On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures

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pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

The encounter in Merlin’s attic stokes an obsession in Babbage, a fascination with mechanical devices that convincingly emulate the subtleties of human behavior. He earns degrees in mathematics and astronomy as a young scholar, but maintains his interest in machines by studying the new factory systems that are sprouting across England’s industrial north. Almost thirty years after his visit to Merlin’s, he publishes a seminal analysis of industrial technology, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, a work that would go on to play a pivotal role in Marx’s Das Kapital two decades later. Around the same time, Babbage begins sketching plans for a calculating machine he calls the Difference Engine, an invention that will eventually lead him to the Analytical Engine several years later, now considered to be the first programmable computer ever imagined. We don’t know if the eight-year-old Babbage made a notable impression on Merlin himself.

227–30 artists as toolmakers, 175–81 Au Bonheur des Dames (Zola), 43–44 auditory illusions, 158–59, 165–66 automata clockworks, 6–7 Digesting Duck, 7, 79 flute player, 76–79 “Instrument Which Plays by Itself, The,” 73–76, 75 lifelike simulations of individual organisms, 7, 77 “Mechanical Turk,” 14 Writer, the, 7, 8 Babbage, Charles Analytic Engine, 10 Calculating Engine, 82 Difference Engine, 10, 14 On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, 10 inspired by Merlin’s Mechanical Museum, 9, 184, 284 interest in the technology of the Jacquard loom, 80–82 Baghdad (formerly Madinat al-Salam), 1–3 city design, 1–3 House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikma), 3 intellectual culture, 3–5 ball, importance of the, 210–15, 211, 212 Ballet Mécanique, 95–98 Balmat, Jacques, 263 Banu Musa, 3–5, 73–76 Banvard, John, 167, 172, 266 Barbon, Nicholas, 30 Barker, Robert, 5, 160–64, 167 baseball Cooperstown, New York, 199–200 lineage of, 199–200 Baudrillard, Jean, 273 Beethoven, Ludwig van, 166 Bellier-Beaumont, Ferréol, 129–30 Berry, Miles, 89 Birth of A Consumer Society, The (McKendrick, Brewer, and Plumb), 37 black belt, the, 33–34 Black Cat Tavern, 242–44 Black Death, 136–37 bodily humors, 134–35 bone flutes, 65–70, 66 Le Bon Marché, 41–46, 45 Book of Games of Chance, The (Cardano), 205, 207 Book of Ingenious Devices, The (Banu Masu), 3–5, 4, 73 Book of the Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanisms, The (al-Jazari), 2, 3–5 Boorstin, Daniel, 183 Boucicaut, Aristide, 40, 41–42, 48–49 Bradley, Milton, 195 Brand, Stewart, 219–20 Braudel, Fernand, 39–40 Brewer, John, 37 Brewster, David, 154–56, 156, 160 Brewster Stereoscope, 160 British East India Company, 28 British Magazine, 39 British Museum, 256–57 Brunelleschi, Filippo, 160, 175, 179 brutality of the Dutch regime Bandanese people of the Spice Islands, 119 Caribbean, 120, 120–21 Burrows, Edward G., 234 Burton, Mary, 235 “cabinet of wonders” (Wunderkammerns), 255–57, 256 caffeine as a memory enhancer, 247–48 as a natural weapon of the coffee plant, 247 calico “Calico Madams,” 28 made popular by window displays, 31 vivid colors of chintz and, 26–27, 27 capsaicin, 142 Cardano, Girolamo, 204, 205, 207–209, 222 Carlyle, Thomas, 153 casino games, 221–27 Caxton, William, 188 Cecil, William, 240 celebrities, 182–84 Cessolis, Jacobus de, 187–92, 194 chance.

See cinema Mumford, Lewis, 50 Murch, Walter, 175 murex snails sea voyages in search of, 18–19 source of Tyrian purple, 17–18, 19 music Ballet Mécanique, 95–98 boxes of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 76 consonance vs. dissonance, 68 cultural invention vs. evolutionary adaptation, 69–72 drawing wave patterns to produce, 103–106 electronic, 101–106 experimental, 95–98 fourths and fifths, 67 intermedi, 83–85 origins of, 67 phonograph, 94–95 physics of intervals, 67–68 Steven Pinker, 70–71 pinned cylinder, 74–77 pursuit of innovation in, 72 Pythagorean tuning, 68 and ratios, 68 recorded, sharing, 106–107 tempo, 96–97 musical instruments bone flutes, 65–70, 66 “Instrument Which Plays by Itself, The,” 73–76, 75 of the Medici intermedi, 84–85 Oramics Machine, 102–106, 105 panharmonicon, 166 pianoforte, 88, 92 player piano, 89, 92–95, 93 natural selection, 269–70 nature as a relaxing escape, 260–66 Nossa Senhora dos Martires (“Pepper Wreck”), 115–16, 117 “novelty bonus” when perceiving new experiences, 281, 282 nutmeg, 113–15, 114, 122–25 Obama, Barack, 33–34 occult shows, 149–50 Oldenburg, Ray, 246 Olmsted, Frederick Law, 274 On Painting (Alberti), 160 On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures (Babbage), 10 open-ended functionality of machines “Instrument Which Plays by Itself, The,” 75, 75–77 opium trade, 119 optical illusions, 155–56 Brewster Stereoscope, 160 Conflagration of Moscow, The, 164–66 evolutionary adaptations that allow, 174–75 eye as the source of most illusions, 157–58, 159 Kanizsa triangle, 157, 158 Kopfermann cube, 158, 158 linear perspective, 160–61 “Moving Panorama,” 167 Necker cube, 157–58, 158, 159 Panorama paintings, 160–64 persistence of vision, 172, 184 thaumatrope, 172, 174 zoetrope, 172 Oram, Daphne, 102–106, 105 Orlando, Florida, 274 outdoors, the Albert Smith’s Ascent of Mont Blanc (performance), 266 biophilia, 260 celebrated in art, 266 Claude glass, 265, 265–66 fear of wilderness, 260 Mont Blanc, 262–64 mountaineering, 262–64 national parks and wilderness preservation, 266 nature tourism, start of, 264–65 Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, 261, 262–64 Paccard, Michel, 263 panharmonicon, 166 Panorama paintings, 160–64, 162, 266 Parker Brothers, 199 Pascal, Blaise, 207–209 Patrickson, Thomas, 119 pepper biochemistry of, 142–43 Cookbook (Apicus), 118 as currency, 116 Natural History (Pliny the Elder), 118 Nossa Senhora dos Martires (“Pepper Wreck”), 115–16, 117 Queen Elizabeth I’s quest to acquire, 139–41 role in the fall of the Roman Empire, 118 perception, 159–60 Phantasmagoria, the, 150–55, 151 phase transitions, 181–82 Phenomenology of Spirit (Hegel), 151 Philidor, Paul, 149–50 Philipsthal, Paul de, 5, 154 phonograph, 94–95 Pilon, Mary, 195 Pinker, Steven, 70–71 piperine, 142–43 play encourages exploration and innovation, 73, 282 as insight into the future, 15 player piano concept of paying for new programming, 94 difficulties synchronizing more than one, 96–97 early versions, 89 pianola, 92–95, 93 pleasure, seeking, 71–73 “pleasuring grounds,” 274–76 Pliny the Elder, 118, 142 Plumb, J.


pages: 456 words: 123,534

The Dawn of Innovation: The First American Industrial Revolution by Charles R. Morris

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air freight, British Empire, business process, California gold rush, clean water, colonial exploitation, computer age, Dava Sobel, en.wikipedia.org, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, if you build it, they will come, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, lone genius, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, refrigerator car, Robert Gordon, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman

Swade notes that Babbage never considered the cost-benefit aspect of his great projects, assuming that government officials would be as drawn as he was to “ingenuity, intricacy, mastery of mechanism, and the seductive appeal of control over number.”37 Babbage was undoubtedly at the extreme end of other-worldliness, but he had a large and responsive audience. A book he published in 1833, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacturing,38 has an arid, academic tone; the first third is an exhaustive classification of machines as those for “Accumulating Power,” “Regulating Power,” “Extending the Time of Action of Forces,” and much else in that vein. Yet the first printing of 3,000 copies was sold out within a few weeks, and there were two more editions the next year. (The first printing of Charles Dickens’s A Christmas Carol, deemed “an immediate success with the public,” sold 6,000 copies.)

(New York: Dover, 1961), 346–354, quote at 351, plates at 380–384. 32 Swade, personal communication. 33 Babbage, Passages, 452. 34 The account here is from Swade, “A Modern Sequel,” Part 3 in Difference Engine. 35 Swade, Difference Engine, 292. 36 Ibid., 305. Note that Swade and his team did not attempt to make Babbage’s printer, which was of the same size and complexity of the DE2 itself. 37 Ibid., 201. 38 Charles Babbage, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacturing (London: John Murray, 1846). 39 Joseph Bizup, Manufacturing Culture: Vindications of Early Victorian Industry (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003), 8. 40 Ibid., 150. 41 The most detailed available history and analyses are Carolyn C. Cooper, “The Portsmouth System of Manufacture,” Technology and Culture 25, no. 2 (April 1984): 182–225, and Carolyn C. Cooper, “The Production Line at Portsmouth Block Mill,” Industrial Archaeology Review 6, no. 1 (Winter 1981–1982): 28–44.

Mulcaster, William Muskets interchangeable parts for loading/firing making pattern problems with Napoleon Napoleonic wars Nasmyth, James Natural resources Naval Chronicle Naval power on Great Lakes(table) on Lake Champlain(table) on Lake Erie(table) on Lake Ontario(table) (table)(table) Navigation Nelson, Horatio New Orleans New town movement New York Central New York City Yacht Club New York Harbor New York Herald New York Navy Yard New York Times Newcomen, Thomas: steam engine by (fig.) Newton, Isaac Niagara Niagara campaign Niagara River Suspension Bridge Niles, Hezekiel Niles Weekly Register Nobel brothers Nortel North, Simeon(fig.) contract for pistol making by North Star Northern Pacific Railroad Novelty Works Nugent, “Mountain Jim,” Nutrition, work output and O’Conor, Richard Ohio River hog processing and On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacturing (Babbage) Oneida Organization Pacific Pacific Railway Act (1862) Paper handling Papin, Denis Paris Exposition (1857) Parsons, Charles Parts problems with Party Politburo Patent Arms Manufacturing Company Patent law Patent Office Patents claim-jumping intellectual property and litigation over managing Pawtucket Canal Pearson, John Peddlers Pendulums Pennsylvania Railroad Percy, Henry Perkins, Jacob Perry Perry, Oliver Hazard Peterson Institute Philadelphia-Germantown Railroad Phonographs Pigou, trade restriction and Pike Pike, Zebulon Pillsbury Pistols contract for making Politics Pollution Pomeroy, Lemuel Popplewell, Frank Population growth(table) Porkopolis Portage Railroad Porter, Edward Porter, Levi Portsmouth block-making factory Postcards Potemkin, Grigory Alexandrovich Precision Prescott, Benjamin Prevost, George Chauncey and on St.


pages: 855 words: 178,507

The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood by James Gleick

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Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, bank run, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, butterfly effect, citation needed, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, lifelogging, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rubik’s Cube, Simon Singh, Socratic dialogue, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, talking drums, the High Line, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, Turing machine, Turing test, women in the workforce

TO THROW THE POWERS OF THOUGHT INTO WHEEL-WORK ♦ The original writings of Charles Babbage and, to a lesser extent, Ada Lovelace are increasingly accessible. The comprehensive, thousand-dollar, eleven-volume edition, The Works of Charles Babbage, edited by Martin Campbell-Kelly, was published in 1989. Online, the full texts of Babbage’s Passages from the Life of a Philosopher (1864), On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures (1832), and The Ninth Bridgewater Treatise (1838) can now be found in editions scanned from libraries by Google’s book program. Not yet available there (as of 2010), but also useful, is his son’s volume, Babbage’s Calculating Engines: Being a Collection of Papers Relating to Them (1889). As interest grew during the era of computing, much of the useful material in these books was reprinted in collections; most valuable are Charles Babbage and His Calculating Engines, edited by Philip Morrison and Emily Morrison (1961); and Anthony Hyman’s Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles Babbage (1989).

Menabrea’s “Sketch of the Analytical Engine” by Ada Augusta, Countess of Lovelace, have been made available online at http://www.fourmilab.ch/babbage/sketch.html thanks to John Walker; they are also reproduced in the Morrisons’ collection. As for the Lovelace letters and papers, they are in the British Library, the Bodleian, and elsewhere, but many have been published by Betty Alexandra Toole in Ada: The Enchantress of Numbers (1992 and 1998); where possible I try to cite the published versions. ♦ “LIGHT ALMOST SOLAR HAS BEEN EXTRACTED”: Charles Babbage, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures (1832), 300; reprinted in Science and Reform: Selected Works of Charles Babbage, ed. Anthony Hyman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 200. ♦ THE TIMES OBITUARIST: “The Late Mr. Charles Babbage, F.R.S.,” The Times (London), 23 October 1871. Babbage’s crusade against organ-grinders and hurdy-gurdies was not in vain; a new law against street music in 1864 was known as Babbage’s Act.

Dodge, “Charles Babbage,” Smithsonian Annual Report of 1873, 162–97, reprinted in Annals of the History of Computing 22, no. 4 (October–December 2000), 20. ♦ NOT “THE MANUAL LABOR OF ROWING”: Charles Babbage, Passages from the Life of a Philosopher (London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green, 1864), 37. ♦ “ ‘THE TALL GENTLEMAN IN THE CORNER’ ”: Ibid., 385–86. ♦ “THOSE WHO ENJOY LEISURE”: Charles Babbage, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, 4th ed. (London: Charles Knight, 1835), v. ♦ HE COMPUTED THE COST OF EACH PHASE: Ibid., 146. ♦ “AT THE EXPENSE OF THE NATION”: Henry Prevost Babbage, ed., Babbage’s Calculating Engines: Being a Collection of Papers Relating to Them; Their History and Construction (London: E. & F. N. Spon, 1889), 52. ♦ “ON TWO OCCASIONS I HAVE BEEN ASKED”: Charles Babbage, Passages from the Life of a Philosopher, 67

Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents by Lisa Gitelman

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Andrew Keen, computer age, corporate governance, deskilling, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, optical character recognition, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Turing test, Works Progress Administration

In this account of circulation, mobility, and inertia, I have been influenced by N OT E S TO C H A P T E R O N E     157 the work of Will Straw (see, for example, “Embedded Memories,” in Residual Media, ed. Charles R. Acland [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007], 3–31). Conversations with Michael Winship helped clarify this account of repetition. 4. Charles Babbage, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, 4th ed. (London: Charles Knight, 1835), 191; see Martin Campbell-­Kelly, “Informational Technology and Organizational Change in the British Census, 1801–1911,” Information Systems Research 7 (March 1996): 22–36. In chapter 2 of The Demon of Writing: Powers and Failures of Paperwork (New York: Zone, 2012), Ben Kafka explains how Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès worked this principle out in advance of Babbage as a theory of government. 5.


pages: 964 words: 296,182

Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion by Gareth Stedman Jones

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anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, fixed income, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, means of production, New Journalism, New Urbanism, night-watchman state, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, unemployed young men, wage slave

., 1848–9 (editor-in-chief Karl Marx; eds. Heinrich Bürgers, Ernst Dronke, Friedrich Engels, Ferdinand Freiligrath, Georg Weerth, Ferdinand Wolff, Wilhelm Wolff), Glashütten im Taunus, Verlag Detlev Auvermann KG, 1973) PRIMARY SOURCES Annenkov, Pavel V., The Extraordinary Decade: Literary Memoirs, ed. Arthur P. Mendel, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1968 [1881] Babbage, Charles, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, London, Charles Knight, 1832 Bachofen, Johann Jakob, Das Mutterrecht, Stuttgart, Krais and Hoffman, 1861 Bakunin, Michael, Statism and Anarchy¸ trans. and ed. Marshall S. Shatz, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990 [1873] Bauer, Bruno, Briefwechsel zwischen Bruno Bauer und Edgar Bauer während der Jahre 1839–1842 aus Bonn und Berlin, Charlottenburg, Egbert Bauer, 1844 ———, The Trumpet of the Last Judgement against Hegel the Atheist and Anti-Christ: An Ultimatum, trans.

Marx, Poverty of Philosophy, p. 132. 14. ‘Karl Marx to Friedrich Engels’, 2 April 1858, MECW, vol. 40, p. 298. 15. Karl Marx, Economic Manuscripts of 1857–58 (Grundrisse), MECW, vol. 28, p. 523. 16. Andrew Ure, The Philosophy of Manufactures: or, An Exposition of the Scientific, Moral and Commercial Economy of the Factory System of Great Britain, London, Charles Knight, 1835; Charles Babbage, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, London, Charles Knight, 1832. 17. Marx, Economic Manuscripts of 1857–58, p. 131. 18. Ibid., p. 133. 19. Ibid., p. 134 (capitals in original text). 20. Ibid., vol. 28, p. 230. 21. Ibid., p. 334. 22. Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, ed. Edwin Cannan, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1976 [1776], book 1, ch. 11, p. 17. 23. Marx, ‘Introduction’ to Economic Manuscripts of 1857–58, pp. 17–18. 24.


pages: 490 words: 150,172

The Pencil: A History of Design and Circumstance by Henry Petroski

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business climate, Douglas Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Khartoum Gordon, Menlo Park, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen

The Origin and Progress of Writing, [etc.]. 2nd edition, with additions (1803). New York, 1973. Atkin, William K., Raniero Corbelletti, and Vincent R. Fiore. Pencil Techniques in Modern Design. New York, 1953. Austen, Jane. Emma. Edited with an introduction by David Lodge. London, 1971. Automatic Pencil Sharpener Company. “From Kindergarten Thru College.” [Folder.] Chicago, [1941]. Babbage, Charles. On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures. 4th edition enlarged (1835). New York, 1963. Back, Robert. “The Manufacture of Leads for the Mechanical Pencil,” American Ceramic Society Bulletin, 4 (November 1925): Baker, Joseph B. “The Inventor in the Office,” Scientific American, October 29, 1910: 344–45. Banister, Judith. “Sampson Mordan and Company,” Antique Dealer and Collectors’ Guide, June 1977: [5 pp.] unpaged.


pages: 463 words: 118,936

Darwin Among the Machines by George Dyson

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Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, computer age, Danny Hillis, Donald Davies, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, IFF: identification friend or foe, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, phenotype, RAND corporation, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, spectrum auction, strong AI, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, zero-sum game

Taylor, 1843), reprinted in Henry Provost Babbage, ed., Babbage’s Calculating Engines: Being a Collection of Papers Relating to them; their History, and Construction (London: E. and F. Spon, 1889), 25. Facsimile reprint, Charles Babbage Institute Reprint Series for the History of Computing, vol. 2 (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1982). 25.Babbage, Ninth Bridgewater Treatise, 97. 26.Ibid., vii. 27.Charles Babbage, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, 4th ed., enlarged (London: Charles Knight, 1835), 273–276. 28.Babbage, Passages, 128. 29.George Boole, An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on which are founded the mathematical theories of Logic and Probabilities (London: Macmillan, 1854), 1. 30.Herman Goldstine, The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1972), 153. 31.John von Neumann, “Probabilistic Logics and the Synthesis of Reliable Organisms from Unreliable Components,” in Claude E.


pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, millennium bug, Moravec's paradox, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, off grid, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

His Demonstrator was a device capable of solving mechanically traditional syllogisms, numerical syllogisms and elementary probability problems. 3Morris, I. (2010), Why the West Rules–For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. 4These are the four measures that Ian Morris uses to construct his ‘Human Social Development Index’: energy capture, organisation, war-making capacity and information technology. 5Babbage, C. (1835), On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures (4th edition). London: Charles Knight. 6What is also significant about recursive functions such as difference functions is that they describe complex, chaotic behaviours when the relation between the two variables computed is non-linear. When finite differences between the parameters of a difference equation become infinitesimal, then the equations are called ‘differential’ and are fundamental to calculus. 7Difference Engine No. 2 was reconstructed under Doron Swade, the then Curator of Computing at the London Science Museum.