job satisfaction

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pages: 293 words: 81,183

Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference by William MacAskill

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barriers to entry, basic income, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, effective altruism, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, experimental subject, follow your passion, food miles, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, labour mobility, Lean Startup, M-Pesa, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nate Silver, Peter Singer: altruism, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, self-driving car, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, universal basic income, women in the workforce

each of these factors also correlates with motivation, productivity, and commitment to your employer: Benjamin Todd, “How to Find a Job You’ll Love,” 80,000 Hours (blog), August 16, 2012, https://80000hours.org/2012/08/how-to-find-a-job-you-ll-love/. which some psychologists have argued is the key to having genuinely satisfying experiences: Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (New York: Harper & Row, 1990). There are other factors that also matter to your job satisfaction: See the information and references cited in “Predictors of Job Satisfaction,” 80,000 Hours, August 28, 2014, https://80000hours.org/career-guide/framework/job-satisfaction/job-satisfaction-research/#predictors-of-job-satisfaction. He traveled in India: See Walter Isaacson, Steve Jobs (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011), 39–50. while Jobs and Wozniak were trying to sell circuit boards to hobbyists: Jeffrey S. Young and William L. Simon, iCon Steve Jobs: The Greatest Second Act in the History of Business (Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2005), 35–36.

Let’s discuss each of these three key factors in turn. Personal fit Personal fit is about how good you’ll be in a particular job. An important part of this is whether you’ll be happy doing the work. People often want job satisfaction as an end in itself, but it’s also a crucial factor when thinking about impact: if you’re not happy at work, you’ll be less productive and more likely to burn out, resulting in less impact in the long-term. However, we need to be careful when thinking about how to find a job you’ll love. There’s a lot of feel-good misinformation out there, and the real route to job satisfaction is somewhat counterintuitive. On June 12, 2005, Steve Jobs stood in front of the graduating class at Stanford and gave them his advice on what they should do with their lives: You have to trust in something—your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever—because believing that the dots will connect down the road will give you the confidence to follow your heart, even when it leads you off the well-worn path, and that will make all the difference.

If you focus only on what you’re currently passionate about, then you risk committing to projects that you soon find you’re no longer interested in. This takes us to our third point against passion, which is that the best predictors of job satisfaction are features of the job itself, rather than facts about personal passion. Instead of trying to figure out which career to pursue based on whatever you happen to be most interested in today, you should start by looking for work with certain important features. If you find that, passion will follow. Research shows that the most consistent predictor of job satisfaction is engaging work, which can be broken down into five factors (this is known in psychology as the job characteristics theory): Independence—To what extent do you have control over how you go about your work?


pages: 86 words: 27,453

Why We Work by Barry Schwartz

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Atul Gawande, call centre, deskilling, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, if you build it, they will come, invisible hand, job satisfaction, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Toyota Production System

When people have this kind of work to do, they are deprived of the meaning and engagement we encountered in the last chapter. So every worker spends half of his or her waking life deprived. Perhaps the pay compensates, but I don’t think so. And existing research bears me out. In a comprehensive article about the significance of salary to job satisfaction, Timothy Judge and colleagues reviewed the results of eighty-six studies that included about fifteen thousand employees. Their analysis of the data from all these studies combined suggested that level of pay had very little effect on either job satisfaction or pay satisfaction. So it is unlikely that pay compensates for routinized, meaningless work. More likely, such workers are resigned to living lives in which their work is nothing but drudgery. The role of assumptions about human nature in maintaining these kinds of workplaces is striking.

And Pfeffer suggests something of a downward spiral. A company starts to have trouble, because of low profits, high costs, and poor customer service. This leads to efforts to cut costs and make the company “lean and mean”: less training, salary reductions, layoffs, part-time workers, a freeze on hiring and promotion. These changes lead to decreased worker motivation to excel, decreased effort, even worse customer service, less job satisfaction and more turnover, which in turn leads to more trouble for the business. In short, you take discretion, engagement, and meaning out of work and people get less satisfaction from doing it. As they get less satisfaction from doing it, they do it less well. As they do it less well, their supervisors take even more discretion away. The “cure” makes the disease even worse. Turning a “Vicious Cycle” into a “Virtuous Cycle” As Pfeffer describes it, the knee-jerk response to competitive pressure—cutting staff, speeding up workers, monitoring performance closely—makes the situation worse, by reducing the effectiveness (and the satisfaction) of the workforce.

Psychological Science, 15 (2004): 787–93. Hilfiker, D. “A Doctor’s View of Modern Medicine.” New York Times Magazine, February 23, 1986: 44–47, 58. Hirsch, F. Social Limits to Growth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Press, 1976.* Hodson, R. Dignity at Work. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.* Judge, T. A., R. F. Piccolo, N. P. Podsakoff, J. C. Shaw, and B. L. Rich. “The Relationship Between Pay and Job Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature.” Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77 (2010): 157–67. Jussim, L. “Self-fulfilling Prophecies: A Theoretical and Integrative Review.” Psychological Review, 93 (1986): 429–45. ——. “Teacher Expectations: Self-Fulfilling Prophecies, Perceptual Biases, and Accuracy.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57 (1989): 469–80. Jussim, L., J. Eccles, and S.


pages: 208 words: 67,582

What About Me?: The Struggle for Identity in a Market-Based Society by Paul Verhaeghe

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Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, deskilling, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, invisible hand, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Louis Pasteur, market fundamentalism, Milgram experiment, new economy, post-industrial society, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, stem cell, The Spirit Level, ultimatum game, working poor

The success of the reform wasn’t just due to the fact that hard work ensured relatively rapid promotion and pay rises — because, from a certain level on, salary ceases to be an incentive.7 From a psychological perspective, academics mainly felt good because they finally had control over their own careers, being protected from nepotism, backroom deals, and other shady practices. This did wonders for their self-esteem, which in turn increased their motivation to work, along with their job satisfaction. On top of that, they identified with and felt loyal towards the organisation that made this possible. Within the span of a single generation, however, this situation changed dramatically, with the result that, nowadays, university staff, especially if they are young, feel that they have very little influence over their careers. Instead, they are compelled to dance to the music of an invisible administration.

The fact that matters could be seen from the opposite perspective — that our economy poses a serious threat to our health — apparently occurs to nobody. Yet it had all started so promisingly, with freedom and autonomy within reach. A meritocratic system is unquestionably beneficial at the outset. As the manager of her own life, the individual obtains more say over her work, and is paid better, too. Her loyalty to the enterprise for which she works and which is offering her these opportunities accordingly grows. Not only does her job satisfaction increase, but also her sense of responsibility, both towards her own work and towards the enterprise as a whole. She is part of it; it is her company, school, or hospital, and she’s happy to work a few extra hours when necessary. Morale improves, and morals are enhanced. Working for an enterprise like this is a pleasant experience. But it’s inherent in the system that after a few years, the situation is completely reversed.

Economies of scale resulting from mergers sparked an increasing need for managers. Human-resources policy was rationalised, with individual and quantifiable merits gradually taking centre stage. Responsibility without power is a formula that is bound to create trouble, and that is exactly what has happened. Just about any psychological study of employee motivation shows the negative impact this has on commitment, motivation, and job satisfaction, as well as on the quality of the work done. In the pre-digital age, directors took policy decisions, and plans filtered down from headquarters to the various branches and departments. This process took months, and had the advantage of involving the lower echelons. Very often, modifications to plans were proposed further down, to tie in better with the reality of the work floor, usually without senior management even having to be consulted.


pages: 504 words: 126,835

The Innovation Illusion: How So Little Is Created by So Many Working So Hard by Fredrik Erixon, Bjorn Weigel

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, BRICs, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, dark matter, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, fear of failure, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Martin Wolf, mass affluent, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, pensions crisis, Peter Thiel, Potemkin village, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technological singularity, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, University of East Anglia, unpaid internship, Vanguard fund, Yogi Berra

People in the West are increasingly unhappy with their jobs. The Conference Board, an economics consultancy, suggests that dissatisfaction with work in the United States has been growing for several decades and that a majority of the workforce is now dissatisfied rather than satisfied with their jobs.3 Academic research confirms that job satisfaction in the US has been on a downward trend since the 1970s.4 This trend challenges the usual perceptions about what drives job satisfaction, such as pay or job security. While they are important, surveys suggest that job satisfaction, in the United States at least, is also linked to economic dynamism and opportunity. Although workers are materially better off today than they were in the 1960s, and have safer working environments, many are afforded fewer economic opportunities and consequently have lower aspirations.

While the problems we cover also can be found in other countries, it is not our purpose to analyze them. Several chapters will discuss developments in other economies than those in the West, but only when it is relevant for our discussion about Western capitalism. In this book, references to the Western world, Western economies, the West, or similar expressions mean North America and Western and Central Europe. 3.Cheng et al., “Job Satisfaction.” 4.Blanchflower and Oswald, “Well-Being, Insecurity, and the Decline of American Job Satisfaction.” 5.Crabtree, “Worldwide, 13% of Employees Are Engaged at Work.” 6.Dreyer and Hindley, “Trade in Information Technology Goods.” 7.The Economist, “Planet of the Phones.” 8.Bogost, “The Secret History of the Robot Car.” 9.The “second half of the chessboard” is an expression by Ray Kurzweil to explain the power of exponential growth. Legend has it that when the inventor of chess presented the game to the emperor of India and was offered to choose a reward, he asked for one grain of rice on the first square, two on the second, four on the third, and so one.

Figure 8.1 Firm entry and exit rates in the United States, 1977–2012 Diminishing turnover rates are an unhealthy sign because, aside from bringing new technologies, new firms are the ones that challenge incumbents, and – usually – create better-paid jobs. Their value for the economy is shown through increasing productivity growth. But, as Western economies mature, people tend to stay hired in old firms. While that might be appealing to some, especially if job satisfaction is good, it is a recipe for a society distancing itself from a dynamic economy. Old firms hired about 80 percent of the total US workforce in 2012 compared to 65 percent in 1987, while the workforce employed by start-ups decreased sharply.24 Entrepreneurship is also on an aging trend. In 1989, almost 11 percent of young households (aged 30 and younger) owned shares in private companies; in 2013 that number was down to less than 4 percent.


pages: 241 words: 43,073

Puppet 3 Beginner's Guide by John Arundel

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cloud computing, Debian, job automation, job satisfaction, Lao Tzu, Larry Wall, Network effects, SpamAssassin

ssh module / Time for action – deploying an SSH configuration file STRING argument / Substitutions substitutions / Substitutions substrings, comparisions / Substrings sudoprivileges, managing with / Managing privileges with sudo sudo command / sudo sudoers filedeploying / Time for action – deploying a sudoers file syntax / Time for action – deploying a sudoers file syntaxchecking / Syntax checking sysadmintasks / A day in the life of a sysadmin job satisfaction / Job satisfaction T tasksscheduling / Scheduled tasks templateusing / Using templates Nginx virtual host / Time for action – templating an Nginx virtual host inline templates / Inline templates about / Templates template function / What just happened? text substitution / Text substitution U unless attribute / Running commands selectively unless command / Running commands selectively unless statement / Unless statements usercreating / Time for action – creating a user, What just happened?

Introduction to Puppet The problem Configuration management A day in the life of a sysadmin Keeping the configuration synchronized Repeating changes across many servers Self-updating documentation Coping with different platforms Version control and history Solving the problem Reinventing the wheel A waste of effort Transferable skills Configuration management tools Infrastructure as code Dawn of the devop Job satisfaction The Puppet advantage Welcome aboard The Puppet way Growing your network Cloud scaling What is Puppet? The Puppet language Resources and attributes Summary Configuration management What Puppet does The Puppet advantage Scaling The Puppet language 2. First steps with Puppet What you'll need Time for action – preparing for Puppet Time for action – installing Puppet Your first manifest How it works Applying the manifest What just happened?

The term "devops" has begun to be used to describe the growing overlap between these skill sets. It can mean sysadmins who happily turn their hand to writing code when needed, or developers who don't fear the command line, or it can simply mean the people for whom the distinction is no longer useful. Devops write code, herd servers, build apps, scale systems, analyze outages, and fix bugs. With the advent of CM systems, devs and ops are now all just people who work with code. Job satisfaction Being a sysadmin, in the traditional sense, is not usually a very exciting job. Instead of getting to apply your experience and ingenuity to make things better, faster, and more reliable, you spend a lot of time just fixing problems, and making manual configuration changes that could really be done by a machine. The following carefully-researched diagram shows how traditional system administration compares to some other jobs in both excitement and stress levels: We can see from this that manual sysadmin work is both more stressful and more boring than we would like.


pages: 197 words: 60,477

So Good They Can't Ignore You: Why Skills Trump Passion in the Quest for Work You Love by Cal Newport

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Apple II, bounce rate, Byte Shop, Cal Newport, capital controls, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, deliberate practice, financial independence, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, information asymmetry, job satisfaction, job-hopping, knowledge worker, Mason jar, medical residency, new economy, passive income, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, renewable energy credits, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Bolles, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web application, winner-take-all economy

As I just established, the last several decades are marked by an increasing commitment to Bolles’s contagious idea. And yet, for all of this increased focus on following our passion and holding out for work we love, we aren’t getting any happier. The 2010 Conference Board survey of U.S. job satisfaction found that only 45 percent of Americans describe themselves as satisfied with their jobs. This number has been steadily decreasing from the mark of 61 percent recorded in 1987, the first year of the survey. As Lynn Franco, the director of the Board’s Consumer Research Center notes, this is not just about a bad business cycle: “Through both economic boom and bust during the past two decades, our job satisfaction numbers have shown a consistent downward trend.” Among young people, the group perhaps most concerned with the role of work in their lives, 64 percent now say that they’re actively unhappy in their jobs.

Google Books Ngram Viewer, http://books.google.com/ngrams. 3. Arnett, “Oh, Grow Up! Generational Grumbling and the New Life Stage of Emerging Adulthood—Commentary on Trzesniewski & Donnellan (2010),” Perspectives on Psychological Science 5, no. 1 (2010): 89–92. See section titled “Slackers or Seekers of Identity-Based Work?” for the quote and related discussion. 4. Julianne Pepitone, “U.S. job satisfaction hits 22-year low,” CNNMoney.com, January 5, 2010, http://money.cnn.com/2010/01/05/news/economy/job_satisfaction_report/. 5. Alexandra Robbins and Abby Wilner, Quarterlife Crisis: The Unique Challenges of Life in Your Twenties (New York: Tarcher, 2001). 6. Interview with Peter Travers, Roadtrip Nation Online Video Archive, 2006, http://roadtripnation.com/PeterTravers. Chapter 4: The Clarity of the Craftsman 1. George Graham, “The Graham Weekly Album Review #1551: Jordan Tice: Long Story,” George Graham’s Weekly Album Reviews, March 11, 1999, http://georgegraham.com/reviews/tice.html. 2.


pages: 204 words: 54,395

Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us by Daniel H. Pink

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affirmative action, call centre, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, deliberate practice, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, functional fixedness, game design, George Akerlof, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, knowledge worker, performance metric, profit maximization, profit motive, Results Only Work Environment, side project, the built environment, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, zero-sum game

According to a cluster of recent behavioral science studies, autonomous motivation promotes greater conceptual understanding, better grades, enhanced persistence at school and in sporting activities, higher productivity, less burnout, and greater levels of psychological well-being. Those effects carry over to the workplace. In 2004, Deci and Ryan, along with Paul Baard of Fordham University, carried out a study of workers at an American investment bank. The three researchers found greater job satisfaction among employees whose bosses offered autonomy support. These bosses saw issues from the employee's point of view, gave meaningful feedback and information, provided ample choice over what to do and how to do it, and encouraged employees to take on new projects. The resulting enhancement in job satisfaction, in turn, led to higher performance on the job. What's more, the benefits that autonomy confers on individuals extend to their organizations. For example, researchers at Cornell University studied 320 small businesses, half of which granted workers autonomy, the other half relying on top-down direction.

The businesses that offered autonomy grew at four times the rate of the control-oriented firms and had one-third the turnover. Yet too many businesses remain woefully behind the science. Most twenty-first-century notions of management presume that, in the end, people are pawns rather than players. British economist Francis Green, to cite just one example, points to the lack of individual discretion at work as the main explanation for declining productivity and job satisfaction in the UK. Management still revolves largely around supervision, if-then rewards, and other forms of control. That's true even of the kinder, gentler Motivation 2.1 approach that whispers sweetly about things like empowerment and flexibility. Indeed, just consider the very notion of empowerment. It presumes that the organization has the power and benevolently ladles some of it into the waiting bowls of grateful employees.

This cuts commuting time for staff, removes them from physical monitoring, and provides far greater autonomy over how they do their jobs. The American airline JetBlue was one of the first to try this approach. From its launch in 2000, JetBlue has relied on telephone customer service employees who work at home. And from its launch, JetBlue has earned customer service rankings far ahead of its competitors. Productivity and job satisfaction are generally higher in homeshoring than in conventional arrangements in part because employees are more comfortable and less monitored at home. But it's also because this autonomy-centered approach draws from a deeper pool of talent. Many homeshore employees are parents, students, retirees, and people with disabilities those who want to work, but need to do it their own way. According to one report, between 70 and 80 percent of home-based customer service agents have college degrees double the percentage among people working in traditional call centers.


pages: 452 words: 110,488

The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead by David Callahan

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, fixed income, forensic accounting, full employment, game design, greed is good, high batting average, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, McMansion, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old-boy network, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

Polls also find that large percentages of employees say they've witnessed something illegal or unethical happening at work over the past year. At the same time, only half of workers say they get a sense of identity from their job, a third say they'd be happier in another job, and nearly half say they are stressed out a great deal of the time at work. Many workers also gripe about how much money they make (not enough), their health insurance benefits (or lack thereof), and their chances for promotion (poor). While job satisfaction is relatively high, it has been declining over the past decade, and loyalty among most workers is paper thin: One 2002 survey found that only a quarter of workers plan to stay at their jobs for at least two years and that half wouldn't recommend their company to someone else. Barely a majority of workers in this survey said their employer treated them fairly and, on balance, the survey classified only 24 percent of workers as "truly loyal."

There are few surveys of lawyers, doctors, professional athletes, or accountants that have asked the same questions about ethics over time. Surveys on the ethics of corporate employees by several organizations, including the Ethics Resource Center, do allow for comparisons over time, but most of these surveys only began a few years ago. Throughout the book, I have mainly used opinion-survey data in an effort to understand the public's views about personal values, job satisfaction, economic security, social trust, perceptions of fairness, and the like. Here and there, I have found surveys on Americans' attitudes toward different forms of cheating, such as auto-insurance fraud, music piracy, or tax evasion. Typically, though, these polls are one-shot deal, and don't allow for serious comparisons over time. For example, over the past thirty years, the General Social Survey has only twice asked a question about cheating on taxes, in 1991 and 1998.

Neil Fligstein and Taek-Jin Shin, "The Shareholder Value Society: A Review of the Changes in the Working Conditions and Inequality in the U.S., 1976–2000," unpublished paper. [back] 6. David Brooks, "The Triumph of Hope," New York Times, 12 January 2003. [back] 7. On anxiety, see Robert Putnam's analysis of DDB Needham Life Style Survey data, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000), 475. On job satisfaction, see Fligstein and Shin, "The Shareholder Value Society." Evidence of growing insecurity and anxiety is by no means ironclad and this remains a disputed point among scholars. See, for example, Kenneth Deavers, "Downsizing, Job Insecurity, and Wages: No Connection," Employment Policy Foundation, May 1998. [back] 8. Michael Hout, "Money and Morale: What Growing Economic Inequality Is Doing to Americans' View of Themselves and Others," working paper, Survey Research Center, 3 January 2003.


pages: 426 words: 115,150

Your Money or Your Life: 9 Steps to Transforming Your Relationship With Money and Achieving Financial Independence: Revised and Updated for the 21st Century by Vicki Robin, Joe Dominguez, Monique Tilford

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asset allocation, Buckminster Fuller, buy low sell high, credit crunch, disintermediation, diversification, diversified portfolio, fiat currency, financial independence, fixed income, fudge factor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, index card, index fund, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, money market fund, Parkinson's law, passive income, passive investing, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Bolles, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, software patent, strikebreaker, Thorstein Veblen, Vanguard fund, zero-coupon bond

LaBier found that focusing on money/position/ success at the expense of personal fulfillment and meaning had led 60 percent of his sample of several hundred to suffer from depression, anxiety and other job-related disorders, including the ubiquitous “stress.”1 Even though the official workweek has been pegged at forty hours for nearly half a century, many professionals believe they must work overtime and weekends to keep up. A 2003 national survey from the Center for a New American Dream found that 3 in 5 Americans feel pressure to work too much.2 In addition, a 2005 Conference Board study revealed that Americans are growing increasingly unhappy with their jobs. The study found widespread declines in job satisfaction among workers of all ages and across all income brackets.3 We are working more, but enjoying life less (and possibly enjoying less life as well). We have developed a national disease based on how we earn money. What Do We Have to Show for It? Even if we aren’t any happier, you’d think that we’d at least have the traditional symbol of success: money in the bank. Not so. Our savings rate has actually gone down.

You just need to ask the question of each expense category: How would expenditures in this category change if I didn’t have to work for a living? Remember: No shame, no blame. You aren’t violating your commitment to your profession by asking that question. Nor are you expressing disloyalty to your boss or dissatisfaction with your job by considering how you might spend your money if you were doing something else. If you love your job, the simple monthly exercise of asking this question will only increase your job satisfaction because you will increase your certainty that you are there by choice. IMPLICATIONS OF THIS STEP Step 4 is the heart of this program. Don’t worry if your life purpose or your internal yardstick is not crystal-clear. For some individuals this program has been the process by which they defined their values and purpose. The very process of asking and answering the three questions month in and month out will clarify and deepen your understanding of fulfillment and purpose.

◆The rising awareness of issues of social justice and ecology is tearing some workers in two: economically they need their jobs, but ethically they don’t support the products or services their companies provide. ◆Retirement security is no longer secure. Major pension funds have gone bankrupt, many corporations are shifting saving for retirement back onto the shoulders of workers and some even wonder about the security of our national social security safety net. ◆According to a recent Conference Board report, Americans are growing increasingly unhappy with their jobs. The decline in job satisfaction is widespread among workers of all ages and across all income brackets.13 ◆A poll conducted by the Center for a New American Dream found that more than half of Americans say they would be willing to give up a day’s pay a week for an extra day of free time.14 We’ve had enough, it would seem, of making a dying in such a crazy world. We spend the major portion of our waking hours at our jobs, and it hardly seems worth it.


pages: 290 words: 98,699

Wealth Without a Job: The Entrepreneur's Guide to Freedom and Security Beyond the 9 to 5 Lifestyle by Phil Laut, Andy Fuehl

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British Empire, business process, declining real wages, fear of failure, hiring and firing, index card, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, Silicon Valley, women in the workforce

Some content that appears in print may not be available in electronic books. For more information about Wiley products, visit our web site at www.wiley.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Laut, Phil. Wealth without a job : the entrepreneur’s guide to freedom and security beyond the 9 to 5 lifestyle / Phil Laut and Andy Fuehl. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-471-65645-3 (cloth) 1. New business enterprises. 2. Entrepreneurship. 3. Job satisfaction. 4. Success in business. I. Fuehl, Andy, 1962– II. Title. HD62.5.L38 2004 658.1'1—dc22 2004002226 Printed in the United States of America. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ftoc.qxd 7/9/04 8:20 AM Page vii C O N T E N T S Acknowledgments ix Introduction 1 Earning the Income You Want from Work You Love 11 The Old Methods No Longer Work in Today’s Economy 19 Chapter 3 What the Global Economy Means to You 27 Chapter 4 The Emotional Dynamics of Change 31 Chapter 5 Three Ingredients to Effective Change: Awareness, Acceptance, and Action 61 Chapter 6 Your Recovery from a Good Upbringing 71 Chapter 7 Stop Wasting Your Energy 107 Chapter 8 Your Mind Is Not a Democracy 131 Chapter 9 Mental Flexibility for Peak Performance 159 Chapter 1 Chapter 2 vii ftoc.qxd 7/9/04 8:20 AM Page viii viii Contents Chapter 10 Overall Business Model 179 Chapter 11 Negotiation 185 Chapter 12 Secrets of Compelling Communication 193 Chapter 13 Learning to Sell the Easy Way 209 Chapter 14 Putting It All Together into a Plan 249 Appendix 263 About the Authors 267 Index 273 flast.qxd 7/9/04 8:20 AM Page ix A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S W e extend our heartfelt thanks to the many people who have aided and inspired us in the creation of this book: Linda Konner, our literary agent, for her guidance and wisdom.

Then there is the depressing discovery that salary offers are lower than the job that was left, even though pointing this out may not be politically correct. A so-called side business can offer benefits far beyond the income that it produces. Some of these benefits are: • It can be a prudent first step toward a full-time business of your own. ccc_laut_intro_1-10.qxd 7/8/04 12:22 PM Page 9 Introduction • It can increase your job satisfaction by reducing dependency on your job. • It can be a risk-free way to learn a new occupation. • It can be a way to discover if you would enjoy some new occupation. • It can be a way to grow and expand your mind, discover your true potential and who you really are. Additionally, the fact that job security has disappeared means that you are likely to be in the job market several times during a career, sometimes willingly and other times not.

If you follow rules 7 and 8, you have a less than satisfying relationship with your boss. If it is not OK to take money from friends or from strangers, whom does that leave? Known enemies! This may seem a mere play on words until you consider the sometimes 83 ccc_laut_ch06_71-106.qxd 7/8/04 12:24 PM Page 84 84 Your Recovery from a Good Upbringing suppressed animosity between employers and workers that seems to be expressed only from time to time in labor strife. Job satisfaction is impossible if you view your employer as an adversary. If you follow rule 9, you perform at less than your best or sabotage your success. Why? Excellence always rocks the boat. If you follow rule 10, success does not seem to be worth the price. People try to prove this to be correct by creating endless obstacles and struggles. With this mind-set, you will create losses that you attribute to your progress and that make you wonder whether it is worth it.


pages: 344 words: 94,332

The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott

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3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, Lyft, Network effects, New Economic Geography, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, women in the workforce, young professional

In a 24/7 working environment, falling short in terms of hours worked runs the risk not just of losing business but of losing a huge amount of business. Perhaps even more intriguing is that high wage jobs, and the long hours they demand, may also contain aspects that are enjoyable. This is not to deny the stresses and pressures that come with such positions, but it is striking that studies show that job satisfaction increases with the wage attached to a job.5 It could be that wages are what drive job satisfaction or that the less manual and routine a job, the more enjoyable it is. What seems to be the result is that the more enjoyable a job, the longer hours a person is prepared to work, other things being equal. The enigma of leisure But there are other reasons for feeling time-poor. Even if on average people are working less, this doesn’t mean they have more leisure.

., The Overworked American (Basic Books, 1993) and Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth (Penguin, 2010). 3Veblen, T., The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions (The Macmillan Company, 1899). 4Costa, D., ‘The Wage and Length of the Work Day: From the 1890s to 1991’, Journal of Labor Economics (1998): 133–59. 5See for instance Grund, C. and Silwka, D., ‘The Impact of Wage Increases on Job Satisfaction – Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Implications’, IZA Discussion Paper 01/2001. 6Ramey, V. A. and Francis, N., ‘A Century of Work and Leisure’ (National Bureau of Economic Research, 2006). 7Aguiar, M. and Hurst, E., ‘Measuring Trends in Leisure: The Allocation of Time Over Five Decades’, Quarterly Journal of Economics 122 (3) (2007). 8Becker, G., ‘A Theory of the Allocation of Time’, Economic Journal (1965): 493–517; Linder, S., The Harried Leisure Class (Columbia University Press, 1970). 9http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/4899aaf8-0e9f-11e4-ae0e-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3nJ2crVXm 10Goldin, C., ‘A Grand Gender Convergence: Its Last Chapter’, American Economic Review 104 (4) (2014): 1–30. 11Elsbach, K. and Cable, D.

Index The letter f following an entry indicates a figure 3.0 scenarios here–here, here, here, here 3.5 scenarios here–here, here, here 4.0 scenarios here–here, here–here, here, here 5.0 scenarios here–here, here, here, here, here, here–here Acorns here activities of daily living (ADL) here adolescence here–here, here adult equivalence scales here age cognition and here–here corporations and here explorers and here–here government policy and here independent producers and here life stages and here–here, here–here portfolios and here predictability of here segregation and here–here, here–here, here, here–here age process algorithms here, here ageing process here, here ageism here, here agency here, here, here finance and here–here agriculture here–here Amazon here anxiety here appearance here Apple iPhone here reputation here Archer, Margaret here Artificial Intelligence (AI) here, here, here, here education and here human skills and here medical diagnoses and here–here, here skills and knowledge and here–here Asia here assets here, here see also intangible assets; tangible assets; transformational assets assortative mating here–here, here Astor, Brooke here Autor, David here–here, here Baby Boomers here–here beauty here Becker, Gary: ‘Treatise on the Family’ here, here–here, here behavioural nudges here Benartzi, Shlomo here benefits here–here see also welfare Bennis, Warren here birth rates, decline in here–here, here brain, the here–here, here–here cognition here Braithwaite, Valerie here Brontë, Charlotte: Jane Eyre here Buffett, Warren here–here Calico (California Life Company) here Calment, Jeanne here careers breaks and here changes and here–here dual careers here, here, here cell aging here centenarians here, here–here change here–here catalysts for here–here corporations and here–here, here education and here–here government policy and here–here, here identity and here–here inequalities and here–here mastery and here–here planning and experimentation and here–here rate of here–here Cherlin, Andrew here chess here children here, here–here, here Christensen, Clayton here Cloud Robotics here cohort estimate of life expectancy here, here, here companies here, here–here, here–here Amazon here Apple here–here change and here–here, here creative clusters here–here economies of scale and here–here Facebook here flexibility here–here, here–here reputation and here–here research and here small business ecosystems here–here technology and here–here Twitter here value creation here–here WhatsApp here compression of morbidity here–here computing power here–here, here–here see also Moore’s Law connectivity here–here consumerism here, here consumption complementarities here–here consumption levels here, here continuums here corporations here–here, here–here see also companies creative clusters here–here independent producers and here–here creativity here cross-age friendships here crucible experiences here–here Deep Learning here dementia here depreciation here developing countries life expectancy and here–here, here state pensions and here Dickens, Charles: Old Curiosity Shop, The here diet here Dimson, Elroy here disabilities here discounting here discretionary time here diverse networks here, here–here Doctorow, Corey: Makers, The here Downton Abbey effect, the here–here Doyle, Arthur Conan here driverless cars here, here dual career households here, here, here Dweck, Carol here–here dynamic/diverse networks here, here–here Easterlin’s Paradox here economy, the here–here agriculture and here–here gig economy here job creation and here–here leisure industry and here service sector and here sharing economy here, here stability and here education here, here–here, here–here see also mastery experiential learning here–here, here, here human skills and judgement and here ideas and creativity and here institutions here–here learning methods here mental flexibility and agility and here–here multi-stage life and here specialization here–here, here, here technology and here, here, here training here efficacy here, here, here–here elasticity here–here emerging markets life expectancy and here state pensions and here emotional spillover here employers here–here, here employment see also companies; employment changes age and here, here–here, here–here changes and here, here, here–here, here–here city migration and here–here creation here–here demographics and here, here–here diverse networks and here–here elasticity and here–here environmental concerns and here–here, here family structures and here–here, here, here–here, here, here, here–here flexibility and here–here, here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here hollowing out of work here–here, here, here home and here job classification here–here knowledge and skills and here levels here, here matches here–here mobility here multi-stage life and here office-based here paid leave here participation rates here–here, here pay here–here, here psychological contract here satisfaction here–here self-employment here–here specialization and here–here statistics here status and here supply and here–here technology and here, here–here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here unique human skills here–here, here vacancies here–here women and here–here working hours here–here, here working week here–here employment changes here, here, here–here companies and here–here industry sectors and here–here, here entrepreneurship here–here see also independent producers equity release schemes here experiential learning here–here, here, here experimentation here, here–here, here–here explorers here–here, here–here adventurers here age and here–here assets and here crucible experiences and here–here options and here–here searchers here, here exponential discounting here exponential growth here–here Facebook here families here, here, here–here, here children here, here–here, here dual career households here, here, here marriage here–here work and here, here finance here, here–here see also pensions age process algorithms here, here agency and here–here automation and here–here costs here–here efficacy and here–here equity release schemes here flexibility here governments and here–here, here, here–here health and here housing and here–here hyperbolic discounting here–here inheritances here–here investment here, here–here, here–here, here, here old age and here–here pay here–here, here pension replacement rates here–here, here, here–here portfolios here–here psychology and here–here retirement and here–here fitness and health here–here see also health Fleming, Ian here flexibility here, here–here, here, here–here, here–here, here corporations and here–here government policy and here–here working patterns and here flexibility stigma here, here Ford, Henry here Foxconn here Frey, Carl here Friedman, Stewart here–here, here Fries, James here, here Future of Work Consortium here future selves here–here future selves case studies Jane here–here, here–here Jimmy here–here, here galumphing here–here gender here, here see also women inequality here–here, here–here, here, here, here specialization of labour here, here–here, here, here, here–here Generation Y here generational attitudes here gerontology here Giddens, Anthony here, here gig economy here–here globalization here Goldin, Claudia here, here Google here governments here, here–here, here inequalities and here–here pensions and here–here rate of change and here–here Gratton, Lynda here Shift, The here growth mindset here–here Groysberg, Boris here Haffenden, Margaret here Hagestad, Gunhild here–here, here Harvard Grant Study here health here, here–here brain, the here–here chronic diseases here–here, here compression of morbidity here–here dementia here diseases of old age here–here finance and here improvements in here–here inequality here, here–here infectious diseases here public health here stress here–here healthy life expectancy here heterogeneity here hollowing out of work here–here, here, here home, work and here household here–here see also home economies of scale and here–here relationships here, here–here, here, here housing here–here imputed rent here, here ownership here HR policies here–here human skills here–here, here, here, here hyperbolic discounting here–here Ibarra, Herminia here identity here–here, here, here–here, here–here see also self-control; self-knowledge improvisation here–here imputed rent here, here income see also welfare distribution here growth and here inequalities here–here, here–here skills and knowledge and here–here income effect here–here independent producers here–here, here–here assets and here case study here–here creative clusters and here–here learning and here–here prototyping here–here reputation and curating and here–here India here–here Individual, the here Industrial Revolution, the here–here, here, here, here inequalities here–here gender and here–here, here–here, here, here, here government policy and here–here health here, here–here income here–here, here–here life expectancy and here–here, here–here, here infant mortality here intangible assets here–here, here–here, here case studies here–here, here–here, here corporations and here–here endowed individual characteristics here, here independent producers and here marriage and here productive assets see productive assets time and here transformational assets see transformational assets transitions and here–here vitality assets see vitality assets International Labour Organization (ILO) here ‘Women and the Future of Work’ here investment here, here–here, here–here, here Japan centenarians here–here life expectancy here, here–here,here–here, here pensions and here population decline and here job classification here–here job creation here–here job satisfaction here–here juvenescence here, here–here, here Kahneman, Daniel here Kegan, Robert here Keynes, John Maynard: Economic Possibilities of Our Grandchildren here knowledge see skills and knowledge Kurzweil, Ray here labour market see employment Lampedusa, Giuseppe : Leopard, The here law (occupation) here–here leadership here learning methods here leisure class here leisure industry here, here, here–here leisure time here, here, here–here, here–here, here–here Keynes, John Maynard and here life expectancy here–here, here see also long life best practice here, here calculating here–here, here chronic diseases and here–here cohort estimate of here, here, here developing countries and here–here diseases of old age and here–here government plans and here healthy life expectancy here historical here, here, here increase in here–here, here India and here–here inequalities in here–here, here–here, here infant mortality and here Japan and here, here–here, here–here, here limit to here–here period life expectancy measure here, here–here public health innovations and here South Korea here US and here–here Western Europe here life stages here–here, here–here age and here–here experiential learning and here explorers and here–here, here–here independent producers and here–here, here–here juvenescence and here, here–here multi-stage model here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here–here, here new stages here, here see also life stages case studies portfolios and here–here, here–here three-stage model here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here–here transitions and here life stages case studies diversity and here Jane here–here Jimmy here–here, here lifetime allowances here–here, here, here liminality here Linde, Charlotte here lockstep of action here–here, here London here–here London Business School here long life see also life expectancy as a curse here, here as a gift here, here Luddites, the here machine learning here marriage here–here Marsh, Paul here Marshall, Anthony here mastery here–here matching here–here Millenials here Mirvas, Philip here Modigliani, Franco here MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) here, here Moore’s Law here–here, here Moravec’s Paradox here, here morbidity here–here compression of here–here Morrissey, Francis here mortality here mortality risk here multiple selves here–here National Commission on Technology, Automation, and Economic Progress here neighbourhoods here neoplasticity here neoteny here, here new experiences here occupations here–here old age dependency ration here–here, here Ondine, curse of here options here, here–here Osborne, Michael here paid leave here Parfit, Derek here participation rates here–here, here peers here–here pension case studies Jack here, here–here, here, here Jane here, here, here–here, here, here, here, here, here–here Jimmy here–here, here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here three-stage life model here–here, here–here, here–here pension replacement rate here–here, here, here–here pensions here, here–here, here see also pension case studies amount required here–here funded schemes here goals and here government policy and here–here investment and here, here occupational pensions here–here Pay As You Go schemes here–here, here, here pension replacement rate here–here, here, here–here reform and here state pensions here–here, here period life expectancy measure here, here–here personal brands here pharmacy (occupation) here planning here plasticity here–here play here–here politics, engagement with here Polyani’s Paradox here–here, here population here–here, here–here portfolios (financial) here–here portfolios (life stage) here–here, here–here switching costs here transitions and here–here posse here–here, here possible selves here, here–here possible selves case studies Jane here–here Jimmy here–here, here Preston, Samuel here production complementarities here, here–here, here productive assets here–here, here case studies here, here, here–here, here, here, here, here–here, here, here marriage and here transitions and here professional social capital here–here prototyping here–here psychology here, here–here see also self-control age process algorithms here, here automation and here–here behavioural nudges here saving and here–here pure relationships here, here pyramid schemes here re-creation and recreation here–here, here–here recruitment here reflexive project, the here regenerative community here, here, here Relation P here relationships here–here, here, here children and here–here divorce and here–here, here dual career households here families and here–here, here–here friendships here, here–here household here, here–here, here, here marriage and here–here, here–here matches and here–here multi-generational living here–here, here options and here–here pure relationship here switching roles here, here, here, here–here reputation here–here, here–here, here–here retirees here–here retirement see also pensions age of here, here, here, here, here–here, here consumption levels and here corporations and here, here government policy and here–here stimulation in here, here risk here risk pooling here robotics here, here, here, here see also Artificial Intelligence role models here routine here routine activities here routine-busting here routine tasks here–here Rule of here here Sabbath, the here sabbaticals here–here Save More Tomorrow (SMarT plan) here–here Scharmer, Otto here second half of the chessboard here–here segregation of the ages here–here, here–here, here, here–here self-control here–here, here–here age process algorithms here, here automation and here behavioural nudges here self-employment here–here self-knowledge here–here, here finance and here–here service sector here sexuality here–here Shakespeare, William King Lear here sharing economy here–here, here, here short-termism here–here skills and knowledge here, here–here, here see also human skills earning potential and here professional social capital and here–here technology and here–here valuable here–here Slim, Carlos here smart cities here–here independent producers and here–here social media here, here–here society here spare time here see also leisure time standardized practices here–here Staunton, Mike here strategic bequest motive, the here–here substitution effect here switching here, here, here, here–here tangible assets here–here, here, here, here, here see also housing; pensions case studies here, here, here, here, here, here transitions and here taxation here, here–here Teachers Insurance and Annuity Assurance scheme here technology here, here see also Artificial Intelligence computing power here–here, here–here see also Moore’s Law driverless cars here–here, here education and here, here, here employment and here, here–here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here human skills and here, here innovation and here matching and here relationships and here teenagers here–here, here–here, here, here Thaler, Richard here thick market effects here–here Thomas, R. here time here, here–here see also sabbaticals discretionary time here flexibility and here–here, here Industrial Revolution, the here–here, here–here, here intangible assets and here leisure and here, here, here–here, here–here, here–here restructuring here, here spare time here working hours here–here, here, here–here working hours paradox here–here, here working week, the here–here, here time poor here–here trade unions here transformational assets here, here–here, here–here, here, here, here case studies here–here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here, here, here, here crucible experiences and here corporations and here transitions here, here–here, here–here, here corporations and here financing here–here government policy and here, here nature of here–here portfolios and here–here re-creating here recharging here–here tribal rituals here Twitter here Uhlenberg, Peter here–here, here UK, occupational pension schemes and here–here Unilever here universities here US here–here compression of morbidity and here occupational pension schemes and here Valliant, George here value creation here vitality assets here, here–here, here case studies here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here, here, here, here transitions and here–here website here week, the here–here weekend, the here, here weight loss here welfare here–here see also benefits Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania here–here, here WhatsApp here Wolfran, Hans-Joachim here women see also gender children and here–here relationships and here, here, here work and here–here Women and Love here work see employment working hours here–here, here, here–here working week, the here–here, here Yahoos here–here youthfulness here–here Bloomsbury Information An imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 50 Bedford Square 1385 Broadway London New York WC1B 3DP NY 10018 UK USA www.bloomsbury.com BLOOMSBURY and the Diana logo are trademarks of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc First published 2016 © Lynda Gratton and Andrew Scott, 2016 Lynda Gratton and Andrew Scott have asserted their right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as Author of this work.


pages: 505 words: 127,542

If You're So Smart, Why Aren't You Happy? by Raj Raghunathan

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Broken windows theory, business process, cognitive dissonance, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, fundamental attribution error, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, Phillip Zimbardo, placebo effect, science of happiness, Skype, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thorstein Veblen, Tony Hsieh, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

GOAL AVERAGE RANK 1 Great/fulfilling relationships 3.19 2 Being happy 3.31 3 Great career success 4.78 4 Being rich 5.46 5 Being a good person; helping others 6.23 6 Being free to do as you please 7.44 7 Job satisfaction 8.12 8 Physical health 8.86 9 Being famous 9.45 10 Respect/admiration of peers 9.56 11 Spiritual growth 10.19 12 Being really good at something/achieving mastery 11.23 13 Figuring out the meaning of life 11.34 14 Finding your purpose in life 11.79 15 Physical attractiveness 12.22 16 Being powerful 12.67 Sixteen “Life Goals” and Their Average Rank Across Respondents As it turns out, there’s an intriguing reason why people don’t ask the Genie for happiness.

Getting Flow Back into Your (Work) Life If flow is a critical determinant of both happiness and success, then it follows that finding flow at work is important, as we spend the bulk of our “waking life” at work. However, most of us do not find work to be as meaningful or satisfying as we should—or could. A recent worldwide survey revealed that about twice as many employees are dissatisfied with their jobs as are satisfied. This wasn’t always the case. In the 1970s and 1980s, job satisfaction in the United States was much higher than it currently is. Most people recognize that it’s a shame to find work meaningless and unfulfilling. Which is why, as Herminia Ibarra, author of a book called Working Identity, notes, so many of us dream of quitting our jobs one day and doing something more meaningful. But then it remains a dream forever because we are too afraid to actually take the plunge and quit the meaningless job and pursue a meaningful one instead.

As you can tell, such a story is not conducive to happiness. If neediness lowers happiness, one might assume that the opposite of neediness—avoidance—would enhance happiness. But that’s not the case. The discomfort that avoidants feel with intimacy spoils the quality of their relationships. This is a problem that avoidants face both in romantic and in workplace settings. For instance, avoidants experience lower job satisfaction than do either the needy or the secure. Avoidants are also prone to being less satisfied with the help they get from others, and this in turn makes them less likely to engage in healthy collaboration with others. Unsurprisingly, therefore, avoidants aren’t very effective as leaders. A final reason why being avoidant lowers happiness is because, like neediness, it leads to loneliness. Although avoidants view themselves as strong and independent, it turns out that this self-view is mostly a façade.


pages: 241 words: 78,508

Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead by Sheryl Sandberg

affirmative action, business process, Cass Sunstein, constrained optimization, experimental economics, fear of failure, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, old-boy network, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, social graph, women in the workforce, young professional

., “Well … She Wants It More: Perceptions of Social Norms About Desires for Marriage and Children and Anticipated Chore Participation,” Psychology of Women Quarterly 34, no. 2 (2010): 253–60, which surveyed college students and found no difference between men and women in their self-reported level of desire to marry. 3. For reviews of studies about job satisfaction and turnover, see Petri Böckerman and Pekka Ilmakunnas, “Job Disamenities, Job Satisfaction, Quit Intentions, and Actual Separations: Putting the Pieces Together,” Industrial Relations 48, no. 1 (2009): 73–96; and Brooks et al., “Turnover and Retention Research: A Glance at the Past, a Closer Review of the Present, and a Venture into the Future,” The Academy of Management Annals 2, no. 1 (2008): 231–74. 4. Caroline O’Connor, “How Sheryl Sandberg Helped Make One Entrepreneur’s Big Decision,” Harvard Business Review Blog Network, September 26, 2011, http://​blogs.​hbr.​org/​cs/​2011/​09/​how_​sheryl_​sandberg_​helped_​mak.​html. 5.

Carter, and Christine Silva, “Why Men Still Get More Promotions than Women,” Harvard Business Review 88, no. 9 (2010): 80–85; and Sylvia Ann Hewlett et al., The Sponsor Effect: Breaking Through the Last Glass Ceiling, a Harvard Business Review Research Report (December 2010): 5–7. 2. Studies have found that people who are mentored and sponsored report having more career success (such as higher compensation, a greater number of promotions, greater career and job satisfaction, and more career commitment). See Tammy D. Allen et al., “Career Benefits Associated with Mentoring for Protégés: A Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Applied Psychology 89, no. 1 (2004): 127–36. A study of several thousand white collar workers with at least a bachelor’s degree found that sponsorship seemed to encourage both men and women to ask for a stretch assignment and a pay increase. Among the men surveyed who had a sponsor, 56 percent were likely to ask for a stretch assignment and 49 percent were likely to ask for a pay raise.


pages: 589 words: 147,053

The Age of Em: Work, Love and Life When Robots Rule the Earth by Robin Hanson

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8-hour work day, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, business process, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, demographic transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, experimental subject, fault tolerance, financial intermediation, Flynn Effect, hindsight bias, information asymmetry, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, lone genius, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nash equilibrium, new economy, prediction markets, rent control, rent-seeking, reversible computing, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, statistical model, stem cell, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

For example, today as they get older people tend to be less neurotic, and more agreeable, conscientiousness, and open to experience (Soto et al. 2011), although these trends reverse after the age of 65 (Kandler et al. 2015). Older people have weaker differences between genders in their roles and attitudes (Hofstede et al. 2010), they are more trusting (Robinson and Jackson 2001), they have less regret about missed life opportunities (Brassen et al. 2012), and they have more job satisfaction and less stress and negative emotions (Tay et al. 2014). Older people (and males) are more influential in social networks, and influential people are more clustered in their associations, and less susceptible to social influence by others (Aral and Walker 2012). For older people, happiness tends to increase with age, controlling for health, and older people tend to associate happiness more with peacefulness, as opposed to excitement, in part because they focus more on the present as opposed to the future (Mogilner et al. 2011).

“Give Me a Better Break: Choosing Workday Break Activities to Maximize Resource Recovery.” Journal of Applied Psychology, in press. Iannaccone, Laurence. 1994. “Why Strict Churches Are Strong.” American Journal of Sociology 99(5): 1180–1211. Ichniowski, Casey, and Anne Preston. 2014. “Do Star Performers Produce More Stars? Peer Effects and Learning in Elite Teams.” NBER Working Paper No. 20478, September. Idson, Todd. 1990. “Establishment Size, Job Satisfaction and the Structure of Work.” Applied Economics 22(8): 1007–1018. Inglehart, Ronald, and Christian Welzel. 2010. “Changing Mass Priorities: The Link Between Modernization and Democracy.” Perspectives on Politics 8(2): 554. 2012. “International Labour Organization Global Estimate of Forced Labour 2012: Results and Methodology.” June 1. http://www.ilo.org/washington/areas/elimination-of-forced-labor/WCMS_182004/lang–en/index.htm.

Nakamoto, Satoshi. 2008. “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.” November. https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf. Navarrete, C. David, Robert Kurzban, Daniel Fessler, and Lee Kirkpatrick 2004. “Anxiety and Intergroup Bias: Terror Management or Coalitional Psychology?” Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 7(4): 370–397. Nguyen, Anh Ngoc, Jim Taylor, and Steve Bradley. 2003. “Job Autonomy and Job Satisfaction: New Evidence.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Lancaster, Lancaster. Niederle, Muriel. 2014. “Gender.” NBER Working Paper No. 20788, December. Nitsch, Volker. 2005. “Zipf Zipped.” Journal of Urban Economics 57(1): 86–100. Nordhaus, William. 2015. “Are We Approaching an Economic Singularity? Information Technology and the Future of Economic Growth.” NBER Working Paper No. 21547, September.


pages: 624 words: 127,987

The Personal MBA: A World-Class Business Education in a Single Volume by Josh Kaufman

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Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, business process, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Heinemeier Hansson, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, discounted cash flows, Donald Knuth, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Santayana, Gödel, Escher, Bach, high net worth, hindsight bias, index card, inventory management, iterative process, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Lao Tzu, loose coupling, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, Network effects, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, place-making, premature optimization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, side project, statistical model, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, subscription business, telemarketer, the scientific method, time value of money, Toyota Production System, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, Yogi Berra

Sometimes that response is well defined—as we discussed earlier, your body knows exactly what it needs to do to regulate blood glucose. Often, however, you don’t know exactly what is wrong—or how to fix it. Think of a perception as abstract as “job satisfaction”—there’s a set point in your mind that stands for “how happy I should be at work,” and your perception of job satisfaction is an average of your actual experiences at work. Pleasant experiences move the average higher, and unpleasant experiences move the average lower. If your perception of “job satisfaction” is lower than you think it should be (your Reference Level), your brain will kick into action—“I’m not as happy as I should be . . . Something needs to change.” Here’s the problem: you may not know what that “something”is. Would you be happier if you changed assignments, worked for a new boss, left the company, or started working for yourself?

Skinner, who believed that if you discovered and applied just the right stimulus, people would behave however you wanted. This mentality led to the widespread use of financial incentives to influence behavior: salary, bonuses, stock options, and so on, in an effort to encourage business professionals and managers to act in the best interest of corporate shareholders. There’s an enormous (and growing) body of evidence that direct incentives often undermine performance, motivation, and job satisfaction in the real world.13 Despite more useful competing theories of human action, 14 the search for the magic stimulus continues in business school classrooms to this day. In Search of Distribution Any technique, however worthy and desirable, becomes a disease when the mind is obsessed with it. —BRUCE LEE, WORLD-RENOWNED MARTIAL ARTIST Marketing, on the other hand, was originally a way to get additional store distribution for physical products and keep expensive factory production lines busy.


pages: 336 words: 88,320

Being Geek: The Software Developer's Career Handbook by Michael Lopp

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finite state, game design, job satisfaction, John Gruber, knowledge worker, remote working, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sorting algorithm, web application

You're motivated by a single thought: I. Am. Out of here. There's a litany of good reasons to be angry with your boss, your company, or your team, but you don't want to start a job change being pissed off. Nothing taints common sense more than being pissed off. Early Warning Signs of Doom Choosing to subject yourself to a recruiting cold call is just one sign that cracks are forming in your job satisfaction. There are others... Engagement How engaged are you in your work? I know you love working on that new feature in the product—you'll always love doing new things—but how about the busy work? How engaged are you in the work that is necessary but tedious? Remember when you joined the company and everyone was bright and you had no clue the boring work was, well, boring? Now that it's boring, are you able to crank through it, or are you finding excuses to not do it?

I'm not doing it, because I've got a new gig in mind, though I'm months away from that realization. It's an early sign that the core satisfaction in my job has begun to erode when I'm unable to charge through the work I hate. Wanderlust How much are you thinking about your job when you're not working? When you go to sleep? My question is: how much are you thinking about your job when you don't have to? There's a larger job satisfaction analysis going on inside of wanderlust. In hi-tech, 9 to 5 jobs are dead. I'm a fervent supporter of maintaining a work-life balance that allows you to explore as much of the planet Earth as possible, but I'm also the guy who thinks if you're going to do this job, you should be absolutely fucking crazy about it. This doesn't mean that you're obsessively working 24 hours a day on the product, but it does mean that the work you are doing is part of you.

Outside of my career as an engineer, I've been a store clerk, a butcher, a video rental clerk, a lawyer's assistant, and a bookseller, and although it's been over 15 years since I've done any of these jobs, I remember the sense of naive pointlessness: "What do I build? Well, I sell stuff, cut stuff, or type stuff. I don't really build anything, I...do stuff." This made the first engineering gig a revelation. "You. We are building a database application and you own this specific part. It is entirely yours. Don't fuck it up." Delicious, delicious structure. Sweet, sweet definition. These basic and essential elements of job satisfaction are at the root of why many engineers make horrible managers. They are trained as and love to be control freaks. The New Gig Now you have a new job. You have an office and you have a door. On your desk, there's a timer that tracks the number of seconds that it's just you alone in your office. Whenever someone else walks into your office, the timer magically resets to zero. Today's record for consecutive uninterrupted seconds is 47.


pages: 324 words: 93,175

The Upside of Irrationality: The Unexpected Benefits of Defying Logic at Work and at Home by Dan Ariely

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Alvin Roth, assortative mating, Burning Man, business process, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, end world poverty, endowment effect, Exxon Valdez, first-price auction, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, happiness index / gross national happiness, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loss aversion, Peter Singer: altruism, placebo effect, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, second-price auction, software as a service, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, Upton Sinclair, young professional

A few months later we aren’t as annoyed by the color of the cabinets, but at the same time, we don’t derive as much pleasure from the handsome floors. This type of emotional leveling out—when initial positive and negative perceptions fade—is a process we call hedonic adaptation. Just as our eyes adjust to changes in light and environment, we can adapt to changes in expectation and experience. For example, Andrew Clark showed that job satisfaction among British workers was strongly correlated with changes in workers’ pay rather than the level of pay itself. In other words, people generally grow accustomed to their current pay level, however low or high. A raise is great and a pay cut is very upsetting, regardless of the actual amount of the base salary. In one of the earliest studies on hedonic adaptation, Philip Brickman, Dan Coates, and Ronnie Janoff-Bulman compared the overall life happiness among three groups: paraplegics, lottery winners, and normal people who were neither disabled nor particularly lucky.

A Accessory Transit Company, 154 acknowledging workers, 74–76, 80 acronyms, 120 adaptation, 157–90 assortative mating and, 191–212; see also assortative mating focusing attention on changes and, 159–60 hedonic, 160–84; see also hedonic adaptation nineteenth-century experiments on, 157–58 to pain, 160–67 physical, 157–60, 161n sensory perception and, 158–60 Aesop, 198–99 agriculture, obesity and technological developments in, 8 AIDS, 250, 251 airlines, customer service problems of, 142–43 alienation of labor, 79–80 American Cancer Society (ACS), 241–42, 249–50, 254 Andrade, Eduardo, 262, 265, 267–68, 299 anger, acting on, 257 author��s anecdote of, 258–61 driving and, 261 ultimatum game and, 268, 269–70, 273, 274, 276 animals: empathy for suffering of, 249 generalizing about human behavior from studies on, 63 working for food preferred by, 59–63 annoying experiences: breaking up, 177–79, 180 decisions far into future affected by, 262–64 annuities, 234 anterior insula, 266–67 anticipatory anxiety, 45 Anzio, Italy, battle of (1944), 167 apathy toward large tragedies, 238–39 drop-in-the-bucket effect and, 244–45, 252, 254–55 statistical condition and, 238–41, 242, 246, 247–49, 252–53 apologies, 149–51 for medical errors, 152 Apple, 120n battery replacement issue and, 141–42 art, homemade, 89–90 Asian tsunami, 250, 251 assembly line, 78–79 assortative mating, 191–212 altering aesthetic perception and (sour grapes theory), 198–99, 200, 201, 203 author’s injuries and, 191–96, 210–11 dinner party game and, 198 failure to adapt and, 200–201, 203–5 gender differences and, 209, 211 HOT or NOT study and, 201–5, 208, 211 reconsidering rank of attributes and, 199–200, 201, 205–10 speed-dating experiment and, 205–10 Atchison, Shane, 140–41, 146 attachment: to one’s own ideas, see Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias to self-made goods, see IKEA effect attractiveness, assortative mating and, 191–212 see also assortative mating auctions, first-price vs. second-price, 98–99 Audi customer service, author’s experience with, 131–36, 137, 149, 153–54 experimental situation analogous to, 135–39 fictional case study for Harvard Business Review based on, 147–49 B bailout, public outrage felt in response to, 128–31 baking mixes, instant, 85–87 bankers: author’s presentation of research findings to, 107–9, 121 bonus experiments and, 38–41, 51 Frank’s address to, 41 public outrage in response to bailout and, 128–31 bankruptcy, 129, 130 Barkan, Racheli, 39, 109–10, 299 basketball, clutch players in, 39–41 beauty: assortative mating and, 196–212; see also assortative mating general agreement on standard of, 203 Becker-DeGroot-Marschak procedure, 91 Beecher, Henry, 167 behavioral economics: goal of, 9–10 human rationality not assumed in, 6–7 revenge as metaphor for, 124n Betty Crocker, 87 Bible, Gideon’s conversation with God in, 288–89 blindness, adaptation to, 172–74 blogging, 65 Blunder (Shore), 117 boiling-frog experiment, 157–58 bonuses, 17–52 bank executives’ responses to research on, 37–39 clutch abilities and, 39–41 for cognitive vs. mechanical tasks, 33–36, 40–41 creativity improvements and, 47–48 experiments testing effectiveness of, 21–36, 44–46 Frank’s remarks on, 41 intuitions about, 36–37 inverse-U relationship between performance and, 20–21, 47 loss aversion and, 32–33 optimizing efficacy of, 51–52 public rage over, 21 rational economists’ view of, 36–37 social pressure and, 44–46 surgery situation and, 48–49 viewed as standard part of compensation, 33 in wake of financial meltdown of 2008, 131 brain: judgments about experiences and, 228–29 punishment and, 126 breaks, in pleasant vs. painful experiences, 177–81 Brickman, Philip, 170 business, experimental approach to, 292–93 C cake mixes, instant, 85–87 California, moving to, 176 Call, Josep, 127 cancer, American Cancer Society fundraising and, 241–42, 249–50, 254 canoeing, romantic relationships and, 278–79 cars, 215–16 designing one’s own, 88, 89 division of labor in manufacture of, 78–79 in early days of automotive industry, 94 hedonic treadmill and, 175 see also driving cell phones, 7 in experiments on customer revenge, 135–39, 145–46, 150–51 see also texting CEOs, very high salaries and bonuses paid to, 21 Chance, Zoë, 220, 300 changes: ability to focus attention on, 159–60 decisions about life’s path and, 287 in future, foreseeing adaptation to, 160, 171–74 status quo bias and, 285, 286 in workers’ pay, job satisfaction and, 169–70 charities: American Cancer Society (ACS), 241–42, 249–50, 254 calculating vs. emotional priming and, 246–48 emotional appeals and, 240–42, 248–50, 253–54, 256 identifiable victim effect and, 239–42, 248, 256 charities (cont.) mismatching of money and need and, 250–51 motivating people to take action and, 252–56 Chat Circles, 225 cheating, 76 childbirth, pain of, 168, 169n children: in growing and preparing of food, 121 parents’ overvaluation of, 97–98 chimpanzees, sense of fairness in, 127 chores, taking breaks in, 177–79, 180 civil liberties, erosion of, 158 Clark, Andrew, 169 climate change, 251–52 closeness, empathy and, 243, 245, 254 clutch abilities, 39–41 CNN, 238 Coates, Dan, 170 cockroaches, social pressure in, 45–46 commercial breaks, enjoyment of television and, 181n comparisons, hedonic adaptation and, 189 compensation, 47 changes in, job satisfaction and, 169–70 see also bonuses completion: employees’ sense of, 77, 79–80 Loewenstein’s analysis of mountaineering and, 80–81 computers, 233 consumer purchases, 185–88 happiness derived from transient experiences vs., 187–88 hedonic treadmill and, 175 placing limits on, 186–87 reducing, 185–86 spacing of, 185, 186 contrafreeloading, 60–63 Jensen’s study of, 60–62, 63 standard economic view at odds with, 62–63 Converse, 95 cooking: children’s involvement in, 121 enjoyment factor and, 62n, 105–6 semi-preprepared food and, 85–88 CO2 emissions, 251–52 counting strategies, 282–83 Count of Monte Cristo, The (Dumas), 123 creation, pride of: ideas and, see Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias self-made goods and, see IKEA effect creativity, bonuses and improvements in, 47–48 Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály, 49 cultures, organizational: acronyms and, 120 Not-Invented-Here bias and, 119–21 customer revenge, 131–51 against airlines, 142–43 apologies and, 149–51, 152 author’s experience with Audi customer service and, 131–36, 137, 147–49, 153–54 distinction between agents and principals and, 144–47 Farmer and Shane’s “Yours Is a Very Bad Hotel” and, 140–41, 146 fictional case study for Harvard Business Review on, 147–49 increase in, 143 Neistat brothers’ video on Apple’s customer service and, 141–42 passage of time and, 151 phone call interruption experiments on, 135–39, 145–46, 150–51 customization, 94–96 of cars, 88, 89, 94 effort expended in, 89, 95–96 overvaluation despite removing possibility of, 96 of shoes, 95, 96 D Dallaire, Roméo, 255 Darfur, 238, 253 Dart Ball game, 23, 34 Darwin, Charles, 157 dating, 191–235 market failures in, 213–15, 216–17, 220–21, 230–32, 233–35 playing hard to get and, 104 standard practice of, 224–25, 227–28 yentas (matchmakers) and, 213 see also assortative mating; online dating; speed dating decision making: author’s medical care and, 284–88 cooling off before, 257, 279 emotions and, 261–77 gender differences and, 274–76 irreversible decisions and, 285, 286 rationalization of choices in, 287 from rational perspective, 5–6 short-term, long-term decisions affected by, 264–65, 270–74, 276–77 stability of strategies for, 261–65; see also self-herding ultimatum game and, 265–70, 275–76 dentistry, adaptation to pain and, 161–62 design, taking people’s physical limitations into account in, 230–32 destroying work in front of workers, 74–76 Dichter, Ernest, 86 disease: adaptation to pain and, 165, 167 preventative health care and, 251, 256 “survivor” rhetoric and, 241–42 Disney, 154 distraction, performance-based incentives and, 30, 36 division of labor, 77–80 IT infrastructure and, 77, 79–80 Marx’s alienation notion and, 79 Smith’s observations on, 77–78 divorce, foreseeing outcome of, 173 Dodson, John, 18–20, 22, 31, 47 do-it-yourself projects, see IKEA effect Donath, Judith, 225 Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 157 Doubletree Club, Houston, 140–41, 146 dreams, author’s self-image in, 182–83 DreamWorks SKG, 154 driving: momentary anger during, 261 safety precautions and, 6–7 texting during, 6, 7, 8 see also cars drop-in-the-bucket effect, 244–45, 252, 254–55 Dumas, Alexandre, 123 E Eastwick, Paul, 172–73 Edison, Thomas, 117–19, 122 effort: increase in value related to, 89, 90, 95–96, 105–6; see also IKEA effect joy derived from activity and, 71–72 meaningful work conditions and, 72 ownership of ideas and, 114–16 see also labor egg theory, 86–88 Eisner, Michael, 154 electric chair, 119 electricity, alternating current (AC) vs. direct current (DC), 117–19 emotional cascades, 265–78 gender differences and, 274–76 romantic relationships and, 277–78 ultimatum game and, 265–76 emotional priming: empathy for plight of others and, 246–48 ultimatum game and, 268–70 emotions, 43, 237–79 appeals to, willingness to help others and, 240–42, 248–50, 253–54, 256 decision making and, 261–77; see also decision making in past, humans’ poor memory of, 264 transience of, 257, 261, 270 see also empathy; negative feelings, acting on empathy: animals’ suffering and, 249, 252 apathy toward statistical victims and, 238–41, 242, 246, 247–49, 252–53 Baby Jessica saga and, 237–38 calculating vs. emotional priming and, 246–48 clear moral principles and, 255 closeness and, 243, 245, 254 drop-in-the-bucket effect and, 244–45, 252, 254–55 emotional appeals and, 240���42, 248–50, 253–54, 256 global warming and, 251–52 identifiable victim effect and, 239–42, 248, 256 overcoming barriers to, 252–56 rules to guide our behavior and, 254–55 thought experiment of drowning girl and, 242–43, 245 toward one person vs. many in need, 237–56 vividness and, 24, 243n, 244, 245 endowment effect, 285, 286 Enron, 216 evolution, mismatch between speed of technological development and, 8–9 experiments, 10–11, 288–95 business or public policy and, 292–94, 295 of Gideon, 288–89 medical practice and, 289–92 rational economists’ criticisms of, 49–51 see also specific topics Exxon Valdez oil spill, 249 F fairness, sense of: in chimpanzees, 127 decision making and, 266–67; see also ultimatum game gender differences and, 275–76 Fallows, James, 158 Farmer, Tom, 140–41, 146, 148–49 FedEx, 108–9 feedback, about work, 74–76 Feeks, John, 118–19 Fehr, Ernst, 125–26 financial incentives: meaning of labor and, 72–73, 76 see also bonuses financial markets, safety measures for, 7 financial meltdown of 2008, 7, 21, 216 chronology of events in, 129–30 desire for revenge in wake of, 128–31 lack of experimental approach to, 293 outraged public reaction to bailout in, 128–29, 130 Finkel, Eli, 172–73 First Knight, 50 fixation, pride in creation and ownership and, 89, 122 food: animals’ preference for working for, 59–63 semi-preprepared, 85–88 shortages of, identifiable victim effect and, 239–41 see also cooking Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 292 Ford, Henry, 78–79, 94 Forgea (white terrier), 249 Fox, Michael J., 254 “Fox and the Grapes, The” (Aesop), 198–99 Frank, Barney, 41 Frankl, Viktor, 45 free food, animals’ preference for working for food vs., 60–62 Frenk, Hanan, 161–65, 300 Friends, ultimatum game and, 269, 270–71, 272 frog experiment, 157–58 Frost, Jeana, 219–20, 229, 300 Fryer, Bronwyn, 148 furniture, do-it-yourself, 83–84, 96, 105, 106 future, foreseeing adaptation to changes in, 160, 171–74 G gardening: children growing food and, 121 enjoyment factor and, 105–6 gender differences: assortative mating and, 209, 211 decision making and, 274–76 pain threshold and tolerance and, 168–69 Gideon, 288–89 global warming, 158, 251–52 Gneezy, Ayelet, 135, 144–45, 150, 300–301 Gneezy, Uri, 21, 44, 301 Gore, Al, 158, 252 government policies, experimental approach to, 292–94, 295 H happiness: comparisons to other people and, 189 consumer purchases and, 175, 185–88 inaccurate predictions about, 170–71 return to baseline of, 170 transient vs. constant experiences and, 187–88 Harvard Business Review (HBR), 147–49 health care, see medical care hedonic adaptation, 160–84 to annoying experiences, 177–79, 180 author’s personal history and, 181–84, 189 blindness and, 172–74 breaking up experiences and, 177–81 changes in workers’ pay and, 169–70 comparisons to other people and, 189 consumer purchases and, 175, 185–88 extending pleasurable experiences and, 176–78, 179–81, 185, 186 in future, foreseeing of, 160, 171–74 happiness baseline and, 170 life-altering injuries and, 171–72, 174 moving to California and, 176 new houses and, 168–69 pain and, 160–67 romantic breakups and, 172–73 to transient vs. constant experiences, 187–88 using our understanding of, 176–81, 184–90 hedonic disruptions, 177–81 hedonic treadmill, 175 Heingartner, Alexander, 45–46 Henry, O., 98 herding, 262 see also self-herding Herman, Edward, 45–46 Hippocrates, 82 Hogerty, Megan, 81 homeostatic mechanisms, 81 Hong, James, 201, 203 HOT or NOT study, 201–5, 208 gender differences in, 209, 211 Meet Me feature and, 204–5, 208, 209 humor, sense of, 199, 200, 207, 208, 228 Hurricane Katrina, 250, 251 I ideas: attachment to, see Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias idiosyncratic fit and, 111–12 identifiable victim effect, 239–42, 248, 256 American Cancer Society and, 241–42 identity, connection between work and, 53–55, 79 idiosyncratic fit, ideas and, 111–12 ignoring workers, 74–76 IKEA, 83–84, 106 IKEA effect, 83–106 author’s creations in rehabilitation center and, 100–101 completion of project and, 101–4, 105 do-it-yourself furniture and, 83–84, 96, 106 effort expended and, 89, 90, 95–96, 105–6 four principles in, 104–5 and lack of awareness of overvaluation, 99 Legos experiment and, 96, 97 Local Motors cars and, 88, 89 Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias and, 109–10, 121 origami experiments and, 91–94, 97, 98–99, 102–4 parents’ overvaluation of their children and, 97–98 practical implications of, 121–22 relaxation notion and, 105–6 removal of individual customization and, 96 semi-preprepared food and, 85–88 shoe design and, 95, 96 immediate gratification, 5 Inconvenient Truth, An, 252 initiation into social groups, 89 injuries: association of pain with getting better after, 166–67 author’s dating prospects and, 191–96, 210–11 author’s decisions about his medical care and, 284–88 author’s personal history related to, 1–4, 13, 107, 160–62, 166–67, 181–84, 189, 191–96, 210–11, 281–88 battlefield vs. civilian, 167 foreseeing future after, 160 life-altering, adaptation to, 160, 171–72, 174 pain thresholds and tolerance related to severity of, 161–65 Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, 126–27 insurance products, 233–34 interruptions: in pleasant vs. painful experiences, 177–81 TV commercials and, 181n see also phone call interruption experiments intuitions: bonuses and, 36–37 received medical wisdom and, 289–92 romantic, 172–73 testing of, 10n, 288–95 inverse-U relationship, defined, 19 iPods and iPhones, battery replacement in, 141–42 irrationality: summary of findings on, 288 upside as well as downside of, 11–12, 294 irreversible decisions, 285, 286 IT infrastructure, division and meaning of labor and, 77, 79–80 J Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie, 170 Jensen, Glen, 60–62, 63 Jensen, Keith, 127 Jewish tradition, 254–55 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, 152 Joyless Economy, The (Scitovsky), 188 justice, see fairness, sense of K Kahneman, Danny, 32n, 175–76 Kamenica, Emir, 66, 301 Katzenberg, Jeffrey, 154 Kemmler, William, 119 kinship, empathy and, 243 Krishnamurti, Tamar, 172–73 Krzyzewski, Mike, 39 L labor: connection between identity and, 53–55, 79 contrafreeloading and, 60–63 economic model of, 55, 62–63, 105 financial incentives and, see bonuses meaning of, see meaning of labor overvaluation resulting from, see IKEA effect on projects without meaning, 56–57, 63–72 Labyrinth game, 23 Lee, Leonard, 132, 134, 197, 201–2, 301–2 Lee, Sandra, 87–88 leeches, medicinal use of, 290–91 Legos experiments: on IKEA effect, 96, 97 on reducing meaningfulness of work, 66–74, 77, 80 letter-pairs experiment, 74–76, 80 life-altering events, hedonic adaptation and, 170 Life as a House, ultimatum game and, 268, 269, 270, 272, 276 light, adaptation to changes in, 159 Local Motors, Inc., 88, 89 Loewenstein, George, 21, 44, 80–81, 172–73, 197, 201–2, 239–41, 246–48, 302 long-term objectives, short-term enjoyments vs., 4–5 loss aversion, 32–33, 285, 286 lottery winners, hedonic adaptation of, 170, 171 “Love the One You’re With,” 197, 211–12 M malaria, 250, 251 Man’s Search for Meaning (Frankl), 45 marketing, adaptation and, 158 market mechanisms, 215–16 dating and, 213–15, 216–17, 220–21, 230–32, 233–35 Marx, Karl, 79 massages, extending pleasure of, 179–80 matchmakers (yentas), 213 Mazar, Nina, 21, 30, 44, 302 McClure, Jessica (Baby Jessica), 237–38 meals, see cooking meaning of labor, 53–82 in acknowledged, ignored, and shredded conditions, 74–76 animals’ preference for working for food and, 59–63 blogging and, 65 division of labor and, 77–80 draining work of meaning and, 55–57, 63–77 financial incentives and, 72–73, 76 joy derived from activity and, 71–72 labor-identity connection and, 53–55, 79 Legos experiment and, 66–74, 76, 80 lessons for workplace on, 80–82 letter-pairs experiment and, 74–76, 80 “meaning” vs.

mismatching of money and need and, 250–51 motivating people to take action and, 252–56 Chat Circles, 225 cheating, 76 childbirth, pain of, 168, 169n children: in growing and preparing of food, 121 parents’ overvaluation of, 97–98 chimpanzees, sense of fairness in, 127 chores, taking breaks in, 177–79, 180 civil liberties, erosion of, 158 Clark, Andrew, 169 climate change, 251–52 closeness, empathy and, 243, 245, 254 clutch abilities, 39–41 CNN, 238 Coates, Dan, 170 cockroaches, social pressure in, 45–46 commercial breaks, enjoyment of television and, 181n comparisons, hedonic adaptation and, 189 compensation, 47 changes in, job satisfaction and, 169–70 see also bonuses completion: employees’ sense of, 77, 79–80 Loewenstein’s analysis of mountaineering and, 80–81 computers, 233 consumer purchases, 185–88 happiness derived from transient experiences vs., 187–88 hedonic treadmill and, 175 placing limits on, 186–87 reducing, 185–86 spacing of, 185, 186 contrafreeloading, 60–63 Jensen’s study of, 60–62, 63 standard economic view at odds with, 62–63 Converse, 95 cooking: children’s involvement in, 121 enjoyment factor and, 62n, 105–6 semi-preprepared food and, 85–88 CO2 emissions, 251–52 counting strategies, 282–83 Count of Monte Cristo, The (Dumas), 123 creation, pride of: ideas and, see Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias self-made goods and, see IKEA effect creativity, bonuses and improvements in, 47–48 Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály, 49 cultures, organizational: acronyms and, 120 Not-Invented-Here bias and, 119–21 customer revenge, 131–51 against airlines, 142–43 apologies and, 149–51, 152 author’s experience with Audi customer service and, 131–36, 137, 147–49, 153–54 distinction between agents and principals and, 144–47 Farmer and Shane’s “Yours Is a Very Bad Hotel” and, 140–41, 146 fictional case study for Harvard Business Review on, 147–49 increase in, 143 Neistat brothers’ video on Apple’s customer service and, 141–42 passage of time and, 151 phone call interruption experiments on, 135–39, 145–46, 150–51 customization, 94–96 of cars, 88, 89, 94 effort expended in, 89, 95–96 overvaluation despite removing possibility of, 96 of shoes, 95, 96 D Dallaire, Roméo, 255 Darfur, 238, 253 Dart Ball game, 23, 34 Darwin, Charles, 157 dating, 191–235 market failures in, 213–15, 216–17, 220–21, 230–32, 233–35 playing hard to get and, 104 standard practice of, 224–25, 227–28 yentas (matchmakers) and, 213 see also assortative mating; online dating; speed dating decision making: author’s medical care and, 284–88 cooling off before, 257, 279 emotions and, 261–77 gender differences and, 274–76 irreversible decisions and, 285, 286 rationalization of choices in, 287 from rational perspective, 5–6 short-term, long-term decisions affected by, 264–65, 270–74, 276–77 stability of strategies for, 261–65; see also self-herding ultimatum game and, 265–70, 275–76 dentistry, adaptation to pain and, 161–62 design, taking people’s physical limitations into account in, 230–32 destroying work in front of workers, 74–76 Dichter, Ernest, 86 disease: adaptation to pain and, 165, 167 preventative health care and, 251, 256 “survivor” rhetoric and, 241–42 Disney, 154 distraction, performance-based incentives and, 30, 36 division of labor, 77–80 IT infrastructure and, 77, 79–80 Marx’s alienation notion and, 79 Smith’s observations on, 77–78 divorce, foreseeing outcome of, 173 Dodson, John, 18–20, 22, 31, 47 do-it-yourself projects, see IKEA effect Donath, Judith, 225 Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 157 Doubletree Club, Houston, 140–41, 146 dreams, author’s self-image in, 182–83 DreamWorks SKG, 154 driving: momentary anger during, 261 safety precautions and, 6–7 texting during, 6, 7, 8 see also cars drop-in-the-bucket effect, 244–45, 252, 254–55 Dumas, Alexandre, 123 E Eastwick, Paul, 172–73 Edison, Thomas, 117–19, 122 effort: increase in value related to, 89, 90, 95–96, 105–6; see also IKEA effect joy derived from activity and, 71–72 meaningful work conditions and, 72 ownership of ideas and, 114–16 see also labor egg theory, 86–88 Eisner, Michael, 154 electric chair, 119 electricity, alternating current (AC) vs. direct current (DC), 117–19 emotional cascades, 265–78 gender differences and, 274–76 romantic relationships and, 277–78 ultimatum game and, 265–76 emotional priming: empathy for plight of others and, 246–48 ultimatum game and, 268–70 emotions, 43, 237–79 appeals to, willingness to help others and, 240–42, 248–50, 253–54, 256 decision making and, 261–77; see also decision making in past, humans’ poor memory of, 264 transience of, 257, 261, 270 see also empathy; negative feelings, acting on empathy: animals’ suffering and, 249, 252 apathy toward statistical victims and, 238–41, 242, 246, 247–49, 252–53 Baby Jessica saga and, 237–38 calculating vs. emotional priming and, 246–48 clear moral principles and, 255 closeness and, 243, 245, 254 drop-in-the-bucket effect and, 244–45, 252, 254–55 emotional appeals and, 240���42, 248–50, 253–54, 256 global warming and, 251–52 identifiable victim effect and, 239–42, 248, 256 overcoming barriers to, 252–56 rules to guide our behavior and, 254–55 thought experiment of drowning girl and, 242–43, 245 toward one person vs. many in need, 237–56 vividness and, 24, 243n, 244, 245 endowment effect, 285, 286 Enron, 216 evolution, mismatch between speed of technological development and, 8–9 experiments, 10–11, 288–95 business or public policy and, 292–94, 295 of Gideon, 288–89 medical practice and, 289–92 rational economists’ criticisms of, 49–51 see also specific topics Exxon Valdez oil spill, 249 F fairness, sense of: in chimpanzees, 127 decision making and, 266–67; see also ultimatum game gender differences and, 275–76 Fallows, James, 158 Farmer, Tom, 140–41, 146, 148–49 FedEx, 108–9 feedback, about work, 74–76 Feeks, John, 118–19 Fehr, Ernst, 125–26 financial incentives: meaning of labor and, 72–73, 76 see also bonuses financial markets, safety measures for, 7 financial meltdown of 2008, 7, 21, 216 chronology of events in, 129–30 desire for revenge in wake of, 128–31 lack of experimental approach to, 293 outraged public reaction to bailout in, 128–29, 130 Finkel, Eli, 172–73 First Knight, 50 fixation, pride in creation and ownership and, 89, 122 food: animals’ preference for working for, 59–63 semi-preprepared, 85–88 shortages of, identifiable victim effect and, 239–41 see also cooking Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 292 Ford, Henry, 78–79, 94 Forgea (white terrier), 249 Fox, Michael J., 254 “Fox and the Grapes, The” (Aesop), 198–99 Frank, Barney, 41 Frankl, Viktor, 45 free food, animals’ preference for working for food vs., 60–62 Frenk, Hanan, 161–65, 300 Friends, ultimatum game and, 269, 270–71, 272 frog experiment, 157–58 Frost, Jeana, 219–20, 229, 300 Fryer, Bronwyn, 148 furniture, do-it-yourself, 83–84, 96, 105, 106 future, foreseeing adaptation to changes in, 160, 171–74 G gardening: children growing food and, 121 enjoyment factor and, 105–6 gender differences: assortative mating and, 209, 211 decision making and, 274–76 pain threshold and tolerance and, 168–69 Gideon, 288–89 global warming, 158, 251–52 Gneezy, Ayelet, 135, 144–45, 150, 300–301 Gneezy, Uri, 21, 44, 301 Gore, Al, 158, 252 government policies, experimental approach to, 292–94, 295 H happiness: comparisons to other people and, 189 consumer purchases and, 175, 185–88 inaccurate predictions about, 170–71 return to baseline of, 170 transient vs. constant experiences and, 187–88 Harvard Business Review (HBR), 147–49 health care, see medical care hedonic adaptation, 160–84 to annoying experiences, 177–79, 180 author’s personal history and, 181–84, 189 blindness and, 172–74 breaking up experiences and, 177–81 changes in workers’ pay and, 169–70 comparisons to other people and, 189 consumer purchases and, 175, 185–88 extending pleasurable experiences and, 176–78, 179–81, 185, 186 in future, foreseeing of, 160, 171–74 happiness baseline and, 170 life-altering injuries and, 171–72, 174 moving to California and, 176 new houses and, 168–69 pain and, 160–67 romantic breakups and, 172–73 to transient vs. constant experiences, 187–88 using our understanding of, 176–81, 184–90 hedonic disruptions, 177–81 hedonic treadmill, 175 Heingartner, Alexander, 45–46 Henry, O., 98 herding, 262 see also self-herding Herman, Edward, 45–46 Hippocrates, 82 Hogerty, Megan, 81 homeostatic mechanisms, 81 Hong, James, 201, 203 HOT or NOT study, 201–5, 208 gender differences in, 209, 211 Meet Me feature and, 204–5, 208, 209 humor, sense of, 199, 200, 207, 208, 228 Hurricane Katrina, 250, 251 I ideas: attachment to, see Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias idiosyncratic fit and, 111–12 identifiable victim effect, 239–42, 248, 256 American Cancer Society and, 241–42 identity, connection between work and, 53–55, 79 idiosyncratic fit, ideas and, 111–12 ignoring workers, 74–76 IKEA, 83–84, 106 IKEA effect, 83–106 author’s creations in rehabilitation center and, 100–101 completion of project and, 101–4, 105 do-it-yourself furniture and, 83–84, 96, 106 effort expended and, 89, 90, 95–96, 105–6 four principles in, 104–5 and lack of awareness of overvaluation, 99 Legos experiment and, 96, 97 Local Motors cars and, 88, 89 Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias and, 109–10, 121 origami experiments and, 91–94, 97, 98–99, 102–4 parents’ overvaluation of their children and, 97–98 practical implications of, 121–22 relaxation notion and, 105–6 removal of individual customization and, 96 semi-preprepared food and, 85–88 shoe design and, 95, 96 immediate gratification, 5 Inconvenient Truth, An, 252 initiation into social groups, 89 injuries: association of pain with getting better after, 166–67 author’s dating prospects and, 191–96, 210–11 author’s decisions about his medical care and, 284–88 author’s personal history related to, 1–4, 13, 107, 160–62, 166–67, 181–84, 189, 191–96, 210–11, 281–88 battlefield vs. civilian, 167 foreseeing future after, 160 life-altering, adaptation to, 160, 171–72, 174 pain thresholds and tolerance related to severity of, 161–65 Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, 126–27 insurance products, 233–34 interruptions: in pleasant vs. painful experiences, 177–81 TV commercials and, 181n see also phone call interruption experiments intuitions: bonuses and, 36–37 received medical wisdom and, 289–92 romantic, 172–73 testing of, 10n, 288–95 inverse-U relationship, defined, 19 iPods and iPhones, battery replacement in, 141–42 irrationality: summary of findings on, 288 upside as well as downside of, 11–12, 294 irreversible decisions, 285, 286 IT infrastructure, division and meaning of labor and, 77, 79–80 J Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie, 170 Jensen, Glen, 60–62, 63 Jensen, Keith, 127 Jewish tradition, 254–55 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, 152 Joyless Economy, The (Scitovsky), 188 justice, see fairness, sense of K Kahneman, Danny, 32n, 175–76 Kamenica, Emir, 66, 301 Katzenberg, Jeffrey, 154 Kemmler, William, 119 kinship, empathy and, 243 Krishnamurti, Tamar, 172–73 Krzyzewski, Mike, 39 L labor: connection between identity and, 53–55, 79 contrafreeloading and, 60–63 economic model of, 55, 62–63, 105 financial incentives and, see bonuses meaning of, see meaning of labor overvaluation resulting from, see IKEA effect on projects without meaning, 56–57, 63–72 Labyrinth game, 23 Lee, Leonard, 132, 134, 197, 201–2, 301–2 Lee, Sandra, 87–88 leeches, medicinal use of, 290–91 Legos experiments: on IKEA effect, 96, 97 on reducing meaningfulness of work, 66–74, 77, 80 letter-pairs experiment, 74–76, 80 life-altering events, hedonic adaptation and, 170 Life as a House, ultimatum game and, 268, 269, 270, 272, 276 light, adaptation to changes in, 159 Local Motors, Inc., 88, 89 Loewenstein, George, 21, 44, 80–81, 172–73, 197, 201–2, 239–41, 246–48, 302 long-term objectives, short-term enjoyments vs., 4–5 loss aversion, 32–33, 285, 286 lottery winners, hedonic adaptation of, 170, 171 “Love the One You’re With,” 197, 211–12 M malaria, 250, 251 Man’s Search for Meaning (Frankl), 45 marketing, adaptation and, 158 market mechanisms, 215–16 dating and, 213–15, 216–17, 220–21, 230–32, 233–35 Marx, Karl, 79 massages, extending pleasure of, 179–80 matchmakers (yentas), 213 Mazar, Nina, 21, 30, 44, 302 McClure, Jessica (Baby Jessica), 237–38 meals, see cooking meaning of labor, 53–82 in acknowledged, ignored, and shredded conditions, 74–76 animals’ preference for working for food and, 59–63 blogging and, 65 division of labor and, 77–80 draining work of meaning and, 55–57, 63–77 financial incentives and, 72–73, 76 joy derived from activity and, 71–72 labor-identity connection and, 53–55, 79 Legos experiment and, 66–74, 76, 80 lessons for workplace on, 80–82 letter-pairs experiment and, 74–76, 80 “meaning” vs.


pages: 261 words: 16,734

Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams by Tom Demarco, Timothy Lister

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A Pattern Language, cognitive dissonance, interchangeable parts, job satisfaction, knowledge worker, Parkinson's law, performance metric, skunkworks, supply-chain management, women in the workforce

Hewlett-Packard has long been an example of an organization that reaps the benefits from increased productivity due to high, builder-set quality standards. From its beginning, the company has made a cult of quality. In such an environment, the argument that more time or money is needed to produce a high-quality product is generally not heard. The result is that developers know they are part of a culture that delivers quality beyond what the marketplace requires. Their sense of quality identification works for increased job satisfaction and some of the lowest turnover figures seen anywhere in the industry. Power of Veto In some Japanese companies, notably Hitachi Software and parts of Fujitsu, the project team has an effective power of veto over delivery of what they believe to be a not-yet-ready product. No matter that the client would be willing to accept even a substandard product, the team can insist that delivery wait until its own standards are achieved.

Your competition may be ten times more effective than you are in doing the same work. If you don’t know it, you can’t begin to do something about it. Only the market will understand. It will take steps of its own to rectify the situation, steps that do not bode well for you. Measuring with Your Eyes Closed Work measurement can be a useful tool for method improvement, motivation, and enhanced job satisfaction, but it is almost never used for these purposes. Measurement schemes tend to become threatening and burdensome. In order to make the concept deliver on its potential, management has to be perceptive and secure enough to cut itself out of the loop. That means the data on individuals is not passed up to management, and everybody in the organization knows it. Data collected on the individual’s performance has to be used only to benefit that individual.


pages: 242 words: 68,019

Why Information Grows: The Evolution of Order, From Atoms to Economies by Cesar Hidalgo

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Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, assortative mating, Claude Shannon: information theory, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Hofstadter, Everything should be made as simple as possible, frictionless, frictionless market, George Akerlof, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, New Economic Geography, Norbert Wiener, p-value, Paul Samuelson, phenotype, price mechanism, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, working-age population

For instance, he found that people who got their jobs through personal contacts had better-paying jobs than those who got them through direct applications or professional recruiting agencies. Also, people who found their jobs through personal contacts were more likely to have a new job cut out for them and they reported higher levels of job satisfaction.4 In short, he found not only that social networks were the main determinant of information about job availability, which is crucial for job seekers, but also that these networks were correlated with important job characteristics such as wages and job satisfaction. The allocation of the best jobs, just like that of the best apartments, tends to piggyback social networks. Granovetter’s findings, which applied to white-collar workers, showed that personal contacts were the main way these workers found jobs. But by comparing his data with other sources, he also found that this was not different from the way in which blue-collar workers found jobs.


pages: 270 words: 64,235

Effective Programming: More Than Writing Code by Jeff Atwood

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AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, cloud computing, endowment effect, Firefox, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, gravity well, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Merlin Mann, Minecraft, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, price anchoring, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, science of happiness, Skype, social software, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Do you have spirited team discussions or knock-down, drag-out, last man standing filibuster team arguments? Are there any people on your team you’d “vote off the island” if you could? It may sound trivial to focus on the people you work with over more tangible things like, say, the actual work, or the particular technology you’re using to do that work. But it isn’t. The people you choose to work with are the most accurate predictor of job satisfaction I’ve ever found. And job satisfaction, based on my work experience to date, correlates perfectly with success. I have never seen a happy, healthy, gelled, socially functional software development team fail. It’s a shame such teams are so rare. As Weinberg said, it’s always a people problem. If you aren’t working with people you like, people you respect, people that challenge and inspire you — then why not? What’s stopping you?


pages: 255 words: 75,172

Sleeping Giant: How the New Working Class Will Transform America by Tamara Draut

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, always be closing, battle of ideas, big-box store, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, full employment, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, payday loans, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional

If you are in fact making billions of dollars for this company, then I don’t see what the problem could possibly be that you could take care of your basic needs and be compensated fairly. But that’s not how it is at Walmart.” Arlene, who marched with Martin Luther King Jr. in Chicago at the age of seventeen, today works in a job where she compares the way she’s treated to our nation’s greatest moral stain. Arlene isn’t alone in her dissatisfaction. Various surveys find that jobs in retail and food service rank very low in terms of job satisfaction.12 The Blue-Collar Jobs In the top-ten list of occupations providing the largest number of jobs in our country, two of the ten (laborers/material movers and janitors) could be described as traditional blue-collar work, that is, physical labor done overwhelmingly by men. But unlike four decades ago, these jobs aren’t on the assembly line or factory floor. Today over 2 million people in the new working class are employed as janitors or cleaners, earning an average hourly wage of $10.73.13 Nearly seven out of ten of these jobs are held by men.

Janelle Jones and John Schmitt, “Slow Progress for Fast-Food Workers,” Center for Economic and Policy Research, August 6, 2013, at http://www.​cepr.​net/​index.​php/​blogs/​cepr-​blog/​slow-​progress-​for-​fast-​food-​workers. 10. Ibid. 11. “The Demographics of the Retail Work Force,” Demos, November, 18, 2012, at http://www.​demos.​org/​sites/​default/​files/​data_​bytes/​demographics.​png. 12. Tom W. Smith, “Job Satisfaction in America,” NORC/University of Chicago, April 17, 2007 at http://www-news.​uchicago.​edu/​releases/​07/​pdf/​070417.​jobs.​pdf; CareerBliss survey available online at http://www.​careerbliss.​com/​facts-​and-​figures/​careerbliss-​happiest-​and-​unhappiest-​jobs-​in-​america-​2015/. 13. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Data Tables for Overview of May 2012 Occupational Employment and Wages,” March 29, 2013, at http://www.​bls.​gov/​oes/​2012/​may/​featured_​data.​htm#largest. 14.


pages: 429 words: 114,726

The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise by Nathan L. Ensmenger

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barriers to entry, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Grace Hopper, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, loose coupling, new economy, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Shoshana Zuboff, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K

The basic SVIB in this period consisted of four hundred questions aimed at eliciting an emotional response (“like,” “dislike,” or “indifferent”) to specific occupations, work and recreational activities, types of people, and personality types. By the 1960s, more than fifty statistically significant collections of preferences (“keys”) had been developed for such occupations as artist, mathematician, police officer, and airplane pilot. Perry and Cannon were attempting to develop a similar interest key for programmer. They hoped to use this key to correlate a unique programmer personality profile with self-reported levels of job satisfaction. In the absence of direct measures of job performance, such as supervisors’ evaluations, it was assumed that satisfaction tracked closely with performance. The larger assumption behind the use of the SVIB profiles was that candidates who had interests in common with those individuals who were successful in a given occupation were themselves also likely to achieve similar success. Many of the traits that Perry and Cannon attributed to successful programmers were unremarkable: for the most part programmers enjoyed their work, disliked routine and regimentation, and were especially interested in problem and puzzle-solving activities.69 The programmer key that they developed bore some resemblance to the existing keys for engineering and chemistry, but not to those of physics or mathematics, which Perry and Cannon saw as contradicting the traditional focus on mathematics training in programmer recruitment.

(Or, How Did Control and Coordination of Labor Get into the Software so Quickly?),” Monthly Review 50, no. 8 (1999). 31. Wanda Orlikowski, “The DP Occupation: Professionalization or Proletarianization?” Research in the Sociology of Work 4 (1988): 95–124. 32. Brian Rothery, Installing and Managing a Computer (London: Business Books, 1968), 152. 33. Kraft, Programmers and Managers, 26. 34. Enid Mumford, Job Satisfaction: A Study of Computer Specialists (London: Longman Group Limited, 1972), 175. 35. Robert Head, “Controlling Programming Costs,” Datamation 13, no. 7 (1967): 141. 36. Andrew Friedman and Dominic Cornford, Computer Systems Development: History, Organization, and Implementation (Chichester, UK: Wiley, 1989); M. Beirne, H. Ramsay, and A. Panteli, “Developments in Computing Work: Control and Contradiction in the Software Labour Process,” in Developments in Computing Work: Control and Contradiction in the Software Labour Process, ed.

Datamation 12 (6) (1966): 99. Mody, P. “Is Programming an Art?” Software Engineering Notes 17 (4) (1992): 19–21. Moore, Gordon. “Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits.” Electronics 38 (8) (1965): 114–117. Morgan, H. L., and J. V. Soden. “Understanding MIS Failures.” Database 5 (2) (1973): 157–171. Morrison, David. “Software Crisis.” Defense 21 (2) (1989): 72. Mumford, Enid. Job Satisfaction: A Study of Computer Specialists. London: Longman Group Limited, 1972. Mumford, Enid, and Thomas Ward. Computers: Planning for People. London: B. T. Batsford, 1968. Murray, Fergus, and David Knights. “Inter-managerial Competition and Capital Accumulation: IT Specialists, Accountants, and Executive Control.” Critical Perspectives on Accounting 1 (2) (June 1990): 167–189. Nadesan, Majia Holmer.


pages: 497 words: 130,817

Pedigree: How Elite Students Get Elite Jobs by Lauren A. Rivera

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affirmative action, availability heuristic, barriers to entry, Donald Trump, fundamental attribution error, glass ceiling, income inequality, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, performance metric, profit maximization, profit motive, school choice, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, The Wisdom of Crowds, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, young professional

For some, money was a benchmark of personal success and a career priority in its own right. “Part of being successful,” asserted Parker, a crisply dressed Eastmore student who was interviewing simultaneously for banking and consulting, “is being well compensated.” Indeed, research shows that elite college graduates tend to place greater stress on material rewards in jobs than do students from other types of schools and rate high salaries as being more important to their overall job satisfaction.7 For other students, a focus on money was driven by necessity. Undergraduate college tuition has exploded.8 As of 2014, at many elite colleges it approached $60,000 annually, including room, board, and fees.9 Although the most elite core campuses offer substantial financial aid to many students, not all who need it qualify.10 Many still emerge with significant debt. At top MBA and JD programs, the bill is higher.

Recruiting from elite schools may also help firms cultivate new business in the future by developing relationships with students that they believe will achieve positions of power and influence in other arenas later in life. High levels of attrition, although costly in the short run, could benefit firms in the long term by increasing the range of their future client base. Having large numbers of former employees in a wide variety of organizations and industries might assist firms in acquiring new business. Furthermore, selecting new hires based on cultural similarity could enhance cohesion and job satisfaction among employees. Creating a group of close-knit coworkers who have the potential to become instant friends and playmates could foster motivation and organizational commitment among junior employees; this might compensate for the grueling hours and mundane tasks required of these workers. As my study participants also made clear, having a strong social network of like-minded others is a critical marketing tool that firms use to attract new applicants year after year despite the difficult lifestyle associated with these jobs.

Ocasio, William. 1997. “Towards an Attention-Based View of the Firm.” Strategic Management Journal 18:187–206. Ostrander, Susan. 1993. “Surely You’re Not in This Just to Be Helpful: Access, Rapport, and Interviews in Three Studies of Elites.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 22:7–27. Owens, Jayanti, and Lauren Rivera. 2012. “Recasting the Value of an Elite Education: Institutional Prestige, Job Satisfaction, and Turnover.” Presentation at Academy of Management annual meeting, Boston, August. Pager, Devah. 2003. “The Mark of Criminal Record.” American Journal of Sociology 108:937–75. Pager, Devah, and Diana Karafin. 2009. “Bayesian Bigot? Statistical Discrimination, Stereotypes, and Employer Decision-Making.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 621:70–93. Pager, Devah, and Lincoln Quillian. 2005.


pages: 685 words: 203,949

The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload by Daniel J. Levitin

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anton Chekhov, Bayesian statistics, big-box store, business process, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Eratosthenes, Exxon Valdez, framing effect, friendly fire, fundamental attribution error, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, impulse control, index card, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, invention of writing, iterative process, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, pre–internet, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, ultimatum game, zero-sum game

There are things that managers can do to improve productivity, based on recent findings in neuroscience and social psychology. Some of these are obvious and well known, such as setting clear goals and providing high-quality, immediate feedback. Expectations need to be reasonable or employees feel overwhelmed, and if they fall behind, they feel they can never catch up. Employee productivity is directly related to job satisfaction, and job satisfaction in turn is related to whether employees experience that they are doing a good job in terms of both quality and quantity of output. There’s a part of the brain called Area 47 in the lateral prefrontal cortex that my colleague Vinod Menon and I have been closely studying for the last fifteen years. Although no larger than your pinky finger, it’s a fascinating area just behind your temples that has kept us busy.

If we can predict all aspects of the job, down to the tiniest minutiae, it tends to be boring because there is nothing new and no opportunity to apply the discretion and judgment that management consultants and the U.S. Army have justly identified as components to finding one’s work meaningful and satisfying. If some but not too many aspects of the job are surprising in interesting ways, this can lead to a sense of discovery and self-growth. Finding the right balance to keep Area 47 happy is tricky, but the most job satisfaction comes from a combination of these two: We function best when we are under some constraints and are allowed to exercise individual creativity within those constraints. In fact, this is posited to be the driving force in many forms of creativity, including literary and musical. Musicians work under the very tight constraints of a tonal system—Western music uses only twelve different notes—and yet within that system, there is great flexibility.

Here, structure is high when complexity is low—this is equivalent to saying that the Shannon information content is low. Again, this may seem counterintuitive, but a business has a greater degree of structural organization if its org chart can be described in a simple rule containing few words, and there are no exceptions to the rule. Whether the degree of structure of a company predicts efficiency, profitability, or job satisfaction remains an empirical question, one that has not been investigated. On the one hand, individuals clearly differ in their ability to supervise others, and so, naturally, some bosses will have more employees simply because they are adept at handling more. Individuals also differ widely in their skills, and a nimble and efficient organization should allow employees to use their strengths for the good of the company.


pages: 346 words: 101,255

The Big Necessity: The Unmentionable World of Human Waste and Why It Matters by Rose George

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American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Anton Chekhov, Bob Geldof, Celtic Tiger, clean water, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, informal economy, job satisfaction, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, land reform, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Steven Pinker, urban planning

Edwin earns $15 an hour. The most senior crew member only gets $21. I suspect they’d earn more cleaning toilets. More attractive are stability and benefits, crucial in a country where the only health care on offer has to be paid for. That’s what attracted Buckley, when he got off the plane from London in the 1970s and didn’t want to be “the stereotypical Irish navvy.” The only thing lacking for job satisfaction is a proper New York nickname. At a manhole in La Guardia Airport, Buckley is showing me another tide gate, shining light into the hole with a mirror and sunlight (“better than any flashlight”) when a Port Authority cop stops by. He asks what we’re doing, and when Buckley replies, “Looking for alligators,” nods with no apparent disbelief before moving in for a peer. I ask the cop why they’re known as New York’s finest, why firefighters are New York’s bravest, and even prison officers at Rikers Island are New York’s boldest, but the men who keep sewage flowing, and keep disease away, have nothing.

See public toilets Public Toilet (Chan) public toilets in Bangkok in Beijing in Dewsbury as good economic management historical rise of illicit activities in innovation and invention in lawsuits over in Mumbai as a sign of civilization SPARC toilet blocks in the United States purity rituals Qi Furen Rakesh, Sanjay Kumar Rampton, Sheldon rape of Dalit women rats in sewers Razak, Sheikh Reilly, Maureen religion, hygiene and ringworm Rockefeller, Abby Romans, communal latrines of Roosevelt, Teddy Rose, Gregory Rubin, Alan Samiapalli sanitation as a central feature of cities in Dar es Salaam disease toll from lack of ecological economic savings from number of U.S. people without prioritization of water over school attendance and in South Africa spread of, in India in Tanzania sanitation marketing Sanjour, William SARS Satis Satou, Tomohiko Sattar, Rayeen Abdul Saywell, Darren Scheduled Castes. See Dalits schistosomiasis school attendance and sanitation Seabrook, Jeremy self-restraint separate sewer systems Severn Trent classroom sewage effluent, reuse of sewage sludge. See biosolids sewage treatment plants sewage treatment ponds sewer workers dangers for duties of job satisfaction of marginalization of salaries of sewers of ancient societies hazards in in India inspection of in Japan in London (see London sewers) in New York City rats in security issues with simplified systems sex in public facilities Shaanxi Mothers Environmental Protection Volunteer Association Shambahaji Nagar Shankar, Mr. Shanti Nagar Shepard, Alan She-Pee female urinals Shi Chuanxiang Shields, Helane Shirur, Siddarth shit.


pages: 339 words: 105,938

The Skeptical Economist: Revealing the Ethics Inside Economics by Jonathan Aldred

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airport security, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, clean water, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Diane Coyle, endogenous growth, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, framing effect, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, libertarian paternalism, new economy, Pareto efficiency, pension reform, positional goods, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, school choice, spectrum auction, Thomas Bayes, trade liberalization, ultimatum game

But if people are regularly unselfish, then these policies will backfire, having the opposite effect to that intended, as we will see below. And there are many other examples of government policies which are inefficient: they lead to an unnecessary waste of resources because of the presumption that everyone is selfish. For example: setting income tax rates without allowing for intrinsic job satisfaction excessive enforcement of fare-paying on public transport heavy use of targets and audits in the management of schools, hospitals and universities. With this much at stake, how can we convince the economists that we are not always selfish? The story of the lost wallets seems a good place to start. Although it was a contrived experiment, it exactly mimics a familiar real-life situation.

Life is probably more complicated than in Aristotle’s time; certainly the citizens of modern developed nations hold a much wider range of views about the good life than the citizens of ancient Greece. My objective list might not suit you. To take just one example, consider the difficult choices almost all of us face in dividing time between our working and private lives. If Ann seeks a promotion, this may bring increased job satisfaction and greater financial security, but it reduces the time Ann has available for friends and family, and she may be more tired and stressed during these periods. Ann decides not to pursue the promotion, because the quality and depth of her personal relationships is central to her idea of a good life. But others might take the promotion, because for them career achievement is an even more important value on their objective lists.


pages: 397 words: 109,631

Mindware: Tools for Smart Thinking by Richard E. Nisbett

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, big-box store, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, cosmological constant, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, endowment effect, experimental subject, feminist movement, fixed income, fundamental attribution error, glass ceiling, Henri Poincaré, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, quantitative easing, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, William of Occam, Zipcar

This correlation is then buttressed with an MRA showing that the better the leave policy, the more satisfied employees are with their jobs, and that this is still true when you “control for” size of company, employee salary, ratings of how pleasant coworkers are, ratings of how much the immediate superior is liked, and so forth. There are three problems with this kind of analysis. First, a limited number of variables will have been measured, and if one or more have been poorly measured, or if there are other variables not examined by investigators that are correlated both with generosity of parental leave policy and job satisfaction, it may be those associations that account for job satisfaction, not leave policy. Second, it really makes no sense to pull parental leave policy out of the total picture of the employee’s experience with a company. Generosity of the company in that respect is likely to be bound up with all kinds of other positive qualities of the company. Pulling that one thread out of the complicated ball of relationships among variables, then attempting to “control” for a few out of many variables in that ball, is not likely to protect us from mistakes.

Immigration and Ethnic Formation in a Deeply Divided Society: The Case of the 1990s Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union in Israel by Majid Al Haj

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demographic transition, ghettoisation, job satisfaction, mass immigration, phenotype, profit motive, zero-sum game

However, there was a significant negative relationship between immigrants’ residential concentration, on the one hand, and their actual knowledge of Hebrew (r = –0.183) and satisfaction with their command of Hebrew (r = –.0163), on the other hand. In other words, living in an “immigrant” neighborhood is a voluntary act stemming from the immigrants’ free choice, which is facilitated by the very fact that immigrants form a sizable group in most urban communities in Israel. The positive relationship between demographic concentration and job satisfaction may be explained by the fact that living in a predominantly immigrant neighborhood puts one in contact with immigrant networks that facilitate finding an appropriate job. This issue was raised in our immigrant focus groups. When asked about the process of finding their first job in Israel, immigrants repeatedly said that immigrant networks (neighbors and friends) played an important role in their entry to the labor market, mainly in the initial stage after arrival.

They also have a strong feeling of discrimination in comparison with veterans (Bar-Tzur and Handels 1993). In a study of the occupational adjustment of FSU physicians who immigrated to Israel in the 1990s wave, Bernstein and Shuval concluded that only 25% of those who arrived in 1989–1993 found employment in the health-care system. They also found a strong relationship between occupational-status persistence, on the one hand, and job satisfaction and identification with the host society, on the other (Bernstein and Shuval 1995). In any event, most studies agree that despite the job mismatch experienced by many FSU immigrants in Israel, their economic integration can be considered a success story (see, for example, Beenstock and Menahem 1997; Raijman and Semyonov 1998). Beenstock and Menahem (1997: 206) conclude that wage flexibility in Israel turned the expansion of the labor force produced by the mass immigration into economic growth and job creation instead of unemployment.


pages: 293 words: 97,431

You Are Here: Why We Can Find Our Way to the Moon, but Get Lost in the Mall by Colin Ellard

A Pattern Language, call centre, car-free, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Frank Gehry, global village, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job satisfaction, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, New Urbanism, peak oil, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban sprawl

Given the enormous social costs of problem gambling, such issues deserve our close attention. MAKING WORKSPACE WORK In addition to the time we spend in large buildings to shop, for entertainment, or perhaps to interact with government officials, most of us spend many hours in such larger inner spaces because of our occupations. The many ways in which the design and configuration of space can influence worker behavior, productivity, and job satisfaction are both fascinating and complex. At a basic level, the organization of space can be used to control access and regulate privacy within the workspace. One simple example can be found in many office buildings, where there is a correlation between the position of an executive in the power hierarchy and his or her spatial position in a building. Receptionists, almost by definition, are going to be useful only if they are placed where they will be easily discovered by visitors who are unfamiliar with the building.

The classic hive of cubicles is decreasing in popularity these days, as progressive companies work hard to find ways to maximize retention of workers, especially in the knowledge industries that form an increasing part of the economy of the Western world. The basic cubicle design is still often a mainstay, though the manner in which its enclosing walls encourage or inhibit interactivity, and the effects of cubicle organization on workflow management, are garnering more attention than in previous times. Yet there is much work to be done to understand how space can be utilized to maximize productivity, economy, and job satisfaction. Some offices have tried moving to completely open designs in which employees are not provided with dedicated workspaces at all but are left to organize their own spaces using open tables and mobile technologies, perhaps with a few specialized walled areas to enhance privacy for smaller face-to-face meetings. Though such an open plan might work well for certain types of activities, especially for very small companies, it is less likely to be satisfactory for larger institutions, unless those institutions can rely heavily on mobile communications and are willing to encourage telecommuting.


pages: 654 words: 191,864

Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman

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Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Bayesian statistics, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, choice architecture, cognitive bias, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, demand response, endowment effect, experimental economics, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, framing effect, hindsight bias, index card, information asymmetry, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, medical residency, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, nudge unit, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, pre–internet, price anchoring, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, union organizing, Walter Mischel, Yom Kippur War

Here we found one of the few contrasts between French and American women: Frenchwomen spend less time with their children but enjoy it more, perhaps because they have more access to child care and spend less of the afternoon driving children to various activities. An individual’s mood at any moment depends on her temperament and overall happiness, but emotional well-being also fluctuates considerably over the day and the week. The mood of the moment depends primarily on the current situation. Mood at work, for example, is largely unaffected by the factors that influence general job satisfaction, including benefits and status. More important are situational factors such as an opportunity to socialize with coworkers, exposure to loud noise, time pressure (a significant source of negative affect), and the immediate presence of a boss (in our first study, the only thing that was worse than being alone). Attention is key. Our emotional state is largely determined by what we attend to, and we are normally focused on our current activity and immediate environment.

But we have also learned that the word happiness does not have a simple meaning and should not be used as if it does. Sometimes scientific progress leaves us more puzzled than we were before. Speaking of Thinking About Life “She thought that buying a fancy car would make her happier, but it turned out to be an error of affective forecasting.” “His car broke down on the way to work this morning and he’s in a foul mood. This is not a good day to ask him about his job satisfaction!” “She looks quite cheerful most of the time, but when she is asked she says she is very unhappy. The question must make her think of her recent divorce.” “Buying a larger house may not make us happier in the long term. We could be suffering from a focusing illusion.” “He has chosen to split his time between two cities. Probably a serious case of miswanting.” Conclusions I began this book by introducing two fictitious characters, spent some time discussing two species, and ended with two selves.

best examples of substitution: Fritz Strack, Leonard L. Martin, and Norbert Schwarz, “Priming and Communication: Social Determinants of Information Use in Judgments of Life Satisfaction,” European Journal of Social Psychology 18 (1988): 429–42. correlations between psychological measures: The correlation was .66. dominates happiness reports: Other substitution topics include marital satisfaction, job satisfaction, and leisure time satisfaction: Norbert Schwarz, Fritz Strack, and Hans-Peter Mai, “Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Part-Whole Question Sequences: A Conversational Logic Analysis,” Public Opinion Quarterly 55 (1991): 3–23. evaluate their happiness: A telephone survey conducted in Germany included a question about general happiness. When the self-reports of happiness were correlated with the local weather at the time of the interview, a pronounced correlation was found.


pages: 757 words: 193,541

The Practice of Cloud System Administration: DevOps and SRE Practices for Web Services, Volume 2 by Thomas A. Limoncelli, Strata R. Chalup, Christina J. Hogan

active measures, Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, business process, cloud computing, commoditize, continuous integration, correlation coefficient, database schema, Debian, defense in depth, delayed gratification, DevOps, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, Google Glasses, information asymmetry, Infrastructure as a Service, intermodal, Internet of things, job automation, job satisfaction, load shedding, loose coupling, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Marc Andreessen, place-making, platform as a service, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, risk tolerance, side project, Silicon Valley, software as a service, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, Toyota Production System, web application, Yogi Berra

Once the end-to-end process is automated, it can be instrumented and metrics can be collected automatically. With metrics we can make data-driven improvements. For a process to be continuously improved, we not only need the right technology but also need a culture that embraces change. • Improved Job Satisfaction: It is exciting and highly motivating to see our changes rapidly put into production. When the interval between doing work and receiving the reward is small enough, we associate the two. Our job satisfaction improves because we get instant gratification from the work we do. Rather than focusing purely on cycle time, a team should have metrics that balance the velocity of individual aspects of the software delivery platform. We recommend that every DevOps team collect the following metrics: 1.

continuous delivery, 190, 223 DevOps Cafe Podcast, 188, 200 HVMs (hardware virtual machines), 58 Hybrid load balancing strategy, 75 Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) load balancing, 75 overview, 69 IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service), 51–54 IAPs (Incident Action Plans), 326–327 Ideals for KPIs, 390 Image method of OS installation, 219–220 Impact focus for feature requests, 46 Implementation of disaster preparedness, 318–320 Import controls, 41–42 Improvement levels in operational excellence, 412–413 Improving models in design for operations, 48–49 In-house service provider factor in service platform selection, 67 Incident Action Plans (IAPs), 326–327 “Incident Command for IT: What We Can Learn from the Fire Department” talk, 323 Incident Command System, 323–324 best practices, 327–328 example use, 328–329 Incident Action Plan, 326–327 IT operations arena, 326 public safety arena, 325 Incident Commanders, 324–325, 328 Index lookup speed, 28 Individual training for disaster preparedness, 311–312 Informal review workflows, 280 Infrastructure automation strategies, 217–220 DevOps, 185 service platform selection, 67 Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), 51–54 Infrastructure as code, 221–222 Inhibiting alert messages, 356–357 Initial level in CMM, 405 Innovating, 148 Input/output (I/O) overload, 13 virtual environments, 58–59 Installation in deployment phase, 212–213 OS and services, 219–220 Integration in DevOps, 182 Intel OKR system, 389 Intentional delays in continuous deployment, 238 Intermodal shipping, 62 Internal backbones in cloud-scale service, 83–85 Internet Protocol (IP) addresses deployment phase, 222 load balancers, 72–73 restrictions on, 40 Introducing new features, flag flips for, 232 Introspection, 10 Invalidation of cache entry, 108 Involvement in DevOps, 183 IP (Internet Protocol) addresses deployment phase, 222 load balancers, 72–73 restrictions on, 40 Isolation in ACID term, 24 ISPs for cloud-scale service, 83 Issues naming standards, 264 tracking systems, 263–265 IT operations arena in Incident Command System, 326 ITIL recommended reading, 488 j-SOX requirements, 43 Jacob, Adam, 173 Jails containers, 60 processes, 55 Java counters, 350 JCS (joint cognitive system), 248 Jenkins CI tool, 205 Job satisfaction in service delivery, 201 Joint cognitive system (JCS), 248 JSON transmitted over HTTP, 351 Kamp, P.-H., 478–479 Kartar, J., 183 Keeven, T., 99 Kejariwal, A., 371 Kernighan, B., 11 Key indicators in capacity planning, 380–381 Key performance indicators (KPIs), 387–388 creating, 389–390 Error Budget case study, 396–399 evaluating, 396 exercises, 399–400 machine allocation example, 393–396 monitoring example, 336–337 overview, 388–389 summary, 399 Keywords in alerts, 304 Kim, Gene, 171–172 Klau, Rick, 389 Kotler, Philip, 365 KPIs.


pages: 772 words: 203,182

What Went Wrong: How the 1% Hijacked the American Middle Class . . . And What Other Countries Got Right by George R. Tyler

8-hour work day, active measures, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Black Swan, blood diamonds, blue-collar work, Bolshevik threat, bonus culture, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, lake wobegon effect, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, performance metric, pirate software, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

In 2007, for example, a survey of employee retention programs by the US staffing firm Spherion found that workers predictably prioritized issues like growth and earning potential, higher salaries, and better health insurance. Yet American managers didn’t even rank wages among their top five retention tools; instead, they prioritize ephemeral steps such as enriched “supervisor relationships” and improved “workplace culture.”15Similar findings are noted in the Society for Human Resource Management’s 2007 Job Satisfaction Survey Report.16 The American judiciary has added to the downward spiral of wages, indifferent to enforcing employee protections or the right to organize and refusing even to establish guidelines on burgeoning issues including independent contractors. Among others, Nissan and SuperShuttle exploit the resulting gray area to routinely misclassify employees as contractors or franchisees. SuperShuttle, for example, shifts traditional routine firm costs (equipment purchases, fringe benefits, and Social Security/Medicare fees) to employees, while also dodging traditional obligations (minimum wages, overtime pay, and workers’ compensation fees).

Firms in the family capitalism countries have drawn quite heavily on Japanese practices in recent decades to outperform the United States. These practices are not complex, opaque, or obtuse. The reality is that too many American firms have simply been indifferent to the issue even though US economists readily parsed the collaborative Japanese and family capitalism models and determined why they produce superior worksite outcomes. Bradley Staats, Francesca Gino, and Gary Pisano, for example, documented in 2010 that job satisfaction and respect from supervisors willing to accept criticism are vital for firms hoping to maximize employee contributions to productivity. The psychological security associated with genuine team spirit and a two-way information flow causes employees to be more willing to introduce their own ideas and spar with colleagues and supervisors, elements simply indispensable in maximizing productivity.50 One way that collaboration enhances productivity is by incentivizing work effort.

500 Sign Up, 1 Wins a Job,” New York Times, October 21, 2009. 13 Associated Press, “Union drive at IKEA plant in US takes aim at Swedish furniture giant’s worker-friendly rep,” Washington Post, July 23, 2011. 14 Bernard Simon and Matt Kennard, “Two-tier system divides US carmaker workers,” Financial Times, December 14, 2011. 15 Vickie Elmer, “Show them the money,” Washington Post, October 24, 2007. 16 “2007 Job Satisfaction: A survey report by the Society for Human Resource Management,” Society for Human Resource Management, June 2007, http://www.workplacesolutionspros.com/resources/Job%20Satisfaction%20Survey%20Report.pdf. 17 Emma Schwartz, “How a good job hit a dead end,” Washington Post, April 22, 2012. 18 Woodall, Klayman, and Schwartz, “U.A.W. takes aim at foreign automakers.” 19 Vlasic and Bunkley, “U.A.W.

The Global Citizen: A Guide to Creating an International Life and Career by Elizabeth Kruempelmann

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Berlin Wall, business climate, corporate governance, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, global village, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, money market fund, young professional

Well, I am perhaps the only student in the history of Duke Law School who smuggled a book on Portuguese history (in Portuguese) to class to escape the grinding boredom of criminal law. I gave my parents’ goals more than a fair shot, and the effort ended up displacing all of my other interests in life. Now that I have decided to leave law, I am reevaluating whether or not to pick up where I left off before law school. I decided that for me, job satisfaction would be found with a job that connects to my own interests and talents, but first I had to reconnect with those interests and talents— they had remained unused and unexamined for about five years. I went through my belongings and discarded about one-third of all my stuff. Organizing photos was very instructive. I observed that I looked tired and stressed out in most of my photos from law school, but the photos I have from Africa show a much happier me.

Some people will receive a good job offer rather quickly, and others may never get the offer they were looking for. It all comes down to having realistic expectations, maintaining a positive attitude, and learning to make the most out of your experiences. K E E P Y O U R E X P E C TA T I O N S R E A L I S T I C One of the most common first mistakes I see job hunters make is to expect a fulltime job overseas that is comparable in salary, benefits, and job satisfaction to similar jobs at home. Although it is possible to be sent abroad with a fabulous relocation package full of perks (and you’ll know if you qualify for this), the number of international job seekers out there far outweighs the number of cushy expat opportunities overseas. Having said that, if you do get an offer (or even multiple offers) to work overseas, you might encounter salaries that are substantially higher or lower than what you are used to.


pages: 402 words: 123,199

In the Company of Heroes by Michael J. Durant, Steven Hartov

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back-to-the-land, friendly fire, job satisfaction, placebo effect, Saturday Night Live, trade route, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

Some of them have never flown in a helicopter before, and now they’re hurt and scared and you want to minimize any further environmental shock. You try to make it a little less traumatic for them. But you very rarely shut a helicopter down on a medevac, because starting it up again takes time and always has inherent dangers, system failures and the like. Their buddies loaded them onto litters in the back of our chopper and we flew them down to Yong San and the hospital at Seoul. The impact of my job satisfaction really hit me that first night. After we shut it down, debriefed, wrote up our reports, and turned in, I kept thinking about those injured soldiers who’d ridden in the back of our chopper and I couldn’t sleep, wondering about how they were. The next morning, I called the hospital and found out they were all going to make it just fine. I felt fantastic, like some super-hero. It was an incredible payoff for a job well done, and making those follow-up calls became a habit for me for some time.

It was the first time in a very long time that I had allowed that emotion to flow. But I sensed it would not be the last. Chapter 6 JUNGLES AND DESERTS August 1988 To an army helicopter pilot, the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) was the top of the food chain. Now, there was nothing wrong with being a medevac pilot. I had been doing it for quite a while and I enjoyed it. There was great job satisfaction, and if you got hooked on being a first responder, you could serve out your twenty years in units like the 377th Med and retire after a fine career. There were plenty of other good slots for army pilots as well. If you liked multiple-ship missions, ferrying infantry or flying gunship support for massive armor formations, then the 101st Airborne was also a fine place to be. If and when America went to war, and you were a good pilot performing any of these tasks, you could be pretty sure about having your number come up to deploy.


pages: 292 words: 62,575

97 Things Every Programmer Should Know by Kevlin Henney

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A Pattern Language, active measures, business intelligence, commoditize, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, database schema, deliberate practice, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fixed income, general-purpose programming language, Grace Hopper, index card, inventory management, job satisfaction, loose coupling, Silicon Valley, sorting algorithm, The Wisdom of Crowds

Regardless of which approach you pick, thinking in states will make your code simpler and more robust. Chapter 85. Two Heads Are Often Better Than One Adrian Wible PROGRAMMING REQUIRES DEEP THOUGHT, and deep thought requires solitude. So goes the programmer stereotype. This "lone wolf" approach to programming has been giving way to a more collaborative approach, which, I would argue, improves quality, productivity, and job satisfaction for programmers. This approach has developers working more closely with one another and also with nondevelopers—business and systems analysts, quality assurance professionals, and users. What does this mean for developers? Being the expert technologist is no longer sufficient. You must become effective at working with others. Collaboration is not about asking and answering questions or sitting in meetings.


pages: 141 words: 46,879

River Out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life by Richard Dawkins

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double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, job satisfaction, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, out of africa, phenotype

Economic planners and social engineers are rather like architects and real engineers in that they strive to maximize something. Utilitarians strive to maximize "the greatest happiness for the greatest number" (a phrase that sounds more intelligent than it is, by the way). Under this umbrella, the utilitarian may give long-term stability more or less priority at the expense of short-term happiness, and utilitarians differ over whether they measure "happiness" by monetary wealth, job satisfaction, cultural fulfillment or personal relationships. Others avowedly maximize their own happiness at the expense of the common welfare, and they may dignify their egoism by a philosophy that states that general happiness will be maximized if one takes care of oneself. By watching the behavior of individuals throughout their lives, you should be able to reverseengineer their utility functions. If you reverse-engineer the behavior of a country's government, von may conclude that what is being maximized is employment and universal welfare.


pages: 170 words: 45,121

Don't Make Me Think, Revisited: A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability by Steve Krug

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collective bargaining, game design, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, speech recognition, Steve Jobs

And for teams doing Agile or Lean development, there’s no time for written reports anyway. They pay me. Being a consultant, I get to work on interesting projects with a lot of nice, smart people. I get to work at home most of the time and I don’t have to sit in mind-numbing meetings every day or deal with office politics. I get to say what I think, and people usually appreciate it. And I get paid well. On top of all that, I get a lot of job satisfaction, because when we’re finished, the things they’re building are almost always much better than when we started.1 1 Almost always. Even when people know about usability problems, they can’t always fix them completely, as I’ll explain in Chapter 9. The bad news: You probably don’t have a usability professional Almost every development team could use somebody like me to help them build usability into their products.


pages: 169 words: 56,250

Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your City by Brad Feld

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barriers to entry, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, labour mobility, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, Network effects, Peter Thiel, place-making, pre–internet, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, text mining, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, Zipcar

It has expanded greatly since then, now including an accelerator program (run by TechStars), international publicity for “Bizspark startups,” free hosting infrastructure via Azure, and deep access to key Microsoft product groups for startups that are building technologies that enhance the Microsoft ecosystem. Many large companies are standoffish to the startup community. They worry that if they engage, the startups they interact with will recruit their employees. Although this can happen, having the opportunity to interact with startups enhances the quality of the employee’s job. This often increases job satisfaction and long-term employee retention. THE IMPORTANCE OF BOTH LEADERS AND FEEDERS Startup communities need both leaders and feeders. The problem comes when the feeders try to lead or when there is an absence of leaders. If the startup community has a culture of inclusiveness, it will constantly have entrepreneurs step up into leadership positions. The existing leaders need to be welcoming of these new leaders or else the startup community will have the “patriarch problem,” which I’ll describe later.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

And because they’re not employees you don’t have to deal with employment hassles and regulations.”28 For the people who are in the cloud, the main advantages reside in the freedom (to work or not) and the unrivalled mobility that they enjoy by belonging to a global virtual network. Some independent workers see this as offering the ideal combination of a lot of freedom, less stress and greater job satisfaction. Although the human cloud is in its infancy, there is already substantial anecdotal evidence that it entails silent offshoring (silent because human cloud platforms are not listed and do not have to disclose their data). Is this the beginning of a new and flexible work revolution that will empower any individual who has an internet connection and that will eliminate the shortage of skills?


pages: 187 words: 62,861

The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Triumphs Over Self-Interest by Yochai Benkler

business process, California gold rush, citizen journalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, East Village, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental economics, experimental subject, framing effect, informal economy, invisible hand, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The workforce was largely unchanged: 99 percent of the assembly line workers in the new workforce, and three quarters of the skilled workers, were UAW members who had worked at the original Fremont plant. Yet within two years the new plant had far surpassed any other GM plant in productivity and had the highest quality ratings of any automobile plant in the United States. Confidential employee surveys show that job satisfaction levels rose from 60 percent when the plant reopened in 1985 to more than 90 percent by the 1990s. The effects were lasting. Despite Toyota’s recent woes, for more than twenty-five years NUMMI continued to be one of the top plants in the United States in terms of productivity and product quality. As of 2010, it is slated to become the site of a new collaboration between Toyota and Tesla, to develop electric cars.


pages: 306 words: 78,893

After the New Economy: The Binge . . . And the Hangover That Won't Go Away by Doug Henwood

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, feminist movement, full employment, gender pay gap, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet Archive, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, occupational segregation, pets.com, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K, zero-sum game

BoysWill Be Boys: Gender, Overconfidence,and Common Stock Investment," Quarterly Journal of Economics, October, pp. 261-292 (also at <faculty.gsm.ucdavis.edu/ ~bmbarber/BoysWillBeBoys.pdf>). Barko, Naomi (2000). "The Other Gender Gap," The American Prospect, June 19-July 3, pp. 61-63 <www.prospect.oi^/archives/Vl l-15/barko-n.html>. Barrington, Linda (2000). Does a Rising Tide Lift All Boats? (New York: The Conference Board). Bateman, Thomas S., and Dennis W. Organ (1983). "Job Satisfaction and the Good Soldier: The Rebtionship Between Affect and Employee 'Citizenship,"Mai</emy of Management Journal 26, pp. 587-95. Baudrillard,Jean (1993). The Tranparency of Evil, translated by James Benedict (New York and London: Verso). Bayard, Kimberly, Judith Hellentein, David Neumark, and Kenneth Troske (1999). "New Evidence on Sex Segregation and Sex Differences in Wages from Matched Employee-Employer Data," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 7003, March <wwAv.nber.org/papers/w7003>.


pages: 270 words: 75,473

Time Management for System Administrators by Thomas A.Limoncelli

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8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Debian, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, Steve Jobs

So-and-so isn't getting a good raise this year." Managing Your Boss Many people think that management is a one-way street. I disagree. Management is a relationship, and you share influence in how the relationship evolves. It is difficult to get anything done, or to have a satisfying career, if you do not have a good relationship with your manager. Alternatively, with a good relationship you can get more done, have increased job satisfaction, and accelerate your career. If you do a web search for "manage your boss," you will find many excellent articles. This is a sign that many people feel the need to have a better relationship with their boss. Schedule some time to read a few of them. I think the three most important keys to managing your boss are to use him to help advance your career, to know when to use upward delegation , and to understand and contribute to his goals.


pages: 265 words: 74,000

The Numerati by Stephen Baker

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Berlin Wall, Black Swan, business process, call centre, correlation does not imply causation, Drosophila, full employment, illegal immigration, index card, Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, McMansion, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, PageRank, personalized medicine, recommendation engine, RFID, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

He didn't end up going, and instead, in IBM's scheme, he remained "on the bench." Takriti smiles. "That's what we call it," he says. "I think the term comes from sports." The question, of course, is how long IBM wants to have that high-priced talent sitting on the bench. If there isn't any work to justify his immense talents, shouldn't they put him on something else, just to keep him busy? Not necessarily, says Takriti. Job satisfaction is one of his system's constraints. If workers get angry or bored to tears, their productivity is bound to plummet. The automatic manager keeps this in mind (in a manner of speaking). As you might expect, it deals very gently with superstars. Since they make lots of money for the company during short bursts of activity, they get plenty of time on the bench. But grunt workers in this hierarchy get far less consideration.


pages: 189 words: 64,571

The Cheapskate Next Door: The Surprising Secrets of Americans Living Happily Below Their Means by Jeff Yeager

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asset allocation, carbon footprint, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, index card, job satisfaction, late fees, mortgage debt, new economy, payday loans, Skype, upwardly mobile, Zipcar

In response to the question “On a scale of one to ten, with one being I hate it all the time and ten being I love it all the time, how would you describe your feeling about your current job/occupation?,” more than two-thirds of the cheapskates polled responded with seven or higher. At the same time, nearly 40 percent of all respondents said that they are dissatisfied with the amount of money they currently earn, although they frequently commented that their dissatisfaction with a lower salary was more than compensated for by increased job satisfaction. These cheapskates often have careers in the nonprofit sector or are “selfishly employed.” I defined “selfish employment” in my first book as “having the financial security to pursue your interests and passions as employment without undue risk or concern over income.” As a selfishly employed individual myself, when people ask me what I do for a living, I usually reply, “I just do my own thing, and sometimes somebody pays me money because of it.”


pages: 241 words: 75,516

The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less by Barry Schwartz

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, attribution theory, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Cass Sunstein, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, framing effect, income per capita, job satisfaction, loss aversion, medical residency, mental accounting, Own Your Own Home, Pareto efficiency, positional goods, price anchoring, psychological pricing, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, science of happiness, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

McCullough, “Counting Blessings Versus Burdens: An Experimental Investigation of Gratitude and Subjective Well-Being,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2003, 84, 377–389. Chapter 9 Comparisons are R.E. Lane discusses the relative nature of evaluation in The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000). Michalos found that A. Michalos, “Job Satisfaction, Marital Satisfaction, and the Quality of Life,” in F.M. Andrews (ed.), Research on the Quality of Life (Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research, 1986), p. 75. What the theory claims The classic paper on framing is D. Kahneman and A. Tversky, “Choices, Values, and Frames,” American Psychologist, 1984, 39, 341–350. Many other examples are collected in D. Kahneman and A. Tversky (eds.), Choices, Values, and Frames (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000).


pages: 278 words: 70,416

Smartcuts: How Hackers, Innovators, and Icons Accelerate Success by Shane Snow

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3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, attribution theory, augmented reality, barriers to entry, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filter Bubble, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, popular electronics, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

The mentorship study data conflicted, it turned out, because of the difference between structured mentoring programs, which were less effective, and mentorship that happened organically. In fact, one-on-one mentoring in which an organization formally matched people proved to be nearly as worthless as a person having not been mentored at all. However, when students and mentors came together on their own and formed personal relationships, the mentored did significantly better, as measured by future income, tenure, number of promotions, job satisfaction, work stress, and self-esteem. This is why Sheryl Sandberg, the COO of Facebook and the author of Lean In, dedicates a chapter in her book to this concept, arguing that asking someone to formally mentor you is like asking a celebrity for an autograph; it’s stiff, inorganic, and often doesn’t work out. “Searching for a mentor has become the professional equivalent of waiting for Prince Charming,” she writes.


pages: 361 words: 76,849

The Year Without Pants: Wordpress.com and the Future of Work by Scott Berkun

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barriers to entry, blue-collar work, Broken windows theory, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Hangouts, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Lean Startup, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, remote working, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Stallman, Seaside, Florida, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the map is not the territory, Tony Hsieh, trade route, zero-sum game

See Team Social meet-up (Athens, Greece) Automattic: acquisition offer for; atmosphere of constant change at; attitude toward safeguards at; author hired at; board of directors meeting; continued growth and success of; creativity not infringed upon by support at; as data-influenced company; description of headquarters in San Francisco; distinction between WordPress, WordPress.com, and; employees split into teams; founding and early history of; hiring procedure; long-term view at; marketing by; minimal friction at; problem management at; promoted free expression; returning meaning to work; view of big projects at; work flow at; work location irrelevant to Automattic culture Automatticians: background and skills of; collaboration tools used by; commonly moving between projects; compensation of; defined; description of, at work; job satisfaction of; new, adjusting to working remotely; quality assurance responsibility of; self-sufficiency and passion of; turnover rate for; work location of B b2 Bachhuber, Daniel Bachiyski, Nikolay Baeta, Hugo: about; acclimated to Automattic way of working; joined Team Social; at Lisbon team meet-up; at Portland meet-up; reworked NASCAR feature Bar-Cohen, Raanan Basecamp Belfiore, Joe Berkun, Scott: about; arrival in Athens for team meet-up; assets and liabilities of, at Automattic; assigned to Team Post Postmodernism at Budapest company meeting; “Big Talk” to team by; e-mailed observations about company to Mullenweg; exit from Automattic; gave presentations on leading Team Social; hired at Automattic; lack of safety measures in India experienced by; on managing programmers without having programming skills; at Microsoft; monitoring of customer support work by; and P2s; in San Francisco headquarters for face-to-face interactions; at Seaside company meeting; training work in customer support; use of WordPress by; at work; work on Highlander; work on Hovercards project; on working remotely vs. face-to-face interactions Bernal, Jorge Bigelow, Sheri Bikeshed problem Black, Phillip Blacksmith Capital Blogger (software) Blogs: features to decrease abandonment of Bluehost Boren, Ryan Broken window theory Bubel, Anthony Budapest.

Cartesian Linguistics by Noam Chomsky

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job satisfaction, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Turing test

Assuming, furthermore, the empirical principle that organisms thrive (get satisfaction) when they fulfill their natures and the moral/ethical principle that they should be given opportunities to do so, it is reasonable to assume that a form of social organization giving them these opportunities is better than one that does not. There is plenty of evidence that people thrive when they exercise their freedom and autonomy – for instance, job satisfaction is a good predictor of longer life, and correlates strongly with exercise of autonomy and self-expression. The moral principle seems to be as obvious as any can be. It might justifiably be overridden in certain cases – for example, where there is genuine reason to think that survival is at stake – but no one except for moral monsters will simply deny the principle. It should, in any case, certainly constitute a fundamental principle of the ideal form of social organization.

Rethinking Money: How New Currencies Turn Scarcity Into Prosperity by Bernard Lietaer, Jacqui Dunne

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3D printing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, business climate, business process, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, conceptual framework, credit crunch, discounted cash flows, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, liberation theology, Marshall McLuhan, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, Occupy movement, price stability, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban decay, War on Poverty, working poor

Graduates in the United Kingdom, for example, can anticipate 70 applications for one job opening and have been told to flip burgers rather than counting on attaining positions commensurate with their educations, leaving them with no means of addressing their liabilities.14 Nobel laureate Paul Krugman writes: “In particular, these days, workers with a college degree, but no further degrees, are less likely to get workplace health coverage than workers with only a high school degree were in 1979.”15 These days, job satisfaction means having any gainful employment. Money is the most powerful secular force. Financial issues affect all economic classes, from the rich to the poor. Empathy for the plight of those who suffer from scarcity comes easier. The damage created by poverty and want is pervasive, devastating, and easy to understand. Yet the levels of competition and struggle indelibly linked to money propagate through all levels of society.


pages: 898 words: 266,274

The Irrational Bundle by Dan Ariely

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, air freight, Albert Einstein, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, business process, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, end world poverty, endowment effect, Exxon Valdez, first-price auction, Frederick Winslow Taylor, fudge factor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lake wobegon effect, late fees, loss aversion, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, Peter Singer: altruism, placebo effect, price anchoring, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, Schrödinger's Cat, second-price auction, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, ultimatum game, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, young professional

A few months later we aren’t as annoyed by the color of the cabinets, but at the same time, we don’t derive as much pleasure from the handsome floors. This type of emotional leveling out—when initial positive and negative perceptions fade—is a process we call hedonic adaptation. Just as our eyes adjust to changes in light and environment, we can adapt to changes in expectation and experience. For example, Andrew Clark showed that job satisfaction among British workers was strongly correlated with changes in workers’ pay rather than the level of pay itself. In other words, people generally grow accustomed to their current pay level, however low or high. A raise is great and a pay cut is very upsetting, regardless of the actual amount of the base salary. In one of the earliest studies on hedonic adaptation, Philip Brickman, Dan Coates, and Ronnie Janoff-Bulman compared the overall life happiness among three groups: paraplegics, lottery winners, and normal people who were neither disabled nor particularly lucky.

A Accessory Transit Company, 154 acknowledging workers, 74–76, 80 acronyms, 120 adaptation, 157–90 assortative mating and, 191–212; see also assortative mating focusing attention on changes and, 159–60 hedonic, 160–84; see also hedonic adaptation nineteenth-century experiments on, 157–58 to pain, 160–67 physical, 157–60, 161n sensory perception and, 158–60 Aesop, 198–99 agriculture, obesity and technological developments in, 8 AIDS, 250, 251 airlines, customer service problems of, 142–43 alienation of labor, 79–80 American Cancer Society (ACS), 241–42, 249–50, 254 Andrade, Eduardo, 262, 265, 267–68, 299 anger, acting on, 257 author’s anecdote of, 258–61 driving and, 261 ultimatum game and, 268, 269–70, 273, 274, 276 animals: empathy for suffering of, 249 generalizing about human behavior from studies on, 63 working for food preferred by, 59–63 annoying experiences: breaking up, 177–79, 180 decisions far into future affected by, 262–64 annuities, 234 anterior insula, 266–67 anticipatory anxiety, 45 Anzio, Italy, battle of (1944), 167 apathy toward large tragedies, 238–39 drop-in-the-bucket effect and, 244–45, 252, 254–55 statistical condition and, 238–41, 242, 246, 247–49, 252–53 apologies, 149–51 for medical errors, 152 Apple, 120n battery replacement issue and, 141–42 art, homemade, 89–90 Asian tsunami, 250, 251 assembly line, 78–79 assortative mating, 191–212 altering aesthetic perception and (sour grapes theory), 198–99, 200, 201, 203 author’s injuries and, 191–96, 210–11 dinner party game and, 198 failure to adapt and, 200–201, 203–5 gender differences and, 209, 211 HOT or NOT study and, 201–5, 208, 211 reconsidering rank of attributes and, 199–200, 201, 205–10 speed-dating experiment and, 205–10 Atchison, Shane, 140–41, 146 attachment: to one’s own ideas, see Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias to self-made goods, see IKEA effect attractiveness, assortative mating and, 191–212 see also assortative mating auctions, first-price vs. second-price, 98–99 Audi customer service, author’s experience with, 131–36, 137, 149, 153–54 experimental situation analogous to, 135–39 fictional case study for Harvard Business Review based on, 147–49 B bailout, public outrage felt in response to, 128–31 baking mixes, instant, 85–87 bankers: author’s presentation of research findings to, 107–9, 121 bonus experiments and, 38–41, 51 Frank’s address to, 41 public outrage in response to bailout and, 128–31 bankruptcy, 129, 130 Barkan, Racheli, 39, 109–10, 299 basketball, clutch players in, 39–41 beauty: assortative mating and, 196–212; see also assortative mating general agreement on standard of, 203 Becker-DeGroot-Marschak procedure, 91 Beecher, Henry, 167 behavioral economics: goal of, 9–10 human rationality not assumed in, 6–7 revenge as metaphor for, 124n Betty Crocker, 87 Bible, Gideon’s conversation with God in, 288–89 blindness, adaptation to, 172–74 blogging, 65 Blunder (Shore), 117 boiling-frog experiment, 157–58 bonuses, 17–52 bank executives’ responses to research on, 37–39 clutch abilities and, 39–41 for cognitive vs. mechanical tasks, 33–36, 40–41 creativity improvements and, 47–48 experiments testing effectiveness of, 21–36, 44–46 Frank’s remarks on, 41 intuitions about, 36–37 inverse-U relationship between performance and, 20–21, 47 loss aversion and, 32–33 optimizing efficacy of, 51–52 public rage over, 21 rational economists’ view of, 36–37 social pressure and, 44–46 surgery situation and, 48–49 viewed as standard part of compensation, 33 in wake of financial meltdown of 2008, 131 brain: judgments about experiences and, 228–29 punishment and, 126 breaks, in pleasant vs. painful experiences, 177–81 Brickman, Philip, 170 business, experimental approach to, 292–93 C cake mixes, instant, 85–87 California, moving to, 176 Call, Josep, 127 cancer, American Cancer Society fundraising and, 241–42, 249–50, 254 canoeing, romantic relationships and, 278–79 cars, 215–16 designing one’s own, 88, 89 division of labor in manufacture of, 78–79 in early days of automotive industry, 94 hedonic treadmill and, 175 see also driving cell phones, 7 in experiments on customer revenge, 135–39, 145–46, 150–51 see also texting CEOs, very high salaries and bonuses paid to, 21 Chance, Zoë, 220, 300 changes: ability to focus attention on, 159–60 decisions about life’s path and, 287 in future, foreseeing adaptation to, 160, 171–74 status quo bias and, 285, 286 in workers’ pay, job satisfaction and, 169–70 charities: American Cancer Society (ACS), 241–42, 249–50, 254 calculating vs. emotional priming and, 246–48 emotional appeals and, 240–42, 248–50, 253–54, 256 identifiable victim effect and, 239–42, 248, 256 charities (cont.) mismatching of money and need and, 250–51 motivating people to take action and, 252–56 Chat Circles, 225 cheating, 76 childbirth, pain of, 168, 169n children: in growing and preparing of food, 121 parents’ overvaluation of, 97–98 chimpanzees, sense of fairness in, 127 chores, taking breaks in, 177–79, 180 civil liberties, erosion of, 158 Clark, Andrew, 169 climate change, 251–52 closeness, empathy and, 243, 245, 254 clutch abilities, 39–41 CNN, 238 Coates, Dan, 170 cockroaches, social pressure in, 45–46 commercial breaks, enjoyment of television and, 181n comparisons, hedonic adaptation and, 189 compensation, 47 changes in, job satisfaction and, 169–70 see also bonuses completion: employees’ sense of, 77, 79–80 Loewenstein’s analysis of mountaineering and, 80–81 computers, 233 consumer purchases, 185–88 happiness derived from transient experiences vs., 187–88 hedonic treadmill and, 175 placing limits on, 186–87 reducing, 185–86 spacing of, 185, 186 contrafreeloading, 60–63 Jensen’s study of, 60–62, 63 standard economic view at odds with, 62–63 Converse, 95 cooking: children’s involvement in, 121 enjoyment factor and, 62n, 105–6 semi-preprepared food and, 85–88 CO2 emissions, 251–52 counting strategies, 282–83 Count of Monte Cristo, The (Dumas), 123 creation, pride of: ideas and, see Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias self-made goods and, see IKEA effect creativity, bonuses and improvements in, 47–48 Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály, 49 cultures, organizational: acronyms and, 120 Not-Invented-Here bias and, 119–21 customer revenge, 131–51 against airlines, 142–43 apologies and, 149–51, 152 author’s experience with Audi customer service and, 131–36, 137, 147–49, 153–54 distinction between agents and principals and, 144–47 Farmer and Shane’s “Yours Is a Very Bad Hotel” and, 140–41, 146 fictional case study for Harvard Business Review on, 147–49 increase in, 143 Neistat brothers’ video on Apple’s customer service and, 141–42 passage of time and, 151 phone call interruption experiments on, 135–39, 145–46, 150–51 customization, 94–96 of cars, 88, 89, 94 effort expended in, 89, 95–96 overvaluation despite removing possibility of, 96 of shoes, 95, 96 D Dallaire, Roméo, 255 Darfur, 238, 253 Dart Ball game, 23, 34 Darwin, Charles, 157 dating, 191–235 market failures in, 213–15, 216–17, 220–21, 230–32, 233–35 playing hard to get and, 104 standard practice of, 224–25, 227–28 yentas (matchmakers) and, 213 see also assortative mating; online dating; speed dating decision making: author’s medical care and, 284–88 cooling off before, 257, 279 emotions and, 261–77 gender differences and, 274–76 irreversible decisions and, 285, 286 rationalization of choices in, 287 from rational perspective, 5–6 short-term, long-term decisions affected by, 264–65, 270–74, 276–77 stability of strategies for, 261–65; see also self-herding ultimatum game and, 265–70, 275–76 dentistry, adaptation to pain and, 161–62 design, taking people’s physical limitations into account in, 230–32 destroying work in front of workers, 74–76 Dichter, Ernest, 86 disease: adaptation to pain and, 165, 167 preventative health care and, 251, 256 “survivor” rhetoric and, 241–42 Disney, 154 distraction, performance-based incentives and, 30, 36 division of labor, 77–80 IT infrastructure and, 77, 79–80 Marx’s alienation notion and, 79 Smith’s observations on, 77–78 divorce, foreseeing outcome of, 173 Dodson, John, 18–20, 22, 31, 47 do-it-yourself projects, see IKEA effect Donath, Judith, 225 Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 157 Doubletree Club, Houston, 140–41, 146 dreams, author’s self-image in, 182–83 DreamWorks SKG, 154 driving: momentary anger during, 261 safety precautions and, 6–7 texting during, 6, 7, 8 see also cars drop-in-the-bucket effect, 244–45, 252, 254–55 Dumas, Alexandre, 123 E Eastwick, Paul, 172–73 Edison, Thomas, 117–19, 122 effort: increase in value related to, 89, 90, 95–96, 105–6; see also IKEA effect joy derived from activity and, 71–72 meaningful work conditions and, 72 ownership of ideas and, 114–16 see also labor egg theory, 86–88 Eisner, Michael, 154 electric chair, 119 electricity, alternating current (AC) vs. direct current (DC), 117–19 emotional cascades, 265–78 gender differences and, 274–76 romantic relationships and, 277–78 ultimatum game and, 265–76 emotional priming: empathy for plight of others and, 246–48 ultimatum game and, 268–70 emotions, 43, 237–79 appeals to, willingness to help others and, 240–42, 248–50, 253–54, 256 decision making and, 261–77; see also decision making in past, humans’ poor memory of, 264 transience of, 257, 261, 270 see also empathy; negative feelings, acting on empathy: animals’ suffering and, 249, 252 apathy toward statistical victims and, 238–41, 242, 246, 247–49, 252–53 Baby Jessica saga and, 237–38 calculating vs. emotional priming and, 246–48 clear moral principles and, 255 closeness and, 243, 245, 254 drop-in-the-bucket effect and, 244–45, 252, 254–55 emotional appeals and, 240–42, 248–50, 253–54, 256 global warming and, 251–52 identifiable victim effect and, 239–42, 248, 256 overcoming barriers to, 252–56 rules to guide our behavior and, 254–55 thought experiment of drowning girl and, 242–43, 245 toward one person vs. many in need, 237–56 vividness and, 24, 243n, 244, 245 endowment effect, 285, 286 Enron, 216 evolution, mismatch between speed of technological development and, 8–9 experiments, 10–11, 288–95 business or public policy and, 292–94, 295 of Gideon, 288–89 medical practice and, 289–92 rational economists’ criticisms of, 49–51 see also specific topics Exxon Valdez oil spill, 249 F fairness, sense of: in chimpanzees, 127 decision making and, 266–67; see also ultimatum game gender differences and, 275–76 Fallows, James, 158 Farmer, Tom, 140–41, 146, 148–49 FedEx, 108–9 feedback, about work, 74–76 Feeks, John, 118–19 Fehr, Ernst, 125–26 financial incentives: meaning of labor and, 72–73, 76 see also bonuses financial markets, safety measures for, 7 financial meltdown of 2008, 7, 21, 216 chronology of events in, 129–30 desire for revenge in wake of, 128–31 lack of experimental approach to, 293 outraged public reaction to bailout in, 128–29, 130 Finkel, Eli, 172–73 First Knight, 50 fixation, pride in creation and ownership and, 89, 122 food: animals’ preference for working for, 59–63 semi-preprepared, 85–88 shortages of, identifiable victim effect and, 239–41 see also cooking Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 292 Ford, Henry, 78–79, 94 Forgea (white terrier), 249 Fox, Michael J., 254 “Fox and the Grapes, The” (Aesop), 198–99 Frank, Barney, 41 Frankl, Viktor, 45 free food, animals’ preference for working for food vs., 60–62 Frenk, Hanan, 161–65, 300 Friends, ultimatum game and, 269, 270–71, 272 frog experiment, 157–58 Frost, Jeana, 219–20, 229, 300 Fryer, Bronwyn, 148 furniture, do-it-yourself, 83–84, 96, 105, 106 future, foreseeing adaptation to changes in, 160, 171–74 G gardening: children growing food and, 121 enjoyment factor and, 105–6 gender differences: assortative mating and, 209, 211 decision making and, 274–76 pain threshold and tolerance and, 168–69 Gideon, 288–89 global warming, 158, 251–52 Gneezy, Ayelet, 135, 144–45, 150, 300–301 Gneezy, Uri, 21, 44, 301 Gore, Al, 158, 252 government policies, experimental approach to, 292–94, 295 H happiness: comparisons to other people and, 189 consumer purchases and, 175, 185–88 inaccurate predictions about, 170–71 return to baseline of, 170 transient vs. constant experiences and, 187–88 Harvard Business Review (HBR), 147–49 health care, see medical care hedonic adaptation, 160–84 to annoying experiences, 177–79, 180 author’s personal history and, 181–84, 189 blindness and, 172–74 breaking up experiences and, 177–81 changes in workers’ pay and, 169–70 comparisons to other people and, 189 consumer purchases and, 175, 185–88 extending pleasurable experiences and, 176–78, 179–81, 185, 186 in future, foreseeing of, 160, 171–74 happiness baseline and, 170 life-altering injuries and, 171–72, 174 moving to California and, 176 new houses and, 168–69 pain and, 160–67 romantic breakups and, 172–73 to transient vs. constant experiences, 187–88 using our understanding of, 176–81, 184–90 hedonic disruptions, 177–81 hedonic treadmill, 175 Heingartner, Alexander, 45–46 Henry, O., 98 herding, 262 see also self-herding Herman, Edward, 45–46 Hippocrates, 82 Hogerty, Megan, 81 homeostatic mechanisms, 81 Hong, James, 201, 203 HOT or NOT study, 201–5, 208 gender differences in, 209, 211 Meet Me feature and, 204–5, 208, 209 humor, sense of, 199, 200, 207, 208, 228 Hurricane Katrina, 250, 251 I ideas: attachment to, see Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias idiosyncratic fit and, 111–12 identifiable victim effect, 239–42, 248, 256 American Cancer Society and, 241–42 identity, connection between work and, 53–55, 79 idiosyncratic fit, ideas and, 111–12 ignoring workers, 74–76 IKEA, 83–84, 106 IKEA effect, 83–106 author’s creations in rehabilitation center and, 100–101 completion of project and, 101–4, 105 do-it-yourself furniture and, 83–84, 96, 106 effort expended and, 89, 90, 95–96, 105–6 four principles in, 104–5 and lack of awareness of overvaluation, 99 Legos experiment and, 96, 97 Local Motors cars and, 88, 89 Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias and, 109–10, 121 origami experiments and, 91–94, 97, 98–99, 102–4 parents’ overvaluation of their children and, 97–98 practical implications of, 121–22 relaxation notion and, 105–6 removal of individual customization and, 96 semi-preprepared food and, 85–88 shoe design and, 95, 96 immediate gratification, 5 Inconvenient Truth, An, 252 initiation into social groups, 89 injuries: association of pain with getting better after, 166–67 author’s dating prospects and, 191–96, 210–11 author’s decisions about his medical care and, 284–88 author’s personal history related to, 1–4, 13, 107, 160–62, 166–67, 181–84, 189, 191–96, 210–11, 281–88 battlefield vs. civilian, 167 foreseeing future after, 160 life-altering, adaptation to, 160, 171–72, 174 pain thresholds and tolerance related to severity of, 161–65 Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, 126–27 insurance products, 233–34 interruptions: in pleasant vs. painful experiences, 177–81 TV commercials and, 181n see also phone call interruption experiments intuitions: bonuses and, 36–37 received medical wisdom and, 289–92 romantic, 172–73 testing of, 10n, 288–95 inverse-U relationship, defined, 19 iPods and iPhones, battery replacement in, 141–42 irrationality: summary of findings on, 288 upside as well as downside of, 11–12, 294 irreversible decisions, 285, 286 IT infrastructure, division and meaning of labor and, 77, 79–80 J Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie, 170 Jensen, Glen, 60–62, 63 Jensen, Keith, 127 Jewish tradition, 254–55 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, 152 Joyless Economy, The (Scitovsky), 188 justice, see fairness, sense of K Kahneman, Danny, 32n, 175–76 Kamenica, Emir, 66, 301 Katzenberg, Jeffrey, 154 Kemmler, William, 119 kinship, empathy and, 243 Krishnamurti, Tamar, 172–73 Krzyzewski, Mike, 39 L labor: connection between identity and, 53–55, 79 contrafreeloading and, 60–63 economic model of, 55, 62–63, 105 financial incentives and, see bonuses meaning of, see meaning of labor overvaluation resulting from, see IKEA effect on projects without meaning, 56–57, 63–72 Labyrinth game, 23 Lee, Leonard, 132, 134, 197, 201–2, 301–2 Lee, Sandra, 87–88 leeches, medicinal use of, 290–91 Legos experiments: on IKEA effect, 96, 97 on reducing meaningfulness of work, 66–74, 77, 80 letter-pairs experiment, 74–76, 80 life-altering events, hedonic adaptation and, 170 Life as a House, ultimatum game and, 268, 269, 270, 272, 276 light, adaptation to changes in, 159 Local Motors, Inc., 88, 89 Loewenstein, George, 21, 44, 80–81, 172–73, 197, 201–2, 239–41, 246–48, 302 long-term objectives, short-term enjoyments vs., 4–5 loss aversion, 32–33, 285, 286 lottery winners, hedonic adaptation of, 170, 171 “Love the One You’re With,” 197, 211–12 M malaria, 250, 251 Man’s Search for Meaning (Frankl), 45 marketing, adaptation and, 158 market mechanisms, 215–16 dating and, 213–15, 216–17, 220–21, 230–32, 233–35 Marx, Karl, 79 massages, extending pleasure of, 179–80 matchmakers (yentas), 213 Mazar, Nina, 21, 30, 44, 302 McClure, Jessica (Baby Jessica), 237–38 meals, see cooking meaning of labor, 53–82 in acknowledged, ignored, and shredded conditions, 74–76 animals’ preference for working for food and, 59–63 blogging and, 65 division of labor and, 77–80 draining work of meaning and, 55–57, 63–77 financial incentives and, 72–73, 76 joy derived from activity and, 71–72 labor-identity connection and, 53–55, 79 Legos experiment and, 66–74, 76, 80 lessons for workplace on, 80–82 letter-pairs experiment and, 74–76, 80 “meaning” vs.

mismatching of money and need and, 250–51 motivating people to take action and, 252–56 Chat Circles, 225 cheating, 76 childbirth, pain of, 168, 169n children: in growing and preparing of food, 121 parents’ overvaluation of, 97–98 chimpanzees, sense of fairness in, 127 chores, taking breaks in, 177–79, 180 civil liberties, erosion of, 158 Clark, Andrew, 169 climate change, 251–52 closeness, empathy and, 243, 245, 254 clutch abilities, 39–41 CNN, 238 Coates, Dan, 170 cockroaches, social pressure in, 45–46 commercial breaks, enjoyment of television and, 181n comparisons, hedonic adaptation and, 189 compensation, 47 changes in, job satisfaction and, 169–70 see also bonuses completion: employees’ sense of, 77, 79–80 Loewenstein’s analysis of mountaineering and, 80–81 computers, 233 consumer purchases, 185–88 happiness derived from transient experiences vs., 187–88 hedonic treadmill and, 175 placing limits on, 186–87 reducing, 185–86 spacing of, 185, 186 contrafreeloading, 60–63 Jensen’s study of, 60–62, 63 standard economic view at odds with, 62–63 Converse, 95 cooking: children’s involvement in, 121 enjoyment factor and, 62n, 105–6 semi-preprepared food and, 85–88 CO2 emissions, 251–52 counting strategies, 282–83 Count of Monte Cristo, The (Dumas), 123 creation, pride of: ideas and, see Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias self-made goods and, see IKEA effect creativity, bonuses and improvements in, 47–48 Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály, 49 cultures, organizational: acronyms and, 120 Not-Invented-Here bias and, 119–21 customer revenge, 131–51 against airlines, 142–43 apologies and, 149–51, 152 author’s experience with Audi customer service and, 131–36, 137, 147–49, 153–54 distinction between agents and principals and, 144–47 Farmer and Shane’s “Yours Is a Very Bad Hotel” and, 140–41, 146 fictional case study for Harvard Business Review on, 147–49 increase in, 143 Neistat brothers’ video on Apple’s customer service and, 141–42 passage of time and, 151 phone call interruption experiments on, 135–39, 145–46, 150–51 customization, 94–96 of cars, 88, 89, 94 effort expended in, 89, 95–96 overvaluation despite removing possibility of, 96 of shoes, 95, 96 D Dallaire, Roméo, 255 Darfur, 238, 253 Dart Ball game, 23, 34 Darwin, Charles, 157 dating, 191–235 market failures in, 213–15, 216–17, 220–21, 230–32, 233–35 playing hard to get and, 104 standard practice of, 224–25, 227–28 yentas (matchmakers) and, 213 see also assortative mating; online dating; speed dating decision making: author’s medical care and, 284–88 cooling off before, 257, 279 emotions and, 261–77 gender differences and, 274–76 irreversible decisions and, 285, 286 rationalization of choices in, 287 from rational perspective, 5–6 short-term, long-term decisions affected by, 264–65, 270–74, 276–77 stability of strategies for, 261–65; see also self-herding ultimatum game and, 265–70, 275–76 dentistry, adaptation to pain and, 161–62 design, taking people’s physical limitations into account in, 230–32 destroying work in front of workers, 74–76 Dichter, Ernest, 86 disease: adaptation to pain and, 165, 167 preventative health care and, 251, 256 “survivor” rhetoric and, 241–42 Disney, 154 distraction, performance-based incentives and, 30, 36 division of labor, 77–80 IT infrastructure and, 77, 79–80 Marx’s alienation notion and, 79 Smith’s observations on, 77–78 divorce, foreseeing outcome of, 173 Dodson, John, 18–20, 22, 31, 47 do-it-yourself projects, see IKEA effect Donath, Judith, 225 Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 157 Doubletree Club, Houston, 140–41, 146 dreams, author’s self-image in, 182–83 DreamWorks SKG, 154 driving: momentary anger during, 261 safety precautions and, 6–7 texting during, 6, 7, 8 see also cars drop-in-the-bucket effect, 244–45, 252, 254–55 Dumas, Alexandre, 123 E Eastwick, Paul, 172–73 Edison, Thomas, 117–19, 122 effort: increase in value related to, 89, 90, 95–96, 105–6; see also IKEA effect joy derived from activity and, 71–72 meaningful work conditions and, 72 ownership of ideas and, 114–16 see also labor egg theory, 86–88 Eisner, Michael, 154 electric chair, 119 electricity, alternating current (AC) vs. direct current (DC), 117–19 emotional cascades, 265–78 gender differences and, 274–76 romantic relationships and, 277–78 ultimatum game and, 265–76 emotional priming: empathy for plight of others and, 246–48 ultimatum game and, 268–70 emotions, 43, 237–79 appeals to, willingness to help others and, 240–42, 248–50, 253–54, 256 decision making and, 261–77; see also decision making in past, humans’ poor memory of, 264 transience of, 257, 261, 270 see also empathy; negative feelings, acting on empathy: animals’ suffering and, 249, 252 apathy toward statistical victims and, 238–41, 242, 246, 247–49, 252–53 Baby Jessica saga and, 237–38 calculating vs. emotional priming and, 246–48 clear moral principles and, 255 closeness and, 243, 245, 254 drop-in-the-bucket effect and, 244–45, 252, 254–55 emotional appeals and, 240–42, 248–50, 253–54, 256 global warming and, 251–52 identifiable victim effect and, 239–42, 248, 256 overcoming barriers to, 252–56 rules to guide our behavior and, 254–55 thought experiment of drowning girl and, 242–43, 245 toward one person vs. many in need, 237–56 vividness and, 24, 243n, 244, 245 endowment effect, 285, 286 Enron, 216 evolution, mismatch between speed of technological development and, 8–9 experiments, 10–11, 288–95 business or public policy and, 292–94, 295 of Gideon, 288–89 medical practice and, 289–92 rational economists’ criticisms of, 49–51 see also specific topics Exxon Valdez oil spill, 249 F fairness, sense of: in chimpanzees, 127 decision making and, 266–67; see also ultimatum game gender differences and, 275–76 Fallows, James, 158 Farmer, Tom, 140–41, 146, 148–49 FedEx, 108–9 feedback, about work, 74–76 Feeks, John, 118–19 Fehr, Ernst, 125–26 financial incentives: meaning of labor and, 72–73, 76 see also bonuses financial markets, safety measures for, 7 financial meltdown of 2008, 7, 21, 216 chronology of events in, 129–30 desire for revenge in wake of, 128–31 lack of experimental approach to, 293 outraged public reaction to bailout in, 128–29, 130 Finkel, Eli, 172–73 First Knight, 50 fixation, pride in creation and ownership and, 89, 122 food: animals’ preference for working for, 59–63 semi-preprepared, 85–88 shortages of, identifiable victim effect and, 239–41 see also cooking Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 292 Ford, Henry, 78–79, 94 Forgea (white terrier), 249 Fox, Michael J., 254 “Fox and the Grapes, The” (Aesop), 198–99 Frank, Barney, 41 Frankl, Viktor, 45 free food, animals’ preference for working for food vs., 60–62 Frenk, Hanan, 161–65, 300 Friends, ultimatum game and, 269, 270–71, 272 frog experiment, 157–58 Frost, Jeana, 219–20, 229, 300 Fryer, Bronwyn, 148 furniture, do-it-yourself, 83–84, 96, 105, 106 future, foreseeing adaptation to changes in, 160, 171–74 G gardening: children growing food and, 121 enjoyment factor and, 105–6 gender differences: assortative mating and, 209, 211 decision making and, 274–76 pain threshold and tolerance and, 168–69 Gideon, 288–89 global warming, 158, 251–52 Gneezy, Ayelet, 135, 144–45, 150, 300–301 Gneezy, Uri, 21, 44, 301 Gore, Al, 158, 252 government policies, experimental approach to, 292–94, 295 H happiness: comparisons to other people and, 189 consumer purchases and, 175, 185–88 inaccurate predictions about, 170–71 return to baseline of, 170 transient vs. constant experiences and, 187–88 Harvard Business Review (HBR), 147–49 health care, see medical care hedonic adaptation, 160–84 to annoying experiences, 177–79, 180 author’s personal history and, 181–84, 189 blindness and, 172–74 breaking up experiences and, 177–81 changes in workers’ pay and, 169–70 comparisons to other people and, 189 consumer purchases and, 175, 185–88 extending pleasurable experiences and, 176–78, 179–81, 185, 186 in future, foreseeing of, 160, 171–74 happiness baseline and, 170 life-altering injuries and, 171–72, 174 moving to California and, 176 new houses and, 168–69 pain and, 160–67 romantic breakups and, 172–73 to transient vs. constant experiences, 187–88 using our understanding of, 176–81, 184–90 hedonic disruptions, 177–81 hedonic treadmill, 175 Heingartner, Alexander, 45–46 Henry, O., 98 herding, 262 see also self-herding Herman, Edward, 45–46 Hippocrates, 82 Hogerty, Megan, 81 homeostatic mechanisms, 81 Hong, James, 201, 203 HOT or NOT study, 201–5, 208 gender differences in, 209, 211 Meet Me feature and, 204–5, 208, 209 humor, sense of, 199, 200, 207, 208, 228 Hurricane Katrina, 250, 251 I ideas: attachment to, see Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias idiosyncratic fit and, 111–12 identifiable victim effect, 239–42, 248, 256 American Cancer Society and, 241–42 identity, connection between work and, 53–55, 79 idiosyncratic fit, ideas and, 111–12 ignoring workers, 74–76 IKEA, 83–84, 106 IKEA effect, 83–106 author’s creations in rehabilitation center and, 100–101 completion of project and, 101–4, 105 do-it-yourself furniture and, 83–84, 96, 106 effort expended and, 89, 90, 95–96, 105–6 four principles in, 104–5 and lack of awareness of overvaluation, 99 Legos experiment and, 96, 97 Local Motors cars and, 88, 89 Not-Invented-Here (NIH) bias and, 109–10, 121 origami experiments and, 91–94, 97, 98–99, 102–4 parents’ overvaluation of their children and, 97–98 practical implications of, 121–22 relaxation notion and, 105–6 removal of individual customization and, 96 semi-preprepared food and, 85–88 shoe design and, 95, 96 immediate gratification, 5 Inconvenient Truth, An, 252 initiation into social groups, 89 injuries: association of pain with getting better after, 166–67 author’s dating prospects and, 191–96, 210–11 author’s decisions about his medical care and, 284–88 author’s personal history related to, 1–4, 13, 107, 160–62, 166–67, 181–84, 189, 191–96, 210–11, 281–88 battlefield vs. civilian, 167 foreseeing future after, 160 life-altering, adaptation to, 160, 171–72, 174 pain thresholds and tolerance related to severity of, 161–65 Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany, 126–27 insurance products, 233–34 interruptions: in pleasant vs. painful experiences, 177–81 TV commercials and, 181n see also phone call interruption experiments intuitions: bonuses and, 36–37 received medical wisdom and, 289–92 romantic, 172–73 testing of, 10n, 288–95 inverse-U relationship, defined, 19 iPods and iPhones, battery replacement in, 141–42 irrationality: summary of findings on, 288 upside as well as downside of, 11–12, 294 irreversible decisions, 285, 286 IT infrastructure, division and meaning of labor and, 77, 79–80 J Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie, 170 Jensen, Glen, 60–62, 63 Jensen, Keith, 127 Jewish tradition, 254–55 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, 152 Joyless Economy, The (Scitovsky), 188 justice, see fairness, sense of K Kahneman, Danny, 32n, 175–76 Kamenica, Emir, 66, 301 Katzenberg, Jeffrey, 154 Kemmler, William, 119 kinship, empathy and, 243 Krishnamurti, Tamar, 172–73 Krzyzewski, Mike, 39 L labor: connection between identity and, 53–55, 79 contrafreeloading and, 60–63 economic model of, 55, 62–63, 105 financial incentives and, see bonuses meaning of, see meaning of labor overvaluation resulting from, see IKEA effect on projects without meaning, 56–57, 63–72 Labyrinth game, 23 Lee, Leonard, 132, 134, 197, 201–2, 301–2 Lee, Sandra, 87–88 leeches, medicinal use of, 290–91 Legos experiments: on IKEA effect, 96, 97 on reducing meaningfulness of work, 66–74, 77, 80 letter-pairs experiment, 74–76, 80 life-altering events, hedonic adaptation and, 170 Life as a House, ultimatum game and, 268, 269, 270, 272, 276 light, adaptation to changes in, 159 Local Motors, Inc., 88, 89 Loewenstein, George, 21, 44, 80–81, 172–73, 197, 201–2, 239–41, 246–48, 302 long-term objectives, short-term enjoyments vs., 4–5 loss aversion, 32–33, 285, 286 lottery winners, hedonic adaptation of, 170, 171 “Love the One You’re With,” 197, 211–12 M malaria, 250, 251 Man’s Search for Meaning (Frankl), 45 marketing, adaptation and, 158 market mechanisms, 215–16 dating and, 213–15, 216–17, 220–21, 230–32, 233–35 Marx, Karl, 79 massages, extending pleasure of, 179–80 matchmakers (yentas), 213 Mazar, Nina, 21, 30, 44, 302 McClure, Jessica (Baby Jessica), 237–38 meals, see cooking meaning of labor, 53–82 in acknowledged, ignored, and shredded conditions, 74–76 animals’ preference for working for food and, 59–63 blogging and, 65 division of labor and, 77–80 draining work of meaning and, 55–57, 63–77 financial incentives and, 72–73, 76 joy derived from activity and, 71–72 labor-identity connection and, 53–55, 79 Legos experiment and, 66–74, 76, 80 lessons for workplace on, 80–82 letter-pairs experiment and, 74–76, 80 “meaning” vs.


pages: 870 words: 259,362

Austerity Britain: 1945-51 by David Kynaston

Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, continuous integration, deindustrialization, deskilling, Etonian, full employment, garden city movement, hiring and firing, industrial cluster, invisible hand, job satisfaction, labour mobility, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, occupational segregation, price mechanism, rent control, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery, wealth creators, women in the workforce, young professional

A worker who complained about a monotonous job was usually unhappy in his home life; most male jobs were not monotonous; and even if up to a third of the male working-class population did ‘dull, repetitive, and uninteresting jobs’, that did not mean that they were all bored stiff with them, given the twin observed facts of the sociability of the workplace and that ‘machines are often very interesting and many people like handling them.’ Yet as Zweig fully conceded, the question of job satisfaction depended on a range of variables, even within the same grade of the same industry in the same region: Cleanliness, the right temperature, good air, light, private lockers, good washing facilities, good canteens, the good repute of a firm, a genial atmosphere, friendly relations on the floor, fairness in dealing with the worker, a good foreman, and a good boss, may turn even a distasteful job into an attractive one.

An important shift, it can only be understood against the background of full employment and rising real wages. Even so, for the workforce as a whole, it did not alter the dominant priorities identified by Zweig. Early in 1953, Research Services Ltd, the organisation run by Mark Abrams, interviewed 1,079 people who worked for a living across the country. They were shown a list of ten possible job satisfactions – nearness to your home; friendly people to work with; good wages or earnings; security of employment; opportunity to use your own ideas; good holidays; opportunities to get on; adequate pension; good training facilities; reasonably short hours – and asked to name which three they considered most important. Good earnings (placed in 58 per cent of people’s top three) and security of employment (55 per cent) were easily the most popular, followed by friendly people to work with (39 per cent), while reasonably short hours and good training finished equal bottom at 8 per cent each.

Then the foreman would come and say, ‘Well, you’ve got to produce faster.’ But it just didn’t work out like that, because you felt you were working and sweating hard enough as it was . . . Over the years, observers of the industrial scene (such as Graham Turner) tended to find the factory and its environs a sullen, dispiriting sort of place. The work itself was so intensely narrow and repetitive that the concept of any intrinsic job satisfaction was unimaginable; a high proportion of the workforce, going back to the 1930s, were incomers to the area attracted solely by the material rewards of the work – men characterised by Turner as often ‘at odds with their particular situation or with society in general, the misfits, the dissatisfied and the restless’. As for Dagenham itself: The only relief amid the vistas of identical houses [almost entirely built by the London County Council between the wars] is the occasional mild rash of shops, garnishing the burial mounds thrown up to allow the District Line tube to pass beneath them.


pages: 585 words: 165,304

Trust: The Social Virtue and the Creation of Prosperity by Francis Fukuyama

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, business climate, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Gilder, glass ceiling, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, industrial robot, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mittelstand, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transfer pricing, traveling salesman, union organizing

In this view, the Italian family firm combines unalienating small size, craft skills, and respect for family traditions with efficiency, technological sophistication, and other benefits usually associated with large scale. Robert Putnam portrays economic activity in these regions as the epitome of civic-minded cooperativeness, where business networks dovetail with local government to provide job satisfaction and prosperity for everyone.33 But is this network organization of small-scale firms the wave of the future, a New Age form of industrial organization that combines economies of scale with the intimacy of small workplaces and the reunion of ownership and management?34 It is certainly not the case that Italy has had to pay an economic price for the relatively small scale of its businesses.

One study that surveyed the views of workers in four countries found that skilled workers were concerned with having jobs that were intrinsically interesting or fulfilling, while unskilled workers were more interested in income. Many new entrants and low-skill workers, moreover, believed that having a factory job in the first place conferred significant social status. William H. Form, “Auto Workers and Their Machines: A Study of Work, Factory, and Job Satisfaction in Four Countries,” Social Forces 52 (1973): 1-15. 27On the Hawthorne experiments, see Hirszowicz (1982), pp. 52-54. 28See Elton Mayo, The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (New York: Macmillan, 1933), and The Social Problems of an Industrialized Civilization (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1962). 29Ian Jamieson, “Some Observations on Socio-Cultural Explanations of Economic Behavior,” Sociological Review 26 (1978): 777-805.


Adaptive Markets: Financial Evolution at the Speed of Thought by Andrew W. Lo

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, algorithmic trading, Andrei Shleifer, Arthur Eddington, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, backtesting, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, break the buck, Brownian motion, business process, butterfly effect, capital asset pricing model, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Carmen Reinhart, Chance favours the prepared mind, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computerized trading, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Diane Coyle, diversification, diversified portfolio, double helix, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Ernest Rutherford, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, framing effect, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, housing crisis, incomplete markets, index fund, interest rate derivative, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Meriwether, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, martingale, merger arbitrage, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, money market fund, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, old-boy network, out of africa, p-value, paper trading, passive investing, Paul Lévy, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, predatory finance, prediction markets, price discovery process, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, RAND corporation, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, statistical arbitrage, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, survivorship bias, The Great Moderation, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, ultimatum game, Upton Sinclair, US Airways Flight 1549, Walter Mischel, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

It may be years before finance has a “quant psych” revolution. 390 • Chapter 11 Without reasonably accurate numbers, behavioral risk management is more aspirational than operational. Financial risk management has an enormous analytic base, up to and including million-dollar soft ware platforms and real-time data vendors. There’s nothing comparable to support behavioral risk managers . . . yet. Psychological profiles, social network maps, and job satisfaction surveys are currently assigned to human resources departments, not risk committees or corporate boards. Nevertheless, the starting point for any scientific endeavor is always measurement. While quantitative behavioral risk models are under construction, the Adaptive Markets Hypothesis suggests one thing we can do in the meantime: develop an integrated view of the corporate ecosystem. We can learn a great deal about behavioral risks qualitatively by documenting the reward structure for individuals within an organization.

GAO (2013). 36. Ibid., 33–38. 37. Ibid., 11. 38. Ibid., 16–17. 39. SEC (2014, 132). These changes seem to be having an impact. The SEC’s score on the Office of Personnel Management’s Global Satisfaction Index—based on the same survey cited in the GAO’s quoted report—improved from 59 in 2012 to 65 in 2014 (Office of Personnel Management, 2014). For comparison, in 2014 the agency with the highest job satisfaction rating was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (an index value of 74), the agency with the lowest rating was the Department of Homeland Security (an index value of 48), and the governmentwide index value was 59. 40. Cohn, Fehr, and Maréchal (2014). 41. Ibid., 86. 42. Gibson, Tanner, and Wagner (2016). 43. Dyck, Morse, and Zingales (2013). 44. Deason, Rajgopal, and Waymire (2015). 45.


pages: 251 words: 88,754

The politics of London: governing an ungovernable city by Tony Travers

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active transport: walking or cycling, congestion charging, first-past-the-post, full employment, job satisfaction, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, new economy, urban sprawl

But, in the day-to-day business of holding the mayor to account, the powers given to the assembly were so limited that the mayor can, for the most part, simply ignore the assembly. Second, the powers that were given to the assembly have, for the most part, not been used effectively. Members evidently enjoy some aspects of their job more than others. High-profile activities such as mayor’s question time, or membership of the police and fire authorities, have offered greater job satisfaction than the often slow and painstaking business of holding inquiries and writing reports on aspects of London government. As has been stated, there was virtually no scrutiny of services such as police or fire and emergencies during the early years of the new authority. Using an analysis similar to that shown earlier for the mayor, an examination of the assembly’s press activity during the first three quarters of 2002 shows the environment as its main preoccupation (see Table 8.3).


pages: 319 words: 89,477

The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion by John Hagel Iii, John Seely Brown

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, game design, George Gilder, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Louis Pasteur, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Maui Hawaii, medical residency, Network effects, old-boy network, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, software as a service, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs

For more information, please contact the Special Markets Department at the Perseus Books Group, 2300 Chestnut Street, Suite 200, Philadelphia, PA 19103, or call (800) 810-4145, ext. 5000, or e-mail special.markets@perseusbooks.com. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hagel, John. The power of pull : how small moves, smartly made, can set big things in motion/ John Hagel III, John Seely Brown, and Lang Davison. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. eISBN : 978-0-465-02113-0 1. Organizational change—Social aspects. 2. Success in business. 3. Motivation (Psychology) 4. Job satisfaction. 5. Social change. I. Brown, John Seely. II. Davison, Lang. III. Title. HD58.7.H334 2010 303.4—dc22 2009047323 Table of Contents Title Page Dedication Introduction Chapter 1 - The Diminishing Power of Push WHAT IS PUSH? THE ORIGINS OF PUSH A CAUTIONARY TALE THREE WAVES OF THE BIG SHIFT Chapter 2 - Access in an Unpredictable World SCALING WHO KNOWS WHOM FROM PROGRAMS TO PLATFORMS THE LI & FUNG STORY THE PORTALPLAYER STORY BRINGING IT HOME Chapter 3 - Attracting What We Need THE SUPER-NODE THE NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF SERENDIPITY SHAPING SERENDIPITY: ENHANCING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF ATTENTION BRINGING IT HOME Chapter 4 - Achieving Our Potential—The Highest Level of Pull A NEW IMPERATIVE BUILDING UPON PULL PLATFORMS THE NEW CREATION SPACES SECRETS OF SUCCESS IN CREATION SPACES THE POTENTIAL FOR COLLABORATION CURVES BRINGING IT HOME Chapter 5 - The Individual’s Path to Pull EMERGING ELEMENTS OF TRANSFORMATION DRIVING INDIVIDUAL TRANSFORMATION BRINGING IT HOME Chapter 6 - Pulling from the Top of Institutions PRESSURE IS MOUNTING DRIVING SUCCESSFUL INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE BRINGING IT HOME Chapter 7 - Using Pull to Change the World SHAPING THROUGH PULL ELEMENTS OF THE SHAPING JOURNEY WHO CAN SHAPE?


pages: 358 words: 95,115

NurtureShock: New Thinking About Children by Po Bronson, Ashley Merryman

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affirmative action, Columbine, delayed gratification, desegregation, impulse control, index card, job satisfaction, lake wobegon effect, meta analysis, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, theory of mind

., Anjali Mishra, William E. Breen, and Jeffrey J. Froh, “Gender Differences in Gratitude: Examining Appraisals, Narratives, and the Willingness to Express Emotions, and Changes in Psychological Needs,” Journal of Personality, vol. 77, no. 3 (Early view) (2009). McCausland, W. D., K. Pouliakas, and I. Theodossiou, “Some Are Punished and Some Are Rewarded: A Study of the Impact of Performance Pay on Job Satisfaction,” University of Aberdeen Business School Working Paper No. 2007–06 (2007). Padilla-Walker, Laura, “Characteristics of Mother-Child Interactions Related to Adolescents’ Positive Values and Behaviors,” Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 69, pp. 675–686 (2007). Padilla-Walker, Laura M., and Gustavo Carlo, “Personal Values as a Mediator Between Parent and Peer Expectations and Adolescent Behaviors,” Journal of Family Psychology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 538–541 (2007).


pages: 261 words: 103,244

Economists and the Powerful by Norbert Haring, Norbert H. Ring, Niall Douglas

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, bank run, barriers to entry, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, central bank independence, collective bargaining, commodity trading advisor, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, diversified portfolio, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, illegal immigration, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, law of one price, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, new economy, obamacare, old-boy network, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Renaissance Technologies, rolodex, Sergey Aleynikov, shareholder value, short selling, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, ultimatum game, union organizing, Vilfredo Pareto, working-age population, World Values Survey

Together with his co-author Gordon Tullock, Buchanan in 1967 founded the Public Choice Society, which would be extremely successful in promoting and spreading these views in the profession (Amadae 2003). In part one of the BBC’s 2007 documentary The Trap: What Happened to Our Dream of Freedom, in an interview Buchanan is extremely clear: he considers “the public interest” as being in fact the disguised self-interest of governing bureaucrats, and that anyone motivated by anything other than rational self-interest – such as job satisfaction, a sense of public duty, or faith in God – is a zealot and to be feared as destabilizing and dangerous to society. In The Logic of Collective Action, Mancur Olson opposes any theory that works with the assumption that groups work together to further the group’s interests. While earlier theorists had deemed such behavior among group members rational, Olson insisted that it was the opposite.


pages: 335 words: 104,850

Conscious Capitalism, With a New Preface by the Authors: Liberating the Heroic Spirit of Business by John Mackey, Rajendra Sisodia, Bill George

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Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, Flynn Effect, income per capita, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, shareholder value, six sigma, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, wealth creators, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

But we believe that the millennial generation (those born between approximately 1980 and 2000) that is coming of age right now will be the primary creators of change.1 From their ranks will emerge the entrepreneurs who will create the future conscious businesses and conscious nonprofits that will radically accelerate our collective social and economic evolution. According to Jeanne Meister and Karie Willyerd, “Millennials view work as a key part of life, not a separate activity that needs to be ‘balanced’ by it … They want work to afford them the opportunity to make new friends, learn new skills, and connect to a larger purpose. That sense of purpose is a key factor in their job satisfaction; according to our research, they’re the most socially conscious generation since the 1960s.”2 A Shared Dream Our dream for the Conscious Capitalism movement is simple: One day, virtually every business will operate with a sense of higher purpose, integrate the interests of all stakeholders, develop and elevate conscious leaders, and build a culture of trust, accountability, and caring.


pages: 320 words: 96,006

The End of Men: And the Rise of Women by Hanna Rosin

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affirmative action, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, edge city, facts on the ground, financial independence, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Northern Rock, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, Results Only Work Environment, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, white picket fence, women in the workforce, young professional

At the forum he was lamenting that we teach our men to be “disposable” when we send them out to battle and cheer them at football games even though we know they might get injured. Farrell often tells the story of how he was in such a hurry to get through his studies and assume his breadwinning role that he failed some of his PhD exams. This experience taught him that men need to be liberated from their constricted sense of manhood. Some aspects of his visions have already come to pass: The younger generation of men does in fact aim for some job satisfaction and decent balance in their lives. Our expectation of fatherhood has changed dramatically since the seventies. There may not be all that many stay-at-home dads, but a father who is never home for family dinner or bedtime is out of tune with the times. Still, men have not yet fully embraced the message. There are many engaged fathers these days, but no men marching in the streets to demand paternity leave or flexible schedules.


pages: 363 words: 109,417

Big Dead Place: Inside the Strange and Menacing World of Antarctica by Nicholas Johnson

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job satisfaction, Milgram experiment, Ronald Reagan, telerobotics, trade route, young professional

I suddenly understood why boredom was a problem in Antarctica. I met him again while loading half-ton triwalls of food waste into a milvan with the pickle. Two triwalls barely fit side-by-side in a milvan, so a maladjusted pallet can require fancy work to avoid splitting one of them open. I had been loading waste for a few hours and thus was in the Zone, where speed and quality of physical labor unite in job satisfaction. Inside the pickle, and in the winter dark, you are essentially blind and deaf to the rear. Because the pickles are old, everything in the cab rattles, adding to the loud engine noise. I rolled backwards from the milvan, barely seeing a red-coated figure in the dark walking around. Workers know not to fuck around near machines without making eye contact with the operator. I was annoyed. I put the parking brake on and opened the door, and looked out at the figure.


pages: 502 words: 107,657

Predictive Analytics: The Power to Predict Who Will Click, Buy, Lie, or Die by Eric Siegel

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Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, backtesting, Black Swan, book scanning, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, call centre, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data is the new oil, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental subject, Google Glasses, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lifelogging, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mass immigration, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, personalized medicine, placebo effect, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steven Levy, text mining, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

For example: Your purchases relate to your shopping history, online behavior, and preferred payment method, and to the actions of your social contacts. Data reveals how to predict consumer behavior from these elements. Your health relates to your life choices and environment, and therefore data captures connections predictive of health based on type of neighborhood and household characteristics. Your job satisfaction relates to your salary, evaluations, and promotions, and data mirrors this reality. Financial behavior and human emotions are connected, so, as we’ll reveal later in this chapter, data may reflect that relationship as well. Data always speaks. It always has a story to tell, and there’s always something to learn from it. Data scientists see this over and over again across PA projects. Pull some data together and, although you can never be certain what you’ll find, you can be sure you’ll discover valuable connections by decoding the language it speaks and listening.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

In the preamble of its first annual “Values & Impact” progress report, Etsy describes its values, which are similar to Paul Polman’s: “To intercept the ecological and human crises that threaten us, we must redefine the ways in which capitalism operates. We believe that businesses are uniquely poised to create a sustainable and meaningful world.”8 In its first year of focusing on these issues, Etsy made incredible strides. For its employees, Etsy increased financial transparency, job satisfaction, opportunity, and fun quotient, and was acknowledged in 2013 with an award from the Great Place to Work Institute. Etsy improved its gender balance by increasing the number of female employees by 8 percent (to 46 percent of all employees) and the number of female managers (which went from 15 percent to 40 percent)—impressive and non-trivial improvements in a company whose workforce is dominated by engineers.


pages: 471 words: 97,152

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, George Santayana, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Unpublished paper, University of California-Berkeley, and Duke University, July. Akerlof, George A., and Paul M. Romer. 1993. “Looting: The Economic Underworld of Bankruptcy for Profit.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2:1–74. Akerlof, George A., and Janet L. Yellen. 1990. “The Fair Wage-Effort Hypothesis and Unemployment.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 105(2):255–83. Akerlof, George A., Andrew K. Rose, and Janet L. Yellen. 1988. “Job Switching and Job Satisfaction in the U.S. Labor Market.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2:495–582. Akerlof, George A., William T. Dickens, and George L. Perry. 1996. “The Macroeconomics of Low Inflation.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1:1–59. ———. 2000. “Near-Rational Wage and Price Setting and the Long-Run Phillips Curve.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1:1–44. Akerlof, Robert J. 2008. “A Theory of Social Interactions.”

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Computer Numeric Control, connected car, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

Simplify organisational structures As Bill Gore found, smaller, modular teams are more cohesive, more co-operative and have a greater sense of purpose, which in turn increases efficiency and creativity. Large firms need to find ways to keep teams small and tight-knit, flatten organisation and reduce internal complexity. They should try to replace pyramids with networks that link people according to their roles. Doing so will increase job satisfaction, reduce burnout and improve work performance. Empower employees A top-down management culture can be powerful in a crisis, but it will not make a company flexible and agile. Given that creative and skilled employees have increasing job options, firms must seek frugal ways to attract and retain them. One way is to let employees make and implement their own decisions. Following Lego’s 2004 turnaround, Jørgen Vig Knudstorp realised that the company “required a looser structure and a relaxation of the top-down management style imposed during the turnaround”.


pages: 410 words: 101,260

Originals: How Non-Conformists Move the World by Adam Grant

Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, availability heuristic, barriers to entry, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, double helix, Elon Musk, fear of failure, Firefox, George Santayana, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum viable product, Network effects, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, women in the workforce

Detert, and Dan S. Chiaburu, “Quitting Before Leaving: The Mediating Effects of Psychological Attachment and Detachment on Voice,” Journal of Applied Psychology 93 (2008): 912–22. exit, voice, persistence, and neglect: Caryl E. Rusbult, Dan Farrell, Glen Rogers, and Arch G. Mainous III, “Impact of Exchange Variables on Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect: An Integrative Model of Responses to Declining Job Satisfaction,” Academy of Management Journal 31 (1988): 599–627; Michael J. Withey and William H. Cooper, “Predicting Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect,” Administrative Science Quarterly 34 (1989): 521–39. these choices are based on feelings of control and commitment: Subrahmaniam Tangirala and Rangaraj Ramanujam, “Exploring Nonlinearity in Employee Voice: The Effects of Personal Control and Organizational Identification,” Academy of Management Journal 51 (2008): 1189–1203.


pages: 349 words: 134,041

Traders, Guns & Money: Knowns and Unknowns in the Dazzling World of Derivatives by Satyajit Das

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, beat the dealer, Black Swan, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, BRICs, Brownian motion, business process, buy low sell high, call centre, capital asset pricing model, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, disintermediation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Thorp, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Everything should be made as simple as possible, financial innovation, fixed income, Haight Ashbury, high net worth, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index card, index fund, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, John Meriwether, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass affluent, mega-rich, merger arbitrage, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Journalism, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Parkinson's law, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, Right to Buy, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, technology bubble, the medium is the message, the new new thing, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, value at risk, Vanguard fund, volatility smile, yield curve, Yogi Berra, zero-coupon bond

If you ask them to build these models, they react like Marvin, the paranoid android in The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy. Marvin is equipped with a massively powerful computer and GPP (genuine people personalities). He is constantly depressed by the trivial activities that humans want him to undertake. Permanently bored, he constantly bemoans his fate in a dull monotone to anyone in earshot: ‘Here I am brain the size of a planet and they ask me to take you down to the bridge. Call that job satisfaction?’3 Quants given tasks they consider trivial behave identically. Grand oprey Option pricing is the Holy Grail of derivative pricing. Black, Scholes and Merton solved the problem and garnered the attendant recognition. The solu- DAS_C07.QXP 8/7/06 190 4:45 PM Page 190 Tr a d e r s , G u n s & M o n e y tion is breathtaking in its elegance, the derivative equivalent of Michelangelo’s David.


pages: 453 words: 132,400

Flow by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

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Albert Einstein, Bonfire of the Vanities, centralized clearinghouse, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, double helix, fear of failure, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Necker cube, pattern recognition, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Vilfredo Pareto

., Csikszentmihalyi & Graef 1979, 1980; Graef, Csikszentmihalyi, & Gianinno, 1983; Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre 1987, 1989; and LeFevre 1988). The conclusions are based on the momentary responses adult workers wrote down whenever they were paged at random times on their jobs. When workers respond to large-scale surveys, however, they often tend to give much more favorable global responses. A compilation of 15 studies of job satisfaction carried out between 1972 and 1978 concluded that 3 percent of U.S. workers are “very dissatisfied” with their jobs, 9 percent are “somewhat dissatisfied,” 36 percent are “somewhat satisfied,” and 52 percent are “very satisfied” (Argyle 1987, pp. 31–63). A more recent national survey conducted by Robert Half International and reported in the Chicago Tribune (Oct. 18, 1987, sect. 8) arrives at much less rosy results.


pages: 482 words: 122,497

The Wrecking Crew: How Conservatives Rule by Thomas Frank

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affirmative action, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, edge city, financial deregulation, full employment, George Gilder, guest worker program, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, P = NP, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, War on Poverty

These inconceivable expenditures—this greatest security effort ever, mounted by the mightiest nation in history—and it was all for nothing. We might as well have piled the banknotes up in a pasture somewhere and set them afire. From first to last the New Orleans disaster was a test of Bush’s “market-based” government. To start with, we have FEMA as it was in 2000, a well-run, freestanding federal agency whose employees reported high morale and job satisfaction; candidate George W. Bush even praised the agency in one of his debates with Al Gore. President George W. Bush then put FEMA under the charge of Joe Allbaugh, a Texas winger with no disaster experience but a long history at Bush’s side; Allbaugh proceeded to fill the place with political appointees and incompetent pals like the soon-to-be-notorious Michael Brown. Two years later Allbaugh left “Brownie” in charge and opened a lobby shop, representing companies that specialized in disaster relief and big reconstruction projects, much needed in Iraq in those days.


pages: 458 words: 134,028

Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white picket fence, women in the workforce, Y2K

And at every level, people really like being Stay-at-Home Workers. Apart from the control and flexibility that the entrepreneurs have, the 35 percent of home-based workers who don’t run their own business, but are employed by other companies or organizations, also report a lot of joy. According to a study by the American Business Collaboration, 76 percent of full-time telecommuters report high job satisfaction, compared with only 56 percent of on-site workers. And it’s not because they’re taking it easy. People who work from home full-time put in an average of 44.6 hours per week, compared with just 42.2 hours contributed by full-time on-site workers. Employers are happy not just about all that extra work, but also about the tax credits they get for reducing employees’ smog emissions, and increased savings in office space.


pages: 446 words: 138,827

What Should I Do With My Life? by Po Bronson

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back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, clean water, double entry bookkeeping, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, high net worth, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, telemarketer, traffic fines, young professional

Getting my degree shaped my character, taught me how to think. If you think starting a business is like winning the Lotto, something that you gamble on and luck into, and whoopee, then Lotto odds are about your odds. But if you develop the character—then yeah, the odds are pretty darn good you’ll succeed.” On our next break, I asked him how important renewable energy was to him. Was that a big part of his job satisfaction? He said that it was, but probably just as important was that the product of his labor was up on people’s roofs, for all to see. In the public eye. “Electricians don’t normally get that kind of visibility. Our work is hidden. You only think about it if it’s broke. This is different, and it’s a kind of pride I didn’t anticipate. This is our fourth job, and I love being able to look up and say, I did that.”


pages: 561 words: 114,843

Startup CEO: A Field Guide to Scaling Up Your Business, + Website by Matt Blumberg

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activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, airport security, Albert Einstein, bank run, Broken windows theory, crowdsourcing, deskilling, fear of failure, high batting average, high net worth, hiring and firing, Inbox Zero, James Hargreaves, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, pattern recognition, performance metric, pets.com, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype

., the next sale, software deployment, capital raise or satisfied customer) and honor them. Celebrating these will keep your team and you energized. 4. Add meaning to your endeavor by making it about more than money. Be sure you can describe how your business will make your clients or customers and potentially the world better off. Research makes it clear that individuals who find their work meaningful beyond financial rewards report higher job satisfaction, higher job performance, less job stress and longer tenure. This includes the CEO! While not a psychologist or social scientist, perhaps Teddy Roosevelt said it best. It is not the critic who counts: not the man who points out how the strong man stumbles or where the doer of deeds could have done better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena, whose face is marred by dust and sweat and blood, who strives valiantly, who errs and comes up short again and again, because there is no effort without error or shortcoming but who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions, who spends himself for a worthy cause; who, at the best, knows, in the end, the triumph of high achievement and who, at the worst, if he fails, at least he fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who knew neither victory nor defeat.


pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

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3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, peer-to-peer rental, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

That poster captures the way many Europeans feel. Long before the crisis, many were pessimistic. Now, many more are in a funk; some have sunk into despair or resignation. People assume that computers and the Chinese will take their jobs. Most Europeans expect the next generation to have a worse life in nearly every respect: less time with their families, less comfortable housing, less job security, less job satisfaction and less secure pensions. To paraphrase Hobbes, they think their children’s lives will be “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish” (and long). A mere 16 per cent of Spaniards, 11 per cent of French and 7 per cent of Italians think young Europeans will have more opportunities than their parents’ generation to earn a high salary; Britons (24 per cent) and Germans (26 per cent) are scarcely more optimistic.763 This negativity is so deeply ingrained that people scarcely notice it any more.


pages: 436 words: 141,321

Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness by Frederic Laloux, Ken Wilber

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Albert Einstein, augmented reality, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, failed state, future of work, hiring and firing, index card, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, the market place, the scientific method, Tony Hsieh, zero-sum game

These numbers fail to include what might be even more important—how patients feel about the emotional and relational support they receive during their illness or the last years of their life. Trying to put numbers on this would be arbitrary and ultimately meaningless. It would be equally pointless to try to peg a dollar value to the sense of vocation that has been restored to nurses. A common phrase heard within Buurtzorg teams is, “I have my job back.” Some numbers do testify to the level of job satisfaction: absenteeism for sickness is 60 percent lower at Buurtzorg and turnover 33 percent lower than in traditional (Orange) nursing organizations. Nurses at traditional organizations are leaving in droves to join Buurtzorg, which has gone from a start-up with 10 nurses in late 2006 to a point in 2013 at which it employs two-thirds of all neighborhood nurses in the Netherlands. Buurtzorg is single-handedly transforming a key component of the health care industry in the Netherlands.


pages: 309 words: 114,984

The Digital Doctor: Hope, Hype, and Harm at the Dawn of Medicine’s Computer Age by Robert Wachter

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activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Glasses, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, lifelogging, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, pets.com, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, US Airways Flight 1549, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra

“These are highly competitive, highly educated people who really don’t like the idea of being behind the curve at all. Except, you hear this from everybody, so they’re evidently not talking about it with each other.” The survey results weren’t all bad news for electronic health record boosters: 61 percent of physicians felt their EHR improved the quality of care they delivered to patients. But only one in three felt it had improved their job satisfaction, and one in five said they would go back to paper if they could. Tellingly, the more advanced the EHR (for example, systems that offered reminders, alerts, and messaging capability), the greater the unhappiness. Many physicians pointed to data entry as the greatest source of heartburn. A separate 2013 survey reported that, since going digital, 85 percent of office-based doctors felt they were now spending more time on documentation, and two-thirds of them were seeing fewer patients.

Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

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Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Consalvo & C. Ess (Eds.), The handbook of Internet studies. Oxford, England: Wiley-Blackwell. Kerr, J. L. (2004). The limits of organizational democracy. The Academy of Management Executive, 18(3), 81–95. Kiel: Difference between revisions. (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia .org/w/index.php?title=Kiel&diff=2839601&oldid=2838532 Kim, S. (2002). Participative management and job satisfaction: Lessons for management leadership. Public Administration Review, 62(2), 231–241. Kittur, A., & Kraut, R. E. (2008). Harnessing the wisdom of crowds in Wikipedia: Quality through coordination. In CSCW ’08: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (pp. 37–46). New York: ACM. Kittur, A., Chi, E., Pendleton, B. A., Suh, B., & Mytkowicz, T. (2007, April 28–May 3).


pages: 405 words: 130,840

The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom by Jonathan Haidt

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crack epidemic, delayed gratification, feminist movement, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Lao Tzu, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Peter Singer: altruism, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, placebo effect, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Waldo Emerson, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, the scientific method, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game

Because there is no consummatory climax, satisfaction has to be seen as lying in a considerable series of transactions, in a trend of behavior rather than a goal that is achieved.21 T h e effectance motive helps explain the progress principle: We get m o r e pleasure from making progress toward our goals than we do from achieving I hem because, as Shakespeare said, "Joy's soul lies in the doing."22 Now we can look at the conditions of modern work. Karl Marx's criticism of capitalism23 was based in part on his justified claim that the Industrial Revolution had destroyed the historical relationship between craftsmen and I he goods they produced. Assembly-line work turned people into cogs in a giant machine, and the machine didn't care about workers' need for effectance. Later research on job satisfaction supported Marx's critique, but ndded nuance. In 1964, the sociologists Melvin Kohn and C a r m i S c h o o l e r 2 4 surveyed 3,100 American men about their jobs and found that the key to understanding which jobs were satisfying was what they called " o c c u p a - tional self direction." M e n who were closely supervised in jobs of low c o m - plexity and m u c h routine showed the highest degree of alienation (feeling powerless, dissatisfied, and separated from the work).


pages: 387 words: 120,155

Inside the Nudge Unit: How Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference by David Halpern

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, collaborative consumption, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, libertarian paternalism, light touch regulation, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nudge unit, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, presumed consent, QR code, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, the built environment, theory of mind, traffic fines, World Values Survey

Even in business, outside of marketing more nuanced thinking about what really motivates people and attracts their attention is surprisingly rare. For example, managers tend to focus too much on extrinsic rewards, notably money, and much less on all the other factors that tend to motivate people to take up a job or to work hard. Itself illustrating a behavioural effect, managers tend to think of themselves as being motivated by a wide range of factors, such as job satisfaction, but when thinking of others they tend to neglect these intrinsic factors and instead focus overly on pay and rewards. Often they would be better off walking the floor and saying thank you than worrying about the annual bonuses. Like other nudges, ‘attract!’ will be most effective where you are prompting or reminding someone to do something that they know they should probably do anyway, such as slowing down as they approach a school or paying an overdue fine.


pages: 270 words: 132,960

Use of Weapons by Iain M Banks

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centre right, double helix, gravity well, job satisfaction, oil shale / tar sands, trade route

'Like I say; some people would say they're too soft.' He took the little gun from he footboard and put it into a pocket of his pantaloons. The man stood slowly. The Ethnarch's heart still pounded, but in his eyes there were tears. The young man leant down, picked up some clothes and threw them at the Ethnarch, who grabbed at them, held them to his chest. 'My offer stands,' the Ethnarch Kerian said. 'I can give you -' 'Job satisfaction,' the young man sighed, staring at one set of fingernails. 'That's all you can give me, Ethnarch. I'm not interested in anything else. Get dressed; you're leaving.' The Ethnarch started to pull on his shirt. 'Are you sure? I believe I have invented some new vices even the old Empire didn't know about. I'd be willing to share them with you.' 'No, thank you.' 'Who are these people you're talking about, anyway?'


pages: 538 words: 138,544

The Story of Stuff: The Impact of Overconsumption on the Planet, Our Communities, and Our Health-And How We Can Make It Better by Annie Leonard

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air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, dematerialisation, employer provided health coverage, energy security, European colonialism, Firefox, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, global supply chain, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, liberation theology, McMansion, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, supply-chain management, the built environment, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Wall-E, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

An important breakthrough in their model was empowering any worker along the line to pull the “stop cord” if they detected a problem with the product. Immediately the root cause of the problem (faulty machine, sick worker, bad design) would be investigated and fixed; this kind of troubleshooting is way more cost-effective than waiting until an inspector at the tail end of the assembly line finds flaws in the finished products. This innovation is credited for giving workers a greater sense of responsibility and job satisfaction, although it led to some workers accusing one another of “speeding up the line” and negated many of the pro-worker concessions that the labor movement had won in prior generations’ struggles.3 Over the years, lean manufacturing has gotten uglier. Manufacturers analyzed assembly line production ad nauseam to figure out every possible way to cut any expense that didn’t add value to the end product.

The Future of Technology by Tom Standage

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air freight, barriers to entry, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, creative destruction, disintermediation, distributed generation, double helix, experimental economics, full employment, hydrogen economy, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, job satisfaction, labour market flexibility, Marc Andreessen, market design, Menlo Park, millennium bug, moral hazard, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, railway mania, rent-seeking, RFID, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, software as a service, spectrum auction, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Ballmer, technology bubble, telemarketer, transcontinental railway, Y2K

It is more effective than traditional insulation, he says, saves money and is easier on the environment. Green buildings can also have less obvious economic benefits. The 302 ENERGY use of natural daylight in office buildings, for example, as well as reducing energy costs, seems to make workers more productive. Studies conducted by Rachel and Stephen Kaplan, environmental psychologists at the University of Michigan, found that employees with views of a natural landscape report greater job satisfaction, less stress and fewer illnesses. Lockheed Martin, an aerospace firm, found that absenteeism fell by 15% after it moved 2,500 employees into a new green building in Sunnyvale, California. The increase in productivity paid for the building’s higher construction costs within a year. Similarly, the use of daylight in shopping complexes appears to increase sales. The Heschong Mahone Group, a California-based consultancy that specialises in energy-efficient building technologies, found that sales were as much as 40% higher in stores lit with skylights.


Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960-2010 by Charles Murray

affirmative action, assortative mating, blue-collar work, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, George Gilder, Haight Ashbury, happiness index / gross national happiness, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, new economy, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working-age population, young professional

Take, for example, the work satisfaction variable, which has four categories: “very dissatisfied,” “a little dissatisfied,” “moderately satisfied,” and “very satisfied.” The analysis gives you a separate number—the size of the boost—for each of the four categories. The more complicated version of multivariate analysis asks what happens when we consider how permutations interact—a happy marriage with no religion, high social trust with high job satisfaction, and so on. The problem is that the number of permutations grows exponentially with the addition of variables. It is easily possible to calculate analyses that contain every permutation of several variables—the computer doesn’t get tired—but the great majority of the numbers associated with the interaction terms are not only going to be statistically nonsignificant, they are going to be so small that they have no discernible effect on the probability of responding “very happy.”

The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology by Ray Kurzweil

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additive manufacturing, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Brewster Kahle, Brownian motion, business intelligence, c2.com, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, factory automation, friendly AI, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, linked data, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, Mikhail Gorbachev, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, premature optimization, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, remote working, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Y2K, Yogi Berra

Not every caller is satisfied with the ability of these virtual agents to get the job done, but most systems provide a means to get a human on the line. Companies using these systems report that they reduce the need for human service agents up to 80 percent. Aside from the money saved, reducing the size of call centers has a management benefit. Call-center jobs have very high turnover rates because of low job satisfaction. It's said that men are loath to ask others for directions, but car vendors are betting that both male and female drivers will be willing to ask their own car for help in getting to their destination. In 2005 the Acura RL and Honda Odyssey will be offering a system from IBM that allows users to converse with their cars.208 Driving directions will include street names (for example, "turn left on Main Street, then right on Second Avenue").


pages: 801 words: 242,104

Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed by Jared Diamond

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clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Donner party, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, means of production, new economy, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, profit motive, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transcontinental railway, unemployed young men

The hardrock mining industry is the prime example of a business whose short-term favoring of its own interests over those of the public proved in the long term self-defeating and have been driving the industry into extinction. This sad outcome is initially surprising. Like the oil industry, the hardrock mining industry too stands to benefit from clean environmental policies, through lower labor costs (less turnover and absenteeism) resulting from higher job satisfaction, lower health costs, cheaper bank loans and insurance policies, community acceptance, less risk of the public blocking projects, and the relative cheapness of installing state-of-the-art clean technology at a project’s outset as compared to having to retrofit old technology as environmental standards become more stringent. How could the hardrock mining industry have adopted such self-defeating behavior, especially when the oil industry and the coal mining industry facing apparently similar problems have not driven themselves towards extinction?


pages: 753 words: 233,306

Collapse by Jared Diamond

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clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Donner party, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, means of production, new economy, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, prisoner's dilemma, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transcontinental railway, unemployed young men

The hardrock mining industry is the prime example of a business whose short-term favoring of its own interests over those of the public proved in the long term self-defeating and have been driving the industry into extinction. This sad outcome is initially surprising. Like the oil industry, the hardrock mining industry too stands to benefit from clean environmental policies, through lower labor costs (less turnover and absenteeism) resulting from higher job satisfaction, lower health costs, cheaper bank loans and insurance policies, community acceptance, less risk of the public blocking projects, and the relative cheapness of installing state-of-the-art clean technology at a project's outset as compared to having to retrofit old technology as environmental standards become more stringent. How could the hardrock mining industry have adopted such self-defeating behavior, especially when the oil industry and the coal mining industry facing apparently similar problems have not driven themselves towards extinction?


pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

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Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Derek Parfit, who has spent his entire life at All Souls College at Oxford, which is elite even within Oxford. Derek wrote a book called Reasons and Persons, which Will considers one of the most important books written in the 20th century. “Follow Your Passion” Is Terrible Advice “I think it misconstrues the nature of finding a satisfying career and satisfying job, where the biggest predictor of job satisfaction is mentally engaging work. It’s the nature of the job itself. It’s not got that much to do with you. . . . It’s whether the job provides a lot of variety, gives you good feedback, allows you to exercise autonomy, contributes to the wider world—Is it actually meaningful? Is it making the world better?—and also, whether it allows you to exercise a skill that you’ve developed.” ✸ Most gifted books for life improvement and general effectiveness Mindfulness by Mark Williams and Danny Penman.


pages: 719 words: 181,090

Site Reliability Engineering by Betsy Beyer, Chris Jones, Jennifer Petoff, Niall Richard Murphy

Air France Flight 447, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, continuous integration, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, database schema, defense in depth, DevOps, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Flash crash, George Santayana, Google Chrome, Google Earth, job automation, job satisfaction, linear programming, load shedding, loose coupling, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum viable product, MVC pattern, performance metric, platform as a service, revision control, risk tolerance, side project, six sigma, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, trickle-down economics, web application, zero day

On the flip side, individual SREs, as well as the broader SRE organization, also benefit from SRE-driven software development. Fully fledged software development projects within SRE provide career development opportunities for SREs, as well as an outlet for engineers who don’t want their coding skills to get rusty. Long-term project work provides much-needed balance to interrupts and on-call work, and can provide job satisfaction for engineers who want their careers to maintain a balance between software engineering and systems engineering. Beyond the design of automation tools and other efforts to reduce the workload for engineers in SRE, software development projects can further benefit the SRE organization by attracting and helping to retain engineers with a broad variety of skills. The desirability of team diversity is doubly true for SRE, where a variety of backgrounds and problem-solving approaches can help prevent blind spots.


pages: 1,744 words: 458,385

The Defence of the Realm by Christopher Andrew

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active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Clive Stafford Smith, collective bargaining, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Desert Island Discs, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, large denomination, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, Red Clydeside, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, strikebreaker, Torches of Freedom, traveling salesman, union organizing, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Winter of Discontent

Morale in the Security Service at the beginning of the twenty-first century, following the end of the era of cutbacks, was high. In April 2000 a ‘Staff Opinion Survey’, conducted for the first time by an external consultant, produced ‘some of the highest scores we have seen in the ten years we have been involved with staff surveys and this applies to both the public and private sector . . .’63 In recent years only the romantic publisher Mills and Boon had registered even higher job satisfaction ratings in surveys carried out by the consultant.64 Collaboration with SIS was closer than at any time since Cumming and Kell sat in the same office in the Drew detective agency in 1909. In the spring of 2001 the Security Service carried out an ‘audit’ of relations with SIS among its nineteen section heads. All reported that they knew their opposite numbers in SIS and that members of their sections had visited SIS within the last three months.

Ever since the First World War MI5’s sociable work culture has been singled out by retired staff members as one of their main memories of the Service.2 One 1953 recruit recalls being told by a personnel officer, ‘One of the best things about working here is that the percentage of bastards is extremely low.’ The aloof management style of a number of the director generals selected by ministers and Whitehall committees during the Cold War did little to diminish the sociability of the Service as a whole. Despite the dip in morale produced by the post-Cold War cutbacks, twenty-firstcentury Staff Opinion Surveys recorded some of the highest job-satisfaction ratings in either the public or the private sector. During its first century the Security Service had to reorient itself repeatedly to new threats to national security which, in most cases, were difficult, if not impossible, to foresee. For eighty years its changing priorities were largely determined by unprecedented upheavals in the political systems of the two largest continental powers, Germany and Russia.


pages: 926 words: 312,419

Working: People Talk About What They Do All Day and How They Feel About What They Do by Studs Terkel

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call centre, card file, cuban missile crisis, Ford paid five dollars a day, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, job satisfaction, Ralph Nader, strikebreaker, traveling salesman, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Yogi Berra, zero day

Terkel found, work was a search, sometimes successful, sometimes not, “for daily meaning as well as daily bread.” The oral histories in Working are wistful dispatches from a distant era. The early. 1970s were the waning days of the old economy, when modern management practices and computers were just beginning to transform the American workplace. In the last thirty years, productivity has soared, but job satisfaction has plummeted. It is hard to read Working without thinking about what has gone wrong in the workplace. Mr. Terkel’s ragtag collection of little-guy monologues was a runaway bestseller. Part of its appeal was the unusual, occasionally illicit glimpses it offered into the ways of the world. “If you work nights and it’s real quiet, I don’t think there’s an operator who hasn’t listened in on calls,” a switchboard operator says.

Debt of Honor by Tom Clancy

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airport security, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, buttonwood tree, complexity theory, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, job satisfaction, margin call, New Journalism, oil shock, Silicon Valley, tulip mania

Oreza checked the diameter of the little button at the end of the slim metal whip and went for his tool kit. "Hello?" "Rachel? It's Dad." "You sure you're okay? Can I call you guys now?" "Honey, we're fine, but there's a problem here." How the hell to explain this? he wondered. Rachel Oreza Chandler was a prosecuting attorney in Boston, actually looking forward to leaving government service and becoming a criminal lawyer in private practice, where the job satisfaction was rarer, but the pay and hours were far better. Approaching thirty, she was now at the stage where she worried about her parents in much the same way they'd once worried about her. There was no sense in worrying Rachel now, he decided. "Could you get a phone number for me?" "Sure, what number?" "Coast Guard Headquarters. It's in D.C., at Buzzard's Point. I want the watch center. I'll wait," he told her.