Asperger Syndrome

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pages: 147 words: 6,471

Asperger Syndrome and Alcohol: Drinking to Cope? by Matthew Tinsley, Sarah Hendrickx

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Asperger Syndrome, neurotypical, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), theory of mind

Veronica Bliss and Genevieve Edmonds Foreword by Bill O’Connell, Director of Training, Focus on Solutions ISBN 978 1 84310 513 8 Finding a Different Kind of Normal Misadventures with Asperger Syndrome Jeanette Purkis Foreword by Donna Williams ISBN 978 1 84310 416 2 Survival Strategies for People on the Autism Spectrum Marc Fleisher ISBN 978 1 84310 261 8 Asperger Syndrome and Employment Adults Speak Out about Asperger Syndrome Edited by Genevieve Edmonds and Luke Beardon ISBN 978 1 84310 648 7 Adults Speak Out about Asperger Syndrome series Asperger Syndrome and Social Relationships Adults Speak Out about Asperger Syndrome Edited by Genevieve Edmonds and Luke Beardon ISBN 978 1 84310 647 0 Adults Speak Out about Asperger Syndrome series ASPERGER SYNDROME and ALCOHOL DRINKING TO COPE? Matthew Tinsley and Sarah Hendrickx Foreword by Temple Grandin JESSICA KINGSLEY PUBLISHERS LONDON AND PHILADELPHIA First published in 2008 by Jessica Kingsley Publishers 116 Pentonville Road London N1 9JB, UK and 400 Market Street, Suite 400 Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA www.jkp.com Copyright © Matthew Tinsley and Sarah Hendrickx 2008 Foreword copyright © Temple Grandin All rights reserved.

ASPERGER SYNDROME and ALCOHOL by the same author Asperger Syndrome – A Love Story Sarah Hendrickx and Keith Newton Foreword by Tony Attwood ISBN 978 1 84310 540 4 Love, Sex and Long-Term Relationships What People with Asperger Syndrome Really Really Want Sarah Hendrickx Foreword by Stephen M. Shore ISBN 978 1 84310 605 0 of related interest The Complete Guide to Asperger’s Syndrome Tony Attwood ISBN 978 1 84310 495 7 (hardback) ISBN 978 1 84310 669 2 (paperback) A Self-Determined Future with Asperger Syndrome Solution Focused Approaches E. Veronica Bliss and Genevieve Edmonds Foreword by Bill O’Connell, Director of Training, Focus on Solutions ISBN 978 1 84310 513 8 Finding a Different Kind of Normal Misadventures with Asperger Syndrome Jeanette Purkis Foreword by Donna Williams ISBN 978 1 84310 416 2 Survival Strategies for People on the Autism Spectrum Marc Fleisher ISBN 978 1 84310 261 8 Asperger Syndrome and Employment Adults Speak Out about Asperger Syndrome Edited by Genevieve Edmonds and Luke Beardon ISBN 978 1 84310 648 7 Adults Speak Out about Asperger Syndrome series Asperger Syndrome and Social Relationships Adults Speak Out about Asperger Syndrome Edited by Genevieve Edmonds and Luke Beardon ISBN 978 1 84310 647 0 Adults Speak Out about Asperger Syndrome series ASPERGER SYNDROME and ALCOHOL DRINKING TO COPE?

Poor interaction with people, leading to social isolation, depression, lethargy and lack of ambition. (Male with Asperger Syndrome) Life-long difficulty making sense of what people get up to in their everyday lives and careers. Solitary habits…persistent and obsessive involvement in my own troubles and concerns. (Male with Asperger Syndrome) I can be aloof if I am worried that people do not want me to interact with them. I find it hard to cope with unpredictability. (Female with Asperger Syndrome) He doesn’t like large social gatherings…finds it difficult to figure why other people think as they do, has tantrums… (Wife of male with Asperger Syndrome) Mental exhaustion trying to figure out life, relationships and social dynamics and consequences; three mental breakdowns, two in the past five years. Life-long depressive behaviour. (Male with Asperger Syndrome) Difficult to say. I tend to be my own person, but have problems of stress and anxiety fairly frequently.

Asperger Syndrome: A Love Story by Sarah Hendrickx, Keith Newton

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Asperger Syndrome, fear of failure, neurotypical, theory of mind

Love, Sex and Long-Term Relationships by the same author Asperger Syndrome – A Love Story Sarah Hendrickx and Keith Newton Foreword by Tony Attwood ISBN 978 1 84310 540 4 Asperger Syndrome and Employment What People with Asperger Syndrome Really Really Want Sarah Hendrickx ISBN 978 1 84310 677 7 of related interest The Complete Guide to Asperger’s Syndrome Tony Attwood ISBN 978 1 84310 495 7 Asperger’s Syndrome and Sexuality From Adolescence through Adulthood Isabelle Hénault Foreword by Tony Attwood ISBN 978 1 84310 189 5 Sex, Sexuality and the Autism Spectrum Wendy Lawson Foreword by Glenys Jones ISBN 978 1 84310 284 7 Aspergers in Love Maxine Aston Foreword by Gisela Slater-Walker ISBN 978 1 84310 115 4 An Asperger Marriage Gisela and Christopher Slater-Walker Foreword by Tony Attword ISBN 978 1 84310 017 1 Asperger Syndrome and Long-Term Relationships Ashley Stanford Foreword by Liane Holliday Willey ISBN 978 1 84310 734 7 Asperger Syndrome and Employment Adults Speak Out about Asperger Syndrome Edited by Genevieve Edmonds and Luke Beardon ISBN 978 1 84310 648 7 Adults Speak Out about Asperger Syndrome series Love, Sex and Long-Term Relationships What People with Asperger Syndrome Really Really Want Sarah Hendrickx Foreword by Stephen Shore Jessica Kingsley Publishers London and Philadelphia First published in 2008 by Jessica Kingsley Publishers 116 Pentonville Road London N1 9JB, UK and 400 Market Street, Suite 400 Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA www.jkp.com Copyright © Sarah Hendrickx 2008 Foreword copyright © Stephen Shore 2008 All rights reserved.

Love, Sex and Long-Term Relationships by the same author Asperger Syndrome – A Love Story Sarah Hendrickx and Keith Newton Foreword by Tony Attwood ISBN 978 1 84310 540 4 Asperger Syndrome and Employment What People with Asperger Syndrome Really Really Want Sarah Hendrickx ISBN 978 1 84310 677 7 of related interest The Complete Guide to Asperger’s Syndrome Tony Attwood ISBN 978 1 84310 495 7 Asperger’s Syndrome and Sexuality From Adolescence through Adulthood Isabelle Hénault Foreword by Tony Attwood ISBN 978 1 84310 189 5 Sex, Sexuality and the Autism Spectrum Wendy Lawson Foreword by Glenys Jones ISBN 978 1 84310 284 7 Aspergers in Love Maxine Aston Foreword by Gisela Slater-Walker ISBN 978 1 84310 115 4 An Asperger Marriage Gisela and Christopher Slater-Walker Foreword by Tony Attword ISBN 978 1 84310 017 1 Asperger Syndrome and Long-Term Relationships Ashley Stanford Foreword by Liane Holliday Willey ISBN 978 1 84310 734 7 Asperger Syndrome and Employment Adults Speak Out about Asperger Syndrome Edited by Genevieve Edmonds and Luke Beardon ISBN 978 1 84310 648 7 Adults Speak Out about Asperger Syndrome series Love, Sex and Long-Term Relationships What People with Asperger Syndrome Really Really Want Sarah Hendrickx Foreword by Stephen Shore Jessica Kingsley Publishers London and Philadelphia First published in 2008 by Jessica Kingsley Publishers 116 Pentonville Road London N1 9JB, UK and 400 Market Street, Suite 400 Philadelphia, PA 19106, USA www.jkp.com Copyright © Sarah Hendrickx 2008 Foreword copyright © Stephen Shore 2008 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing it in any medium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without the written permission of the copyright owner except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6–10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS.

Sensory Perception and Solitude 53 5. Me? Us? No One? – Options and Choices for Sexual Pleasure 67 6. Statistics of Sex 83 7. Asperger Syndrome Between the Sheets 93 8. Gender Identity and Sexuality 107 9. Infidelity and Inappropriate Behaviour 117 10. Great Sex! 127 11. Conclusion 137 REFERENCES 141 INDEX 143 Foreword Often shrouded in secrecy and shame, sexuality and intimate relationships can be a difficult topic to just talk about, never mind to research. For people with Asperger Syndrome these challenges are magnified still further due to myths and misconceptions of how we relate to others. However, Sarah Hendrickx has masterfully taken the vastly under-researched area of Asperger Syndrome and sexuality. By directly interviewing people on the autistic spectrum and non-spectrum partners, Sarah has smashed the old theories of sexuality in areas such as desire, masturbation, quantity, emotions (or lack of same), and brought understanding of intimate relations of people with Asperger Syndrome to new heights.


pages: 291 words: 92,406

Thinking in Pictures: And Other Reports From My Life With Autism by Temple Grandin

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, factory automation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), source of truth, theory of mind

They are not able to figure out that Dick, who is now outside the room, thinks that the box still contains a candy bar. People with Asperger's syndrome, who tend to be far less handicapped than people with Kanner-type autism, can usually pass this test and generally perform better on tests of flexible problem-solving than Kanner's syndrome autistics. In fact, many Asperger individuals never get formally diagnosed, and they often hold jobs and live independently. Children with Asperger's syndrome have more normal speech development and much better cognitive skills than those with classic Kanner's. Another label for Asperger's syndrome is “high-functioning autism.” One noticeable difference between Kanner's and Asperger's syndromes is that Asperger children are often clumsy. The diagnosis of Asperger's is often confused with PDD, a label that is applied to children with mild symptoms which are not quite serious enough to call for one of the other labels.

Autism Society of America, Spring T. Grandin, K. Duffy 2004 Developing Talents, Careers for Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism Shawnee Mission, Kansas., Autism Asperger Publishing Co. R. Louv 2005 Last Child in the Woods, Saving our Children from Nature Deficit Disorder. Chapel Hill, North Carolina., Algonquin Press J. McAfee 2002 Navigating the Social World. Arlington, Texas., Future Horizons T. McKean 1994 Navigating the Social World. Arlington, Texas., Future Horizons V. Paradiz 2005 Elijah's Cup: A Family's Journey into the Community and Culture of High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome London., Jessica Kingsley S. Shore 2001 Beyond the Wall—Personal Experiences with Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Shawnee Mission, Kansas., Autism Asperger Publishing B. Trivedi 2005 pp. 36–40.

He could recite long passages from the Bible without making a single mistake. His voice lacks tone, and he looks young and boyish for his age. Clothes and hygiene are low on his list of important things. Mild autistic traits can provide the singlemindedness that gets things done. Hans Asperger stresses the value of people with Asperger's syndrome, recognizing that they often achieve success in highly specialized academic professions. Individuals with Asperger's syndrome who are not retarded or afflicted with extreme rigidity of thinking can excel. Asperger concludes that narrowmindedness can be very valuable and can lead to outstanding achievement. There are few Einsteins today. Maybe they all flunk the Graduate Record Exam or get poor grades. I had to get through school by going through the back door, because I failed the math part of the Graduate Record Exam.


pages: 27 words: 7,627

Intense Worlds by Maia Szalavitz

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Asperger Syndrome, Silicon Valley, theory of mind

Preventing Kai from harming himself by running into the street or following other capricious impulses was a constant challenge. Even just trying to go to the movies became an ordeal: Kai would refuse to enter the cinema or hold his hands tightly over his ears. However, Kai also loved to hug people, even strangers, which is one reason it took years to get a diagnosis. That warmth made many experts rule out autism. Only after multiple evaluations was Kai finally diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, a type of autism that includes social difficulties and repetitive behaviors, but not lack of speech or profound intellectual disability. “We went all over the world and had him tested, and everybody had a different interpretation,” Markram says. As a scientist who prizes rigor, this infuriated him. He’d left medical school to pursue neuroscience because he disliked psychiatry’s vagueness.

It’s just that autistic people become distressed more easily, and so their reactions appear atypical. “The overwhelmingness of understanding how people feel can lead to either what is perceived as inappropriate emotional response, or to what is perceived as shutting down, which people see as lack of empathy,” says Emily Willingham. Willingham is a biologist and the mother of an autistic child; she also suspects that she herself has Asperger syndrome. But rather than being emotional, she says, autistic people are “taking it all in like a tsunami of emotion that they feel on behalf of others. Going internal is protective.” At least one study supports this idea, showing that while autistic people score lower on cognitive tests of perspective-taking—recall Anne, Sally, and the missing marble—they are more affected than typical folks by other people’s feelings.


pages: 265 words: 93,231

The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine by Michael Lewis

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Asperger Syndrome, asset-backed security, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, diversified portfolio, facts on the ground, financial innovation, fixed income, forensic accounting, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, John Meriwether, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, medical residency, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Robert Bork, short selling, Silicon Valley, the new new thing, too big to fail, value at risk, Vanguard fund, zero-sum game

To silence his wife, however, he agreed to have their son tested. "It would just prove he's a smart kid, an 'absentminded genius.'" Instead, the tests administered by a child psychologist proved that their child had Asperger's syndrome. A classic case, she said, and recommended that the child be pulled from the mainstream and sent to a special school. And Dr. Michael Burry was dumbstruck: He recalled Asperger's from med school, but vaguely. His wife now handed him the stack of books she had accumulated on autism and related disorders. On top were The Complete Guide to Asperger's Syndrome, by a clinical psychologist named Tony Attwood, and Attwood's Asperger's Syndrome: A Guide for Parents and Professionals. "Marked impairment in the use of multiple non-verbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze..." Check. "Failure to develop peer relationships..."

Check. "A faulty emotion regulation or control mechanism for expressing anger..." Check. "...One of the reasons why computers are so appealing is not only that you do not have to talk or socialize with them, but that they are logical, consistent and not prone to moods. Thus they are an ideal interest for the person with Asperger's Syndrome..." Check. "Many people have a hobby.... The difference between the normal range and the eccentricity observed in Asperger's Syndrome is that these pursuits are often solitary, idiosyncratic and dominate the person's time and conversation." Check...Check...Check. After a few pages, Michael Burry realized that he was no longer reading about his son but about himself. "How many people can pick up a book and find an instruction manual for their life?" he said.

A few Wall Street CEOs had been fired for their roles in the subprime mortgage catastrophe, but most remained in their jobs, and they, of all people, became important characters operating behind the closed doors, trying to figure out what to do next. With them were a handful of government officials--the same government officials who should have known a lot more about what Wall Street firms were doing, back when they were doing it. All shared a distinction: They had proven far less capable of grasping basic truths in the heart of the U.S. financial system than a one-eyed money manager with Asperger's syndrome. By late September 2008 the nation's highest financial official, U.S. Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson, persuaded the U.S. Congress that he needed $700 billion to buy subprime mortgage assets from banks. Thus was born TARP, which stood for Troubled Asset Relief Program. Once handed the money, Paulson abandoned his promised strategy and instead essentially began giving away billions of dollars to Citigroup, Morgan Stanley, Goldman Sachs, and a few others unnaturally selected for survival.


pages: 377 words: 97,144

Singularity Rising: Surviving and Thriving in a Smarter, Richer, and More Dangerous World by James D. Miller

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23andMe, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, Asperger Syndrome, barriers to entry, brain emulation, cloud computing, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Netflix Prize, neurotypical, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, phenotype, placebo effect, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture

The stronger the correlation between bathroom and dining room quality, the better the dining room you will get if you succeed in getting a home with fantastic bathrooms. SELECTING AGAINST CERTAIN TYPES OF INTELLIGENCE Embryo selection against autism would likely reduce the number of geniuses. High-functioning autistics often excel at pattern recognition, a skill vital to success in science and mathematics. Albert Einstein, Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, and Socrates have all been linked to Asperger syndrome, a disorder (or at least a difference) on the autism spectrum.206 Parents with strong math backgrounds are far more likely to have autistic children, perhaps an indication that having lots of “math genes” makes one susceptible to autism.207 Magnetic resonance imaging has shown that on average, autistic two-year-olds have larger brains than their non-autistic peers do.208 A Korean study found the percentage of autistics who had a superior IQ was greater than that found in the general population.209 Some autistics have an ability called “hyperlexia,” characterized by having average or above-average IQs and word-reading ability well above what would be expected given their ages.

Autistics often consider themselves “born on the wrong planet” because neurotypical (“normal”) humans are so different from them.213 If, therefore, embryo selection reduced the number of autistics, parents would have even greater reason to fear having an autistic child, causing them to even more strongly select against autism-prone embryos. Governments could correct a bias against autistic children by paying parents to have them. Although it seems unlikely that the United States would do this, I can easily imagine that Singapore would. Lee Kuan Yew, the former prime minister of Singapore, described his daughter’s child, diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, as being “intellectually normal . . . good-natured and the best-behaved and most likeable of my grandchildren.”214 Technology might soon reduce the social costs of autism. Much human-to-human communication takes place on an unconscious, nonverbal level. Most neurotypicals send nonverbal signals and automatically incorporate the signals they receive into their behavior. These signals are analogous to your sense of balance, which keeps you from falling over without your conscious mind having to do much work.

Any similarities between this book’s description of hyperlexia and the hyperlexia article in Wikipedia comes from this author having substantially edited the Wikipedia entry. 211. I draw this conclusion based on my extensive understanding of autism and my research on von Neumann. Von Neumann’s well-above-average social skills and the pleasure he took from socializing make this an easy determination. 212. Moses (2009). 213. Born on the Wrong Planet (Hammerschmidt 2008) is the title of one book on autism; Right Address . . . Wrong Planet: Children with Asperger Syndrome Becoming Adults (Barn-hill 2002) is the title of another. http://www.wrongplanet.net is the address of a “web community designed for individuals (and parents/professionals of those) with Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome, ADHD, PDDs, and other neurological differences.” 214. Lee (2000). 215. kjmtchl (2010). 216. kjmtchl (2010). 217. kjmtchl (2010). 218. http://www.sociopathworld.com/2009/08/sociopath-voices.html 219.


pages: 254 words: 72,929

The Age of the Infovore: Succeeding in the Information Economy by Tyler Cowen

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Flynn Effect, framing effect, Google Earth, impulse control, informal economy, Isaac Newton, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, neurotypical, new economy, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, Richard Thaler, selection bias, Silicon Valley, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind

But when I look up at the sky and gaze at the stars, I am joyful. I see a happy ending. I see infovores. FURTHER READING AND REFERENCES CHAPTER 1: THE FUTURE OF THINKING DIFFERENTLY On Mark Donohoo, see “One Man’s Story: When an Autistic Child Grows Up,” April 1, 2008, www.cnn.com/2008/HEALTH/conditions/04/01/autism.jeffs.story/index.html. For the story of Ethan, see Michael D. Powers and Janet Poland, Asperger Syndrome and Your Child: A Parent’s Guide (New York: Collins Living, 2003), chapter 2. To the best of my knowledge, the phrase “infovores” originates with USC professor Irving Biederman. For a good presentation of framing effects, see for instance Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein, Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008). For the Steve Hofstetter quotation, see “Thinking Man: Steve Hofstetter is Your Friend,” November 14, 2005, www.collegehumor.com/article:1632255.

In the Buffett biography, see Alice Schroeder, The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life (New York: Bantam, 2008), 53, 137, passim. On autistics and humor, see Victoria Lyons and Michael Fitzgerald, “Humor in Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 34, no. 5 (October 2004), 521–31. The Dr. Sandi Chapman quotation can be found in “UTD Docs Use Online World to Treat Form of Autism,” July 9, 2008, cbs11tv.com/local/aspergers.syndrome.treatment.2.767511.html. The Jim Sinclair passage is from “Some Thoughts About Empathy,” web.syr.edu/%7Ejisincla/empathy.htm. Jason Seneca’s words are from his essay “An Aspie’s Guide to Everyone Else,” in Voices of Autism: The Healing Companion: Stories for Courage, Comfort and Strength, edited by The Healing Project (New York: LaChance Publishing, 2008), 113–18; see p. 117. For a debunking of the claim that autistics lack compassion, see Morton Ann Gernsbacher, “Toward a Behavior of Reciprocity,” currently at psych.wisc.edu/lang/pdf/gernsbacher_reciprocity.pdf, and also Kimberley Rogers, Isabel Dziobek, Jason Hassenstab, Oliver T.

On the fact that autistics do not show below-average ability to perceive “affect” in music, see P. Heaton, B. Hermelin, and L. Pring, “Can children with autistic spectrum disorders perceive affect in music? An experimental investigation,” Psychological Medicine 29, no. 6 (1999), 1405–10. See Rebecca Delaney, “Music critic describes life with Asperger’s syndrome,” Columbia Missourian, March 13, 2008, www.columbiamissourian.com/stories/2008/03/13/music-critic-describes-life-wth-aspergers-syndrome/. On Oe, see Lindsley Cameron, The Music of Light: The Extrarodinary Story of Hikari and Kenzaburo Oe (New York: The Free Press, 1998). The quotation from the critic is on p. 125. On cognition and atonal music, see for instance Diana Raffman, “Is Twelve-Tone Music Artistically Defective?” Midwest Studies in Philosophy (2003), 69–87, and the literature surveyed therein. One classic work is C.


pages: 786 words: 195,810

NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, assortative mating, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental subject, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Larry Wall, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mother of all demos, neurotypical, New Journalism, pattern recognition, placebo effect, scientific mainstream, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

“It seems that Rain Man has stimulated almost every newspaper and magazine in the country”: “Rain Man and the Savants’ Secrets,” Bernard Rimland. Autism Research Review International, Vol. 2 No. 3, 1988. “virtually unheard of among autistic people”: “Dustin and Me.” more than a million people a year: “Joseph’s Story.” Autism Services Center. http://www.autismservicescenter.org/about/josephs_story CHAPTER 10. PANDORA’S BOX “I have felt like Pandora”: “Past and Future Research on Asperger Syndrome,” Lorna Wing. Asperger Syndrome, A. Klin, F. Volkmar, and S. Sparrow, eds. Guildford Press, 2000, p. 418. “I just didn’t know what the hell to do”: “The Dictionary of Disorder,” Alix Spiegel. New Yorker, Jan. 3, 2005. “Compared to other types of [medical] services there is less clarity”: The Making of DSM-III: A Diagnostic Manual’s Conquest of American Psychiatry, Hannah S. Decker. Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 27.

Thankfully I received only a few e-mails like this one: Like many people, I’m starting to get fed up with the multiplication of psychological disorders such as attention deficit disorder and Asperger’s syndrome. In the old days, if you didn’t pay attention in class, you got whacked, and that usually did the trick for many youngsters. I also got a call from a supervisor at Microsoft who told me, “All of my top debuggers have Asperger syndrome. They can hold hundreds of lines of code in their head as a visual image. They look for the flaws in the pattern, and that’s where the bugs are.” At a conference a few months after my article came out, the grandmother of a young girl asked me to sign a copy of my article that had been photocopied so many times that I could barely make out the text. Years passed, and I still got e-mail about “The Geek Syndrome” nearly every week.

(The station’s engineering department had already been thoroughly infiltrated by hams.) Hedin borrowed a guidebook from the public library, holed up in his ham shack, and earned his First Class Radiotelephone License within six months. He worked behind the scenes in broadcast television for the rest of his life. After discovering that he and his sons were on the spectrum, Hedin joined the Global and Regional Asperger Syndrome Partnership (GRASP), one of the largest support groups for people with autism in the United States. Looking back, he feels certain that a number of hams he knew in the course of fifty-five years of surfing the airwaves would have qualified for a diagnosis. The society of hams also enabled shy introverts to study the protocols of personal engagement from a comfortable distance. “Through amateur radio . . .

Free as in Freedom by Sam Williams

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Asperger Syndrome, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, Debian, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Markoff, Larry Wall, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Murray Gell-Mann, profit motive, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, urban renewal, VA Linux, Y2K

[He was] very knowledgeable but also very hardheaded in some ways." 28 Such descriptions give rise to speculation: are judgment-laden adjectives like "intense" and "hardheaded" simply a way to describe traits that today might be categorized under juvenile behavioral disorder? A December, 2001, Wired magazine article titled "The Geek Syndrome" paints the portrait of several scientifically gifted children diagnosed with high-functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome. In many ways, the parental recollections recorded in the Wired article are eerily similar to the ones offered by Lippman. Even Stallman has indulged in psychiatric revisionism from time to time. During a 2000 profile for the Toronto Star, Stallman described himself to an interviewer as "borderline autistic,"See Judy Steed, Toronto Star, BUSINESS, (October 9, 2000): C03. His vision of free software and social cooperation stands in stark contrast to the isolated nature of his private life.

Stallman considers himself afflicted, to some degree, by autism: a condition that, he says, makes it difficult for him to interact with people. a description that goes a long way toward explaining a lifelong tendency toward social and emotional isolation and the equally lifelong effort to overcome it. Such speculation benefits from the fast and loose nature of most socalled " behavioral disorders" nowadays, of course. As Steve Silberman, author of " The Geek Syndrome," notes, American psychiatrists have only recently come to accept Asperger Syndrome as a valid umbrella term covering a wide set of behavioral traits. The traits range from poor motor skills and poor socialization to high intelligence and an almost obsessive affinity for numbers, computers, and ordered systems.See Steve Silberman, "The Geek Syndrome," Wired (December, 2001). Reflecting on the broad nature of this umbrella, Stallman says its possible that, if born 40 years later, he might have merited just such a diagnosis.

That's because they fail to take into account the vulnerable side of the Stallman persona. Watch the Stallman gaze for an extended period of time, and you will begin to notice a subtle change. What appears at first to be an attempt to intimidate or hypnotize reveals itself upon second and third viewing as a frustrated attempt to build and maintain contact. If, as Stallman himself has suspected from time to time, his personality is the product of autism or Asperger Syndrome, his eyes certainly confirm the diagnosis. Even at their most high-beam level of intensity, they have a tendency to grow cloudy and distant, like the eyes of a wounded animal preparing to give up the ghost. My own first encounter with the legendary Stallman gaze dates back to the March, 1999, LinuxWorld Convention and Expo in San Jose, California. Billed as a "coming out party" for the Linux software community, the convention also stands out as the event that reintroduced Stallman to the technology media.


pages: 287 words: 93,908

Stuff: Compulsive Hoarding and the Meaning of Things by Gail Steketee, Randy Frost

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Asperger Syndrome, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, dumpster diving, haute couture, Honoré de Balzac, impulse control, McMansion

Amy For the first five years of her life, Amy lived with an abusive and neglectful mother who suffered from a host of problems, including alcohol and drug addiction, OCD, and AIDS. Both Amy and her younger sister were in and out of foster placements until they landed at the home of Krystal and her husband. Krystal's household contained a mixture of foster, adopted, and biological children, many suffering from various disorders, including Asperger's syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette's syndrome, and OCD. Amy and her younger sister arrived as foster children and were adopted by Krystal and her husband within two years. Krystal was a very bright and capable woman who seemed undaunted by the problems in her brood. She spoke of them all lovingly, without minimizing the significance of the problems they faced. At the time I interviewed Krystal, Amy was twenty-two, had just finished college, and was living with several roommates and working in New York City.

For all four children profiled here, hoarding was one problem among many, and usually not the most serious one. But it was one the parents could control with some clear rules and careful planning. Perhaps parents' ability to control this problem explains why so few clinicians have seen hoarding in children. When kids are brought to therapists for help, it is usually for other problems, such as OCD, ADHD, or Asperger's syndrome. Hoarding is often not mentioned at all. In addition, mental health clinics do not ask questions about clutter and saving possessions as part of their routine diagnostic interviews. Julian's hoarding was episodic and seemed to occur mostly when he was upset about something—such as his broken arm or his new math class. For most adults, however, hoarding is chronic and unremitting. In our study of the course of hoarding, for instance, less than 1 percent of the cases reported that the hoarding became less severe over time.

Compulsive hoarding in children: 6 case studies. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 2, 88–104. Rufer, M., Grothusen, A., MaB, R., Peter, H., & Hand, I. (2005). Temporal stability of symptom dimensions in adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 88, 99–102. Russell, A. J., Mataix-Cols, D., Anson, M., & Murphy, D.G.M. (2005). Obsessions and compulsions in Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 525–528. Storch, E. A., Lack, C. W., Merlo, L. J., Geffken, G. R., Jacob, M. L., Murphy, T. K., et al. (2007). Clinical features of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder and hoarding symptoms. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 48, 313–318. Tolin, D. F., Frost, R. O., & Steketee, G. (2009). The course of compulsive hoarding and its relationship to life events.


pages: 329 words: 93,655

Moonwalking With Einstein by Joshua Foer

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Berlin Wall, conceptual framework, deliberate practice, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, lifelogging, mental accounting, patient HM, pattern recognition, Rubik’s Cube, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, zero-sum game

Bilington, and S. Baron-Cohen (2007), “Savant memory for digits in a case of synaesthesia and Asperger syndrome is related to hyperactivity in the lateral prefrontal cortex.” Neurocase 13, 311-319. BIBLIOGRAPHY Baddeley, A. D. (2006). Essentials of human memory. Hove, East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press. Barlow, F. (1952). Mental prodigies: an enquiry into the faculties of arithmetical, chess and musical prodigies, famous memorizers, precocious children and the like, with numerous examples of “lightning” calculations and mental magic. New York: Philosophical Library. Baron-Cohen, S., Bor, D., Wheelwright, S., Ashwin, C. (2007). Savant Memory in a Man with Colour Form-Number Synaesthesia and Asperger Syndrome. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 14(9-10), 237-251. Batchen, G. (2004). Forget me not: photography remembrance.

Bolzoni, L. (2001). The gallery of memory: literary and iconographic models in the age of the printing press. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Bolzoni, L. (2004). The web of images: vernacular preaching from its origins to Saint Bernardino of Siena. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate. Bor, D., Billington, J., Baron-Cohen, S. (2007). Savant memory for digits in a case of synaesthesia and Asperger syndrome is related to hyperactivity in the lateral prefrontal cortex. Neurocase, 13(5-6), 311-319. Bourtchouladze, R. (2002). Memories are made of this: how memory works in humans and animals. New York: Columbia University Press. Brady, T. F., Konkle, T., Alvarez, G. A., Oliva, A. (2008). Visual Long-Term Memory Has a Massive Storage Capacity for Oject Details. PNAS, 105(38), 14325-14329. Brown, A.


pages: 302 words: 74,878

A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life by Brian Grazer, Charles Fishman

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4chan, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Asperger Syndrome, Bonfire of the Vanities, en.wikipedia.org, game design, Google Chrome, Howard Zinn, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Norman Mailer, out of africa, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple

Mullany: former special agent for the FBI, pioneered FBI’s offender profiling Kary Mullis: biochemist, Nobel laureate in chemistry for his work with DNA Takashi Murakami: artist, painter, sculptor Blake Mycoskie: entrepreneur, philanthropist, founder and chief shoe giver of TOMS shoes Nathan Myhrvold: former chief technology officer at Microsoft Ed Needham: former managing editor of Rolling Stone and editor in chief of Maxim Sara Nelson: cofounder of the public interest law firm Christic Institute Benjamin Netanyahu: prime minister of Israel Jack Newfield: journalist, author, former columnist for the Village Voice Nobuyuki “Nobu” Matsuhisa: chef and restaurateur Peggy Noonan: speechwriter and special assistant to President Ronald Reagan, author, columnist for the Wall Street Journal Anthony Norvell: expert on metaphysics, author Barack Obama: president of the United States, former U.S. senator from Illinois ODB: musician, music producer, founding member of Wu-Tang Clan Richard Oldenburg: former director of the Museum of Modern Art, New York City Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen: actresses, fashion designers Olu Dara & Jim Dickinson: musicians, record producers Estevan Oriol: photographer whose work often depicts Los Angeles urban and gang culture Lawrence Osborne: journalist, author of American Normal: The Hidden World of Asperger Syndrome Manny Pacquiao: professional boxer, first eight-division world champion David Pagel: art critic, author, curator, professor of art history at Claremont College specializing in contemporary art Anthony Pellicano: high-profile private investigator in Los Angeles Robert Pelton: conflict-zone journalist, author of The World’s Most Dangerous Places books Andy Pemberton: former editor in chief of Blender magazine David Petraeus: director of the CIA, 2011–2012, retired four-star U.S.

., 117 Allende, Salvador, 70 Allred, Gloria, 53 American dream: Imagine movies about, 167–68 American Gangster (movie), 6, 36, 77, 167–68, 169 Andersen, Hans Christian, 104 animals: curiosity of, 6–7 answers to questions: and familiarity as enemy of curiosity, 159 paying attention to, 9 purpose of, 152 and questioning culture, 152 “right,” 146–52 surprising, 63–67 See also: listening anti-curiosity and Cry-Baby movie, 173–74 definition of, 170 of Grazer, 172–74 and “making the case,” 170, 171 need for, 169–85 and “no,” 170–71, 172–73 and when to be anti-curious, 175 and when not to be curious, 173–75 Apollo 13 (movie): and curiosity as shared knowledge, 82 and curiosity as storytelling, 35–36 Hanks’s role in, 148 as Howard-Grazer production, 31 influence of Grazer’s early career on, 6 London showing of, 226–29 Lovell-Grazer curiosity conversation and, 24 reality and, 78 “right” version of, 148 as story of real people, 164 which parts are true, 279 White House screening of, 129–31 See also: Lovell, Jim archiving results of curiosity, 198–99 Arrested Development (TV show), 79, 119 art: of Jeff Koons, 219–21 and Grazer’s interest in painting, 124 artistic curiosity, 199 Ashley, Ted, 17 Asimov, Isaac, 23, 97–100, 110, 281 Asimov, Janet Jeppson, 99, 110, 281 Aspen Ideas Festival: Koons-Grazer meeting at, 221 Asperger Syndrome: and Grazer’s curiosity on behalf of Riley, 162 audience expectations, 112 autonomy: curiosity and, 192 Avco Theater (Los Angeles): Cry-Baby at, 218 Splash at, 108, 218 Backdraft (movie), 31, 45, 128 Bailey, F. Lee, 26–28, 73 Baldridge, Letitia, 87–88, 90, 91 baseball: McCain-Grazer conversation about, 208 baseball cap: as Grazer’s gift to Bush (George W.), 212–13 Beastie Boys, 48 Beatty, Warren, 5, 106 A Beautiful Mind (movie), 6, 31, 45, 119, 148, 163–66, 168 A Beautiful Mind (Nasar), 163, 164 bee-car story, 187–88, 190–91, 285 Bel-Air Hotel (Los Angeles): Oprah-Grazer conversation at, 225–26 Benedict, Barbara, 13, 194–95, 196 Berle, Milton, 217 Bible: Adam and Eve story in, 11–13 Asimov’s literary guides to, 98 bin Laden, Osama, 49 Blatty, William Peter, 5 Blue Crush (movie), 124 Blue sky question, 274–75 Boredom, curiosity as cure, 1 Boseman, Chad, 137 “boss”: asking questions of, 150 in entertainment industry, 141 at Imagine Entertainment, 127–32 using curiosity as, 134–37, 139–43, 144–50 boxing: Mailer-Grazer conversation about, 221–23 Braddock, James J., 207, 221, 222 bravery: curiosity and, 97, 124, 169, 191 Brin, Sergey, 146, 147 Brolin, Josh, 93 Bronfman, Clarissa, 131 Bronfman, Edgar Jr., 128–29, 130, 131 Brown, Brené, 127, 283–84 Brown, James, 101, 137–39, 149 See also: Get On Up Brown, Paul, 57, 278 Bush, George H.W., 42, 276 Bush, George W., 205, 207, 209, 212–13, 221 Calley, John, 17, 18–19, 20, 21, 28, 275 Cameron, James, 178 Captain Phillips (movie), 78 car-bee story, 187–88, 190–91, 284–85 car cup holders, 55, 278 Carrey, Jim, 28, 45, 110, 111, 176 Cartel (movie script), 93–94 Carter, Graydon, 125–26, 163, 203, 206 Casey, Bill, 49 Castro, Fidel, 126, 202–6 CBS, 125, 203, 204, 274–75 Charles (British prince), 226 children: curiosity of, 3, 7, 10–11, 193 and Dr.


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The Book of Woe: The DSM and the Unmaking of Psychiatry by Gary Greenberg

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, back-to-the-land, David Brooks, impulse control, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, late capitalism, Louis Pasteur, McMansion, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, phenotype, placebo effect, random walk, selection bias, statistical model, theory of mind, Winter of Discontent

He sure has a flair for drama. That’s a skill Carley has put to a different use since he got his diagnosis. Shortly after his visit with the psychiatrist, he took over a loose network of Asperger’s support groups in New York, and in 2003, he used his NGO savvy and his forceful personality to wangle money from the Fund for Social Change and turn the network into GRASP, the Global and Regional Asperger Syndrome Partnership, the largest organization for adolescents and adults with Asperger’s. Like AANE, Nomi Kaim’s group, GRASP works to provide patients and their families with information and resources. But Carley has a larger agenda, captured in GRASP’s mission statement. At GRASP we envision a world14 where all individuals on the autism spectrum are respected, valued, and fairly represented; where appropriate supports and services are readily available to those in need; and where people on the spectrum are empowered to participate in policy and personal decisions that affect their lives.

“There has never been an agenda”: Debra Brauser, “Concern over Changes to Autism Criteria Unfounded,” Medscape Medical News, January 25, 2012. 7. “10,000 plus e-mails”: This exchange, not reported in the press, is available at http://grasp.org/profiles/blogs/dsm-5-update-a-poor-poor-descent-into-pettiness. 8. a Carey-penned DSM piece: Benedict Carey, “Grief Could Join List of Disorders,” The New York Times, January 24, 2012. 9. a World Psychiatry article by Jerry Wakefield and Michael First: Wakefield and First, “Validity of the Bereavement Exclusion to Major Depression: Does the Empirical Evidence Support the Proposal to Eliminate the Exclusion in DSM-5?” 10. “set out realistic expectations”: Kraemer et al., “DSM-5: How Reliable Is Reliable Enough?,” 13. 11. a pair of op-ed columns: Paul Steinberg, “Asperger’s History of Overdiagnosis,” and Benjamin Nugent, “I Had Asperger Syndrome, Briefly,” The New York Times, January 31, 2012. 12. “The proposals in DSM-5”: See “Psychologists Fear US Manual Will Widen Mental Illness Diagnosis,” The Guardian, February 9, 2012. 13. The Lancet . . . in a single issue, a report: See http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/vol379no9816/PIIS0140-6736%2812%29X6007-0. 14. “I still feel sadness”: Kleinman, “Culture, Bereavement, and Psychiatry,” 608. 15.

See also Feeding and Eating Disorders Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 48, 73, 84, 98 Foucault, Michel, 19 Frances, Allen, 22, 26, 44–48, 93–95, 119, 148, 167, 190, 230–38, 246, 248, 274–81, 301, 304–9, 330, 332–34, 344, 346–47, 350, 352 articles and blogs on DSM by, 105–9, 111, 120, 123, 127, 130–31, 133, 136–40, 142–44, 155–57, 165, 179, 215, 300, 307, 328–29, 331, 339, 361–63 Chapman and, 293–94 Columbia medical school presentation by, 138–39, 146, 168 in documentary film, 331–33 DSM-IV task force chaired by, 22–23, 47–48, 76, 95–96, 98–99, 106–8, 118, 132, 140, 144–45, 147, 171, 180, 202, 234–38, 264, 271, 314, 332 e-mails to APA leadership from, 209–10 Harvard bioethics seminar address of, 331, 334–35 Kraemer’s broadside against, 311–12 letter to APA trustees from Spitzer and, 109–10 open letters to APA from, 275–76, 306–7 at party for Columbia-affiliated psychiatrists, 95–99, 105 on personality disorders, 262–64, 267, 270 on primary care doctors’ treating mental disorders, 349, 353 Regier’s denunciations of, 173–74, 296 and revision of DSM-III, 44–48, 262–63 at Spitzer’s retirement celebration, 168–69 Frances, Vera, 93–94 Frankfurt, Harry, 24, 134, 317 Freud, Sigmund, 16–18, 24, 30, 31, 35, 38, 53, 91, 111, 120, 145, 168, 197, 262, 272, 347 Freudianism, 34, 39, 41, 50, 58, 62, 123, 261–63, 284, 330 Frotteurism, 72, 235 Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 60–62 Fund for Social Change, 193 Galileo Galilei, 102, 174, 175 Gambling, 25, 57, 86 pathological, 140–41, 320 Gays, 4, 9, 35–36, 42–43, 219, 287 activists, 20, 42, 101, 117, 209 conservative Christian antagonism toward, 233–34 See also Homosexuality Gender Identity Disorder (GID), 100, 182 Male-to-Eunuch, 337 General Motors, 247 General paresis, 121 Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), 65, 141, 247, 308, 313, 323, 348 diagnosis of, 67, 250, 255, 260, 355 Genetics, 239, 267 Gerontophilia, 243 GlaxoSmithKline, 89, 163 Global Assessment of Functioning, 128 Global and Regional Asperger Syndrome Partnership (GRASP), 193–94, 297–98 Goffman, Erving, 19 Goodwin, Frederick, 88 Gould, Glenn, 201 Gould, Stephen Jay, 125 Grassley, Charles, 85–90, 107, 154 Great Britain, 19, 302 Greeks, ancient, 1, 8, 10, 11 Grief. See Bereavement Guze, Samuel, 120–22, 161 Haldol, 348 Hallucinations, 13, 29, 39, 96, 122, 333 Hansen, Helena, 274–75 Harris, Gardiner, 85, 88 Harvard University, 49, 77, 81, 87, 184, 237, 303, 334 medical school, 331 Health and Human Service, U.S.


pages: 392 words: 104,760

Babel No More: The Search for the World's Most Extraordinary Language Learners by Michael Erard

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Asperger Syndrome, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, complexity theory, European colonialism, pattern recognition, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Skype, Steven Pinker, theory of mind

Desrocher, “Neuroimaging Studies of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Adults and Children,” Clinical Psychological Review 26 (2006), 32–49. 229 When someone systemizes, she (or, more likely, he): Simon Baron-Cohen, “The Extreme Male Brain Theory of Autism,” TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 6:6 (2002), 248. 230 higher than doctors, veterinarians, and biologists: Simon Baron-Cohen et al., “The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ): Evidence from Asperger Syndrome/High-Functioning Autism, Males and Females, Scientists and Mathematicians,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 31 (2001), 14. 230 has also found that autism occurs more frequently: Simon Baron-Cohen, “Does Autism Occur More Often in Families of Physicists, Engineers, and Mathematicians?,” Autism 2 (1998), 296–301. 230 relevant work on the obsessional interests of children with autism: Simon Baron-Cohen, “Obsessions in Children with Autism or Asperger Syndrome,” British Journal of Psychiatry, 175 (1999), 487. Chapter 17 232 talented mimics had lower levels of activation in brain regions related to speech: Many of these results and others are discussed in Grzegorz Dogil and Susanne Reiterer (eds.), Language Talent and Brain Activity (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2009). 232 anatomically more complex than those in non-phonetician brains: Narly Golestani, Cathy J.


pages: 372 words: 111,573

10% Human: How Your Body's Microbes Hold the Key to Health and Happiness by Alanna Collen

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Asperger Syndrome, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, biofilm, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, David Strachan, discovery of penicillin, Drosophila, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, Maui Hawaii, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, placebo effect, the scientific method

In the film, despite severe difficulties with social interaction and insistence on his daily routine, Hoffman’s character has an extraordinary memory and is able to recall years of data about the American baseball league. He is an autistic savant – both challenged and gifted. Despite the media interest in it, the remarkable musical, mathematical and artistic abilities of savantism are rare. In reality, autism forms a spectrum of symptoms, from those with average or above-average intelligence – known as Asperger syndrome – to those with severe autism and significant learning disabilities like Andrew Bolte. In common to all with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are difficulties with social behaviour. It was this feature that prompted the American psychiatrist Leo Kanner to identify autism as a distinct syndrome in 1943. In his seminal paper on the topic, he described the case histories of eleven children who shared an ‘inability to relate themselves in the ordinary way to people and situations from the beginning of life’.

Page numbers in italic refer to the illustrations abscesses 37 Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam 255, 256–7 accidents, Toxoplasma infection and 97 acetate 107, 195, 217 acne 23, 129, 141, 142–4, 168 Actinobacteria 226, 230 adenoviruses 75, 76–7, 78 adipose cells see fat cells Adlerberth, Ingegerd 131 adrenalin 104–5 affluence, and twenty-first-century illnesses 46–8 Africa: asthma 50 births 214 diet and gut microbiota 184, 185, 262–3 Ebola epidemic 115 garden warblers 55 personal hygiene 176 age, and twenty-first-century illnesses 48–50 ageing 228, 231, 235, 268 agriculture: antibiotic use 147–8, 160–4, 165, 272 Neolithic Revolution 184–5, 201 Akkermansia 283–4 Akkermansia muciniphila 79–81, 193–4, 258 Alabama 46 alcohol hand-rubs 175 Alexander, Albert 37 Aliivibrio fischeri 12 Allen-Vercoe, Emma 109–10, 111, 112, 259–60, 261–2 allergies 24, 38–9, 43, 44, 48 affluence and 46–7 after Caesarean birth 212 antibacterial products and 171 antibiotics and 130, 166–7 antihistamines 39, 116, 269 bottle-feeding and 223 in developing countries 47 family size and 117, 118 gender differences 51, 52 hygiene hypothesis 117–19, 121, 130–2, 145 immune system and 44–5, 116–21, 130–1 increase in incidence 52, 116 and infections 116–19 microbes and 131–2 probiotics and 242 racial differences 50 Alm, Eric 253 Alps 115 alternative medicine 137–9 Alvarez, Walter 238 Amazon rainforest 262, 282 American Gut Project (AGP) 4–5, 281–2 Amerindians 262–3 amino acids 70, 71, 180, 271 ammonia 176–7 ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOBs) 176–8 anaemia 221 anaerobic bacteria 95 anaphylactic attacks 38 androgens 143 Animalia 16, 17 animals: allergies to 119 antibiotics as growth promoters 147–8, 160–4, 272 coprophagy 245–8 Neolithic Revolution 184–5, 201 transmission of microbes 115 see also individual types of animal anthrax 115 antibacterial products 169–72, 175, 214–15 antibiotics 2, 147–68, 276–7, 281, 285 and acne 143 and allergies 130, 166–7 antibiotic resistance 152, 153, 154–5, 156 and autism 86, 90–2, 94–5, 106–7, 111, 165–6 and autoimmune diseases 167–8 benefits of 168 and birth 163, 215 broad-spectrum antibiotics 156, 270 and Clostridium difficile 157, 234, 250 development of 36–7 and diarrhoea 155, 157, 241–2 effects on microbiota 129, 157–8, 161 as growth promoters for animals 147–8, 160–4, 272 harmful side-effects 5–6, 155–6, 269 and immune system 129–30 and irritable bowel syndrome 64–5 lactobacilli and 206–7 and life expectancy 28 and obesity 147–9, 159–65 residues in vegetables 164–5 and stomach ulcers 74 and twenty-first-century illnesses 158–9 unnecessary prescriptions 152–3, 269–70 antibodies 30, 139, 231 antidepressants 269 antigens 132–3 antihistamines 39, 116, 269 ants 84 anxiety disorders 42, 51, 99, 175 AOBiome 176, 177–8 apes 16 apocrine glands 177 appendicitis 14, 15–16, 43, 223, 266 appendix 13–16, 21, 45, 203, 208, 266 appetite control 67–8, 72–3, 80, 196 arabinoxylan 194 Arabs 46 archaea 8 Argentina 210 arginine 271 arthritis 183, 196 asbestos 170 Asia 47, 214 Asperger syndrome 87 asthma 44, 49 antibiotics and 130, 166–7 bottle-feeding and 223 fibre and 199 immune system and 116, 196 incidence 38, 39, 47, 52 racial differences 50 wealth and 47 Atkinson, Richard 74–5, 77 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 42, 98–9, 105, 108, 175 aureomycin 160 Australia: acne 142 birth 214–15 encephalitis lethargica 173 faecal transplants 250–1, 259 fruit and vegetable consumption 273 racial differences in diseases 50 sugar consumption 188, 189 twenty-first-century illnesses 46 autism 38, 43, 44, 49, 85–96 after Caesarean sections 212 antibiotics and 86, 90–2, 94–5, 106–7, 111, 165–6 autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) 87–8 behaviour problems 88, 108–9 and coprophagy 246 and ear infections 166 faecal transplants and 254–5 gastrointestinal symptoms 45, 85–7, 90 gender differences 51, 89 genetics and 89 immune system and 106, 108 incidence of 42, 46, 53, 88–9 lipopolysaccharide and 141 microbes and 90–2, 94–6, 109–12, 165–6 probiotics and 242 propionate and 107–9 racial differences 50–1 savants 87, 108 symptoms 87–8, 282 autoimmune diseases 24, 38, 39–41, 43 affluence and 47 and antibiotics 167–8 appendix and 16 and Caesarean sections 212 in childhood 49 in developing countries 47 faecal transplants and 254 gender differences 51, 52, 267 immune system and 44–5 incidence of 46 IPEX syndrome 133 probiotics and 242 racial differences 50 T helper cells and 119 see also individual diseases autointoxication 236–8 autopsies 33 babies 273–4 antibiotics 152–3, 158, 159–60, 161–2 bottle-feeding 220–6, 273–5 breast-feeding 216–20, 221, 222–6, 230–1, 274–5, 278, 285 Caesarean births 209–15, 220, 274, 278 caul births 214 colic 215–16 ear infections 151 gut microbiota 131, 217 immune system 208–9, 217, 227 infant mortality 222–3 probiotics and 242 transfer of microbes to 204–9, 212–14 vaginal delivery 209–12, 220, 274, 278 water birth 214 weaning 226 wet nursing 220–1 Bäckhed, Fredrik 66–7, 71, 147, 160 bacteria: alcohol hand-rubs 175 ammonia-oxidising bacteria 176–8 anaerobic bacteria 95 antibacterial products 169–72 antibiotic resistance 152, 153, 154–5, 156 collateral damage from antibiotics 155–6, 157 colony-forming units 244 DNA sequencing 17 lipopolysaccharide 140 and mitochondria 123, 123 prebiotics 258 probiotics 237–44 quorum sensing 136 and stomach ulcers 74 see also gut microbiota; microbes and individual types of bacteria bacteriocins 161, 206–7, 208 bacteriocytes 205 bacteriotherapy 245, 248 Bacteroides 23, 157, 194 Bacteroides fragilis 134–5 Bacteroides plebeius 192 Bacteroidetes 68–9, 70, 81, 185, 186, 187, 191, 226, 282 BALB mice 99 barley 139, 199 basal ganglia 174–5 bats 1–2, 100, 115, 124–5, 181, 182, 236 beans, fibre content 190, 191 Bedouin 201 Bedson, Henry 26 bees 124 behaviour: in autism 88, 108–9 changed by microbes 84–5, 96–7, 112–13 neurotransmitters 103, 104–5 propionate and 107–9 Bengmark, Stig 46 Bifidobacterium 193–4, 196–7, 217, 226, 239, 240, 258, 284 Bifidobacterium infantis 93 bile 145, 263 bioluminescence 12 bipolar disorder 105 birds 54–6, 205 birth 278 antibiotics in 163, 215 Caesarean section 209–15, 220, 274 caul births 214 childbed fever 32–3 home births 214 hormones 220 hygiene 214–15 transfer of microbes to babies 205–7, 212–13 vaginal deliveries 209–12, 220, 274, 278 water birth 214 bison 125–6 Blaser, Martin 162, 163, 182 blood 181 blood pressure 199, 231, 256 blood sugar levels 256 blood transfusions 249, 253, 254 bobcats 84, 97 Body Mass Index (BMI) 41, 69, 79, 161, 188, 193, 197 body odour 175–7 Bolte, Andrew 86–7, 88, 89–92, 94–6, 110, 111, 112, 165–6 Bolte, Ellen 86–7, 88, 89–92, 94–6, 106, 110–11, 112, 165–6 Bolte, Erin 86, 110, 111–12 Borody, Tom 250–2, 254–5, 259 bottle-feeding 220–6, 273–5 Boulpon, Burkina Faso 184, 185, 190 brain: connections to gut 92–3, 104–5, 106–7, 109–10 development of 93–4 encephalitis lethargica 173–4 immune system 103–4, 105 inflammation 108 memories 108–9 microbes and 98–9 neurotransmitters 103, 104–5 obsessive-compulsive disorder 172–3, 174 propionate and 107–9 strokes 50, 107, 183, 199, 256, 268 synapses 120 tetanus 91 Whipple’s disease 85 see also mental health conditions Brand-Miller, Jennie 215–16 Brazil 46, 47, 209, 212 bread 198, 199–200, 202 breast cancer 44, 145 breast-feeding 216–20, 221, 222–6, 230–1, 274–5, 278, 285 Britain: antibiotic use 130, 150–1 breast-feeding 225 Caesarean sections 210, 211–12 Clostridium difficile 156 consumption of fats and sugar 188 diabetes in children 40–1 fall in calorific intake 189 fruit and vegetable consumption 190–1, 273 gut microbes in babies 131 obesity 42, 58 broccoli 198 bronchitis 152 ‘Bubble Boy’ 126–8, 181 Burgess, James 253 Burkina Faso 184, 185, 190, 191, 263 Butler, Chris 153–4, 155 butyrate 107, 195, 196–7, 217, 257, 284 caecum 13, 21, 45, 128 Caesarean birth 209–15, 220, 274 caffeine 73, 74 cakes 198 California Institute of Technology 134 calories: calculating contents of foods 69–70 dieting 149, 186–7 differences in weight gain 77–8 fall in consumption of 189 microbes and extraction of 67, 70–2 and obesity 56–7, 61 Campylobacter jejuni 65 Canada 46, 47, 51, 62, 99, 106, 173, 259–60 cancer: ageing and 49 blood cancer 16 bottle-feeding and 223 breast cancer 44 as cause of death 268 cervical cancer 144 chemotherapy 270 colon cancer 23–4, 144, 145, 258 diet and 183 immune system and 120–1 infections and 144 liver cancer 144–5 lymphoma 127 metabolic syndrome and 256 microbes and 144–5 obesity and 42, 50, 145 prebiotics and 258 shingles and 271 stomach cancer 144 Cani, Patrice 78–9, 80–1, 193–4, 197 car accidents 97 carbohydrates: calorie content 69 dieting 185–8 digestion of 180 effects of 198 fibre 192 oligosaccharides 216–18 types of 197–8 carbolic acid 34, 36 Carmody, Rachel 179–80, 182, 198–9 carnivores 181–2, 192, 203, 263 casein 111, 200 cats 96 cattle 12–13, 181, 192, 201, 204, 272 caul births 214 cells, mitochondria 123, 123 cellulose 191, 192 centenarians 265 Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 88–9, 152, 212 Central America 100 Centre for Digestive Diseases, Sydney 250–2, 254 cervical cancer 144 Chain, Sir Ernst Boris 37 Charles University, Prague 97 cheese 159 cheetahs 124 chest infections 153 chickens: antibiotic treatment 147–8, 165 virus disease 57, 61, 74–5, 76–7, 78 Chida, Yoichi 93 childbed fever 32–3, 34 childbirth see birth children: allergies 38–9, 116–17 antibiotic use 151, 161–2, 165–6 autism 88–9, 165–6 brain development 93–4 death rates 28, 31 ear infections 86, 87, 90, 94, 151, 152, 153, 166, 222 fat intake 190 gut microbiota 226–7 hygiene 278–9 infectious diseases 31 obesity 58, 223–4 twenty-first-century illnesses 49 see also babies Children of the 90s project 130 chimpanzees 102, 245–7 China 47, 209, 249–50 chlorinated lime 33 chlorinated water 172 chlorine 35–6, 62 chloroform 172 cholera 15, 27, 30, 34–5, 45–6, 135–7, 139 Cholera Auto-Inducer 1 (CAI–1) 136 cholesterol 194, 229, 231, 256 Church, Andrew 173–4 ciprofloxacin 157–8 cleaning products 169–72, 175, 214–15 clindamycin 157 Clinton, Bill 10 Clostridium 96, 107, 145 Clostridium bolteae 106 Clostridium difficile 90, 271 antibiotics and 156–7, 234–5, 241, 250 in babies’ gut microbiota 213 bottle-feeding and 222 deaths from 156, 245 faecal transplants 249, 250, 251, 252–3, 259, 260 Lactobacillus and 206 symptoms 156 Clostridium tetani 90–2, 94, 95, 96, 110–11 clothing 176 cockroaches 204–5 coeliac disease 39, 41, 139–40, 183, 200, 202, 212 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York State 7, 24 colds 51, 129–30, 152, 167 colic, infantile 215–16 colitis, ulcerative 42, 49, 144 colon: autointoxication 236–8 colon cancer 23–4, 144, 145, 258 colonic irrigation 237 digestion 180–1 toxic megacolon 156, 245 see also gut microbiota; inflammatory bowel disease; intestines; irritable bowel syndrome colony-forming units (CFUs), bacteria 244 colostrum 217, 219, 220 constipation 62–3, 65, 238, 251, 254 contraceptives 102 cooking food 199 coprophagy 245–8 Cordyceps fungi 84 Cornell University 230 Corynebacterium 20, 21, 168–9, 177, 213 cough, sudden-onset 155 cowpox 27, 29 cows 12–13, 181, 192, 201, 204, 272 cow’s milk 216, 221 Crapsule 259 Crohn’s disease 42, 49, 52, 144 Cuba 210 Cyanobacteria 65 cytokines 48, 105, 106, 141 D-Day landings (1944) 37, 150, 158 dairy produce 200, 201 Dale, Russell 173–4 dander 119 Danish National Birth Cohort 161–2 Darwin, Charles 280 The Descent of Man 13, 14 The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals 92 On the Origin of Species 124, 279 Dawkins, Richard, The Selfish Gene 125, 126 death 235–6 babies and children 28, 31, 222–3 causes of 268 Clostridium difficile 245 diarrhoea and 15 dementia 105 dendritic cells 219 Denmark 52, 161–2, 167–8 deodorants 175, 177, 178 deoxycholic acid (DCA) 145 depression 42, 45, 51, 65, 98, 103–4, 105, 141 dermatitis 23 developing countries: antibiotic use 153–4 twenty-first-century illnesses 53 Dhurandhar, Nikhil 56–7, 61, 74–5, 76–7, 82, 149 diabetes 38, 44, 139, 269 and antibiotics 167–8 bottle-feeding and 223, 224 breast-feeding and 231 and Caesarean sections 212 in childhood 4, 119 diet and 183 faecal transplants 255 gender differences 267 incidence of 39, 40–1, 47, 52, 158 leaky guts and 140 lipopolysaccharide and 141 metabolic syndrome 256–7 obesity and 42, 50, 256 probiotics and 242–3, 257–8 racial differences 50 symptoms 39–40 diarrhoea: antibiotics and 155, 157, 241–2 and autism 45, 85–7, 90 as cause of death 15, 27, 268 cholera 34–5, 135–7 Clostridium difficile 156, 222, 234–5, 241 and coprophagy 246 faecal transplants 250–1, 260 irritable bowel syndrome 62–5 probiotics and 241–2 diet see food dieting 59, 148–9, 184, 186–7, 197, 199 digestive system 180 see also colon; gut microbiota; intestines digoxin 271 diphtheria 27, 28 diseases: antibodies 30, 139, 231 diet and 183 epidemiology 35, 45–6 genes and 10, 43–4, 268 germ theory 34, 236 infectious diseases 27–9, 43, 115, 118, 153–4 obesity as infectious disease 75–7 pathogens 28–9 transmission of microbes 114–16 vaccinations 25, 26–7, 29–31, 35, 91, 118, 165 water-borne diseases 34–6 see also antibiotics and individual diseases DNA: and cancer 120–1, 144, 145 DNA sequencing 4, 9–11, 16–17, 65 human genome 279–80 doctors: antibiotic prescriptions 152–3, 277 hospital hygiene practices 31–4 Dodd, Diane 100–1 dogs 84, 85, 124 Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria 214, 278, 285 Dominican Republic 210 donors: faecal transplants 261, 262 sperm donors 260–1 dopamine 104–5 drugs: gut microbiota and 270–2 see also antibiotics dummies 151 dysbiosis 64–6 dysentery 15, 27 E. coli 62, 239, 254 ear infections 86, 87, 90, 94, 151, 152, 153, 166, 222 East Africa 176 Eastern Europe 47 Ebola 115 eccrine glands 177 ecological succession 208 eczema 38, 49 antibiotics and 130, 166–7 bottle-feeding and 223 incidence 39, 47, 52 prebiotics and 258 probiotics and 242 Eggerthella lenta 271 Egypt 201 Eiseman, Ben 251 elephants 245 Elizabeth II, Queen of England 265 emotions, and irritable bowel syndrome 92–3 encephalitis lethargica 173–4 energy: in food 69–72 mitochondria 123 storage in body 77–8 enterobacteria 131 Enterococcus 219 environment, and twenty-first-century illnesses 44 enzymes 12–13, 180, 182, 191, 192, 263 epidemiology 35, 45–6 epinephrine 104–5 Epstein-Barr virus 127 Eubacterium rectale 197 Eukarya 16 Europe: acne 142 antibiotic use 150, 163–4, 272 birth 214–15 breast-feeding 224 encephalitis lethargica 173 fat consumption 188 hygiene hypothesis 117 racial differences in diseases 50 see also individual countries evolution 11–12, 44, 84–5, 109, 124–6 fabrics, clothing 176 Faecalibacterium 284 Faecalibacterium prausnitzii 197 faeces: and birth 206, 207 coprophagy 245–7 DNA sequencing microbes in 23 faecal transplants 245, 248–57, 258–62 see also gut microbiota families, microbiotas 228 farming see agriculture Fasano, Alessio 136–7, 139–40, 200 fat cells: appetite control 72, 73 fibre and 196 lipopolysaccharide and 141 in obese people 78–9, 141 in pregnancy 230 storage of fat 72 FATLOSE (Faecal Administration To LOSE insulin resistance) 256–7 fats: calorie content 69, 77–8 consumption of 188, 189–90 dieting 186–8 digestion of 71, 180 high-fat diets 192–3, 194 fatty acids 180, 188 fibre: and Akkermansia 81, 193–4 and appendicitis 15 and butyrate 196–7 consumption of 190–1 in faeces 23 Five-a-Day campaign 273 and gut microbiota 191–9, 202–3, 204, 263, 276, 282–4 and obesity 192–5, 197 prebiotics 258 wheat and gluten intolerance 199–202 Finegold, Sydney 95–6, 106–7, 109 Firmicutes 68–9, 70, 81, 161, 185, 186, 187, 191, 226, 282 First World War 28, 36 fish, gut microbiota 205 Five-a-Day campaign 273 Fleming, Sir Alexander 36, 37, 154, 156 flies, fruit 100–1 Florence 184, 190, 191 Florey, Ethel 37 Florey, Howard 36–7 flour, fibre content 198 flu 27, 28, 48, 50, 129, 152, 167 folic acid 227–8 food 179–203, 272–3 and ageing 231 allergies and intolerances 38, 47, 49, 199–202 antibiotic residues in 164–5 calorie content 69–72 consumption of fats 188 cooking 199 digestion of 23 fibre content 190–9, 202–3, 273, 276, 282–4 and gut microbiota 184–8 healthy diet 183–4 Neolithic Revolution 184–5 packaged foods 182–3, 202 preservatives 202 sugar consumption 188–9 weaning babies 226 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 172, 252, 272 food poisoning 15, 63–4, 65, 258 food supplements, prebiotics 258 formula milk 220–6 France 115, 160–1, 211 free-from foods 200 free will 112 Freud, Sigmund 98, 238 frogs 83–4, 124 fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) 193–4, 258 fructose 180, 188 fruit 198, 273, 276 fruit flies 100–1 fungi 8, 84 galacto-oligosaccharides 258 galactose 207, 216 gangrene 34 garden warblers 54–6, 57, 73, 77, 78 gastric bypasses 81–2 gastritis 74 gastroenteritis 15, 16, 62, 63–4, 65, 167, 172, 222 Gattaca (film) 280 Ge Hong, Handbook of Emergency Medicine 249–50 gender differences: autism 51, 89 Toxoplasma infection 96–7 twenty-first-century illnesses 51–2, 267 Generation X 224 genes: appetite control 67–8 and autism 89 cholera bacteria 136–7 coeliac disease 139–40 faecal transplants 261 and gut microbiota 227 human genome 3–4, 7–10, 43–4, 279–80 in human microbiome 8, 11, 279 and lactose intolerance 201 and leaky gut 196–7 mutations 44 natural selection 125, 126 and obesity 60 and pheromones 102 and predisposition to disease 10, 43–4, 268 sperm donors 260–1 and vitamins 228 and weight control 71–2 genome-wide association studies (GWAS) 268 gentamycin 161 George V, King of England 265 germ-free mice 17–18, 66–9, 128, 134, 230 germ theory of disease 34, 236 Germany 46–7 giardiasis 15, 27 glucose 39–40, 180, 207, 216, 229, 256, 257 gluten 42, 111, 139–40, 142, 199–202 glycerols 180 gnotobiotic mice 17 goats 115, 201 Gombe Stream National Park, Tanzania 246 gonorrhoea 215 Goodall, Jane 246 Gordon, Jeffrey 18, 24, 67, 247, 262 GPR43 (G-Protein-coupled Receptor 43) 195–6, 195 grains 190, 191, 194, 197, 198 Gram-negative bacteria 140 Gram-positive bacteria 140 Gray, George 61 Group B strep 215 gut see colon; intestines ‘gut feelings’ 104 gut microbiota 2–4, 18, 21–4 and ageing 231, 235 American Gut Project 281–2 antibiotics and 157–8, 161 in appendix 14–16, 266 and autism 106, 165–6 bottle-feeding and 221–2 as cause of ill-health 236–7 in children 226–7 diet and 184–8 and digoxin 271 and drug outcomes 270–2 faecal transplants 245, 248–57, 258–62 and fibre 191–9, 202–3, 204, 263, 276, 282–4 and gastric bypasses 81–2 genes and 227 and infantile colic 216 and irritable bowel syndrome 63–6 and leaky gut 194–7 meat-eaters 191–2 and mental health conditions 99–100 and nutrition 180–2 and obesity 23–4, 66–72, 76 prebiotics 258 in pregnancy 229, 230 probiotics 237–44 raw-food diet 198–9 role in digestion 12–13, 70–1 transfer from mothers to babies 204–9, 213, 217 tribal societies 262–3, 282 Hai, Peggy Kan 233–5, 241, 245, 250, 251, 252 hairworms 84, 85 hand-washing 172–3, 175 happiness 103–5 Harvard University 179, 182, 198 Hawaii 233–5 Hawaiian bobtail squid 11 hay fever 38, 39, 46, 116, 117, 130, 166–7, 171, 242 healthy diet 183–4 heart disease: appendix and 16 as cause of death 268 diet and 183 digoxin 271 fibre and 199 heart attacks 50, 231 heart valve disease 161 lipopolysaccharide and 141 metabolic syndrome and 256, 257 obesity and 42, 47 statins 269 Helicobacter pylori 21, 74, 144 hepatitis A 119 herbivores 181, 192, 204, 263 herd immunity 30 herons 83 hibernation 61 high blood pressure 50, 231, 256 Hippocrates 61–2, 235 HIV 254 Hoffman, Dustin 87 holobiont 126 hologenome selection 126 home births 214 Hominidae 16 Homo sapiens 16 hookworms 118 hormones: acne 143 appetite control 67–8, 72–3, 80 contraceptives 102 in farming 272 and immune system 267 insulin 167, 256 in labour 220 leptin 67–8, 72–3, 78, 80, 196 menstrual cycle 229 sex hormones 51, 52 stress hormones 93 thyroid hormones 171 horses, rolling in dirt 176 hospitals, hygiene 31–4 houses, microbes in 228–9 Human Genome Project (HGP) 3–4, 7–10, 43–4, 279–80 Human Microbiome Project (HMP) 11, 18, 19–20, 22–3, 162 human papillomavirus (HPV) 144 Humphrys, John, The Great Food Gamble 272 Hungary 33 Huntington’s disease 44 hydrogen, in babies’ breath 216 hydrogen sulphide 248 hygiene 31–4, 168–72, 175–8, 214–15, 278–9 hygiene hypothesis, allergies 117–19, 121, 130–2, 145, 266 hyperphagia 55 idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura 254 immune system 3, 114–46 and acne 144 and ageing 231 and allergies 39, 44–5, 116–21, 130–1 antibiotics and 37, 129–30 antibodies 30, 139, 231 antigens 132–3 appendix and 14–15, 16 and autism 106, 108 in babies 208–9, 217, 227 and the brain 103–4, 105 cell types 132–3 coeliac disease 139–40 evolution 126 and fat cells 78 fibre and 195–6 flu pandemic 48 germ-free mice 128 and gluten intolerance 202 and the gut 45 hygiene hypothesis 117–19, 121, 130–2, 145 inflammatory bowel diseases 144 IPEX syndrome 133 and leaky gut 137–42, 194–7 living without a microbiota 126–8 microbes and 121, 133–5 pheromones and 101, 102 probiotics and 242–3 targets 119–21 and twenty-first-century illnesses 51–2 vaccinations and 30 see also autoimmune diseases Imperial College, London 147 India 56–7, 173, 260 Indonesia 142 Industrial Revolution 221 infant mortality 222–3 infections, and allergies 116–19 infectious diseases 27–9, 43, 115, 118, 153–4 inflammation 145–6 and acne 144 and ageing 231 fibre and 196 leaky gut syndrome 142 and mental health conditions 105, 108 in obesity 79 in pregnancy 229 and twenty-first-century illnesses 243, 268 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) 45, 63, 66 faecal transplants 251 gender differences 51 and gut microbiota 23–4, 144 incidence of 41, 42, 47, 49 influenza 27, 28, 48, 50, 129, 152, 167 insulin 38, 139, 269 faecal transplants and 256 insulin resistance 229, 256–7 lipopolysaccharide and 141 probiotics and 257–8 type 1 diabetes 39–40, 167 intestines 18–19, 22 appendix 13–16, 21, 203, 208, 266 caecum 13, 21, 45, 128 cholera 15, 27, 30, 34–5, 45–6, 135–7, 139 coeliac disease 41, 139–40 colorectal cancers 23–4, 144, 145, 258 connections to brain 92–3, 104–5, 106–7, 109–10 dysbiosis 64–6 germ-free mice 128 immune system and 45 leaky gut 137–42, 194–7, 200 mucus lining 79–80, 80, 129, 193, 283–4 necrotising enterocolitis 222 see also colon; diarrhoea; gut microbiota; inflammatory bowel disease; irritable bowel syndrome inulin 258 IPEX syndrome 133, 135 Iran 210 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) 43, 45, 183 antibiotics and 64–5 emotions and 92–3 faecal transplants 251 gender differences 51 gluten-free diets 201 incidence of 42, 63 and mental health conditions 44 microbes and 63–6 post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome 62, 63 probiotics and 242 Italy 131, 150, 184, 185, 190, 191 Japan 142, 192, 247, 271 Jenner, Edward 25, 29 juices 198 Jumpertz, Reiner 70 Kanner, Leo 88, 89, 108–9 Kasthala, Gita 175–6 Khoruts, Alexander 248, 249, 259, 261–2 kidney cancer 145 kissing 102 kitchens, cleaning 169 Klebsiella 23 Knight, Rob 4, 213–14, 281–2 koalas 204, 217–18 Koch, Robert 34 Kolletschka, Jakob 33 Krau Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia 1–2 Kudzu bugs 205 labour see birth lactase 215–16 lactase persistence 201 lactate 217 lactic acid 217 lactic acid bacteria 206–8, 218–19, 222, 227, 229, 237 Lactobacillus 206–7, 213, 217, 219, 229, 239–40, 244, 257–9 Lactobacillus acidophilus 237 Lactobacillus bulgaricus 237 Lactobacillus johnsonii 208 Lactobacillus paracasei 239 Lactobacillus plantarum 101 Lactobacillus reuteri 161 Lactobacillus rhamnosus 239, 242 lactose 142, 200, 201–2, 207, 215–16, 218, 237 leaky gut walls 137–42, 194–7, 200 learning 108 leeches 181, 182 legumes, fibre content 276 Lemos de Goés, Adelir Carmen 209 lentils 198 leopards 115 leptin 67–8, 72–3, 78, 80, 196 leukaemia 223 Ley, Ruth 67–8, 186, 187, 230 life expectancy 28, 49, 237, 265–6, 268 light, bioluminescence 12 lime, chlorinated 33 lions 124 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 79–80, 140–2, 187–8, 193, 194–5, 197, 284 Lister, Joseph 34, 36 lithium 98 liver cancer 144–5 lizards 245 London: cholera epidemic 34–5, 45–6, 135 Toxoplasma 96 Louisiana 46 low-carb diets 186, 187–8 low-fat diets 186 lungs 19 lupus 39, 41, 49, 50, 168 Lyman, Flo and Kay 108 lymph glands 45, 219 lymphoma 127 lysozyme 36 MacFabe, Derrick 106–7, 108, 109, 111, 112 McMaster University, Ontario 99 macrophages 132 Malawi 262–3, 282 Malaysia 1–2, 208 mammals 16, 122, 123–4, 204 manure, antibiotic contamination 164–5, 272 marmosets 77 Marseille 160–1 Marshall, Barry 74 marsupials 217–18 Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston 40, 136–7, 200 mastoiditis 151, 153 Mazmanian, Sarkis 134 measles 27, 28, 31, 38, 119, 165, 266 meat 70–1, 181, 191–2 Medical Hypotheses 110 memory 108–9 memory B cells 132 meningitis 153 menstrual cycle 229 mental health conditions 42–3, 44 drug treatment 269 encephalitis lethargica 173–4 epidemiology 46 gastrointestinal symptoms 85–7, 106 gender differences 51 immune system and 105 lipopolysaccharide and 141 microbes and 24, 93–4, 97–9 probiotics and 238, 242 Streptococcus and 174–5 see also individual conditions mercury 263 metabolic syndrome 255–7, 258 metabolism 60, 229–30 metabolites 110, 111 Metchnikoff, Elie 180, 244 The Prolongation of Life 235–6, 237, 238 methicillin 154 metronidazole 129 Mexico 210 miasma theory 31–2, 34, 35 mice: antibiotics and 162–3 characteristic behaviours 99–100 diabetes in 267 faecal transplants 257 fibre in diet 193–4 genetically obese mice 67–9, 72–3 germ-free mice 17–18, 66–9, 128, 134, 230 microbial transplants 247 number of genes 7 ob/ob mice 67–9, 72–3, 194 probiotics and 242–4 microbes: and ageing 228, 231 and allergies 131–2 antibiotics and 129 antigens 132–3 and autism 90–2, 94–6, 106, 109–12 behaviour changes in host 84–5, 96–7, 112–13 in breast-milk 218–20, 222 and cancer 144–5 culturing 9 diversity 134, 282 DNA sequencing 4–5, 11 dysbiosis 64–6 evolution 11–12, 125–6 genes 279 in genetically obese mice 67–9 germ-free mice 17–18, 66–9, 128 germ theory of disease 34, 236 habitats in human body 18–23 in the home 228–9 hospital hygiene practices 31–4 immune system and 121, 133–5 kissing and 102 living without 126–8 and memory formation 109 and menstrual cycle 229 and mental health conditions 93–4, 97–9 in mouth 20–1 and neurotransmitters 104 in nostrils 21 Old Friends hypothesis 132, 145, 266 pheromones 100–2 Robogut 110, 111 on skin 19–20, 168–9 in stomach 21 and sweat 177 transfer from mothers to babies 122, 204–9, 212–14 transmission of 114–16 tree of life 16–17 in vagina 205–9, 212–14, 229 and vitamins 228 see also bacteria; gut microbiota; viruses Microbial Ecosystem Therapeutics 260 microbiome 8, 11, 227–9, 279, 280 Middle East 58 midwives 32–3 migraine 238 migrants, and twenty-first-century illnesses 50–1 migration, garden warblers 54–6 milk: antibiotics in 164 bottle-feeding 220–6, 273–5 breast-milk 216–20, 221, 222–6, 230–1, 274–5, 278, 285 cow’s milk 216, 221 lactobacilli and 207 lactose intolerance 200, 201 marsupials 218 milk banks 218–19 milk proteins 111 wet nursing 220–1 yogurt 206, 237 Millennials 224 Miller, Anne 149–50, 158 minerals 221, 227 Minnesota 170, 172 minocycline 168 Mississippi 46 mitochondria 123, 123 MMR vaccine 165 monkeys 16, 77 moorhens 124 Moraxella 21 mouth, microbes in 20–1 MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) 154, 171, 172, 175, 212 mucus lining, intestines 79–80, 80, 129, 193, 283–4 multiple sclerosis (MS) 38, 39, 49 antibiotics and 168 and bottle-feeding 223 in children 119 faecal transplants and 254 incidence of 41, 52, 158 probiotics and 242 racial differences 50 Mumbai 56, 61 mumps 165 Munich University’s Children’s Hospital 46 muscles, tetanus 91 mutations, genes 44 Mycobacterium 27 myositis 39 National Food Survey (UK) 188, 189 National Health Service (NHS) 138, 210, 211–12 National Institute of Health, Phoenix, Arizona 70 National Institutes for Health (US) 18 natural killer cells 219 natural selection 124–6, 206 Nature 179 Nauru 58 necrotising enterocolitis 222 necrotising fasciitis 20 Neolithic Revolution 184–5, 187, 200, 201 nerves 104–5 nervous system, multiple sclerosis 41 Netherlands 52, 255, 256–7 neuropsychiatric disorders see mental health conditions neurotransmitters 103, 104–5 New York City 96 New York University 162, 214 New Zealand 46 Nicholson, Jeremy 147, 148, 160, 161 Nieuwdorp, Max 255, 256–7 nitric oxide 177 nitrite 177 Nitrosomonas eutropha 178 Nobel Prizes 37, 74, 180, 235 nori 192 North America 50, 117, 214–15, 224–6 Northern Ireland 47 nostrils, microbes in 21 nut allergies 38, 39 nutrition see food ob/ob mice 67–9, 72–3, 194 obesity 38, 43, 44, 54–61 Akkermansia and 79–81 antibiotics and 147–9, 159–65 appetite control 67–8, 72–3, 80, 196 breast-feeding and 223–4 and Caesarean sections 212 and cancer 145 in childhood 49 in developing countries 47 and diabetes 256 diet and 183 difficulty in losing weight 59–60 faecal transplants and 255–7 and fall in calorific intake 189 fat cells 78–9 garden warblers 54–6 gastric bypasses 81–2 gender differences 51 and genetics 60 gut microbiota and 23–4, 66–72, 76 incidence of 41–2, 46, 52–3 as infectious disease 75–7 and leaky gut syndrome 140–1 and liver cancer 145 and low fibre intake 197 metabolic syndrome 255–7 racial differences 50 surgery for 61, 66 viruses and 57, 61, 74–8 Obesity Society 82 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) 42, 44, 51, 98–9, 105, 172–3, 174, 212, 246 oestrogen 171 Old Friends hypothesis 132, 145, 266 oligofructose 193–4 oligosaccharides 216–18, 220, 221, 222, 226 omnivores 276 OpenBiome 253–4, 261–2 oranges 198 overweight 41–2, 58 Oxford University 36, 37 oxygen 9 oxytocin 104–5 Pacific islands 58 Pakistan 26, 131 palaeo-diet 263 pancreas 39, 40, 180, 242–3 panda, giant 181–2 Papua New Guinea 84, 142 parasites 27, 83–4, 96–7, 98, 118 Paris 96 Parker, Janet 25, 26 Parkinson’s disease 105, 173, 174, 175, 254 passwords, beneficial microbes 134–5 Pasteur, Louis 34, 236 pathogens 28–9 peanut allergy 39 pectin 192 penicillin 36–7, 150, 154, 158, 162–3, 182 penicillinase 154 Penicillium 36 Peptostreptococcaceae 222 pesticides 272 Petrof, Elaine 259–60 Peyer’s patches 128 phagocytes 120, 141 pharyngitis 152 pheromones 100–2, 177 Phipps, James 29 pigs 148 pinworms 118 plague 30 plant foods see fruit; vegetables plants, ecological succession 208 pneumonia 27, 153, 268 polio 27–8, 29, 31, 38, 266 Pollan, Michael 202 pollen 119 polysaccharides 181 polysaccharide A (PSA) 134–5 Porpyhra 192 potatoes 191 poverty 48 Prague 97 prebiotics 258 pregnancy 205 antibiotics in 163 gut microbiota 229–31 metabolic changes 229–30 probiotics in 239 toxoplasmosis 96 vaginal bacteria 207–8 preservatives, food 202 Prevotella 185, 191, 192, 194, 206, 213, 263 primates 16, 102 probiotics 237–44, 257–9 propionate 107–9, 195, 217 Propionibacterium 20, 21, 168–9, 213, 239 Propionibacterium acnes 143–4 proteins 7, 9, 180, 196–7 Proteobacteria 65, 226, 230 Pseudomonas 206, 213 psoriasis 23, 49 psychoanalysis 238 Puerto Rico 214 pulses, fibre content 276 Pyrenees 115 Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario 259 quorum sensing 136 rabbits 245 rabies 29–30, 84, 85 racial differences, twenty-first-century illnesses 50–1 Rain Man (film) 87 ram’s horn snails 83 rashes 155 rats 18, 84, 85, 96, 107–8, 185–6, 245 raw-food diet 198–9 RePOOPulate 260 reptiles, gut microbiota 205 respiratory tract infections 152, 153, 222 rheumatoid arthritis 39, 41, 223, 254 rice 198 rickets 221 Riley, Lee 165 Rio de Janeiro 209 Robogut 110, 111, 259 rodents 245 Roseburia intestinalis 197 Rosenberg, Eugene and Ilana 126 Rowen, Lee 7–8, 24 rubella 31, 165 Rush Children’s Hospital, Chicago 92 Russia 173 Rwanda 201 rye 139, 194, 199 sac-winged bats 100, 101 Salmonella 271 Sandler, Richard 92, 94, 95 sanitation 15, 35–6 Sardinia 52 savants, autistic 87, 108 Scandinavia 188 scarlet fever 27 scent see smells scent glands 177 schizophrenia 97–8, 105, 106, 108, 141, 246 Science 179 Scientific American magazine 97 scleroderma 50 scurvy 221 seaweed 192, 247 Second World War 37, 150, 158, 189 Semmelweis, Ignaz 32–3, 34, 215 sepsis 36 septicaemia 34 serotonin 103, 104–5 Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) 127 sewage systems 15 sex, pheromones 100–2, 177 sex hormones 51, 52 sexually-transmitted diseases 28 Sharon, Gil 101 sheep 201, 204 Shigella 128 shingles 271 short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) 107–9, 195–6, 195, 197, 198, 217, 257 sinusitis 152, 157 skin 18, 23, 45 acne 23, 129, 141, 142–4, 168 hygiene 168–9 microbiota 19–20, 168–9, 213 pheromones 101–2 psoriasis 23, 49 rashes 155 sweat 177 washing 175, 177–8 see also eczema smallpox 25–7, 29, 30–1, 38, 266 smells: faeces 248 pheromones 100–2 Smith, Mark 252–3, 259, 261–2 smoking 145 snail, ram’s horn 83 Snow, John 35, 45–6 soaps 168–71, 172, 175, 177–8 social behaviour, autism 88 Soho, London 34–5, 45–6, 135 soil: ammonia-oxidising bacteria 176 antibiotic contamination 164–5 Somalia 25, 50–1 sore throats 152, 153, 173–4 South Africa 153–4 South America 47, 173, 214 South Pacific islands 58 Spain 151 sperm donors 260–1 spores, Clostridium difficile 234 squid, Hawaiian bobtail 11 Staphylococcus 20, 21, 36, 131, 172, 177, 213, 219 Staphylococcus aureus 154, 171, 172, 271 statins 269 steroids 116 stinkbugs 205 stomach 13 cancer 144 digestion 180 gastric bypasses 61, 66, 81–2 microbes in 21 ulcers 73–4, 144 stools see faeces Strachan, David 116–17, 118–19, 121, 131 Streptococcus 20, 150, 160, 172, 173–5, 206, 213, 215, 219, 229 Streptococcus pneumoniae 217 stress: irritable bowel syndrome 63, 92–3 leaky gut syndrome and 141 and stomach ulcers 73–4 stress hormones 93 strokes 50, 107, 183, 199, 256, 268 Stuebe, Alison 225 Stunkard, Dr Albert 59 Sudden Infant Death syndrome 222–3 Sudo, Nobuyuki 93 sugars 198 digestion 70, 180 falling consumption of 188–9 high-sugar diets 185–6, 192–3 and obesity 189–90 oligosaccharides 216 Sulawesi 142 superfoods 114 supermarkets 75, 159, 169, 182–3 surgery: antibiotic use 37 Caesarean sections 209–15, 220, 274 gastric bypasses 61, 66, 81–2 hygiene 34 Sutterella 282 sweat 101–2, 176–7 Sweden 51, 66–7, 131, 150, 157 Swiss mice 99 Switzerland 52 syphilis 27, 28, 158 T helper cells 118–19, 132 T regulatory cells (Tregs) 133–4, 144, 243 Tanzania 246 tapeworms 118 Tel Aviv University 101, 126 termites 181 testosterone 171, 267 tetanus 90–1 tetracycline antibiotics 168 throats, sore 152, 153, 173–4 thyroid hormones 171 ticks 1–2 tics, physical 282 toads 83–4 tonsillitis 223 Toronto 51 Tourette’s syndrome 42, 98–9, 175, 246 toxic megacolon 156, 245 Toxoplasma 84, 85, 96–7, 98–9, 112, 261 transplants, faecal 245, 248–57, 258–62 Transpoosion 245, 248 traveller’s diarrhoea 63–4 tree of life 16–17, 123–4 trematode worms 83–4 tribal societies: gut microbiota 262–3, 282 personal hygiene 175–6 triclosan 170–2 tryptophan 103, 105 tuberculosis 27, 29, 268 Turkey 97 Turnbaugh, Peter 68–70, 160, 182 Tutsi 201 twenty-first-century illnesses 37–43, 46–53, 266–9 antibiotics and 158–9 and Caesarean sections 212 diet and 183 dysbiosis 64–5 faecal transplants and 254 gender differences 267 inflammation 243, 268 see also allergies; autoimmune diseases; mental health conditions; obesity typhoid 27, 30 ulcerative colitis 42, 49, 144 ulcers, stomach 73–4, 144 United States of America: affluence and disease 47 antibacterial products 172 antibiotic use in livestock 147–8, 164, 165, 272 antibiotics 37, 150, 151, 152, 163, 215 breast-feeding 225–6 Caesarean sections 209–10 diabetes 52, 167 encephalitis lethargica 173 faecal transplants 252–4 fall in calorific intake 189 fibre consumption 197 gut microbiota 262–3 infant mortality 222–3 infectious diseases 27 irritable bowel syndrome 63 obesity 41–2, 46, 49, 58, 75, 81 supermarkets 183 vaccination schemes 31 University of Bern 101 University of Birmingham 25–6 University of Bristol 130 University of Colorado, Boulder 4, 213, 281–2 University of Gothenburg 66, 131 University of Guelph, Ontario 109, 111, 259 University of North Carolina School of Medicine 225 University of Western Ontario 106 University of Wisconsin 74–5 unsaturated fatty acids 188 upper respiratory tract infections (URI) 152, 153, 222 urinary tract 19 urinary tract infections 155, 157 urine, triclosan in 171 US Department of Agriculture (USDA) 189 US Navy 160 uterine cancer 145 vaccinations 25, 26–7, 29–31, 35, 91, 118, 165 vagina: microbes 19, 205–9, 212–14, 229 probiotic inserts 239 vaginal birth 209–12, 220, 274, 278 vagus nerve 91, 104–5 vampire bats 124–5, 181 vancomycin 91, 161 vegans 164 vegetables: antibiotic contamination 164–5, 272 digestion 70 fibre content 190–1, 276 Five-a-Day campaign 273 prebiotics 258 vegetarian diet 71, 192 Venezuela 262–3 Vetter, David 126–8, 181 Vibrio cholerae 135–7 Vienna General Hospital 32–3 viruses 8 antibiotics and 152 and autoimmune diseases 167 chicken disease 57, 61, 74–5, 76–7, 78 flu pandemic 48 menstrual cycle 229 and obesity 57, 61, 74–8 polio 27–8, 29, 31, 38, 266 rabies 29–30, 84, 85 smallpox 25–7, 29, 30–1, 38, 266 vitamins 16, 227–8 colon and 180–1 deficiencies 221 enzymes and 263 synthesis by bacteria 23 vitamin B12 23, 228 Vrieze, Anne 255, 256–7 VSL#3 242–4 Walkerton, Canada 62 wallabies 181 warblers, garden 54–6, 57, 73, 77, 78 Warren, Robin 74 washing 172–3, 175, 177–8 Washington University, St Louis 67, 247, 262 water birth 214 water supply: antibacterial products in 171, 172 cholera epidemic 34–5, 45–6, 135 chlorination 172 and irritable bowel syndrome 62 water-borne diseases 34–6 wealth, and twenty-first-century illnesses 46–8 weaning 226 weight gain: calories and 77–8 in pregnancy 230 see also obesity weight loss: dieting 59, 148–9, 184, 186–7, 197, 199 faecal transplants and 257 garden warblers 55–6 raw-food diet 199 Wellcome Collection, London 279 West Papua 176 Western diet 185–6 wet nursing 220–1 wheat 7, 111, 139, 194 wheat intolerance 38, 199–202 Whipple’s disease 85, 106, 107 white blood cells 45 Whitlock, David 176, 177–8 whooping cough 27 Whorwell, Peter 62–3, 252 Wold, Agnes 131–2, 134 women: acne 142–3 antibiotic use 150 breast-feeding 216–20, 221, 222–6, 230–1, 274–5, 278, 285 Caesarean births 209–15, 220, 274 consumption of fats 188 death in childbirth 32–3 lupus 168 menstrual cycle 229 obesity and cancer 145 pregnancy 229–30 Toxoplasma infection 96–7 transfer of microbes to babies 204–9, 212–14 and twenty-first-century illnesses 51–2, 267 vaginal births 209–12, 220, 274, 278 World Health Organisation (WHO) 25–6, 31, 211, 225, 239, 278, 285 The Worm, number of genes 7, 8 worms 83–4, 118 wounds 34, 36 Wrangham, Richard 198–9 xylan 191 Xylanibacter 185, 191 yeasts 8 yogurt 206, 237, 239–40, 244 Zobellia galactanivorans 192 zonula occludens toxin (Zot) 136–7, 139 zonulin 137, 139–40, 200 ABOUT THE AUTHOR ALANNA COLLEN is a science writer with a master’s degree in biology from Imperial College London and a PhD in evolutionary biology from University College London and the Zoological Society of London.


pages: 401 words: 119,488

Smarter Faster Better: The Secrets of Being Productive in Life and Business by Charles Duhigg

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Air France Flight 447, Asperger Syndrome, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, cognitive dissonance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, digital map, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, hiring and firing, index card, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, theory of mind, Toyota Production System, William Langewiesche, Yom Kippur War

So just as much as they can say something sharply funny, they can also jab you with a quick, hostile (but also funny) remark….The atmosphere at SNL, although we all liked each other, could become highly competitive based on the fact that there were 10 writers and only so many sketches could go on the show, so we all did our best to write the winning sketch or make (in my case) the best short film.” 58 percent The correct answers to the quiz are upset, decisive, skeptical, and cautious. These images come from Simon Baron-Cohen et al., “Another Advanced Test of Theory of Mind: Evidence from Very High Functioning Adults with Autism or Asperger Syndrome,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 38, no. 7 (1997): 813–22. And Simon Baron-Cohen et al., “The ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ Test Revised Version: A Study with Normal Adults, and Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 42, no. 2 (2001): 241–51. Science in 2010 Anita Williams Woolley et al., “Evidence for a Collective Intelligence Factor in the Performance of Human Groups,” Science 330, no. 6004 (2010): 686–88. “individuals in it” Anita Woolley and Thomas Malone, “What Makes a Team Smarter?


pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, millennium bug, Moravec's paradox, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, off grid, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

My personal experience within the IT industry and Internet start-ups has been that the most brilliant programmers are often very shy of other people and social interaction. Science and technology have become so competitive nowadays that success in these professions most often comes to those exhibiting high IQs and maximum dedication to the lab or the computer terminal. For them, the bustling noise of crowds or pointless chitchat by the water cooler seem distractions from a rewarding career. People with some degree of what is called Asperger syndrome can do exceptionally well in a world where the top jobs go to the top programmers and top scientists. In fact, this is already happening, and may explain to a certain degree false perceptions about an ‘autism epidemic’.25 If this trend in social selection persists, the intelligent computers of the future will most likely be the foster children of families composed of highly intelligent autistics.

(film) 56–7 AI Singularity 58, 126, 127, 129, 247, 270–5, 290, 302–3 Airbnb 233 algorithms 210–11 Al-Jazari 34 alternative therapies 40 Amazon 233, 246 androids 53–9, 66–73 Andronicus of Cyrrhus 30, 31 animal magnetism 40 Anthropic Principle 126–9 anthropomorphism 19–23, 25–7 antibody recognition system 282–3 Apple 81–2, 233 application programming interface (API) 265 Archimedes (287–212 BCbc) 30, 31 Aristotle 102, 103, 143, 134–42, 195–7 art 3–5, 9, 12–13, 15–18 Artificial Intelligence and human representations of the world 17–18 and the advent of computers 51–3 anthropomorphising inanimate objects 26–7 attitudes towards 45–7 challenges for researchers 52–3 computational model 211–16 current research directions 255 definitions of intelligence 48–9, 52 emergent properties of systems 182–3 emotional connection with 66–73 empirical perspective 152–3 evolution into a simulated universe 127–9 extracting meaning from data 255 human relationships with androids 53–9 imagining true AI 296–303 impacts in the second machine age 266–9 inability to perform basic human functions 275–9 limits of conventional computer technology 275–9 narrative of fear 45–7 narrative of love 45–7 origins of the discipline 256–9 potential for catastrophe 63–6 renewed interest from the 1980s 259–66 sentience in computers 65–6 theological reactions to 67 threat of taking over 58–9 see also AI artificial neural networks 285–7 Ashby, W. Ross 175, 176 Asimov, Isaac 51, 58 Asperger syndrome 301 attention 156–7, 160–1 Augustine, St 126 australopithecines 5, 6, 22 autism 300, 301 autocatalysis 183–4, 295 automata 217–18 autopoiesis concept 294–5 awareness 144–6, 156–7, 160–1, 162–3 see also self-awareness Babbage, Charles 62, 221–5 Analytical Engine 225–7, 235 Difference Engine 217, 223–5, 227 Bach, Johann Sebastian 186, 187 Bacon, Francis (1561–1626) 102 Bacon, Roger (c. 1214–1292) 35–6 barber paradox 204 Baron-Cohen, Simon 301 Bateson, Gregory 175 Baudrillard, Jean 76–8 behavioural psychology 50 behaviourism 154 Bell, Alexander Graham 230 Berger, Hans 159 Berkeley, George (Anglican bishop) 139–40 Berners-Lee, Sir Tim 241 Bicentennial Man (1999 film), robot Andrew 55, 57 big bang of the modern mind 10, 12–15 big data economy 249–55 binary arithmetic 149 binary logic 198 bioinformatics 123, 249 Blade Runner (1982 film) 53–4, 57, 72 Bletchley Park codebreakers 234–6 body, role in consciousness 169–71 body–mind dualism 124 and the simulated universe 126–9 problems for AI 129–31 body-mind problem 32, 114–19, 129–31 Bonaparte, Napoleon 37 Boole, George 197, 229 Boolean logic 197–200, 230 Borges, Jorge Luis 241–2, 294–5 Bostrom, Nick 129 brain (human) architecture in early humans 13 as a cybernetic system 175–9 as a guide for AI development 280–2 as a second-order cybernetic system 185–6 as a self-referencing entity 186–9 development in childhood 10–11 Human Brain Project (HBP) xiv–xvi, 164–5, 287 imaging techniques 158–60 research effort 163–5 structure of brain cells (neurons) 42–3 brain anatomy, the interpreter 24 brain-based devices (BBDs) 284–5 BRAIN project 287 brain size australopithecines 6 enlargement over time 13 Homo erectus 7 Homo habilis 6 modern humans 8 Neanderthals (H. neanderthalensis) 7, 8 Braitenberg, Valentino 175 brazen head stories 35–6, 58 Brooks, Rodney 275–6, 288 Butler, Samuel 289–90 Byrne, David 19 Byron, Lord 60, 62, 63–4, 226 Byzantine automata 33–4 calculating machines 219–27 Cameron, James 66 Capgras Syndrome 70–3 Cars (film) 20 cave paintings 9, 10, 16, 17, 20–1, 23 cellular automata 295–6 Chabris, Christopher 160 Chalmers, David xiv–xvi, 121 Chambers, John 252 Changeux, Jean-Pierre 166–7 chemistry, organic and inorganic 39–40 chess-playing automaton 37 chess-playing computer, Deep Blue 263 child development 10–11 chimpanzees 5, 12, 13 China, increasing use of industrial robots 267–8 Chomsky, Noam 13 Christianity, influence of Plato 101–2 Chua, Leon 286 Clarke, Arthur C. 193, 257 client-server architectures 245–9 cloud technologies 246 Clynes, Manfred 79 coding of information 149–52 cogito ergo sum (I think therefore I am) (Descartes) 112–13, 120, 131, 188 cognitive archaeology 75 cognitive psychology 154–5, 157–8 Cold War 236–8, 240–1, 257 Colossus (first programmable electronic computer) 235 Colossus: The Forbin Project (1970 film) 65–6 Columbus, Chris 55 coma 307 complex systems, emergent properties 41 computational theory of mind 210–16 computer metaphor for life 123–5 for the brain 43–4, 146 computer simulation, possibility of living in 127–9 computers as algorithms 210–11 as philosophical zombies (p-zombies) 122 creation of ‘electronic brains’ 51–3 computing history 217–31 advent of personal computers 237–8 automata 217–18 business-specific computer languages 237 calculating machines 219–27 Cold War developments 236–8, 240–1 digital revolution 243–8 distinction between machine and program 221, 225–9 first email 241 hardware development 229–30, 237 mobile devices 245 origins of the Internet 238–43 Second World War developments 234–6 servers 245–9 software development 229 telecommunications development 238–43 conflicting beliefs, inability of AI to cope with 277–8 conscious artefacts as objects of love 48–59 consciousness and the body–mind problem 114–19 as pure information 123–5 definition 156–7 emergence through self-referencing 188–9 empirical approach 143–6 nature of 91–4 problem in AI xi–xviii qualia of 120–3, 157–8 quantum hypothesis 106–9 role of the body 169–71 scientific study of 154–65 signatures of 158, 161–3 the hard problem of 120–3, 157–8 three states of 156–7 towards a theory of 166–71 uploading into a computer 91, 119, 146 view of Aristotle 137–8 Cook, Matthew 296 Cooke, Sir William Fothergill 42 Coppélia (ballet) 61–2 Cowen, Tyler 266, 269, 300, 313 creation myths 114 creationism 289 creativity, lacking in AI 276–7 Crick, Francis xiii, 155, 158 cultural relativism 114 cybernetic prostheses 79–84 cybernetic systems, first-and second-order 185–6 cybernetics disciplines spawned from 174–5 emergence of order 184–6 emergent properties of systems 182–3 lessons from 306–8 nature of cybernetic systems 172–5 origins of 175–83 cyberspace, human existence in 146–7 cyborgs (cybernetic organisms) 79–85 Damasio, Antonio 306–7 Darwin, Charles 289–90 Darwin, Erasmus 61 David (android in AI) 56–7 deductive logic 196, 197 Deep Blue (chess-playing IBM computer) 263 Dehaene, Stanislas 158, 161–3, 177, 185 Dehaene–Changeux theory of consciousness 166–7 Dennett, Daniel 12, 143–6 Descartes, René 36–42, 86–7, 92, 112–19, 139, 154–5 cogito ergo sum (I think therefore I am) 112–13, 120, 131, 188 Dick, Philip K. 36, 54, 71–2 Dickens, Charles 40 digital Artificial Life 105–6 digital biological data 123–4 digital heaven 125–9 digital lives 124–5 digital revolution 243–8 digital transformation 232–4 drivers for 254–5 risks associated with 250–3 DNA printing 123–4 DNA structure, discovery of 180–1 Doctor Mirabilis 35 Dow Jones Flash Crash (6 May 2010) 247–8 Dr Faustus myth 63 Dracula (Bram Stoker) 62 Drake equation 132–3 dreaming 110 Drexler, Eric 288–9 Dreyfus, Hubert 278 drugs, mind-altering 110, 111 du Bois-Reymond, Emil 39 du Vaucanson, Jacques 218 dualism Cartesian 37–42, 113–19 computer metaphor for the brain 43–4 cyborgs 83 versus monism 92–3 see also body–mind dualism dualist thinking 18, 25–6 Dunbar, Robin 14 Dune (Frank Herbert) 290 dwellings, construction by Homo sapiens 9 dynamic fluids metaphor for life 31–3 Dyson, Freeman 291 Eccles, Sir John 117–119 Edelman, Gerald 167, 282–5 Edison, Thomas 230 Einstein, Albert 166 Eisenhower, President Dwight D. 240 élan vital (spirit of life) 40–1 electric metaphor for life 38–40 electroencephalography (EEG) 159, 160, 161 email 241 emergence in complex systems 41 of order out of chaos 184–6 of self-awareness in AI 273–5 emergent properties of systems 182–3 empathy 11 empiricism 32, 102–3, 138–42, 196 employment, occupations at risk of automation 266–9 endorphins 170 enhancing cybertechnology 81–4 ENIAC computer 235–6 Enigma code 234–5 Enlightenment 139 Eno, Brian 19 entropy 128, 149–50 Epimenides’ paradox 204–5 Erewhon (Samuel Butler) 290 Escher, M.


pages: 280 words: 76,376

How to Write Your Will: The Complete Guide to Structuring Your Will, Inheritance Tax Planning, Probate and Administering an Estate by Marlene Garsia

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Asperger Syndrome, Berlin Wall, call centre, clean water, credit crunch, estate planning

“By funding research into what works for people with autism, and improving how this information is shared, [you] can have a practical impact on improving the quality of life for hundreds of thousands of people in the UK. Research Autism offers the best mechanism to achieve these aims.” New Philanthropy Capital “Research Autism allows people like me to get actively involved in their work and I feel like they value and encourage the contribution of people on the autism spectrum, something in my experience that is unique.” Joe Powell, adult with Asperger syndrome If you would like to know more about us and how you too can help, please visit our website at www.researchautism.net advertisement feature xli For children who are both deaf and blind, the world can be a lonely and frightening place. But with your support, there’s so much we can do to help. Sense is a pioneering charity in the UK offering lifelong support, advice, education and practical help to deafblind children and adults – and their families.


pages: 367 words: 99,765

Maphead: Charting the Wide, Weird World of Geography Wonks by Ken Jennings

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Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, David Brooks, digital map, don't be evil, dumpster diving, Eratosthenes, game design, Google Earth, helicopter parent, hive mind, index card, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, Mercator projection, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Journalism, openstreetmap, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Stewart Brand, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, traveling salesman, urban planning

They may be the geographically brightest bulbs in the country, but that doesn’t matter: fifty-four of them are going to end up bounced because they missed a question, and they’re going to remember that question for the rest of their lives. Is this really a lofty educational exercise? Isn’t it more like, well, child abuse? “Do you ever think, no geography is worth this?” I ask Mary Lee Elden after the match. “I think they learn something from it,” she says. “Yes, they feel disappointed, but they learn to handle their disappointment.” The bee, as you might expect, attracts more than its share of kids with Asperger syndrome and other social interaction issues, and these kids are particularly prone to losing control after a tough loss. “I’ll be honest with you,” says Mary Lee. “As a teacher and a parent, I don’t think I’d put my child through it.” But the organizers do what they can to soothe crushed dreams and bruised egos. Contestants eliminated in the finals get to decompress in a backstage greenroom with milk and cookies and staff members telling them how great they were.


pages: 322 words: 107,576

Bad Science by Ben Goldacre

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Asperger Syndrome, correlation does not imply causation, experimental subject, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, offshore financial centre, p-value, placebo effect, publication bias, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), the scientific method, urban planning

Among other things, it’s a disorder of language, which might touch a particular chord with writers; but it’s also philosophically enjoyable to think about, because the flaws in social reasoning which are exhibited by people with autism give us an excuse to talk and think about our social norms and conventions. Books about autism and the autistic outlook on the world have become bestsellers. Here are some wise words for us all from Luke Jackson, a thirteen-year-old with Asperger’s syndrome, who has written a book of advice for teenagers with the condition (Freaks, Geeks and Asperger Syndrome). This is from the section on dating: If the person asks something like ‘Does my bum look fat?’ or even ‘I am not sure I like this dress’ then that is called ‘fishing for compliments’. These are very hard things to understand, but I am told that instead of being completely honest and saying that yes their bum does look fat, it is politer to answer with something like ‘Don’t be daft, you look great.’


pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

And also without the other drawbacks I’ve mentioned. Put simply, I’m easy enough to interact with using e-mail. If the Internet didn’t exist, or if it weren’t so ubiquitous, I’d have been forced long ago to submit to the tyranny of the cell phone and I would be an altogether less nice person to know. A Thousand Hours a Year Simon Baron-Cohen Psychologist, Autism Research Centre, Cambridge University; author, Autism and Asperger Syndrome: The Facts Possibly like you, all my e-mail goes into my Sent mailbox, just sitting there in case I want to check back on what I said to whom years ago. So what a surprise to see that I send approximately 18,250 e-mails each year (roughly 50 a day). Assuming three minutes per e-mail (let’s face it, I can’t afford to spend too long thinking about what I want to say), that’s about 1,000 hours a year on e-mail alone.


pages: 317 words: 101,475

Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class by Owen Jones

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Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Etonian, facts on the ground, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, pension reform, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, rising living standards, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working-age population

Originally, New Labour promised that under-eighteens would only have ASBOs served under exceptional circumstances but, as it turned out, year on year around half were imposed on the young. Overwhelmingly, those on the receiving end were both poor and working class-s-end, according to a survey in 2005, nearly four out of every ten ASBOs went to young people with mental health problems such as Asperger's Syndrome. In one case, a child with Tourette's was given an ASBO for his compulsive swearing. Whether or not you agree with ASBOs, it is difficult to deny that they have increased the bad reputation of young working-class kids and popularized the chav caricature. After all, members of the Bullingdon Club-whose great tradition is to smash up pubs and restaurants-- were never likely to be awarded an ASBO.


pages: 407 words: 109,653

Top Dog: The Science of Winning and Losing by Po Bronson, Ashley Merryman

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Asperger Syndrome, Berlin Wall, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, Edward Glaeser, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, game design, industrial cluster, Jean Tirole, knowledge worker, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, phenotype, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, school choice, selection bias, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Steve Jobs, zero-sum game

Watson, “The Hidden Dimensions of the Competition Effect: Basal Cortisol and Basal Testosterone Jointly Predict Changes in Salivary Testosterone after Social Victory in Men,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 37(11), pp. 1855-1865 (2012) … And Oxytocin…: Baron-Cohen, Simon, The Essential Difference: Men, Women, and the Truth about Autism, New York: Basic Books (2004) Baron-Cohen, Simon, Sally Wheelwright, Jacqueline Hill, Yogini Raste, & Ian Plumb, “The ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ Test Revised Version: A Study with Normal Adults, and Adults with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism,” Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, vol. 42(2), pp. 241–251 (2001) Bartz, Jennifer, “Interactionist Perspective on the Prosocial Effects of Oxytocin in Humans,” Paper Presentation, Social Neuroendocrinology Pre-Conference, San Diego (2012) Bartz, Jennifer, Daphne Simeon, Holly Hamilton, Suah Kim, Sarah Crystal, Ashley Braun, Victor Vicens, & Eric Hollander, “Oxytocin Can Hinder Trust and Cooperation in Borderline Personality Disorder,” Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, vol. 6(5), pp. 556–563 (2011) Bos, Peter A., Jaak Pansepp, Rose-Marie Bluthé, & Jack van Honk, “Acute Effects of Steroid Hormones and Neuropeptides on Human Social–Emotional Behavior: A Review of Single Administration Studies,” Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, vol. 33(1), pp. 17–35 (2012) Bullock, Sandra, Quinton Aaron (perfs.), Hancock, John Lee (dir.


pages: 478 words: 149,810

We Are Anonymous: Inside the Hacker World of LulzSec, Anonymous, and the Global Cyber Insurgency by Parmy Olson

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4chan, Asperger Syndrome, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Firefox, hive mind, Julian Assange, Minecraft, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, pirate software, side project, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

Thanks to Civil and Switch, the website for one of the world’s biggest financial companies went down for twelve hours, and right on schedule. Over time, a handful of other people with botnets would help AnonOps. One of them was a young hacker named Ryan. Aged nineteen and living with his parents in Essex, England, Ryan’s real name was Ryan Cleary. In the offline world, Ryan, who would later be diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, rarely left his room, taking dinner from a plate that his mother would leave outside his bedroom door. But his dedication to becoming powerful online had paid off; over the years he amassed servers and what he claimed was a 1.3 million-computer monster botnet. Other online sources put the number at a still-enormous one hundred thousand computers. Though he rented the botnet, he also sublet it for extra cash.


pages: 365 words: 120,105

Why Do I Love These People?: Understanding, Surviving, and Creating Your Own Family by Po Bronson

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Asperger Syndrome, estate planning, South of Market, San Francisco, working poor, young professional

She did not want to move into the public housing estates and live off the government, but she had no choice. By then she had three children under five. She was afraid to let her kids onto her own front patio. The most Denise could manage to improve her lot was to sign up for a correspondence course. Working was out of the question—the kids took every ounce of her strength. Her middle child, Ashleigh, was diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome. Denise's mother lived several miles away and helped out only a little. “That was my lowest point,” she recalled. She became antsy at the memory, and her words came urgently, rushing, as if she needed to get out of this bad neighborhood before she was recognized by someone from the old days. “The only way was up. It couldn't have gotten worse. I was twenty-six, and I was like an old woman.


pages: 514 words: 152,903

The Best Business Writing 2013 by Dean Starkman

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Asperger Syndrome, bank run, Basel III, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, computer vision, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, factory automation, fixed income, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, late fees, London Whale, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Parag Khanna, Pareto efficiency, price stability, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, the payments system, too big to fail, Vanguard fund, wage slave, Y2K, zero-sum game

A labradoodle named Zelda and a rescued bichon frise, Duke, cost $17,000 a year, including food, health care, boarding, and a daily dog walker who charges $17 each per outing, he said. “Crushing Setback” Still, he sold two motorcycles he didn’t use and called his Porsche 911 Carrera 4S Cabriolet “the Volkswagen of supercars.” He and his wife have given more than $100,000 to a nonprofit she founded that promotes employment for people with Asperger syndrome, he said. Scheiner pays $30,000 a year to be part of a New York–based peer-learning group for investors called Tiger 21. Founder Michael Sonnenfeldt said members, most with a net worth of at least $10 million, have been forced to “re-examine lots of assumptions about how grand their life would be.” While they aren’t asking for sympathy, “at their level, in a different way but in the same way, the rug got pulled out,” said Sonnenfeldt, fifty-six.


pages: 377 words: 115,122

Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking by Susan Cain

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8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, game design, hive mind, index card, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, traveling salesman, Walter Mischel, web application, white flight

35. introvert is not a synonym for hermit: Introversion is also very different from Asperger’s syndrome, the autism spectrum disorder that involves difficulties with social interactions such as reading facial expressions and body language. Introversion and Asperger’s both can involve feeling overwhelmed in social settings. But unlike people with Asperger’s, introverts often have strong social skills. Compared with the one third to one half of Americans who are introverts, only one in five thousand people has Asperger’s. See National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Asperger Syndrome Fact Sheet, http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/asperger/detail_asperger.htm. 36. the distinctly introverted E. M. Forster: Sunil Kumar, A Companion to E. M. Forster, vol. 1 (New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors, 2007). 37. “human love at its height”: E. M. Forster, Howards End (London: Edward Arnold, 1910). 38. Shyness is the fear of social disapproval: Elaine N. Aron et al., “Adult Shyness: The Interaction of Temperamental Sensitivity and an Adverse Childhood Environment,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31 (2005): 181–97. 39. they sometimes overlap: Many articles address this question.