hypertext link

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Tcl/Tk, Second Edition: A Developer's Guide by Clif Flynt

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Donald Knuth, hypertext link, revision control, Silicon Valley, web application

Example 11.21 Script Example # Load the htmllib scripts source "htmllib.tcl" # Create and display a text widget: pack [text .t -height 7 -width 50] # Initialize the text widget HMinit_win .t # Define some HTML text set txt { <HTML><BODY>Test HTML <P><B>Bold Text</B> <P><I>Italics</I> </BODY</HTML> } # and render it into the text widget HMparse_html $txt "HMrender .t" # Examine what’s in the text widget set textDump [.t dump 1.0 4.0 -all] puts "[format "%-7s %-30s %6s\n" ID DATA INDEX]" foreach {id data index} $textDump { puts "[format {%-7s %-30s %6s} $id [string trim $data] $index]" } Script Output mark tagon tagon tagon text tagoff tagoff tagon text text tagoff tagoff tagon current indent0 font:arial:14:medium:r Test HTML indent0 space space font:arial:14:medium:r 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.11 1.11 1.11 1.11 2.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 407 408 Chapter 11 The text Widget and htmllib tagon tagon text tagoff tagon text tagoff tagoff tagon text indent0 font:arial:14:bold:r Bold Text font:arial:14:bold:r font:arial:14:medium:r indent0 space 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.10 3.10 3.10 3.10 Test HTML Bold Text Italics You can see that the html library uses tags to define the fonts for the text widget to use to display the text. 11.4.2 Using html_library Callbacks: Loading Images and Hypertext Links To display an image, the html_library needs an image widget handle. If the library tried to create the image, it would need code to handle all methods of obtaining image data, and the odds are good that the technique you need for your application would not be supported. To get around this problem, the html_library calls a procedure that you supply (HMset_image ) to get an image handle. This technique makes the library versatile. Your script can use whatever method is necessary to acquire the image data: load it from the web, extract it from a database, code it into the script, and so on. The requirements for handling hypertext links are similar. A browser will download a hypertext link from a remote site, a hypertext on-line help will load help files, and a hypertext GUI to a database engine might generate SQL queries.

. # handle A handle to return to the html library with # the image handle # src The description of the image from: # <IMG src=XX> # # Results # This example creates a hard-coded image. and then invokes # HMgot_image with the handle for that image. proc HMset_image {win handle src {speed {0}}} { global logo puts "HMset_image was invoked with WIN:\ $win HANDLE: $handle SRC: $src" # In a real application this would parse the src, and load the # appropriate image data. set img [image create photo -data $logo] HMgot_image $handle $img return "" } text .t -height 6 -width 50 pack .t 411 412 Chapter 11 The text Widget and htmllib HMinit_win .t HMparse_html $HTMLtxt "HMrender .t" Script Output HMset_image was invoked with WIN: .t HANDLE: .t.9 SRC: logo The html_library uses a technique similar to the image callback procedures to resolve hypertext links. When a user clicks on a hypertext link, the parsing engine invokes a procedure named HMlink_callback with the name of the text window and the content of the href=value field. The html_library provides a dummy HMlink_callback that does nothing. An application must provide its own HMlink_callback procedure to resolve hypertext links. Syntax: HMlink_callback win href A procedure that is called from the html_library package when a user clicks on an <A href=value> field. win The text widget in which the new text can be rendered. href The hypertext reference.

</CENTER> </BODY> </HTML> } # This text will be displayed if the user selects the 413 414 Chapter 11 The text Widget and htmllib # bottom line in the list. set HTMLText3 { <HTML> <HEAD><TITLE> Initial Text </TITLE></HEAD> <BODY> <CENTER>This is text 3.</CENTER> </BODY> </HTML> } # Create the text window for this display text .t -height 5 -width 60 -background white pack .t # Initialize the html_library package and display the text. HMinit_win .t HMparse_html $HTMLText1 "HMrender .t" Script Output HMlink_callback was invoked with win: .t href: HTMLText2 Before clicking a hypertext link Clicking this line will select text 2. Clicking this line will select text 3. After clicking top hypertext link This is text 2. 11.4.3 Interactive Help with the text Widget and htmllib The next example shows how you can use the text widget bind command, an associative array, and the html library to create a text window in which a user can click on a word to get help. The tag bind command causes a mouse click event to invoke the ShowHelp procedure.

pages: 481 words: 121,669

The Invisible Web: Uncovering Information Sources Search Engines Can't See by Gary Price, Chris Sherman, Danny Sullivan

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AltaVista, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, business intelligence, dark matter, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, full text search, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, joint-stock company, knowledge worker, natural language processing, pre–internet, profit motive, publish or perish, search engine result page, side project, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Ted Nelson, Vannevar Bush, web application

The Web was created in 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee, a computer programmer working for the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Prior to the Web, accessing files on the Internet was a challenging task, requiring specialized knowledge and skills. The Web made it easy to retrieve a wide variety of files, including text, images, audio, and video by the simple mechanism of clicking a hypertext link. 1 2 The Invisible Web DEFINITION Hypertext A system that allows computerized objects (text, images, sounds, etc.) to be linked together. A hypertext link points to a specific object, or a specific place with a text; clicking the link opens the file associated with the object. The primary focus of this book is on the Web—and more specifically, the parts of the Web that search engines can’t see. To fully understand the phenomenon called the Invisible Web, it’s important to first understand the fundamental differences between the Internet and the Web.

To make the client simple and platform independent, Berners-Lee created HTML, or HyperText Markup Language, which was a dramatically simplified version of a text formatting language called SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language). All Web documents formatted with HTML tags would display identically on any computer in the world. Next, he created the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), the set of rules that computers would use to communicate over the Internet and allow hypertext links to automatically retrieve documents regardless of their location. He also devised the Universal Resource Identifier, a standard way of giving documents on the Internet a unique address (what we call URLs today). Finally, he brought all of the pieces together in the form of a Web server, which stored HTML documents and served them to other computers making HTTP requests for documents with URLs.

In examining the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, you’ll understand how general-purpose information-seeking tools work—an essential foundation for later understanding why they cannot fully access the riches of the Invisible Web. Browsing vs. Searching There are two fundamental methods for finding information on the Web: browsing and searching. Browsing is the process of following a hypertext trail of links created by other Web users. A hypertext link is a pointer to another document, image, or other object on the Web. The words making up the link are the title or description of the document that you will retrieve by clicking the link. By its very nature, browsing the Web is both easy and intuitive. Searching, on the other hand, relies on powerful software that seeks to match the keywords you specify with the most relevant documents on the Web.

pages: 223 words: 52,808

Intertwingled: The Work and Influence of Ted Nelson (History of Computing) by Douglas R. Dechow

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3D printing, Apple II, Bill Duvall, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, game design, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, pre–internet, RAND corporation, semantic web, Silicon Valley, software studies, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog

I wanted the system to be able to automatically create links on keywords in the application such as linking the names of key characters mentioned in the Mountbatten archives to their biographies or to a photograph. We called these generic links and they became a significant feature of Microcosm. Ted said we should have called them something other than links, as a generic link didn’t fit his definition of a hypertext link, but by the time Ted saw Microcosm it was too late to change the naming of the links. Microcosm was an open hypermedia system in that all the links were stored in a database as first-class entities that could be reasoned about and applied to any document. Each link was a triple that consisted of a source, a destination and a description. Little did I know at the time how prescient of the Semantic Web these ideas would be.

Of course, there are problems with automatically making a link on a word without knowing its precise semantic meaning. There are a lot of different people with the name Mountbatten in the Mountbatten archive for example. So working out the context in which the link was being applied and therefore the meaning of the word became a key focus of our work: problems we are still dealing with as the Semantic Web develops today. We did also have specific links in Microcosm that were more like standard hypertext links because they were embedded in the documents and represented to the user through highlighted buttons, and you could trace them backwards though the link database or linkbase as we called it. But the really novel idea was the generic links that were stored in a separable hyper-structure and created on the fly. We had the concept of a viewer in Microcosm, which you might call a browser today.

pages: 187 words: 55,801

The New Division of Labor: How Computers Are Creating the Next Job Market by Frank Levy, Richard J. Murnane

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Atul Gawande, call centre, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, correlation does not imply causation, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Gunnar Myrdal, hypertext link, index card, information asymmetry, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, pattern recognition, profit motive, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, speech recognition, talking drums, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, working poor

To get new managers’ attention, the first two modules, to be completed within thirty days, cover “keep out of jail” topics including business conduct guidelines and sexual harassment. Each module contains one or more Management Quick Views, short summaries of best practice strategies for commonly occurring tasks such as running a meeting, conducting an employee evaluation, and coaching an employee. A typical Quick View contains a description of the basics, answers to frequently asked questions, “Tips and Traps,” and hypertext links to sites providing additional information. Each module ends with a brief multiple-choice mastery test to be completed on-line and sent electronically to an IBM site for scoring. The test is “open-book,” and the new manager may take it as often as necessary to achieve a passing score. Scores are returned electronically in a few hours. Several of the modules contain text-based simulations, short cases in which the new manager chooses among alternative responses at several steps of a personal interaction.

In designing Basic Blue, IBM’s management development team used web-based technology in five ways: • to convey text-based training materials, including company poli• • • • cies and tips on managing the IBM way; to keep track of new managers’ progress in studying these materials; to create virtual collaboration forums in which new managers in the same training cohort could discuss training material and tests; to provide hypertext links to fully documented company policies providing greater detail than the training course materials; and to provide interactive text-based simulations that offered new managers opportunities to apply IBM policies to specific management challenges such as evaluating and coaching direct reports. Through these applications, the management design team was applying an idea we have seen in other settings: let computers carry out rulesbased tasks and shift human work—in this case, the teacher’s work in the classroom—to tasks involving requesting, interpreting, and conveying complex information, all of which involve pattern recognition.

pages: 298 words: 81,200

Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, digital map, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, mass immigration, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning

The application proved to be genuinely informative, but the programmer soon switched jobs and abandoned the code. He started up another version, which he called Tangle, a few years later, but it never got off the ground. But then, almost ten years after he had first programmed Enquire, he began sketching out a more ambitious application that could make connections between documents stored on different computers, using hypertext links. For a while he struggled with the right name for his nascent platform, calling it an information “mine” or “mesh.” Eventually, he hit upon a different metaphor for the platform’s dense network. He called it the World Wide Web. In his own account of the Web’s origins, Tim Berners-Lee makes no attempt to collapse the evolution of his marvelous idea into a single epiphany. The Web came into being as an archetypal slow hunch: from a child’s exploration of a hundred-year-old encyclopedia, to a freelancer’s idle side project designed to help him keep track of his colleagues, to a deliberate attempt to build a new information platform that could connect computers across the planet.

A platform adapted for scholarship was exapted for shopping, and sharing photos, and watching pornography—along with a thousand other uses that would have astounded Berners-Lee when he created his first HTML-based directories in the early nineties. When Sergey Brin and Larry Page decided to use links between Web pages as digital votes endorsing the content of those pages, they were exapting Berners-Lee’s original design: they took a trait adapted for navigation—the hypertext link—and used it as a vehicle for assessing quality. The result was PageRank, the original algorithm that made Google into the behemoth that it is today. The literary historian Franco Moretti has persuasively documented the role of exaptation in the evolution of the novel. An author conceives a new kind of narrative device to address a specific, local need in a work he or she is writing. Something about the device resonates with other authors, and it begins to circulate through the literary gene pool.

pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gunnar Myrdal, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

Engelbart later decided that such a system could be assembled based on the then newly available computers. He thought the time was right to build an interactive system to capture knowledge and organize information in such a way that it would now be possible for a small group of people—scientists, engineers, educators—to create and collaborate more effectively. By this time Engelbart had already invented the computer mouse as a control device and had also conceived of the idea of hypertext links that would decades later become the foundation for the modern World Wide Web. Moreover, like Duvall, he was an outsider within the insular computer science world that worshipped theory and abstraction as fundamental to science. Artificial intelligence pioneer Charles Rosen with Shakey, the first autonomous robot. The Pentagon funded the project to research the idea of a future robotic sentry.

It was a technology that resonated perfectly with the then new Internet. All of a sudden a confused world of multiple languages and computer protocols were all connected in an electronic Tower of Babel. When the World Wide Web first emerged, it offered a universal mechanism for easily retrieving documents via the Internet. The Web was loosely based on the earlier work of Doug Engelbart and Ted Nelson in the 1960s, who had independently pioneered the idea of hypertext linking, making it possible to easily access information stored in computer networks. The Web rapidly became a medium for connecting anyone to anything in the 1990s, offering a Lego-like way to link information, computers, and people. Ontologies offered a more powerful way to exchange any kind of information by combining the power of a global digital library with the ability to label information “objects.”

., 340 Heims, Steven, 75 Hendrix, Gary, 135 Herr, Bill, 78 Hewitt, Carl, 175 Hewlett-Packard, 255, 291 Hillis, Danny, 119 Hinton, Geoffrey, 143–156, 151 Hoaloha Robotics, 330–332 Hoefler, Don, 178 Hoffman, Reid, 295–296 Homebrew Computer Club, 197, 210–211 Hopfield, John, 145 Hopfield Network, 145, 149 Horvitz, Eric, xiii, 215–220, 336 How to Create a Mind (Kurzweil), 85, 154 “How to NOT Build a Terminator” (Arkin), 333–335 Hubbard, G. Scott, 168 Hughes, Kevin, 290–291 Hughes Corp., 126 Humanoids 2013, 333–335 Human Use of Human Beings, The (Wiener), 8, 70, 98 HyperDoc, 298 Hypermail, 290–292 hypertext links, invention of, 6 IBM, 109, 138, 225–226 Illich, Ivan, 213–215 Inaba, Masayuki, 244 Industrial Perception, 241–244, 269–270 Infocom, 224 Inoue, Hirochika, 244 Instagram, 83 Intel Corp., 95, 178, 260–265 Intellicorp, 128 intelligence augmentation (IA) versus AI, 159–194 agent-based interfaces and, 187–194 autonomous cars and, 24, 62 ethical issues of, 332–341, 342–344 Gerald (digital light field), 271 Google founding and, 184–187 human-computer interaction, 11–18 human-in-the-loop debates, 158–165, 167–169, 335 IA, defined, xii, 5–7, 31, 115, 141 McCarthy’s and Engelbart’s work compared, 165–167 paradoxical relationship between, xii–xiii Searle and, 179, 180–182 Siri and, 12–13, 31, 190, 193–194, 282 social construction of technology concept, xvii Winograd’s changed views about, 170–178, 171, 182–187 intelligent cruise control, 43 intelligent elevator, 215 International Federation of Robotics (IFR), 87 Internet advent of, 7 ARPAnet as precursor to, 164, 196 Internet of Things, xv, 193 neural network advancement and, 151 photographic film industry and, 83–84 search engine optimization, 86 “Third Industrial Revolution,” 88, 89 Web 2.0, 295 World Wide Web development, 140, 288–290 Interval Research Corporation, 213, 267, 268 Intraspect, 292–295 Intuitive Surgical, 271 iRobot, 203 Jennings, Ken, 225, 226 Jobs, Steve, 13, 35, 112, 131, 194, 214, 241, 281–282, 320–323 Johns Hopkins University, 145 Johnson, Lyndon B., 73 Joshi, Aravind Krishna, 132 Joy, Bill, 336, 343 Kaplan, Jerry, 27, 131–141 Kapor, Mitch, 140, 292 Kay, Alan, 7–8, 115, 120, 198–199, 306–310, 339–341 Kelley, David, 186 Kelly, Kevin, 17 Keynes, John Maynard, 74, 76, 326–327 Kittlaus, Dag, 310–323 Kiva Systems, 97–98, 206 knowledge acquisition problem, 287 knowledge-based systems, 285 knowledge engineering, 113, 128 Knowledge Engineering Laboratory (Stanford), 133–134 Knowledge Navigator, 188, 300, 304, 305–310, 317, 318 Kodak, 83–84 Koller, Daphne, 265 Komisar, Randy, 341 Konolige, Kurt, 268–269 Kuffner, James, 43 Kurzweil, Ray, 84–85, 116, 119, 154, 208, 336 labor force, 65–94 aging of, 93–94, 327 autonomous cars and, 25, 61–62 Brooks on, 204–208 Brynjolfsson and McAfee on, 79–80, 82–83 cybernation revolution, 73–74 deskilling of, 80–82 economic change and, 77–79, 83–84 for elder care, 236–237, 245, 327–332 growth of, xv, 10, 80–81, 326–327 Industrial Perception robots and, 241–244, 269–270 lights-out factories and, 65–68, 66, 90, 104, 206 Moravec on, 122–123 recession of 2008 and, 77–78, 325 Rifkin on automation and, 76–77 Shockley on, 97 singularity hypothesis and, 9–10, 84–94 technological unemployment, 16–18, 76–77, 104, 211 technology and displacement of, 16–18 unions and, 325–326 Wiener on, 8, 68–76 Labor-Science-Education Association, 70, 73 Lamond, Pierre, 129–130 lane-keeping software, 49, 51 language and speech recognition. see also Siri (Apple) chatbot technology, 221–225, 304 early neural network research, 146–148 Eliza, 14, 113, 172–174, 221 Hearsay-II, 282–283 natural language work by Kaplan, 135 semantic autocomplete, 284 semantic understanding, 156 Shakey and, 2 SHRDLU, 132, 170–172, 174–178 Siri’s development and, 12–13, 15, 280 (see also Siri [Apple]) software agents, 193 Lanier, Jaron, 82–83 Leach, Edmund, 90 LeCun, Yann, 148–152, 151, 156–158 Lederberg, Joshua, 113 Legg, Shane, 337–338 Leonard, John, 55 Lerner, Sandy, 134 Levandowski, Anthony, 45 Levy, Frank, 10 Lexus, 57 Licklider, J.

pages: 224 words: 12,941

From Gutenberg to Google: electronic representations of literary texts by Peter L. Shillingsburg

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British Empire, computer age, double helix, HyperCard, hypertext link, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, means of production, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Saturday Night Live, Socratic dialogue

Electronic editions appeared, at first, to provide a welcoming medium for housing the work of textual scholars: multiple texts that could be displayed and seen in more than one way. The verbal or lexical part of texts can be maintained cheaply and in small spaces and related texts can be displayed in close proximity. Electronic archives make possible this proximity even of unique material exemplars held separately in archives scattered to the four corners of the earth. Specialized programs for comparing texts have been developed, and hypertext links for variant texts can be created. The list of programs and products that electronic texts have achieved already is mind-boggling and impressive. There has yet to be created, however, an environment or interface for text handling and display that integrates the capabilities needed for a comprehensive electronic scholarly edition/archive. And when such Complexity, endurance, and scholarship 35 a framework or suite of programs is developed, will it and can it stand as the standard for textual scholarship?

It is only natural that the practical considerations of electronic textproduction should absorb the attention of electronic text producers, for there is so much to deal with: choices of hardware (where every new year’s model is capable of so much more than the model you bought) and choices of software (where the cleverest and niftiest capabilities entail, as likely as not, proprietary coding that locks the edition into one form of access). To these one can add the many problems entailed in developing or learning a text-encoding system that will overcome the problems of new developing and evolving hardware and software. And it has been necessary for scholarly editors also to devote a great deal of attention to design: What shall the screen page look like? How shall hypertext links look and work? How should windows pop up and disappear or fade into the background? How shall we incorporate sound and motion in our texts? Where are the boundaries between scholarly editing, archiving, and pedagogy? Or are those boundaries disappearing? These important concerns are likely to continue to absorb a great deal of attention, and we must not be distracted from them by temptations to scream out against the rapid proliferation of unreliable texts prepared (loosely speaking) by people who have not bothered to think long or hard about textual matters.

pages: 394 words: 108,215

What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry by John Markoff

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Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, California gold rush, card file, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, general-purpose programming language, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, union organizing, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Some of the team even mastered the art of typing using the chord-key set exclusively—one young programmer was able to type more than fifty words per minute. To a world that would not see the introduction of the IBM Correcting Selectric II typewriter until 1973, it made for a stunning display of text editing at hyperspeed. The Augment system eventually offered word processing, outline editing, hypertext linking, teleconferencing, electronic mail, a windowing display, online help, and a consistent user interface. In trying to convey its significance, some have attempted to draw parallels between it and integrated software packages such as Microsoft Office, which appeared in the 1980s. However, the scope and vision of Engelbart’s system was vastly broader, and it was created as part of a project that would eventually blend with the ARPAnet as a community of technical researchers.

In the darkened Brooks Hall Auditorium in San Francisco, all the seats were filled, and people lined the walls. On the giant screen at his back, Engelbart demonstrated a system that seemed like science fiction to a data-processing world reared on punched cards and typewriter terminals. In one stunning ninety-minute session, he showed how it was possible to edit text on a display screen, to make hypertext links from one electronic document to another, and to mix text and graphics, and even video and graphics. He also sketched out a vision of an experimental computer network to be called ARPAnet and suggested that within a year he would be able to give the same demonstration remotely to locations across the country. In short, every significant aspect of today’s computing world was revealed in a magnificent hour and a half.

pages: 323 words: 95,939

Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now by Douglas Rushkoff

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algorithmic trading, Andrew Keen, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, cashless society, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, disintermediation, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, Elliott wave, European colonialism, Extropian, facts on the ground, Flash crash, game design, global supply chain, global village, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, Inbox Zero, invention of agriculture, invention of hypertext, invisible hand, iterative process, John Nash: game theory, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, Law of Accelerating Returns, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Milgram experiment, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, passive investing, pattern recognition, peak oil, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nelson Elliott, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

While the book with its discrete pages is a bit more sequential than the scroll, both are entirely more oriented in time than the computer screen. Whichever program’s window we may have open at the moment is the digital version of now, without context or placement in the timeline. The future on a blog is not to one side, but above—in the as-yet-unposted potential. The past isn’t to the other side, but down, in and among older posts. Or over there, at the next hypertext link. What is next does not unfold over time, but is selected as part of a sequence. In this context, digiphrenia comes from confusing chronos with kairos. It happens when we accept the digital premise that every moment must potentially consist of a decision point or a new branch. We live perched atop the static points of chronos, suffering from the vertigo of no temporal context. It’s akin to the discomfort many LP listeners had to early CD music and low-resolution digital music files, whose sample rates seemed almost perceptible as a staccato sawtooth wave buzzing under the music.

And there’s so much information coming in at once, from so many different sources, that there’s simply no way to trace the plot over time. Without the possibility of a throughline we’re left to make sense of things the way a character comes to great recognitions on a postnarrative TV show like Lost or The Wire: by making connections. While we may blame the Internet for the ease with which conspiracy theories proliferate, the net is really much more culpable for the way it connects everything to almost everything else. The hypertext link, as we used to call it, allows any fact or idea to become intimately connected with any other. New content online no longer requires new stories or information, just new ways of linking things to other things. Or as the social networks might put it to you, “Jane is now friends with Tom.” The connection has been made; the picture is getting more complete. It’s as if we are slowly connecting everyone to everyone else and everything else.

pages: 329 words: 88,954

Emergence by Steven Johnson

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

It’s worth noting here that Alexa is not truly a “recommendation agent”; it is not telling you that you’ll like the five sites that it suggests. It’s saying that there’s a relationship between the site you’re currently visiting and the sites listed on the pull-down menu. The clusters that form via Alexa are clusters of association, and the links between them are not unlike the traditional links of hypertext. Think about the semantics of a hypertext link embedded in an online article: when you see that link, you don’t translate it as “If you like this sentence, you’ll like this page as well.” The link isn’t recommending another page; it’s pointing out that there’s a relationship between the sentence you’re reading and the page at the other end of the link. It’s still up to you to decide if you’re interested in the other sites, just as it’s up to you to decide which silk merchant you prefer on the Por Santa Maria.

I suspect Wiener would immediately have understood the virtual community’s problem with cranks and lurkers. Where the Flowers affair was a case of runaway positive feedback, the tyranny of the crank results from a scarcity of feedback: a system where the information flows are unidirectional, where the audience is present and at the same time invisible. These liabilities run parallel to the problems of one-way linking that we saw in the previous chapter. Hypertext links and virtual communities were supposed to be the advance guard of the interactive revolution, but in a real sense they only got halfway to the promised land. (Needless to say, the ants were there millions of years ago.) And if the cranks and obsessive-compulsives flourish in a small-scale online community of several thousand members, imagine the anarchy and noise generated by a million community members.

pages: 153 words: 27,424

REST API Design Rulebook by Mark Masse

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anti-pattern, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, data acquisition, database schema, hypertext link, information retrieval, web application

Note Clients should be encouraged to programmatically consult the resource’s media type’s schema to validate their field selections. See Media Type Schema Design for more detail. Rule: The query component of a URI should be used to embed linked resources In his “Commentary on Web Architecture,” Tim Berners-Lee pointed out that there are two types of links: Basic HTML has three ways of linking to other material on the web: the hypertext link from an anchor (HTML “A” element), the general link with no specific source anchor within the document (HTML “LINK” element), and embedded objects and images (IMG and OBJECT). Let’s call A and LINK “normal” links, as they are visible to the user as a traversal between two documents. We’ll call the thing between a document and an embedded image or object or subdocument “embedding” links. --Tim Berners-Lee http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkLaw REST API’s should allow individual client requests to control which linked resources should remain “normal” and which ones should become “embedded.”

pages: 494 words: 142,285

The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World by Lawrence Lessig

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AltaVista, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, business process, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Erik Brynjolfsson, George Gilder, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, invention of hypertext, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Larry Wall, Leonard Kleinrock, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, smart grid, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, transaction costs, zero-sum game

The computers simply could not communicate with each other.49 Berners-Lee thus began to think about a system to enable linking among documents—through a process called “hypertext”—and to build this linking on top of the protocols of the Internet. His ideal was a space where any document in principle could be linked to any other and where any document published was available to anyone. The components of this vision were nothing new. Hypertext—links from one document to another—had been born with Vannevar Bush,50 and made famous by Bill Atkinson's HyperCard on the Apple Macintosh. The world where documents could all link to each other was the vision of Robert Fano in an early article in the Proceedings of the IEEE. 51 But Berners-Lee put these ideas together using the underlying protocol of the Internet. Hyperlinked documents would thus be available to anyone with access to the Internet, and any document published according to the protocols of the World Wide Web would be available to all.

This decision, in turn, gave birth to an explosion of business method patent applications. And by 1999, many were beginning to be approved in a way that surprised the industry. Applications for computer-related business methods jumped from about 1,000 in 1997 to over 2,500 in 1999.88 High on that list was the Amazon 1-Click patent, but also on the list were Price-line.com's reverse auction patent, and British Telecom's claim that it owned the invention of hypertext links (and hence the World Wide Web!).89 In all these cases, the question the monopoly-granting body asked was simply this: Was this sort of “invention” sufficiently like others that were the subject of patents? If so, then the patent was granted for this field of innovation. Economists, however, are likely to ask a much different question. While it is clear that patents spur innovation in many important fields, it is also clear that for some fields of innovation, patents may do more harm than good.90 While increasing the incentives to innovate, patents also increase the costs of innovation.

pages: 207 words: 52,716

Capitalism 3.0: A Guide to Reclaiming the Commons by Peter Barnes

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Albert Einstein, car-free, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, hypertext link, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, jitney, money market fund, new economy, patent troll, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

Learn everything about it. Fall in love with it. See who’s in charge. Then join or build an organization to revive it. If you want a role model, consider Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor and promoter of the World Wide Web. Berners-Lee was a programmer at CERN, the European high-energy physics lab, when he had an idea to simplify the Internet through hypertext. Readers of an Internet page would simply click on a hypertext link and be transported automatically to another page, anywhere in the world. No more clunky protocols only geeks understand. Just one seamless information space, freely accessible to all. Berners-Lee wrote the codes for Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). More importantly, he persuaded CERN to release them into the world with no patents, licenses, or other strings attached.

pages: 204 words: 58,565

Keeping Up With the Quants: Your Guide to Understanding and Using Analytics by Thomas H. Davenport, Jinho Kim

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Black-Scholes formula, business intelligence, business process, call centre, computer age, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, forensic accounting, global supply chain, Hans Rosling, hypertext link, invention of the telescope, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, margin call, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Myron Scholes, Netflix Prize, p-value, performance metric, publish or perish, quantitative hedge fund, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, six sigma, Skype, statistical model, supply-chain management, text mining, the scientific method

Team A came up with a very sophisticated algorithm using the Netflix data. Team B used a very simple algorithm, but they added in additional data beyond the Netflix set: information about movie genres from the Internet Movie Database (IMDB). Guess which team did better? Team B got much better results, close to the best results on the Netflix leaderboard!!9 Rajaraman also notes in the same blog post that a new data source—hypertext links—was the primary factor differentiating Google’s search algorithm from previous search engine services, which used only the text of the Web pages. In its highly lucrative AdWords advertising algorithm, Google also added some additional data that no one else was using at the time: the click-through rate on each advertiser’s ad. Rajaraman and Ramakrishnan both argue that more and better data beat a better algorithm almost every time.

pages: 255 words: 68,829

How PowerPoint Makes You Stupid by Franck Frommer

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Albert Einstein, business continuity plan, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, hypertext link, invention of writing, inventory management, invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, new economy, oil shock, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, union organizing

Even such “sacred” places as courtrooms and churches are now theaters of slide projections: it is possible to re-create a crime scene in court, and any preacher can rely on PowerPoint to enliven his sermons. In the beginning, there was an ingenious program created in the 1980s by the first of the West Coast geeks. This precursor made it possible to produce organized, easy-to-use multimedia presentations simply and quickly. They could include animation, illustrations, photographs, sound, video, and hypertext links. It was already a complete and universal tool “to create dynamic and snappy presentations,” as the official site for PowerPoint still asserts. At first, PowerPoint was intended primarily for office meetings or for the presentation of products and services. As it improved over time, the program acquired graphic and multimedia capabilities that opened the door to new territories: technological innovation made it possible with a few clicks and bullet points to adapt and simplify centuries of rhetorical art.

pages: 193 words: 19,478

Memory Machines: The Evolution of Hypertext by Belinda Barnet

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augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Duvall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, game design, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, John Markoff, linked data, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, publish or perish, Robert Metcalfe, semantic web, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons

HES was deliberately made to embody a freewheeling character, as nonstructured as possible. The system itself comprised text ‘areas’ that were of any length, expanding and contracting automatically to accommodate material. These areas were connected in two ways: by links and by branches. A link went from a point of departure in one area (signified by an asterisk) to an entrance point in another, or the same, area. The HES team used Ted Nelson’s concept of a hypertext link (though from Nelson’s perspective they ‘flattened’ this by making the jumps one-way). Doug Engelbart was incorporating the same idea into NLS independently. ‘I hadn’t heard of Engelbart. I hadn’t heard of Bush and Memex. That came quite a bit later,’ van Dam recalls (van Dam 1999). Links were intended to be optional paths within a body of text – from one place to another. They represented a relationship between two ideas or points: an intuitive concept.

pages: 666 words: 181,495

In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy

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23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, one-China policy, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, selection bias, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, turn-by-turn navigation, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Part of his job was improving information retrieval processes. He tried the search engines at the time—AltaVista, Excite, Lycos—and found them ineffectual and spam-ridden. One day in April 1996 he was at an academic conference. Bored by the presentation, he began to ponder how search engines could be improved. He realized that the Science Citation Index phenomenon could be applied to the Internet. The hypertext link could be regarded as a citation! “When I returned home, I started to write this down and realized it was revolutionary,” he says. He devised a search approach that calculated relevance from both the frequency of links and the content of anchor text. He called his system RankDex. When he described his scheme to his boss at Dow Jones, urging the company to apply for a patent, he was at first encouraged, then disappointed when nothing happened.

., 140 Playboy, 153–54, 155 pornography, blocking, 54, 97, 108, 173, 174 Postini, 241 Pregibon, Daryl, 118–19 Premium Sunset, 109, 112–13, 115 privacy: and Book Settlement, 363 and browsers, 204–12, 336–37 and email, 170–78, 211–12, 378 and Google’s policies, 10, 11, 145, 173–75, 333–35, 337–40 and Google Street View, 340–43 and government fishing expeditions, 173 and interest-based ads, 263, 334–36 and security breach, 268 and social networking, 378–79, 383 and surveillance, 343 Privacy International, 176 products: beta versions of, 171 “dogfooding,” 216 Google neglect of, 372, 373–74, 376, 381 in GPS meetings, 6, 135, 171 machine-driven, 207 marketing themselves, 77, 372 speed required in, 186 Project Database (PDB), 164 property law, 6, 360 Python, 18, 37 Qiheng, Hu, 277 Queiroz, Mario, 230 Rainert, Alex, 373, 374 Rajaram, Gokul, 106 Rakowski, Brian, 161 Randall, Stephen, 153 RankDex, 27 Rasmussen, Lars, 379 Red Hat, 78 Reese, Jim, 181–84, 187, 195, 196, 198 Reeves, Scott, 153 Rekhi, Manu, 373 Reyes, George, 70, 148 Richards, Michael, 251 robotics, 246, 351, 385 Romanos, Jack, 356 Rosenberg, Jonathan, 159–60, 281 Rosenstein, Justin, 369 Rosing, Wayne, 44, 55, 82, 155, 158–59, 186, 194, 271 Rubin, Andy, 135, 213–18, 220, 221–22, 226, 227–30, 232 Rubin, Robert, 148 Rubinson, Barry, 20–21 Rubinstein, Jon, 221 Sacca, Chris, 188–94 Salah, George, 84, 128, 129, 132–33, 166 Salinger Group, The, 190–91 Salton, Gerard, 20, 24, 40 Samsung, 214, 217 Samuelson, Pamela, 362, 365 Sandberg, Sheryl, 175, 257 and advertising, 90, 97, 98, 99, 107 and customer support, 231 and Facebook, 259, 370 Sanlu Group, 297–98 Santana, Carlos, 238 Schillace, Sam, 201–3 Schmidt, Eric, 107, 193 and advertising, 93, 95–96, 99, 104, 108, 110, 112, 114, 115, 117, 118, 337 and antitrust issues, 345 and Apple, 218, 220, 236–37 and applications, 207, 240, 242 and Book Search, 350, 351, 364 and China, 267, 277, 279, 283, 288–89, 305, 310–11, 313, 386 and cloud computing, 201 and financial issues, 69–71, 252, 260, 376, 383 and Google culture, 129, 135, 136, 364 and Google motto, 145 and growth, 165, 271 and IPO, 147–48, 152, 154, 155–57 on lawsuits, 328–29 and management, 4, 80–83, 110, 158–60, 165, 166, 242, 254, 255, 273, 386, 387 and Obama, 316–17, 319, 321, 346 and privacy, 175, 178, 383 and public image, 328 and smart phones, 216, 217, 224, 236 and social networking, 372 and taxes, 90 and Yahoo, 344, 345 and YouTube, 248–49, 260, 265 Schrage, Elliot, 285–87 Schroeder, Pat, 361 search: decoding the intent of, 59 failed, 60 freshness in, 42 Google as synonymous with, 40, 41, 42, 381 mobile, 217 organic results of, 85 in people’s brains, 67–68 real-time, 376 sanctity of, 275 statelessness of, 116, 332 verticals, 58 see also web searches search engine optimization (SEO), 55–56 search engines, 19 bigram breakage in, 51 business model for, 34 file systems for, 43–44 and hypertext link, 27, 37 information retrieval via, 27 and licensing fees, 77, 84, 95, 261 name detection in, 50–52 and relevance, 48–49, 52 signals to, 22 ultimate, 35 upgrades of, 49, 61–62 Search Engine Watch, 102 SearchKing, 56 SEC regulations, 149, 150–51, 152, 154, 156 Semel, Terry, 98 Sengupta, Caesar, 210 Seti, 65–67 Shah, Sonal, 321 Shapiro, Carl, 117 Shazeer, Noam, 100–102 Sheff, David, 153 Sherman Antitrust Act, 345 Shriram, Ram, 34, 72, 74, 79 Siao, Qiang, 277 Sidekick, 213, 226 signals, 21–22, 49, 59, 376 Silicon Graphics (SGI), 131–32 Silverstein, Craig, 13, 34, 35, 36, 43, 78, 125, 129, 139 Sina, 278, 288, 302 Singh, Sanjeev, 169–70 Singhal, Amit, 24, 40–41, 48–52, 54, 55, 58 Siroker, Dan, 319–21 skunkworks, 380–81 Skype, 233, 234–36, 322, 325 Slashdot, 167 Slim, Carlos, 166 SMART (Salton’s Magical Retriever of Text), 20 smart phones, 214–16, 217–22 accelerometers on, 226–28 carrier contracts for, 230, 231, 236 customer support for, 230–31, 232 direct to consumer, 230, 232 Nexus One, 230, 231–32 Smith, Adam, 360 Smith, Bradford, 333 Smith, Christopher, 284–86 Smith, Megan, 141, 158, 184, 258, 318, 350, 355–56 social graph, 374 social networking, 369–83 Sogou, 300 Sohu, 278, 300 Sony, 251, 264 Sooner (mobile operating system), 217, 220 Southworth, Lucinda, 254 spam, 53–57, 92, 241 Spector, Alfred, 65, 66–67 speech recognition, 65, 67 spell checking, 48 Spencer, Graham, 20, 28, 201, 375 spiders, 18, 19 Stanford University: and BackRub, 29–30 and Book Search, 357 Brin in, 13–14, 16, 17, 28, 29, 34 computer science program at, 14, 23, 27, 32 Digital Library Project, 16, 17 and Google, 29, 31, 32–33, 34 and MIDAS, 16 Page in, 12–13, 14, 16–17, 28, 29, 34 and Silicon Valley, 27–28 Stanley (robot), 246, 385 Stanton, Katie, 318, 321, 322, 323–25, 327 Stanton, Louis L., 251 State Department, U.S., 324–25 Steremberg, Alan, 18, 29 Stewart, Jon, 384 Stewart, Margaret, 207 Stricker, Gabriel, 186 Sullivan, Danny, 102 Sullivan, Stacy, 134, 140, 141, 143–44, 158–59 Summers, Larry, 90 Sun Microsystems, 28, 70 Swetland, Brian, 226, 228 Taco Town, 377 Tan, Chade-Meng, 135–36 Tang, Diane, 118 Taylor, Bret, 259, 370 Teetzel, Erik, 184, 197 Tele Atlas, 341 Tesla, Nikola, 13, 32, 106 Thompson, Ken, 241 3M, 124 Thrun, Sebastian, 246, 385–86 T-Mobile, 226, 227, 230 Tseng, Erick, 217, 227 Twentieth Century Fox, 249 Twitter, 309, 322, 327, 374–77, 387 Uline, 112 Universal Music Group, 261 Universal Search, 58–60, 294, 357 University of Michigan, 352–54, 357 UNIX, 54, 80 Upson, Linus, 210, 211–12 Upstartle, 201 Urchin Software, 114 users: in A/B tests, 61 data amassed about, 45–48, 59, 84, 144, 173–74, 180, 185, 334–37 feedback from, 65 focus on, 5, 77, 92 increasing numbers of, 72 predictive clues from, 66 and security breach, 268, 269 U.S.

pages: 798 words: 240,182

The Transhumanist Reader by Max More, Natasha Vita-More

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23andMe, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, data acquisition, discovery of DNA, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, experimental subject, Extropian, fault tolerance, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, friendly AI, game design, germ theory of disease, hypertext link, impulse control, index fund, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, P = NP, pattern recognition, phenotype, positional goods, prediction markets, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, silicon-based life, Singularitarianism, stem cell, stochastic process, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, the built environment, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

We planned on and anticipate other features, some of which will be mentioned in the future plans discussion, but the body of this presentation will only cover what is implemented and running. First, I will discuss the four fundamental features – links, transclusion, versioning, and ­detectors. Marc Stiegler will then present an example using them. Then I will describe the remaining four features – permissions, reputation-based filtering, multimedia, and external transclusion, followed by some concluding remarks. Links Hypertext links are directly inspired by literary practice. Literature has many different kinds of links connecting documents into a vast web. Textual examples of these links include ­bibliographical references, marginal notes, quotation, footnotes, and Post-it notes. We propose to build engines of citation, so that people can navigate this vast web of literature at the click of a mouse. Most computer text systems are predicated on a misconception that the meaning of a document is represented purely or primarily by its content.

I expect guides to come largely from people making their own organizing views of a literature and then cleaning them up for publication, so others may benefit from their work. Hyperlinks Because “nanotechnology” is now used by many to mean any technology approaching the nanometer scale, we have been forced to retreat to the term “molecular nanotechnology.” Hypertext terminology has gone through a drift similar to nanotech terminology. The Xanadu project is the one that coined the term “hypertext” and originated the notion of the hypertext “link.” However, because the term link has come to be viewed as something much less capable than what we meant by it, we are now calling it the hyperlink. The distinction between the link and the hyperlink is crucial for supporting active criticism in open media. Hyperlinks are fine-grained, bidirectional, and extrinsic. Frequently, an argument is not with a document or chapter as a whole. It is with a particular point that someone made at a particular place in the text.

pages: 406 words: 88,820

Television disrupted: the transition from network to networked TV by Shelly Palmer

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barriers to entry, call centre, commoditize, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, hypertext link, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, James Watt: steam engine, Leonard Kleinrock, linear programming, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, yield management

HTTP The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. Hybrid Fiber-Coaxial (HFC) A local cable TV or telephone distribution network. An HFC consists of fiber optic trunks ending at neighborhood nodes, with coaxial cable feeders and drop lines downstream of the nodes. Hybrid subscription A business model where subscribers pay for content but also see commercial advertising messages. Hyperlink a hypertext link or link in a graphic or text string which, when clicked, opens a new web page or jumps to a new location in the current page. Copyright © 2006, Shelly Palmer. All rights reserved. 13-Television.Glossary v2.qxd 3/20/06 7:29 AM Page 203 Hard Drive/Hard Disc – IP Bypass 203 Hypertext Any text within a document that is linked to another object in another location. See Hyperlink, HTML and HTTP.

pages: 448 words: 84,462

Testing Extreme Programming by Lisa Crispin, Tip House

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c2.com, continuous integration, data acquisition, database schema, Donner party, Drosophila, hypertext link, index card, job automation, web application

On the other hand, you may find she isn't disposed to work with the executable format and you need to provide some other format for her to review and update. Spreadsheets are a good alternative format for presenting acceptance tests to a customer unwilling or unable to work with the executable tests. They're easy for just about anyone to maintain and manipulate, and they provide useful organizational features like hypertext linking and the ability to store more than one sheet in a workbook. Since you need to keep the spreadsheet and the executable test in sync, the two formats require a more or less one-to-one correspondence. We've found it feasible use a single spreadsheet workbook to correspond to the class and separate sheets within the workbook to correspond to the methods. In other words, corresponding to our LoginStoryTest.java file would be a spreadsheet file named LoginStoryTest.xls, and corresponding to our testLogin method would be a worksheet with the same name and the contents shown in Table 17.1.

pages: 397 words: 102,910

The Idealist: Aaron Swartz and the Rise of Free Culture on the Internet by Justin Peters

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4chan, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Bayesian statistics, Brewster Kahle, buy low sell high, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil, global village, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Lean Startup, moral panic, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Republic of Letters, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

The Web became popular because of its linking capacity. In his proposal for Memex, Vannevar Bush advanced the idea that the associative trails between two disparate thoughts or facts could be captured and stored. The Web put a version of this idea into practice by allowing its users to link directly to other documents or websites: a feature called hypertext. The World Wide Web was modeled after an actual web, composed of threads—hypertext links—that spun out in all directions, connecting various far-flung nodes, or websites. Like its arachnoid namesake, the Web was good at drawing others in. As more and more people dialed online—especially after the 1993 release of Mosaic, the first visual Web browser—Project Gutenberg grew into an actual project involving more than just Michael Hart and his increasingly weary fingers. As word of the initiative spread, volunteers materialized.

pages: 404 words: 113,514

Atrocity Archives by Stross, Charles

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airport security, anthropic principle, Berlin Wall, brain emulation, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, defense in depth, disintermediation, experimental subject, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, hypertext link, Khyber Pass, mandelbrot fractal, Menlo Park, NP-complete, the medium is the message, Y2K, yield curve

Shouldn't you be pleased that I've decided to make the best of things and try to be useful?" Angleton leans forward across the polished top of his Memex desk. With a visible effort he slews the microfiche reader hood around so that I can see the screen, then taps one bony finger on a mechanical keypress. "Watch and learn." The desk whirs and clunks; cams and gears buried deep in it shuffle hypertext links and bring up a new microfilm card. A man's face shows up on the screen. Moustache, sunglasses, cropped hair, fortysomething and jowly with it. "Tariq Nassir al-Tikriti. Remember that last bit. He works for a man who grew up in his home town around the same time, who goes by the name of Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti. Mr. Nassir's job entails arranging for funds to be transferred from the Mukhabarat--Saddam's private Gestapo--to friendly parties for purposes of inconveniencing enemies of the Ba'ath party of Iraq.

pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta

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23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management, zero-sum game

A self-made multimillionaire at age thirty-eight, Andreessen has often been right. As a computer science major at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, he worked at the university’s National Center for Supercomputing Applications. Inspired by Tim Berners-Lee’s vision of open standards for the Internet, in 1992 he and a coworker, Eric Bina, created an easy to use browser called Mosaic. The browser worked on a variety of computers, facilitating the hypertext links that allow Web surfing and Google search, helping users to effortlessly hop from site to site. After graduating in 1993, he moved to California, where he met Jim Clark. The former founder of Silicon Graphics, Clark shared Andreessen’s conviction that the browser could be a transformative technology, and he had the money to advance that dream. Not long after, Andreessen became cofounder and vice president of technology for the company that would become Netscape Communications.

pages: 1,038 words: 137,468

JavaScript Cookbook by Shelley Powers

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Firefox, Google Chrome, hypertext link, p-value, semantic web, web application, WebSocket

Speaking of the state of technology, Recipe 20.3 introduces the new HTML5 history object method, pushState, and associated window.onpopevent event handler. These maintain state and were created to help resolve the back button problem mentioned in this recipe. Recipe 12.15 covers the setAttribute method. 8.9 Preserving State for Back Button, Page Refresh | 157 CHAPTER 9 Form Elements and Validation 9.0 Introduction Outside of hypertext links, form elements were the very first form of interaction between web developers and web page readers, and were also one of the first reasons for interest in a scripting language. With the advent of JavaScript, form elements could be validated before the data was sent to the server, saving the reader time and the website extra processing. JavaScript can also be used to modify form elements based on the data the web reader provides, such as filling a selection list with the names of cities when a certain state is selected.

Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Writing Science) by Thierry Bardini

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Apple II, augmented reality, Bill Duvall, conceptual framework, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, invention of hypertext, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, packet switching, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, unbiased observer, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

"Continuous use of NLS to store ideas, study them, relate them structurally, and cross-reference them results in a superior organization of ideas and a greater ability to manipulate them further for spe- cial purposes, as the need arises-whether the 'ideas' are expressed as natural language, as data, as programming, or as graphic information" (Engelbart et al. 1970, 184). The emphasis once again was on relations, on structure, as SRI and the oN-LIne System 135 , '" Figure 5-2. The Herman Miller NLS Console. Source: Engelbart et al. (1970), p. 137. in Bateson's formulation of what you see when you look at your hand. And the result was the invention of hypertext, linked relations between texts. A "text" (or a "file") simply is any structured set of character strings (or "statements"). All text handled in NLS was in "structured-statement" form, a hierarchical arrangement of these character strings resembling a conventional outline. Each statement possessed identifying features such as a "number" (po- sition and level in the structure) and a "signature," a line of text giving the ini- tials of the user who created the statement and the time and date when it was done.

pages: 511 words: 111,423

Learning SPARQL by Bob Ducharme

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Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, G4S, hypertext link, linked data, place-making, semantic web, SPARQL, web application

Putting all of these pieces together, we’ll see how to create a formatted PDF file from SPARQL Query Results XML. This stylesheet converts the query result XML to the DITA representation of a table. Because SPARQL query results are already pretty tabular, most of the stylesheet’s template rules just map a single SPARQL result element to the appropriate DITA table element. The last one gets a little fancier, converting any uri element it finds to the DITA equivalent of a hypertext link: <!-- filename: ex402.xsl Convert XML SPARQL query results to a DITA Concept document. --> <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" xmlns:s="http://www.w3.org/2005/sparql-results#" exclude-result-prefixes="s"> <xsl:output doctype-public="-//OASIS//DTD DITA Concept//EN" doctype-system="C:\usr\local\dita\DITA-OT1.5\dtd\technicalContent\dtd\concept.dtd"/> <xsl:template match="s:sparql"> <concept id="id1"> <title>Wind Power Companies</title> <conbody> <table> <tgroup cols="{count(s:head/s:variable)}"> <xsl:apply-templates/> </tgroup> </table> </conbody> </concept> </xsl:template> <xsl:template match="s:head"> <thead> <row> <xsl:apply-templates/> </row> </thead> </xsl:template> <xsl:template match="s:variable"> <entry><xsl:value-of select="@name"/></entry> </xsl:template> <xsl:template match="s:results"> <tbody><xsl:apply-templates/></tbody> </xsl:template> <xsl:template match="s:result"> <row><xsl:apply-templates/></row> </xsl:template> <xsl:template match="s:binding"> <entry><xsl:apply-templates/></entry> </xsl:template> <xsl:template match="s:literal"> <xsl:apply-templates/> </xsl:template> <xsl:template match="s:uri"> <xref format="html" href="{

Guide to LaTeX by Helmut Kopka, Patrick W. Daly

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centre right, Donald Knuth, framing effect, hypertext link, invention of movable type, Menlo Park

That alone would not justify preferring pdfTEX over a DVI-to-PDF converter, nor would the fact that it saves a processing step; the deciding argument is that pdfTEX has established itself as reliable, robust, and flexible. In the end, it is likely a question of which program one is more comfortable with, and which one has given the better results for the particular user. 10.2.4 The hyperref package Package: hyperref Sebastian Rahtz has written an ambitious package hyperref to add automatic hypertext links to LATEX documents that are intended to become HTML (using LATEX2HTML, Section E.1.1 or TEX4ht, Section E.1.2) or PDF files (using any of the methods described above). Not only do all internal cross-references link to their reference points, citations are also linked to the list of references, table of contents to the section headings, and index listings to the original text. Additional links to external documents are possible by means of a single syntax for all types of output.

pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

They allegedly come from our banks, cable companies, retirement plans, social media outlets, and mobile phone operators and target users around the world, with the greatest number of victims in the United States, the U.K., and Germany. In the end, all phishing attacks depend on an unsuspecting user clicking on a link or attachment in a message that will either take the unsuspecting party to a fraudulent Web site or install malware on the user’s machine. Criminals take advantage of HTML hypertext links and embed their attacks in hidden computer code. Phishing messages arrive as fake e-cards, e-mails from our bank, job offers, coupons, or deals too good to be true on social media. These malicious communiqués, replete with grammatical and spelling errors in years past, have become highly professionalized and are today virtually indistinguishable from the real thing. Criminals know exactly how to subvert the trust you have placed in your screens by visually mimicking the sites they impersonate and tricking your senses with a digital sleight of hand.

pages: 786 words: 195,810

NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, assortative mating, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental subject, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Larry Wall, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mother of all demos, neurotypical, New Journalism, pattern recognition, placebo effect, scientific mainstream, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

While McCarthy wanted to design machines that were powerful enough to replace human intelligence, Engelbart wanted to figure out ways of using computers to augment it. Over the course of ninety minutes, Engelbart set forth the fundamental elements of the modern digital age in a single seamless package: graphical user interfaces, multiple window displays, mouse-driven navigation, word processing, hypertext linking, videoconferencing, and real-time collaboration. The concepts in Engelbart’s presentation—refined by the work of Alan Kay and others at Xerox PARC—inspired Steve Jobs to build the Macintosh, the first personal computer (PC) designed for a mass market. Meanwhile, the counterculture of the Bay Area was also evolving, though technologically it was still stuck in the precomputer era, depending on classified ads in underground newspapers, bulletin boards, telephone switchboards, and the post office for community organizing.