produces Chocolate,” New York Times, July 29, 2001, Alan Rice, “Life on Plantations,” Revealing Histories: Remembering Slavery, accessed August 23, 2013, 29. “lured from impoverished Mali” Onishi, op. cit., Sudarsan Raghavan and Sumana Chatterjee, “A Taste of Slavery,” [copy], Knight Ridder Newspapers, June 24, 2001, 30.

pages: 1,072 words: 297,437

Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader


agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

., Lockwood, D.H., and Caldwell, J.R., 1965, ‘Lactase deficiency in the adult’, The Lancet, 2 January, pp. 14 – 18 Curtin, P.D., 1969, The Atlantic Slave Trade: a Census, Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press Curtin, P.D. (ed.), 1967, Africa Remembered: Narratives by West Africans from the Era of the Slave Trade, Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press Curtin, P.D., 1975, Economic Change in Precolonial Africa, Madison, Wis., University of Wisconsin Press Curtin, Philip D., 1984, Cross-cultural Trade in World History, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Curtin, Philip D., and Vansina, Jan, 1964, ‘Sources of the nineteenth century Atlantic slave trade’, J. Afr. Hist., vol. 5, pp. 185 – 208 Curtin, P., Feierman, S., Thompson, L., Vansina, J., 1978, African History, London, Longman Curtis, H., and Barnes, N.

., 1963, A History of Domesticated Animals, London, Hutchinson INDEX ANC (African National Congress), 672, 675 Abako (Alliance des Ba-Kongo), 649 Abiola, Chief Moshood, 664 Abir (Anglo-Belgian India-Rubber Company), 538 – 40 Abushiri, 578 Abyssinia, 324 Acacus mountains, 170 Accra, 640 Achebe, Chinua, 275, 368 Achimota College, 621f Addis Ababa, 577, 659f Addo National Park, 253 Aden, 203, 345, 583 Aden, Gulf of, 197 Adowa, 577 Adrar Bous, 155 Adulis, 199f, 201, 202 – 3, 209f, 214, 296 Aegyptopithecus, 32 – 3, 35, 45 – 6 Afar depression, 64, 67 Afonso I, king of Kongo, 366f, 421 Afonso IV, king of Portugal, 325 Afonso V, king of Portugal, 334, 337 ‘African Eve’, 92 African National Congress (ANC), 672, 675 African Plate, 9 African studies, 607 – 8 Afrikaners, 459, 479 – 90, 594ff, 597, 637; see also: Boers; Trekboers; Voortrekkers Afro-Asiatic language family, 107, 174, 176, 178, 297 ‘Afro-European sapiens hypothesis’, 90 – 91, 92 Agadez, 180 Agaja, king of Dahomey, 413 age-grade system, 258 – 9, 275, 278, 360 agriculture/food production: Aksum, 209f, 214; and barter, 262; and cattle herding, 157f, 300f; decline in output, 675 – 6; development of, 142f, 145 – 53, 158 – 60, 161, 163, 243 – 56; and disease, 240 – 41; and education, 620; effect of introduction of cassava and maize, 406; and elephants, 252 – 6; FAO survey, 243; inland Niger delta, 222, 226, 248; Iron Age, 182; and plough, 203, 501; and slave labour, 423; Ukara, 248 – 52; mentioned, 192, 257 – 8; see also: domestication; and under names of individual crops Air mountains, 180 Akan, 336, 385f, 391, 415 Akintola, Chief, 661 Aksum, 199, 200 – 16, 217, 219, 225, 278, 296, 342; see also Axum Albasini, Joao, 497 Albert, Lake, 264 Alexandria, 345 Algarve, 326 Algeria, 76, 91, 580f, 601, 604, 634 Algoa Bay, 458f Alliance des Ba-Kongo (Abako), 649 Almoravids, 277 altitude, 205 aluminium, 220 Álvares, Father Francisco, 290, 356 – 9, 360, 362, 363 amakhanda, 472 Amanitere, Queen, 192 – 3 Amboseli basin, 254 American Anthropological Association, 369 American Colonization Society, 420 American Declaration of Independence, 419 Americas, the, 3, 233, 285, 324, 370 – 71, 372, 383, 405, 470, 519; see also: North America; United States Amersfoort, 447 Amiens, treaty of (1803), 453 amino acids, 208 Amsterdam 389, 408 Anatolia, 178f, 188 Andropogon greenwayi, 101 Anglo-Belgian India-Rubber Company (Abir), 538 – 40 Anglo-Boer war (1899 – 1902), 511 – 12, 587, 594 – 8 Anglo-French agreement (1889), 568 – 9 Anglo-German Treaty (1900), 565f Anglo-Portuguese Treaty, 533f Angola, 141, 338, 371, 385, 399, 409, 411, 432, 469, 521, 532, 548, 569, 580, 582, 613f, 633, 649 Angra Pequena (South-West Africa, now Namibia), 533, 571; see also: Namibia; South-West Africa animals/mammals, characteristics, 29; and climate, 139, 140 – 41; cooling system, 83 – 4; disease, 240 (see also rinderpest); dispersal, 39; domestication, 154, 155 – 7, 160, 164f, 267; in Ethiopia, 206; evolutionary process, 28, 39 – 40, 50 – 51; fat reserves, 123; fossils, 25 – 6, 27, 31, 39, 50 – 51, 57; migrating, 62; moving on four legs, 58; savanna species, 123, 124; and sleep, 129; and vegetation, 100, 101 – 2; see also: livestock; meat; primates; and under names of individual animals Alvares, Francisco, 345 Anopheles gambiae, 239 – 40 Antarctic Plate, 9 Antarctica, 2, 21, 40, 138 antelopes, 39, 121, 124, 236 apartheid, 481, 491, 503, 638, 674f apes, 30 – 31, 39, 45f, 58f, 60f; see also: chimpanzees; primates Arabia, 196f, 198, 202f, 207, 209f, 211, 214, 217, 267, 308, 323 Arabian peninsula, 35, 39 Arabian Sea, 197, 351 Arabic language, 175f Arabic texts, 266, 276 – 7, 279, 360 Arabs, 196, 198, 214, 219, 232, 272, 279f, 282, 304, 307f, 309, 313, 315, 322, 332, 349f, 354, 424, 428 Arctic, 40 Ardrey, Robert, 60 Argentina, 519 Arguim Island, 332f, 334, 384f Aristotle, 285 Ark of the Covenant, 215 – 16 arms sales, 668 – 9 Arnot, Frederick Stanley, 550f arrowheads, 135, 141f, 171 Arthur, President, 532f artistic exression 130 Arusha Accords (1993), 669f Asante, 278, 281, 360, 391f, 398, 414 – 16, 422, 575, 578 Asia, 1, 39, 78, 91, 154, 155 – 6, 164f, 176, 195, 232, 267, 291, 294, 540, 567; see also under names of individual countries Assam hills, 165 assimilados, 627 assimilés, 627, 638 Assyrians, 188, 192 Aswan, 25, 187, 189, 191 Aswan Dam, 142 Atbara River, 192 Athens, 195 Atiya, 191 Atkins, John, 408 Atlantic, 24f, 138, 172, 220, 244, 261, 267, 341, 346, 389, 430, 521, 525, 613f; see also Atlantic slave trade Atlantic Charter (1942), 633, 634f, 636 Atlantic slave trade: and African slave traders, 383 – 95; aftermath of, 410 – 25, 426 – 9; beginnings of, 319, 326, 329f, 331, 333f; climatic context of, 426 – 37; description of, 368 – 82; mentioned, 285, 288, 548 Atlas mountains, 9f, 181 Aubame, Jean, 635 aurochs, 154, 156, 164f, 166f Australasia, 3, 233; see also Australia Australia, 1, 90f, 456; see also Australasia australopithecines/Australopithecus Australopithecus afarensis, 46, 51, 56, 64, 75 Australopithecus a fricanus, 59, 67 Australopithecus ramidus, 67 gracile, 67, 69 robust, 68 – 9, 70, 75 Austria, 525; see also Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, 534f Avignon, 343 Awolowo, Chief Obafemi, 627 Axum, 212, 214f, 216, 290, 359 (see also Aksum); stelae, 212 – 13 Azikiwe, Nnamdi, 623f Azores, 327 Azurara, Gomes Eannes de, 330 BIC see Bushveld Igneous Complex Bab-el-Mandeb straits, 203 Babaleye, Taye, 619 bacteria, fossils of, 19 Bagamoyo, 175, 521, 524 BaGanda: people, 169; language, 364 Bailor-Caulker, Honoria, 368 – 70, 422 Bakongo, 649 Baldaya, Affonso Gonçalvez, 328 Balewa, Sir Abubakar Tafawa, 661f Baluba, 649 Bamako, 567 Bambara, 226, 400 Banana Island, 370 Banana Point, 528 bananas, 291, 292 – 8, 301 Banda, Hastings, 624 Bandiagara: escarpment, 259, 400; plateau, 221 Bani River, 221, 224 Bantu Education Act (1954), 481 Bantu languages, 107, 174, 175 – 6, 177, 297 – 8, 303, 366, 612 Bantu speakers, 177 – 8, 182f, 194, 263, 297 – 8, 433f, 435, 441f, 452, 454, 465, 611 – 12, 660; see also: Bantu languages; and under names of individual ethnic groups baobab trees, 564, 565 – 6 Barawa, 353 Barbados, 373 Barberton Mountain Land, 11f, 17f Barbot, John, 406 Baringo, Lake, 48 Baringo Paleontological Research Project, 49, 52 barley, 207f Barnato, Barney, 505 Barotseland, 463, 544, 546, 548f, 552f, 554f, 556f, 558f, 560 bars, 390 barter, 261f, 383, 390 – 91, 391 – 2 Barue, 575 Basuto, 398, 463, 501 Basutoland, 553 Batavia, 446, 448 Baudouin, king of Belgium, 648, 650 Baumann, Oscar, 582f Bay of Cattle (Bahia dos Vaqueiros), 339 Bechuanaland Protectorate (later Botswana), 114, 553f, 555, 582f, 590; see also Botswana bees, 111f beeswax, export of, 411 Behazin, 578 Beijing, 319, 323 Beira, 308 Beit, Alfred, 505 Belgian Congo, 542, 599, 601, 604, 613f, 615, 631, 633, 636, 642, 643 – 51 Belgium/Belgians, 607, 627; and the Congo, 518, 536, 537 – 8, 540, 542, 599, 601, 604, 631, 642, 643 – 51, 652; and Ruanda-Urundi (Rwanda and Burundi), 613 – 14, 615 – 16, 628 – 9, 630, 665f, 668; see also Leopold II Belingwe Greenstone Belt, 309 Belloc, Hilaire, 578 Bemba, 432, 621 Bengal, 388 – 9 Benguela, 521 Benguela Current, 40, 138, 338 Benin (Dahomey), 321, 336, 360, 371, 385f, 390f, 392, 407, 413, 415, 568f, 587, 660; see also Dahomey Benin, Bight of, 336 Benin City, 289, 413 Benue region, 264 Benue valley, 177, 182 Berber languages, 176 Berbers, 180f, 266, 269; see also Berber languages Bering Straits, 1, 91, 267 Berkeley, University of California at, 91f Berlin Act (1885), 536, 599 Berlin Conference (1884 – 5), 581, 534, 570, 613 Bernard Price Institute for Palaeontological Research, 26 Berquem, Louis de, 492 Berry, Duke of, 344 Biafra, 663 Biafra, Bight of, 220 Bigo, 300f bilharzia, 236 – 7 Bilma, 265, 269 Bilsen, Antoine A.

In this Situation they are thrown into the Bottom of the Canoe, where they lie in great Pain, and often almost covered with Water. On their landing, they are taken to the Traders Houses, where they are oiled, fed, and made up for Sale.20 The widespread impact of the slave trade on African society can be judged by the fact that in 1850 over 200 different languages were identified among the 40,000 or so former slaves then living in Freetown district.21 Though virtually all had been enslaved after the transatlantic slave trade had been abolished in 1807 – 8, their origins covered most of West and West-central Africa and included even a few outlying areas of East Africa. Not only the languages of the former slaves was noted, but also the manner by which they came to be enslaved. One-third had been ‘taken in war’, most of them in the raids which horsemen from nomadic groups in the Sahel launched against agricultural communities; another third had been kidnapped, either as children in the manner which Olaudah Equiano had described, or as adults travelling outside their homeland.

pages: 469 words: 146,487

Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World by Niall Ferguson


British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, imperial preference, income per capita, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, night-watchman state, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, zero-sum game

For once the slave trade had gone, slavery itself could only wither. Between 1808 and 1830 the total slave population of the British West Indies declined from about 800,000 to 650,000. By 1833 the last resistance had crumbled. Slavery itself was made illegal in British territory; the helots of the Caribbean were emancipated, their owners compensated with the proceeds of a special government loan. That did not of course put an end to the transatlantic slave trade or slavery in the Americas. It continued not only in the southern United States but also on a far larger scale in Brazil; all told, around 1.9 million more Africans crossed the Atlantic after the British ban, most of them to Latin America. However, the British did their utmost to disrupt this continuing traffic. A British West Africa Squadron was sent to patrol the African coast from Freetown, with bounties offered to naval officers for every slave they intercepted and liberated.

How an archipelago of rainy islands off the north-west coast of Europe came to rule the world is one of the fundamental questions not just of British but of world history. It is one of the questions this book seeks to answer. The second and perhaps more difficult question it addresses is simply whether the Empire was a good or bad thing. It is nowadays quite conventional to think that, on balance, it was bad. Probably the main reason for the Empire’s fall into disrepute was its involvement in the Atlantic slave trade and slavery itself. This is no longer a question for historical judgement alone; it has become a political, and potentially a legal, issue. In August 1999 the African World Reparations and Repatriation Truth Commission, meeting in Accra, issued a demand for reparations from ‘all those nations of Western Europe and the Americas and institutions, who participated and benefited from the slave trade and colonialism’.

At the time of writing, British servicemen had been stationed in Sierra Leone since May 2000 as peacemakers and peacekeepers. Their mission was, fundamentally, an altruistic one: to help restore stability to a country that had been wracked for years by civil war.* A little less than 200 years ago, a Royal Navy squadron was based in Sierra Leone on a comparably moral mission: to prevent slave ships leaving the African coast for America, and thereby to bring an end to the Atlantic slave trade. This was an astonishing volte face, especially astonishing to the Africans themselves.† After the British first came to Sierra Leone in 1562 it did not take them long to become slave traders. In the subsequent two and a half centuries, as we have seen, more than three million Africans were shipped into bondage on British ships. But then, towards the end of the eighteenth century, something changed dramatically; it was almost as if a switch was flicked in the British psyche.

pages: 725 words: 221,514

Debt: The First 5,000 Years by David Graeber


Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, David Graeber, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, double entry bookkeeping, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, informal economy, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, place-making, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit motive, reserve currency, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, sexual politics, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, upwardly mobile, urban decay, working poor, zero-sum game

During the 1760s alone, perhaps a hundred thousand Africans were shipped down the Cross River to Calabar and nearby ports, where they were put in chains, placed on British, French, or other European ships, and shipped across the Atlantic—part of perhaps a million and a half exported from the Bight of Biafra during the whole period of the Atlantic slave trade.55 Some of them had been captured in wars or raids, or simply kidnapped. The majority, though, were carried off because of debts. Here, though, I must explain something about the organization of the slave trade. The Atlantic Slave Trade as a whole was a gigantic network of credit arrangements. Ship-owners based in Liverpool or Bristol would acquire goods on easy credit terms from local wholesalers, expecting to make good by selling slaves (also on credit) to planters in the Antilles and America, with commission agents in the city of London ultimately financing the affair through the profits of the sugar and tobacco trade.56 Ship-owners would then transport their wares to African ports like Old Calabar.

The fifth letter of Hernan Cortes to the Emperor Charles V: containing an account of his expedition to Honduras. London: Hakluyt Society. Cotter, James Finn. 1969. “The Wife of Bath and the Conjugal Debt.” English Language Notes 6: 169-72 Covarrubias, Miguel. 1937. Island of Bali. London: Kegan Paul. Curtin, Phillip D. 1969. The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Curtin, Phillip D., and Jan Vansina,. 1964. “Sources of the Nineteenth Century Atlantic Slave Trade.” Journal of African History 5 (2): 185-208. Custers, Peter. 2006. Questioning Globalized Militarism: Nuclear and Military Production and Critical Economic Theory. Monmouth: Merlin Press. Dandamaev, Muhammed. 1984. Slavery in Babylonia, from Nabopolasser to Alexander the Great (626-331 BC). De Kalb: Northern Illinois University Press.

“The Aro trade system in the nineteenth century.” Ikenga 1 (1):11-26, 1 (2):10-21. Elayi, Josette and A. G. Elayi. 1993. Trésors de monnaies phéniciennes et circulation monétaire (Ve-IVe siècle avant J.-C.). Paris: Gabalda. Ellis, Thomas Peter. 1926. Welsh Tribal Law and Custom in the Middle Ages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Eltis, David, Stephen D. Behrent, David Richardson, Herbert S. Klein. 2000. The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Database. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Elwahed, Ali Abd. 1931. Contribution à une théorie sociologique de l’esclavage. Étude des situations génératrices de l’esclavage. Avec appendice sur l’esclavage de la femme et bibliographie critique. Paris: Éditions Albert Mechelinck. Elyachar, Julia. 2002. “Empowerment Money: The World Bank, Non-Governmental Organizations, and the Value of Culture in Egypt.” ?

pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

.), The Comparative Approach to American History: Slavery (New Jersey, 1969), pp. 121–35 Egnal, M., New World Economies: The Growth of the Thirteen Colonies and Early Canada (New York/Oxford, 1998) Elkins, Stanley, Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life (Chicago, 1968) Elliott, J. H., Empires of the Atlantic World (New Haven, 2006) Eltis, David, ‘The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Reassessment’, William and Mary Quarterly, 58, 1 (January 2001), 17–46 Emmer, P. C. (ed.), Colonialism and Migration: Indentured Labour before and after Slavery (Dordrecht, 1986) Engerman, Stanley L. and Kenneth L. Sokoloff, ‘Once upon a Time in the Americas: Land and Immigration Policies in the New World’, working paper (2008) Fage, J. D., ‘Slavery and the Slave Trade in the Context of West African History’, Journal of African History, 10, 3 (1969), 393–404 Ferguson, Niall, The War of the World: History’s Age of Hatred (London, 2006) Fernández-Armesto, Felipe, The Americas: A History of Two Continents (London, 2003) Findlay, Ronald and Kevin H.

., Legal Aspects of Landownership in Colonial Spanish America (Tokyo, 1976) Schaefer, Christina, Genealogical Encyclopaedia of the Colonial Americas (Baltimore, 1998) Schwartz, Stuart B., ‘The Colonial Past: Conceptualizing Post-Dependentista Brazil’, in Jeremy Adelman (ed.), Colonial Legacies: The Problem of Persistence in Latin American History (New York/London, 1999), 175–92 ———, Slaves, Peasants, and Rebels: Reconsidering Brazilian Slavery (Champaign, IL, 1995) Thomas, Hugh, The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440–1870 (London, 1997) Thornton John and Linda Heywood, Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585 (Cambridge, 2007) Tomlins, C., ‘Indentured Servitude in Perspective: European Migration into North America and the Composition of the Early American Labour Force, 1600–1775’, in Cathy Matson (ed.), The Economy of Early America: Historical Perspectives and New Directions (Philadelphia, 2007), 146–82 Ullrick, Laura F., ‘Morillo’s Attempt to Pacify Venezuela’, Hispanic American Historical Review, 3, 4 (1920), 535–65 Walvin, J., Black Ivory: Slavery in the British Empire (Oxford/Malden, MA, 2001) Wang S., N.

pages: 218 words: 63,471

How We Got Here: A Slightly Irreverent History of Technology and Markets by Andy Kessler


Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, automated trading system, bank run, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, Bretton Woods, British Empire, buttonwood tree, Claude Shannon: information theory, Corn Laws, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, fiat currency, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Grace Hopper, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, packet switching, price mechanism, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, railway mania, RAND corporation, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, Turing machine, Turing test, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

As long as England could keep prices for its cloth down, it would both create new markets AND stave off competition from substitution. Growth protected, and created, by its own declining price elasticity. Put that in your pipe and smoke it. We’ll see it again with semiconductors and integrated circuits in another couple of hundred years. Transportation Elasticity, Sea and Rail Even in the early 1800’s, the British Empire got off to a slow start. The transatlantic slave trade was abolished in 1807, but it wasn’t until another 20 years later that the British would declare the slave trade a form of piracy, punishable by death. In 1833, slavery was abolished in the entire British Empire, after a 5-year trial period, leading to the more commonly known date of abolishment in 1838. The delay didn’t hurt the engine. The plantations in the American South still had slaves, until 1865, and were cranking out cotton for the British textile mills.

pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker


1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser,, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

As a result of recent publicity about the trafficking of people for labor and prostitution, one sometimes hears the statistically illiterate and morally obtuse claim that nothing has changed since the 18th century, as if there were no difference between a clandestine practice in a few parts of the world and an authorized practice everywhere in the world. Moreover, modern human trafficking, as heinous as it is, cannot be equated with the horrors of the African slave trade. As David Feingold, who initiated the UNESCO Trafficking Statistics Project in 2003, notes of today’s hotbeds of trafficking: The identification of trafficking with chattel slavery—in particular, the transatlantic slave trade—is tenuous at best. In the 18th and 19th centuries, African slaves were kidnapped or captured in war. They were shipped to the New World into life-long servitude, from which they or their children could rarely escape. In contrast, although some trafficking victims are kidnapped, for most . . . , trafficking is migration gone terribly wrong. Most leave their homes voluntarily—though sometimes coerced by circumstance—in search of a materially better or more exciting life.

C. 1991. Order without law: How neighbors settle disputes. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Ellis, B. J. 1992. The evolution of sexual attraction: Evaluative mechanisms in women. In J. Barkow, L. Cosmides, & J. Tooby, eds., The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. New York: Oxford University Press. Eltis, D., & Richardson, D. 2010. Atlas of the transatlantic slave trade. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Ember, C. 1978. Myths about hunter-gatherers. Ethnology, 27, 239–48. English, R. 2005. The sociology of new thinking: Elites, identity change, and the end of the Cold War. Journal of Cold War Studies, 7, 43–80. Ericksen, K. P., & Horton, H. 1992. “Blood feuds”: Cross-cultural variation in kin group vengeance. Behavioral Science Research, 26, 57–85.

FIGURE 5–3. 100 worst wars and atrocities in human history Source: Data from White, in press, scaled by world population from McEvedy & Jones, 1978, at the midpoint of the listed range. Note that the estimates are not scaled by the duration of the war or atrocity. Circled dots represent selected events with death rates higher than the 20th-century world wars (from earlier to later): Xin Dynasty, Three Kingdoms, fall of Rome, An Lushan Revolt, Genghis Khan, Mideast slave trade, Timur Lenk, Atlantic slave trade, fall of the Ming Dynasty, and the conquest of the Americas. Two patterns jump out of the splatter. The first is that the most serious wars and atrocities—those that killed more than a tenth of a percent of the population of the world—are pretty evenly distributed over 2,500 years of history. The other is that the cloud of data tapers rightward and downward into smaller and smaller conflicts for years that are closer to the present.

pages: 469 words: 97,582

QI: The Second Book of General Ignorance by Lloyd, John, Mitchinson, John


Ada Lovelace, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, clean water, double helix, Etonian, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, Lao Tzu, Louis Pasteur, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, out of africa, the built environment, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, traveling salesman, US Airways Flight 1549

There’s a difference between ‘abolishing’ something and making it a criminal offence. Although slavery was abolished all over the world many years ago, in many countries the reality only changed when laws were introduced to punish slave owners. You might think slavery is a thing of the past and isn’t relevant to modern Britain, but there are more slaves in the world now – 27 million of them – than were ever seized from Africa in the 400 years of the transatlantic slave trade. And forced labour, using migrant workers effectively as slaves (and also outlawed by the Act), is widespread in Britain today. Under the Criminal Law Act 1967, a number of obsolete crimes were abolished in England including scolding, eavesdropping, being a common nightwalker and challenging someone to a fight. It is odd to think that, in the year England won the World Cup, eavesdropping was still illegal but slavery wasn’t.

pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter


Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism,, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

By September it had crashed, and in December, Jonathan Swift penned “The South-Sea Project,” which started:Ye wise philosophers, explain What magic makes our money rise, When dropt into the Southern main; Or do these jugglers cheat our eyes? And ended:The nation then too late will find, Computing all their cost and trouble, Directors’ promises but wind, South Sea, at best, a mighty bubble. A REGULARITY THAT stands out in these spurts of overenthusiastic invention is the exuberance of the institutions providing finance. This can be prompted by newly discovered investment opportunities—like the Internet or the transatlantic slave trade. But it can also be fueled by changes in the rules governing financial institutions. During the housing boom, financial inventions like floating rate and reverse amortization mortgages were instrumental in bringing less solvent buyers into the American housing market, creating a whole new class of financial product—the subprime loan. In the years of the bubble’s rise, the monthly payments needed to buy a $225,000 house with a standard thirty-year, fixed-rate mortgage and a 20 percent down payment were about $1,079 a month.

pages: 342 words: 88,736

The Big Ratchet: How Humanity Thrives in the Face of Natural Crisis by Ruth Defries


agricultural Revolution, Columbian Exchange, demographic transition, double helix, European colonialism, food miles, Francisco Pizarro, Haber-Bosch Process, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, out of africa, planetary scale, premature optimization, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade

Sugarcane, first domesticated in Asia and brought to Europe by the Arabs in the tenth century, stood to become a particularly lucrative crop, and European demand for sugar soared. But human labor to produce the commodity was in short supply in the tropical Americas, and native populations succumbed too readily to disease to be a reliable source for coerced labor. Africans had built up more resistance to Old World diseases. The trade winds that had brought Columbus also carried roughly 12 million Africans to the New World during the transatlantic slave trade between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. The energy subsidy from coerced human labor, at a cost of feeding, transporting, and purchasing the slaves, earned sugar growers heavy profits during this dark time in human history. The brief period of the Age of Discovery, powered by sails harnessing the sun’s energy in the form of wind, ranks as one of the most pivotal eras of all in the history of humanity’s twists of nature.

pages: 341 words: 111,525

Blood River: A Journey to Africa's Broken Heart by Tim Butcher


airport security, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, failed state, Live Aid, Livingstone, I presume, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade

By the time he died in the late sixteenth century his kingdom was close to collapse, and the region around the mouth of the Congo River turned into a wasteland, plundered by slavers and their ruthless, well-armed African agents. The Portuguese had been followed by slavers from other European nations, including Britain and Holland, who roamed up and down the coastline of west Africa filling the holds of their ships with human cargo. Between the late sixteenth century when the transatlantic slave trade began and the late nineteenth century when European nations finally banned it, the best estimate is that twelve million Africans were forced on board ships and the Congo River mouth was, throughout that entire period, one of the principal sources of slaves. Centuries after it all began, when I visited Sierra Leone, I found evidence of the dominant role played by the Congo in the slave trade.

pages: 357 words: 94,852

No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein

Airbnb, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collective bargaining, Corrections Corporation of America, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, financial deregulation, greed is good, high net worth, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, women in the workforce, working poor

— This book’s argument, in a nutshell, is that Trump, extreme as he is, is less an aberration than a logical conclusion—a pastiche of pretty much all the worst trends of the past half century. Trump is the product of powerful systems of thought that rank human life based on race, religion, gender, sexuality, physical appearance, and physical ability—and that have systematically used race as a weapon to advance brutal economic policies since the earliest days of North American colonization and the transatlantic slave trade. He is also the personification of the merger of humans and corporations—a one-man megabrand, whose wife and children are spin-off brands, with all the pathologies and conflicts of interest inherent in that. He is the embodiment of the belief that money and power provide license to impose one’s will on others, whether that entitlement is expressed by grabbing women or grabbing the finite resources from a planet on the cusp of catastrophic warming.

pages: 366 words: 123,151

The Routes of Man: How Roads Are Changing the World and the Way We Live Today by Ted Conover


airport security, Atahualpa, carbon footprint, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, financial independence, Google Earth, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, off grid, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal

Named by Portuguese slave traders after Lagos, Portugal, the port on the Algarve through which many slaves were brought to Europe, the settlement on Lagos Island had an active slave market for at least two hundred years. Three and one-half million slaves are estimated to have been taken from pre-colonial Nigeria, of a total of 15 million taken from all of West Africa. Britain shipped more slaves than any other country until 1807, when it declared the transatlantic slave trade illegal and set out to quash it. The tribal rulers of Lagos Island who profited from the trade were slow to conform to the new law, which Britain cited as a justification for annexing Lagos in 1861, making the city a British colony. Southern Nigeria, including Lagos, was joined to the Muslim north in a loose affiliation in 1914. Oil was discovered in the Niger delta in 1959; it quickly supplanted palm oil as a major export.

pages: 326 words: 48,727

Hot: Living Through the Next Fifty Years on Earth by Mark Hertsgaard


Berlin Wall, business continuity plan, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, defense in depth,, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fixed income, food miles, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, peak oil, Port of Oakland, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, the built environment, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, University of East Anglia, urban planning

"Once you've paid to protect [the economic value of New Orleans]," Barry added, "protecting the people who live there is almost a throwaway cost." Of course, abandoning New Orleans would also mean abandoning an irreplaceable jewel of America's history and culture. Founded in 1718 by French Canadian explorer Jean Baptiste Le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville, New Orleans is in fact older than the United States. Its riverside market had been a headquarters of the transatlantic slave trade that shaped so much of U.S. history; its musicians gave birth to jazz, America's most original art form. Most infuriating about outsiders' reluctance to help rebuild New Orleans, locals said, was that it was based on misinformation. "It wasn't Hurricane Katrina that put 80 percent of New Orleans underwater, it was the inexcusable failure of our levees," said Sandy Rosenthal, a city resident who cofounded the citizens group

pages: 433 words: 125,031

Brazillionaires: The Godfathers of Modern Brazil by Alex Cuadros


affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, big-box store, BRICs, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, facts on the ground, family office, high net worth, index fund, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, NetJets, offshore financial centre, profit motive, rent-seeking, risk/return, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, We are the 99%, William Langewiesche

A journalist once asked Eike his favorite business book, and he said, “I don’t read business books. My life is a book.” As the biographer Jorge Caldeira tells it, Mauá was early in sensing a point of inflection in Brazil. Well into the nineteenth century, the country had an antebellum South-style economy with no industry to speak of. But in 1850 Emperor Pedro II bowed to pressure from England and enforced a ban on the transatlantic slave trade, Brazil’s most profitable business. Forced to liquidate their affairs, Rio’s slave traffickers found themselves with a lot of idle cash on their hands. And Mauá was ready to leap on the opportunity. A prosperous Rio merchant, he had recently wound down his import-export firm and raised European capital to invest in ventures that few Brazilians had ever tried before. The most important among them was a bank, Banco do Brasil, for which he held a mega-IPO, selling shares to ex-slavers and imperial senators.

pages: 522 words: 144,511

Sugar: A Bittersweet History by Elizabeth Abbott


agricultural Revolution, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, flex fuel, land tenure, liberation theology, Mason jar, Ralph Waldo Emerson, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working poor

quoted in Charlotte Sussman, “Women and the Politics of Sugar, 1792,” Representations, no. 48 (Autumn 1994), p. 57. 393. Wise, Though the Heavens May Fall, p. xiv. (Italics in original.) This is a comprehensive and dramatic account and analysis of Granville Sharp’s legal battle on behalf of English slaves. 394. Quoted in Wise, Though the Heavens May Fall, p. 209. 395. Quoted in ibid., p. 194. 396. Shyllon, Black Slaves in Britain, p. 188. 397. Quoted in Anstey, The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, p. 103. 398. Ibid., pp. 114–15. 399. Ibid., p. 127. 400. Codrington College now serves as the religion department of the University of West Indies and an internationally recognized Anglican divinity school. 401. Quoted in Goveia, Slave Society in the British Leeward Islands, p. 268. 402. Quoted in Michael Craton, “Slave Culture, Resistance and the Achievement of Emancipation in the British West Indies, 1783–1838,” in Walvin, Slavery and British Society, p. 109.

Hochschild, “Against All Odds,” p. 10. 413. Cugoano, Narrative of the Enslavement of a Native of Africa. 414. “Valuable Articles for the Slave Trade,” unknown date, 415. James Gillray, 1792, “Barbarities in the West Indies,” 416. Quoted in Anstey, The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, p. 289. 417. Quoted in Hochschild, “Against All Odds,” p. 10. 418. Anonymous, Remarkable Extracts and Observations on the Slave Trade with Some Considerations on the Consumption of West India Produce, 1792, quoted in Williams, Capitalism and Slavery, p. 183. 419. Quoted in Kitson, “‘The Eucharist of Hell.’” 420. From “London Debates: 1792,” London Debating Societies 1776–1799 (1994), pp. 318–21, British History Online,

Rogers Albert, The House of Bondage or Charlotte Brooks and Other Slaves, Original and Life-like, as They Appeared in Their Old Plantation and City Slave Life; Together with Pen-pictures of the Peculiar Institution, with Sights and Insights into Their new Relations as Freedmen, Freemen, and Citizens. New York: 1890, Anton Allahar, Class, Politics, and Sugar in Colonial Cuba. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellon Press, 1990. Roger Anstey, The Atlantic Slave Trade and British Abolition, 1760–1810. London: Macmillan, 1975. Donald W. Attwood, Raising Cane: The Political Economy of Sugar in Western India. Toronto: HarperCollins, 1991. F. R. Augier et al., The Making of the West Indies. London, Trinidad and Tobago: Longman, 1976. Elisabeth Ayrton, The Cookery of England. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin, 1977. Michael Batterberry and Ariane Ruskin Batterberry, On the Town in New York.

How to Be Black by Baratunde Thurston


affirmative action, carbon footprint, Columbine, dark matter, desegregation, drone strike, housing crisis, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, supply-chain management, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade

Frances Cress Welsing, when one of the babas called out a boy from Baltimore. The kid was wearing a Los Angeles Raiders NFL Starter jacket. These were the height of cool at the time. The baba, referring to the team logo on the front of the jacket, pointedly asked him, “Brother, why are you wearing that white man over your heart?” None of us thought of Starter jackets that way. We then all got a lecture on economic self-determination, trans-Atlantic slave trading, and the importance of symbolism. As I mentioned, I was in this program at the same time as I was enrolled at Sidwell Friends. I think my mother loved the idea of combining two extreme educational influences that would, in fact, check each other. Too much exposure to Sidwell’s culture, and I might forget where I came from, start to value things foreign to my upbringing, and end up a total disappointment to my community by joining the Republican Party—this was unlikely, given Sidwell’s Quaker origins, but still.

Senghor is also well known for creating the cultural-historical concept of Negritude, which sought to elevate the cultural history of Africa to the same level as that of Europe. In his own way, perhaps Senghor was living the tenets of a book we’d call How to Be African. The trip had more than met my expectations. I did buy a crapload of kente cloth at amazing prices. I ate local foods. I purchased “African art.” I returned to a site of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. I dodged aggressive street vendors who were so persistent as to follow us for a mile. But the absolute moment of magic occurred while my friends and I were swimming in the Atlantic Ocean. The waves were smooth and massive. I was in Africa looking west back to America, and I thought to myself, “I could die now, and be so very happy.” It wasn’t that I had a desire to die. What I felt, though, was a sense of completion, satisfaction, and contentedness I’d never known before that moment.

pages: 231 words: 72,656

A History of the World in 6 Glasses by Tom Standage


Berlin Wall, British Empire, Colonization of Mars, Copley Medal, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, Lao Tzu, multiplanetary species, out of africa, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

The story of Charles the Bad is taken from Froissart, Chronicles of England, France, Spain and the Adjoining Countries. The account of the spread of distilled drinks into western Europe follows Forbes, A Short History of the Art of Distillation; Lichine, New Encyclopedia of Wines and Spirits; Braudel, Civilization and Capitalism; and Roueche, "Alcohol in Human Culture." For the origins of the Atlantic slave trade and its relationship to sugar cultivation, see Mintz, Sweetness and Lower; Thomas, The Slave Trade; Hobhouse, Seeds of Change; and Landes, The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. The role of spirits in the slave trade is discussed in Thomas, The Slave Trade; Mintz, Sweetness and Power; Harms, The Diligent; and Smith, "Spirits and Spirituality." The account of the origins of rum follows Ligon, A True and Exact History of the Island of Barbadoes; Lichine, New Encyclopedia of Wines and Spirits; Mintz, Sweetness and Power; and Kiple and Ornelas, eds., The Cambridge World History of Food.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Tannahill, Reay. Food in History. New York: Crown, 1989. Tchernia, Andre. Le vin de ITtalie romaine. Rome: Ecole Franchise de Rome, 1986. Tchernia, Andre, and Jean-Pierre Brun. Le vin romain antique. Grenoble: Glenat, 1999. Tedlow, Robert. New and Improved: The Story of Mass Marketing in America. New York: Basic Books, 1990. Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870. New York : Simon & Schuster, 1997. Thompson, Peter. Rum Punch and Revolution. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne. A History of Food. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell, 1992. Trager, James. The Food Chronology. New York: Owl Books, 1997. Trigger, Bruce G. Understanding Early Civilizations: A Comparative Study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

pages: 262 words: 66,800

Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future by Johan Norberg


agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, availability heuristic, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, clean water, continuation of politics by other means, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Island, Hans Rosling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, moveable type in China, Naomi Klein, open economy, place-making, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, very high income, working poor, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

They were forced to perform everyday chores and crafts, to work on the fields or down mines, and they were forced into prostitution. Dick Harrison, a Swedish historian who has written a landmark history of slavery, says that he has yet to find an example of a civilization that did not at some point practise slavery. In academia and in popular debate we tend to focus on particular, modern varieties of slavery, such as the Atlantic slave trade, as I do here, but slavery has always been with us. Between thirty and sixty per cent of Africans were slaves before the Europeans took control of the slave trade there, taken by Arabs or other African tribes.3 In the Bible, slavery is considered a natural, established institution. In the Old Testament, we learn that ‘You may treat them as your property, passing them on to your children as a permanent heritance’ (Leviticus 25:45), and in the New Testament slaves are told to ‘obey your earthly masters with deep respect and fear.

He came to regret this, and concluded that Africans had the same individual rights as the Indians, but this horrible system survived him by more than 300 years. Unlike the indigenous population, African slaves could be continuously replaced by new slaves from Africa as they died, and they became an integral part of the American economy. Perhaps as many as ten million people were taken in the Atlantic slave trade, and the conditions were as brutal as the world had ever seen. Africans were kidnapped and marched to the coast, where they were imprisoned for a long time until a slave ship arrived. Some ten to twenty per cent died in overpacked ships on their way to America, chained by leg irons, handcuffs and neck collars. Perhaps as many as 1.5 million slaves died just on the slave ships. During the Enlightenment, with its attack on hierarchies and traditions, Las Casas’ arguments about self-ownership became widespread among philosophers.

pages: 325 words: 99,983

Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum


Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Norman Mailer, Parag Khanna, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile

Chapter 7: ‘The Audacity of Hope’ 125 the worst possible circumstances: Randall Kennedy, Nigger: The Strange Career of a Troublesome Word (New York, 2003), p. 3. 125 I couldn’t have the assumptions’: V.S. Naipaul, Reading and Writing: A Personal Account (New York, 2000), p. 37. 126 out of this horrifying traffic: See J. L. Dillard, Black English (New York, 1973). 127 Hawkins enjoyed the approval of the queen: Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1850 (London, 1997), p. 156. 128 Caliban, the demonic slave: The Tempest, Act 2, scene 2, line 197, and Act 1, scene 2, line 363. 129 ‘by having some of every Sort on board’: Dillard, Black English, pp. 73-93. See also Dwight Bolinger, Language: The Loaded Weapon (London, 1980). 129 ‘not a house in Boston’: Thomas, Slave Trade, p. 207. 129 a sought-after prize, the Asiento: ibid., p. 237. 130 Defoe had been imprisoned for debt: ibid, p. 236. 130 the conventions of pidgin and creole: Dillard, Black English p. 125. 130 Pope asked the essential question: Thomas, Slave Trade, p. 452. 131 She helped prepare literary people’s minds: ibid., pp. 452-3. 131 ‘compass the earth and seas’: Linda Colley, The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh (London, 2007), pp. 134-6. 131 used to read prayers twice a day: Thomas, Slave Trade, p. 307. 131 was taken up by the king: ibid., p. 465. 132 years of legal wrangling: Simon Schama, Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution (London, 2005), p. 46. 132 200 people at a London tavern: ibid., p. 63. 132 Until 1807, when slavery was abolished: Thomas, Slave Trade, p. 488. 133 Benjamin Franklin attempted a version: Dillard, Black English, pp. 86-9. 133 the true liberators: Schama, Rough Crossings, p. 65. 133 ‘have a wonderful art of communicating intelligence among themselves’: quoted ibid., p. 74. 133 Black preachers were already telling their congregations: ibid., p. 95. 134 ‘the greatest exodus from bondage’: ibid., p. 108. 134 ‘we should beware how we forfeited’: quoted in Linda Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707-1837 (London, 2005), p. 353. 135 ‘a negro becomes a freeman’: ibid., p. 354. 135 ‘What to the slave is the Fourth of July?’

Norman Stone, World War One: A Short History (London, 2007). Frances Stonor Saunders, Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War (London, 1999). Robert and Isabelle Tombs, That Sweet Enemy: The French and the British from the Sun King to the Present (London, 2006). A. J. P. Taylor, English History 1914–1945 (Oxford, 1965). —, The Origins of the Second World War (New York, 1961). Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1870 (London, 1997). Barbara Tuchman, The Proud Tower (New York, 1965). —, A Distant Mirror (New York, 1978). Edward Vallance, A Radical History of England (London, 2009). Nury Vittachi, Mr Wong Goes West (Crows Nest, NSW, 2008). James Walvin, A Short History of Slavery (London, 2007). Jacob Weisberg, The Bush Tragedy (New York, 2008). Stanley Wells, Shakespeare and Co. (London, 2006).

pages: 540 words: 168,921

The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby


1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

These were the War of the League of Augsburg (1689–1697), War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1713), War of Jenkins’s Ear (1739–1741), War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748), Seven Years’ War (1756–1763), War of the American Revolution (1777–1783), War of the French Revolution (1792–1800), Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815). 2. David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (Oxford, 2006), 80; David Eltis, “The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: A Reassessment,” William and Mary Quarterly, 58 (2001). 3. Peter Bakewell, A History of Latin America, 2nd ed. (2004), 153–57. 4. Kenneth Pomeranz and Steven Topik, The World That Trade Created: Society, Culture, and the World Economy, 2nd ed. (Armonk, NY, 2006), 88–89. 5. Arnold Pacey, Technology in World Civilization: A Thousand-Year History (Cambridge, 1991), 100. 6. Davis, Inhuman Bondage, 83–85. 7.

pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein


1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

This led to payouts adding up to £20 million—a figure that, according to The Independent, “represented a staggering 40 per cent of the Treasury’s annual spending budget and, in today’s terms, calculated as wage values, equates to around £16.5bn.” Much of that money went directly into the coal-powered infrastructure of the now roaring Industrial Revolution—from factories to railways to steamships. These, in turn, were the tools that took colonialism to a markedly more rapacious stage, with the scars still felt to this day.48 Coal didn’t create structural inequality—the boats that enabled the transatlantic slave trade and first colonial land grabs were powered by wind, and the early factories powered by water wheels. But the relentless and predictable power of coal certainly supercharged the process, allowing both human labor and natural resources to be extracted at rates previously unimaginable, laying down the bones of the modern global economy. And now it turns out that the theft did not end when slavery was abolished, or when the colonial project faltered.

pages: 695 words: 194,693

Money Changes Everything: How Finance Made Civilization Possible by William N. Goetzmann


Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, compound rate of return, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, delayed gratification, Detroit bankruptcy, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley,, equity premium, financial independence, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, index fund, invention of the steam engine, invention of writing, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, means of production, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, new economy, passive investing, Paul Lévy, Ponzi scheme, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, stochastic process, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, time value of money, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, wage slave

Queen Anne’s cut was 22.5%. The costs were high, but clearly the British saw it as a vector into the lucrative South America trade. Although the principal business of the South Sea Company was slavery, Defoe—and perhaps his benefactor and governor of the company, Robert Harley—envisioned it as a means to extend Britain’s commercial presence in the Atlantic. The asiento not only gave the transatlantic slave trade to the company, it provided cover to set up factories in South America that could become colonies. The award of the asiento must have been particularly painful to Britain’s Dutch allies in the war. The Dutch West India Company (WIC) had colonies in Surinam and forts in West Africa, where they procured slaves. A significant part of the company’s commerce was the slave trade. Now the British had a new company patterned on the Dutch model, and the right to take over the transatlantic trade in humanity.

Atlas Obscura: An Explorer's Guide to the World's Hidden Wonders by Joshua Foer, Dylan Thuras, Ella Morton


anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, centre right, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, cosmic microwave background, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, double helix, East Village, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, horn antenna, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index card, Jacques de Vaucanson, Kowloon Walled City, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, phenotype, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Tunguska event, urban sprawl, Vesna Vulović, white picket fence, wikimedia commons, working poor

Also in Tunisia Lac de Gafsa Gafsa · After appearing overnight in 2014, this mysterious desert lake has been dubbed both miraculous and possibly carcinogenic. Dougga Twenty temples, an amphitheater, and a chariot-racing circle are among the highlights at this well-preserved ancient Roman town. West Africa BENIN Ganvie GANVIE, ATLANTIQUE In the 17th and 18th centuries, a portion of present-day Benin was known as the Kingdom of Dahomey. Established by the Fon people, a West African ethnic group, Dahomey became a major part of the Atlantic slave trade following the arrival of the Portuguese. Fon hunters worked with Portuguese slave traders, traveling around the region hunting for people to sell. One of the ethnic groups they targeted was the Tofinu, who lived in what is now central Benin. Knowing that the Fon’s religious beliefs prevented them from venturing into bodies of water, the Tofinu fled their homes and established Ganvie, a community of bamboo huts built atop stilts on Lake Nakoué.

SIERRA LEONE Bunce Island SOUTHERN PROVINCE During the 18th century, the castle at Bunce Island in the Sierra Leone River was a thriving trade hub. European and African traders visited the island to stock up on guns, gold, ivory, and beeswax, but all these products were peripheral to the main activity: the buying and selling of people. Bunce Island was one of about 40 human trading posts in West Africa during the Atlantic slave trade. From 1668 until 1807, its castle served as a warehouse for tens of thousands of West Africans awaiting transport to America and the West Indies. Rice plantation owners in South Carolina and Georgia favored slaves from Bunce Island due to its location on West Africa’s “Rice Coast,” which stretched from what is now Senegal to Liberia. Slave traders would scour the West African rice plantations, kidnap the skilled farmers, and sell them at Bunce Island to slave ships bound for the American South.

Be sure to stop by the House of Shards, a building with an exterior wall covered in broken ceramic plates, tiles, colored glass, and mirrors. 22275 Highway 36, Abita Springs, about an hour north of New Orleans. 30.478082 90.037632 A half-dog, half-alligator cyclist is one of the Mystery House’s longtime inhabitants. Historic Voodoo Museum NEW ORLEANS Though all its offerings are crammed into just two dusty rooms and a hallway, the New Orleans Historic Voodoo Museum leaves a lasting impression. Founded in 1972 by local artist Charles Gandolfo, the museum focuses on Louisiana voodoo, which evolved from traditional West African vodun. West Africans brought voodoo to Louisiana during the trans-Atlantic slave trade of the early 18th century. By the mid-19th century, the culture of New Orleans had begun to transform the spiritual practice. Voodoo spirits merged with Catholic saints, rituals gave way to processions, and Creole voodoo queens like Marie Laveau rose to prominence. In 1932, a poorly acted, hastily shot horror movie—White Zombie—featured Bela Lugosi as an evil Haitian voodoo master with a crew of murderous zombies.

pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij


agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

Subsaharan Africa's population at the beginning of the eighteenth century may not have been much more than 90 million (the estimate for the global population in 1700 is 650 million), so that if the number of forced migrants was 15 million, this means that one-sixth of Africa's population was taken to the Americas (Fig. 12-1). Anthropologists reckon that the impact of this terrible, catastrophic event can still be read in Africa's cultural landscapes. Not only were entire areas depopulated by the slave raiders as well as through the fighting that attended the campaign, but the price put on human heads set African against African and WHY GEOGRAPHY MATTERS THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE VOLUME AND DESTINATIONS 1701-1810 Fig. 12-1 rekindled ethnic animosities. Children were orphaned or abandoned by the hundreds of thousands, crops lay unharvested, villages stood deserted if they were not burned. West Africa's forest-to-desert trade collapsed, the Islamized interior states broke up, and everywhere the social order disintegrated. Columns of chained Africans marched from ever-deeper inland "sources" to the coastal embarkation stations, never to see their homeland again.

Begun, D. R., 2003. "Planet of the Apes." Scientific American, 289: 2. Best, A. C. G., and H. J. de Blij, 1977. African Survey. New York: Wiley. Charlemagne, 2003. "Europe's Population Implosion." Economist, 7/19: 42. Clarke, R. A., 2004. Against All Enemies. New York: Free Press, 40. Cohen, J. E., 2003. "Human Population: The Next Half Century." Science, 302: 14, 1172. Curtin, P., 1969. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Cutter, S. L., D. B. Richardson, T. J. Wilbanks, Eds., 2003. The Geographic Dimensions of Terrorism. New York: Routledge. Davis, C. S., 2004. Middle East for Dummies. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. Davis, S., 2002. The Russian Far East: The Last Frontier. New York: Routledge. de Blij, H. J., 1971. Geography: Regions and Concepts. New York: Wiley.

pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

.* Beginning in the 1520s, the rest of Europe experienced another flow of displaced people—this time, as the result of Luther’s Reformation. That violent division of Christendom into Catholics and Protestants produced migration on a scale that Europe had not seen since the fall of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century, and would not see again until the First World War.52 The most infamous mass migration was the Atlantic slave trade, which began within a few years of Columbus’s discovery of the New World and which transplanted over 11 million Africans to the Americas by the mid-nineteenth century. As with the seaborne goods trade, this grim business started off modestly. Some 400,000 Africans had been delivered by the year 1600, forced to join some 250,000 Europeans in their New World colonies.53 But the inhumanity had begun and would balloon in the centuries to come.

Retrieved from 50. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision. New York: United Nations. 51. Ibid. 52. MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2003). Reformation: Europe’s House Divided, 1490–1700. London: Allen Lane, pp. 60, 648–649. 53. Frankel, Neil A. (2008). “Facts and Figures.” The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slavery in America. Retrieved from 54. World Bank (2013). “Bilateral Migration Matrix 2013.” Migration & Remittances Data. Retrieved from 55. Manyika, James, Jacques Bughin, et al. (2014). Global Flows in a Digital Age. New York: McKinsey & Co. 56. Eurostat (2015). “Non-National Population by Group of Citizenship, 1 January 2014.”

Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport


active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mega-rich, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, period drama, place-making, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

But despite her newfound swagger, Bristol is also a city with a complex past; here you can explore the legacies of engineering genius Isambard Kingdom Brunel as well as those of the transatlantic slave trade. Mix in the work of guerrilla graffiti artist Banksy and a cutting-edge club scene and you get something real, and just a little rough around the edges. But there’s also a sense that this little sister’s time has come. Return to beginning of chapter HISTORY A small Saxon village at the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon became the thriving medieval Brigstow (later Bristol) as the city began to develop its trade in cloth and wine with mainland Europe. Over the following centuries Bristol became one of Britain’s major ports, and grew wealthy on the proceeds of the transatlantic slave ‘trade’. By the time these shipments of human cargo were finally abolished in the British Empire in 1807, it’s thought 500,000 Africans had been enslaved by Bristol merchants – one fifth of all people kidnapped and sold into slavery by British vessels.

pages: 1,773 words: 486,685

Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century by Geoffrey Parker


agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley,, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, friendly fire, Google Earth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, mass immigration, Mercator projection, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Republic of Letters, sexual politics, South China Sea, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Unlike Americans and Europeans, however, African states did not engage in their ‘continual wars’ for land, but for people: African legal systems did not regard land as private property, so that ‘ownership of slaves in Africa was virtually equivalent to owning land in western Europe or China’.85 Until the mid-seventeenth century, when the ITCZ migrated southwards and the climate of West Africa deteriorated, most of these conflicts for slaves remained small scale and involved elite warriors who fought with javelins and clubs; but thereafter, rulers began to create much larger armies of slaves and mercenaries, armed first with bows and then with muskets, who fought over far larger areas and took far more captives. This change, seen by some subsequent historians as a ‘military revolution’, triggered an arms race in which rulers eager to acquire firearms for their defence traded them for slaves, feeding the dramatic expansion in the transatlantic slave trade as European demand for slaves to work their American sugar plantations escalated. Forced Migration: The African Slave Trade African slavery, which existed long before the Europeans arrived, took two forms. First, rulers used enslavement to remove troublemakers from society: those found guilty of (for example) adultery, witchcraft or theft might be fined more than they could pay and, if their kin-group would not help them, the offenders were sold as slaves (the sale price paid their fine).

., The Manchu Way: The eight banners and ethnic identity in late imperial China (Stanford, 2001) Elman, B. A., From philosophy to philology: Intellectual and social aspects of change in Late Imperial China (Cambridge, MA, 1985) Elman, B. A., A cultural history of civil examinations in Late Imperial China (Berkeley, 2000) Elphick, R., Kraal and castle: Khoikhoi and the founding of white South Africa (New Haven and London, 1977) Eltis, D. and D. Richardson, Atlas of the transatlantic slave trade (New Haven and London, 2010) Elvin, M., The pattern of the Chinese past (Stanford, 1973) Elvin, M., ‘Market towns and waterways: the county of Shanghai from 1480 to 1910’, in G. W. Skinner, ed., The city in late imperial China (Stanford, 1977), 441–73 Elvin, M., ‘Female virtue and the state in China’, P&P, CIV (1984), 111–52 Elvin, M., ‘The man who saw dragons: science and styles of thinking in Xie Zhaozhe's Fivefold Miscellany’, Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia, XXV–XXVI (1993–4), 1–41 Elvin, M., ‘Unseen lives: the emotions of everyday existence mirrored in Chinese popular poetry of the mid-seventeenth to the mid-nineteenth century’, in R.

England by David Else


active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, period drama, place-making, sceptred isle, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

After being in the doldrums for decades, this former hub of shipbuilding, manufacturing and the railways has undergone a transformative regeneration. Crumbling docks have been prettified, cutting-edge restaurants have sprung up, and hotels and designer bars occupy sites that were, until recently, derelict. But despite­ her new-found swagger, Bristol is also a city with a complex past; here you can explore the legacies of engineering genius Isambard Kingdom Brunel as well as those of the transatlantic slave trade. Mix in the work of guerrilla graffiti artist Banksy and a cutting­-edge club scene and you get something real, and just a little rough around the edges. But there’s also a sense that this little sister’s time has come. HISTORY A small Saxon village at the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon became the thriving medieval Brigstow (later Bristol) as the city began to develop a European trade in cloth and wine.

HISTORY A small Saxon village at the confluence of the Rivers Frome and Avon became the thriving medieval Brigstow (later Bristol) as the city began to develop a European trade in cloth and wine. Religious houses were established on high ground (now the suburb of Temple) above the marshes, and it was from here that celebrated ‘local hero’ John Cabot (actually a Genoese sailor called Giovanni Caboto) sailed to discover Newfoundland in 1497. Over the following centuries, Bristol became one of Britain’s major ports, and grew fat on the proceeds of the transatlantic slave trade (see boxed text), as well as from dealing in cocoa, sugar and tobacco. By the 18th century the city was suffering from competition, from Liverpool in particular. With large ships having difficulty reaching the city-centre docks, some trade moved to new ports at Avonmouth and Portishead instead. Bristol repositioned itself as an industrial centre, becoming an important hub for shipbuilding, as well as the terminus for the pioneering Great Western Railway line from London to the southwest.

pages: 142 words: 45,733

Utopia or Bust: A Guide to the Present Crisis by Benjamin Kunkel


anti-communist, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, creative destruction, David Graeber, declining real wages, full employment, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, peak oil, price stability, profit motive, savings glut, Slavoj Žižek, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

The inaugural use of money, then, wasn’t even to record commercial debts but—in currencies of cloth or metal, whale teeth, or oxen, and sometimes human beings themselves—to betoken “debts that cannot possibly be paid.” In Graeber’s book, a certain literalism about money, an unblushing faith in its capacity to determine or discover genuinely equivalent values, is the mark—or blemish—of commercial economies. The most extreme example is slavery. The buying and selling of people is an ancient practice, yet in the Atlantic slave trade Graeber sees the collision of several of his human economies with a late-model commercial one. Long before trade in human chattel, the Tiv and the Lele possessed the concepts, respectively, of “flesh-debts” and “debt pawns.” A bridegroom might owe his in-laws a sister, or a man who had escaped death owe his rescuer a future son. Still, Graeber claims that the violence implied by titles in human life was, before the impact of commercial economies, more potential than actual.

pages: 193 words: 63,618

The Fair Trade Scandal: Marketing Poverty to Benefit the Rich by Ndongo Sylla


British Empire, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Doha Development Round, Food sovereignty, global value chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, open economy, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, selection bias, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Diao, Xinshen, Díaz-Bonilla, Eugenio and Robinson, Sherman (2003) How Much Does It Hurt? The Impact of Agricultural Trade Policies on Developing Countries (Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute). Doussin, Jean-Pierre (2009) Le Commerce équitable [Fair Trade] (Paris: PUF, Que sais-je ?). Drescher, Seymour (1992) ‘The Ending of Slave Trade and the Evolution of European Scientific Racism’, in Inikori, Joseph E. and Engerman, Stanley L. (eds) The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies and Peoples in Africa, the Americas and Europe (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 361–96). Duménil, Gérard and Lévy, Dominique (2011) The Crisis of Neoliberalism (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press). Elliott, Kimberly A. ( 2010) Open Markets for the Poorest Countries: Trade Preferences that Work. Report of the Center for Global Development Working Group on Global Trade Preference Reform.

pages: 240 words: 65,363

Think Like a Freak by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner


Albert Einstein, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, Barry Marshall: ulcers, call centre, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, Everything should be made as simple as possible, food miles, Gary Taubes, income inequality, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, medical residency, Metcalfe’s law, microbiome, prediction markets, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Tony Hsieh, transatlantic slave trade, éminence grise

., “Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Risk of Cardiovascular Events,” The Journal of the American Medical Association 306, no. 20 (November 23/30, 2011); Michael H. Alderman, “Evidence Relating Dietary Sodium to Cardiovascular Disease,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 25, no. 3 (2006); Jay Kaufman, “The Anatomy of a Medical Myth,” Is Race “Real”?, SSRC Web Forum June 7, 2006; Joseph E. Inikori and Stanley L. Engerman, The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe (Duke University Press, 1998); and F. C. Luft et al., “Salt Sensitivity and Resistance of Blood Pressure. Age and Race as Factors in Physiological Responses,” Hypertension 17 (1991). / 75 “An Englishman Tastes the Sweat of an African”: Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University. Original source: M.

pages: 282 words: 82,107

An Edible History of Humanity by Tom Standage


agricultural Revolution, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, carbon footprint, Columbian Exchange, Corn Laws, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, food miles, Haber-Bosch Process, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Louis Pasteur, Mikhail Gorbachev, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce

It was not until 1503 that the first sugar mill opened on Hispaniola. The Portuguese began production in Brazil around the same time, and the British, French, and Dutch established sugar plantations in the Caribbean during the seventeenth century. After attempts to enslave local people failed, chiefly because they succumbed to Old World diseases to which they had no immunity, the colonists began importing slaves directly from Africa. And so began the Atlantic slave trade. Over the course of four centuries, around eleven million slaves were transported from Africa to the New World, though this figure understates the full scale of the suffering, because as many as half of the slaves captured in the African interior died on the way to the coast. The vast majority of the slaves shipped across the Atlantic—around three quarters of them—were put to work making sugar, which became one of the main commodities in Atlantic trade.

pages: 427 words: 124,692

Empire: What Ruling the World Did to the British by Jeremy Paxman


British Empire, call centre, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Etonian, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kibera, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, mass immigration, offshore financial centre, polynesian navigation, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

Within three months in 1756, for example, Thistlewood records that ‘[a slave named] Derby catched eating canes. Had him well flogged and pickled, then made Hector [another slave] shit in his mouth’, that he ‘rubbed Hazat with molasses and exposed him naked to the flies all day, and to the mosquitos all night’, and that he ‘flogged Punch well, and then washed and rubbed in salt pickle, lime juice and bird pepper; made Negro Joe piss in his eyes and mouth’. The horrors of the Atlantic slave trade are now part of school history lessons, the cruelties the British inflicted on fellow human beings rightly taught as a cause of shame. The mechanics of the business, in which tribal chiefs collected captives from further and further into the interior of Africa for sale to the traders, the British creation of marshalling forts on the ‘slave coast’ between the Niger and Volta rivers, the disgusting conditions of the packed slaves on the ‘Middle Passage’ of the triangular trade and, at journey’s end, the presentation of men, women and children like beasts in a market, should all be engraved on the national conscience.

pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser


affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

National Bureau of Economic Research, Internet TAXSIM Version 8.2 Home Page, Taylor, George Rogers. The Transportation Revolution, 1815-1860. New York: Rinehart, 1951. Taylor, Philip M. Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2003. Thomas, Hugh. The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440-1870. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. Thomas, June Manning. “Planning and Industrial Decline: Lessons from Postwar Detroit.” Journal of the American Planning Association 56, no. 3 (Sept. 1990): 297-310. Thomas, Lately. Delmonico’s: A Century of Splendor. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967. Thompson, Heather Ann. Whose Detroit? Politics, Labor, and Race in a Modern American City. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.

pages: 497 words: 123,718

A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hit Men and the Web of Global Corruption by Steven Hiatt; John Perkins


airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, financial deregulation, financial independence, full employment, global village, high net worth, land reform, large denomination, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Colonizing powers have always used armed forces to protect their commercial assets in the Delta. The role he was playing had changed little from that of an English mariner in the 1660s. Then soldiers were employed by the Royal Navy and sent to protect the ships of the Royal African Company, which were transporting slaves from the creeks of the Delta to the American colonies. For 150 years Britain played a pivotal role in the Atlantic slave trade. After slavery came palm oil plantations. Now the exploited resources are oil and gas. The security liaison officer was about to be caught up in the vortex of violence that has swirled over the Niger Delta for the past four decades. The heart of the crisis is oil—who controls it, who benefits, and who suffers as a result. For forty years the communities of the Niger Delta have been campaigning for a greater share of the oil wealth that has been pumped from under their land.

pages: 508 words: 192,524

The autobiography of Malcolm X by Malcolm X; Alex Haley


desegregation, index card, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, rent control, Rosa Parks, transatlantic slave trade

“_Before_ we could function beyond the humiliation of Southern bigotry-there was Malcolm X. ”_Before_ we could come to know Africa's glorious past-there was Malcolm X. “_Before_ we could find our self-esteem and self-respect-there was Malcolm X. ”And we owe him so dearly in ways our young must never be allowed to forget. "Where we have now the very possibility of courage-we _owe_ Malcolm X. "Where we have the wisdom to search for our history before the Atlantic slave trade-we _owe_ Malcolm X. "Where we have the political integrity to simply stand for something because it is right-we _owe_ Malcolm X. “It is not often that an American government institution honors those who embody a whole and uncompromised truth. But today is one such rare occasion. And I will keep it in my heart for the rest of my life.” *** At that moment, Brother Robinson spoke for all of us, and I will forever carry in my heart the sincerities of that ceremony.

pages: 650 words: 203,191

After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin


agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade

These features can be briefly summarized as follows: 1. the appearance of a single global market – not for all but for most widely used products, and also for the supply of capital, credit and financial services; 2. the intense interaction between states that may be geographically very distant but whose interests (even in the case of very small states) have become global, not regional; 3. the deep penetration of most cultures by globally organized media, whose commercial and cultural messages (especially through the language of ‘brands’) have become almost inseparable; 4. the huge scale of migrations and diasporas (forced and free), creating networks and connections that rival the impact of the great European out-migration of the nineteenth century or the Atlantic slave trade; 5. the emergence from the wreck of the ‘bipolar age’ (1945–89) of a single ‘hyperpower’, whose economic and military strength, in relation to all other states, has had no parallel in modern world history; 6. the dramatic resurgence of China and India as manufacturing powers. In hugely increasing world output and shifting the balance of the world economy, the economic mobilization of their vast populations (1.3 billion and 1 billion respectively) has been likened to the opening of vast new lands in the nineteenth century.

pages: 661 words: 187,613

The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language by Steven Pinker


Albert Einstein, cloud computing, David Attenborough, double helix, Drosophila, elephant in my pajamas, finite state, illegal immigration, Loebner Prize, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, out of africa, P = NP, phenotype, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Saturday Night Live, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, Turing test, Yogi Berra

Here, one would think, linguistics runs into the problem of any historical science: no one recorded the crucial events at the time they happened. Although historical linguists can trace modern complex languages back to earlier ones, this just pushes the problem back a step; we need to see how people create a complex language from scratch. Amazingly, we can. The first cases were wrung from two of the more sorrowful episodes of world history, the Atlantic slave trade and indentured servitude in the South Pacific. Perhaps mindful of the Tower of Babel, some of the masters of tobacco, cotton, coffee, and sugar plantations deliberately mixed slaves and laborers from different language backgrounds; others preferred specific ethnicities but had to accept mixtures because that was all that was available. When speakers of different languages have to communicate to carry out practical tasks but do not have the opportunity to learn one another’s languages, they develop a makeshift jargon called a pidgin.

pages: 775 words: 208,604

The Great Leveler: Violence and the History of Inequality From the Stone Age to the Twenty-First Century by Walter Scheidel

agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, corporate governance, cosmological principle, crony capitalism, dark matter, declining real wages, demographic transition, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, John Markoff, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, means of production, mega-rich, Network effects, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, rent control, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, universal basic income, very high income, working-age population, zero-sum game

After colonial rule succumbed to local risings triggered by Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808, the newly formed states soon passed emancipation laws. In chapter 6 I discussed the violent destruction of slavery in the American Civil War, in which the uncompensated expropriation of slave owners was partly offset by collateral damage to non-elite groups that reduced the overall extent of leveling. Meanwhile, the British suppression of the Atlantic slave trade, essentially an act of state violence, had contributed to the decline of what remained of Latin American slavery. Brazil and Cuba were the main holdouts. In the case of Cuba (and Puerto Rico), it was once again violent conflict that prompted policy change. Revolution in Cuba in 1868 led to emancipation in part of the island during a war that lasted a decade. Reforms curtailed slavery from 1870 until abolition was achieved in 1886.

pages: 1,261 words: 294,715

Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky

autonomous vehicles, Bernie Madoff, biofilm, blood diamonds, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Brownian motion, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, desegregation, double helix, Drosophila, Edward Snowden,, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, framing effect, fudge factor, George Santayana, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, John von Neumann, Loma Prieta earthquake, long peace, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, mouse model, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, placebo effect, publication bias, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Thus, while the eighth century’s An Lushan Rebellion and civil war in Tang dynasty China killed “only” 36 million, that represented one sixth of the world’s population—the equivalent of 429 million in the midtwentieth century. When deaths are expressed as a percentage of total population, World War II is the only twentieth-century event cracking the top ten, behind An Lushan, the Mongol conquests, the Mideast slave trade, the fall of the Ming dynasty, the fall of Rome, the deaths caused by Tamerlane, the annihilation of Native Americans by Europeans, and the Atlantic slave trade. Critics have questioned this—“Hey, stop using fudge factors to somehow make World War II’s 55 million dead less than the fall of Rome’s 8 million.” After all, 9/11’s murders would not have evoked only half as much terror if America had 600 million instead of 300 million citizens. But Pinker’s analysis is appropriate, and analyzing rates of events is how you discover that today’s London is much safer than was Dickens’s or that some hunter-gatherer groups have homicide rates that match Detroit’s.

pages: 1,199 words: 384,780

The system of the world by Neal Stephenson


bank run, British Empire, cellular automata, Edmond Halley, Fellow of the Royal Society, high net worth, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, large denomination, place-making, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

He found no useful information there, save that what they were looking at was rather high up in the air. But he did catch sight again of South Sea House, a very large compound one of whose gates was situated a couple of hundred yards away, on the left side of Bishops-gate. It was bigger, and newer, than the Bank of England. It was, in a way, the Anti-Bank; its collateral, the Thing of Value against which it lent money, was the Asiento: the trans-Atlantic slave trade, wrested from Spain last year in the war. A sudden exclamation came up from the crowd. Dappa glanced to the right, and thought he perceived a trail of black smoke drawn through the air from near the top of the Monument. And then he made a second glance, for the lantern at the top of that colossal spire was disfigured by some sort of jury-rigged block-and-tackle device. A vulgar entertainment for the Mobb, was his guess.