Westphalian system

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pages: 859 words: 204,092

When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques

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Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, one-China policy, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

Life has not been that dissimilar in the era of the single superpower, with most countries enjoying varying degrees of limited sovereignty in their relationship with the United States. Given the profound inequalities in interstate relations, the concept of equality in the Westphalian system is thus legalistic rather than real. In practice, as with the tributary system, it has strong hierarchical features.85 Like the tributary system, the Westphalian system also has an influential cultural component, namely the idea of hegemony or soft power. In other words, the distinction between the tributary and Westphalian systems is not quite as clear-cut as one might think. Seen in these terms, the restoration of elements of the tributary system in a modernized form does not seem so far-fetched.

ECHOES OF THE PAST In the light of the region’s realignment towards China, we can now return to the question of how East Asia’s relationship with China is likely to evolve and, in particular, to what extent it might bear some of the hallmarks of the tributary system. The tributary system and Westphalian system are often regarded as polar opposites and mutually exclusive, the former involving a hierarchical relationship, the latter based on relations of equality between sovereign nation-states. In fact, as mentioned in Chapter 7, the Westphalian system in practice has never been quite that simple. For most of its history it was largely confined to a group of European states, since until the second half of the twentieth century the great majority of countries in the world did not enjoy independence, let alone equality.84 Even after these countries became sovereign nation-states, in the great majority of cases they were to enjoy nothing like equality with the United States or the West European nations, a situation which was exacerbated during the Cold War, when nation-states experienced what was, in practice, limited sovereignty in their relationship with the superpower to which they owed their allegiance.

Instead of the world thinking exclusively in terms of nation-states, as has been the case since the end of colonialism, the lexicon of international relations will become more diverse, demanding room be made for competing concepts, different histories and varying sizes. THE RETURN OF THE TRIBUTARY SYSTEM The Westphalian system has dominated international relations ever since the emergence of the modern European nation-state. It has become the universal conceptual language of the international system. As we have seen, however, the Westphalian system has itself metamorphosed over time and enjoyed several different iterations. Even so, it remains what it was, an essentially European-derived concept designed to make the world conform to its imperatives and modalities.

State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century by Francis Fukuyama

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Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, centre right, corporate governance, demand response, Doha Development Round, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Hernando de Soto, information asymmetry, liberal world order, Live Aid, Nick Leeson, Pareto efficiency, Potemkin village, price stability, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, structural adjustment programs, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system

The experience of Somalia, Haiti, Cambodia, the Balkans, and other places has generated a huge literature on external intervention (see, among others, weak states and international legitimacy 97 Damrosch 1993; Heiberg 1994; Hoffmann 1996; Lugo 1996; Mastanduno and Lyons 1995; Mayall 1996; Murphy 1996; von Lipsey 1997; Weiss and Collins 1996; and Williamson 1998; for a critical view, see Carpenter 1997). In the debates over humanitarian intervention, the case was made that the Westphalian system was no longer an adequate framework for international relations. The Westphalian system was built around a deliberate agnosticism over the question of legitimacy. The end of the Cold War, it was argued, brought about much greater consensus within the world community over the principles of political legitimacy and human rights than before.

The effort to be more “scientific” than the underlying subject matter permits carries a real cost in blinding us to the real complexities of public administration as it is practiced in different societies. 3 w e a k stat e s a n d i n t e r n at i o n a l legitimacy I n the first two chapters I discuss the problem of weak governance and missing or inadequate institutions at the nation-state level, where it becomes a critical obstacle to the economic development of individual poor countries. It has also become a critical problem at the level of the international system as a whole. Sovereignty and the nation-state, cornerstones of the Westphalian system, have been eroded in fact and attacked in principle because what goes on inside states—in other words, their internal governance—often matters intensely to other members of the international system. But who has the right or the legitimacy to violate another state’s sovereignty, and for what purposes?

., 110 New Zealand, 13, 35 State Sector Act, 14 Nicaragua, 39 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 116 North, Douglass, 33 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 60 Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 103 Olsen, Johan, 52 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 17 n2, 18 organizational culture, 63 Oslo peace process, 94 Pakistan, 30 Panama, 39 Peel Reforms, 85 Perry, Commodore, 34 Philippines, 39 Pinchot, Gifford, 64 Plaza Accord, 75 Political Order in Changing Societies (Huntington), 26 Polity IV data set, 11 presidentialism, 25 136 index principal-agent relationships, 47–52, 55, 60, 65 Pritchett, Lant, 56, 84 privatization, 18–19, 59 procurement, government, 71 property rights, 21 public administration, 23, 43–44 Public Administration (Simon et. al), 79 public choice theory, 49–50 public education, 58–59 al-Qaida, 93, 95, 105 rational choice political science, 33 Reagan, Ronald, 113 Reaganism, 4 rule of law, 59 Russia, 13, 18 fiscal federalism in, 25 Rwanda, 93 satisficing, 52 Saudi Arabia, 94–95 Schein, Edgar, 79, 81 Schröder, Gerhard 105 scientific management, 62 Scott, James, 82 Sears Roebuck Company, 70–71 Selznick, Philip, 79–80 September 11 attacks, x–xi, 2, 93 Serbia, 97, 116 shirking, 61–62 Sierra Leone, 93 Simon, Herbert, 52–54, 79 Singapore, 38 social capital, 30, 62–63 Somalia, x, 93 Sorensen, Georg, 35 sovereignty, 92, 97–98, 104 Soviet Union, 2, 12–13, 26 Spain, 34 state, definition, 6 European views of, 110 functions, 1 legitimacy, 110 scope, defined, 7 strength, defined, 7 totalitarian, 3 state-building, defined, ix stovepipes, 54, 65 subsidiarity, 67 Suharto, 28, 71–72 Sweden, 4, 34 Taiwan, 30, 35, 37 Taylor, Frederick, 62 Taylorism, 62–63, 78 Tennessee Valley Authority, 79 terrorism, xi, 93, 98 Thailand, 17 n2, 18 Thatcherism, 4 Tilly, Charles, 34 Tollison, Robert 49 Transparency International, 10 Tullock, Gordon, 49 Turkey, 12, 28, 35 Uganda, x United Nations, 98, 109, 115–116 Security Council debate over Iraq, 108 weaknesses of, 115–116 United States, 6 founding of, 31 national identity in, 112–113 post-September 11 foreign policy, 94–96 quality of bureaucracy in, 12 state-building in, 34 unilateralist policies, 105–106 United States Agency for International Development (USAID), 89 n6, 90, 90 n6, 107 van de Walle, Nicholas, 16, 36 Venezuela, 28 Vietnam, Republic of, 39 von Mises, Ludwig, 68 vouchers, 59 index Washington consensus, 5, 15, 17 weapons of mass destruction (WMD), xi, 93, 98, 105, 108 Weber, Max, 6, 67 Weingast, Barry, 33 Westphalian system, 92, 97 Wiley, Harvey, 64 Williamson, Oliver, 46, 52, 79 Wilson, James Q., 79 Wilson, Woodrow, 109 Winthrop, Governor, 113 Wood, Robert, 71 137 Woolcock, Michael, 56, 82, 84 World Bank, 5, 10, 41 World Development Report, 1997 (World Bank), 7 World Trade Organization, 106– 107 Yates, Joanne, 68 zaibatsu, 85 Zaire, 16 Zakaria, Fareed, 26


pages: 397 words: 112,034

What's Next?: Unconventional Wisdom on the Future of the World Economy by David Hale, Lyric Hughes Hale

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversification, energy security, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global village, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, payday loans, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tobin tax, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, women in the workforce, yield curve

Bank of England Governor Mervyn King’s dictum that we have global banking in life but national banking in death characterizes the fact that large, complex financial institutions are larger than sovereign nations, ineffectively regulated in compartments at national levels, and not bound by any global laws. Their demise means that national governments have to pay for the global banks’ mistakes, but ultimately the whole world pays in the form of higher inflation, near zero interest rates, increased taxation, and lost jobs. The Westphalian System’s Relevance to Finance Wanes The Westphalian system of national sovereignty and voluntary cooperation is cracking at the seams in this highly interconnected and interdependent world. The G-20 has improved the legitimacy of global governance, but the “What to Do” is confused by turf battles over “Who Bears the Loss” and “Who Will Have the Control”.

See Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) tar sands industry, xviii tax cuts, xvii; in Canada, xviii; in US, 5 taxes: Canada, 20; consumption-based taxes, 261–263; corporate taxes, 260; energy taxes, 260; excise taxes, 262; income taxes, 6, 260–262; payroll taxes, 261–262; sales taxes, 262; Tobin tax, xxvii, 250–255; turnover tax, 253–255; value-added tax (VAT), xxviii, 6, 43, 262 tax policy, xxvii–xxviii; Canada, 20, 26; Mexico, xix, 42–43; public debt and, 259–260; South Africa, 136; US, 6, 60, 260–261 technology: climate change and, 227; hydrocarbons and, 181–183 telecoms, 26 television, 298 Term Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility (TALF), 277 testosterone, 290 Thailand, 7 Thaler, Richard, 291 Tobin, James, 250 Tobin tax, xxvii, 250–255 “too-big-too-fail” bailouts, 266, 267, 268 total factor productivity (TFP), 87 toxic securities, 238–239 transparency, 280–282 Trichet, Jean-Claude, 237–238 Triffin Dilemma, 252–253 Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), 3, 277 turnover tax, 253–255 Tversky, Amos, 289 Uganda, xxii, xxv, 126 unemployment rate, xvi, 4 United Kingdom: climate change policy of, xxvi; domestic demand in, 140; as financial capital, 244–245; fiscal deficit in, 257; fiscal policy of, 59, 71; government debt in, 160–161; Tobin tax and, 251–252 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 184 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 220–222 United States: banking sector in, xxvii, 235–241; Canada and, 13–14, 24; climate change and, xxvi, 224–225; corporate sector in, xvi, 4, 8; economic recovery in, xvi–xvii, 3–11, 13–14, 65–66; as engine of world demand, 96, 140; environmental policies, 5, 27; financial system of, 157; fiscal deficit in, 10–11, 70, 257; fiscal policy of, xvii, 6, 10–11; fiscal stimulus program in, 4; government debt, 160; growth rate in, 5, 13–14; household sector in, 8; housing sector in, 9; industrial production in, 65; monetary policy of, 7–10; partisan politics in, 5–6; politics in, 269–270; productivity gains in, xvi, 4; public policy of, xvi–xvii; stimulus measures in, 4, 13; tax policy of, 6, 63, 260–261 Uribe, Alvaro, 33 Uruguay, 48, 49–50 US consumers, xv US dollar: alternatives to, 158; devaluation of, xvii, 7, 25; gold prices and, 173–174; as reserve currency, xxiv, 153–165; weakening, and commodity prices, 53 US government securities, 160 value-added tax (VAT), xxviii, 6, 43, 262 Van Alstyne, Marshal, 296 Venezuela, 48–49, 50, 51, 183 Volcker Rule, 267, 268 web-based communities, 296 Weber, Alex, 285 welfare expenditures, South Africa, 137–138 Wellink, Nout, 248 West Africa, xxii, 126–127 Westphalian system, 251 World Bank, 119, 154 world economy, 12–14; in 2010–2011, 94–95; recovery of, xv; trends underpinning, 78–80 yen, xxiv, 9, 97, 98, 167 yield curves, 82–83 Yoshida, Shigeru, 105 Zambia, 118, 125 ZANU-PF, 125 Zapatistas, 35 Zedillo, Ernesto, 35 Zimbabwe, xxii, 125 Zoellick, Robert, 169 “zombie” firms, 112 Zuma, Jacob, 125, 128, 134–137

Imperial Ambitions: Conversations on the Post-9/11 World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

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British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Westphalian system

The most interesting comment, perhaps, was Henry Kissinger’s, responding to a major address by President Bush at West Point in which he had presented an outline of the National Security Strategy. Kissinger said this “revolutionary” doctrine in international affairs would tear to shreds not only the UN Charter and international law but the whole seventeenth-century Westphalian system of international order. Kissinger approved of the doctrine, though he added one proviso: we have to understand that this can’t be “a universal principle available to every nation.”6 The doctrine is for us, not for anyone else. We will use force whenever we like against anyone we regard as a potential threat, and maybe we will delegate that right to client states, but it’s not for others.

Congress “unlawful combatant,” Venezuela Vietnam, invasion of Cambodia Vietnam War volunteer army Wall Street Journal war crimes War Crimes Act (1996) War of 1812 wars of aggression Washington, George Washington Post weapons of mass destruction Wedgwood, Ruth welfare West Africa Western expansion Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation Westphalian system Williams, William Appleman Wilson, Richard Wilson, Woodrow Wolfowitz, Paul women’s rights World Social Forum World War 1 World War II Yamashita, Tomoyuki Yeltsin, Boris Yugoslavia, special tribunal for Zinn, Howard Zionism ABOUT THE AUTHORS NOAM CHOMSKY is the author of numerous bestselling political works, from American Power and the New Mandarins in the 1960s to Hegemony or Survival in 2003.


pages: 160 words: 46,449

The Extreme Centre: A Warning by Tariq Ali

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, BRICs, British Empire, centre right, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, full employment, labour market flexibility, land reform, light touch regulation, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, obamacare, offshore financial centre, popular capitalism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Wolfgang Streeck

Under Madeleine Albright US policy grew progressively more interventionist, and the check that the Powell Doctrine was supposed to be found itself ultimately undercut by Powell’s unbridled enthusiasm for strengthening the military. The limited, ‘humanitarian’ interventions of the nineties helped bury the Powell Doctrine as well as the sanctity of state sovereignty enshrined in the Westphalian system and the UN Charter. From the invasion of Panama in 1989 to the invasion of Iraq in 2003, the United States would participate in nine major campaigns. A blue-ribbon commission appointed by the US government in 1999 reported that ‘since the end of the Cold War, the United States has embarked upon nearly four dozen military interventions … as opposed to only sixteen during the entire period of the Cold War.’

Masters of Mankind by Noam Chomsky

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affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, failed state, God and Mammon, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, Martin Wolf, means of production, nuremberg principles, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system

The NSS was widely criticized among the foreign policy elite, including the article just cited, but on narrow grounds: not that it was wrong, or even new, but that the style and implementation were so extreme that they posed threats to US interests. Henry Kissinger described “The new approach [as] revolutionary,” pointing out that it undermines the seventeenth-century Westphalian system of international order, and of course the UN Charter and international law. He approved of the doctrine but with reservations about style and tactics, and with a crucial qualification: it cannot be “a universal principle available to every nation.” Rather, the right of aggression must be reserved to the US, perhaps delegated to chosen clients.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Mat Honan found out the hard way, as have thousands of others. But what should happen if and when the technological trappings of our modern society—the foundational tools upon which we are utterly dependent—all go away? What is humanity’s backup plan? In fact, none exists. The World Is Flat (and Wide Open) For centuries, the Westphalian system of sovereign nation-states has prevailed in our world. It meant that countries were to be sovereign in their territory, with no role for outside authorities to meddle in a nation’s domestic affairs. The Westphalian structure was preserved through a system of borders, armies, guards, gates, and guns.

Chapter 1: Connected, Dependent, and Vulnerable 1 All or most of the information: Mat Honan, “How Apple and Amazon Security Flaws Led to My Epic Hacking,” Wired, July 6, 2012; Mat Honan, “Kill the Password: Why a String of Characters Can’t Protect Us Anymore,” Wired, Nov. 15, 2012. 2 Over the past hundred years: Peter Diamandis, “Abundance Is Our Future,” TED Talk, Feb. 2012. 3 And the mobile phone is singularly credited: Deloitte Consulting, Sub-Saharan Africa Mobile Observatory 2012, Feb. 4, 2014. 4 For centuries, the Westphalian system: Marc Goodman, “The Power of Moore’s Law in a World of Geotechnology,” National Interest, Jan./Feb. 2013. 5 Levin, a computer programmer: Amy Harmon, “Hacking Theft of $10 Million from Citibank Revealed,” Los Angeles Times, Aug. 19, 1995. 6 One of the very first computer: Jason Kersten, “Going Viral: How Two Pakistani Brothers Created the First PC Virus,” Mental Floss, Nov. 2013. 7 Eventually, Brain had traveled the globe: For a fascinating and entertaining perspective on Amjad and Basit Farooq, and the history of computer malware, see Mikko Hypponen, “Fighting Viruses and Defending the Net,” TED Talk, July 2011. 8 Researchers at Palo Alto Networks: Byron Acohido, “Malware Now Spreads Mostly Through Tainted Websites,” USA Today, May 4, 2013. 9 Many large companies: Brian Fung, “911 for the Texting Generation Is Here,” Washington Post, Aug. 8, 2014. 10 In 2010, the German research institute: Nicole Perlroth, “Outmaneuvered at Their Own Game, Antivirus Makers Struggle to Adapt,” New York Times, Dec. 31, 2012. 11 In the summer of 2013: Kaspersky Lab, Global Corporate IT Security Risks: 2013, May 2013. 12 A survey of its members: “Online Exposure,” Consumer Reports, June 2011. 13 According to a study by the Gartner group: “Gartner Says Worldwide Security Software Market Grew 7.9 Percent in 2012,” Gartner Newsroom, May 30, 2013; Steve Johnson, “Cybersecurity Business Booming in Silicon Valley,” San Jose Mercury News, Sept. 13, 2013. 14 The results: the initial threat-detection rate: Imperva, Hacker Intelligence Initiative, Monthly Trend Report #14, Dec. 2012. 15 Though millions around the world: Tom Simonite, “The Antivirus Era Is Over,” MIT Technology Review, June 11, 2012. 16 The landmark survey: Verizon, 2013 Data Breach Investigations Report. 17 A similar study by Trustwave Holdings: Trustwave, Trustwave 2013 Global Security Report. 18 When businesses do eventually notice: Verizon RISK Team, 2012 Data Breach Investigation Report, 3. 19 From the time an attacker: Ibid., 51. 20 In that case, hackers: Mark Jewell, “T.J.


pages: 700 words: 201,953

The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Veblen good, Wave and Pay, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

The Peace of Westphalia is a term that refers to the series of treaties signed in May to October 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster, ending the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic. As a model of global order, the Westphalian system is underpinned by recognition of the fundamental right of a state to political self-determination, the assumption of states’ legal equality, and the principle that no state should intervene in the internal affairs of another. Territorial money, or national currency, is the analogue of this model.

See also First World War; Second World War; Vietnam War; violence war against terror, 43 Warburton, Peter, 199 Warren, Josiah, 342 Warwick, University of, 73n30 waste, 12–13, 151; and the gift, 186; and money, 175, 184, 204; versus utility, 164 Wave and Pay, 377 Weber, Florence, 292 Weber, Max, 109, 247, 276n, 292, 302, 317; on capitalism and religion, 143, 155, 175; on charisma, 247; on Knapp, 103; on money and the modern state, 217; on prices, 109n25; The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, 156, 175; on taxation, 217 Weimar inflation, 131n57, 142, 224, 387 welfare. See social welfare Wendt, Alexander, 220 Wergild, 24, 302 Western Union, 380n Westphalia. See Peace of Westphalia Westphalian system, 216–27, 238 Where’s George?, 226 Wherry, Frederick, 164n Whuffie, 214, 316, 381 WikiLeaks, 380n Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 390 workers, 59, 72, 73, 74, 75–76, 77, 81, 242, 244, 345, 352; and cooperatives, 84; and consumers, 81, 86, 356; in Proudhon, 353–54; in the public sector, 77, 88, 126.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

To say nothing of the more or less charted waters of the Dark Net, accessible only through tools like the Tor browser. 19.  But as Jameson notes, it is the irregularity of opposing forces that breaks down the order of the nomos: “With the religious wars, but perhaps also the English dominance of the sea—now leads to the Westphalian system of nation-states, in which, for the first time, the new nomos of state equality and friend-foe emerges. The friend-foe opposition is possible, indeed, only between equals: it includes Hegelian recognition, except that whereas Hegelian struggle aims to produce recognition, Schmitt's version is enabled only after mutual recognition is secured.

See also currency money-into-virtuality, 199 monkeys, 222 Monroe, James, 45 Monroe Doctrine, 26, 31–32 Monroe Doctrine of the Cloud, 34–35, 37 Montana East Line Telephone Association, 29 moon, owning, 456n7 Moore Ruble Yudell, 322 Moore's law, 63, 80, 92, 232, 304 More, Thomas, 249, 321 Mori, Bruna, 103 Morphosis, 320, 322–323 Mosaic (browser), 267 Mouffe, Chantal, 379n10 Mountbatten Plan, 85 Mumbai attacks (2008), 17, 242, 247–248, 322, 428n58, 431n70 Musk, Elon, 281 mutual prostheticization, 280 MVRDV exposition pavilion, Hannover 2000, 53 MyLifeBits (Bell) (Microsoft), 261–262, 264 namecoin, 171 namelessness, 447n45 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 88, 300 National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 267 National Security Agency (NSA), 35, 120, 283, 287, 363, 413n75 nation-state Cloud as, 93 interfaces into, 155–156 as jurisdiction, 5, 309–310 Kojève on, 109 modern, 24 non-state actors functioning as, 10–11 socialist, platform in, 59 twentieth-century achievements of, 309, 443n23 Westphalian system of, 14, 397n19 Native Land-Stop Eject (Virilio and Depardon, curators), 265 Negarastani, Rezi, 390n19 Negroponte, Nicholas, 201 nemein, 379n12 neo-Austrian libertarians, 285 neo-feudalism, 17, 186, 306–307 neoliberalism, 20–21, 56, 439n65 Nest (smart thermostat), 134 nested parasitism, 280, 288–289 Netscape, 267 Netwar, 431n70 network city, 172, 421n20 network is the computer (Sun Microsystems), 396n8 networks communication, 132, 153–154, 193–195 defined, 396n8 interior/exterior in, 29 megastructure, 189 of package delivery, 131 peer-to-peer, 205, 215 social reality of, 341 society, 231 space, making and taking, 29 as state, 11, 123 territory produced through, 29 value, 159 vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), 281–282, 438n60 visualization, 266 “New Aesthetic, The,” 225 New Babylon (Constant), 178–179 New Deal, 120 New Digital Age, The (Schmidt and Cohen), 134–136 New Songdo City, South Korea, 179 Niantic Labs (Google), 242 Nicaragua-Costa Rica border conflict, 9, 120, 144 Nicolelis, Michel, 222 nihilism of empty space, overcoming, 380n20 1984 advertisement, 128–129, 402n57 Noguchi, Isamu, 103 nomos breaking down order of, 397n19 defined, 373 derivation, 379n12 drawing and framing sovereign interiors, 246 of friend-foe, 397n19 Modern, 380n13 nomic line, 84 Schmittian, 24–25, 85, 113, 379n12 of The Stack, 24, 229, 235 of state equality, 397n19 nomos of the Cloud defined, 373–374 dividing sovereignty, 19–22 drawing landscape-scale calculable interiors, 211 drivers of, 143 Google Grossraum, 34–40 introduction, 19 land, sea, and air, 28–31 over and under the line, 23–28 platform governance and, 341 topography, 111 Nomos of the Earth in the International Law of Jus Publicum Europaeum, The (Schmitt), 25 noncitizen residents in cities, 159, 175, 310, 409n39 noncitizen User, 175 nonhuman-human distinction, 164–165, 268, 275 nonhuman-to-human communication, 137, 171–172, 198 nonhuman User.