1960s counterculture

32 results back to index

pages: 268 words: 112,708

Culture works: the political economy of culture by Richard Maxwell

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, AltaVista, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business process, commoditize, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, intermodal, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, talking drums, telemarketer, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce

There is nothing new about the capitalist media’s willingness to devour and reinvent itself in the search for the new, about its tendency to fragment, diversify, and explore alternative cultures. Alfred Hitchcock acerbically made fun of the commercials in his own television show in the early 1960s; this was during the hegemonic pinnacle of the Cold War/Madison Avenue dominance of U.S. cultural production, and well before the late 1960s counterculture roared through the United States, to a large degree on the backs of for-profit record companies and radio stations. The feature films and television programs that Hitchcock directed were renowned for their edge-like qualities long before the term became fashionable. If for no other reason than the pressure to expand profits and markets, capitalist media experience ongoing pressures to innovate and to call attention to the process of innovation.

There are various literatures that look at romanticism this way, but one place to start is Colin Campbell’s neo-Weberian book The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism.32 His general argument is a compelling one: that the consumer culture 237 Michael Curtin and Thoma s Streeter is romantic in its structure, that the forms of individualism it encourages tend to be more about self-transformation and anticipatory pleasures— about what some call the desire to desire—than about the satisfaction of utilitarian needs. And he suggests that romanticism is both a necessary condition to capitalism as we know it and a common feature of many substantial movements of resistance to capitalism, the paradigmatic case being the 1960s counterculture, when many people pursued a form of individualism that desired to free the human spirit from the utilitarian conformity of modern capitalism. In this view, then, the author construct, like the romanticism of which it is part, is related to capitalist property relations in what might be described as a tangential fashion. Because the author construct is based on a romantic, not a utilitarian, understanding of the self, it works neither in direct opposition to nor in perfect parallel with conventional property relations.

The Author at the Machine The contradictory qualities of authorship suggest interesting possibilities for those who wish to challenge the expansion of corporate control over ideas and innovations. A good example of this potential can be found in the computer software industry, currently one of the most dynamic sites of creative labor and one of the most hotly contested arenas of intellectual property law. Today’s computer culture can be understood as a deeply contradictory but politically very powerful fusion of a 1960s countercultural attitude with a revived form of political libertarianism, a fusion that has been inscribed in the designs and organization of computers themselves and that is accomplished by a powerful, if naive, form of romantic individualism. This can be illustrated in a number of ways, including the ways that the countercultural compendium called the Whole Earth Catalogue evolved from being a radical 238 Media communications outlet for groups like the Black Panthers into a computer catalog that eventually provided much of the editorial staff of Wired magazine.33 One of the distinctive strains of thought in the computer community is a vision of the computer as a device for the manipulation of symbols, as a medium for personal expression, instead of as a calculating or thinking machine.

pages: 173 words: 14,313

Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion: Rhetoric in the Peer-To-Peer Debates by John Logie

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, book scanning, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hacker Ethic, Isaac Newton, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, publication bias, Richard Stallman, search inside the book, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog

One hacker who arguably deserves Levy’s hyperbole is Richard Stallman, whose has worked for two decades as the leader and inspiration for the “Free Software” movement and the chief developer of “GNU,” a resolutely free alternative to the proprietary UNIX operating system. Like Levy, Stallman cites “playfulness, cleverness, and exploration” as the signature elements of true hacking (15). Stallman’s own account of his efforts bespeaks an idealism rooted in the 1960s counterculture, and an overarching commitment to building community via electronic spaces. Stallman traces his interest in developing GNU to the dissolution of the rich community of first and second generation hackers that surrounded him as he pursued his college education in the early 1970s. After mourning this loss, Stallman determined to take action: “I looked for a way that a programmer could do something for the good.

Grokster Gurak, Laura: Cyberliteracy and its treatment of permissions, 149–50 hackers, 9, 12, 21, 22–44, 74, 105, 110–12, 119, 121, 146 Hakluyt, Richard, 70 Hatch, Orrin, 42 Hawhee, Debra, 121 Hawisher, Gail, 130 HBO, 58, 106 Heckler, Steve, 108 Hendrix, Jimi, 55 Hermagoras of Temnos, 120 161 Hillebrand, Laura, 72. See also Seabiscuit Himanen, Pekka: The Hacker Ethic, 23–24 Hollywood, 33, 76, 106 Howard, Rebecca Moore, 20, 83, 149 Huberman, Bernardo, 99 Iglauer, Bruce, 88 intellectual property, 7–8, 14–15, 17, 28, 31, 40, 47–48, 55, 60, 71, 78, 81, 83, 108–9, 120–21, 126, 129–32, 140–43 Internet: dependence on content, 13, use in education and research 14–15, roots in 1960s counterculture 26–29; as site for innovative distribution of music 102; centrality of peerto-peer technologies, 127–29; latent potential of, 144–46 ISPs (Internet Service Providers), 91, 108, 144 inventors, 20, 38, 48, 75, 78, 132, 140 iPod, 59, 62–65, 91; initial dependence upon Napster 64 Jaszi, Peter, 20 Jefferson, Thomas, 130 Jobs, Steve, 65–66, 123 Johnson, Lyndon, 106 Jolson, Al, 101, 103 Kaempfert, Bert, 3 Kazaa, 6, 12, 13, 90–100, 119, 136; Kazaa Media Desktop, 12, 97–98 Kennedy, Anthony, 139 LeFevre, Karen Burke, 20, 130; Invention as a Social Act, 130 Lessig, Lawrence, 20, 28, 102; Free Culture, 82–83, 102; The Future of Ideas, 85 Pa r l orPr e s s 162 Levy, Steven, 24–28, 30; articulation of the “Hacker Ethic,” 27–28.

pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

It is the sun that never sets on the empire of modern passivity.’ The avant-garde imagined that spectatorship would give way to participation permitting people to become more social and collaborative, egalitarian and engaged with one another, to borrow and share ideas. Our ever-so-trendy Web 2.0 culture, embraced by politicians of left and right, by companies and educators, is the bastard offspring of this mélange of ideas from the 1960s counter-culture. Mass participation, Debord’s antidote to the society of the spectacle, has turned into YouTube and social-networking sites on which we can all make a spectacle of ourselves. The libertarian, voluntaristic communities that briefly flowered in their thousands in California and New Mexico find their modern counterparts in the open-source communities listed on SourceForge and the virtual homesteaders of Second Life, as they create their own rules and currencies.

Media and culture used to be an industrial business dependent on large printing presses and expensive television studios, making products for the mass audiences needed to sustain their costly operations. The spread of the web means more people than ever can have their say, post their comment, make a video, show a picture, write a song. The more I-Think there is, the more content and information we create, the more we will need We-Think to sort it. The anti-industrial ideas of the 1960s counter-culture, bringing together Doug Engelbart’s vision of distributed and decentralised technologies and Fred Moore’s ethic of sharing, underpin hopes that we might still be able to create egalitarian, self-governing communities. Finally, We-Think revives pre-industrial forms of organisation: the commons, peer-to-peer working, community innovation and folk creativity. We-Think is so potent because it mixes the brand-new – the blog and the wiki – with the very old.

pages: 212 words: 49,544

WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, source of truth, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks

Was it the surprising number of ponytails on the mostly male programmers, most of whom were T-shirtwearing baby boomers who looked like they would never be caught dead in a suit? Listening to programmer Eric Raymond give a talk on his book The Cathedral and the Bazaar, an early treatise on the value of open methods of collaborative development, I started to feel like I had stumbled upon a lost tribe from the 1960s. The Linux development community, and the larger open source software movement that it was a part of, were in fact a branch of the 1960s counterculture that had run with the idea of personal empowerment into monumental success.3 At the time, Linux was coming into its own as a reliable operating system that was free, unlike the dominant platform, Microsoft Windows. In addition, Linux was less likely to crash, less prone to viruses, and more efficient in its use of system resources. It was also rapidly eating into the market share of what was then the richest corporation in the world.

pages: 224 words: 64,156

You Are Not a Gadget by Jaron Lanier

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, digital Maoism, Douglas Hofstadter, Extropian, follow your passion, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Conway, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Long Term Capital Management, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, social graph, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog

* If we choose to pry culture away from capitalism while the rest of life is still capitalistic, culture will become a slum. In fact, online culture increasingly resembles a slum in disturbing ways. Slums have more advertising than wealthy neighborhoods, for instance. People are meaner in slums; mob rule and vigilantism are commonplace. If there is a trace of “slumming” in the way that many privileged young people embrace current online culture, it is perhaps an echo of 1960s counterculture. It’s true that the record companies have not helped themselves. They have made a public fuss about suing the most sympathetic people, snooped obnoxiously, and so on. Furthermore, there’s a long history of sleaze, corruption, creative accounting, and price fixing in the music business. Dreams Still Die Hard By 2008, some of the leading lights of the open culture movement started to acknowledge the obvious, which is that not everyone has benefited from the movement.

pages: 222 words: 70,132

Move Fast and Break Things: How Facebook, Google, and Amazon Cornered Culture and Undermined Democracy by Jonathan Taplin

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of journalism, future of work, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Google bus, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, revision control, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator

The beginnings of the technical and social revolution that Martin Luther King referenced in his 1968 sermon at the National Cathedral were under way even as he was speaking. The revolution began in the moral precepts of the counterculture: decentralize control and harmonize people. The earliest networks—like the Whole Earth ’Lectronic Link (WELL), organized by Stewart Brand, the founder of The Whole Earth Catalog—grew directly out of 1960s counterculture. Brand had helped novelist Ken Kesey organize the Acid Tests—epic be-ins where thousands of hippies ingested LSD and danced to the music of a new band, the Grateful Dead. Steve Jobs, founder of Apple Computer, Inc., dropped acid as well. “Jobs explained,” wrote John Markoff in his book What the Dormouse Said, “that he still believed that taking LSD was one of the two or three most important things he had done in his life, and he said he felt that because people he knew well had not tried psychedelics, there were things about him they couldn’t understand.”

pages: 281 words: 95,852

The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game

However, it’s a mistake to think of Google’s social influence and social role as purely a function of science and engineering. Google’s social milieu, the petri dish from which it sprang, is more than technological or scientific. As the media historian Fred Turner demonstrates in From Counterculture to Cyberculture, the ideology of Silicon Valley is rooted in the practices and idealistic visions of 1960s counterculture. It’s a peculiar story: cultural anarchism melded with technologies developed for and by the U.S. military, unleashed in the service of both commerce and creativity, yet also accused of undermining both.49 Google, in particular, incorporates a twenty-first-century form of countercultural hedonism in its corporate structure and everyday work environment: the ethos of Burning Man. Burning Man is an annual festival held at the end of August in the Black Rock Desert in northern Nevada.

pages: 342 words: 99,390

The greatest trade ever: the behind-the-scenes story of how John Paulson defied Wall Street and made financial history by Gregory Zuckerman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, banking crisis, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, financial innovation, fixed income, index fund, Isaac Newton, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, merger arbitrage, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Ponzi scheme, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, short selling, Silicon Valley, statistical arbitrage, Steve Ballmer, Steve Wozniak, technology bubble, zero-sum game

In Southern California, Andrew Lahde turned increasingly bitter about the nation’'s troubles, ranting to friends about the heavy contributions made by oil companies to political candidates and blaming Congress for failing to curb predatory lending despite plenty of warnings. After he failed to get some journalists to focus on Congress’'s culpability, Lahde complained that the nation seemed to care less about fixing the political system than it did “"about Britney Spears’'s vagina.”" In late 2008, he threw himself into the writings of his longtime hero Timothy Leary, the 1960s counterculture icon and advocate of psychedelic-drug research. He began to warm to the idea of dropping out, as Leary advised, saying it was “"baffling”" that Paulson was still so focused on investing. Lahde found a distant island and leased a beachfront home. He snorkels most days while searching for a suitable young female partner to join him on his adventure. After Lahde closed his firm and arranged to mail the last checks to his investors, there was only one thing left to do: stick it to everyone who had ever pissed him off.

pages: 142 words: 18,753

Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There by David Brooks

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Community Supported Agriculture, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Silicon Valley, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

Shopping at Benetton or the Body Shop, they’ve brought together consciousness-raising and cost control. When you are amidst the educated upscalers, you can never be sure if you’re living in a world of hippies or stockbrokers. In reality you have entered the hybrid world in which everybody is a little of both. Marx told us that classes inevitably conflict, but sometimes they just blur. The values of the bourgeois mainstream culture and the values of the 1960s counterculture have merged. That culture war has ended, at least within the educated class. In its place that class has created a third culture, which is a reconciliation between the previous two. The educated elites didn’t set out to create this reconciliation. It is the product of millions of individual efforts to have things both ways. But it is now the dominant tone of our age. In the resolution between the culture and the counterculture, it is impossible to tell who co-opted whom, because in reality the bohemians and the bourgeois co-opted each other.

pages: 300 words: 84,762

Vaccinated: One Man's Quest to Defeat the World's Deadliest Diseases by Paul A. Offit

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, discovery of penicillin, en.wikipedia.org, germ theory of disease, Isaac Newton, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Ronald Reagan

But Boyer’s football coach was also his science teacher, and his coach’s passion for science influenced Boyer more than his passion for football. After high school, Boyer studied biology and chemistry at St. Vincent’s College in nearby Latrobe, Pennsylvania, followed by graduate studies at the University of Pittsburgh and postgraduate work at Yale. Then he traveled west, arriving in San Francisco at the height of the 1960s counterculture. With a broad round face, impish smile, thick walrus-like mustache, and a wardrobe of leather vests, blue jeans, and wide, open-collared shirts, Herbert Boyer looked like the rock musician Jerry Garcia from the Grateful Dead. And, like Garcia, he was active in the civil rights movement and vigorous in his protests against the war in Vietnam. But Boyer had come to California to pursue his love of science, not the counterculture.

pages: 317 words: 87,566

The Happiness Industry: How the Government and Big Business Sold Us Well-Being by William Davies

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, Airbnb, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, corporate governance, dematerialisation, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, intangible asset, invisible hand, joint-stock company, lifelogging, market bubble, mental accounting, nudge unit, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto

The challenge then becomes one of how to package up critical, political, democratic ideals in ways that can be safely delivered via products or public policies, without disrupting the status quo. Elements of anti-capitalist politics, which promise an uncommodified, more honest existence, have long been a fixture of advertising copy. As far back as the 1930s, advertisements contained images of pre-industrial, communal and family life, which seemed to be imperilled by the chaos of the industrial American city.28 By the 1960s, counter-cultural imagery was featuring in commercials, even before the counter-culture had fully emerged.29 Under the influence of market research, political ideals are quietly converted into economic desire. The cold mechanics of marketing and the critique of capitalism are locked into a constant feedback loop, such that there is no remaining idea of what freedom might look like, beyond that of consumption.

pages: 299 words: 19,560

Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Even when, as with most of the earliest New England colonists such as the Pilgrims and the Puritans, the belief in human beings’ permanently flawed character prevailed, there was still the hope 24 The Variety of Utopias of substantial improvement by virtue of the opportunity for the comparative freedom to practice one’s religion.27 Until Robert Fogarty’s All Things New: American Communes and Utopian Movements, 1860–1914 appeared in 1990, most students of American utopian communities assumed that they had flourished only in the first half of the nineteenth century and had virtually died out until their revival in the 1960s “counterculture.” Fogarty examined 141 communities that arose between 1860 and 1914, including mystical Shalam in New Mexico, free-love Spirit Fruit in Ohio and Illinois, all-female Women’s Commonwealth in Texas, and socialist, then anarchist, Equality in Washington state. To varying degrees all were inspired by the Book of Revelations’ injunction to “make all things new” and were self-conscious about their need for journeying elsewhere in America or abroad (usually Palestine) to do so.

pages: 422 words: 89,770

Death of the Liberal Class by Chris Hedges

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate governance, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hive mind, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Lao Tzu, Pearl River Delta, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

The civil-rights movement, which was rooted in the moral and religious imperatives of justice and self-sacrifice, what Dwight Macdonald called nonhistorical values, was largely eclipsed by the self-centeredness of the New Left, especially after the assassinations of Malcolm X in 1967 and Martin Luther King Jr. a year later. And once the Vietnam War ended, once middle-class men no longer had to go to war, the movement disintegrated. The political and moral void within the counterculture meant it was an easy transition from college radical to a member of the liberal class. The 1960s counterculture, like the counterculture of the Bohemians or the Beats, was always in tune with the commercial culture. It shared commercial culture’s hedonism, love of spectacle, and preoccupation with the self. The moral vacuum of the counterculture disturbed religious radicals, such as Father Daniel Berrigan and his brother Philip, the Catholic Worker leader Dorothy Day, and the Reverend William Sloane Coffin, as well as stalwarts from the decimated Communist Party and old anarchists such as Dwight Macdonald and Murray Bookchin.

pages: 452 words: 110,488

The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead by David Callahan

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, fixed income, forensic accounting, full employment, game design, greed is good, high batting average, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, McMansion, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old-boy network, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

., [>] Klein, Joe: Primary Colors, [>] Kohlberg, Lawrence, [>]–[>] KPMG, [>], [>] conflicts of interest at, [>] on employee theft, [>] Medicare fraud, [>] Xerox accounting fraud, [>]–[>] Krugman, Paul, [>]–[>] Kuttner, Robert: Everything for Sale, [>] laissez-faire economic ideology, [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>], [>]–[>] and conservative social policy, [>]–[>] and HMOs, [>]–[>] and individualism, [>]–[>] and new social contract, [>]–[>], [>] popular revolt against, [>]–[>] "strict father morality" and, [>] and welfare programs, [>], [>] Lakoff, George: on "strict father morality," [>]–[>] Lasch, Christopher: The Culture of Narcissism, [>] "law-abiding law-breakers": and the social contract, [>]–[>] law firms: auditing of, [>] corrupt billing practices, [>]–[>] encourage cheating by associates, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>] recruiting practices, [>]–[>] law schools: and ethics programs, [>]–[>] lawyers: encouraged to cheat by firms, [>]–[>] inadequate professional discipline of, [>]–[>] public distrust of, [>] Lay, Kenneth, [>]–[>] escapes prosecution, [>] evades civil judgment, [>] life style, [>]–[>] Leavitt, Arthur: on accounting scandals, [>] attempts to reform accounting firms, [>]–[>] as head of SEC, [>], [>]–[>] legal ethics and corruption, [>] and law school programs, [>]–[>] Leo Burnett USA, [>] Lerman, Lisa, [>]–[>] Levin, Carl, [>] Levine, Dennis: post-prison career, [>] Lewis, Michael, [>], [>] Liar's Index, [>] liberalism: values and morality, [>]–[>] and yuppie phenomenon, [>] Lieberman, Joseph, [>] Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous, [>] Lincoln Savings and Loan Association, [>], [>] Little League: cheating in, [>]–[>] World Series cheating scandal, [>]–[>] "livable communities" movement, [>]–[>] Lonchar, Kenneth: lies on résumé, [>], [>] Los Angeles Dodgers, [>] Losing Ground (Murray), [>] Luck, Dr. Dana, [>], [>] Luxury Fever (Frank), [>] Mahoney, David, [>] Mantione, Lianne, [>] Martinoff, Jim: and corporate ethics program, [>]–[>] materialism: conservatism and, [>]–[>] and economic pressure, [>]–[>] and happiness, [>]–[>] increase in, [>], [>], [>]–[>] and new social contract, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] 1960s counterculture and, [>]–[>] young people and, [>]–[>], [>] Mauer, Joe, [>] McBirney, Edwin, [>] McCabe, Donald: on student cheating, [>]–[>], [>], [>] McColough, Peter, [>] McGwire, Mark, [>], [>] McKinsey & Company, [>], [>], [>] media: public distrust of, [>] Medical Education Systems: and Neurontin marketing scandal, [>] medical ethics: decline in, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] and medical school programs, [>] medical schools: and ethics programs, [>] medical societies, state: inadequate discipline by, [>] Medicare and Medicaid: fraud against, [>], [>], [>], [>] Meeker, Mary, [>] Meijer, Martina, [>], [>] Mendell, Clarence W., [>] Merrill Lynch, [>]–[>], [>] Spitzer investigates, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] Merton, Robert: on ambition and deviant behavior, [>], [>] on American values, [>]–[>] Metallica: and music piracy, [>] Microsoft, [>] Milken, Michael, [>], [>] post-prison public relations campaign, [>]–[>] SEC prosecutes, [>], [>] "money culture."

pages: 319 words: 103,707

Against Everything: Essays by Mark Greif

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, Desert Island Discs, Donald Trump, income inequality, informal economy, Norman Mailer, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, Ronald Reagan, technoutopianism, telemarketer, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, white flight

We witnessed, after the triumph of a previously unquestioned project, a characteristic latecoming struggle around the nature and direction of progress. First, in the late 1960s, came reactions against the inhuman technical character of food science and “agribusiness.” Critics in this phase pitted themselves against consumer capitalism. This initial reaction was romantic and primitivist, associated with the late-1960s counterculture and the movement “back to the land,” just a few decades after productivity gains had led an agrarian population to leave it. It brought a call to the East for mystic authenticity in the culture of “health foods”—tofu, brown rice, yogurt, seaweed, wheat germ, made from the live spirits and microbes excluded in industrial processing. (These were the parts that were said to live and germinate, against an antiseptic modernist technics of death: the Bomb and pasteurization were made by the same culture.

pages: 320 words: 86,372

Mythology of Work: How Capitalism Persists Despite Itself by Peter Fleming

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, anti-work, call centre, clockwatching, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, David Graeber, Etonian, future of work, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, Parkinson's law, post-industrial society, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Results Only Work Environment, shareholder value, The Chicago School, transaction costs, wealth creators, working poor

As the ‘immersion room’ example discussed earlier demonstrates, we can now see all sorts of attempts to make resistance speak in order to make it congruous with the ideology of work. Advertising in London currently seeks to cash in on underground chic and revolutionary cool – ‘Be your own revolution!’ cries one advert for new computer software. Right-wing management consultants tell their readers that much can be learnt from the creative upheaval of 1960s counter-culture: promote an organization that resembles the attributes of a topsy-turvy world of anarchy and hire employees that hate capitalism. But let’s look more closely at what we really mean by co-optation and recuperation. Indeed, the question of appropriation is somewhat analogous to those old (and yet still very relevant) debates about commodification. This may prove instructive for us too. As many pessimistic commentators have noted, there does not appear to be any limit to the commodification process.

pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

But as the history of the Whole Earth network suggests, it isn’t. As they turned away from agonistic politics and toward technology, consciousness, and entrepreneurship as the principles of a new society, the communards of the 1960s developed a utopian vision that was in many ways quite congenial to the insurgent Republicans of the 1990s. Although Newt Gingrich and those around him decried the hedonism of the 1960s counterculture, they shared its widespread affection for empowering technologically enabled elites, for building new businesses, and for rejecting traditional forms of governance. And as they rose to power, more than a few rightwing politicians and executives longed to share the hip credibility of people like Stewart Brand. This book, then, does not tell the story of a countercultural movement whose ideals and practices were appropriated by the forces of capital, technology, or the state.

pages: 484 words: 131,168

The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

By the early 1970s, church leaders and scholars noticed two distinct trends: (i) people were leaving mainline Protestantism—Methodists, Presbyterians, Episcopalians—and (2) people were joining Evangelical and conservative churches that were often independent of any denomination. A debate ensued about why conservative churches were growing while the sanctuaries at mainline denominations were emptying. Some argued that the 1960s counterculture led baby boomers out of their parents' churches. Others said that churches would naturally decline as society became richer—the old secularization argument that as societies grow more educated, people become less likely to be formally religious. Dean Kelley, author of Why Conservative Churches Are Growing, argued that mainline denominations had gotten flabby. They no longer provided much leadership or discipline.

pages: 363 words: 123,076

The Gang That Wouldn't Write Straight: Wolfe, Thompson, Didion, Capote, and the New Journalism Revolution by Marc Weingarten

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, Donner party, East Village, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Haight Ashbury, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Menlo Park, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, Norman Mailer, pre–internet, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, upwardly mobile, working poor, yellow journalism

Gingrich was already making the magazine more of a repository for serious critical thought, hiring Dwight Macdonald to review films, Kingsley Amis to cover “art films,” and Dorothy Parker to critique the latest fiction. Felker brought his college buddy Peter Maas into the fold to write features, as well as sociologist Paul Goodman, whose 1960 book, Growing Up Absurd, had mapped the incipient rebellion against established values that would culminate in the 1960s counterculture. Quality fiction had remained a constant, with contributions from such luminaries as William Styron, John Cheever, and Robert Penn Warren. But Felker and Hayes wanted to move in another direction with the magazine’s journalism. At Duke, Felker had trolled the library stacks in search of exciting precedents for him to follow at the Chronicle and came across Civil War-era back issues of the New York Herald Tribune, the great newspaper edited by the social reformist Horace Greeley.

pages: 497 words: 143,175

Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies by Judith Stein

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War

In Nixon’s first inaugural address he said, “We have learned at last to manage a modern economy to assure its continued growth.” He did not label his course of action Keynesian, but the words required no label. Even the values issue was not so simple. Despite Nixon’s small-town, Quaker upbringing, his service in the uptight, button-down Eisenhower administration, and his 1968 campaign against hippies, he embraced elements of the 1960s counterculture. Surveying the nation’s troubles, he invoked Roosevelt’s 1933 inaugural address. The Democratic president had judged the nation’s deficiencies to be “material.” “Thank God,” FDR said, “the American spirit was intact” and could be marshaled to produce the plenty so absent from the American larder in 1933. Nixon said that “our crisis is in reverse. We find ourselves rich in goods, but ragged in spirit.

pages: 457 words: 126,996

Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, George Santayana, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, mandatory minimum, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day

He remembers most of the participants as “super white hats” whose politics were nowhere near his nascent anticapitalist sensibilities. But, because he also self-identified as a hacker, he enjoyed attending these meetings. He saw the utility of learning from these people. And then, as he explained, a little later, “[President] Bush stole the election, 9/11 happened, and the Patriot Act was passed.” At the age of twenty, he cofounded a radical webzine called Hack this Site—its title riffing on Steal this Book, the 1960s counterculture manual-manifesto written by Abbie Hoffman. (The Yippies published the first hacker/phreak zine, The Youth International Party Line, which advocated ripping off AT&T, aka “Ma Bell,” as a revolutionary act. Its successor publication, Technical Assistance Program (TAP), would shed the overtly leftist political rhetoric.) Hack This Site covered computer security but also delved into radical political trends and events from around the globe, like the movement against the war in Afghanistan and the potential threats to democracy posed by computer-based voting machines.

pages: 377 words: 21,687

Digital Apollo: Human and Machine in Spaceflight by David A. Mindell

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, computer age, deskilling, fault tolerance, interchangeable parts, Mars Rover, more computing power than Apollo, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, telepresence, telerobotics

Imagery of active pilots pervaded Apollo, but coexisted with another, subtler trend. The moon project resonated within a culture deeply concerned with the social implications of technology. It was conceived in the wake of Russia’s Sputnik success and in the early Kennedy years when large-scale science and technical and managerial projects seemed to promise solutions to political problems. But Apollo unfolded in the era of Vietnam, 1960s counterculture, and increasing questioning of the social benefits of large technological systems. Commentators worried about the phenomenon of ‘‘deskilling’’ as computerized machine tools transformed work on the factory floor.20 In his speeches and writings, for example, Martin Luther King frequently mentioned automation as a cause of the social displacements he was seeking to redress. Even NASA director James Webb suggested that the jobs generated by the Apollo program would help mollify unemployment created by automation.

pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

In a hothouse of social experimentation that became known as the “Summer of Love,” they shared everything—housing, food, drugs, and sex. The enormous cultural impact of that psychedelic freak-out on American society can be felt today, and it still casts a long shadow over San Francisco. There, Hirshberg has been a driving force behind a new creative space just down the hill from Haight-Ashbury, the Gray Area Foundation for the Arts. Both physically and spiritually, it sits at the intersection of that 1960s counterculture and a new techno-utopianism. It’s just a few steps to either Twitter’s headquarters or the head office of Burning Man, the radical art festival that builds a temporary city in the Nevada desert each summer. Though he takes inspiration from the hippies, Hirshberg is politically pragmatic. He soon slaps his laptop shut and stops playing dumb. “Look,” he says, “in the 60s you protested the establishment.

pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

Basement/Cellar: Urban Undergrounds 1Will Hutton, ‘Britain Is Scared to Face the Real Issue – It’s All About Inequality’, Observer, 19 January 2014. 2Cited in John McCarthy and Ross Kilgour, ‘Planning for Subterranean Residential Development in the UK’, Planning Practice and Research, 26:1, 2011, pp. 71–94. 3These details are drawn from Oliver Wainwright, ‘“Billionaires’ Basements”: The Luxury Bunkers Making Holes in London Streets’, Guardian, 9 November 2012. 4Quoted in Wainwright, ‘Billionaires’ Basements’. 5Cited in Peter Ackroyd, London Under: The Secret History Beneath the Streets, London: Random House, 2011, p. 7. 6Jabob Riis, How the Other Half Lives, New York: Dover, 1971(1901). 7Thomas Heise, Urban Underworlds: A Geography of Twentieth-Century American Literature and Culture, New York: Rutgers University Press, 2011, p. 61. 8Riis, How the Other Half Lives, p. 17. 9Heise, Urban Underworlds, p. 63. 10Friedrich Engels, The Housing Question, New York: International Publishers, 1935, pp. 74–7. 11Gunnar Myrdal, Challenge to Affluence, New York: Random House, 1963, pp. 40–41 and 53. 12The ‘old mole’ phrase derives originally from Marx. Cited in Christoph Lindner, and Andrew Hussey, eds, Paris-Amsterdam Underground: Essays on Cultural Resistance, Subversion, and Diversion, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2014, p. 8. American novelist and ‘beatnik’ poet Jack Kerouac, a luminary in the 1950s and the 1960s counterculture, similarly titled one of his books The Subterraneans (1958). 13Djuna Barnes, Nightwood, New York: New Directions, 1961, p. 240, cited in Heise, Urban Underworlds, p. 99. See also Scott Herring, Queering the Underworld: Slumming, Literature, and the Undoing of Lesbian and Gay History, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009. 14Le Corbusier, Precisions: On the Present State of Architecture and City Planning, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991, pp. 38–40. 15David Gissen, Subnature: Architecture’s Other Environments, New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009, p. 34. 16Gaston Bachelard, The Poetics of Space, Boston: Beacon Press, 1992, p. 23. 13.

pages: 509 words: 132,327

Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, V2 rocket, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

The Soviets, young Brand knew, had placed the town high on a list of likely targets for nuclear attack. The dream about the day after the strike was harsh: “There was chaos, and then I looked around and I was the only person left alive in Rockford, Ill., a knee-high creature.”28 He wanted out, to escape the specter of nuclear annihilation. Brand is best known for founding the famous Whole Earth Catalog, a publication that itself became an emblem and icon of California’s late 1960s counterculture and back-to-the-land movement. One afternoon, probably in March 1966 in the hills of San Francisco, Brand dropped a bit of LSD and went up on a roof overlooking the city. It was a form of escape. He sat in a blanket, shivering in the cold spring air, overlooking the hills, lost in enhanced thought: And so I’m watching the buildings, looking out at San Francisco, thinking of Buckminster Fuller’s notion that people think of the earth’s resources as unlimited because they think of the earth as flat.

pages: 433 words: 129,636

Dreamland: The True Tale of America's Opiate Epidemic by Sam Quinones

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, British Empire, call centre, centralized clearinghouse, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, feminist movement, illegal immigration, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, obamacare, zero-sum game

The Ladder was accompanied by a concept relevant to our story that moved public and medical opinion. It was this: If a patient said he was in pain, doctors should believe him and prescribe accordingly. This attitude grew from a patients’ rights movement that sprung in part from the Nuremberg Trials, where Nazi doctors were found to be experimenters who disregarded patients’ autonomy, and later from the 1960s counterculture that suspected the motives of all established institutions, medicine included. With the WHO Ladder, doctors’ concern over the use of opium-derived drugs began to ease. They were, after all, remarkably effective at knocking down pain, which was now a human right. Worldwide morphine consumption began to climb, rising thirtyfold between 1980 and 2011. But a strange thing happened. Use didn’t rise in the developing world, which might reasonably be viewed as the region in most acute pain.

pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Dionysian cultures apologies Aquinas, Saint Thomas Arafat, Yasir archaeology Archer, John Archimedes Ardipithecus ramidus Arendt, Hannah Argentina aristocrats deaths from violence Aristophanes, Lysistrata Aristotle armed forces: as band of brothers conscription of effectiveness of Ethical Marine Warrior file closers mercenary military revolution reluctance to shoot size of willingness to die Armenians, genocide of Aronson, Elliot Asal, Victor Asch, Solomon Ash-Sheikh, Abdulaziz Asia: abortion in female infanticide in historiography in homicide rates in hunter-gatherers in legal discrimination in massacres in New Peace in spanking in violence against animals in violence against women in wars in assassinations; see also regicide Astell, Mary Athens, democracy in Atlas, Charles Atran, Scott atrocities, twenty worst in history attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Atwood, Brian Augustine, Saint Australia domestic violence in homicide in peace imposed in New Guinea penal colony warfare among aborigines australopithecenes Austria-Hungary autarky; see also trade, international Authority Ranking autocracy and Age of Nationalism and democide Islamic punishment in and the social dilemma autonomic nervous system Autonomy, ethic of availability heuristic Axelrod, Robert Aztecs baby boomers: crime among influence of television on and 1960s counterculture Bacon, Francis balance of power balance of terror Bales, Kevin Bandura, Albert Bangladesh Barbara, Saint Barth, Karl Batson, Daniel Baumeister, Roy Evil and self-control Bays, Paul Beatles Beccaria, Cesare On Crimes and Punishments Beirut, U.S. servicemen bombed in Belarus Belgium Bell, David Bell, Derrick bell curve, see normal distribution Belloc, Hillaire Benedict, Ruth, Patterns of Culture Bentham, Jeremy Berlin, Isaiah Berlin Wall Bethmann-Hollweg, Theobald von Betzig, Laura Bhagavad-Gita Bhutto, Benazir Bible: capital punishment in debt bondage in historical analysis of and homophobia human sacrifice in and legislation New Testament Old Testament popularity of slavery in Big Parade, The (film) Bill of Rights, U.S.

., homicides in Milgram, Stanley militarized interstate disputes military conscription military horizon military personnel, see armed forces military revolution military symbolism, see martial culture and values militias Mill, John Stuart Million Man March Milner, Larry Milner, Peter Milošević, Slobodan Milton, John Min, Anchee mirror neurons Mischel, Walter Moabites Moby-Dick modernity Moffitt, Terri Mokkeddem, Malike Moltke, Helmuth von monarchy Age of Dynasties and filicide hereditary regicide Mondeville, Henri de, Chirurgia Mongols monism monkeys Monkkonen, Eric monogamy; see also marriage Monroe, James Montagu, Mary Wortley Montaigne, Michel Eyquem de Montenegrin tribes Monterey Pop Festival Montesinos, Father Antonio de Montesquieu, Baron de la Montreal Moon, Keith moral disengagement morality compartmentalization of cultural differences in Golden Rule historical direction of and information and law norms of punishable infractions of relational models and standards of themes of universalized and violence Moralization Gap moral psychology; see also morality; moral sense moral sense: and fiction as force for evil introduction of concept of people in earlier times and reason see also morality; moral psychology More, Thomas Morgenthau, Hans Mormon church Moro, Aldo Moses Mossadegh, Mohammad Mosse, George Mother Goose nursery rhymes mountainous terrain Moynihan, Daniel Patrick Moyo, Dambisa Mozambique Mozi (Chinese philosopher) Mueller, John Muhammad Muhammad, John Muppets Murray, Charles museums Mussolini, Benito mutualism mutually assured destruction (MAD) Muyart de Vouglans, Pierre-François myopia, historical, see historical myopia myopic discounting Myrmidons Nafisi, Azar NAFTA Napier, Charles Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleonic Wars narcissistic personality disorder Nash, George Nation, Carrie nation, use of term National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism National Counterterrorism Center National Crime Victimization Survey nationalism: Age of Nationalism blood and soil and decolonization and dominance and genocide and liberalism militant romantic and social class National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health nation-states Native Americans: and cannibalism genocide of Kennewick Man of Pacific Northwest revenge among Trail of Tears treatment of animals violence among NATO natural resources natural selection nature, state of Nazism: and animal welfare and Elias and face-to-face killing and genocide in Germany and Holocaust ideology of and nationalism and World War II Negroponte, John Neolithic Revolution neonaticide; see also infanticide neoteny nepotistic altruism; see also kin selection Nero, Emperor Netherlands commerce in Dutch War of Louis XIV and great power wars homicides in War of Independence network externalities neurotransmitters; see also catecholamines; dopamine; MAO-A; norepinephrine; serotonin neutron bomb New England: Boston police homicides Native Americans exterminated in revolutionary Boston New Guinea New Netherland colony New Peace and climate change and democracy and genocide introduction of concept non-European war and terrorism Newton, Isaac New York City: draft riots (1863) homicides in police Stonewall Inn riot Nicaragua Niebuhr, Reinhold Nietzsche, Friedrich 9/11, see September 11 attacks 1960s Nisbett, Richard Nixon, Richard M. Nobel, Alfred Noble Savage myth nonstate societies: cooperation in data sources of deaths from warfare in emergence of fighting in violence rates in norepinephrine normal distribution norms: of civilized society and crime rates of etiquette evaluation of informal internalized and morality in 1960s counterculture of nonviolence of purity social tacit territorial integrity of war as immoral see also etiquette; moral sense; taboos North Korea noses: blowing cutting off Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty nuclear peace theory nuclear taboo nuclear terrorism nuclear threat nuclear weapons Nunberg, Geoffrey Nunn, Sam Nuremberg Trials nursery rhymes Nurture Assumption Nussbaum, Martha Oatley, Keith Obama, Barack obedience; see also Milgram, Stanley Odysseus Oklahoma City bombing Olds, James Oneal, John One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (film) openness to experience Operation Ceasefire Opium Wars Oppenheimer, Robert opponent-process theory of emotion optimal foraging orientation, long- vs. short-term Orwell, George Otterbein, Keith Ottoman Empire Ötzi the Iceman overconfidence Owen, Wilfred oxytocin Oz, Amos Pacification Process civilization human societies introduction of concept logic of violence use of term violence in human ancestors violence in state and nonstate societies Pacific Northwest pacifism Pacifist’s Dilemma and empathy and feminization and gentle commerce and Leviathan and reason Pakistan Al Qaeda in and India and terrorism Pale of Settlement Palestine Panksepp, Jaak Papua New Guinea; see also New Guinea Parachini, John paramilitaries Pareto, Vilfredo Pareto Principle Parker, Theodore Parks, Rosa Pascal, Blaise pastoralism Pate, Amy Patrick, Saint patrilocal societies Patterson, Orlando Patz, Etan Pauling, Linus Paul IV, Pope Payne, James L.

pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

If the greens have their way, Morano warns, we will be looking at “a CO2 budget for every man, woman, and child on the planet, monitored by an international body.”4 Next is Chris Horner, a senior fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Institute who specializes in harassing climate scientists with burdensome lawsuits and Freedom of Information Act fishing expeditions. He angles the table mic over to his mouth. “You can believe this is about the climate,” he says darkly, “and many people do, but it’s not a reasonable belief.” Horner, whose prematurely silver hair makes him look like Anderson Cooper’s frat boy doppelgänger, likes to invoke 1960s counterculture icon Saul Alinsky: “The issue isn’t the issue.” The issue, apparently, is that “no free society would do to itself what this agenda requires. . . . The first step to [doing] that is to remove these nagging freedoms that keep getting in the way.”5 Claiming that climate change is a plot to steal American freedom is rather tame by Heartland standards. Over the course of this two-day conference, I will hear modern environmentalism compared to virtually every mass-murderous chapter in human history, from the Catholic Inquisition to Nazi Germany to Stalin’s Russia.

pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

While the company's roots extend back into mid-1970s Northern California hippie hacker culture, in important ways the Apple weltanschauung was not crystallized until the airing of Lee Clow and Ridley Scott's Superbowl TV ad in and of the year 1984.57 Here the driving theologic dichotomy of the brand is established, cleaving the line between Apple (individual, color, youth, cool, iconoclast) and IBM (mass, monochrome, old, awkward, hierarchical), a creed equally appealing to 1960s counterculture and its boomer aftermath, as it is to the John Wayne wing of the American Right. An LSD-eating Buddhist and his gentle programmer pal set in motion what would become Rush Limbaugh's favorite company.58 The story of the company and its brand have provided privileged archetypes to postindustrial capitalism: a populist concept, rejection by the old guard, a near-death experience, the return of the True Idea, blockbuster appliances, an actual death and hagiographic reverence, the passing of the doctrine, and so on.

pages: 1,088 words: 297,362

The London Compendium by Ed Glinert

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, anti-communist, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Brixton riot, Corn Laws, Dava Sobel, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, hiring and firing, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, Khartoum Gordon, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nick Leeson, price stability, Ronald Reagan, Sloane Ranger, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, V2 rocket

In his 1954 book The Colour Bar Constantine explained that ‘most British people would be quite unwilling for a black man to enter their homes, nor would they wish to work with one, nor stand shoulder to shoulder with one at a factory bench’. The hotel, built from 1905–11, was designed with many ornate flourishes by Charles Fitzroy Doll and included a Winter Garden and Turkish Baths. • The West Indies at Lord’s, p. 369. International Times (1966–8), No. 102 International Times (IT), the main journal of London’s 1960s counter-culture, began publishing its uncompromising mix of offbeat articles, drug information, iconoclasms of sexual taboos and paeans to avantgarde literature, art and music in 1966 in what had previously been the Indica bookstore. Early issues included pieces on the surrealist André Breton, the Vietnam War, Yoko Ono’s exhibitions and Ezra Pound’s pro-fascist views. On 9 March 1967, after a reader complained about a supposedly obscene article, twelve plain-clothes detectives raided the premises and seized every back issue, all the scrap paper, the phone books and, most importantly of all, the contents of every ashtray.

Eastern USA by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, jitney, license plate recognition, Mason jar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, the High Line, the payments system, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

VERMONT FRESH NETWORK Locavore food dominates in Vermont, and the state has its own label: the farm and chef partnership Vermont Fresh Network identifies restaurants that focus on sustainable, locally sourced food. Just look for the green-and-white square sticker with a plate and silverware drawn in it – it’s an easy way of knowing that the eatery probably got its eggs from a neighboring farm. For a full listing of restaurants with this label, visit www.vermontfresh.net. BRATTLEBORO Ever wonder where the 1960s counter-culture went? It’s alive and well in this riverside burg overflowing with craft shops and more tie-dye per capita than any other place in New England. Sights & Activities Begin at Main St, which is lined with period buildings, including the handsome art-deco Latchis Building, which houses a hotel and theater. Windham County, surrounding Brattleboro, boasts several covered bridges. Pick up a driving guide to them at the Brattleboro Area Chamber of Commerce ( 802-254-4565; www.brattleborochamber.org; 180 Main St; 9am-5pm Mon-Fri).

USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

VERMONT FRESH NETWORK Locavore food dominates in Vermont, and the state has its own label: the farm and chef partnership Vermont Fresh Network identifies restaurants that focus on sustainable, locally sourced food. Just look for the green-and-white square sticker with a plate and silverware drawn in it – it’s an easy way of knowing that the eatery probably got its eggs from a neighboring farm. For a full listing of restaurants with this label, visit www.vermontfresh.net. BRATTLEBORO Ever wonder where the 1960s counter-culture went? It’s alive and well in this riverside burg overflowing with craft shops and more tie-dye per capita than any other place in New England. Sights & Activities Begin at Main St, which is lined with period buildings, including the handsome art-deco Latchis Building, which houses a hotel and theater. Windham County, surrounding Brattleboro, boasts several covered bridges . Pick up a driving guide to them at the Brattleboro Area Chamber of Commerce ( 802-254-4565; www.brattleborochamber.org; 180 Main St; 9am-5pm Mon-Fri) .