peer-to-peer

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pages: 731 words: 134,263

Talk Is Cheap: Switching to Internet Telephones by James E. Gaskin

Debian, packet switching, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, telemarketer

Many cooperative groups have collaborated to shuttle Internet calls to a public telephone network central office serving the telephone number you dial. And when you do have to pay, it's pennies per minute, and only when you use it. 2.2.4. Virtual Numbers Calling out from a peer-to-peer network to the public telephone network is one thing. But if your peer-to-peer service lists you as JamesGaskin inside the Skype user directory (well, yours doesn't, but mine does), how do outsiders dial that? How can they call you? Enter virtual numbers and the inbound side of the public phone to peer-to-peer network gateway. Virtual numbers are traditional telephone numbers that link the public telephone network into the broadband phone world. Vonage and their competitors with analog telephone adapters that plug into your broadband modem are providing virtual numbers as well, but they don't really say that.

Many cooperative groups have collaborated to shuttle Internet calls to a public telephone network central office serving the telephone number you dial. And when you do have to pay, it's pennies per minute, and only when you use it. 2.2.4. Virtual Numbers Calling out from a peer-to-peer network to the public telephone network is one thing. But if your peer-to-peer service lists you as JamesGaskin inside the Skype user directory (well, yours doesn't, but mine does), how do outsiders dial that? How can they call you? Enter virtual numbers and the inbound side of the public phone to peer-to-peer network gateway. Virtual numbers are traditional telephone numbers that link the public telephone network into the broadband phone world. Vonage and their competitors with analog telephone adapters that plug into your broadband modem are providing virtual numbers as well, but they don't really say that.

Just remember that in marketing, brand awareness wins, and having every user of your product (or free Skype software in this case) demand that all their friends get the product is a wonderful thing and much desired by marketing people. * * * Note: Name from Air"Skype" is a made-up word picked because it had an available web address, the ability to act as a noun and a verb, and no meaning in any language. * * * Peer-to-peer technologies that were developed for KaZaA and improved for Skype allow the two founders to claim that Skype is the third generation of peer-to-peer technology. That makes sense, and explains why Skype has an advantage over many of their competitors: they've been doing it longer and learning as they go. Starting August 29, 2003, Skype software rolled quickly across the Internet. People were so excited that they gladly suffered through the early growing pains. Of course, a cult-like following was all they had, because Skype users could only talk to other Skype users, and only when they were both on their computers and logged into the Skype service.


Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution by Howard Rheingold

A Pattern Language, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business climate, citizen journalism, computer vision, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, experimental economics, experimental subject, Extropian, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telephone, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, more computing power than Apollo, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pez dispenser, planetary scale, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, social intelligence, spectrum auction, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, transaction costs, ultimatum game, urban planning, web of trust, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

My journey into the universe of peer-to-peer ad-hocracies that combine the powers of computation with the growth capabilities of online social networks started innocently enough, when I stumbled onto a plot to find life in outer space. 3 Computation Nations and Swarm Supercomputers Peer-to-peer networks are composed of personal computers tied together with consumer Internet connections, each node a quantum zone of uncertainty, prone to going offline whenever its owner closes his laptop and chucks it into a shoulder-bag. . . . Peer-to-peer networks aren’t owned by any central authority, nor can they be controlled, killed, or broken by a central authority. Companies and concerns may program and release software for peer-to-peer networking, but the networks that emerge are owned by everyone and no one. They’re faery infrastructure, networks whose maps form weird n-dimensional topologies of surpassing beauty and chaos; mad technological hairballs run by ad-hocracies whose members each act in their own best interests. In a nutshell, peer-to-peer technology is goddamn wicked.

Imagine telephones that directly communicate with each other, relaying signals from device to device the way Usenet nodes do, without using any other communication network other than the telephones that happen to be nearby. Yet another new technology is known as “ad-hoc peer-to-peer networking.” If any one node of what is also called a “mesh” network has a fat enough pipeline to the Internet, then the network of devices can cooperatively distribute the bandwidth. In a mesh network, each node also can serve other users simultaneously as infrastructure, like a cellular system without fixed cells that relays messages among telephones. A company called MeshNetworks was funded by DARPA (today’s successor to ARPA) to make it possible to “parachute two or three thousand soldiers in the middle of nowhere and have them instantaneously form an ad-hoc peer-to-peer network and communicate.”68 The company is planning a $35 chip that could serve as a wireless access point; telephones equipped with such chips could serve as relay stations for other nearby telephones.

In February 2002, the FCC granted MeshNetworks an experimental license to test their technology in limited frequency bands.69 Nokia markets “wireless routers” based on mesh network technology in the unlicensed bands.70 Strange as the notion seems, population densities and mobile telephone penetration in major metropolitan areas make self-sufficient peer-to-peer networks entirely possible.71 I wasn’t surprised to discover teenagers growing mesh networks by putting their toys together. The “Cybiko handheld” is an inexpensive device for the youth market, created by a Russian company. Priced at around $100, Cybiko (Japanese for “cyber girl”) devices combine a walkie-talkie, texting terminal, FM radio player, voice recorder, game and music player, email, and organizer.72 Cybiko base stations can provide up to 200 Cybiko users with wireless Internet access, email, and instant messaging. America Online is one of the investors. As of this writing, over half a million first-generation devices are in circulation. The next generation incorporates protocols for ad hoc peer-to-peer networks. Hidekazu Umeda created mobile peer-to-peer software protocols that DoCoMo and other traditional wireless service providers can’t be happy about, since his mobile p2p software could turn all the mobile telephones, personal digital assistants, Cybikos, and other wireless devices in Tokyo into one giant ad-hoc network that moves voice and data around without the intermediation of the traditional telecommunication networks.73 I met with Umeda and his colleague, Yuichi Kawasaki, after normal office hours in the Web design firm that employed them during the day.


pages: 173 words: 14,313

Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion: Rhetoric in the Peer-To-Peer Debates by John Logie

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, book scanning, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hacker Ethic, Isaac Newton, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, publication bias, Richard Stallman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, search inside the book, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog

The path to fair and appropriate policies addressing peer-to-peer technologies continues to be obscured by the polarizing rhetoric often used by the participants in the debate. The content industries have repeatedly attempted to position peer-to-peer technologies as weapons, Pa r l orPr e s s 126 wwwww. p a r l or p r e s s . c om Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion and peer-to-peer users as criminals and terrorists. These arguments tend to conflate peer-to-peer technologies with the uses to which they are being put. While some of these uses are at least unethical and potentially illegal, many are not. The content industries’ arguments to date threaten to disrupt growth and innovation in peer-to-peer technologies, which already offer computer users far more than free, easy access to the latest Top-40 hit. Peer-to-peer networks’ true potential will only be realized once U.S. culture settles on a means of expediting the movement of cultural artifacts into the public domain.

For this reason, the core conclusion of Eytan Adar and Bernardo Huberman’s 2000 study of the usage patterns of Gnutella users—that roughly 70 percent of Gnutella users distribute no files— is perhaps not surprising. Thus, while peer-to-peer technologies are rooted in the establishment of level relationships among networked computers (the “peers” in peer-to-peer) the people using peer-to-peer technologies typically pursue imbalanced relationships. As a result, a small subset of peer-to-peer users account for the bulk of the distribution of authorized and unauthorized files to peer-to-peer networks, thereby assuming the bulk of the risks associated with the transmission of these files. It is these users who have earned the right to frame arguments that their activities constitute “sharing.” By contrast, peer- Pa r l orPr e s s 100 wwwww. p a r l or p r e s s . c om Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion to-peer users who scrupulously avoid making files available to others are not sharing, but taking.

The second reason is that advocates for broader and fairer use of peer-to-peer technologies have yet to produce an argument as superficially compelling as “stealing music hurts artists.” The content industries are winning this debate in large part by drawing upon established tropes that portray college campuses as enclaves of lawlessness and unethical behavior. And when the image most people have of peer-to-peer technologies is yoked to Shawn Fanning’s perpetuation of his hacker/undergraduate persona well past its expiration date, the task of rewriting and redirecting the peer-to-peer debate grows incrementally more difficult. I do not call or wish for the end of copyright. Rather, I seek copyrights calibrated not to print delivered by ponies, but to the torrents of information now spanning the globe via broadband peer-to-peer networks. The consequences of a failure to revise the current peer-to-peer narrative are, ultimately, the abandonment of the principles that prompted the first Congress to title the first U.S.


pages: 494 words: 142,285

The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World by Lawrence Lessig

AltaVista, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, business process, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Erik Brynjolfsson, George Gilder, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, invention of hypertext, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Larry Wall, Leonard Kleinrock, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, smart grid, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, transaction costs, zero-sum game

The point is that the idle time of the machine could be harnessed to the end of getting something done. 30 As Howard Rheingold describes it: At its most basic level, distributed processing is a way of harvesting a resource that until now has been squandered on a massive scale: unused CPU cycles. Even if you type two characters per second on your keyboard, you're using only a fraction of your machine's power. [Distributed computing bands together millions of computers] on the Net to create, with their downtime, ad hoc supercomputers.31 The potential of peer-to-peer technologies reaches far beyond simple file transfer or the sharing of processing cycles. Indeed, as researchers are coming to understand, the most important peer-to-peer technologies could be more efficient caching technologies. A “cache” is simply a copy of content kept close to the user, so that less time is needed to get access to that content. P2P caching solutions imagine using computers at the edge to more efficiently store data. A user might be paid by a network, for example, to reserve 1 gigabyte of his or her hard disk for the network to do with as it wants.

By increasing the demand for a diverse selection of content, and by enabling the cheaper identification of that demand, the Net widens the range of potential contributors. NEW PARTICIPATION: P2P FINALLY, CONSIDER an innovation that enables a new kind of participation that many have called the next great revolution for the Internet, and that in light of our discussion of e2e will be quite familiar: the emergence of peer-to-peer (P2P) networks.25 A peer-to-peer network is one where the content is being served not by a single central server, but by equal, or “peer,” machines linked across the network. Formally, “p2p is a class of applications that take advantage of resources—storage, cycles, content, human presence—available at the edges of the Internet.”26 In the sense I've described, this was the architecture of the original computers on the Internet—there wasn't a set of central servers that the machines connected to; instead, there was a set of e2e protocols that enabled data to be shared among the machines.

As machines have become more powerful, and as they have become more reliably and permanently connected to the Net, the possibility of using peers to process and forward data on the Net has increased. Peer-to-peer services are returning to the Internet as machines mature and are persistently on the Net. The character of what can happen is changing, and the potential—if left free to develop—is extraordinary. Napster is the most famous peer-to-peer technology, even though it is not exactly peer-to-peer. (There is a central server that keeps a database of who has what; the music itself is kept on other people's machines.) But Napster is the horse and buggy in this transportation system. It is only the beginning. Consider the SETI project. SETI—the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence—scans the radio waves for evidence of intelligent life somewhere else in the universe.


pages: 315 words: 93,522

How Music Got Free: The End of an Industry, the Turn of the Century, and the Patient Zero of Piracy by Stephen Witt

4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, cloud computing, collaborative economy, crowdsourcing, game design, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, inventory management, iterative process, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, job automation, late fees, mental accounting, moral panic, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, security theater, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, zero day

See also chat rooms Interpol, 147–48, 213, 217 Interscope Records, 45–50, 73, 77–80, 112–13, 153, 189 Iovine, Jimmy, 45–48, 76–80, 92, 112, 191 IP addresses limits on for Scene members, 160–61, 180 traceability of, 70–71, 160–61, 250–52 iPod device, 155–57, 192–93, 202 iTunes Store, 132–33, 155–58, 189, 192, 205–6, 209, 235–36 Jackson, Michael, 84, 234 Japanese electronics industry, 93, 97, 127, 144 Jay-Z (artist), 103, 112–13, 125, 140, 177, 179, 201, 237–38, 260 Jobs, Steve, 132–33, 155–57, 189, 192–93, 227–28, 235–37 Johnston, James, 16–17, 20–21, 60, 96, 274n Juvenile (artist), 80–81, 200 “Kali” (RNS ringleader) as“Blazini,” “Death, ” 181 Glover’s association with, 108–9, 139–42, 145–46, 148–51, 215–22 law enforcement investigation of, 195–203, 248–52 leadership of RNS by, 106–8, 180–88, 217–20 paranoia of, 147, 217 post-RNS activities of, 251, 262 Saunders’ association with, 179 shutdown of RNS by, 218–22, 249–52 Tai’s association with, 143–45 Kaminska, Izabella, 244–45 Kazaa peer-to-peer network, 160, 165, 209, 225, 252 Knight, Suge, 46–50, 78, 81 KOSDK (RNS participant), 181–88, 220 Laurie Records, 38, 43–44, 199 Led Zeppelin (band), 39–41, 124, 199, 261 Level 3 encoder (L3Enc), 55–56, 62–63, 72–73, 88–89, 91 Lévy, Jean-Bernard, 155, 190 licensing agreements mp3 technology and, 56–58, 90–91, 94, 128–29 music publishing business and, 234 for streaming media, 261 Lil Wayne, 81, 140, 154, 179, 200–202, 226 LimeWire peer-to-peer network, 160, 165, 171, 184, 252 Limp Bizkit, 79, 112, 123 Linde, Henri, 57–63, 93–94, 96, 127–29, 133 “Little Bit O’ Soul” (song), 43–44 Ludacris (artist), 140, 143–44, 148–49, 153, 177 Macintosh systems, mp3 and, 62, 132–33 Mannie Fresh (artist), 81, 154 Marilyn Manson (artist), 77, 79 market research, Morris’s reliance on, 42–50, 156–57, 190, 198–99 Marshall Mathers LP (album), The, 124–25 Messier, Jean-Marie, 122, 155 Metallica (band), 73, 202 Microsoft, 87, 128–30, 133 Middelhoff, Thomas, 116–17, 119 mixtapes, Internet distribution of, 201–2 Mnookin, Seth, 227–29 Mohan, Edward, 248, 251 MojoNation peer-to-peer network, 166–67 Montejano, Richard (RickOne) (OSC leader), 221–22, 248–49 Morris, Doug advertising streaming revenue, 231–38 artists’ relationships with, 112–13, 120–21, 158–59, 191, 229–32 at Atlantic Records, 39–42 bootlegged music and, 84–85 Cash Money records and, 80, 113. 200, 202 earnings of, 189–90, 227, 260 Ertegun and, 39–42, 46, 48, 191, 199, 278n Iovine and, 45–47 Jay-Z and, 103, 237 Jobs and, 155–57, 192–93, 227–28, 235–37 market research skills of, 42–50, 156–57, 190, 198–99, 228–29 MCA Music Entertainment Group and, 75–79 Napster, reaction to, 117–20 payola scandal and, 196–98 PolyGram merger and, 102–3 Project Hubcap lawsuits and, 158–61, 193 rap music expansion and, 148–51, 154–55, 221 as Sony Music CEO, 260 Universal Music Group and, 79–85, 111–12, 153, 155 Vevo and, 232–38, 261 Vivendi merger and, 122–25, 158–59, 189–92, 225–38 as Warner Music Group CEO, 37–38, 42–46, 50–51 Wired magazine interview and, 227–30 Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) DVD technology and, 165 mp3 development and, 17–20, 61–62, 94, 97–98, 127, 134 organizational structure of, 274n Philips lobbying of, 20–21 psychoacoustic compression competition held by, 17–19, 53 support of mp2, 5–6, 20–25, 58 mp2 technology MPEG endorsement of, 20–25 popularity of, 5, 53, 192 mp3 technology bootlegged music using, 85, 88–89 Brandenburg’s development of, 2–6, 16, 18–21, 53–58, 128 commercial success of, 87 copy-protectable version of, 90 encoding process, 282n Morris’ reaction to, 117–18, 120–21, 193 MPEG endorsement of, 20 music piracy and, 72–73, 193 patents on, 56–58, 90–91, 93–96, 128–29 player development for, 58–60, 125–26 psychoacoustic research and, 7–16, 128 recording industry resistance to, 5–6, 56–57, 90–92 MPMan player, 97, 259 MTV, 40, 179, 192–93 Murphy, George, 255–58 MUSICAM, 18–21, 24–25, 55, 60–61, 94, 97, 128, 134 Music Explosion (band), 43–44, 123 music festivals, growth of, 233–38, 260–61 music retailers as prerelease source, 144–45, 176–77 price collusion and, 114 sales figures for, 43, 154 music videos, syndication of, 232–38, 260–61 Napster, 244 emergence of, 114–21 impact on recording industry of, 156–57, 244 mp3 technology and, 128, 130–31 peer-to-peer file-sharing and, 160, 165 portable player development and, 125–26 National Hockey League, 54–55 NEET demographic, 209–14 NetFraCk (piracy leader), 72–73 NFO files, Scene’s use of, 140–41, 182, 216, 219 Nicks, Stevie, 41, 45 Nine Inch Nails (band), 77, 208 No Doubt (band), 77, 79 Nominet domain name, 212–14 Ogg Vorbis, 132, 259 Oink’s Pink Palace, 170–74, 205–14, 239–43, 252, 263 Old Skool Classics (OSC) piracy group, 179, 220–22, 248–49 open-source software, 132, 168, 170–71, 259 Operation Buccaneer, 147–48, 162, 194 Operation Fastlink, 162–63, 182, 195, 203, 239, 257–58 organized crime, bootlegged music and, 67–68, 71–74, 83–85 Outkast, 108, 143–44, 148, 179 Pandora, 253, 261 Parker, Sean, 116–17 patent law, mp3 protections and, 95–96 PC systems, mp3 player development and, 55–56, 59, 62, 85 peer-to-peer file-sharing, 114–18, 121–22 lawsuits against, 158–61, 165, 225–26 Napster and, 160, 167 prerelease leaks and, 157–58 quality and distribution problems with, 165–67, 171–72 torrent technology and, 166–70, 226–27 Philips corporation format wars and, 19–20, 59, 67, 94, 97, 134 mp2 promotion by, 20–25, 53 PolyGram division of, 32–33, 78, 82 Seagram purchase of PolyGram from, 82–85, 101 Physical Graffiti (album), 48, 199 Pink Moon (album), 205–6, 240 piracy, origin of term, 278n Pirate Bay torrent site, 168–71, 173, 184, 207, 209, 240, 242–43, 252 Pirate Party, formation of, 242–45 PlayStation piracy, 108, 186 PolyGram division of Philips corporation, 32–33, 78, 82–85, 101, 111–12 EDC takeover of, 191–92, 215 marquee releases at, 136 PolyGram Kings Mountain manufacturing plant closing of, 253 compact disc production at, 27–29 Glover’s employment at, 32–33, 175–76 Interscope distribution deal with, 73, 78 “No Theft Tolerated” standard at, 32 security system at, 67–68, 103–5, 135–39 smuggling activity at, 35, 67, 103–8, 135, 149–51, 176–88 Universal’s acquisition of, 84–85, 101–3 polyphase quadrature filter bank, 19–21 Popp, Harald, 13, 53, 56–59, 88, 93–95, 97–98, 130–31, 134 portable music players, 125–27 Prabhu, Jay, 194–96, 203, 252, 257 prerelease leaks Oink’s Pink Palace and, 209–14 Scene involvement with, 72–73, 139–41, 144–45, 184–88 sources for, 144–45, 157–58, 176–77, 185–88 streaming technology and, 261–62 Pressplay online music store, 119, 157, 228 Project Hubcap lawsuits, 159–60, 166, 193, 225–26 psychoacoustic compression technology AAC applications, 60, 88, 96–98 Brandenburg’s development of, 60, 88 competing research in, 7–17, 128 human speech and, 16 mp2 use of, 5, 20–25 mp3 use of, 7–16, 53–58 MPEG evaluation of, 17–19, 53 studio engineers’ reaction to, 91–92 Zwicker’s contributions to, 7–16, 18–19 publishing rights as revenue stream, 234–38, 260–61 Rabid Neurosis.

The lawsuit sought to obtain an injunction prohibiting the sale of Diamond’s Rio portable digital audio device, and any others like it, suffocating the nascent mp3 player market in the cradle. The second lawsuit, A&M Records vs. Napster, was filed by 18 record companies, including Universal. The suit alleged that Napster was legally responsible for the copyright infringement occurring over its peer-to-peer network, and that the company was liable for damages. The two lawsuits wound through various civil courts and various stages of appeal. Napster peaked at sixty million users, while Diamond’s Rio player was plagued by various design flaws and sold poorly. The lawsuits had a chilling effect on industry R&D. As long as it might be found liable for the copyright infringement of its users, no legitimate software company was going to market a peer-to-peer file-sharing app, and, facing the possibility of a court-ordered injunction removing it from the shelves, no legitimate device maker was going to invest in designing a player for mp3s.

But if you had a reliable mp3 player, things would be different. You could throw your CDs in the garbage and port everything to a pocket-sized hard drive. You’d never have to buy a compact disc again. It all depended on how RIAA vs. Diamond played out. After successive rounds of appeals and counterappeals, the lawsuits came to an end. It was a split decision, with a victory against Napster but a loss against Diamond. Peer-to-peer networks were driven underground, but the mp3 players remained on store shelves. Napster’s servers went offline in July 2001, and, following a mad rush of eleventh-hour downloading, the public had hundreds of millions of mp3 files stranded on their home computers, and no easy way to get them off. The stage was set for a remarkable upheaval, one that would permanently obsolesce the compact disc and catalyze the transformation of a niche technology player into the largest company on earth.


pages: 678 words: 216,204

The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom by Yochai Benkler

affirmative action, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, clean water, commoditize, dark matter, desegregation, East Village, fear of failure, Firefox, game design, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information asymmetry, invention of radio, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kenneth Arrow, longitudinal study, market bubble, market clearing, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, random walk, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software patent, spectrum auction, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Vilfredo Pareto

Preserving the capacity of industrial cultural producers to maintain a hermetic seal on the use of materials to which they own copyright can be bought only at the cost of disabling the newly emerging modes of cultural production from quoting and directly building upon much of the culture of the last century. 737 The Battle over Peer-to-Peer Networks 738 The second major institutional battle over the technical and social trajectory of Internet development has revolved around peer-to-peer (p2p) networks. I [pg 419] offer a detailed description of it here, but not because I think it will be the make-it-or-break-it of the networked information economy. If any laws have that determinative a power, they are the Fritz chip and DMCA. However, the peer-to-peer legal battle offers an excellent case study of just how difficult it is to evaluate the effects of institutional ecology on technology, economic organization, and social practice. 739 Peer-to-peer technologies as a global phenomenon emerged from Napster and its use by tens of millions of users around the globe for unauthorized sharing of music files.

See blocked access financial reward, as demotivator, 187-190 Fine-grained goods, 221 First-best preferences, 355 large-audience programming, 355 power of mass media owners, 355 First-best preferences, mass media and, 297, 359, 366, 397, 423, 429, 463 concentration of mass-media power, 297, 397-402, 423, 429-436 large-audience programming, 366-375, 463-464 of mass media owners, 359-365 power of mass media owners, 397-402 Fisher, William (Terry), 40, 245, 498, 526, 720 Fiske, John, 262, 497, 526 Fixed costs, 216 Folding@home project, 168-170 Folk culture, 585 see culture food, commons-research based on, 585 Food security, commons-based research on, 586-608 Formal autonomy theory, 269-272 Formal instruction, 562 Fragmentation of communication, 41, 421, 459-460, 818-819 Franklin, Benjamin, 342 Franks, Charles, 165, 264 Free High School Science Texts (FHSST), 201, 582 Free software, 19-20, 37, 96, 125-132, 202, 247, 573, 762, 803 as competition to market-based business, 247 commons-based welfare development, 573-576 human development and justice, 37 policy on, 762-763 project modularity and granularity, 202 security considerations, 803-807 Freedom, 50, 122, 253, 273, 286, 316, 505, 532 behavioral options, 286-288, 316 cultural, 505-514, 532-533 of commons, 122 property and commons, 273-278 Freenet, 479 Frey, Bruno, 187-188 Friedman, Milton, 82 Friendships, virtual, 637-639 Friendster, 653 Froomkin, Michael, 727, 755 Future, 481, 531 participatory culture, 531-536 public sphere, 481-484 G GCP (Generation Challenge Program), 605 GE (General Electric), 346, 350-351 GM (genetically modified) foods, 590-597 GNU/Linux operating system, 128-131 GPL (General Public License), 126-130, 205 See Also free software, 205 GTLD-MoU document, 754 Games, immersive, 149-150, 263 General Public License (GPL), 126-130, 205 See also fre software, 205 Generation Challenge Program (GCP), 605 Genetically modified (GM) foods, 590-597 Genome@home project, 169 Ghosh, Rishab, 207 Gifts, 226-227 Gilmore, Dan, 393, 470 Glance, Natalie, 447, 461 Global development, 550-554, 584, 609, 627-628, 796 food and agricultural innovation, 584-608 international harmonization, 796-801 medical and pharmaceutical innovation, 609-623 Gnutella, 740 Godelier, Maurice, 215, 226 Golden rice, 599 Goods, information-embedded, 556-558 Google, 153 Gould, Stephen Jay, 64 Government, 52, 339, 356, 426, 473 authoritarian control, 426, 473-480 independence from control of, 339, 356 role of, 52-56 working around authorities, 473-480 Gramsci, Antonio, 506-507 Granovetter, Mark, 189, 638, 641 Granularity, 200-203, 221 of lumpy goods, 221-222 Granularity of participation and, 200-203 Green Revolution, 589-594 Grokster, 742 Growth rates of Web sites, 443, 446 H HDI (Human Development Index), 552-554 HHI (Herfindahl-Hirschman Index), 363 HIV/AIDS, 570-571, 585, 610 Habermas, Jurgen, 333, 338, 367, 508-509, 727 Hampton, Keith, 644 HapMap Project, 621 Hardware, 206, 220, 294, 718 as shareable, lumpy goods, 220-222 infrastructure ownership, 294-295 policy on physical devices, 718-725 Hardware regulations, 718-725 Harmonization, international, 796-801 Harris, Bev, 405, 408-409, 412 Hart, Michael, 164-165, 264 Hayek, Friedrich, 51, 274 Health effects of GM foods, 593-594 Hearst, William Randolph, 365 Heller, Michael, 558 High-production value content, 313, 528-530 Hollings, Fritz, 721-724 Home project, 168-170 Hoover, Herbert, 348 Hopkins Report, 408 Horner, Mark, 201 Huberman, Bernardo, 443, 446 Human Development Index (HDI), 552-554 Human Development Report, 552 Human affairs, technology and, 43-48 Human communicative capacity, 108-112, 194, 217 feasibility conditions for social production, 194-207 pricing, 217 Human community, coexisting with Internet, 664-666 Human contact, online vs. physical, 638-639 Human development and justice, 35-38, 537-628, 542, 550-554, 568, 820-821 commons-based research, 568-583 liberal theories of, 542-549 Human motivation, 21, 183-194, 189, 200, 221, 223 crowding out theory, 223 cultural context of, 189-191 granularity of participation and, 200-203, 221-222 Human welfare, 255, 297, 427, 542, 550, 555, 568 commons-based research, 568-583 commons-based strategies, 550-554 digital divide, 427 freedom from constraint, 297-299 information-based advantages, 555-562 liberal theories of justice, 542-549 Hundt, Reed, 398 Hyperlinking on the Web, 392, 437, 791 as trespass, 791-795 power law distribution of site connections, 437-466 I IAHC (International Ad Hock Committee), 754 IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority), 754 IBM's business strategy, 96, 247-248 ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), 755 Iconic representations of opinion, 367, 373 Ideal market, 123 Immersive entertainment, 149-150, 263 Implicit knowledge, transfer of, 562 Incentives to produce, 21, 183-194, 189, 200, 221, 223 crowding out theory, 223 cultural context, 189-191 granularity of participation and, 200-203, 221-222 Independence from government control, 339, 356 Independence of Web sites, 203 Individual autonomy, 26-28, 51, 203, 258-322, 269, 278, 279, 309, 506, 815-819 culture and, 506-508 formal conception of, 269-272 independence of Web sites, 203 individual capabilities in, 51-56 information environment, structure of, 278, 279-303 mass media and, 309-310 Individual capabilities and action, 16, 43, 51-56, 108, 195, 238, 513, 545 as modality of production, 238-243 as physical capital, 195-196 coordinated effects of individual actions, 16-18 cultural shift, 513 economic condition and, 545 human capacity as resource, 108 technology and human affairs, 43-48 Individualist methodologies, 47-48 Industrial age, 73, 265 destabilization of, 73 reduction of individual autonomy, 265-266 Industrial ecology of digital environment, 356 emerging role of mass media, 356-358 Industrial model of communication, 16-17, 29, 31, 57-66, 120, 146, 208, 244, 309, 327, 340, 356, 539, 563, 611, 671, 674-807, 679, 685, 695, 803, 808, 825-826 autonomy and, 309-310 barriers to justice, 539-540 emerging role of mass media, 327-330, 340-341, 356-358 enclosure movement, 671-672 information industries, 563-565 mapping, framework for, 685-698 medical innovation and, 611 path dependency, 679-684 relationship with social producers, 244-250 security-related policy, 146-148, 695, 803-807 shift away from, 31-34 stakes of information policy, 808-829 structure of mass media, 327-330 transaction costs, 120, 208-224 Inefficiency of information regulation, 79-87, 100-104, 208-224, 221, 291, 571, 810-813 capacity reallocation, 221-224 property protections, 571 wireless communications policy, 291 Inertness, political, 355, 366-375 Influence exaction, 295-296, 298-300 Information appropriation strategies, 101-103 Information as nonrival, 79-83 Information economy, 11-66, 14, 24, 42, 57, 394, 542 democracy and liberalism, 24-39 effects on public sphere, 394-415 emergence of, 14-23 institutional ecology, 57-66 justice, liberal theories of, 542-549 methodological choices, 42-56 Information flow, 34, 281, 296, 355, 366, 463, 702 controlling with policy routers, 281-284, 296, 355-358, 702 large-audience programming, 355, 366-375, 463-464 limited by mass media, 355-358 Information industries, 563-565 Information overload and Babel objection, 31, 34, 314-323, 419, 424, 429-436, 818-819 Information production, 16, 79, 88, 174, 194, 403, 815 feasibility conditions for social production, 194-207 networked public sphere capacity for, 403-415 nonrivalry, 79-83, 174 physical constraints on, 16-17 strategies of, 88 Information production capital, 21-22, 73, 89, 120, 195, 216, 309 control of, 195-196 cost minimization and benefit maximization, 89 fixed and initial costs, 216 production costs as limiting, 309 transaction costs, 120 Information production economics, 77-117, 88, 100, 105, 114 current production strategies, 88-99 exclusive rights, 100-104, 114-117 production over computer networks, 105-112 Information production inputs, 81, 108, 135-148, 137, 140, 149, 214, 238, 281, 285, 296, 335, 355, 366, 397, 463, 531, 702 NASA Clickworkers project, 137-139 Wikipedia project, 140-148 existing information, 81-83, 108 immersive entertainment, 149-150 individual action as modality, 238-243 large-audience programming, 355, 366-375, 463-464 limited by mass media, 355-358 pricing, 214-219 propaganda, 285, 397-402, 531-536 systematically blocked by policy routers, 281-284, 296, 355-358, 702 universal intake, 335-336, 355-358 Information production, market-based, 83, 95, 120, 208, 244, 522, 529, 613 cultural change, transparency of, 522-526 mass popular culture, 529-530 relationship with social producers, 244-250 transaction costs, 120, 208-224 universities as, 613-616 without property protections, 83-87, 95-99 Information sharing, 175, 216, 218, 294 infrastructure ownership, 294 initial costs, 216 transaction costs, 218-223 Information, defined, 71, 559-560 Information, perfect, 364 Information-embedded goods, 556-558 Information-embedded tools, 558 Innovation, 37, 291, 586, 764 agricultural, commons-based, 586-608 human development, 37-38 software patents and, 764-766 wireless communications policy, 291 Innovation economics, 77-117, 88, 100, 100, 105, 114 current production strategies, 88 exclusive rights, 100-104, 100-104, 114-117 production over computer networks, 105-112 Inputs to production, 81, 108, 135-148, 137, 140, 149, 214, 238, 281, 285, 296, 335, 355, 366, 397, 463, 531, 702 NASA Clickworkers project, 137-139 Wikipedia project, 140-148 existing information, 81-83, 108 immersive entertainment, 149-150 individual action as modality, 238-243 large-audience programming, 355, 366-375, 463-464 limited by mass media, 355-358 pricing, 214-219 propaganda, 285, 397-402, 531-536 systematically blocked by policy routers, 281-284, 296, 355-358, 702 universal intake, 335-336, 355-358 Instant messaging, 647 Institute for One World Health, 619 Institutional ecology of digital environment, 6, 16-17, 27-28, 31, 57-66, 120, 146, 208, 244, 309, 327, 340, 539, 611, 671, 674-807, 679, 685, 695, 803, 808, 824-827 autonomy and, 309-310 barriers to justice, 539-540 emerging role of mass media, 327-330, 340-341 enclosure movement, 671-672 mapping, framework for, 685-698 medical innovation and, 611 path dependency, 679-684 relationship with social producers, 244-250 security-related policy, 146-148, 695, 803-807 shift away from, 31-34 stakes of information policy, 808-829 structure of mass media, 327-330 transaction costs, 120, 208-224 International HapMap Project, 621 International harmonization, 796-801 Internet, 377, 385, 416, 423, 429, 437, 448, 473, 515, 528, 535, 654, 664, 698, 753, 759, 791 Web addresses, 753-758 Web browsers, 759-761 as platform for human connection, 654-658 authoritarian control over, 473-480 centralization of, 423, 429-436 coexisting with human community, 664-666 democratizing effect of, 416-428 democratizing effects of, 377-384 globality of, effects on policy, 698 linking as trespass, 791-795 plasticity of culture, 528-530, 535 power law distribution of site connections, 437-466 strongly connected Web sites, 448-450 technologies of, 385-393 transparency of culture, 515-527 Internet Explorer browser, 759-761 Intrinsic motivations, 187-193 Introna, Lucas, 466 Isolation, 637-639 J Jackson, Jesse, 470 Jedi Saga, The, 261-262 Jefferson, Richard, 606 Joe Einstein model, 91-92, 98, 564 Johanson, Jon, 734 Journalism, undermined by commercialism, 355, 365-375 Justice and human development, 35-38, 537-628, 542, 550, 568, 820-821 commons-based research, 568 commons-based strategies, 550-554 liberal theories of, 542-549 K KDKA Pittsburgh, 345, 346-347 KaZaa, 741-742 Kant, Immanuel, 274 Karma (Slashdot), 157 Keillor, Garrison, 441 Kick, Russ, 203, 464 Know-How model, 95 Knowledge, defined, 562 Koren, Niva Elkin, 40 Kottke, Jason, 455 Kraut, Robert, 638, 644 Kumar, Ravi, 455 Kymlicka, Will, 508 L Laboratories, peer-produced, 622-623 Lakhani, Karim, 207 Lange, David, 63 Large-audience programming, 355, 366-375, 463 susceptibility of networked public sphere, 463-464 Large-circulation press, 342-343 Large-grained goods, 221 Last mile (wireless), 709-714 Layers of institutional ecology, 676-677, 685-698, 691, 696, 767, 823-825 content layer, 676-677, 691, 696, 767-802, 823-825 physical layer, 691, 823-825 see also logical layer of institutional ecology, 691 Learning networks, 91-92, 95, 218 Lemley, Mark, 705, 779 Lerner, Josh, 83, 207 Lessig, Lawrence (Larry), 40, 63, 434, 498, 501, 678, 705 Liberal political theory, 49-51, 502, 532 cultural freedom, 502-514, 532-533 Liberal societies, 24-39, 26, 31, 35, 40, 331, 542 autonomy, 26-29 critical culture and social relations, 40 design of public sphere, 331-339 justice and human development, 35 public sphere, shift from mass media, 31-34 theories of justice, 542-549 Licensing, 126, 205, 346, 598, 778 GPL (General Public License), 126-130, 205 agricultural biotechnologies, 598-608 radio, 346-349 shrink-wrap (contractual enclosure), 778-781 Limited intake of mass media, 355-358 Limited sharing networks, 91-92, 98-99 Limited-access common resources, 122 Lin, Nan, 189 Linking on the Web, 392, 437, 791 as trespass, 791-795 power law distribution of site connections, 437-466 Linux operating system, 130 Litman, Jessica, 63, 74, 501, 771 Local clusters in network topology, 34 Logical layer of institutional ecology, 171, 522, 671, 676, 691, 696, 726-766, 729, 737-752, 753, 759, 762, 782, 787, 796, 805, 823 DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act), 671, 729-736 Web browsers, 759-761 database protection, 787-790 domain name system, 753-758 free software policies, 762-763 international harmonization, 796-801 peer-to-peer networks, 171-175, 805-806 recent changes, 696 trademark dilutation, 522, 782-786 Loneliness, 637-639 Loose affiliations, 27-28, 631, 642, 649-653 Los Alamos model, 91-92, 98 Lott, Trent, 461, 470 Lowest-common-denominator programming, 355, 367-375, 463-464 Lucas, George, 261-262 Luck, justice and, 543-545 Lumpy goods, 220-222 Luther, Martin, 64 M MIT's Open Courseware Initiative, 582 MMOGs (massive multiplayer online games), 149, 263 MP3.com, 739, 744 MSF (Medecins San Frontieres), 614 Mailing lists (electronic), 387 Management, changing relationships of, 247-250 Mangabeira Unger, Roberto, 266 Manipulating perceptions of others, 281-288, 285, 295, 298, 315-316, 397, 531 influence exaction, 295-296, 298-300 with propaganda, 285, 397-402, 531-536 Marconi, 346 Market reports, access to, 561 Market transactions, 211-214 Market-based information producers, 83, 95, 120, 208, 244, 522, 529, 529, 613 cultural change, transparency of, 522-526 mass popular culture, 529-530, 529-530 relationship with social producers, 244-250 transaction costs, 120, 208-224 universities as, 613-616 without property protections, 83-87, 95-99 Marshall, Josh, 398, 445, 470 Marx, Karl, 274, 505 Mass media, 327, 327, 340, 352, 353, 353, 397 as platform for public sphere, 327-330, 340-341, 352, 353-356 basic critiques of, 353-375 commercial platform for public sphere, 327-330 corrective effects of network environment, 397-402 structure of, 327-330 Mass media, political freedom and, 323-376, 331, 340, 353-375, 357 commercial platform for public sphere, 340-341, 357-358 design characteristics of liberal public sphere, 331-339 Massive multiplayer games, 149, 263 McChesney, Robert, 352 McHenry, Robert, 141 McLuhan, Marshall, 45 McVeigh, Timothy (sailor), 652 Medecins Sans Frontieres, 614 Media concentration, 297, 397, 423, 429-436 corrective effects of network environment, 397-402 Medicines, commons-based research on, 609-623 Medium of exchange, 214-219 Medium-grained goods, 221 Meetup.com site, 653 Metamoderation (Slashdot), 159-160 Methodological individualism, 48 Mickey model, 90-93 Microsoft Corporation, 759, 794 browser wars, 759-761 sidewalk.com, 794 Milgram, Stanley, 454 Misfortune, justice and, 543-545 Mobile phones, 393, 651, 709 open wireless networks, 709-714 Modularity, 200-203 Moglen, Eben, 20, 112, 748 Monetary constraints on information production, 21-23, 73, 89, 120, 195, 216, 309 control of, 195-196 cost minimization and benefit maximization, 89 fixed and initial costs, 216 production costs as limiting, 309 transaction costs, 120 Money, 89, 187, 214, 309, 420, 462 as demotivator, 187-190 as dominant factor, 420 centralization of communications, 462-466 cost minimization and benefit maximization, 89 cost of production as limiting, 309 crispness of currency exchange, 214-219 Monitoring, authoritarian, 426 Monopoly, 290, 345, 351, 371, 473, 611 authoritarian control, 473-480 breadth of programming under, 371 medical research and innovation, 611 radio broadcasting, 345, 351-352 wired environment as, 290 Moore, Michael, 360 Motivation to produce, 21-22, 183-194, 189, 200-203, 221, 223 crowding out theory, 223 cultural context, 189-191 granularity of participation and, 221-222 Moulitas, Markos, 398 Mumford, Lewis, 45 Municipal broadband initiatives, 715-717 Murdoch, Rupert, 365 Music industry, 106-107, 171, 733, 747-750, 777 DMCA violations, 733 digital sampling, 777 peer-to-peer networks and, 171-172 MyDD.com site, 398 N NASA Clickworkers, 137-139 NBC (National Broadcasting Company), 351 NIH (National Institutes of Health), 579 NSI (Network Solutions. Inc.), 754-755 Napster, 739-740 see also peer-to-peer networks, 739 Negroponte, Nicholas, 430 Neighborhood relations, strengthening of, 631, 642-647 Nelson, W. R., 367 Netanel, Neil, 425, 468 Netscape and browser wars, 760 Network topology, 171, 179, 278, 279, 319, 392, 437, 448, 451, 455, 737, 791, 805 autonomy and, 278, 279-303 emergent ordered structure, 455-460 linking as trespass, 791-795 moderately linked sites, 451 peer-to-peer networks, 171-175, 737-752, 805 power law distribution of site connections, 437-466 quoting on Web, 392 repeater networks, 179-180 strongly connected Web sites, 448-450 Networked environment policy, 14-66, 14, 24, 57, 394, 542 democracy and liberalism, 24-39 effects on public sphere, 394-415 emergence of, 14-23 institutional ecology, 57-66 justice, liberal theories of, 542-549 Networked environmental policy.

Nevertheless, they provide important lessons about the extent to which large-scale collaboration among strangers or loosely affiliated users can provide effective communications platforms. For fairly obvious reasons, we usually think of peer-to-peer networks, beginning with Napster, as a "problem." This is because they were initially overwhelmingly used to perform an act that, by the analysis of almost any legal scholar, was copyright infringement. To a significant extent, they are still used in this form. There were, and continue to be, many arguments about whether the acts of the firms that provided peer-to-peer software were responsible for the violations. However, there has been little argument that anyone who allows thousands of other users to make copies of his or her music files is violating copyright-- hence the public interpretation of the creation of peer-to-peer networks as primarily a problem. From the narrow perspective of the law of copyright or of the business model of the recording industry and Hollywood, this may be an appropriate focus.


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

additive manufacturing, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Zipcar

Some Challenges and Opportunities In many ways, this new generation of decentralized peer-to-peer technologies mirrors the P2P vision of Michel Bauwens that we discussed in chapter 1, and promises to create immense economic value over the coming decades. As the venture capitalist Chris Dixon wrote on his blog in 2014, Bitcoin makes activities like international microfinance, markets for computing capacity, incentivized social software, and other micropayments possible—not because we haven’t considered the value of these before, but because the transaction costs were too high.16 There are signs that traditional businesses will embrace many of the new capabilities of decentralized peer-to-peer technologies, much like Facebook actively uses BitTorrent within its privately owned server farms. In spring 2015, NASDAQ announced plans to leverage blockchain technology to support the development of a distributed ledger function for securities trading that will provide enhanced integrity, audit capabilities, governance, and transfer of ownership capabilities.

These include conversations with: Neha Gondal about the sociology of the sharing economy; Ravi Bapna, Verena Butt d’Espous, Juan Cartagena, Chris Dellarocas, Alok Gupta, and Sarah Rice about trust; Paul Daugherty, Peter Evans, Geoffrey Parker, Anand Shah, Marshall Van Alstyne, and Bruce Weinelt about platforms; Brad Burnham, Kanyi Maqubela, Simon Rothman, Craig Shapiro, and Albert Wenger about venture capital; Janelle Orsi, Nathan Schreiber, and Trebor Scholz about cooperatives; Umang Dua, Oisin Hanrahan, Micah Kaufmann, and Juho Makkonen about marketplace models; Gene Homicki about alternative rental models; Primavera De Filipi and Matan Field about the blockchain and decentralized peer-to-peer technologies; Ashwini Chhabra, Molly Cohen, Althea Erickson, David Estrada, Nick Grossman, David Hantman, Alex Howard, Meera Joshi, Veronica Juarez, Chris Lehane, Mike Masserman, Padden Murphy, Joseph Okpaku, Brooks Rainwater, April Rinne, Sofia Ranchordas, Michael Simas, Jessica Singleton, Adam Thierer, and Bradley Tusk about regulation; Elena Grewal, Kevin Novak, and Chris Pouliot about the use of data science in the sharing economy; Nellie Abernathy, Cynthia Estlund, Steve King, Wilma Liebman, Marysol McGee, Brian Miller, Michelle Miller, Caitlin Pearce, Libby Reder, Julie Samuels, Kristin Sharp, Dan Teran, Felicia Wong, and Marco Zappacosta about the future of work.

The “crowd”—manifested by a distributed and partially replicated index, and not a centralized server—matched a peer looking for a song with the peer who had the song. Every subsequent successful peer-to-peer filesharing network uses some variant of this decentralized, replicated indexing approach. And in 2009, the emergence of the digital currency Bitcoin demonstrated a significant step forward in decentralized peer-to-peer technology by decentralizing and distributing not merely an index but an actual anonymized ledger of financial transactions, the blockchain. When combined with peer-to-peer filesharing technologies, cryptographic techniques, and a novel incentive system, Bitcoin showed how a blockchain-based system could be used as the basis for trusted peer-to-peer transactions without a third-party intermediary, instead using the crowd—a decentralized network of “verifiers”—to clear transactions.


Bit by Bit: How P2P Is Freeing the World by Jeffrey Tucker

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, altcoin, bank run, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Fractional reserve banking, George Gilder, Google Hangouts, informal economy, invisible hand, Kickstarter, litecoin, Lyft, obamacare, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, TaskRabbit, the payments system, uber lyft

Observe how central the payment system is to the monetary system he created: A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending. We propose a solution to the doublespending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work. The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they'll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers.

What if the traditional barriers of physical space can be gradually overcome so that we have to depend ever less on third-party legacy institutions to manage our lives and facilitate our associations? What if spontaneous individual associations come to replace nation-states as the organizing principle of the global economy? These are the core hopes of Jeffrey Tucker’s inspiring reflection on the theory, application, and meaning of peer-to-peer technology. He draws attention to the most impressive feature of the digital revolution: equipotency, or the equal distribution of power through technological innovation. Equipotency is an extension of the universal right to self-determination. It is necessarily disruptive to traditional forms of power. This radical vision of what’s possible is only hinted at in many of the emerging commercial relationships he discusses in this book.

If you are new to these concepts, this book is a great place to start, and if you have already been pondering this subject for a while, you will find lots of interesting new insights. It is fantastic for those who are new to bitcoin and early adopters alike. Either way, the reader is sure to be intrigued by what he or she finds in this book. Roger Ver Tokyo, Japan January 1, 2015 Credits This reflection on new trends in peer-to-peer technology and their relationship to human freedom consists of observations, reflections, anecdotes, and incomplete impressions based on what I’ve seen and experienced as a writer, editor, site builder, and consumer over the last few remarkable years. Many of the ideas were tested in venues such as FEE.org (the Foundation for Economic Education), Liberty.me (the liberty-minded social and publishing network), and emerge from two years of interacting with others through speaking events, social engagement, and interviews.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

An interesting challenge for academic publishing on the blockchain is not just having an open-access, collaboratively edited, ongoing-discussion-forum journal per existing examples, or open-access, self-published blockchain white papers on GitHub, but to more fundamentally implement the blockchain concepts in blockchain journals. The consideration of what a decentralized direct peer-to-peer model for academic publishing could look like prompts the articulation of the functions that academic publishing provides and how, if these are still required, they might be provided in decentralized models. In terms of “publishing,” any manner of making content publicly available on the Web is publishing; one can easily self-publish on blogs, wikis, Twitter, Amazon, and the like. A blockchain model in terms of decentralized peer-to-peer content would be nothing more than a search engine linking one individual’s interests with another’s published material. This is a decentralized peer-to-peer model in the blockchain sense. So, academic (and other publishers) might be providing some other value functions, namely vouching for content quality.

The censorship issue is that in a URL such as google.com, centralized authorities control the top-level domain, the .com portion (the United States controls .com URLs), and therefore can potentially seize and redirect the URL. Centralized authorities control all top-level domains; for example, China controls all .cn domains. Therefore, a decentralized DNS means that top-level domains can exist that are not controlled by anyone, and they have DNS lookup tables shared on a peer-to-peer network. As long as there are volunteers running the decentralized DNS server software, alternative domains registered in this system can be accessed. Authorities cannot impose rules to affect the operation of a well-designed and executed global peer-to-peer top-level domain. The same Bitcoin structure is used in the implementation of a separate blockchain and coin, Namecoin, for decentralized DNS.

REST APIs Essentially secure calls in real time, these could be used in specific cases to help usability. Many blockchain companies provide alternative wallet interfaces that have this kind of functionality, such as Blockchain.info’s numerous wallet APIs. Business Model Challenges Another noted challenge, both functional and technical, is related to business models. At first traditional business models might not seem applicable to Bitcoin since the whole point of decentralized peer-to-peer models is that there are no facilitating intermediaries to take a cut/transaction fee (as in one classical business model). However, there are still many worthwhile revenue-generating products and services to provide in the new blockchain economy. Education and mainstream user-friendly tools are obvious low-hanging fruit (for example, being targeted by Coinbase, Circle Internet Financial, and Xapo), as is improving the efficiency of the entire worldwide existing banking and finance infrastructure like Ripple—another almost “no brainer” project, when blockchain principles are understood.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social intelligence, social software, standardized shipping container, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, wealth creators, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

Traditionally, when making online payments, we solve the double-spend problem by clearing every transaction through the central databases of one or many third parties, such as a money transfer service (like Western Union), a commercial bank (Citicorp), a government body (Commonwealth Bank of Australia), a credit card company (Visa), or an online payment platform (PayPal). Settlement can take days or even weeks in some parts of the world. Breakthrough: Satoshi leveraged an existing distributed peer-to-peer network and a bit of clever cryptography to create a consensus mechanism that could solve the double-spend problem as well as, if not better than, a trusted third party. On the bitcoin blockchain, the network time-stamps the first transaction where the owner spends a particular coin and rejects subsequent spends of the coin, thus eliminating a double spend. Network participants who run fully operating bitcoin nodes—called miners—gather up recent transactions, settle them in the form of a block of data, and repeat the process every ten minutes.

Let the network reach consensus algorithmically on what happened and record it cryptographically on the blockchain. The mechanism for reaching consensus is critical. “Consensus is a social process,” blogged Vitalik Buterin, pioneer of the Ethereum blockchain. “Human beings are fairly good at engaging in consensus . . . without any help from algorithms.” He explained that, once a system scales beyond an individual’s ability to do the math, people turn to software agents. In peer-to-peer networks, the consensus algorithm divvies up the right to update the status of the network, that is, to vote on the truth. The algorithm doles out this right to a group of peers who constitute an economic set, a set that has skin in the game, so to speak. According to Buterin, what’s important about this economic set is that its members are securely distributed: no single member or cartel should be able to overtake a majority, even if they had the means and incentive to do so.7 To achieve consensus, the bitcoin network uses what’s called a proof of work (PoW) mechanism.

Who graduated from medical school? Who bought guns? Who made these Nike shoes, this Apple device, or this baby formula? Where did these diamonds come from? Trust is the sine qua non of the digital economy, and a platform for secure and reliable mass collaboration holds many possibilities for a new kind of organization and society. 2. Distributed Power Principle: The system distributes power across a peer-to-peer network with no single point of control. No single party can shut the system down. If a central authority manages to black out or cut off an individual or group, the system will still survive. If over half the network attempts to overwhelm the whole, everyone will see what’s happening. Problem to Be Solved: In the first era of the Internet, any large institution with a large established base of users, be they employees, citizens, customers, or other organizations, thought little of their social contract.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The distributed and interconnected nature of the Internet of Things deepens individual entrepreneurial engagement in direct proportion to the diversity and strength of one’s collaborative relationships in the social economy. That’s because the democratization of communication, energy, and logistics allows billions of people to be individually “empowered.” But that empowerment is only achievable by one’s participation in peer-to-peer networks that are underwritten by social capital. A new generation is coming of age that is more entrepreneurially self-directed by means of being more socially embedded. It’s no surprise that the best and brightest of the Millennial Generation think of themselves as “social entrepreneurs.” For them, being both entrepreneurial and social is no longer an oxymoron, but rather, a tautology. Hundreds of millions of people are already transferring bits and pieces of their economic life from capitalist markets to the global Collaborative Commons.

By eliminating virtually all of the remaining middlemen who mark up the transaction costs at every stage of the value chain, small- and medium-sized enterprises—especially cooperatives and other nonprofit businesses—and billions of prosumers can share their goods and services directly with one another on the Collaborative Commons—at near zero marginal cost. The reduction in both fixed and marginal costs dramatically reduces the entry costs of creating new businesses in distributed peer-to-peer networks. The low entry costs encourage more people to become potential entrepreneurs and collaborators, creating and sharing information, energy, and goods and services on the Commons. The changes brought on by the establishment of an IoT infrastructure and Collaborative Commons go far beyond the narrow confines of commerce. Every communication/energy matrix is accompanied by a set of broad prescriptions about how society and economic life are to be organized that mirror the possibilities and potentials unleashed by the new enabling technologies.

Both capitalist and socialist regimes organize production in integrated, vertically scaled enterprises because of the increased efficiencies, despite their different patterns of ownership and distribution of earnings. But how do we go about organizing an economy where the entry costs in establishing a communication/energy matrix are substantially lower and paid for in large part by hundreds of millions of individuals in peer-to-peer networks, and where the marginal costs of generating, storing, and sharing communications, energy, and a growing number of products and services are heading to nearly zero? A new communication/energy matrix is emerging, and with it a new “smart” public infrastructure. The Internet of Things (IoT) will connect everyone and everything in a new economic paradigm that is far more complex than the First and Second Industrial Revolutions, but one whose architecture is distributed rather than centralized.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

It represented the logical conclusion to the Web’s Santa Claus economics, the Internet’s original sin, where “consumers” were treated as spoiled children and indulged with an infinite supply of free goodies in what the New York Times’ media columnist David Carr calls the “Something for Nothing” economy.5 Founded by Shawn Fanning and Sean Parker in 1999, Napster enabled what is euphemistically known as the peer-to-peer sharing of music. Fanning and Parker took Chris Anderson’s advice about the radical value of “free” to its most ridiculous conclusion. Not merely content to give their own stuff away for nothing, Napster gave away everybody else’s as well. Along with other peer-to-peer networks like Travis Kalanick’s Scour and later pirate businesses such as Megaupload, Rapidshare, and Pirate Bay, Napster created a networked kleptocracy, masquerading as the “sharing economy,” in which the only real abundance was the ubiquitous availability of online stolen content, particularly recorded music. Over the last fifteen years, online piracy has become an epidemic. In a 2011 report sponsored by the U.S.

“You know, the thing that is illegal when the Mafia does it.”42 As Brad Stone notes, Amazon is becoming “increasingly monolithic in markets like books and electronics,” which is why he believes that antitrust authorities will inevitably come to scrutinize Amazon’s market power.43 Let’s hope that there will be politicians bold enough to take on Bezos before Amazon becomes, quite literally, the Everything Store. No, the Internet is not the answer, especially when it comes to the so-called sharing economy of peer-to-peer networks like Uber and Airbnb. The good news is that, as Wired’s Marcus Wohlsen put it, the “sun is setting on the wild west” of ride- and apartment-sharing networks.44 Tax collectors and municipalities from Cleveland to Hamburg are recognizing that many peer-to-peer rentals and ride-sharing apps are breaking both local and national housing and transportation laws. What the Financial Times calls a “regulatory backlash”45 has pushed Uber to limit surge pricing during emergencies46 and forced Airbnb hosts to install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors in their homes.47 “Just because a company has an app instead of a storefront doesn’t mean consumer protection laws don’t apply,” notes the New York State attorney general Eric Schneiderman, who is trying to subpoena Airbnb’s user data in New York City.48 A group of housing activists in San Francisco is even planning a late 2014 ballot measure in the city that would “severely curb” Airbnb’s operations.49 “Airbnb is bringing up the rent despite what the company says,” explains the New York City–based political party Working Families.50 The answer is to use the law and regulation to force the Internet out of its prolonged adolescence.

Cloned to appear like Netflix, Popcorn Time has already been translated into thirty-two languages and offers what one analyst described as a “nightmare scenario” for the movie industry.13 The Buenos Aires–based makers of Popcorn Time claim to have invented the service for the convenience of consumers. But the more subscribers Popcorn Time steals from Hulu and Netflix, the fewer resources moviemakers will have to invest in their products. And, of course, the more we use peer-to-peer technologies like Popcorn Time, the emptier movie theaters will become. In 2013, there was a 21% drop in the number of what Variety calls the “all important” 18–24 age group buying tickets to watch movies.14 With the popularity of products like Popcorn Time, expect that number to plummet even more dramatically in the future. The real cost, both in terms of jobs and economic growth, of online piracy is astonishingly high.


Speaking Code: Coding as Aesthetic and Political Expression by Geoff Cox, Alex McLean

4chan, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, bash_history, bitcoin, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Jacques de Vaucanson, Larry Wall, late capitalism, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Slavoj Žižek, social software, social web, software studies, speech recognition, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, Turing machine, Turing test, Vilfredo Pareto, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

Individuals must be enabled to voice their diverse opinions, both for and against the dominance, in order to legitimate it. Sovereignty is in effect enforced through the totality of the diverse opinions and is not in conflict with the operations of plural networks, as previously stated. If this is the case, and networked sovereignty operates through reciprocal relations, then we also need to critically review the oppositions that are perpetuated between free software initiatives and web platforms, between peer-to-peer networks and server-client architectures, as well as between public and private ownership regimes. These examples also demonstrate how sovereignty has been transferred to the market and its hold over telecommunications networks as a Coding Publics 95 new authoritarian voice of democracy. The market seemingly allows for diverse consumer choices and rights, in exchange for a strengthening of its own power and expanding consumption of technological devices that purport to allow for freedom of expression.

“Venture communism” is the ironic term Kleiner uses to evoke workers’ self-organization, to address the way that class conflict is conceived across telecommunications networks through the pervasive use of Internet and mobile technologies. This becomes the foundation for a critique of the rise of social media in particular as a project of venture capitalism that expropriates developments in the free software movement and commons-based peer-to-peer technologies.67 The point remains that ownership and property are core issues in these platforms; they are organized in ways that follow the logic of rent, to secure profit from immaterial assets. The owners profit through centralized control, whereas the distinctiveness of peer production lies in the relative independence of workers to control common productive assets and share the benefits. The idea of venture communism registers the need to develop an alternative business model that supports these principles, and at the same time rejects the way that value has been stolen from the commons in the first place.


Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy by Lawrence Lessig

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Benjamin Mako Hill, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, collaborative editing, commoditize, disintermediation, don't be evil, Erik Brynjolfsson, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Larry Wall, late fees, Mark Shuttleworth, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, PageRank, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, revision control, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Saturday Night Live, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, transaction costs, VA Linux, yellow journalism

But the key to the efficiency of this Little Brother is that it builds upon a principle described best by VisiCalc co-inventor Dan Bricklin in an essay called “The Cornucopia of the Commons.”21 80706 i-xxiv 001-328 r4nk.indd 132 8/12/08 1:55:18 AM T W O EC O NO MIE S: C O MMERC I A L A ND SH A RING 133 Bricklin’s essay was inspired by a quibble he had with those who said Napster was so successful because it was a peer-to-peer technology. Napster’s success, he argued, had nothing to do with peer-to-peer. First, the system was not in fact a “peer-to-peer” technology. Second, not using a p2p architecture may well have been a better technical strategy to serving the ends that Napster sought. Bricklin argued that Napster’s success came not from a technical design, but from an architecture that produced value as a byproduct of people getting what they wanted. When you installed Napster, by default it made shareable the music you had on your computer.

However, now I’m at a point where I kind of take it for granted, and I don’t even think about what I would do if one day it were suddenly not available. In a time when there are so many options to amass a 80706 i-xxiv 001-328 r4nk.indd 284 8/12/08 1:56:14 AM REFORMING US 285 music collection, I take the way that is most convenient for me and most damaging to the artists. Much has been said in the justice system, in the media and online about the legality of these peer to peer networks, but the reality is that millions of people do it and only a few are ever stopped. I shamefully admit that, despite my sympathy for the artists and others who lose money from the filesharing, I consciously take part in it and I have no plans to stop in the near future. Some people can justify stealing music because they do not realize the consequences; that is not the case for me because I am fully aware of them.


pages: 373 words: 112,822

The Upstarts: How Uber, Airbnb, and the Killer Companies of the New Silicon Valley Are Changing the World by Brad Stone

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, Ben Horowitz, Boris Johnson, Burning Man, call centre, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, collaborative consumption, East Village, fixed income, Google X / Alphabet X, housing crisis, inflight wifi, Jeff Bezos, Justin.tv, Kickstarter, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Necker cube, obamacare, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, race to the bottom, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar

Despite that setback, Kalanick was ready to dust himself off and try again.19 He started talking to one of his Scour co-founders, Michael Todd, about redeveloping the technology behind Scour and selling it to media companies as a tool to help them distribute their material online. Bandwidth was expensive back then, around six hundred dollars per megabyte (as opposed to about a dollar per megabyte on a broadband internet line today), and peer-to-peer networking could reduce the cost. They called their new company Red Swoosh, after the twin half-moon insignias in the original Scour logo. Kalanick said it was “a revenge business” and recognized a satisfying irony: “The idea is the same peer-to-peer technology but I take those thirty-three litigants that sued me and turn them into customers,” he said. “Now those dudes who sued me are now paying me. It sounded good.”20 In practice, it didn’t work out as well. Kalanick tried to raise money in 2001, right in the midst of the dot-com bust.

Kalanick later said that Uber’s first fight in San Francisco added to his personal conviction about the company just as he was taking a more active leadership role. “For me that was the moment where I was like, for whatever reason, I knew this was the right battle to fight,” he told me in 2012. On a tech podcast, he added that the fight with the MTA recalled all the litigation and conflict of his decade in the world of peer-to-peer technology. “The great thing is I’ve seen this before,” he said. “I thought, Oh, man, I have a playbook for this. Let’s do this thing. When that happened, it felt like a homecoming.”28 After that first meeting with Hayashi, Kalanick spent weeks negotiating with Garrett Camp and angel investors Chris Sacca and Rob Hayes over his compensation as CEO. He somehow calculated that he needed a 23 percent ownership stake in Uber, up from his 12 percent stake as a founder and adviser, but declined to explain his logic.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Your device will know things about your surroundings that you have no way of knowing on your own: where people are, who they are and what their virtual profiles contain. Today, users already share their iTunes libraries with strangers over Wi-Fi networks, and in the future, they’ll be able to share much more. In places like Yemen, where socially conservative norms limit many teenagers’ ability to socialize with the opposite sex, young people may elect to hide their personal information on peer-to-peer networks when at home or at the mosque—who knows who could be looking?—but reveal it when in public parks and cafés, and at parties. Yet P2P technology is a limited replacement for the richness and convenience of the Internet, despite its myriad advantages. We often need stored and searchable records of our activities and communications, particularly if we want to share something or refer to it later.

“give the police the technology”: Rich Trenholm, “Cameron Considers Blocking Twitter, Facebook, BBM after Riots,” CNET, August 11, 2011, http://crave.cnet.co.uk/software/cameron-considers-blocking-twitter-facebook-bbm-after-riots-50004693/; Olivia Solon, “Cameron Suggests Blocking Potential Criminals from Social Media,” Wired UK, August 11, 2011, http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2011-08/11/david-cameron-social-media. industry cooperation with law enforcement was sufficient: “Social Media Talks About Rioting ‘Constructive,’ ” BBC, August 25, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-14657456. Bitcoins: Bitcoin is the most successful experiment in digital currency today; it uses a mix of peer-to-peer networking and cryptographic signatures to process online payments. The value of the currency has fluctuated wildly since its inception; the first publicly traded Bitcoins went for 3 cents, and a little more than a year later they were valued at $29.57 apiece. Bitcoins are held in digital “wallets,” and are used to pay for a wide range of virtual and physical goods. At the illicit online market called the Silk Road, where people can use encrypted channels to buy illegal drugs, Bitcoins are the sole currency and generate approximately $22 million in annual sales, according to a recent study.

In a world with no delete button, peer-to-peer (P2P) networking will become the default mode of operation for anyone looking to operate under or off the radar. Contemporary mobile P2P technologies like Bluetooth allow two physical devices to speak directly to each other rather than having to communicate over the Internet. This is in contrast to P2P file-sharing networks such as BitTorrent, which operate over the Internet. Common to both forms of peer-to-peer technologies is that users connect to each other (acting as both suppliers and receivers) without using a fixed third-party service. For citizens in the future, P2P networking will offer an enticing combination of instant communication and independence from third-party controls or monitoring. All smart phones today are equipped with some form of peer-to-peer capability, and as the wave of cheap smart phones saturates the emerging markets in the next decade, even more people will be able to take advantage of these increasingly sophisticated tools.


pages: 629 words: 142,393

The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

The software driving these communities was stagnant: subscribers who were both interested in the communities’ content and technically minded had few outlets through which to contribute technical improvements to the way the communities were built. Instead, any improvements were orchestrated centrally. As the initial offerings of the proprietary networks plateaued, the Internet saw developments in technology that in turn led to developments in content and ultimately in social and economic interaction: the Web and Web sites, online shopping, peer-to-peer networking, wikis, and blogs. The hostility of AT&T toward companies like Hush-A-Phone and of the proprietary networks to the innovations of enterprising subscribers is not unusual, and it is not driven solely by their status as monopolists. Just as behavioral economics shows how individuals can consistently behave irrationally under particular circumstances,18 and how decision-making within groups can fall prey to error and bias,19 so too can the incumbent firms in a given market fail to seize opportunities that they rationally ought to exploit.

These remedies can apply to some units and not others, allowing regulators to winnow out bad uses from good ones on the basis of individual adjudication, rather than rely on the generalities of ex ante legislative-style drafting. For example, suppose a particular television broadcast were found to infringe a copyright or to damage someone’s reputation. In a world of old-fashioned televisions and VCRs, or PCs and peer-to-peer networks, the broadcaster or creator could be sued, but anyone who recorded the broadcast could, as a practical matter, retain a copy. Today, it is possible to require DVR makers to delete the offending broadcast from any DVRs that have recorded it or, perhaps acting with more precision, to retroactively edit out the slice of defamatory content from the recorded program. This control extends beyond any particular content medium: as e-book devices become popular, the same excisions could be performed for print materials.

Daniel Solove, for instance, has written extensively on emergent privacy concerns, but he has focused on the danger of “digital dossiers” created by businesses and governments.52 Likewise, Jerry Kang and Dana Cuff have written about how small sensors will lead to “pervasive computing,” but they worry that the technology will be abused by coordinated entities like shopping malls, and their prescriptions thus follow the pattern established by Privacy 1.0.53 Their concerns are not misplaced, but they represent an increasingly smaller part of the total picture. The essence of Privacy 2.0 is that government or corporations, or other intermediaries, need not be the source of the surveillance. Peer-to-peer technologies can eliminate points of control and gatekeeping from the transfer of personal data and information just as they can for movies and music. The intellectual property conflicts raised by the generative Internet, where people can still copy large amounts of copyrighted music without fear of repercussion, are rehearsals for the problems of Privacy 2.0.54 The Rodney King beating was filmed not by a public camera, but by a private one, and its novel use in 1991 is now commonplace.


pages: 52 words: 13,257

Bitcoin Internals: A Technical Guide to Bitcoin by Chris Clark

bitcoin, fiat currency, peer-to-peer, Satoshi Nakamoto, transaction costs, Turing complete

Chapter 8 The Block Chain 8.1 The Byzantine Generals’ Problem After verification, transactions are relayed to other nodes in the peer-to-peer network. The other nodes will repeat the verification and relay the transaction to more nodes. Within seconds, the transaction should reach most of the nodes on the network. Transactions are then held in pools on the nodes awaiting insertion into the block chain, which is a public record of all transactions that have ever occurred in the Bitcoin network. The block chain is not just a simple list of transaction receipts though. It is specially designed to solve the double-spending problem for a peer-to-peer network of untrusted nodes. As discussed in the Double-Spending section, the goal is to determine the chronological ordering of transactions so that the first payment can be accepted and the second payment can be rejected. So the peer-to-peer network has to have a method to agree on an ordering of transactions even though some peers might be trying to sabotage the system.

A better solution is to take the hash of each chunk individually so that each chunk can be verified as it comes in. However, if there are a large number of chunks, then there is a greater chance that some of the hash values will become corrupted. Furthermore, this is a lot of data for the trusted source to store. Ideally, a trusted source would only have to provide one hash, and the rest of the hashes could be downloaded from untrusted sources, such as peers in a peer-to-peer network. This can be accomplished using a top hash generated by hashing all of the hashes of the chunks. The resulting structure is called a hash list. If the number of chunks is very large, the list of hashes of all the chunks might also be quite large. In order to verify just one chunk against the trusted top hash, one would need to obtain all of the hashes in the hash list. Ralph Merkle proposed the idea of a hash tree in 1979, which allows a chunk to be verified with only a logarithmic number of hashes.[6] In a hash tree, or Merkle tree, hashes are taken of all chunks as in a hash list, but then these hashes are paired and the hash of each pair is taken, and these hashes are then paired again, and so on until there is only one hash at the top of this tree of hashes

This idea was introduced by Nick Szabos in his digital currency proposal called Bit Gold, which was released between 1998 and 2005.[18] A proof of work chain provides additional security because each individual proof of work gets buried under the subsequent proofs of work. As the chain grows, it becomes more and more difficult to redo all the proofs of work. Chapter 6 Technical Overview 6.1 Architecture Bitcoin is run by a peer-to-peer network of computers called nodes. Nodes are responsible for processing transactions and maintaining all records of ownership. Anyone can download the free open-source Bitcoin software and become a node. All nodes are treated equally; no node is trusted. However, the system is based on the assumption that the majority of computing power will come from honest nodes (see Chapter 8). Ownership records are replicated on every full node. 6.2 Ownership There are two ways to track ownership of a currency: Possession of a token that independently represents value (e.g. paper cash, metal coins, and Chaum’s digital cash) Possession of a key that controls access to records in a ledger (e.g. checks, credit cards, Paypal, and Bitcoin) Designing a decentralized currency is challenging because it is not obvious how either of these methods can be used without some trusted authority like a bank.


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To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Is it just the dissidents? Are the dissidents united? Or do they all have different agendas? Internet-centric explanations, at least in their current form, greatly impoverish and infantilize our public debate. We ought to steer away from them as much as possible. If doing so requires imposing a moratorium on using the very term “Internet” and instead going for more precise terminology, like “peer-to-peer networks” or “social networks” or “search engines,” so be it. It’s the very possibility that the whole—that is, “the Internet”—is somehow spiritually and politically greater than the sum of these specific terms that exerts such a corrosive influence on how we think about the world. Hype and Consequences Ahistorical thinking in Internet debates is too ubiquitous and persistent to be written off as ignorance or laziness.

Once we move to a post-Internet world, there is a small chance that our technology pundits (and perhaps even some academics) will no longer get away with proclaiming something a revolution and then walking away without supplying good, empirical evidence—as if that revolution were so self-evident and no further proof was needed. I too used to be one of those people—albeit very briefly—sometime between 2005 and 2007. I remember perfectly the thrill that comes from thinking that the lessons of Wikipedia or peer-to-peer networking or Friendster or Skype could and should be applied absolutely everywhere. It’s a very powerful set of hammers, and plenty of people—many of them in Silicon Valley—are dying to hear you cry, “Nail!” regardless of what you are looking at. Thinking that you are living through a revolution and hold the key to how it will unfold is, I confess, rather intoxicating. So I can relate to those Internet thinkers who feel extremely comfortable with the current state of debate, even though I can probably not forgive them.

It is in this context that Lessig’s quote about “the network . . . not going away” appears. Close scrutiny of the quote in context, however, reveals how easily Lessig’s brand of Internet-centrism mutates into hopeless technological defeatism: “But the network is not going away. We are not going to kill the ‘darknet’ (as Microsoft called it in a fantastic paper about the inevitable survival of peer-to-peer technologies). We are not going to regulate access to news, or ads for free futons. We are not going back to the twentieth century.” In the context of challenges induced by transparency, Lessig proposes that it would be better to tinker with the laws and embrace publicly funded elections so that citizens wouldn’t even entertain the notion that politicians might be bought off. The reasoning that makes Lessig opt for the legal rather than the technological solution is of particular importance here: the network is sacred and permanent, so any tinkering with its nodes is out.


Mastering Blockchain, Second Edition by Imran Bashir

3D printing, altcoin, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, connected car, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, Debian, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Firefox, full stack developer, general-purpose programming language, gravity well, interest rate swap, Internet of things, litecoin, loose coupling, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, Network effects, new economy, node package manager, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, prediction markets, QR code, RAND corporation, Real Time Gross Settlement, reversible computing, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, single page application, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, web application, x509 certificate

Consensus algorithms are discussed later in this chapter and throughout the book as appropriate. Blockchain can be thought of as a layer of a distributed peer-to-peer network running on top of the internet, as can be seen in the following diagram. It is analogous to SMTP, HTTP, or FTP running on top of TCP/IP. The network view of a blockchain At the bottom layer in the preceding diagram, there is the internet, which provides a basic communication layer for any network. In this case, a peer-to-peer network runs on top of the internet, which hosts another layer of blockchain. That layer contains transactions, blocks, consensus mechanisms, state machines, and blockchain smart contracts. All of these components are shown as a single logical entity in a box, representing blockchain above the peer-to-peer network. Finally, at the top, there are users or nodes that connect to the blockchain and perform various operations such as consensus, transaction verification, and processing.

A good practice is for users to generate a new address for each transaction in order to avoid linking transactions to the common owner, thus preventing identification. Transaction: A transaction is the fundamental unit of a blockchain. A transaction represents a transfer of value from one address to another. Block: A block is composed of multiple transactions and other elements, such as the previous block hash (hash pointer), timestamp, and nonce. Peer-to-peer network: As the name implies, a peer-to-peer network is a network topology wherein all peers can communicate with each other and send and receive messages. Scripting or programming language: Scripts or programs perform various operations on a transaction in order to facilitate various functions. For example, in Bitcoin, transaction scripts are predefined in a language called Script, which consist of sets of commands that allow nodes to transfer tokens from one address to another.

DApp examples Examples of some decentralized applications are provided here. KYC-Chain This application provides the facility to manage Know Your Customer (KYC) data securely and conveniently based on smart contracts. OpenBazaar This is a decentralized peer-to-peer network that enables commercial activities directly between sellers and buyers instead of relying on a central party, such as eBay and Amazon. It should be noted that this system is not built on top of a blockchain; instead, DHTs are used in a peer-to-peer network to enable direct communication and data sharing among peers. It makes use of Bitcoin and various other cryptocurrencies as a payment method. Lazooz This is the decentralized equivalent of Uber. It allows peer-to-peer ride sharing and users to be incentivized by proof of movement, and they can earn Zooz coins.


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The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, fixed income, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

Blockchains offer an incredible innovation environment for the next generation of financial services. As cryptocurrency volatilities subside, these will become popular. Derivatives, options, swaps, synthetic instruments, investments, loans, and many other traditional instruments will have their cryptocurrency version, therefore creating a new financial services trading marketplace. 9. Peer-to-Peer Network There is nothing “central” about blockchains. Architecturally, the base layer of the blockchain is a peer-to-peer network. A blockchain pushes for decentralization via peer processing at its node locations. The network is really the computer. You verify each other transaction at the peer-to-peer level. In essence, a blockchain could be regarded as a thin computing cloud that is truly decentralized. Any user can reach and transact with another user instantly, no matter where they are in the universe, and regardless of business hours.

In this case, there’s a digital asset whose ownership and movement are governed by the blockchain. Use the blockchain in a more fundamental way, where the app would not function without the blockchain. Typically, you would set-up a specific peer-to-peer network with nodes, for example, OpenBazaar, as a decentralized e-commerce app. Use your own blockchain (could be shared with others), without an economic token or currency unit. This is where most of the permissioned blockchains play within enterprises. Use your own blockchain (or another blockchain), including a token or currency unit, to create an economic network of value, for example, MaidSafe,4 which creates a market for unused computing resources over a peer-to-peer network of users. 12 FEATURES OF A BLOCKCHAIN PLATFORM If you need to evaluate a given blockchain platform, the following features are important: 1. Programmability.

Rather than simply hoping that the parties we interact with behave honorably, we are building technological systems that inherently build the desired properties into the system, in such a way that they will keep functioning with the guarantees that we expect, even if many of the actors involved are corrupt. All transactions under “crypto 2.0” come with auditable trails of cryptographic proofs. Decentralized peer-to-peer networks can be used to reduce reliance on any single server; public key cryptography could create a notion of portable user-controlled identities. More advanced kinds of math, including ring signatures, homomorphic encryption, and zero-knowledge proofs, guarantee privacy, allowing users to put all of their data in the open in such a way that certain properties of it can be verified, and even computed on, without actually revealing any private details.


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Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age by Duncan J. Watts

Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business process, corporate governance, Drosophila, Erdős number, experimental subject, fixed income, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, industrial cluster, invisible hand, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Milgram experiment, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Murray Gell-Mann, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, rolodex, Ronald Coase, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, Vilfredo Pareto, Y2K

Because no one server knows where all the files are—because there is no central directory—every query becomes a broadcast search that effectively asks each and every node in the network, “Do you have this file?” So a peer-to-peer network like Gnutella, comprising ten thousand nodes, for example, will generate roughly ten thousand times as many messages as a Napster-like network of the same size, where each query is sent only to a single, high-capacity server. Because the aim of peer-to-peer networks is to become as large as possible (in order to increase the number of available files), and because the larger the network is, the worse its performance will be, could it be that truly peer-to-peer networks are inherently self-defeating? A hint of a Gnutella-like world was revealed by accident a year or so ago by Mrs. Janet Forrest’s sixth-grade social studies class at Taylorsville Elementary School in North Carolina.

But there is also a practical reason to understand directed searches in networks—namely, the process of finding a target person in a social network, through a chain of intermediate acquaintances, is essentially the same as finding a file or other piece of uniquely specified information in a distributed database. Quite a lot of attention has been paid recently to the potential of so-called peer-to-peer networks, particularly in the music industry. The first generation of such networks, the archetype of which is the infamous Napster, was actually only a peer-to-peer network in a limited sense. While the files themselves are located on individuals’ personal computers—called peers—and the file exchanges occur directly between peers, a complete directory of all available files (and their locations) is maintained on a central server. In principle, a central directory renders the problem of finding information trivial, even in a very large network—simply query the directory, and it will tell you the location of the file.

The findings of the so-called reverse small-world experiment that corroborated some of our theoretical predictions were published in Killworth, P. D., and Bernard, H. R. The reverse small world experiment. Social Networks, 1, 159–192 (1978). Bernard, H. R., Killworth, P. D., Evans, M. J., McCarty, C., and Shelly, G. A. Studying relations cross-culturally. Ethnology, 27(2), 155–179 (1988). Search in Peer-to-Peer Networks A discussion of the problems facing peer-to-peer networks like Gnutella is Ritter, J. P. Why Gnutella can’t scale. No really (working paper, available on-line at http://www.darkridge.com/~jpr5/doc/gnutella.html, 2000). Two search algorithms that take advantage of Gnutella’s apparent scale-free character are presented in Adamic, L. A., Lukose, R. M., Puniyani, A. R., and Huberman, B. A. Search in power-law networks.


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Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper

4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, buy and hold, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, QR code, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks

After Martti suggested his own changes, the final version made the more modest assertion that “the community is hopeful the currency will remain outside the reach of any government.” When the item went online, shortly after midnight in Helsinki, it wasn’t anything more than the single paragraph the Bitcoin team had submitted. “How’s this for a disruptive technology?” it began. “Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer, network-based digital currency with no central bank, and no transaction fees.” Despite the modesty of the item, the Internet chat channel that Martti had established for the Bitcoin community quickly lit up. NewLibertyStandard wrote: “FRONT PAGE!!!” Regulars like Laszlo made a point of being on the Bitcoin chat channel, to answer questions and serve as a tour guide of sorts for any newbies who checked in after reading the story.

Back when Satoshi had first launched the software, his writings were drily focused on the technical specifications of the programming. But after the first few weeks, Satoshi began emphasizing the broader ideological motivations for the software to help win over a broader audience, and privacy was only a part of it. In a February posting on the website of the P2P Foundation, a group dedicated to decentralized, peer-to-peer technology, Satoshi led off by talking about problems with traditional, or fiat, currencies, a term for money generated by government decree, or fiat. “The root problem with conventional currency is all the trust that’s required to make it work,” Satoshi wrote. “The central bank must be trusted not to debase the currency, but the history of fiat currencies is full of breaches of that trust.” Currency debasement was not an issue the Cypherpunks had discussed much, but Satoshi made it clear with this posting, and not for the last time, that he had been thinking about more than just the concerns of the Cypherpunks when designing the Bitcoin software.


pages: 607 words: 133,452

Against Intellectual Monopoly by Michele Boldrin, David K. Levine

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business cycle, cognitive bias, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, financial innovation, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jean Tirole, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, linear programming, market bubble, market design, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, new economy, open economy, peer-to-peer, pirate software, placebo effect, price discrimination, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, the market place, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Y2K

So, the experience of music on Napster begs the question of the performance of a market without copyright: will a good product sold at a reasonable price be widely distributed for free? Within the book industry there is considerable evidence with which to answer this question, because, while most publishers have released electronic editions only in encrypted form, a few have sold unencrypted editions. Moreover, many books are currently available on peer-to-peer networks, and there have been lawsuits by a number of authors attempting to prevent this. So, we might expect relatively few sales of unencrypted electronic books because they will immediately appear for free on peer-to-peer networks, while encrypted books will sell better because they are not subject to “piracy.” Strikingly, the data shows exactly the opposite. The case of Fictionwise.com is an especially instructive natural experiment because, depending on the publisher and author, the site sells some books in encrypted form and others in unencrypted form.

And that’s about typical for even a successful book issued electronically [in encrypted form].32 Interestingly, searching the Gnutella peer-to-peer network on September 1, 2002, and on a number of subsequent occasions, the keyword e-book turns up several books released by Baen in electronic form. But they are legal copies of books given away by Baen for free – we found none of the books that Baen sells. In the end, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that it is the unpopularity of the music industry with its customers, combined with the inferiority of the “legitimate” product, that has led to the widespread giving away of MP3s for the cost of personal time and bandwidth. In the case of products sold in a superior form at a reasonable price, there appears to be little effort to trade them on peer-to-peer networks – so much so that the unencrypted product outsells the encrypted version.

At the same time, though, his interests in the recorded music industry argued against an extension of copyright protection. Demand for Edison’s phonograph obviously increased as cheaper and more abundant recordings of music became available, which was facilitated by a weak enforcement of the composers’ monopoly power. Encrypted versus Unencrypted Sales The book, recorded music, and movie industries have been heavily influenced by the Napster experience, in which music has been given away for free over peer-to-peer networks. Consequently these industries have made a strong effort both to encrypt their products and to lobby the government to mandate encryption schemes. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act, for example, makes it a federal crime to reverse-engineer encryption schemes used to protect copyright. When it comes to competitive markets, P1: KNP head margin: 1/2 gutter margin: 7/8 CUUS245-02 cuus245 978 0 521 87928 6 May 28, 2008 10:35 Creation under Competition 35 the Napster experience is deceptive – the product distributed on Napster-like networks is not only cheaper than the commercial product but also is also better.


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Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson

Airbus A320, airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Donald Davies, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, mega-rich, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche, working poor, X Prize, your tax dollars at work

Lindahl himself ultimately stopped contributing to Wikipedia, driven off by what he called the “deletionistas.” But over time, the revisions tightened the prose and expanded the scope of the entry. The end result is a rich, informative, well-structured document that covers the technical elements of peer-to-peer networks, but also includes sections on their social and economic impact, and the historical context of their invention. Near the end of the entry, the text even suggests that peer-to-peer networks are increasingly being used to describe human-to-human interactions, including notions of peer governance and peer production. The media like to highlight stories of Wikipedia abuse: the scurrilous attack that a user has added to a rival’s biographical entry; the endless fighting over the content of the abortion entry, or the entry on the Iraq War.

Years after both Baran and Davies had published their seminal papers, Davies jokingly said to Baran, “Well, you may have got there first, but I got the name.” In the late 1960s, packet switching became the foundation of ARPANET, the research network that laid the groundwork for the Internet. The ARPANET design relied on several radical principles that broke with existing computing paradigms. ARPANET was what we would now call a peer-to-peer network, as opposed to a client-server or mainframe-terminal network. Traditionally, networks had involved centralized mainframes that contained far more processing power and storage capacity than the less advanced terminals connected to them. The intelligence in the network, in other words, was centralized; decisions about what kind of information should be prioritized in the network were executed in these dominant machines.

In fact, the Internet is not even, strictly speaking, a “bottom-up” system, as it is conventionally described. Bottom-up implies a top, a leadership that gets its support from below, a kind of reverse hierarchy. But the network that Baran, Cerf, and others designed was a network of peers, not a hierarchy. No single agency controlled it absolutely; everyone controlled it partially. Decentralization, peer-to-peer networks, gateways, platform stacks—the principles that Baran, Davies, Cerf, Kahn, and others hit upon together in the 1960s and 1970s provided a brilliant solution to the problem of sharing information on a planetary scale. Tellingly, the solution ultimately outperformed any rival approaches developed by the marketplace. Billions of dollars were spent by private companies trying to build global networks based on proprietary standards: AOL, CompuServe, Prodigy, Microsoft, Apple, and many others made epic efforts to become mainstream consumer networks in the late 1980s and early 1990s.


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The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld

Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, anti-globalists, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

In the process of simulating photographic cameras—and their associated tools like developers and printers—the computer literally killed off its film-based model: in 2009, Kodak discontinued the iconic color film Kodachrome after three-quarters of a century, and once-dominant manufacturers like Canon no longer even manufacture thirty-five-millimeter cameras that take film. Video games may have begun in arcades, but they are now exponentially more likely to be played in the home than outside it. As for the cinema, which was itself swallowed up by televisual prostheses like videocassette recorders (VCRs), DVRs, and DVDs, the computer simulates it, migrates it online, chops it into YouTube segments, has it pirated on peer-to-peer networks, and shoots, stores, and projects it digitally. When computers simulate telephones, everything becomes available from the free Internet calling on services like Skype to mobile tele/computing hybrids like the iPhone. When we are talking about communication devices, simulation engenders participation. After establishing communication between machines, between machines and people, and between people themselves, the next step is to allow the user to make 15 CHAPTER 2 something and then put it out into the network, where others will be able (and more crucially willing) to download that which has been uploaded.

These “connection is everything” models heavily promoted by phone and wireless companies are retro-McLuhan: in these corporate futures, the medium always dominates the message. Bespoke futures might well restore some balance. The culture machine offers a growing capacity to create complex visualizations with digital systems and distribute them widely over high-speed networks, engaging with open-source cultural initiatives. We are now capable of taking advantage of peer-to-peer networking, file sharing, and massively scaled distributed computing to develop countervailing forces, or people’s rather than corporate scenario-building strategies. 116 BESPOKE FUTURES Bespoke Futures as Strange Attractors At an earlier cultural moment, we might have looked to the, or at least an, avant-garde for surplus futurity and to generate our bespoke futures. But given the use and abuse of the term avant-garde (I have described it as a horse, ridden too hard for too long and in need of an extended cooling-off period), it is important to develop other metaphors.25 Compare two imagescapes—one still, and the other dynamic.

Brenda Laurel once noted that “creating interactive simulations of complex systems is one of the most highly leveraged goals we can achieve with our burgeoning technological power. . . . Good simulations will not only help us learn about systems, they may help us evaluate policies and form political goals.”36 This new century brings new problems, as is always the case, but we would be foolish to not take advantage of peer-to-peer networking, file sharing, and massively scaled distributed computing to develop countervailing forces, from a truly populist scenario-building capacity to as yet unimaginable visualizations of change. Open-source cultural production challenges more than government and corporate centralization; it also serves to empower the citizenry. The more that states and corporations grow, the more individuals need to be able to communicate with others in their own communities and across the globe, if they hope to have any say in their own lives.


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The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

As of August 2014, a haul that size would be worth about $21 million, but back then they were worth exactly zero, since Nakamoto had no one else to transfer them to, no way to “spend” them. If a hallmark of a currency is utility, at this early point bitcoin had absolutely none. He had to get others to join. So, six days after the Genesis Block, Nakamoto went back to the same cryptography mailing list and told its readers that the program was ready: “Announcing the first release of bitcoin, a new electronic cash system that uses a peer-to-peer network to prevent double-spending.” And then the sales pitch: “It’s completely decentralized with no server or central authority.” The people on that list, who’d heard claims like this before, had no evidence yet that Nakamoto had overcome the challenge that had felled his predecessors: preventing fraudulent transactions—the so-called double-spending problem—when no central authority is charged with authenticating transactions.

All, in one forum or another, have denied being Nakamoto. Other investigators have gone off on interesting but equally fruitless tangents. Writing for The New Yorker, Joshua Davis fixated on some of the British spellings in Nakamoto’s writings and headed to the British Isles to find their author. He zeroed in on Michael Clear, a Dublin-based computer-science student who’d worked for Allied Irish Banks on peer-to-peer technology and who responded to Davis’s inquiries with the enticing line “I’m not Satoshi, but even if I was I wouldn’t tell you.” Davis’s work was inconclusive, but Clear’s comment, which he later said was intended as a harmless joke, meant the Irishman was inundated with e-mails. He has since vehemently denied creating bitcoin and has pleaded with people to leave him alone. Convinced that Davis was caught out by a probable disinformation campaign by the founder—as if Nakamoto’s Britishisms and Times of London reference were planted to throw trackers off the scent—New York University journalism professor Adam Penenberg turned his attention elsewhere.


pages: 106 words: 22,332

Cancel Cable: How Internet Pirates Get Free Stuff by Chris Fehily

Firefox, patent troll, peer-to-peer, pirate software, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, WikiLeaks

Popular downloads are prone to bottlenecks as more and more people try to suck files from a single source. (Technically, the client-server approach doesn’t scale.) The more popular the download, the more it costs the server in bandwidth charges. If the client or server has a problem mid-download (a power outage, lost connection, or system crash), then you’re stuck with an incomplete file and typically must restart the download — possibly a big download — from scratch. Peer-to-Peer Networks Adequate mirroring (use of cloned servers) alleviates some of the problems of client-server networks, but BitTorrent solves them outright by using a peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing network. Unlike a server-based network, where most of the resources lie with a few central servers, a P2P network has only peers, which are ordinary computers (like yours) that all act as equal points on the network.

Drag the program’s icon to the Applications folder or to your home folder, or follow the instructions in the installer window. In all cases, generate keys, apply cracks, and install and launch the program as the torrent instructs. Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Dedication 1: The Terrain Lawyers Victims Q&A Benefits About This Book 2: Understanding BitTorrent Client-Server Networks Peer-to-Peer Networks What You'll Need BitTorrent, Step by Step 3: File Types About File Types Hidden Extensions Unregistered Extensions Windows Tasks OS X Tasks 4: Malware About Malware Malicious Links Infected Files Vigilance Prevention Antimalware 5: Archives About Archives Types of Archives Working with Archives 6: Installing a BitTorrent Client About BitTorrent Clients Installing a Client Getting Help Limiting Upload Rates Other Settings 7: BitTorrent Search Engines Finding BitTorrent Search Engines Features to Look For Metasearch Sites Private Sites Google and Brethren Links to Torrents 8: Finding Torrents Search Tips Spotting Fakes 9: Customizing Your Client User Interface Main Window Torrent Jobs List 10: Downloading Torrents Finding a Torrent Reading a Torrent's Description and User Comments Downloading a .torrent File Selecting Content Files to Download Setting File Priorities Queueing a Torrent Starting a Torrent Waiting for the Download to Complete Removing a Torrent 11: Movies and TV Shows Movie Torrents Sources TV Torrents Video Formats Media Players Dubbing and Subtitles Other Videos 12: Pictures Image Formats 13: Music and Spoken Word Audio Formats 14: Books, Documents, and Fonts PDF Files Ebook Formats Other Document Formats Fonts 15: Applications and Games Archives Disk Images Executables Mounting Disk Images Burning Disks Keygens, Cracks, and Jailbreaks Installing Programs Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Dedication 1: The Terrain Lawyers Victims Q&A Benefits About This Book 2: Understanding BitTorrent Client-Server Networks Peer-to-Peer Networks What You'll Need BitTorrent, Step by Step 3: File Types About File Types Hidden Extensions Unregistered Extensions Windows Tasks OS X Tasks 4: Malware About Malware Malicious Links Infected Files Vigilance Prevention Antimalware 5: Archives About Archives Types of Archives Working with Archives 6: Installing a BitTorrent Client About BitTorrent Clients Installing a Client Getting Help Limiting Upload Rates Other Settings 7: BitTorrent Search Engines Finding BitTorrent Search Engines Features to Look For Metasearch Sites Private Sites Google and Brethren Links to Torrents 8: Finding Torrents Search Tips Spotting Fakes 9: Customizing Your Client User Interface Main Window Torrent Jobs List 10: Downloading Torrents Finding a Torrent Reading a Torrent's Description and User Comments Downloading a .torrent File Selecting Content Files to Download Setting File Priorities Queueing a Torrent Starting a Torrent Waiting for the Download to Complete Removing a Torrent 11: Movies and TV Shows Movie Torrents Sources TV Torrents Video Formats Media Players Dubbing and Subtitles Other Videos 12: Pictures Image Formats 13: Music and Spoken Word Audio Formats 14: Books, Documents, and Fonts PDF Files Ebook Formats Other Document Formats Fonts 15: Applications and Games Archives Disk Images Executables Mounting Disk Images Burning Disks Keygens, Cracks, and Jailbreaks Installing Programs

Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Dedication 1: The Terrain Lawyers Victims Q&A Benefits About This Book 2: Understanding BitTorrent Client-Server Networks Peer-to-Peer Networks What You'll Need BitTorrent, Step by Step 3: File Types About File Types Hidden Extensions Unregistered Extensions Windows Tasks OS X Tasks 4: Malware About Malware Malicious Links Infected Files Vigilance Prevention Antimalware 5: Archives About Archives Types of Archives Working with Archives 6: Installing a BitTorrent Client About BitTorrent Clients Installing a Client Getting Help Limiting Upload Rates Other Settings 7: BitTorrent Search Engines Finding BitTorrent Search Engines Features to Look For Metasearch Sites Private Sites Google and Brethren Links to Torrents 8: Finding Torrents Search Tips Spotting Fakes 9: Customizing Your Client User Interface Main Window Torrent Jobs List 10: Downloading Torrents Finding a Torrent Reading a Torrent's Description and User Comments Downloading a .torrent File Selecting Content Files to Download Setting File Priorities Queueing a Torrent Starting a Torrent Waiting for the Download to Complete Removing a Torrent 11: Movies and TV Shows Movie Torrents Sources TV Torrents Video Formats Media Players Dubbing and Subtitles Other Videos 12: Pictures Image Formats 13: Music and Spoken Word Audio Formats 14: Books, Documents, and Fonts PDF Files Ebook Formats Other Document Formats Fonts 15: Applications and Games Archives Disk Images Executables Mounting Disk Images Burning Disks Keygens, Cracks, and Jailbreaks Installing Programs Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Dedication 1: The Terrain Lawyers Victims Q&A Benefits About This Book 2: Understanding BitTorrent Client-Server Networks Peer-to-Peer Networks What You'll Need BitTorrent, Step by Step 3: File Types About File Types Hidden Extensions Unregistered Extensions Windows Tasks OS X Tasks 4: Malware About Malware Malicious Links Infected Files Vigilance Prevention Antimalware 5: Archives About Archives Types of Archives Working with Archives 6: Installing a BitTorrent Client About BitTorrent Clients Installing a Client Getting Help Limiting Upload Rates Other Settings 7: BitTorrent Search Engines Finding BitTorrent Search Engines Features to Look For Metasearch Sites Private Sites Google and Brethren Links to Torrents 8: Finding Torrents Search Tips Spotting Fakes 9: Customizing Your Client User Interface Main Window Torrent Jobs List 10: Downloading Torrents Finding a Torrent Reading a Torrent's Description and User Comments Downloading a .torrent File Selecting Content Files to Download Setting File Priorities Queueing a Torrent Starting a Torrent Waiting for the Download to Complete Removing a Torrent 11: Movies and TV Shows Movie Torrents Sources TV Torrents Video Formats Media Players Dubbing and Subtitles Other Videos 12: Pictures Image Formats 13: Music and Spoken Word Audio Formats 14: Books, Documents, and Fonts PDF Files Ebook Formats Other Document Formats Fonts 15: Applications and Games Archives Disk Images Executables Mounting Disk Images Burning Disks Keygens, Cracks, and Jailbreaks Installing Programs


pages: 571 words: 106,255

The Bitcoin Standard: The Decentralized Alternative to Central Banking by Saifedean Ammous

Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banks create money, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, conceptual framework, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, delayed gratification, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Gilder, global reserve currency, high net worth, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, iterative process, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, market bubble, market clearing, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Network effects, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, price mechanism, price stability, profit motive, QR code, ransomware, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, secular stagnation, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Stanford marshmallow experiment, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game

All network members can verify the validity of the transaction by verifying that the transactions sending the money came from the owner of the right private key. In Bitcoin, the only form of ownership that exists is through the ownership of the private keys. Peer‐to‐peer network is a network structure in which all members have equal privileges and obligations toward one another. There are no central coordinators who can change the rules of the network. Node operators that disagree with how the network functions cannot impose their opinions on other members of the network or override their privileges. The most well‐known example of a peer‐to‐peer network is BitTorrent, a protocol for sharing files online. Whereas in centralized networks members download files from a central server that hosts them, in BitTorrent, users download files from each other directly, divided into small pieces.

In other words, Bitcoin would bring the desirable features of physical cash (lack of intermediaries, finality of transactions) to the digital realm and combine them with an ironclad monetary policy that cannot be manipulated to produce unexpected inflation to benefit an outside party at the expense of holders. Nakamoto succeeded in achieving this through the utilization of a few important though not widely understood technologies: a distributed peer‐to‐peer network with no single point of failure, hashing, digital signatures, and proof‐of‐work.2 Nakamoto removed the need for trust in a third party by building Bitcoin on a foundation of very thorough and ironclad proof and verification. It is fair to say that the central operational feature of Bitcoin is verification, and only because of that can Bitcoin remove the need for trust completely.3 Every transaction has to be recorded by every member of the network so that they all share one common ledger of balances and transactions.

ASIC chips are now specialized only in verifying transactions to receive reward coins (which is why they are commonly referred to as miners). Node operators can now generate unlimited wallets, allowing businesses to offer convenient wallets for users who can send and receive bitcoins without operating a node or spending processing power on verifying transactions. This has moved Bitcoin away from being a pure peer‐to‐peer network between identical nodes, but the main functional importance of the decentralized and distributed nature of the network has arguably remained intact, as a large number of nodes still exists and no single party is relied on to operate the network. Further, specialized mining has allowed for the processing power backing the network to grow to the astoundingly large size it has reached. In its early days, when the tokens had little or no value, the network could have been conceivably hijacked and destroyed by attackers, but as the network had little economic value, nobody seems to have bothered.


pages: 406 words: 88,820

Television disrupted: the transition from network to networked TV by Shelly Palmer

barriers to entry, call centre, commoditize, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, hypertext link, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, James Watt: steam engine, Leonard Kleinrock, linear programming, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, yield management

And, of utmost importance to this argument, most people cannot differentiate between the most expensive and the least expensive work product. Conversely, it takes an army of talented creative people to manufacture a professional television show or motion picture: writers, directors, producers, camera operators, Copyright © 2006, Shelly Palmer. All rights reserved. 5-Television.Chap Five v3.qxd 3/20/06 7:22 AM Page 71 Peer-to-Peer Networks 71 actors, art directors, wardrobe wranglers, set designers, set builders, script supervisors, hair, make-up, editors, graphic artists, composers, musicians, post-production supervisors… the list goes on and on. You might have all of the skills individually, but you probably don’t. And, even though you can make a video or a movie with a home video camera and the post-production suite of programs on your laptop, absolutely everyone who watches it will know it was “made with loving hands at home.”

There are already movies legally available for 99-cent downloads that are guaranteed to be virus-free and exactly as advertised. Again, respect for time, value and convenience is a good weapon against piracy. Is this to say that video and movies are not going to be pirated? Don’t be silly. People are going to trade them like baseball cards — but not all people, not every movie and not all of the time. Peer-to-Peer Networks It was easy to shut down Napster. All you had to do was disconnect the index server from the network and it was over. That’s because Napster was based upon a client-server network architecture where there was a central server with client “nodes” attached to it over the Internet, as in Figure 5.2. Unlike a client-server network where each node is connected to a central server, a peer-to-peer (P2P) network relies on the computing power and the bandwidth of equal peer nodes that function as both “clients” and “servers” simultaneously, as seen in Figure 5.3.

As each peer is added to the network, it brings along computing power, bandwidth and storage that it can share with everyone, which increases the total capacity of the system as it expands. It is the distributed nature of P2P networks that make them powerful. Should a Copyright © 2006, Shelly Palmer. All rights reserved. 5-Television.Chap Five v3.qxd 3/20/06 7:22 AM Page 72 72 C H A P T E R 5 Emerging Networks FIGURE 5.2 Client-Server Network: FIGURE 5.3 Peer-to-peer networks do This type of network can be easily shut not have central file servers; since each down because each network node is con- node is connected to more than one other nected to a central server. node, they are very hard to shut down. single node fail, peers can find replicas of the data on multiple other peers. This ability to find data without relying on a central server makes P2P networks very hard to shut down.


pages: 801 words: 209,348

Americana: A 400-Year History of American Capitalism by Bhu Srinivasan

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, American ideology, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Douglas Engelbart, financial innovation, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, income inequality, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, oil rush, peer-to-peer, pets.com, popular electronics, profit motive, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

As the record labels refused to sell music digitally, the technology for sharing music surpassed the music industry’s ability to invent a business model to keep up. This piracy was an early look into the next iteration of Internet technologies beyond simple Web sites. Peer-to-peer networks allowed a single individual’s computer to act as a server. Rather than have the entire library of millions of songs on a set of centralized servers controlled by one company, which would have made it easy for the courts and law enforcement to shut music sharing down, peer-to-peer technology now meant anyone could upload or download a song directly to or from another individual. With millions of people uploading songs, the entire recording industry’s catalog was dispersed across millions of computers for downloading by millions of others.

., 452 O’Banion, Dion, 316, 317 Occupy Wall Street, 487, 491 Ochs, Adolph, 237–39 Ogden, Aaron, 64, 65, 66 Ohio, 78, 118–19 Ohio and Erie Canal, 78 Ohio Company, 30–31 oil, 149–62, 490 crisis of 1973, 438 discovery in Pennsylvania of, 149–50 Drake’s technique for drilling for, 151 federal highway policy and, 406 pipeline companies and, 157 Rockefeller and, 154–56, 158–60 storage tanks for, 151–52 transportation of, 152–53, 156–58 Oldfield, Barney, 282 Olds, Ransom Eli, 279–80 Olds Motor Vehicle Company, 279–80, 286 Onitsuka, 457–58 Oregon country, 105 Organization Man, The (Whyte), 374, 428 Origin of Species (Darwin), 174 Other People’s Money (film), 444–45 Ottoman Empire, 296 Pabst, 179–80, 183, 184, 311 Pacific Railway Act, 147–48 Packard, 300 paddle wheel, 62 Paley, William, 306, 382–83 Panama Canal, 254 panics of 1837, 85, 87 of 1873, 169–71 of 1893, 226, 230–31 gold and, 229–30 papers, 226–39 Hearst and, 232–33, 239, 240–41 Ochs and, 237–39 patent medicine advertising and, 265–66 Pulitzer and, 226–29, 239, 241 Paramount, 341 Pasteur, Louis, 179 pasteurization, 179 patent medicines, 208–9, 262–66 patents, 51, 96, 189–90 Pearl Harbor bombing, 363 Pearl Jam, 454 peer-to-peer networks, 482 Pemberton, John, 263–65 Penn, William, 25, 32 Pennsylvania, 25, 32 Pennsylvania Gazette, 30 Pennsylvania Railroad, 140, 141, 164–65, 166 Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company (Seneca Oil Company), 150–51 Pennsylvania Transportation Company, 157 Perot, Ross, 418, 419, 420, 464 philanthropy, 219–20, 249 Philip Morris, 383 Philippines, 246, 247 Pilgrims/Plymouth Colony, 3–6, 8–17 buy-out of shares of Merchant Adventurers, 16–17 collective farming and, 15–16 contact and trade with Native Americans, 13–15 financing of Mayflower voyage, 5–6, 10–12, 425 in Holland, 3–4 loss of Fortune’s cargo, effects of, 15 mortality rates, of first winter, 13 patent to settle in New World granted to, 5 Pinkerton, Robert, 221 Pixar, 480, 482 Plain Facts for Old and Young (Kellogg), 260 Plains Indians, 175–77 Of Plymouth Plantation (Bradford), 12–13 Polk, James, 104, 106, 108 Pong (computer game), 427, 430–31 Post, Charles William, 259, 261–62 potato famine, 89 Potomac Canal Company, 71–72 Presidential elections of 1860, 137 of 1896, 235–37, 239, 240–41 of 1900, 246–47 of 1904, 265 of 1912, 296 of 1928, 321 of 1932, 330–31 of 1936, 335 of 1940, 359–60 of 1952, 389 of 1980, 433 of 1992, 463–64 Pretty Woman (film), 449 price fixing, 241 private equity (leverage buyouts), 448–49 privateering syndicates, 7–8 Prodigy, 465 Progressive Networks, 471 Progressives, 209 Prohibition, 307–19 bootlegging and, 315–19 cultural activity during, 313–15 Eighteenth Amendment and Volstead Act, passage of, 309 exemptions, 309–10, 312 grape growers and, 310–11 politics leading to, 307–9 property, slaves as, 44–45, 117–18 Prudential Insurance, 331 public/private partnerships, 81–82, 86 Puerto Rico, 246 Pulitzer, Joseph, 148, 226–29, 239, 241 Pullman Palace Car Company, 231 Pure Food and Drug Act, 208–9, 274–75 Quantum Computer Services, 465 radio, 292–96, 301–6 audio transmission and, 302–6 government regulation of, 295–96 Titanic sinking and, 293–94 World War I and, 301 Radio Corporation of America (RCA), 302–4, 305–6, 381 Radio Dealer, 304–5 railroads, 80–91 Civil War and, 140–42 coal and, 80–81 commercial trucking supplanting, 402 corporate entities and, 83–84, 85–86 eminent domain and, 84–85 first tracks and locomotives in U.S., 81–82 immigration and, 89–90 oil transportation and, 157–58 Plains Indians and, 176–77 slow growth of, in 1830s, 83, 85 stock financing of, 83–84 telegraph and, 100–101 transcontinental, 147–48 Vanderbilt and, 87–89 World War I and, 300 Rand, Ayn, 388 Randolph, William, 111 RCA, 438 Reagan, Ronald, 388–89, 433 acting and television career of, 385–87, 390 childhood and education of, 384–85 Remington, 181, 182 repeater, 189 Republican Party, 121, 183, 224 residential construction Great Depression and, 328–29 Levitt’s mass-manufacturing techniques for, 369, 370–72 returning World War II servicemen and, 368–69 retail, 198–210 catalogs and, 205–9 consumer protection laws, need for, 210 country stores, 205 department stores, 201–4 discount stores, 402–4 economies of scale in, 202–3 general stores, 201, 202 mom-and-pop shops, 404 specialty, 201, 202 U.S.


pages: 552 words: 143,074

Without Copyrights: Piracy, Publishing, and the Public Domain (Modernist Literature and Culture) by Robert Spoo

invisible hand, Network effects, New Journalism, peer-to-peer, Ronald Reagan, transaction costs

The Senate Judiciary Committee summarized the prevailing dread: “Due to the ease with which digital works can be copied and distributed worldwide virtually instantaneously, copyright owners will hesitate to make their works readily available on the Internet without reasonable assurance that they will be protected against massive piracy.”16 The phrase “massive piracy” has emotional force in excess of its denotative capacity. Applied, as it often is today, to unauthorized file sharing by countless anonymous or pseudonymous users in decentralized peer-to-peer networks,17 the phrase conjures up conspiratorial intent to break the law—a gigantic, orchestrated music heist—when in fact the very nature of decentralized file sharing scatters concerted intent and mens rea over the vast reaches of the World Wide Web. This is why the music and movie industries have focused much of their litigation efforts on the purveyors of peer-to-peer technologies and services: Napster, Aimster, Grokster, Kazaa, LimeWire, BitTorrent, and, of course, The Pirate Bay. Piracy, in the digital era, as in the past, must have a local habitation and a name, and the pirate is almost invariably thought of as a wicked lawbreaker, a violator of legislated or common law rights.


pages: 189 words: 57,632

Content: Selected Essays on Technology, Creativity, Copyright, and the Future of the Future by Cory Doctorow

AltaVista, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, en.wikipedia.org, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Law of Accelerating Returns, Metcalfe's law, Mitch Kapor, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, optical character recognition, patent troll, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Skype, slashdot, social software, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

What right have you to insist that we should become mere clerks, working in an obscure back-room, leaving you to commune with our audiences on our behalf?" Technology giveth and technology taketh away. Seventy years later, Napster showed us that, as William Gibson noted, "We may be at the end of the brief period during which it is possible to charge for recorded music." Surely we're at the end of the period where it's possible to exclude those who don't wish to pay. Every song released can be downloaded gratis from a peer-to-peer network (and will shortly get easier to download, as hard-drive price/performance curves take us to a place where all the music ever recorded will fit on a disposable pocket-drive that you can just walk over to a friend's place and copy). But have no fear: the Internet makes it possible for recording artists to reach a wider audience than ever dreamt of before. Your potential fans may be spread in a thin, even coat over the world, in a configuration that could never be cost-effective to reach with traditional marketing.

Obviously, if there was some way to ensure that a given publisher was the only source for a copyrighted work, that publisher could hike up its prices, devote less money to service, and still sell its wares. Having to compete with free copies handed from user to user makes life harder — hasn't it always? But it is most assuredly possible. Look at Apple's wildly popular iTunes Music Store, which has sold over one billion tracks since 2003. Every song on iTunes is available as a free download from user-to-user, peer-to-peer networks like Kazaa. Indeed, the P2P monitoring company Big Champagne reports that the average time-lapse between a iTunes-exclusive song being offered by Apple and that same song being offered on P2P networks is 180 seconds. Every iTunes customer could readily acquire every iTunes song for free, using the fastest-adopted technology in history. Many of them do (just as many fans photocopy their favorite stories from magazines and pass them around to friends).

[fn: My lifestyle is as gypsy and fancy-free as the characters in H2G2, and as a result my copies of the Adams books are thousands of miles away in storages in other countries, and this essay was penned on public transit and cheap hotel rooms in Chile, Boston, London, Geneva, Brussels, Bergen, Geneva (again), Toronto, Edinburgh, and Helsinki. Luckily, I was able to download a dodgy, re-keyed version of the Adams books from a peer-to-peer network, which network I accessed via an open wireless network on a random street-corner in an anonymous city, a fact that I note here as testimony to the power of the Internet to do what the Guide does for Ford and Arthur: put all the information I need at my fingertips, wherever I am. However, these texts are a little on the dodgy side, as noted, so you might want to confirm these quotes before, say, uttering them before an Adams truefan.]


pages: 319 words: 89,477

The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion by John Hagel Iii, John Seely Brown

Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, game design, George Gilder, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Joi Ito, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Louis Pasteur, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Maui Hawaii, medical residency, Network effects, old-boy network, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, software as a service, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs

Creation spaces go one step further by introducing the opportunity to participate in peer-to-peer networks that cut across teams, leveraging their individual experiences and providing access to a much more diverse body of expertise than would otherwise exist. These learning networks organize around shared resources such as discussion boards, video repositories, and archives of previous contributions. In some cases, they may also benefit from physical gatherings, such as conferences or competitions. Although much of the interaction at this level involves the transfer of knowledge, new knowledge is often generated as participants hold sustained discussions about their performance challenges. New knowledge also emerges as peer-to-peer networks like these apply innovations and new knowledge in diverse environments where they can be tested and improved.

Each release of World of Warcraft, for example, starts out as the sole creation of its designers, but as soon as players begin playing, the game actually changes, evolving as a result of the actions of its participants. To work successfully, the creation space must be designed to work at three levels, with the second level building on the first and the third building on the first two. First, the creation space must be designed to foster the formation of teams and interactions within each of the teams. Second, it must be designed to encourage the formation of robust and diverse peer-to-peer networks that expand knowledge-sharing and knowledge-creation activities across teams. Third, it must be designed to reach beyond the creation space and engage a broader set of participants in the products of the creation space, as when nightclub DJs play music created online at ccMixter, or when employees of other corporations participate in SAP’s Developer Network. Getting the balance right between design and emergence is critical to the sustainability and scaling of these environments.

See Geographic spikes Standards adopted through shaping strategies adoption of McLean’s containerized shipping driven through shaping strategies Novell’s network operating system as de facto of protocols designed to facilitate interactions Visa Start-up companies Stocks (equities) Stocks of knowledge compared to flows of new knowledge as diminishing in value as means, ends, toward knowledge flows Storage law for data Stress in push systems Stress in the workplace Strong ties Success Super-nodes Surfaces, exposing Surfermag.com Surfingthemag.com Surfline.com Sur vival access as essential toig and serendipity Tacit knowledge about how to do new things conveyed through conferences cultivated through listening, empathy described versus explicit Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) Talent development institutions reoriented around needed by institutions as new trajectory of institutions and open-innovation efforts supported by focused initiatives TCP/IP standard Teahupoo, Tahiti Teams and guilds as collaborative creation efforts interacting, as creation space success elements as peer-to-peer networks performance-driven of surfers World of Warcraft (WoW) social networks Teasers for online social network attention Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital (Perez) Technology CPU innovation breaks down push distinguished from platforms as tool for reaching talent outside institutions Tertius Gaudens Tertius Iungens Tesla Motors Texas Instruments Thinking for a Living (Davenport) Thomas, Doug T-Mobile Too big to fail concept Toshiba Tow-in surfing Toyota Toys and games industries Training programs Trajectory defined as meaningful destination as element of journey toward pull igigig for finding, motivating, individual passion, creativity as shaping view of talent development for institutions Travel services as search engines Travelocity The Travels and Adventures of Serendipity (Merton and Barber) “The Travels and Adventures of Three Princes of Sarendip” fable Twitter in corporate contexts Iranian protests videos secured script used by protestors in Iran TWsurf.com Uncertainty.


pages: 960 words: 125,049

Mastering Ethereum: Building Smart Contracts and DApps by Andreas M. Antonopoulos, Gavin Wood Ph. D.

Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, continuous integration, cryptocurrency, Debian, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Firefox, Google Chrome, intangible asset, Internet of things, litecoin, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, node package manager, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, Ruby on Rails, Satoshi Nakamoto, sealed-bid auction, sharing economy, side project, smart contracts, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vickrey auction, web application, WebSocket

It contains a browser-based wallet that was the first implementation of the ERC20 token standard (Fabian Vogelsteller, author of ERC20, was also the main developer of Mist). Mist was also the first wallet to introduce the camelCase checksum (EIP-55; see “Hex Encoding with Checksum in Capitalization (EIP-55)”). Mist runs a full node and offers a full DApp browser with support for Swarm-based storage and ENS addresses. Network Referring to the Ethereum network, a peer-to-peer network that propagates transactions and blocks to every Ethereum node (network participant). NFT A non-fungible token (also known as a “deed”). This is a token standard introduced by the ERC721 proposal. NFTs can be tracked and traded, but each token is unique and distinct; they are not interchangeable like ERC20 tokens. NFTs can represent ownership of digital or physical assets. Node A software client that participates in the network.

The Ethereum platform enables developers to build powerful decentralized applications with built-in economic functions. While providing high availability, auditability, transparency, and neutrality, it also reduces or eliminates censorship and reduces certain counterparty risks. Compared to Bitcoin Many people will come to Ethereum with some prior experience of cryptocurrencies, specifically Bitcoin. Ethereum shares many common elements with other open blockchains: a peer-to-peer network connecting participants, a Byzantine fault–tolerant consensus algorithm for synchronization of state updates (a proof-of-work blockchain), the use of cryptographic primitives such as digital signatures and hashes, and a digital currency (ether). Yet in many ways, both the purpose and construction of Ethereum are strikingly different from those of the open blockchains that preceded it, including Bitcoin.

Starting in December 2013, Vitalik and Gavin refined and evolved the idea, together building the protocol layer that became Ethereum. Ethereum’s founders were thinking about a blockchain without a specific purpose, that could support a broad variety of applications by being programmed. The idea was that by using a general-purpose blockchain like Ethereum, a developer could program their particular application without having to implement the underlying mechanisms of peer-to-peer networks, blockchains, consensus algorithms, etc. The Ethereum platform was designed to abstract these details and provide a deterministic and secure programming environment for decentralized blockchain applications. Much like Satoshi, Vitalik and Gavin didn’t just invent a new technology; they combined new inventions with existing technologies in a novel way and delivered the prototype code to prove their ideas to the world.


pages: 314 words: 69,741

The Internet Is a Playground by David Thorne

anti-globalists, late fees, Naomi Klein, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

I would no doubt find your ideas more “cutting edge” and original if I had traveled forward in time from the 1950s, but as it stands, your ideas for technology-based projects that have already been put into application by other people several years before you thought of them fail to generate the enthusiasm they possibly deserve. Having said that, though, if I had traveled forward in time, my time machine would probably put your peer-to-peer networking technology to shame, because it would have not only commercial viability but also an awesome logo and accompanying pie charts. Regardless, I have, as requested, attached a logo that represents the peer-to-peer-networking project you are currently working on and how it feels working with you in general. Regards, David From: Simon Edhouse Date: Tuesday 17 November 2009 11:07 a.m. To: David Thorne Subject: Re: Re: Re: Re: Logo Design You just crossed the line. You have no idea about the potential this project has.

Not once did the secretary there call me a wanker or have her grotty old G-strings poking out the top of her fat arse every day, making me feel ill”—which I found much more entertaining than having to do the work that maintaining new clients would have entailed. From: Simon Edhouse Date: Monday 16 November 2009 2:19 p.m. To: David Thorne Subject: Logo Design Hello David, I would like to catch up as I am working on a really exciting project at the moment and need a logo designed. Basically something representing peer to peer networking. I have to have something to show prospective clients this week so would you be able to pull something together in the next few days? I will also need a couple of pie charts done for a 1 page website. If deal goes ahead there will be some good money in it for you. Simon From: David Thorne Date: Monday 16 November 2009 3:52 p.m. To: Simon Edhouse Subject: Re: Logo Design Dear Simon, Disregarding the fact that you have still not paid me for work I completed earlier this year despite several assertions that you would do so, I would be delighted to spend my free time creating logos and pie charts for you based on further vague promises of future possible payment.


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

Given enough time, decentralized connected dumb things can become smarter than we think. Second, even though a purely decentralized power won’t take us all the way, it is almost always the best way to start. It’s fast, cheap, and out of control. The barriers to start a new crowd-powered service are low and getting lower. A hive mind scales up wonderfully smoothly. That is why there were 9,000 startups in 2015 trying to exploit the sharing power of decentralized peer-to-peer networks. It does not matter if they morph over time. Perhaps a hundred years from now these shared processes, such as Wikipedia, will be layered up with so much management that they’ll resemble the old-school centralized businesses. Even so, the bottom up was still the best way to start. • • • We live in a golden age now. The volume of creative work in the next decade will dwarf the volume of the last 50 years.

There are websites today that feature only movie trailers or great commercials, but they don’t earn anything from the sources for hosting them. Soon enough they will. This arrangement completely reverses the power of the established ad industry. Like Uber and other decentralized systems, it takes what was once a highly refined job performed by a few professionals and spreads it across a peer-to-peer network of amateurs. No advertising professional in 2016 believes it could work, and even reasonable people think it sounds crazy, but one thing we know about the last 30 years is that seemingly impossible things can be accomplished by peers of amateurs when connected smartly. A couple of maverick startups in 2016 are trying to disrupt the current attention system, but it may take a number of tries before some of the radical new modes stick.

See also work environments on-demand expectations, 64–65, 114–17 OpenOffice, 151 open source industry, 135, 141–42, 143, 271 oral communication, 204 Oscar Awards, 187–88 overfitting, 170 ownership, 112–13, 117–18, 121–22, 124–25, 127, 138 Page, Larry, 36–37 Pandora, 169 parallel computation, 38–39, 40 passive archives, 249 passwords, 220, 235 patents, 283 PatientsLikeMe, 145 patronage, 71–72 PayPal, 65, 119–20, 124 pedometers, 238 peer-to-peer networks, 129–30, 184–85 Periscope, 76 “personal analytics” engine, 239 personalization, 68–69, 172–73, 175, 191, 240–41, 261–62 pharmaceutical research, 241–42 pharmacies, 50 phase transitions, 294–97 phones automatic updates of, 62 cameras in, 34 and clouds, 126 and decentralized communications, 129–31 and on-demand model of access, 114 directories, 285 and interactivity, 219 lifespan of apps for, 11 as reading devices, 91–92 in rural China, 56 and self-tracking technology, 239–40 and tracking technology, 239–40, 250, 253 and virtual reality technology, 215, 222 photography and images and artificial intelligence, 33–34 and classic film production, 198–99 and content recognition, 43, 203 and Creative Commons licensing, 139 democratization of, 77 and digital storage capacity, 266 and facial recognition, 39, 43 flexible images, 204 and Google Photo, 43 and lifelogging, 248–49 and new media genres, 195 and photo captioning, 51 and reproductive imperative, 87 sharing of, 140 Picard, Rosalind, 220 Picasso, Pablo, 288 Pichai, Sundar, 37 Pine, Joseph, 172–73 Pinterest, 32, 136, 139, 140, 183 piracy, 124 placebo effect, 242 platform synergy, 122–25, 131 PlayStation Now, 109 porn sites, 202–3 postal mail, 253 postindustrial economy, 57 “presence,” 216–17 printing, 85, 87.


pages: 680 words: 157,865

Beautiful Architecture: Leading Thinkers Reveal the Hidden Beauty in Software Design by Diomidis Spinellis, Georgios Gousios

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, call centre, continuous integration, corporate governance, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, general-purpose programming language, iterative process, linked data, locality of reference, loose coupling, meta analysis, meta-analysis, MVC pattern, peer-to-peer, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, smart cities, social graph, social web, SPARQL, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, web application, zero-coupon bond

It’s common, though, for customers to come back later, maybe even on a different day. It would be ridiculous to permanently attach a customer to a single workstation—not just unworkable for scheduling, but also risky. Workstations break! So any workstation in the studio must be interchangeable, but “interchangeable” presents some problems. The images for a single session can consume close to a gigabyte. We briefly contemplated building the workstations as a peer-to-peer network with distributed replication. Ultimately, we opted for a more traditional client-server model, as shown in Figure 4-5. Figure 4-5. Studio deployment The server is equipped with larger disks than the clients, and they are RAIDed for resilience. The server runs a MySQL database to hold structured data about customers, sessions, and orders. Most of the space, however, is devoted to storing the customers’ photographs.

The second communication service that is always available in the Darkstar stack is the Channel Service. Channels are a form of one-to-many communication. Conceptually, channels can be joined by any number of clients, and any message that is sent on the channel will be delivered to all of the clients that have been associated with the channel. This might seem to be a perfect place to utilize peer-to-peer technologies, allowing clients to directly communicate with other clients without adding any load to the server. However, these sorts of communications need to be monitored by some code that is trusted to ensure that neither inappropriate messages nor cheating can take place by utilizing different client implementations. Since the client is assumed to be under the control of the user or player, the code that is on that client cannot be trusted, because it is easy to swap out the original client code for some other, “customized” version of the client.


pages: 395 words: 116,675

The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge by Matt Ridley

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, AltaVista, altcoin, anthropic principle, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Corn Laws, cosmological constant, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Edward Snowden, endogenous growth, epigenetics, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, George Santayana, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hydraulic fracturing, imperial preference, income per capita, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, land reform, Lao Tzu, long peace, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Necker cube, obamacare, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, price mechanism, profit motive, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, twin studies, uber lyft, women in the workforce

It could radically decentralise society itself, getting rid of the need for banks, governments, even companies and politicians. Take the example of Twister, a blockchain-based rival to Twitter, built entirely on a peer-to-peer network. If you live under a despotic regime, sending a message critical of your government on Twitter leaves you vulnerable to that government coercing Twitter, the company, into handing over your details. With Twister, that will not be possible. Then there is Namecoin, which aims to issue internet names in a decentralised, peer-to-peer fashion; Storj, which plans to allow cloud storage of files hidden inside blockchains; and Ethereum, which is a decentralised peer-to-peer network ‘designed to replace absolutely anything that can be described in code’, as Matthew Sparkes puts it. The digital expert Primavera De Filippi sees Ethereum and its ilk coming up with smart contracts, allowing ‘distributed autonomous organisations’ that, once they have been deployed on the blockchain, ‘no longer need (nor heed) their creators’.

So, while we should honour individuals for their contributions, we should not really think that they made something come into existence that would not have otherwise. The names would be different, and some of the procedures too, but an alternative internet would exist today whoever had lived. The true origin of the internet does not lie in brilliant individuals, nor in private companies, nor in government funding. It lies, as Steven Berlin Johnson has argued persuasively, in open-source, peer-to-peer networking of an almost hippie, sixties-California-commune kind. ‘Like many of the bedrock technologies that have come to define the digital age, the internet was created by – and continues to be shaped by – decentralised groups of scientists and programmers and hobbyists (and more than a few entrepreneurs) freely sharing the fruits of their intellectual labor with the entire world.’ These were people collaborating because they wanted to, not because they were paid to, and with little or no intellectual property in their ideas.

Chapter 16: The Evolution of the Internet Hayek quote from Hayek, F. 1978. The Constitution of Liberty. University of Chicago Press. On East German televisions, and telephones, Kupferberg, Feiwel 2002. The Rise and Fall of the German Democratic Republic. Transaction Publishers. On the Arpanet, Crovitz, Gordon 2012. Who really invented the internet?. Wall Street Journal 22 July 2012. On peer-to-peer networks, Johnson, Steven 2012. Future Perfect. Penguin. On the balkanisation of the web, Sparkes, Matthew 2014. The Coming Digital Anarchy. Daily Telegraph 9 June 2014. On Wikipedia editing, Scott, Nigel 2014. Wikipedia: where truth dies online. Spiked 29 April 2014. Filipachi, Amanda 2013. Sexism on Wikipedia is Not the Work of ‘a Single Misguided Editor’. The Atlantic 13 April 2013. Solomon, Lawrence 2009.


pages: 524 words: 120,182

Complexity: A Guided Tour by Melanie Mitchell

Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, dark matter, discrete time, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John von Neumann, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, scientific worldview, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine

“We believe that deterministically generated spatial structure”: Ibid. “chaotically changing”: Ibid. “That territoriality favours cooperation”: Sigmund, K., On prisoners and cells, Nature, 359 (6398), 1992, p. 774. “John Holland has likened such models to ‘flight simulators’”: Holland, J. H., Emergence: From Chaos to Order. Perseus Books, 1998, p. 243. “proposals for improving peer-to-peer networks”: e.g., Hales, D. and Arteconi, S., SLACER: A Self-Organizing Protocol for Coordination in Peer-to-Peer Networks. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 21 (2), 2006, pp. 29–35. “preventing fraud in electronic commerce”: e.g., see Kollock, P., The production of trust in online markets. In E. J. Lawler, M. Macy, S. Thyne, and H. A. Walker (editors), Advances in Group Processes, Vol. 16. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1999. “ … work by Martin Nowak”: Nowak, M.

The Prisoner’s Dilemma gives an arena in which the effects of miscommunications can be explored. John Holland has likened such models to “flight simulators” for testing one’s ideas and for improving one’s intuitions. Inspire new technologies. Results from the Prisoner’s Dilemma modeling literature—namely, the conditions needed for cooperation to arise and persist—have been used in proposals for improving peer-to-peer networks and preventing fraud in electronic commerce, to name but two applications. Lead to mathematical theories. Several people have used the results from Prisoner’s Dilemma computer simulations to formulate general mathematical theories about the conditions needed for cooperation. A recent example is work by Martin Nowak, in a paper called “Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation.” How should results from idea models such as the Prisoner’s Dilemma be used to inform policy decisions, such as the foreign relations strategies of governments or responses to global warming?

., The Philosophy of Biology: An Episodic History. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Grinnell, G. J. The rise and fall of Darwin’s second theory. Journal of the History of Biology, 18(1), 1985, pp. 51–70. Grosshans, H. and Filipowicz, W. The expanding world of small RNAs. Nature, 451, 2008, pp. 414–416. Hales, D. and Arteconi, S. SLACER: A Self-Organizing Protocol for Coordination in Peer-to-Peer Networks. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 21(2), 2006, pp. 29–35. Hardin, G. The tragedy of the commons. Science, 162, 1968, pp. 1243–1248. Heims, S. The Cybernetics Group. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991. Heims, S. J. John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener: From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1980. Hobbes, T. Leviathan. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, (1651/1991).


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Social networks had overthrown a dictatorship. Zeynep Tufekci, a sociologist at the University of Maryland, took issue with these claims in a fascinating post called “Can ‘Leaderless Revolutions’ Stay Leaderless?” Even if the democratic movement in Egypt had truly lacked leaders (a debatable assertion given the role trade unions played, for example), Tufekci argued that social media and peer-to-peer networks in no way guaranteed that the situation would stay that way. Social media, Tufekci explained, do not guard against the “iron law of oligarchy,” the tendency of even democratic groups to develop oligarchic characteristics—they may, in fact, facilitate it. “Networks which start out as diffuse can and likely will quickly evolve into hierarchies not in spite but because of their open and flat nature,” she explained.23 “Influence in the online world can actually spontaneously exhibit even sharper all-or-nothing dynamics compared to the off-line world, with everything below a certain threshold becoming increasingly weaker while those who first manage to cross the threshold becoming widely popular.”

Online, creative works are decontextualized, remixed, and mashed up. We surf and skim, passing along songs instead of albums, quotes instead of essays, clips instead of films. Artists who share their work with the world (or find it leaked) see it repurposed in ways they didn’t anticipate. The minute a film is released or an essay is published, it begins to race around the Internet, passed through peer-to-peer networks, posted on personal Web sites, quoted in social media streams. In one sense, therefore, any ownership claim is purely theoretical, since, in practice, people’s creations circulate in ways they cannot control. In practice, though, the laws underpinning ownership are stronger than ever before, so strong that some experts warn we are living through a “second enclosure,” a reference to the eighteenth-century privatization of collectively managed fields and forests in England.

According to Mason’s Web site, his speaking performances have left Procter and Gamble “delighted,” struck the executives of Miller Genuine Draft as “amazing.” Disney, only slightly more restrained, found Mason “very stimulating!” Mason’s argument also holds true for most mainstream culture. The most downloaded files are, without fail, the biggest blockbusters and mainstream hits. While peer-to-peer networks can be used to share amateur and independent creativity, in practice they are more often used to trade Lady Gaga or Game of Thrones. Of course, big business is loath to lose potential sales to free distribution (the push for SOPA and PIPA in the United States and the draconian “three strikes” laws abroad, which can slow or suspend Internet access to repeat copyright infringers, prove as much), but pirate sites also increase the reach of American commercial culture, spreading it around to distant corners of the globe.


pages: 304 words: 91,566

Bitcoin Billionaires: A True Story of Genius, Betrayal, and Redemption by Ben Mezrich

"side hustle", airport security, Albert Einstein, bank run, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, buttonwood tree, cryptocurrency, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, game design, Isaac Newton, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, new economy, offshore financial centre, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, QR code, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Sand Hill Road, Satoshi Nakamoto, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, transaction costs, zero-sum game

Charlie looked around hacker forums for more background on this Satoshi character but could find nothing. Stranger still, Satoshi, who claimed to be a Japanese man in his midthirties, wrote his emails in perfect, idiomatic English. Once Charlie read the white paper, however, it was obvious that Satoshi was a polymath, a multidisciplinary genius who was an expert in cryptography, math, computer science, peer-to-peer networking, economics, and more. How could this person be that smart and accomplished and yet be a ghost to the internet, a complete phantom? How could Charlie not at least even know of him? Or her. Or them. Charlie would have gone on with his life, ignored the email and the white paper, if it wasn’t for the enthusiasm of a new, online friend he’d met while perusing crypto boards and forums under the handle “Yankee”: the autistic Welshman Gareth Nelson.

On October 31, 2008, Satoshi Nakamoto had published his famous white paper titled: Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System, to the Cryptography Mailing List—“a low-noise moderated mailing list devoted to cryptographic technology and its political impact,” laying out “a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.” The white paper detailed bitcoin’s specific features: • Double-spending is prevented with a peer-to-peer network. • No mint or other trusted parties. • Participants can be anonymous. • New coins are made from Hashcash-style proof-of-work. • The proof-of-work for new coin generation also powers the network to prevent double-spending. And then three months later, the first version of the Bitcoin software was released into the wild. In thirty-one thousand lines of code, Satoshi was able to achieve what no one else before him had: the elimination of the need for trusted, central parties.

They were, instead, the technical heavyweights, who spent their time working on the guts of the internet, focused on the deeper transport and network layers, not the surface, where sexy companies like Facebook and Google lived. They were the engineering equivalent of the back office, not the shiny front office types. They were often called “neckbeards”—they weren’t exactly client-facing. But when people talked about someone being the smartest person in the room—well, this was a room full of them. They were intensely interested in cryptography, protocols, and peer-to-peer networking, and coding in lower-level languages like C and C++. They were close to the bare metal, the 1s and 0s, bits and bytes, not the more user-friendly, abstracted layers. Tyler certainly recognized brilliant billionaires among them, such as Max Levchin, who had cofounded PayPal with Thiel. Levchin was credited with decimating fraud on the network in the early days, and was a leading member of the PayPal Mafia.


pages: 831 words: 98,409

SUPERHUBS: How the Financial Elite and Their Networks Rule Our World by Sandra Navidi

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, butterfly effect, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, diversification, East Village, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, family office, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, high net worth, hindsight bias, income inequality, index fund, intangible asset, Jaron Lanier, John Meriwether, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, McMansion, mittelstand, money market fund, Myron Scholes, NetJets, Network effects, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Parag Khanna, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Renaissance Technologies, rent-seeking, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Predators' Ball, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, too big to fail, women in the workforce, young professional

In 2014, Krawcheck gave it the clever moniker Ellevate and launched the Pax Ellevate Global Women’s Index Fund, which invests in companies highly rated in terms of advancing female leadership. The verdict on the Ellevate network’s effectiveness is still out, but it is a promising start. THE NETWORKING GAP: SCHMOOZE OR LOSE The comparative weakness of female networks also results from women’s dispositions. Studies show that women are more reluctant than men to use their peer-to-peer networks because they feel uncomfortable using connections opportunistically. Also, some argue that since women have had top job opportunities only for a few decades, they lack role models and are still learning practices that men have long internalized.15 Often women are hired for their soft skills to attract new clients, sell financial services, and maintain client relationships. Despite excelling in these roles, they have largely been unable to break into the male-dominated high ranks of finance.

Shaw, 188 Dakota building, 199–200 Daley, William, 165 Dalio, Ray, xxvii Anthony Scaramucci and, 24 background on, 69–72 meditation by, 62, 70 net worth of, 88 Principles, 63, 71 Robin Hood Foundation and, 76 spouse of, 135 Dallara, Charles, 27, 107, 131–133 Dallara, Peixin, 131–133 D’Andrea Tyson, Laura, 185 Das, Satyajit, 210 Davos access to, 113 attendees of, 2, 4, 113–114 central bankers at, 33 critics of, 95 description of, 1–4, 96, 112–116 drawbacks of, 113 environment of, 2–3 hierarchy at, 114 hotels in, 2–3 networking at, 113–114 parties at, 114–116 peer-to-peer networking at, 5, 9 purpose of, 4 status markers at, 114 superhubs at, 8–12 Dealbreaker, 71 Debt, 210 Decision makers, proximity to, 42 Dell, Michael, 115 Democratic Party, 168 Den of Thieves, 190 Depression, 137 Deripaska, Oleg, 9, 69 Deutsche Bank, 27, 42, 101, 105, 118, 120–121, 131, 136, 141, 143, 176 Diamond, Bob, 43, 137, 205 Dijsselbloem, Jeroen, 121 DiMartino, Joseph, 199 Dimon, Jamie alma mater of, 174 as superhub, 11, 56 as type A personality, 56–57 background on, 55–58 charity by, 76 Elizabeth Warren and, 225 financial losses by, 23, 51 firings by, 140–141 general references to, xxv, 79 at JPMorgan, 9.

See Davos need for, 112 Network power communication used to form, 41 description of, xxv of Klaus Schwab, 95 network strength and, 97 Network science description of, xxvi financial system viewed through, 6–7 human relationships viewed through, 7 patterns in, 7 Networkers, 100–101 Networking at charity events, 128–129 at Davos, 5, 9 family office platform for, 123–124 at fitness clubs, 125–126 mind-set of, 100–101 power lunches for, 124–125 at Private parties, 126–128 purpose of, 100, 104, 108 resistance to, 104 by Superhubs, 100 by women, 151 Networking gap, 151, 161–162 New York charity events in, 128 Four Seasons restaurant in, 124 real estate in, 90–91 New York Fed, 45–46, 183, 208–209, 215 New York Times, 17, 56, 71, 125, 148, 158, 189 New York University, 36, 47, 64 New Zealand, 13 Newsweek, 80 Niccolini, Julian, 124 Niederauer, Duncan, 85 Nodes definition of, xxvi description of, 18–19 failure of, 216 in financial system, 19–20 hierarchy of, 19 with limited connections, 20 links to, 19 preferential attachment of, xxvi senior, 77 superhub connections to, 19–20 Nonverbal communication, 99–100, 149 Nooyi, Indra, 157 Norms, 222 Northwestern University, 220 Norway, 114 Novogratz, Michael, 109 Noyer, Christian, 160 O Oaktree Capital Management, 90 Obama, Barack, 58, 165, 168, 173–174, 188–189, 196 Observer, 87 Obsessiveness, 69 Och, Dan, 170 Och-Ziff, 170 “Office housework,” 152 Office of the Chief Economist, 164 Old boys’ network, 82–85, 150 Old Lane Partners, 139 On the Brink, 172 On Tour with the IMF, 160 O’Neal, Stanley, 56 O’Neill, Michael, 140 Open-mindedness, 62 Opportunities, 52–53 Opportunity gap, 13 Orszag, Peter, 168 Osborne, George, 121, 137 Osório, Horta, 137 Oxfam, 213 P Pain, 71 Paine Webber, 209 Palantir Technologies, 72 Panama Papers, 211 Pandit, Vikram, 23, 53, 57, 139–140, 203 Pao, Ellen, 196–203 Papandreou, George, 27 Paranoia, 71 Paris, 131–132 Parties private, 126–128 at World Economic Forum, 114–116 Patton, Arch, 87 Paulson & Co., 42, 88 Paulson, Hank AIG and, 183 Alan Greenspan and, 36 as U.S. treasury secretary, 36, 167 background on, 172 at Bilderberg conference, 121 networking by, 172–173, 182 personal relationships, 11 in public and private sectors, 165 revolving door phenomenon and, 165 Robert Rubin and, 167 Paulson, John, xxvii, 7, 82, 88, 129 Pax Ellevate Global Women’s Index Fund, 151 Peer-to-peer networking at Davos, 5, 9 by women, 151 P=EFT formula, 63–64, 192 Pelosi, Nancy, 27, 173 Peltz, Nelson, 154 People’s Bank of China, 209 Pepsi, 157 Perfectionism, 137 Performance-based assessments, 152 Performance-based compensation, 86 “Perma-bears,” 48 Perry, Richard, 170 Perry Capital, 170 Personal connections access and, 52 benefits of, 45–46 description of, 7–8, 10–12 in financial crisis of 2007–2008 resolution, 172–173 influence of, 41–42 information from, 41–42 leveraging of, 175 need for, 98 networking to create, 100–101 technology’s role in, 99–100 value of, 175 Peterson, Pete, 27, 30, 53, 61, 79, 124 Peterson Institute, 107 Petraeus, General David, 121 Petro Saudi, 170 “Philanthrocapitalism,” 128 Philanthropy, 17, 70, 75–76, 128, 129, 169, 171, 192, 199 Philippe, King of Belgium, 114 Picasso, Pablo, 124–125 Piketty, Thomas, 49 PIMCO, 42, 44, 53, 66–67, 69 Pinchuk, Victor, 195 Place Vendôme, 132 Plato, 79 Plaza Hotel, 158 Point72 Asset Management, 88 Policy makers, 85 Political capital, 169 Political protection, 175–176 Politics, finance and, 163 Ponzi schemes, 196, 201–202 Pool Room, 124 Pope, 220 Portugal, 177 “Positive linking,” 100 Potential versus performance, 152–153 Poverty, 213 Power network.


pages: 349 words: 102,827

The Infinite Machine: How an Army of Crypto-Hackers Is Building the Next Internet With Ethereum by Camila Russo

4chan, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, altcoin, always be closing, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Asian financial crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, diversification, Donald Trump, East Village, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hacker house, Internet of things, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, mobile money, new economy, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Satoshi Nakamoto, semantic web, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, South of Market, San Francisco, the payments system, too big to fail, tulip mania, Turing complete, Uber for X

At around this time, in 1999, Napster launched. The now-defunct website allowed users to share digital files among a web of participants, instantly making hundreds of thousands of MP3 songs available for free to anyone in the world. Then in 2001, BitTorrent was released, doing to movies and larger files what Napster had done with music. They arguably brought peer-to-peer (P2P) applications into the mainstream. Peer-to-peer networks interconnect equally privileged nodes with each other, allowing users to share and transfer data without the need of a centralized administrative entity. Systems using this architecture are resilient against censorship, attacks, and manipulation. Just like the mythological Hydra, there’s no one head that you can cut off to kill it, and it gets stronger after each attack. The original vision for the World Wide Web, as imagined by its creator, Tim Berners-Lee, was meant to be closer to a P2P network than how it works today, that is, behind a series of firewalls and fed to us through Google, Facebook, and maybe a handful of other mega corporations.

Cypherpunks had continued incrementally improving past work until the major breakthrough came in October 2008, when an anonymous person or persons going by the name Satoshi Nakamoto emailed the group. “I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party,” the email began, and linked to a nine-page PDF that underlined how the system worked. He said he proposed solving the double-spend problem by using a “peer-to-peer network which timestamps transactions by linking them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work.”3 In the paper titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System,” Satoshi Nakamoto proposed a network of computers, where each computer holds the copy of the entire transaction history for the network, a ledger with what everyone owns. Anyone is free to download the ledger onto their computer and join the network.

This new internet is made up of concepts including the “semantic web,” or a web of data that can be processed by machines, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and data mining. When algorithms decide what to recommend someone should purchase on Amazon, that’s a glimpse of Web 3. Besides all those features, Gavin’s version of Web 3 would allow people to interact without needing to trust each other. It should be a peer-to-peer network with no servers and no authorities to manage the flow of information. Ethereum would be instrumental for this Web 3 vision to become a reality, and much of how the project was defined, with teams focusing on decentralized messaging, storage, and browsers, had the goal of helping shape this next version of the internet. As they got closer to the crowdsale, Gavin was anxious for the team to focus on delivering the platform, and he identified Berlin as the perfect place to set up a development hub.


pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

* * * Of course, with creation comes destruction. I haven’t really come here to see art projects – cool as they may be. I want to find some cracking. The lightning talks offer up a couple of titbits. One talk, entitled “cache games”, shows how to manipulate someone else’s computer from afar using the web caching system. Another details how to launch a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack using peer-to-peer networks. If this was the magician’s circle, then think of these guys as fairground conjurers. For the really good tricks, it’s clear I’m going to have to leave the sideshows. The main lecture hall is accessed from the first, and top floor of the Berliner. Its domed roof has something of the Biosphere 1 about it, but despite this, the lecture hall is pretty normal. Normal that is, until you look up on the stage.

MIT: Massachusetts Institute of Technology n00bie: Hacker jargon for “newbie” NORAD: North American Aerospace Defense Command ONI: Open Net Initiative Open Rights Group (ORG): UK-based organisation that works to preserve digital rights and freedoms open source: Practices in production and development that promote access to the end products source materials ORG: See Open Rights Group paywall: A paywall blocks access to a webpage with a screen requiring payment. PDP11: 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) from 1970 into the 1990s peer-to-peer: A distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between equally privileged participants in the application which are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes. The peer-to-peer application structure was popularised by file sharing systems like Napster. phreaking: A slang term coined to describe the activity of a culture of people who study, experiment with, or explore telecommunication systems, such as equipment and systems connected to public telephone networks. protocol: A communications protocol is a formal description of digital message formats and the rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems and in telecommunications.


pages: 309 words: 54,839

Attack of the 50 Foot Blockchain: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Ethereum & Smart Contracts by David Gerard

altcoin, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Extropian, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, index fund, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, margin call, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, prediction markets, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Satoshi Nakamoto, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, slashdot, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, tulip mania, Turing complete, Turing machine, WikiLeaks

Mining benefits from economies of scale, so it’s progressed from mining on your PC, to graphics cards, to programmable chips (FPGAs), to ASICs. Nakamoto’s original Bitcoin white paper assumes a peer-to-peer network that anyone can join. In practice, the miners operate their own centralised communication pool, previously the Bitcoin Relay Network and now called the Fast Internet Bitcoin Relay Engine (FIBRE), as it’s more efficient. (This came close to being a single point of failure in January 2016, as the BRN was about to shut down from lack of funding, and the decentralised peer-to-peer network would not have been able to handle the traffic.) As of March 2017, three pools controlled over 50% and six pools over 75% of the hash rate, with the largest individual pool at 21.3%.135 There is no reason that multiple pools could not have a single owner.


pages: 430 words: 68,225

Blockchain Basics: A Non-Technical Introduction in 25 Steps by Daniel Drescher

bitcoin, blockchain, business process, central bank independence, collaborative editing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, job automation, linked data, peer-to-peer, place-making, Satoshi Nakamoto, smart contracts, transaction costs

However, sending information through a network implies security concerns as untrustworthy entities may misuse the network in order to access and exploit information. Hence, any distributed system has to address security concerns. The less restricted the access to the network over which the distributed nodes communicate is, the higher the security concerns are for the distributed system. Distributed Peer-to-Peer Systems Peer-to-peer networks are a special kind of distributed systems. They consist of individual computers (also called nodes), which make their computational resources (e.g., processing power, storage capacity, data or network band- width) directly available to all other members of the network without having Blockchain Basics 15 any central point of coordination. The nodes in the network are equal con- cerning their rights and roles in the system.

., transfer- ring money from one bank account to another one in a different country involves up to five middlemen, which all need their processing time and impose their own fees). As a result, something as simple as transferring an amount of money from one bank account to another in a different country involves a long 1Hong, Seung-Hyun. The effect of Napster on recorded music sales: evidence from the consumer expenditure survey. Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research Working Paper (2004): 3–18; Leyshon, Andrew. Scary monsters? Software formats, peer-to-peer networks, and the spectre of the gift. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 21.5 (2003): 533–558. 22 Step 3 | Recognizing the Potential processing time and incurs high transactions costs. In a peer-to-peer system, the same transfer would be much simpler and it would take less time and costs since it could be processed as what it is: a transfer of bits and bytes between two peers or nodes, respectively.


pages: 561 words: 157,589

WTF?: What's the Future and Why It's Up to Us by Tim O'Reilly

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, deskilling, DevOps, Donald Davies, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, gravity well, greed is good, Guido van Rossum, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyperloop, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lao Tzu, Larry Wall, Lean Startup, Leonard Kleinrock, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, microbiome, microservices, minimum viable product, mortgage tax deduction, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Oculus Rift, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Sam Altman, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, software as a service, software patent, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The Future of Employment, the map is not the territory, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, universal basic income, US Airways Flight 1549, VA Linux, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, yellow journalism, zero-sum game, Zipcar

It seemed to be a small niche, hardly world-changing. The service was offered in San Francisco only. Yet over the next few years, Uber developed into a force that transformed the market for on-demand transportation, and today it has more drivers providing services than the entire previous taxi and limousine industry. How did this happen? The game changer came early in 2012 when two companies, Sidecar and Lyft, introduced a peer-to-peer model in which ordinary people, not just licensed limousine drivers, provided the service using their personal cars. It was this further innovation that reshaped the way we think about employment, with drivers who not only have no guaranteed work from the company, but also make no guarantees to the company about whether they will work when they are needed. Instead, a swarm of drivers are summoned and managed by algorithms that match drivers and passengers in a real-time online marketplace, with surge pricing to bring more drivers into the market when the algorithm determines that there are not enough of them to meet demand.

Instead, a swarm of drivers are summoned and managed by algorithms that match drivers and passengers in a real-time online marketplace, with surge pricing to bring more drivers into the market when the algorithm determines that there are not enough of them to meet demand. There are many historical examples of peer-to-peer public transportation. Zimride, Logan Green and John Zimmer’s predecessor to Lyft, was inspired by the informal jitney systems they observed in Zimbabwe. But using the smartphone to create a two-sided, real-time market in physical space was something profoundly new. After initial skepticism, Uber copied the peer-to-peer model a year later. Driven by an aggressive CEO, a stronger technical focus on logistics and marketplace incentives, a take-no-prisoners corporate culture, and huge amounts of capital, it has spent billions to outpace its rivals. Lyft is still a strong contender in the United States, gaining, but in distant second place. The amount of capital raised turned out to be surprisingly important. While the transportation network companies, or TNCs, as they are sometimes called, don’t have to spend money buying cars, they have spent billions on marketing, subsidized fares, and driver incentives in a race to build the biggest network of customers and drivers.

While Lyft introduced a revolutionary part of the on-demand transportation model, Uber was the first to put it all together into a seamless experience, beautiful and easy to use. Drivers Who Show Up When You Need Them. Transportation on demand for passengers requires a critical mass of drivers. Uber’s original vision of black car drivers on demand served only a narrow slice of the potential market. As their ambitions grew, they needed a much larger supply of drivers, which the peer-to-peer model supplied. Augmented Workers. GPS and automated dispatch technology inherently increase the supply of drivers because they make it possible for even part-time drivers to be successful at finding passengers and navigating to out-of-the-way locations. There was formerly an experience premium, whereby experienced taxi and limousine drivers knew the best way to reach a given destination or to avoid traffic.


pages: 422 words: 131,666

Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-globalists, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game

Instead of paying a record company to listen to their artists’ music on a CD player, we pay a computer company for the hardware, an Internet-access company for the bandwidth, and a software company for the media player to do all this. And that’s when we’re doing it illegally, instead of just paying ninety-nine cents to Apple’s iTunes. “Silicon Valley consultants call it Web 2.0, as if it were a new version of some old software. But it’s really a revolution,” Time enthused. Peer-to-peer networking is terrific, indeed, but revolutions are those moments in history when a mob storms the palace and cuts off the heads of the people who have been exploiting them. This is something else. Yes, bloggers and YouTubers have had many successes, particularly against government. They have brought down a Republican senator, an attorney general, and even made headway against the repressive net censorship of the Chinese.

Anything digital, no matter how seemingly well protected or encrypted, was capable of being copied and shared. The bias of the Internet for abundance over scarcity appeared to be taking its toll. Hollywood studios and record companies began lobbying Congress for laws and enforcement to prevent their entire libraries from becoming worthless. Comcast, a cable company that offers broadband Internet service, began blocking traffic from peer-to-peer networks in an effort to prevent losses to its corporate brethren and subsidiaries. Other corporations lobbied for changes to the way Internet access is billed, making it easier for large companies to support fast content distribution, but much harder for smaller groups or individuals to share their data. The content wars redrew the battle lines of the net revolution. It became a struggle between consumers and producers: customers fighting to get the products they wanted for free, and doing it by investing in a host of other products that, all told, probably cost them more money anyway.

This team-up is based on the premise that a group of small companies can outperform a single large contractor—doing large projects faster, cheaper, and better than the “big boys.” Big contractors form their own Contract Teaming Arrangements when necessary, but these teams are organized hierarchically, like a military unit, with the “prime” contractor commanding and controlling its subcontractors. A Super CTA is very different: It’s organized as a peer-to-peer network, like a modern software development team. It’s a partnership of equals; in a Super CTA, one company handles the team’s communication and coordination functions, but no company in the team dictates to any other. A Super CTA is a contracting democracy, and, like democracy in general, it requires checks, balances, and good communications to function well. It’s more complex than a hierarchical team, but that increased complexity brings higher performance and potentially greater benefits to society.


pages: 420 words: 130,503

Actionable Gamification: Beyond Points, Badges and Leaderboards by Yu-Kai Chou

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Firefox, functional fixedness, game design, IKEA effect, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, lifelogging, loss aversion, Maui Hawaii, Minecraft, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs

Fortune 500 2014: eBay Inc.↩ Christopher Matthews. Time. “Future of Retail: How Companies Can Employ Big Data to Create a Better Shopping Experience”. 08/31/2012.↩ Mangalindan, JP. Fortune. “Amazon’s Recommendation Secret”. 07/30/2012.↩ Yao Wang and Julita Vassileva. University of Saskatchewan. Trust and reputation model in peer-to-peer networks. 2003.↩ Minaxi Gupta, Paul Judge, and Mostafa Ammar. Georgia Institute of Technology. A Reputation System for Peer-to-Peer Networks. 2003.↩ David Vise & Mark Malseed. The Google Story. p42. Random House, New York, New York. 2005.↩ David Vise & Mark Malseed. The Google Story. p88. Random House, New York, New York. 2005.↩ Gareth Llewellyn. Quora.com: “Are Facebook and Twitter the best tools for social media marketing?”. 5/14/2013.↩ Alexander Chernev.

By knowing what other, similar people are buying, social proof and relatedness help consumers make decisions with greater confidence. This helps Amazon increase their sales and subsequent up-sells. Of course, another “Social Influence & Relatedness” factor of Amazon that heavily contributed to its early success, was the millions of user reviews on books and other items. “My friend Bob says the doctor is wrong – and he reads a lot about health.” Studies on Trust and Reputation in Peer-to-Peer Networks by researchers like Yao Wang and Julita Vassileva of the University of Saskatchewan, as well as Minaxi Gupta, Paul Judge, and Mostafa Ammar of the Georgia Institute of Technology found that the average consumer prefers and trusts reviews by peers over those by professional critics78. This is somewhat odd, because professional critics have made it their life mission to distinguish the good from the bad.


pages: 296 words: 86,610

The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

But why would you want to? That takes a bit longer to explain. I’ll start with a short history of Bitcoin. Chapter 3: Precursors, History and Creation, Satoshi’s White Paper I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party. The paper is available at: http://www.bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf The main properties: Double-spending is prevented with a peer-to-peer network. No mint or other trusted parties. Participants can be anonymous. New coins are made from Hashcash style proof-of-work. The proof-of-work for new coin generation also powers the network to prevent double-spending. —Satoshi Nakamoto’s announcement of Bitcoin, The Cryptography and Cryptography Policy Mailing List, November 1, 2008 With this message, an anonymous person or group posting under the name Satoshi Nakamoto started the revolution known to the public as Bitcoin.

Farivar describes the process by which Arscoin turned from a hypothetical cryptocurrency into an actual one: I called Corallo, the Coingen creator, for some guidance. First, he said, I needed one of my colleagues to install the app as well so that person could be added as a peer. Soon Peter Bright joined the grand experiment, allowing me to open the Arscoin-qt console and type: “addnode [Peter’s IP address] add.” Bam! Suddenly there was an Arscoin peer-to-peer network of two. The next step was to begin mining with the command “setgenerate true.” In the Windows version of the Arscoin app, a pop-up soon flashed in the taskbar to denote a successfully mined block. The reward? Fifty Arscoins. Now Arscoin was officially born. While this might have been worthless mathematical crunching, the thrill of minting “coins” quickly attracted a host of other staffers.


pages: 340 words: 96,149

@War: The Rise of the Military-Internet Complex by Shane Harris

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Brian Krebs, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computer age, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, failed state, Firefox, John Markoff, Julian Assange, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Stuxnet, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

But when pointing out weak security, Tiversa has courted controversy. In 2013, LabMD, an Atlanta company that performs cancer diagnoses, filed a complaint accusing Tiversa of stealing patient information from it and other health care companies through peer-to-peer networks. LabMD had been under investigation by the Federal Trade Commission after a data breach allegedly exposed patient information. The company claimed that the government had hired Tiversa to take the documents without LabMD’s knowledge or consent. According to court documents, Tiversa found LabMD patient information on a peer-to-peer network and then allegedly made repeated phone calls and sent e-mails to the health care company trying to sell Tiversa’s cyber security services. LabMD’s lawsuits were subsequently withdrawn or dismissed, and Tiversa has sued LabMD for defamation.


pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

The migration to digital music is recent enough that most of us grasp its wider repercussions: think of the still-simmering debates over music in the post-Napster era, the challenges it has posed to our intellectual property laws and the economics of all creative industries. But, as always, what began with an attempt to create and share new kinds of sounds ended up triggering other revolutions in other domains. The first true peer-to-peer networks for sharing information were designed specifically for the swapping of musical files. It is still too early to tell, but this innovation may turn out to be as influential as those piano keyboards and pinned cylinders, if in fact peer-to-peer platforms like Bitcoin eventually become an important part of the global financial infrastructure, as many people believe. It is entirely possible that the most significant advance in the history of money since the invention of a government-backed currency will end up having its roots in teenagers sharing Metallica songs.

It is entirely possible that the most significant advance in the history of money since the invention of a government-backed currency will end up having its roots in teenagers sharing Metallica songs. Whenever waves of new information technology have crested, music has been there to greet them. Music was among the first activities to be encoded, the first to be automated, the first to be programmed, the first to be digitized as a commercial product, the first to be distributed via peer-to-peer networks. There is something undeniably pleasing about that litany, something hopeful. Think about the history behind the most influential device of the modern age: a digital computer sharing information across wireless networks. What were the enabling technologies that made it possible to invent such a device in the first place? The standard story is that computers—and the Internet—descend from military technology, since many early computers were designed specifically to crack wartime codes or calculate rocket trajectories.


pages: 135 words: 26,407

How to DeFi by Coingecko, Darren Lau, Sze Jin Teh, Kristian Kho, Erina Azmi, Tm Lee, Bobby Ong

algorithmic trading, asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, buy and hold, capital controls, collapse of Lehman Brothers, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, diversification, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, information retrieval, litecoin, margin call, new economy, passive income, payday loans, peer-to-peer, prediction markets, QR code, reserve currency, smart contracts, tulip mania, two-sided market

Composability Composability is a system design principle that enables applications to be created from component parts. D Decentralized Finance (DeFi) DeFi is an ecosystem that allows for the utilization of financial services such as borrowing, lending, trading, getting access to insurance, and more without the need to rely on a centralized entity. Decentralized Applications (Dapps) Applications that run on decentralized peer-to-peer networks such as Ethereum. Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) Decentralized Autonomous Organizations are rules encoded by smart contracts on the blockchain. The rules and dealings of the DAO are transparent and the DAO is controlled by token holders. Decentralized Exchange (DEX) Decentralized Exchange (DEX) allows for trading and direct swapping of tokens without the need to use a centralized exchange.


pages: 302 words: 95,965

How to Be the Startup Hero: A Guide and Textbook for Entrepreneurs and Aspiring Entrepreneurs by Tim Draper

3D printing, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, business climate, carried interest, connected car, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fiat currency, frictionless, frictionless market, high net worth, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Any product that is communications based uses viral marketing. The AT&T Friends and Family marketing program, the LinkedIn network and the Twitter hashtag are some obvious examples. Facebook and Snapchat use viral marketing to share photos. The founders of Skype implemented several viral elements in growing their audio business and even more when Skype video was introduced. The Skype Video Story I was fascinated by the new peer-to-peer technology that allowed people to share files. I met with Napster, Streamcast, and Grokster as I researched the industry. I had gotten the distinct impression that the file-sharing business was pretty much crushed by a powerful and litigious music industry, but I was pretty sure there would be other applications to this revolutionary technology. I read in the paper that the guys from Kazaa, another file-sharing music business, were selling the business and looking to do something new with file-sharing technology.

All of my best investments started out as something else that for one reason or another failed or were abandoned. The Hotmail founders first came to us pitching a lookup table for people’s personal and contact information on the Internet. It was only when they were walking out the door that Steve Jurvetson asked if they had any other ideas. It turned out that their riskier, less safe idea was free, web-based email. The Skype founders initially pitched me on using peer-to-peer technology to generate shared Wi-Fi, then changed course and took on the long-distance carriers with Skype. Google, Baidu, and Yahoo were only search tools that were growing but hemorrhaging money before they all got wind of what GoTo was doing with paid search. When they copied the GoTo model, they were able to build profitable business models. JustinTV was a network of people creating their own real-time video channels when the team discovered that 40% of the business was about people watching other people play video games, and that led them to rebrand and focus only on the e-sports world, which led to Twitch.TV.


pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

In Free: The Future of a Radical Price, Chris Anderson, the editor of Wired, argued that people can no longer own things made out of ideas because anybody can get them for nothing. Since most of what advanced economies produce is made of information, this could mean that much of the product of modern economic activity would inevitably become gratis. The dictum seems to be true. Retail sales of music in the United States—from CDs to ring tones—declined by about a fifth in 2008 to $8.5 billion, as consumers stopped buying music and turned to peer-to-peer networks, where it is available for free. Globally, wholesale shipments of recorded music fell by nearly a tenth, to $18.4 billion. This changed the very meaning of success. The biggest album of 2008, Lil Wayne’s Tha Carter III, sold 2.87 million copies in the United States, according to Nielsen SoundScan. Nine years earlier the top album was Millennium by the Backstreet Boys. It sold 9.45 million copies.

In 2005, a report commissioned by the Motion Picture Association of America found that piracy cost the movie industry worldwide $18.2 billion a year and online theft accounted for 39 percent of the total. These days, more people copy movies than go see them in theaters. In May of 2008 the French bought 12.2 million tickets to see films but downloaded 13.7 million free copies of movies online through peer-to-peer networks. In the summer of 2008 Warner Bros. made an impressive display of security to launch the hit Batman movie The Dark Knight, using technology that allowed it to track each and every copy of the film. A few months later I sat in Bryant Park, behind the New York Public Library with a lanky, twenty-four-year-old philosophy major from the State University of New York. He opened his Mac iBook and took me to a Web site where at the click of the mouse, he could download a high-definition copy of The Dark Knight for free.


pages: 103 words: 32,131

Program Or Be Programmed: Ten Commands for a Digital Age by Douglas Rushkoff

banking crisis, big-box store, citizen journalism, cloud computing, digital map, East Village, financial innovation, Firefox, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the printing press, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, peer-to-peer, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, WikiLeaks

Those conversations are already happening, with or without any particular company’s page or hub. The truth about what they do and how well they do it is already a topic of conversation. The real way to “go social,” if they wanted to, would not be to accumulate more page friends or message followers, but rather to get their friends and followers to befriend and follow one another. That’s how to create a culture in a peer-to-peer, networked medium. Instead of looking to monetize or otherwise intercede between existing social connections, those promoting networks should be looking to foster connections between people who are as yet unknown to each other yet potentially in need of each other. And then let them go about their business—or their socializing. The danger, of course, is that today’s “penny for your friends” social networks will survive long enough—at least one after the other—for their compromised social standards to become accepted or even internalized by users.


pages: 377 words: 110,427

The Boy Who Could Change the World: The Writings of Aaron Swartz by Aaron Swartz, Lawrence Lessig

affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Benjamin Mako Hill, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, deliberate practice, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, failed state, fear of failure, Firefox, full employment, Howard Zinn, index card, invisible hand, Joan Didion, John Gruber, Lean Startup, More Guns, Less Crime, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, semantic web, single-payer health, SpamAssassin, SPARQL, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, unbiased observer, wage slave, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game

so you repeat as necessary to get the amount you’re owed. Since the government can’t open the envelope (we use crypto to ensure this), they have no idea of knowing which gift certificate they signed, so they can’t associate you with it when you spend it later. Now, to anonymously submit the gift certificates to the government, you reuse the peer-to-peer network you downloaded the songs from as a remailer network. You encrypt your gift certificate so only the government can read it, then you pass it to a friend on the peer-to-peer network, who passes it to a friend, etc., until someone gives it to the government. The government publishes the list of identifiers for gift certificates they’ve received, so you can make sure it got through and resend it if it didn’t. Conclusion This proposal isn’t the simplest, and probably not the most elegant, but unlike the others it will work without cheating the public.


pages: 446 words: 102,421

Network Security Through Data Analysis: Building Situational Awareness by Michael S Collins

business process, cloud computing, create, read, update, delete, Firefox, general-purpose programming language, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, iterative process, p-value, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, slashdot, statistical model, zero day

These attacks rely on a target clicking a link or accessing a file, which requires that the bait (the filename or story surrounding it) be attractive enough to merit a click. At the time of this writing, for example, there’s a spate of phishing attacks using credit ratings as the bait—the earliest informed me that my credit rating had risen and the latest batch is more ominously warning me of the consequences of a recently dropped credit rating. On peer-to-peer networks, attackers will drop Trojans with the names of current games or albums in order to attract victims. Even in this case, “surveillance” is still possible. The phishing attacks done in many APT attacks often depend on scouting out the population and posting habits of a site before identifying victims likely to respond to a crafted mail. Worms often merge the reconnaissance and subversion stages into one step.

The relationship between peerishness and spam may be a bit obscure; SMTP, like DNS and other early Internet services, is very sharing-oriented. An SMTP client in one interaction may operate as a server for another interaction, and there should be interactions between each other. Spammers, however, operate effectively as superclients—they talk to servers, but never operate as a server for anyone else. This behavior manifests as a low clustering coefficient. Remove the spammers, and the SMTP network starts to look more like a peer-to-peer network and the clustering coefficent rises. Figure 13-3. Clustering coefficient and large email networks Analyzing Graphs Graph analysis can be used for a number of purposes. Centrality metrics are a useful tool both for engineering and for forensic analysis, while components and graph attributes can be used to generate a number of alarms. Using Component Analysis as an Alarm In Chapter 11 we discussed detection mechanisms that relied on the attacker’s ignorance of a particular network, such as blind scanning and the like.


pages: 302 words: 82,233

Beautiful security by Andy Oram, John Viega

Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, corporate governance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, defense in depth, Donald Davies, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, market design, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Nick Leeson, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, pirate software, Robert Bork, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, security theater, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, statistical model, Steven Levy, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, web application, web of trust, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

., 30 Nimda virus, 248 NOC (National Office for Cyberspace), 201, 202 NTLM authentication, 6 O OCC, 191 off-the-shelf software (see software acquisition) Office Max, 50 online advertising advertisers as victims, 98–105 attacks on users, 89–98 CPA advertising, 102–103 CPC advertising, 100–101 CPM advertising, 100–103 creating accountability, 105 deceptive ads, 94–98 exploit-laden banner ads, 89–92 false impressions, 98–99 fighting fraud, 103–104 malvertisements, 92–94 special procurement challenges, 104 targeted, 250 online advertising, targeted, 249 online forums, 250 Open Security Foundation, 55 open source honeyclients, 133–135 Open Web Application Security Project (see OWASP) OpenID identity management, 154 OpenPGP standard/protocol background, 108 certification support, 111, 112 designated revokers, 122 direct trust, 109 exportable signatures, 125 extended introducers, 123 in-certificate preferences, 126 key support, 112 key-editing policies, 126 revoking certificates, 122 OpenSocial API, 159 operating systems, host logging, 232, 236 OptOut spyware removal tool, 251 Orange Book, 213 organizational culture, 200–202 outsourcing extending security initiative to, 190 trends in, 154 vulnerability research, 156 OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) background, 159 CLASP methodology, 187 Top 10 list, 187 P P2P (peer-to-peer) networks botnet communication, 66 honeyclient considerations, 146 packet sniffers, 92 packets handshake, 28 SQL Slammer worm, 227 Pakistani Flu virus, 248 PAN (Primary Account Number), 77 Panda Labs, 69 PAR (Payer Authentication Request), 77 PARAM tag, 94 passive sniffing, 9 passphrases, 29 password grinding, 28 password-cracking tools L0phtCrack example, 3–6 passphrases and, 29 passwords authentication security, 7 identity theft and, 24 NTLM authentication and, 6 PATHSERVER, 129 Payer Authentication Request (PAR), 77 Payment Card Industry (see PCI) INDEX 277 PayPal, 79 PCI (Payment Card Industry) Data Security Standard, 75, 82, 159, 211, 214, 237 protecting credit card data, 44 peer-to-peer networks (see P2P networks) PEM (Privacy Enhanced Mail), 117 perma-vendors, 156 Personally Identifiable Information (PII), 180 Pezzonavante honeyclient, 144 PGP (Pretty Good Privacy), 111 (see also Web of Trust) background, 107, 108, 116 backward compatibility issues, 117 Crypto Wars, 118 designated revokers, 122 encryption support, 107, 116–120 key validity, 108 patent and export problems, 117 source download, 116 trust models, 109–116 trust relationships, 108 PGP Corporation, 108 PGP Global Directory, 127 pharmware, 68 phishing 3-D Secure protocol, 77 as information source, 68 botnet support, 66 challenges detecting, 231 spam and, 70 specialization in, 249 PhoneyC website, 145 PII (Personally Identifiable Information), 180 Piper, Fred, 168 PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) authoritative keys, 123 defined, 111 DSG support, 203 revoking certificates, 120 SET considerations, 79 PlexLogic, 45 Plumb, Colin, 119 port scanning, 231 pragmatic security, 200, 209 Pre-Shared Key (PSK), 28 Pretty Good Privacy (see PGP) Price, Will, 127 Primary Account Number (PAN), 77 Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM), 117 proof-of-concept project, 191–193 Provos, Niels, 145 PSK (Pre-Shared Key), 28 psychological traps confirmation traps, 10–14 278 INDEX functional fixation, 14–20 learned helplessness, 2 public key cryptography cumulative trust systems, 111 key revocation, 121 PGP support, 107 RSA algorithm, 117 SET support, 78 steganographic applications, 245 validity, 108 Public Key Infrastructure (see PKI) Public Key Partners, 118 put options, 39 Q Qualys vulnerability management, 151 R Raduege, Harry, 201 Regular, Bob, 90 regulatory compliance (see legal considerations) Reiter, Mark, 129 Reliable Software Technologies, 171, 173 reputation economy, 167 resource dealers, 64 Return on Investment (ROI), 163, 205–207 Return on Security Investment (ROSI), 206 Returnil, 254, 255, 256, 257 revoking certificates, 120–122 RFC 1991, 108, 119 RFC 3156, 108 RFC 4880, 108 Right Media, 94 ROI (Return on Investment), 163, 205–207 root certificates defined, 109 direct trust, 110 rootkits example investigating, 220 Rustock.C, 252 specialization in, 249 ROSI (Return on Security Investment), 206 routers DDoS attacks on, 16 host logging, 232 watch lists, 231 Routh, Jim, 183–197 RSA Data Security Incorporated, 117 RSA public-key algorithm, 117 RSAREF library, 117 Rustock.C rootkit, 252 S Sabett, Randy V., 199–212 sandboxing functionality, 254 HIPS support, 253 need for new strategies, 248 Santa Fe Group, 44 Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), 80, 214 SCADA systems, 18 Schoen, Seth, 127 SDLC (see software development lifecycle) Second Life virtual world, 159 Secret Service Shadowcrew network and, 65 TJX security breach and, 50 Secunia, 156 Secure Electronic Transaction (see SET) security breaches attorney involvement in investigating, 211 Barings Bank, 38–49 California data privacy law, 203–205 cyber underground and, 63–72 databases and, 239 impact of, 208 logs in investigating, 218–221 public data sources, 59 tiger team responses, 210–211 TJX, 49–59 security certificates defined, 22 encryption and, 22, 24 fundamental flaw, 25 paying attention to, 26 wireless access points, 26, 27 Security Event Managers (SEMs), 153 security metrics (see metrics) Security Metrics Catalog project, 54 security traps (see psychological traps) SecurityFocus database, 132 SecurityMetrics.org, 54 SEI (Software Engineering Institute), 176 Seifert, Christian, 138, 145 self-signed certificates, 109 SEMs (Security Event Managers), 153 separation of duties, 39 September 11, 2001, 249 server applications, host logging, 232 Service Set Identifier (SSID), 52 service-oriented architecture (SOA), 150 SET (Secure Electronic Transaction) background, 78 evaluation of, 79 protections supported, 78 transaction process, 79 SHA256 hash algorithm, 241 Shadowcrew network, 65 short straddle trading strategy, 39, 40 signature harassment, 125 Sinclair, Upton, 149 Skinner, B.


pages: 403 words: 111,119

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

Fourth, publicly fund the set-up of community makerspaces – places where innovators can meet and experiment with shared use of 3D printers and essential tools for hardware construction. And lastly, encourage the spread of civic organisations – from cooperative societies and student groups to innovation clubs and neighbourhood associations – because their interconnections turn into the very nodes that bring such peer-to-peer networks alive. Going global Despite the importance of tackling national inequalities, global inequalities are still of great concern. Since 2000, global income inequality has narrowed slightly – largely thanks to poverty reduction in China – but the world as a whole still remains more unequal than any single country within it.85 And that extreme skew in global incomes helps to push humanity beyond both sides of the Doughnut.

., 6 micro-businesses, 9, 173, 178 microeconomics, 132–4 microgrids, 187–8 Micronesia, 153 Microsoft, 231 middle class, 6, 46, 58 middle-income countries, 90, 164, 168, 173, 180, 226, 254 migration, 82, 89–90, 166, 195, 199, 236, 266, 286 Milanovic, Branko, 171 Mill, John Stuart, 33–4, 73, 97, 250, 251, 283, 284, 288 Millo, Yuval, 101 minimum wage, 82, 88, 176 Minsky, Hyman, 87, 146 Mises, Ludwig von, 66 mission zero, 217 mobile banking, 199–200 mobile phones, 222 Model T revolution, 277–8 Moldova, 199 Mombasa, Kenya, 185–6 Mona Lisa (da Vinci), 94 money creation, 87, 164, 177, 182–8, 205 MONIAC (Monetary National Income Analogue Computer), 64–5, 75, 142, 262 Monoculture (Michaels), 6 Monopoly, 149 Mont Pelerin Society, 67, 93 Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, The (Friedman), 258 moral vacancy, 41 Morgan, Mary, 99 Morogoro, Tanzania, 121 Moyo, Dambisa, 258 Muirhead, Sam, 230, 231 MultiCapital Scorecard, 241 Murphy, David, 264 Murphy, Richard, 185 musical tastes, 110 Myriad Genetics, 196 N national basic income, 177 Native Americans, 115, 116, 282 natural capital, 7, 116, 269 Natural Economic Order, The (Gessel), 274 Nedbank, 216 negative externalities, 213 negative interest rates, 275–6 neoclassical economics, 134, 135 neoliberalism, 7, 62–3, 67–70, 81, 83, 84, 88, 93, 143, 170, 176 Nepal, 181, 199 Nestlé, 217 Netherlands, 211, 235, 224, 226, 238, 277 networks, 110–11, 117, 118, 123, 124–6, 174–6 neuroscience, 12–13 New Deal, 37 New Economics Foundation, 278, 283 New Year’s Day, 124 New York, United States, 9, 41, 55 Newlight Technologies, 224, 226, 293 Newton, Isaac, 13, 15–17, 32–3, 95, 97, 129, 131, 135–7, 142, 145, 162 Nicaragua, 196 Nigeria, 164 nitrogen, 49, 52, 212–13, 216, 218, 221, 226, 298 ‘no pain, no gain’, 163, 167, 173, 204, 209 Nobel Prize, 6–7, 43, 83, 101, 167 Norway, 281 nudging, 112, 113, 114, 123–6 O Obama, Barack, 41, 92 Oberlin, Ohio, 239, 240–41 Occupy movement, 40, 91 ocean acidification, 45, 46, 52, 155, 242, 298 Ohio, United States, 190, 239 Okun, Arthur, 37 onwards and upwards, 53 Open Building Institute, 196 Open Source Circular Economy (OSCE), 229–32 open systems, 74 open-source design, 158, 196–8, 265 open-source licensing, 204 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 38, 210, 255–6, 258 Origin of Species, The (Darwin), 14 Ormerod, Paul, 110, 111 Orr, David, 239 Ostrom, Elinor, 83, 84, 158, 160, 181–2 Ostry, Jonathan, 173 OSVehicle, 231 overseas development assistance (ODA), 198–200 ownership of wealth, 177–82 Oxfam, 9, 44 Oxford University, 1, 36 ozone layer, 9, 50, 115 P Pachamama, 54, 55 Pakistan, 124 Pareto, Vilfredo, 165–6, 175 Paris, France, 290 Park 20|20, Netherlands, 224, 226 Parker Brothers, 149 Patagonia, 56 patents, 195–6, 197, 204 patient capital, 235 Paypal, 192 Pearce, Joshua, 197, 203–4 peer-to-peer networks, 187, 192, 198, 203, 292 People’s QE, 184–5 Perseus, 244 Persia, 13 Peru, 2, 105–6 Phillips, Adam, 283 Phillips, William ‘Bill’, 64–6, 75, 142, 262 phosphorus, 49, 52, 212–13, 218, 298 Physiocrats, 73 Pickett, Kate, 171 pictures, 12–25 Piketty, Thomas, 169 Playfair, William, 16 Poincaré, Henri, 109, 127–8 Polanyi, Karl, 82, 272 political economy, 33–4, 42 political funding, 91–2, 171–2 political voice, 43, 45, 51–2, 77, 117 pollution, 29, 45, 52, 85, 143, 155, 206–17, 226, 238, 242, 254, 298 population, 5, 46, 57, 155, 199, 250, 252, 254 Portugal, 211 post-growth society, 250 poverty, 5, 9, 37, 41, 50, 88, 118, 148, 151 emotional, 283 and inequality, 164–5, 168–9, 178 and overseas development assistance (ODA), 198–200 and taxation, 277 power, 91–92 pre-analytic vision, 21–2 prescription medicines, 123 price-takers, 132 prices, 81, 118–23, 131, 160 Principles of Economics (Mankiw), 34 Principles of Economics (Marshall), 17, 98 Principles of Political Economy (Mill), 288 ProComposto, 226 Propaganda (Bernays), 107 public relations, 107, 281 public spending v. investment, 276 public–private patents, 195 Putnam, Robert, 76–7 Q quantitative easing (QE), 184–5 Quebec, 281 Quesnay, François, 16, 73 R Rabot, Ghent, 236 Rancière, Romain, 172 rating and review systems, 105 rational economic man, 94–103, 109, 111, 112, 126, 282 Reagan, Ronald, 67 reciprocity, 103–6, 117, 118, 123 reflexivity of markets, 144 reinforcing feedback loops, 138–41, 148, 250, 271 relative decoupling, 259 renewable energy biomass energy, 118, 221 and circular economy, 221, 224, 226, 235, 238–9, 274 and commons, 83, 85, 185, 187–8, 192, 203, 264 geothermal energy, 221 and green growth, 257, 260, 263, 264, 267 hydropower, 118, 260, 263 pricing, 118 solar energy, see solar energy wave energy, 221 wind energy, 75, 118, 196, 202–3, 221, 233, 239, 260, 263 rentier sector, 180, 183, 184 reregulation, 82, 87, 269 resource flows, 175 resource-intensive lifestyles, 46 Rethinking Economics, 289 Reynebeau, Guy, 237 Ricardo, David, 67, 68, 73, 89, 250 Richardson, Katherine, 53 Rifkin, Jeremy, 83, 264–5 Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, The (Kennedy), 279 risk, 112, 113–14 Robbins, Lionel, 34 Robinson, James, 86 Robinson, Joan, 142 robots, 191–5, 237, 258, 278 Rockefeller Foundation, 135 Rockford, Illinois, 179–80 Rockström, Johan, 48, 55 Roddick, Anita, 232–4 Rogoff, Kenneth, 271, 280 Roman Catholic Church, 15, 19 Rombo, Tanzania, 190 Rome, Ancient, 13, 48, 154 Romney, Mitt, 92 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 37 rooted membership, 190 Rostow, Walt, 248–50, 254, 257, 267–70, 284 Ruddick, Will, 185 rule of thumb, 113–14 Ruskin, John, 42, 223 Russia, 200 rust belt, 90, 239 S S curve, 251–6 Sainsbury’s, 56 Samuelson, Paul, 17–21, 24–5, 38, 62–7, 70, 74, 84, 91, 92, 93, 262, 290–91 Sandel, Michael, 41, 120–21 Sanergy, 226 sanitation, 5, 51, 59 Santa Fe, California, 213 Santinagar, West Bengal, 178 São Paolo, Brazil, 281 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 43 Saumweder, Philipp, 226 Scharmer, Otto, 115 Scholes, Myron, 100–101 Schumacher, Ernst Friedrich, 42, 142 Schumpeter, Joseph, 21 Schwartz, Shalom, 107–9 Schwarzenegger, Arnold, 163, 167, 204 ‘Science and Complexity’ (Weaver), 136 Scotland, 57 Seaman, David, 187 Seattle, Washington, 217 second machine age, 258 Second World War (1939–45), 18, 37, 70, 170 secular stagnation, 256 self-interest, 28, 68, 96–7, 99–100, 102–3 Selfish Society, The (Gerhardt), 283 Sen, Amartya, 43 Shakespeare, William, 61–3, 67, 93 shale gas, 264, 269 Shang Dynasty, 48 shareholders, 82, 88, 189, 191, 227, 234, 273, 292 sharing economy, 264 Sheraton Hotel, Boston, 3 Siegen, Germany, 290 Silicon Valley, 231 Simon, Julian, 70 Sinclair, Upton, 255 Sismondi, Jean, 42 slavery, 33, 77, 161 Slovenia, 177 Small Is Beautiful (Schumacher), 42 smart phones, 85 Smith, Adam, 33, 57, 67, 68, 73, 78–9, 81, 96–7, 103–4, 128, 133, 160, 181, 250 social capital, 76–7, 122, 125, 172 social contract, 120, 125 social foundation, 10, 11, 44, 45, 49, 51, 58, 77, 174, 200, 254, 295–6 social media, 83, 281 Social Progress Index, 280 social pyramid, 166 society, 76–7 solar energy, 59, 75, 111, 118, 187–8, 190 circular economy, 221, 222, 223, 224, 226–7, 239 commons, 203 zero-energy buildings, 217 zero-marginal-cost revolution, 84 Solow, Robert, 135, 150, 262–3 Soros, George, 144 South Africa, 56, 177, 214, 216 South Korea, 90, 168 South Sea Bubble (1720), 145 Soviet Union (1922–91), 37, 67, 161, 279 Spain, 211, 238, 256 Spirit Level, The (Wilkinson & Pickett), 171 Sraffa, Piero, 148 St Gallen, Switzerland, 186 Stages of Economic Growth, The (Rostow), 248–50, 254 stakeholder finance, 190 Standish, Russell, 147 state, 28, 33, 69–70, 78, 82, 160, 176, 180, 182–4, 188 and commons, 85, 93, 197, 237 and market, 84–6, 200, 281 partner state, 197, 237–9 and robots, 195 stationary state, 250 Steffen, Will, 46, 48 Sterman, John, 66, 143, 152–4 Steuart, James, 33 Stiglitz, Joseph, 43, 111, 196 stocks and flows, 138–41, 143, 144, 152 sub-prime mortgages, 141 Success to the Successful, 148, 149, 151, 166 Sugarscape, 150–51 Summers, Larry, 256 Sumner, Andy, 165 Sundrop Farms, 224–6 Sunstein, Cass, 112 supply and demand, 28, 132–6, 143, 253 supply chains, 10 Sweden, 6, 255, 275, 281 swishing, 264 Switzerland, 42, 66, 80, 131, 186–7, 275 T Tableau économique (Quesnay), 16 tabula rasa, 20, 25, 63, 291 takarangi, 54 Tanzania, 121, 190, 202 tar sands, 264, 269 taxation, 78, 111, 165, 170, 176, 177, 237–8, 276–9 annual wealth tax, 200 environment, 213–14, 215 global carbon tax, 201 global financial transactions tax, 201, 235 land-value tax, 73, 149, 180 non-renewable resources, 193, 237–8, 278–9 People’s QE, 185 tax relief v. tax justice, 23, 276–7 TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design), 202, 258 Tempest, The (Shakespeare), 61, 63, 93 Texas, United States, 120 Thailand, 90, 200 Thaler, Richard, 112 Thatcher, Margaret, 67, 69, 76 Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith), 96 Thompson, Edward Palmer, 180 3D printing, 83–4, 192, 198, 231, 264 thriving-in-balance, 54–7, 62 tiered pricing, 213–14 Tigray, Ethiopia, 226 time banking, 186 Titmuss, Richard, 118–19 Toffler, Alvin, 12, 80 Togo, 231, 292 Torekes, 236–7 Torras, Mariano, 209 Torvalds, Linus, 231 trade, 62, 68–9, 70, 89–90 trade unions, 82, 176, 189 trademarks, 195, 204 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 92 transport, 59 trickle-down economics, 111, 170 Triodos, 235 Turkey, 200 Tversky, Amos, 111 Twain, Mark, 178–9 U Uganda, 118, 125 Ulanowicz, Robert, 175 Ultimatum Game, 105, 117 unemployment, 36, 37, 276, 277–9 United Kingdom Big Bang (1986), 87 blood donation, 118 carbon dioxide emissions, 260 free trade, 90 global material footprints, 211 money creation, 182 MONIAC (Monetary National Income Analogue Computer), 64–5, 75, 142, 262 New Economics Foundation, 278, 283 poverty, 165, 166 prescription medicines, 123 wages, 188 United Nations, 55, 198, 204, 255, 258, 279 G77 bloc, 55 Human Development Index, 9, 279 Sustainable Development Goals, 24, 45 United States American Economic Association meeting (2015), 3 blood donation, 118 carbon dioxide emissions, 260 Congress, 36 Council of Economic Advisers, 6, 37 Earning by Learning, 120 Econ 101 course, 8, 77 Exxon Valdez oil spill (1989), 9 Federal Reserve, 87, 145, 146, 271, 282 free trade, 90 Glass–Steagall Act (1933), 87 greenhouse gas emissions, 153 global material footprint, 211 gross national product (GNP), 36–40 inequality, 170, 171 land-value tax, 73, 149, 180 political funding, 91–2, 171 poverty, 165, 166 productivity and employment, 193 rust belt, 90, 239 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 92 wages, 188 universal basic income, 200 University of Berkeley, 116 University of Denver, 160 urbanisation, 58–9 utility, 35, 98, 133 V values, 6, 23, 34, 35, 42, 117, 118, 121, 123–6 altruism, 100, 104 anthropocentric, 115 extrinsic, 115 fluid, 28, 102, 106–9 and networks, 110–11, 117, 118, 123, 124–6 and nudging, 112, 113, 114, 123–6 and pricing, 81, 120–23 Veblen, Thorstein, 82, 109, 111, 142 Venice, 195 verbal framing, 23 Verhulst, Pierre, 252 Victor, Peter, 270 Viner, Jacob, 34 virtuous cycles, 138, 148 visual framing, 23 Vitruvian Man, 13–14 Volkswagen, 215–16 W Wacharia, John, 186 Wall Street, 149, 234, 273 Wallich, Henry, 282 Walras, Léon, 131, 132, 133–4, 137 Ward, Barbara, 53 Warr, Benjamin, 263 water, 5, 9, 45, 46, 51, 54, 59, 79, 213–14 wave energy, 221 Ways of Seeing (Berger), 12, 281 Wealth of Nations, The (Smith), 74, 78, 96, 104 wealth ownership, 177–82 Weaver, Warren, 135–6 weightless economy, 261–2 WEIRD (Western, educated, industrialised, rich, democratic), 103–5, 110, 112, 115, 117, 282 West Bengal, India, 124, 178 West, Darrell, 171–2 wetlands, 7 whale hunting, 106 Wiedmann, Tommy, 210 Wikipedia, 82, 223 Wilkinson, Richard, 171 win–win trade, 62, 68, 89 wind energy, 75, 118, 196, 202–3, 221, 233, 239, 260, 263 Wizard of Oz, The, 241 Woelab, 231, 293 Wolf, Martin, 183, 266 women’s rights, 33, 57, 107, 160, 201 and core economy, 69, 79–81 education, 57, 124, 178, 198 and land ownership, 178 see also gender equality workers’ rights, 88, 91, 269 World 3 model, 154–5 World Bank, 6, 41, 119, 164, 168, 171, 206, 255, 258 World No Tobacco Day, 124 World Trade Organization, 6, 89 worldview, 22, 54, 115 X xenophobia, 266, 277, 286 Xenophon, 4, 32, 56–7, 160 Y Yandle, Bruce, 208 Yang, Yuan, 1–3, 289–90 yin yang, 54 Yousafzai, Malala, 124 YouTube, 192 Yunnan, China, 56 Z Zambia, 10 Zanzibar, 9 Zara, 276 Zeitvorsoge, 186–7 zero environmental impact, 217–18, 238, 241 zero-hour contracts, 88 zero-humans-required production, 192 zero-interest loans, 183 zero-marginal-cost revolution, 84, 191, 264 zero-waste manufacturing, 227 Zinn, Howard, 77 PICTURE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Illustrations are reproduced by kind permission of: archive.org


Practical Packet Analysis: Using Wireshark to Solve Real-World Network Problems by Chris Sanders

Debian, peer-to-peer, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment

Figure 8-35. Looking at the port number is a good way to identify the type of traffic. A quick search for this port number at http://www.iana.org will list the services associated with this port. Summary The Gnutella network is commonly used for the downloading and distribution of various file types. This idea may sound great at first, but unfortunately, it has resulted in a large peer-to-peer network of pornography as well as pirated software, movies, and music. In this scenario, it seems that Tina, or someone using Tina's computer, has installed some form of Gnutella client in order to download pornographic material. Final Thoughts If you look at way each of these scenarios was resolved, you will notice that most of the problems were not actually network related. This is pretty common when it comes to complaints about a slow network.


pages: 247 words: 43,430

Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey

Benoit Mandelbrot, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Guggenheim Bilbao, Laplace demon, mandelbrot fractal, Occupy movement, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, sorting algorithm, stochastic process, strong AI, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%

A New Kind of Engineering I have been talking about complex systems in the context of science, but complexity is also a cause, and effect, of changes in engineering and the organization of social systems. Centralized decentralized Centralized systems are conceptually simple and easier to analyze, but decentralized systems can be more robust. For example, on the World Wide Web, clients send requests to centralized servers; if the servers are down, the service is unavailable. In peer-to-peer networks, every node is both a client and a server. To take down the service, you have to take down every node. Isolation interaction In classical engineering, the complexity of large systems is managed by isolating components and minimizing interactions. This is still an important engineering principle; nevertheless, the availability of cheap computation makes it increasingly feasible to design systems with complex interactions between components.


pages: 280 words: 82,355

Extreme Teams: Why Pixar, Netflix, AirBnB, and Other Cutting-Edge Companies Succeed Where Most Fail by Robert Bruce Shaw, James Foster, Brilliance Audio

Airbnb, augmented reality, call centre, cloud computing, deliberate practice, Elon Musk, future of work, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Jony Ive, loose coupling, meta analysis, meta-analysis, nuclear winter, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh

The CEO of Airbnb, for example, wants people to consider what a competitor might do to undermine or even kill his firm’s business model.29 That is, he wants his people to actively envision products or services that would render Airbnb’s business model obsolete. The goal is to ensure that Airbnb innovates faster than the competition and, in so doing, prevents others from doing what Airbnb is now doing to traditional hotels with its peer-to-peer model. Airbnb is constantly testing new ideas within its current model, such as hosts picking up their guests at the airport or providing them with walking tours and other experiences (for example, dinners or cultural events). It has also considered other areas in the “sharing economy” outside of its current business. The problem, of course, is that firms invest in a particular operating model and, especially if successful, are slow to recognize when that model is at risk.

CHAPTER 7 TEAMS AT THE EXTREMES Without Adventure, Teams Slowly Decay1 It’s no accident that the companies profiled in this book were all founded by extraordinary entrepreneurs.2 Their businesses were built on innovative ideas that overturned the existing order of things within their industries. Netflix is disrupting the media industry through its streaming service. Airbnb is disrupting the hospitality industry through its peer-to-peer model. Alibaba is disrupting the way business is done in China through its e-commerce sites. The leaders of these firms, however, realize that their long-term success requires more than groundbreaking products and services. They need their companies, as companies, to be equally innovative—workplaces that are challenging commonly accepted ways of operating. They understand that their legacies will be based not on the products they create but on their ability to build creative and agile organizations that endure over time.


pages: 165 words: 50,798

Intertwingled: Information Changes Everything by Peter Morville

A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business process, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, disruptive innovation, index card, information retrieval, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Lean Startup, Lyft, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, Nelson Mandela, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, source of truth, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

It’s hard to hold these truths to be self-evident in a ship of state that’s listing dangerously from democracy to capitalism to oligarchy. Ben Franklin stated in 1776 that “we must all hang together, or assuredly we shall all hang separately,” but what our culture says today is “every man for himself.” For a moment, the Internet was our hope. We thought we were building an information commons, a shared peer-to-peer network created by and accessible to all. But this place made of information became subject to the process of enclosure. Like our fields and forests and universities and hospitals, it was corporatized and commodified. Donella Meadows was right about technology. In the long run, it reflects and reinforces the dominant culture. No tail can wag the dog for long. In contrast, the free public library has managed to endure.


pages: 196 words: 54,339

Team Human by Douglas Rushkoff

1960s counterculture, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, disintermediation, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, game design, gig economy, Google bus, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, invisible hand, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, life extension, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, new economy, patient HM, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, theory of mind, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, universal basic income, Vannevar Bush, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

The Renaissance retrieved those ideals through its monarchies, economics, colonialism, and applied science. So what values can be retrieved by our renaissance? The values that were lost or repressed during the last one: environmentalism, women’s rights, peer-to-peer economics, and localism. The over-rationalized, alienating approach to science is now joined by the newly retrieved approaches of holism and connectedness. We see peer-to-peer networks and crowdfunding replacing the top-down patronage of the Renaissance, retrieving a spirit of mutual aid and community. Even the styles and culture around this activity, from Burning Man and craft beer to piercing and herbal potions, retrieve the human-scaled, medieval sensibilities repressed by the Renaissance. A renaissance does not mean a return to the past. We don’t go back to the Middle Ages, bloodletting, feudalism, or sword fights in the street.


pages: 562 words: 146,544

Daemon by Daniel Suarez

Berlin Wall, Burning Man, call centre, digital map, disruptive innovation, double helix, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, high net worth, invisible hand, McMansion, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RFID, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, web application

Chapter 28:// Ripples on the Surface Natalie Philips paced with a laser pointer at the edge of a projection screen. The Mahogany Row conference room was dimly lit, and silhouettes of her audience were arrayed around a sizeable boardroom table. Military badges on the uniforms of some audience members reflected the light from the screen. Her title presentation slide was up: Viability of Daemon Construct Over Peer-to-Peer Networks She was already addressing the group. “…the feasibility of a narrow AI scripting application distributed over a peer-to-peer network architecture to avoid core logic disruption.” She clicked to the next slide. It bore the simple words: Distributed Daemon Viable A murmur went through her audience. “Our unequivocal findings are that a distributed daemon is not merely a potential threat but an inevitable one, given the standards unifying extant networked systems.


pages: 218 words: 44,364

The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations by Ori Brafman, Rod A. Beckstrom

Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Burning Man, creative destruction, disintermediation, experimental economics, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, jimmy wales, Kibera, Lao Tzu, Network effects, peer-to-peer, pez dispenser, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, The Wisdom of Crowds, union organizing

In the music industry, for example, could the labels have predicted that the sweet spot was about to shift so suddenly and dramatically? The answer turns out to be a surprising yes—if only they had asked the right questions. The record labels had long known that people like to copy music. More broadly, we have a natural human tendency to share information. That's why keeping government and corporate secrets is so difficult—people are apt to gab. Once the peer-to-peer technology was out there, the writing was on the wall. THE STARFISH AND THE SPIDER People's propensity to share music is precisely why the labels have fought for antipiracy laws and tried to block new technologies, like the CD burner, that make copying music easier. For a while, these measures sorta kinda worked. Yeah, people burned CDs for friends, but the amount of piracy was fairly contained.


pages: 187 words: 62,861

The Penguin and the Leviathan: How Cooperation Triumphs Over Self-Interest by Yochai Benkler

business process, California gold rush, citizen journalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, East Village, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental economics, experimental subject, framing effect, informal economy, invisible hand, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, Murray Gell-Mann, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, Toyota Production System, twin studies, ultimatum game, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Magnatune is an online label that sells music of many artists, in each case releasing the music in a perfect digital format that users can copy flawlessly. They also release the music under a Creative Commons license that makes it perfectly legal for the fans to make as many copies as they wish. In other words, when a fan buys music from Magnatune, the fan can legally and easily make millions of copies and blanket them across peer-to-peer networks. And yet they don’t. After scouring the records from more than 75,000 transactions on the site, we found that although users were invited to pay between $5 and $18, at their discretion (in increments of 50 cents), 48 percent of users paid $8 per album, well within a range of what the industry would be thrilled to establish as standard practice for consumers. Even more incredible, only 15 percent paid the minimum (without copying from a friend) of $5 and another 15 percent paid as much as $10.


pages: 237 words: 67,154

Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet by Trebor Scholz, Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, capital controls, citizen journalism, collaborative economy, collaborative editing, collective bargaining, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, deskilling, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, minimum viable product, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer, post-work, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, SETI@home, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Zipcar

The blockchain has more in common with the neoliberal governmentality that produces platform capitalists like Amazon and Uber and state-market coalitions than any radical alternative. Seen in this light, the call for blockchains forms part of a line of informational and administrative technologies such as punch cards, electronic ledgers, and automated record keeping systems that work to administrate populations and to make politics disappear. ASSUMPTION #2: THE TECHNICAL CAN INSTANTIATE NEW SOCIAL OR POLITICAL PROCESSES Like a lot of peer-to-peer networks, blockchain applications conflate a technical architecture with a social or political mode of organization. We can see this kind of ideology at work when the CEO of Bitcoin Indonesia argues, “In its purest form, blockchain is democracy.” From this perspective, what makes Uber Uber and La’Zooz La’Zooz comes down to technical differences at the level of topology and protocol. If only we can design the right technical system, in other words, the right kind of society is not too far behind.


pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Beyond the Sharing Economy, there are many examples, some of which we saw in Chapter 7: Lawrence Lessig’s idea of the “hybrid economy” 1 relies on amateurs and professionals working side by side, often on for-profit platforms; Social Enterprises are organizations that apply commercial strategies to maximize improvements in human and environmental well-being; Benefit Corporations such as Etsy, the online craft trading marketplace, are firms “that want to consider society and the environment in addition to profit in their decision making process.” The related idea of social entrepreneurship uses markets to scale up efforts to create social good. Groups such as Markets for Good (a wing of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation) and Google.org, the charitable arm of Google, put these ideas into practice. Steven Berlin Johnson’s idea of “peer progressives” was mentioned in Chapter 1. It highlights both for-profit and not-for-profit peer-to-peer networks as a framework for solving social problems, and seeks to position digital platforms and their communities for social good.2 Pierre Omidyar is one of the most vocal proponents of the social enterprise model. Omidyar founded eBay, one of the direct ancestors of the Sharing Economy. EBay took what was a neighborhood activity (the yard sale) and scaled it up by putting it on the Internet, with massive success.


Engineering Security by Peter Gutmann

active measures, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, bank run, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, business process, call centre, card file, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Davies, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, fault tolerance, Firefox, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, GnuPG, Google Chrome, iterative process, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Laplace demon, linear programming, litecoin, load shedding, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Network effects, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, post-materialism, QR code, race to the bottom, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, semantic web, Skype, slashdot, smart meter, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, telemarketer, text mining, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, Therac-25, too big to fail, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, web application, web of trust, x509 certificate, Y2K, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

If the hash matches then the client knows that it’s talking to the server given in the URL and not a man-in-the-middle or a fake server that’s been substituted through DNS spoofing or some other type of attack. No PKI of any kind is necessary. The advantage of these self-authenticating bindings is that they’re fully compatible with older applications, which can still use the URL, just with weaker security guarantees. A similar sort of mechanism is used in the distributed hash tables (DHTs) that are typically used in peer-to-peer networks, where the cryptographic hash of a data item is used to uniquely identify it, creating self-certifying named objects [606]. The hashing that’s used for DHTs can be applied both forwards (“get me the data item identified by this hash”) and in reverse (“does the returned data item correspond to this hash”) [607], and as with self-authenticating URLs the problem of secure distribution of content is reduced to the far simpler problem of secure distribution of hashes.

id=377245. [574] “Metalink 3.0 Specification (Second Edition)”, Anthony Bryan, 7 July 2007, http://www.metalinker.org/Metalink_3.0_Spec.pdf. [575] “The Metalink Download Description Format”, RFC 5854, Anthony Bryan, Tatsuhiro Tsujikawa, Neil McNab and Peter Poeml, June 2010. [576] “Metalink/HTTP: Mirrors and Hashes”, RFC 6249, Anthony Bryan, Tatsuhiro Tsujikawa, Neil McNab and Peter Poeml, June 2011. [577] “Bringing Tahoe ideas to HTTP”, Brian Warner, posting to the cryptography@metzdowd.com mailing list, message-ID 4A970144.8020709@lothar.com, 27 August 2009. [578] “Child-proof authentication for MIPv6 (CAM)”, Greg O’Shea and Michael Roe, Computer Communications Review, Vol.31, No.2 (April 2001), p.4. [579] “Statistically Unique and Cryptographically Verifiable (SUCV) Identifiers and Addresses”, Gabriel Montenegro and Claude Castelluccia, Proceedings of the 9th Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS’02), February 2002, http://www.isoc.org/isoc/conferences/ndss/02/proceedings/papers/monten.pdf. [580] “Securing IPv6 neighbor discovery and router discovery”, Jari Arkko, Tuomas Aura, James Kempf, Vesa-Matti Mäntylä, Pekka Nikander and Michael Roe, Proceedings of the Workshop on Wireless Security (WiSe’02), September 2002, p.77. [581] “Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)”, Tuomas Aura, Proceedings of the 6th Information Security Conference (ISC’03), October 2003, p.29. [582] “Crypto-Based Identifiers (CBIDs): Concepts and Applications”, Gabriel Montenegro and Claude Castelluccia, Transactions on Information and System Security, Vol.7, No.1 (February 2004), p.97. [583] “Cryptographically Generated Addresses for Constrained Devices”, Claude Castelluccia, Wireless Personal Communications, Vol.29, No.3-4 (June 2004), p.221. [584] “SEcure Neighbor Discovery (SEND)”, RFC 3971, Jari Arkko, James Kempf, Brian Zill and Pekka Nikander, March 2005. [585] “Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)”, RFC 3972, Tuomas Aura, March 2005. [586] “An improved address ownership in mobile IPv6”, Min-Shiang Hwang, Cheng-Chi Lee and Song-Kong Chong, Computer Communications, Vol.31, No.14 (5 September 2008), p.3250. [587] “Analysis and Optimisation of Cryptographically Generated Addresses”, Joppe Bos, Onur Özen and Jean-Pierre Hubaux, Proceedings of the 12th Information Security Conference (ISC’09), Springer-Verlag LNCS No.5735, September 2009, p.17. [588] “Not One Click for Security”, Alan Karp, Marc Stiegler and Tyler Close, Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS’09), July 2009, Paper 19. [589] “An IPv6 Prefix for Overlay Routable Cryptographic Hash Identifiers (ORCHID)”, RFC 4843, Pekka Nikander, Julien Laganier and Francis Dupont, April 2007. [590] “Peer Name Resolution Protocol”, Microsoft Corporation, 27 September 2006, http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb726971.aspx. [591] “Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Architecture”, Robert Moskowitz and Pekka Nikander, RFC 4423, May 2006. [592] “Host Identity Protocol”, Robert Moskowitz, Pekka Nikander, Petri Jokela and Thomas Henderson, RFC 5201, April 2008. [593] “Using the Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) Transport Format with the Host Identity Protocol (HIP)”, Petri Jokela, Robert Moskowitz and Pekka Nikander, RFC 5202, April 2008. 438 Design [594] “Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Registration Extension”, Julien Laganier, Teemu Koponen and Lars Eggert, RFC 5203, April 2008. [595] “Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Rendezvous Extension”, Julien Laganier and Lars Eggert, RFC 5204, April 2008. [596] “Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Domain Name System (DNS) Extension”, Pekka Nikander and Julien Laganier, RFC 5205, April 2008. [597] “End-Host Mobility and Multihoming with the Host Identity Protocol”, Pekka Nikander, Thomas Henderson, Christian Vogt and Jari Arkko, RFC 5206, April 2008. [598] “NAT and Firewall Traversal Issues of Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Communication”, Martin Stiemerling, Juergen Quittek and Lars Eggert, RFC 5207, April 2008. [599] “Using the Host Identity Protocol with Legacy Applications”, Thomas Henderson, Pekka Nikander and Miika Komu, RFC 5338, September 2008. [600] “Basic Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Extensions for Traversal of Network Address Translators”, Miika Komu, Thomas Henderson, Hannes Tschofenig, Jan Melen and Ari Keranen, RFC 5770, April 2010. [601] “Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Multi-Hop Routing Extension”, Gonzalo Camarillo and Ari Keranen, RFC 6028, October 2010. [602] “Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Immediate Carriage and Conveyance of UpperLayer Protocol Signaling (HICCUPS)”, Gonzalo Camarillo and Jan Melen, RFC 6078, January 2011. [603] “HIP BONE: Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Based Overlay Networking Environment (BONE)”, Gonzalo Camarillo, Pekka Nikander, Jani Hautakorpi, Ari Keranen and Alan Johnston, RFC 6079, January 2011. [604] “Host Identity Protocol (hip)”, 2011, http://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/hip/. [605] “Host Identity Protocol Research Group (HIPRG)”, 2011, http://www.irtf.org/hiprg. [606] “Peer-to-Peer Systems”, Rodrigo Rodrigues and Peter Druschel, Communications of the ACM, Vol.53, No.10 (October 2010), p.72. [607] “Pollution in P2P File Sharing Systems”, Jian Liang, Rakesh Kumar, Yongjian Xi and Keith Ross, Proceedings of the 24th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM’05), March 2005, p.1174. [608] “A Survey of Peer-to-Peer Security Issues”, Dan Wallach, Proceedings of the 2002 International Symposium on Software Security (ISSS’02), SpringerVerlag LNCS No.2609, November 2002, p.42. [609] “Eclipse Attacks on Overlay Networks: Threats and Defenses”, Atul Singh, Tsuen-Wan Ngan, Peter Druschel and Dan Wallach, Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM’06), April 2006, [610] “The Index Poisoning Attack in P2P File Sharing Systems”, Jian Liang, Naoum Naoumov and Keith Ross, Proceedings of the 25th Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM’06), April 2006, p.1737. [611] “Exploiting KAD: Possible Uses and Misuses”, Moritz Steiner, Taoufik EnNajjary and Ernst Biersack, Computer Communication Review, Vol.37, No.5 (October 2007), p.65. [612] “Conducting and Optimizing Eclipse Attacks in the Kad Peer-to-Peer Network”, Michael Kohnen, Mike Leske and Erwin Rathgeb, Proceedings of the 8th IFIP-TC 6 Networking Conference (Networking’09), Springer-Verlag LNCS No.5550, May 2009, p.104. [613] “Combating Index Poisoning in P2P File Sharing”, Lingli Deng, Yeping He and Ziyao Xu, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference and Workshops on Advances in Information Security and Assurance (ISA’09), Springer-Verlag LNCS No.5576, June 2009, p.358. [614] “Hashing it out in public: Common failure modes of DHT-based anonymity schemes”, Andrew Tran, Nicholas Hopper and Yongdae Kim, Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society (WPES’09), November 2009, p.71.

In addition there are various other pieces of special-case processing added in order to allow code signing and the revocation of signed code to work, for example boot subsystems can’t rely on revocation checking because offline information like a CRL may not be present and there’s no network available early in the boot phase. This functionality is quite contrary to conventional PKI dogma, but that’s because the code signing mechanism was designed to fit a particular purpose while generalpurpose PKI was designed for… well, it must have been designed for something. What this is in effect doing is layering custom security controls on top of the generalpurpose PKI, in the same way that an overlay network like a peer-to-peer network adds additional functionality on top of the existing Internet protocols. So don’t be afraid to overlay your own functionality on top of the basic X.509 facilities, assuming that you have sufficient control over the implementation to make it do what you need. This approach leverages existing investment in PKI software while providing add-on capabilities that provides the services and functionality that you need.


pages: 144 words: 43,356

Surviving AI: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence by Calum Chace

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, discovery of the americas, disintermediation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, hedonic treadmill, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, life extension, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Wall-E, zero-sum game

Its market capitalisation is about $800 million, one-sixth that of GoPro, a maker of (digital) cameras for extreme sports that was founded in 2002. Peer-to-peer A new business model which is generating a lot of column inches for the idea of digital disruption is peer-to-peer commerce, the leading practitioners of which are AirBnB and Uber. Both were founded in San Francisco, of course – in 2008 and 2009 respectively. The level of investor enthusiasm for the peer-to-peer model is demonstrated by comparing AirBnB’s market cap of $20bn in March 2015 with Hyatt’s market cap of $8.4bn. Hyatt has over 500 hotels around the world and revenues of $4bn. AirBnB, with 13 members of staff, owns no hotels and its revenues in March 2015 were around $250m. Uber’s rise has been even more dramatic: its market cap reached $50bn in May 2015. This sort of growth is unsettling for competitors.


pages: 612 words: 187,431

The Art of UNIX Programming by Eric S. Raymond

A Pattern Language, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Clayton Christensen, combinatorial explosion, commoditize, correlation coefficient, David Brooks, Debian, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, Everything should be made as simple as possible, facts on the ground, finite state, general-purpose programming language, George Santayana, Innovator's Dilemma, job automation, Larry Wall, MVC pattern, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, premature optimization, pre–internet, publish or perish, revision control, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Steven Levy, transaction costs, Turing complete, Valgrind, wage slave, web application

The trend toward client operating systems was so intense that server operating systems were at times dismissed as steam-powered relics of a bygone age. But as the designers of BeOS noticed, the requirements of pervasive networking cannot be met without implementing something very close to general-purpose timesharing. Single-user client operating systems cannot thrive in an Internetted world. This problem drove the reconvergence of client and server operating systems. The first, pre-Internet attempts at peer-to-peer networking over LANs, in the late 1980s, began to expose the inadequacy of the client-OS design model. Data on a network has to have rendezvous points in order to be shared; thus, we can't do without servers. At the same time, experience with the Macintosh and Windows client operating systems raised the bar on the minimum quality of user experience customers would tolerate. With non-Unix models for timesharing effectively dead by 1990, there were not many possible responses client operating-system designers could mount to this challenge.

Incomplete library implementations (especially older JDK 1.1 versions that don't support the newer JDK 1.2) can be an issue. Java's best side is that it comes close enough to achieving write-once-run-anywhere to be useful as an OS-independent environment of its own. Its worst side is that the Java 1/Java 2 split compromises that goal in deeply frustrating ways. Case Study: FreeNet Freenet is a peer-to-peer networking project that is intended to make censorship and content suppression impossible.[127] Freenet developers envision the following applications: Uncensorable dissemination of controversial information: Freenet protects freedom of speech by enabling anonymous and uncensorable publication of material ranging from grassroots alternative journalism to banned exposés. Efficient distribution of high-bandwidth content: Freenet's adaptive caching and mirroring is being used to distribute Debian Linux software updates.


pages: 246 words: 70,404

Come and Take It: The Gun Printer's Guide to Thinking Free by Cody Wilson

3D printing, 4chan, active measures, Airbnb, airport security, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, assortative mating, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, disintermediation, fiat currency, Google Glasses, gun show loophole, jimmy wales, lifelogging, Mason jar, means of production, Menlo Park, Minecraft, national security letter, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Skype, thinkpad, WikiLeaks, working poor

“Exactly,” I said, losing the word on my breath. “And in the event the states move in for some final shutdown, only then do they release the password. The copies were already distributed. The damage sits waiting to be done. Maybe the files had been seeded for months, maybe years. You can’t pull them all down. The threat is credible because everyone has a computer. Every computer is always already on the Internet.” “Peer-to-peer technology gives you leverage, sure. So, what are you saying?” “What I’m saying is you can leak more than emails and cables. There are new machines—networked, material printers. They use complex and evolving materials. Into this budding universe of digital production . . . you leak a gun.” I liked to watch the realization come to people in stages. It had been no different with Chris. Except on this night he made a conceptual leap.


Raw Data Is an Oxymoron by Lisa Gitelman

23andMe, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Filter Bubble, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, index card, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Louis Daguerre, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, social graph, software studies, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, text mining, time value of money, trade route, Turing machine, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

So, too, the scale and complexity of the data structures at issue—“petabytes”—is such that they cannot be processed by human intelligence alone but rather require machine intelligence in the form of database management systems and algorithms that structure data collection. Combating or otherwise responding to a control system dependent on computing power requires the design of a counter-system, a rather modest example of which is Diaspora, an open-source, privacy-aware, distributed do-it-yourself social network that eliminates the hub of a social media conglomerate in favor of a peer-to-peer network in which each individual is a node.53 Without a hub or central server, data encrypted with GNU Privacy Guard is sent directly to one’s friends rather than stored and hence mined. True peer-to-peer communication—that is, that which is not routed through a central hub—would need to move to a network such as Diaspora because the controlled application programming interface (API) of social networks such as Facebook means that Dataveillance and Countervailance hacking a hub-based network in order to convert it to peer-to-peer is difficult if not impossible.


pages: 254 words: 76,064

Whiplash: How to Survive Our Faster Future by Joi Ito, Jeff Howe

3D printing, Albert Michelson, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, buy low sell high, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, fiat currency, financial innovation, Flash crash, frictionless, game design, Gerolamo Cardano, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, microbiome, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Singularitarianism, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, universal basic income, unpaid internship, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks

So it is one of our age’s more baffling mysteries that the man—or woman, or group of men and women—behind the biggest financial innovation since the ATM remains stubbornly, sincerely anonymous. It started on November 1, 2008, when someone calling himself Satoshi Nakamoto posted “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” to a cryptography mailing list.20 In his introduction, he wrote, “I’ve been working on a new electronic cash system that’s fully peer-to-peer, with no trusted third party.… The main properties: Double-spending is prevented with a peer-to-peer network. No mint or other trusted parties. Participants can be anonymous. New coins are made from Hashcash style proof-of-work. The proof-of-work for new coin generation also powers the network to prevent double-spending.” Unless you’re a cryptographer, much of that may fly well over your head. So let’s bring it down to ground level. To begin with, Bitcoin, unlike so many other technological innovations, deserves the hype.


pages: 243 words: 76,686

How to Do Nothing by Jenny Odell

Airbnb, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Burning Man, collective bargaining, Donald Trump, Filter Bubble, full employment, gig economy, Google Earth, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kickstarter, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, means of production, Minecraft, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Port of Oakland, Results Only Work Environment, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, source of truth, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, union organizing, white flight, Works Progress Administration

As Oliver Leistert puts it in “The Revolution Will Not Be Liked,” for social media companies, “the public sphere is an historically elapsed phase from the twentieth century they now exploit for their own interests by simulating it.”16 * * * — WRITING IN THE ATLANTIC about a nascent decentralized network called Scuttlebutt, Ian Bogost gives us an image for this absurd situation: “Facebook and Twitter are only like water coolers if there were one, giant, global water cooler for all workplaces everywhere.”17 Dissatisfaction with this standard-issue water cooler has fueled the movement toward a decentralized web, which instead of private companies and servers makes use of peer-to-peer networks and open-source software. The goal is not only for users to own their own data, but to shift that data and software closer to their end points of use. Mastodon, for example, is a federated social network of “instances,” each using free software on a community-run server whose users can nonetheless communicate with those in other instances. As its creators point out, Mastodon can never go bankrupt, be sold, or be blocked by governments, because it consists of little other than open-source software.


pages: 290 words: 72,046

5 Day Weekend: Freedom to Make Your Life and Work Rich With Purpose by Nik Halik, Garrett B. Gunderson

Airbnb, bitcoin, Buckminster Fuller, business process, clean water, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, delayed gratification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, estate planning, Ethereum, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial independence, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Home mortgage interest deduction, Isaac Newton, litecoin, Lyft, market fundamentalism, microcredit, minimum viable product, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Nelson Mandela, passive income, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, side project, Skype, TaskRabbit, traveling salesman, uber lyft

You can use these platforms to market your own services, from home repairs to iPhone repairs. DogVacay DogVacay connects dog owners with hosts who will take care of their dogs while they are away. Love dogs? Become a host and earn some money doing something you love. Spinlister Spinlister allows you to rent things such as bikes, surfboards, canoes, or snowboards to or from neighbors. Lending Club Lending Club is a peer-to-peer network for lending and borrowing cash. It’s cheaper than credit cards for borrowers and provides better interest rates than savings accounts for investors. Online Opportunities There’s no shortage of people promoting ways to make money online. Much of it is garbage, some of it is legitimate. Regardless of the scams and frivolous BS, the internet gives everyone unprecedented opportunity.


pages: 273 words: 72,024

Bitcoin for the Befuddled by Conrad Barski

Airbnb, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buttonwood tree, cryptocurrency, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Isaac Newton, MITM: man-in-the-middle, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, node package manager, p-value, peer-to-peer, price discovery process, QR code, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, SETI@home, software as a service, the payments system, Yogi Berra

However, since those days, many new Internet-based applications have started using a peer-to-peer architecture. In this decentralized model, a software application finds other “like-minded” peer applications on the Internet and connects with these peers to operate the application. Early applications that used this approach include BitTorrent (for movie downloading) and Gnutella (for music discovery/downloading). Bitcoin also uses a peer-to-peer network in its design. Peer-to-peer systems have many advantages over traditional client-server systems, including improved durability and performance. Because of these advantages, it is likely that these systems will become increasingly ubiquitous. One benefit of using peer-to-peer systems over traditional architectures is their indestructibility: As long as a peer-to-peer app user can find other peers to connect to, the network will continue to exist, and it can do so without any central point of failure.


pages: 721 words: 197,134

Data Mining: Concepts, Models, Methods, and Algorithms by Mehmed Kantardzić

Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, butter production in bangladesh, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, data acquisition, discrete time, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, finite state, Gini coefficient, information retrieval, Internet Archive, inventory management, iterative process, knowledge worker, linked data, loose coupling, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, NP-complete, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, phenotype, random walk, RFID, semantic web, speech recognition, statistical model, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, text mining, traveling salesman, web application

Intelligent Machines http://www.damienfrancois.be/blog/ This blog is dedicated to artificial intelligence and machine learning, and focuses on applications in business, science and every-day life. 10. Mininglabs http://www.mininglabs.com/ This blog is established by a group of French independent researchers in the field of data mining, analyzing and data visualization. They are mostly interested in analyzing data coming from the internet at large (Web, peer-to-peer networks). 11. Machine Learning (Theory) http://hunch.net/ A blog dedicated to the various aspects of machine learning theory and applications. A.4 DATA SETS This section describes a number of freely available data sets ready for use in data-mining algorithms. We selected a few examples for students who are starting to learn data mining and they would like to practice traditional data-mining tasks.

., D. Talia, P. Trunfio, Service-Oriented Middleware for Distributed Data Mining on the Grid, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2008, pp. 3–15. Copp, C., Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Techniques, Defence Today, NCW 101, 2008, http://www.ausairpower.net/NCW-101-17.pdf. Datta, S., K. Bhaduri, C. Giannella, R. Wolff, H. Kargupta, Distributed Data Mining in Peer-to-Peer Networks, IEEE Internet Computing, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2006, pp. 18–26. Ester, M., H.-P. Kriegel, J. Sander, Spatial Data Mining: A Database Approach, Proceedings of 5th International Symposium on Advances in Spatial Databases, 1997, pp. 47–66. Faloutsos, C., Mining Time Series Data, Tutorial ICML 2003, Washington, DC, August 2003. Fuchs, E., T. Gruber, J. Nitschke, B. Sick, On-Line Motif Detection in Time Series with Swift Motif, Pattern Recognition, Vol. 42, 2009, pp. 3015–3031.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

When he downloaded the popular P2P sharing software, he accidentally and unknowingly installed the program in the wrong directory on his computer. As a result, the plans and defensive security features of the military helicopter that shuttles the president from the White House to Air Force One leaked to P2P music-sharing networks around the world, including those in Iran. For the want of free music, a billion-dollar military project was compromised, and the blueprints for the president’s Sikorsky VH-3D helicopter ended up on a peer-to-peer network in Iran, hosted next to the pirated songs of both Michael Jackson and Shadmehr Aghili, the undisputed king of Persian pop. The former military contractor, interrogated by both the FBI and the Department of Defense, admitted his error, but by then the damage had been one. Our global interconnections and never-ending storage of more and more data mean leaks are inevitable. What data might you or your company be leaking to the cloud?

Using two-factor authentication means that even if your password is compromised, it cannot be used without the second authentication factor (physical access to your mobile device itself). Download Download software only from official sites (such as Apple’s App Store or directly from a company’s own verified Web site). Be highly skeptical of unofficial app stores and third-party sites hosting “free” software. In addition, avoid pirated media and software widely available on peer-to-peer networks, which frequently contain malware and viruses. Settings in both the Windows and the Mac operating systems can help you “white list” so that only approved software from identified vendors is allowed to run on your machine. While doing so will not guarantee software safety, it can greatly reduce the risk of infection. Pay close attention to apps and their permissions. They are “free” for a reason and you’re paying with your privacy.


pages: 269 words: 79,285

Silk Road by Eileen Ormsby

4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, Edward Snowden, fiat currency, Firefox, Julian Assange, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Right to Buy, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, stealth mode startup, Ted Nelson, trade route, Turing test, web application, WikiLeaks

Their morale regarding fighting SR and BC is very low at the moment, mainly because very few LEO have the capacity to comprehend how the whole system works, but unfortunately, recent media coverage demands some kind of action, so they are going to have to show the public they are doing something to combat SR, they just aren’t sure what yet. The report was an extensive critique of and response to Silk Road, well researched and referenced. It described anonymity and encryption, darknets, PGP, Tor and peer-to-peer technologies. It explained what hidden services were and listed those that could be found on the Hidden Wiki at the time. It discussed the security features and vulnerabilities of Tor, illustrating these with the story of Anonymous’ takedown of Lolita City. The report concluded that the main vulnerability of Tor and the hidden services was not the technology, but the user. Human error and a lack of understanding of the technology would be the best bet to bypass the anonymity provided by Tor and encryption.


pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, hedonic treadmill, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Chesky later realized that his parents grew up in the hotel generation, whereas his grandfather and his friends would stay on farms and in little houses during their travels. Airbnb is not very different from that experience. “We are not the modern invention, hotels are.” Indeed, prior to the 1950s, staying with friends or friends of friends was a common way to travel. Airbnb is an old idea, being replicated and made relevant again through peer-to-peer networks and new technologies. There is now an unbounded marketplace for efficient peer-to-peer exchanges between producer and consumer, seller and buyer, lender and borrower, and neighbor and neighbor. Online exchanges mimic the close ties once formed through face-to-face exchanges in villages, but on a much larger and unconfined scale. In other words, technology is reinventing old forms of trust.


pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, lifelogging, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, too big to fail, US Airways Flight 1549, web application, zero-sum game

A new globally networked commercial economy needs a currency to match. Step forward crypto currencies such as bitcoin, which are the next evolution in how we trade. Bitcoin Bitcoin was the first fully implemented and distributed crypto currency. It works in much the same way as other emerging crypto currencies. Crypto currencies are simply decentralised electronic cash systems. The ‘money’ is created by using peer-to-peer networking, digital signatures and cryptography to generate a currency. Bitcoins are mined out of a digital network by computers plugged into a system trying to figure out a 64-digit code that unlocks 50 bitcoins at a time. The money, or bitcoins, is generally traded within the system by using specific peer-to-peer software. It’s a lot like BitTorrent client software. All transactions are stored on a publicly distributed database so that the record of transaction is with everyone plugged into the system, rather than in a central storage location.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

You can drive your car to the commuter rail station, and, thirty minutes after you park it, someone else picks it up to commute to work, sharing the car by preset agreement. Money is under assault from more directions than just barter. A host of alternative currencies are blossoming on the Internet, and one in particular—an open-source project called Bitcoin—appears to be gaining steam. Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority, allowing anyone to send “money” (the Bitcoin currency) to anyone, anywhere, at any time, and beyond the reach of governments. Bitcoin enlists participants in the community to manage transactions and issue money; the network, rather than a central bank, collectively creates the money. Lest you think Bitcoin is a nerd pipe dream, many companies—even large, publicly traded ones like LaCie—accept Bitcoin as payment.10 In the opinion of the tech entrepreneur and journalist Jason Calacanis, “Bitcoin is a P2P currency that could topple governments, destabilize economies and create uncontrollable global bazaars for contraband.”11 Recently, Bitcoin has faced significant setbacks, but it is a promising opening salvo in the advent of alternative, postgovernment currency.


pages: 285 words: 86,853

What Algorithms Want: Imagination in the Age of Computing by Ed Finn

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Claude Shannon: information theory, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, factory automation, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, game design, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, High speed trading, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, late fees, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, Lyft, Mother of all demos, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, software studies, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, wage slave

Through the blockchain, which is constantly updated and authenticated by the Bitcoin community (as I’ll discuss below), it’s possible to trace each unit of currency back to an origination point, through every single transaction it’s ever been part of. The entire Bitcoin marketplace is an open book, from the darkest recesses of terrorism financing to booking hotel rooms, purchasing virtual goods from Zynga, and ordering marijuana from the infamous digital marketplace Silk Road.25 But how does this actually work? Since the Bitcoin network has no central authority, anyone completing a transaction announces it through a peer-to-peer network. The decentralized nature of the system is meant to account for the problem that information may flow unevenly across the network, that some nodes may suddenly appear or disappear, and for the intentional design constraint of abolishing the central bank or switching station to correlate and sequence all financial activity. These different transaction announcements are bundled up into transaction blocks by Bitcoin “miners,” who then compete to assemble and validate these transactions against the extant communal history of the currency.


Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, DevOps, digital twin, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low cost airline, low skilled workers, microservices, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, undersea cable, web application, WebRTC, Y2K

For 915MHz (North America), there are 10 channels available and the standard supports a maximum data rate of 40Kbps, while at 868MHz (Europe), there is only one channel and this can support data transfer at up to 20Kbps. ZigBee supports three network topologies—the star, mesh, and cluster tree or hybrid networks. The star network is commonly used, as it is the simplest to deploy. However, the mesh or peer-to-peer network configurations enable high degrees of reliability to be obtained. Messages may be routed across the network using the different stations as relays. There is usually a choice of routes that can be used and this makes the network very robust. If interference is present on one section of a network, another section can be used instead. The basic ZigBee standard supports 64-bit IEEE addresses as well as 16-bit short addresses.


Refuge: Transforming a Broken Refugee System by Alexander Betts, Paul Collier

Alvin Roth, anti-communist, centre right, charter city, corporate social responsibility, Donald Trump, failed state, Filter Bubble, global supply chain, informal economy, Kibera, mass immigration, megacity, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, rising living standards, risk/return, school choice, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, trade route, urban planning, zero-sum game

Globalization offers a variety of ways to bring economic opportunity to people, irrespective of geography. The internet in particular offers the chance to create footloose and highly mobile livelihoods. Value chains can be disaggregated in ways that allow people in one part of the world to contribute on the basis of their particular comparative advantage. New financing opportunities, including crowdfunding, peer-to-peer networks, and mobile money, may offer ways in which even remote communities can be connected to the global economy. Business – from multinational corporations to small and medium-sized enterprises to social enterprise – is engaging with refugee issues more than it has in the past.20 There is every reason to believe that a development toolbox should offer even greater prospects than was the case even two decades ago.


Martin Kleppmann-Designing Data-Intensive Applications. The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable and Maintainable Systems-O’Reilly (2017) by Unknown

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

., an aircraft crashing and killing everyone on board, or a rocket colliding with the International Space Station), flight control systems must tolerate Byzan‐ tine faults [81, 82]. • In a system with multiple participating organizations, some participants may attempt to cheat or defraud others. In such circumstances, it is not safe for a node to simply trust another node’s messages, since they may be sent with mali‐ cious intent. For example, peer-to-peer networks like Bitcoin and other block‐ chains can be considered to be a way of getting mutually untrusting parties to agree whether a transaction happened or not, without relying on a central authority [83]. However, in the kinds of systems we discuss in this book, we can usually safely assume that there are no Byzantine faults. In your datacenter, all the nodes are con‐ trolled by your organization (so they can hopefully be trusted) and radiation levels are low enough that memory corruption is not a major problem.

Web applications do need to expect arbitrary and malicious behavior of clients that are under end-user control, such as web browsers. This is why input validation, sani‐ tization, and output escaping are so important: to prevent SQL injection and crosssite scripting, for example. However, we typically don’t use Byzantine fault-tolerant protocols here, but simply make the server the authority on deciding what client behavior is and isn’t allowed. In peer-to-peer networks, where there is no such cen‐ tral authority, Byzantine fault tolerance is more relevant. A bug in the software could be regarded as a Byzantine fault, but if you deploy the same software to all nodes, then a Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm cannot save you. Most Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithms require a supermajority of more than twothirds of the nodes to be functioning correctly (i.e., if you have four nodes, at most one may malfunction).


pages: 1,237 words: 227,370

Designing Data-Intensive Applications: The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable, and Maintainable Systems by Martin Kleppmann

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

., an aircraft crashing and killing everyone on board, or a rocket colliding with the International Space Station), flight control systems must tolerate Byzantine faults [81, 82]. In a system with multiple participating organizations, some participants may attempt to cheat or defraud others. In such circumstances, it is not safe for a node to simply trust another node’s messages, since they may be sent with malicious intent. For example, peer-to-peer networks like Bitcoin and other blockchains can be considered to be a way of getting mutually untrusting parties to agree whether a transaction happened or not, without relying on a central authority [83]. However, in the kinds of systems we discuss in this book, we can usually safely assume that there are no Byzantine faults. In your datacenter, all the nodes are controlled by your organization (so they can hopefully be trusted) and radiation levels are low enough that memory corruption is not a major problem.

Web applications do need to expect arbitrary and malicious behavior of clients that are under end-user control, such as web browsers. This is why input validation, sanitization, and output escaping are so important: to prevent SQL injection and cross-site scripting, for example. However, we typically don’t use Byzantine fault-tolerant protocols here, but simply make the server the authority on deciding what client behavior is and isn’t allowed. In peer-to-peer networks, where there is no such central authority, Byzantine fault tolerance is more relevant. A bug in the software could be regarded as a Byzantine fault, but if you deploy the same software to all nodes, then a Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm cannot save you. Most Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithms require a supermajority of more than two-thirds of the nodes to be functioning correctly (i.e., if you have four nodes, at most one may malfunction).


Alpha Girls: The Women Upstarts Who Took on Silicon Valley's Male Culture and Made the Deals of a Lifetime by Julian Guthrie

Airbnb, Apple II, barriers to entry, blockchain, Bob Noyce, call centre, cloud computing, credit crunch, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, fear of failure, game design, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, new economy, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, phenotype, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban decay, web application, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

Golden agreed to the stipulation that he would not reveal the founders’ whereabouts at any time. Part of Golden’s job was to evaluate the risks with every deal: What were the risks within the team? Were there technology risks? Were there competitive risks? Were there unique intellectual property risks? “This company has every one of those risks—and more,” Golden told Theresia and Efrusy. Golden had discovered that the core peer-to-peer technology behind Skype was licensed via a company that Zennström and Friis partially controlled. This meant that Skype could not entirely control its own destiny and potentially created conflicts of interest. For Skype not to own or fully control its core intellectual property at this stage was highly unusual for this kind of investment. With any deal, Golden needed to see how a company “invented” or innovated in some meaningful way to solve a problem or create an opportunity.


pages: 260 words: 40,943

Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions by Stuart McClure, Joel Scambray, George Kurtz

AltaVista, bash_history, Larry Wall, MITM: man-in-the-middle, peer-to-peer, remote working, web application

He set up a simple form that allowed users to select what directory they wanted to share out and what port they wanted to listen on. This information was POSTed to a Perl CGI script that invoked Dan’s custom Java classes to share out the specified folder and to create the listening port linked to it on the client side. Showing his sense of humor, Dan promoted the Napster-like features of this technique to allow users to share files via the peer-to-peer network created by millions of users sharing out their drives over HTTP. In all seriousness, though, this problem should not be downplayed simply because it only allows read access to data. Dan’s exploit is quite generous, allowing users to specify what directory they wish to share. Malicious applets could work much more stealthily, exposing anyone who uses Netscape to possible disclosure of sensitive information.


Beautiful Visualization by Julie Steele

barriers to entry, correlation does not imply causation, data acquisition, database schema, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, global pandemic, Hans Rosling, index card, information retrieval, iterative process, linked data, Mercator projection, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, semantic web, social graph, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, web application, wikimedia commons

Far too many applications simply borrow the worst of PowerPoint, flying data points across the screen with no clear purpose; elements sweep and grow and rotate through meaningless spaces, and generally only cause confusion. I have had several occasions to build animated visualizations. In 2000, I worked with fellow grad students building GnuTellaVision, which visualized the growing Gnutella peer-to-peer network. Since then, I have been involved in a variety of projects that have shed light on animated visualization: for example, I worked on a project that explored animated scatterplots, and I was a close bystander on the DynaVis project, which looked at transitions between different visualizations. In this chapter, I will talk through some of these experiences and to try to develop some principles for animating visualizations.


pages: 407 words: 103,501

The Digital Divide: Arguments for and Against Facebook, Google, Texting, and the Age of Social Netwo Rking by Mark Bauerlein

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, business cycle, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application

Likewise, as headlines panicked investors about the failure of broadband, the massive communities built on IRC chat channels and other early live networking platforms were finding new, more advanced avenues for social and intellectual exchange. For-profit streaming media companies like Icebox may have failed, but the streaming technologies they used have survived and flourished as social tools such as iVisit and NetMeeting. And while the client lists of business-to-business service companies have shrunk, peer-to-peer networks, from Napster to Hotline, still grow in popularity and resist all efforts to quell the massive exchange of data, illegal or not. In fact, the average American home now has more information and broadcast resources than a major television network newsroom did in the ’70s. A single Apple laptop is a video production studio, allowing even for the complex editing of independent films. Add a fast Internet connection, and a home producer can broadcast around the globe.


pages: 374 words: 97,288

The End of Ownership: Personal Property in the Digital Economy by Aaron Perzanowski, Jason Schultz

3D printing, Airbnb, anti-communist, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, carbon footprint, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Firefox, George Akerlof, Hush-A-Phone, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, peer-to-peer, price discrimination, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, software as a service, software patent, software studies, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, subscription business, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, transaction costs, winner-take-all economy

Of course, in response users began exchanging information about how to circumvent these systems, quickly diminishing them to mere annoyances, a pattern that would repeat itself with increasing speed for every DRM system to come. In the 1990s, this small-scale arms race began to heat up as copying and storing large numbers of software titles became easier because of vast improvements in storage capacity and disk speeds. Coupled with the increasing ease of data transmission over the newly popular Internet and the introduction of peer-to-peer networks like Napster, designed for sharing files with a global community, the perceived need for DRM increased dramatically. Soon copyright holders, who now included Hollywood and the music industry in addition to software makers, invested more and more resources in the hopes of finding a technological fix to the problem of unauthorized copying. But what proponents of this silver bullet strategy failed to understand, at least initially, is that every DRM system is susceptible to attack.


RDF Database Systems: Triples Storage and SPARQL Query Processing by Olivier Cure, Guillaume Blin

Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business intelligence, cloud computing, database schema, fault tolerance, full text search, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, linked data, NP-complete, peer-to-peer, performance metric, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, software as a service, SPARQL, web application

In: Proceedings of the 2010 Workshop on Massive Data Analytics on the Cloud. ACM Press, New York, pp. 6:1–16. Nejdl, W., Wolf, B., Qu, C., Decker, S., Sintek, M., Naeve, A., Nilsson, M., Palmer, M., Risch, T., 2002. Edutella: a P2P networking infrastructure based on RDF. WWW, pp. 604–615. Nejdl, W., Wolpers, M., Siberski, W., Schmitz, C., Schlosser, M., Brunkhorst, I., Löser, A., 2003. Super-­ peer-based routing and clustering strategies for RDF-based peer-to-peer networks. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on World Wide Web. ACM Press, New York, pp. 536–543. Neumann, T., Weikum, G., 2008. RDF-3X: a RISC-style engine for RDF. Proceedings of VLDB ­Endowment 1 (1), 647–659. Neumann, T., Weikum, G., 2009. Scalable join processing on very large RDF graphs. In: SIGMOD ­Conference, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, pp. 627–640. Neumann, T., Weikum, G., 2010.


The Pirate's Dilemma by Matt Mason

"side hustle", Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Firefox, future of work, glass ceiling, global village, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, patent troll, peer-to-peer, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tim Cook: Apple, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Catalog

It’s April 2003, and you, along with Madonna fans worldwide, hit KaZaA to download some tracks from her latest album, American Life. Instead, you get spoof MP3 files: the material girl verbally bitch-slapping 68 We Invented the Remix | 69 the file-sharing community. It’s her and Warner Bros.’ latest bid to thwart Internet piracy by fighting fire with fire, acting like a pirate herself. Madonna flooded peer-to-peer networks with digital decoys that appeared to be tracks from the new album but were actually recordings of her cursing and snarling at would-be illegal downloaders everywhere. Intended as another genius publicity stunt by one of the smartest women in music, this turned out to be one of the biggest blunders of her career, right up there with Evita, Sean Penn, and Shanghai Surprise. Madonna is the fourth-bestselling recording artist in history, worth hundreds of millions of dollars.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

In this regard deep address is also a mereological technology. Third, addresses, in plural networks, produce topology. Whereas the nested hierarchies of postal addressing (e.g., name, building, street, city) refer to specific locations within a natural geography, such that the physical proximity or distance of one addressee versus another might be deduced from their addresses, Internet addressing follows no such geographic conventions, and peer-to-peer networking is all but agnostic as to the territorial origins and outcomes of packet flows. Instead, the accumulation of Internet addresses in certain areas, such as New York and Palo Alto, and the density of relations between those accumulations produce durable patterns of information communicated through the world.28 Globally our regular networks of bundled addressors and addresses wear grooves into information channels, sometimes aligning with geopolitical borders and interests and sometimes perforating them.

Manuel de la Pila housing block, 312 opinionlessness, state of, 240–241, 426n47 O’Reilly, Tim, 121 Oreskes, Naomi, 457n10 Organized Chaos, forces of, 445n37 Ouroboros energy grid, 92–96, 294–295 Outer Space Treaty, 456n7 “Outline of a Doctrine of French Policy” (Kojève), 109 “Overexposed City, The” (Virilio), 155 ownership competitive, 332 of data, 203, 285, 345–346 economics of, 282 owner-Users, 285–286, 345–346 Page, Larry, 134, 139, 281, 315 Page Mill Road, 57 “PageRank” (Franceschet), 332 PageRank algorithm, 134, 332 Pakistan-India border, 97, 309 Palace of the Soviets, 181 Palantir, 121, 287, 360, 459n20 Palestine, 120 Panopticon effect, 363 paper envelope, 46 parametricism, 160–161, 162–163 parastates, 446n39 Parker, Sean, 126 Parnet, Clare, 393n50 Parsons, Talcott, 385n25 partition in architecture, 391n30 Patriot Act, US, 120, 363 peer-to-peer networking, 206, 215 Peirce, Charles Sanders, 211, 223 Perec, Georges, 75 persona design, 254, 255 personality, 277–278 personal mapping technologies, 86, 236, 243, 431n70 personal mobility systems. See cars: driverless personal rapid transit (PRT) systems, 282 personhood, 173–175, 271, 439n65 persuasive interfaces, 224, 430n65 pervasive computing, 113, 172, 301–302 petroglyphs, 309 phone-car interface, 280 physicalization of abstraction, 29, 33 physical-to-virtual binary opposition, 19 Pinochet, Augusto, 59, 385n25 piracy, 380n15 pirate radio, 244–245 placebo interfaces, 224 placefulness, 16, 29, 155 place-making, 84, 149–150, 310 planetary computational economy, 92 planetary data infrastructure, 267 planetary photography, 150, 300, 354 planetary-scale computation architecture, 5, 197 assignment claimed by, 122 cartographic imperative of, 191 client-side versus server-side critique, 356–357 climactic impact of, 92–93, 96 design and, 192, 356 divides crossed, 27–28 ecological governance convergence, 98 economic geography, effect on, 199 elements of, 5 emergence of, 3, 13, 55 energy footprint, 82–83, 92–96, 106–107, 113, 140–141, 258–260, 303–304 forms taken, 4–5 future of, 351, 356 Google's occupation of, 34–40 governance and, 27 jurisdictions, 357 limits to growth, 93–94 at microlevel of the object, 191–192 neoliberalism and, 21 physical world, relation to, 358 political geography and, 6, 11 real project of, 404n11 space of, 34–40, 303 technologies’ alignment into, 4–5 urban design for, 160 Planetary Skin Institute, 88–90, 92, 97–98, 106, 180, 336, 392n42, 452n67 planetary supersurfaces, 188–189 planetary visualization, 452n69 Planet of the Apes, 182 planetology, comparative, 300–302, 333, 353, 360 plan of action, 43, 342 platform architecture, ideal, 49–50 platform-as-state, 7–8, 42, 48–50, 120–123, 140, 295, 315–316, 319, 327, 335, 341 platform-based robotics, 138–139 platform cities, 183–189 platform design, 44, 48, 51 platform economics network value, 159 platform surplus value, 48, 137, 159, 309, 374 User platform value, 309, 375–376 User surplus, 48 value versus price, indexing of, 336 platforms accidents of, 51 authority, 57 autonomy, 136, 282, 339 centralization versus decentralization, 48 characteristics of, 47–51, 214 City layer, designs for, 177 competition between, 50 component standardization, 47–48 control-decontrol paradox in, 46 decision-making, 44, 341–342 defined, 42, 328, 374, 383n4 diagrams ensnaring actors in, 44 economically sustainable, 48 etymology, 43 exchange value, 51 functions of, 19, 41, 119, 328, 342 future of, 117, 141–145, 244, 295, 315–316 genealogy of, 42 generic universality, 49 geography, 110–112 governing, 109, 119, 143 identity, 42 information mediated, 46 institutional forms, 44 introduction, 41–46 logic, 19, 44, 314 mechanics, 44–51 model-to-real correlation, 387n33 network effects, 48 neutrality, 44 origins, 46 overview of, 41–46 physicality and tactility of, 129–130 platform of platforms, 332–333 platform-within-a-platform principle, 284 plots in, 44 as remedy and poison, 5, 133 robotics, shift to, 362 service infrastructures, 116 as stacks, 7–8, 42–43 standardization, 44–46 theory, 41, 47 wars, 110, 123–125, 295 platform sovereignty activist stance on, 312 architectural surface interfaciality in, 166–167 City layer infrastructures role in, 151–153 constitutional violence of, 155 deciding exceptions in, 21 decision-making, 32–33, 44 defined, 374 derivation of, 37 design, 87–88 emergence of, 33, 152 grid programmability providing, 38 guarantees, 151 of nonhuman User, 273 overview of, 51 paradoxes of, 37 principle of, 36 productive accidents of, 37 reversibility, 22, 152–153 states, 339 urban envelopes, 159, 258 platform surplus value, 38, 48, 137, 159, 309, 374 platform totalities, 297 plot, 43–44 Plug-In City (Archigram), 179 pluralism, 302–303 polis, segmentation of, 241 political, the, 6, 30, 379n10 political agency, 173–175, 250, 258 political-geographic order, 26, 56 political identity of the User, 260, 347 political machine, stack as, 55–58 political philosophy, 20 political rights of the User, 285 political subjectivity, 21, 136, 152, 258, 260, 268 political technology, territory as, 335 political theology, 105, 236, 243, 297, 426n46 politico-theological geographies, 242, 248, 320–322 politics agonistic logics of, 180, 247 architectural, 166–167 interfacial, 244–246 of Internet of Things, 204 norms of, 39 Schmittian, spatial dimension of, 381n24 of ubiquitous computing, 203 “Politics of the Envelope, The” (Zaera-Polo), 166 Pontecorvo, Gillo, 244 poor doors, 311 pop futurist media, 432n71 Popper, Karl, 459n19 popular ecology movement, 86 Portzamparc, Christian de, 311 postage stamps, 194 postal identity, 193–196, 206 postal system, 132, 153–154, 195 post-Anthropocenic geopolitics, 285 post-Anthropocenic User, 264 Postel, John, 319 post-Fordism, 231 posthumanism, 275 post-human User, 285, 287–288 “Postscript on Societies of Control” (Deleuze), 157–158 Pourparlers (Deleuze), 147 Pouzin, Louis, 41 poverty ending, 303, 443n23 interiority/exteriority of, 311–312 politics of, 312, 444n30 of working poor, 331 power architecture symbolizing, 325 cultural legitimacy of exercise of, 424n41 of extralegal violence, 317 monopolizing, 308–309 shifts in, 233, 312–313 power-knowledge asymmetries, 454n75 power of brand, 128, 130 “Powers of Ten” (Eames and Eames), 52 power tools, 438n59 preagricultural societies, 149 presence, 205 Price, Cedric, 179, 201 Princeton Radio Project, 254 Prism, 9, 121, 320 privacy axiomatization of individual, 409n42 biopolitics of, 159, 360 cost of, 136, 285, 445n37 expectations of, 346 meta-metadata recursivity for, 287 right to, 270, 285 sacralization through encryption, 347 privacy markets, 285, 445n37 private human User, dissolution of, 289 private versus public space, 159 production labor.


pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

The libraries and archives we had only dreamed of were now literally at our fingertips. The Internet brought with it the exhilaration and abundance of a frontierless commons, along with the fractious and debilitating intensity of depersonalized disputes in electronic discussion lists. It demonstrated the possibilities of extraordinary feats of electronic generosity and altruism, with people sharing enormous quantities of information on peer-to-peer networks, and at the same time it provided early exposure to, and warnings about, the relentless narcissism of vanity blogging. It changed the ways in which the world became present to us and the ways in which we became present to the world, forever. The Internet expands the horizon of every utterance or expressive act to a potentially planetary level. This makes it impossible to imagine a purely local context or public for anything that anyone creates today.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

From the start, e-commerce has grappled with the question of trust—first in getting users to trust that online companies like Amazon would safely fulfill their credit card purchases, then in getting users to trust one another without ever meeting or talking to or seeing one another. When it comes to coded trust, eBay offered the first major breakthrough. eBay was created in 1995, shortly after the birth of the commercial Internet, to be an online marketplace based on trust. It is a peer-to-peer network where buyers and sellers engage in commerce directly, exchanging money for goods between themselves. eBay makes its money by taking a commission fee on each transaction, and each of those transactions will occur only if buyer and seller are confident of a good outcome. According to eBay founder Pierre Omidyar, people on eBay “learned how to trust a complete stranger. eBay’s business is based on enabling someone to do business with another person, and to do that, they first have to develop some measure of trust, either in the other person or the system.”


pages: 385 words: 111,113

Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

If you own bitcoin, what you actually own is the private cryptographic key to unlock a specific address with a value stored in it—it just so happens that value corresponds to the number of bitcoins you hold. The private key looks like a long string of numbers and letters. You may choose to store your key, or keys if you have multiple addresses, in a number of places including a paper printout, a metal coin, a hard drive or via an online service. Some have even tattooed their Bitcoin wallet address on their person. The banking system of 2025 will need to work more like an IP, or peer-to-peer, network than the current centralised banking networks that we have today; and the blockchain is a better, future-proof example of that. We are moving to a world where smart devices can have a value store or multiple value stores and can act as agents transacting on our behalf or on behalf of a group of people. We’re also moving to a world where identity won’t be tied to your driving licence, signature or social security number, but instead managed as a construct based on biometrics, unique identity markers, behavioural data and heuristics.


pages: 406 words: 105,602

The Startup Way: Making Entrepreneurship a Fundamental Discipline of Every Enterprise by Eric Ries

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Ben Horowitz, Black-Scholes formula, call centre, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cognitive dissonance, connected car, corporate governance, DevOps, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, index card, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, minimum viable product, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, obamacare, peer-to-peer, place-making, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, time value of money, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, universal basic income, web of trust, Y Combinator

Strategyzer: strategyzer.com Strategyzer’s goal is to put practical tools into the hands of every business strategy practitioner. To get there, they’ve assembled an amazing team of creative, technical, and business professionals from around the world. They love building products and creating experiences that benefit individuals, organizations, and society. Corporate Entrepreneur Community: corpentcom.com The Corporate Entrepreneur Community (CEC) is a peer-to-peer network of large enterprises sharing best practices and challenges to drive real entrepreneurial growth. The CEC facilitates the development of entrepreneurial skills through a vetted community of innovation leaders at distinguished organizations. APPENDIX 2: A CATALOG OF MVPs MVP METHODS at INTUIT For a downloadable PDF including examples for each MVP method, visit thestartupway.com/​bonus.


pages: 388 words: 106,138

The Song Machine: Inside the Hit Factory by John Seabrook

barriers to entry, financial independence, game design, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, trade route

He told his lead engineer, Ludvig Strigeus, a brilliant programmer he had worked with before, “I don’t accept anything that isn’t below two hundred milliseconds.” Strigeus responded, “It can’t be done. The Internet isn’t built like that.” “You have to figure it out,” Ek insisted. The solution involved designing a streaming protocol that worked faster than the standard one, as well as building their own peer-to-peer network, a decentralized architecture in which all the computers on it can communicate with one another. In four months, they had a working prototype. “And I knew when we had it that it was going to be very special,” Ek says. Ek’s original idea was to launch Spotify in the United States at the same time that he launched the service in Europe. Ken Parks, Spotify’s chief content officer, says, “Daniel thought he could just go down to the corner store in Stockholm and pick up a global license.”


pages: 398 words: 107,788

Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking by E. Gabriella Coleman

activist lawyer, Benjamin Mako Hill, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Debian, Donald Knuth, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, ghettoisation, GnuPG, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Larry Wall, Louis Pasteur, means of production, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, software patent, software studies, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, The Hackers Conference, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, web application, web of trust

The politics of intellectual property law have over the past ten years reached a contentious point—a political debate that cannot fully or at least comfortably rely on abstractions, universal principles, or naturalized rationalities but instead must entertain more local, pragmatic stakes along with the reality of what people do, can do, or desire to do. Under threat, these principles may clamor for more attention. For example, in March 2005, on the eve of an important Supreme Court deliberation over the legality of peer-to-peer technologies, the New York Times ran an editorial stating its position on intellectual property law by way of arguments couched in a vocabulary of doom, liberal progress, and naturalization: “If their work is suddenly made ‘free,’ all of society is likely to suffer. [ … ] The founders wrote copyright protections into the Constitution because they believed that they were necessary for progress.”19 By invoking the country’s founders and tropes of progress, this message sought to reassert the naturalness of these propositions precisely when they were most under threat.


pages: 416 words: 106,532

Cryptoassets: The Innovative Investor's Guide to Bitcoin and Beyond: The Innovative Investor's Guide to Bitcoin and Beyond by Chris Burniske, Jack Tatar

Airbnb, altcoin, asset allocation, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Hangouts, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, litecoin, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Network effects, packet switching, passive investing, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Sharpe ratio, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, smart contracts, social web, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Uber for X, Vanguard fund, WikiLeaks, Y2K

We suspect that as opposed to these reports remaining proprietary, as is currently the case with much of the research on equities and bonds, many of these reports will become open-source and widely accessible to all levels of investors in line with the ethos of cryptoassets. GET TO KNOW THE COMMUNITY AND THE DEVELOPERS After a valuation analysis is done, or at the very least current value is contemplated, the best thing the innovative investor can do is to know and understand the cryptoasset developers and surrounding community. As peer-to-peer technologies, all cryptoassets have social networks. Reddit, Twitter, and Slack groups are valuable information channels, though we hesitate to give more guidance than that as each community is different, and communication channels are always changing. Another extremely valuable and often underappreciated or unknown resource is Meetup.com groups. In getting to know the community better, consider a few key points.


pages: 426 words: 105,423

The 4-Hour Workweek: Escape 9-5, Live Anywhere, and Join the New Rich by Timothy Ferriss

Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, call centre, clean water, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, fixed income, follow your passion, game design, global village, Iridium satellite, knowledge worker, late fees, lateral thinking, Maui Hawaii, oil shock, paper trading, Parkinson's law, passive income, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, remote working, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, William of Occam

It was just one of six countries he had visited in the last 12 months. Japan was next on the agenda. Buzzing with a smile and his coffee mug in hand, he ambled over to his Mac to check on personal e-mail first. There were 32 messages and all brought good news. One of his friends and business partners, also a cofounder of Limewire, had an update: Last Bamboo, their start-up poised to reinvent peer-to-peer technology, was rounding the final corners of development. It could be their billion-dollar baby, but Doug was letting the engineers run wild first. Samson Projects, one of the hottest contemporary art galleries in Boston, had compliments for Doug’s latest work and requests for expanded involvement with new exhibits as their sound curator. The last e-mail in his inbox was a fan letter addressed to “Demon Doc” and praise for his latest instrumental hip-hop album, onliness VI.O.I.


pages: 309 words: 114,984

The Digital Doctor: Hope, Hype, and Harm at the Dawn of Medicine’s Computer Age by Robert Wachter

"Robert Solow", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, deskilling, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Glasses, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, lifelogging, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, pets.com, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, US Airways Flight 1549, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra

There will also be easy-to-use tools to allow patients to search for the best and least expensive hospitals and doctors—again, customized for their condition and preferences.41 The latter is important: for some patients, the surgeon’s technical skill trumps the fact that he lacks a winning personality; for others, bedside manner is more important than surgical dexterity. Just as one can refine a Yelp search by adding filters, patients will be able to filter results not just by proximity, quality, and cost, but also by personal preferences and values. Many patients will want to be educated and supported through peer-to-peer networks, and there will be many to choose from—no longer operating parallel to the traditional healthcare system, but now integrated into it. When a patient on such a network wants a peer to see part of his medical record, it will be easy to import the data from the EHR. The reverse will also be true: the patient who wants his doctor to see a portion of a peer-to-peer conversation will be able to move that into the EHR.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, low earth orbit, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

An NPS can be as low as −100 (everybody is a detractor) or as high as +100 (everybody is a promoter). An NPS that is positive (i.e., higher than zero) is considered good, and an NPS of +50 is excellent. The NPS is largely based on a single, direct question: How likely is it that you would recommend our company/product/service to a friend or colleague? If you have a high NPS, then your sales function is free. If you are using peer-to-peer models, your service costs can also essentially be free. Using crowdsourcing and community ideation (such as Quirky or Gustin), your R&D and product development costs can also approach zero. And it doesn’t stop there. What we’re now seeing with ExOs—and this is tremendously important—is that the marginal cost of supply goes to zero. A case in point: it costs Uber essentially zero to add an additional car and driver to its fleet.


pages: 443 words: 123,526

Glasshouse by Charles Stross

cognitive dissonance, experimental subject, gravity well, lateral thinking, loose coupling, peer-to-peer, phenotype, prisoner's dilemma, sensible shoes, theory of mind, white picket fence

Neual was quick with hands and feet, taking slyly sarcastic delight in winding me up. Lauro had perfect manners but lost it when making love with us. Iambic-18 was a radical xenomorph, sometimes manifesting in more than one body at the same time when the fancy took it. Our children . . . Are all dead, and it is unquestionably my fault. The nature of Curious Yellow is that it propagates stealthily between A-gates, creating a peer-to-peer network that exchanges stegged instructions using people as data packets. If you have the misfortune to be infected, it installs its kernel in your netlink, and when you check into an A-gate for backup or transport—which proceeds through your netlink—CY is the first thing to hit the gate's memory buffer. A-gate control nodes are supposedly designed so that they can't execute data, but whoever invented CY obviously found a design flaw in the standard architecture.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, different worldview, do-ocracy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Zipcar

We can think about the music industry, which was just about ready to collapse under the pressure of Napster, a platform that unlocked the excess capacity found in other people’s music, until iTunes came up with a business model—a platform—for selling single songs quickly and easily. This gave the music industry another decade. Spotify and Pandora, however, advanced the business model yet again. Not only do I not need to buy a whole album when I only want one song, but since I can listen to any song I want at any time through a subscription service, I don’t feel the need to own music at all. Jeremiah Owyang, formerly an analyst at Forrester Research covering peer-to-peer models and how companies respond, is now founder of Crowd Companies, a brand council that offers research and strategic advice to companies seeking to become part of the collaborative economy. He has a simple four-phase circular path that explains the transition from the old industrial approach to the new one: Product → Service → Marketplace → Platform. Jeremiah has documented how many large companies are already making the transition.


pages: 382 words: 120,064

Bank 3.0: Why Banking Is No Longer Somewhere You Go but Something You Do by Brett King

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application

Virtual economies are becoming increasingly important, says Wharton legal studies professor Dan Hunter, adding that they could redefine the concept of work, help test economic theories and contribute to the gross domestic product. “Increasingly, these virtual economies are leading to real money trades,” notes Hunter, one of a handful of academics closely following this trend. Bitcoin is an experimental new digital currency that enables instant payments to anyone, anywhere in the world. It uses peer-to-peer technology to operate, with no central authority, managing transactions and issuing money are carried out collectively by the network. Bitcoin is also the name of the open-source software that enables the use of this innovative virtual currency. Over the past few years, the peer-to-peer currency it has created has gained a surprising foothold in the global market. There are now multiple Bitcoin-processing apps for Android and the iPhone, as well as an online payment system similar to PayPal.


pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Cut from hours of video footage that Georgian soldiers themselves had supposedly shot on their mobile phones—later confiscated by Russians—the film analyzed the war from a highly ideological position, portraying Georgians in the worst possible light imaginable. The film quickly became a viral sensation, with 2.5 million people watching it online. The success of the online campaign owes much to the zeal with which producers of the film embraced all forms of digital distribution, putting it on all important peer-to-peer networks and encouraging piracy. Putting the film on Russia.ru helped to make it visible. The film made a smooth transition to TV screen, too: On the first anniversary of the war, the film was shown on one of Russia’s national patriotic channels. And to ensure absolute media dominance, it was followed up by a book, which was well received by Russian bloggers and journalists. This is a level of media convergence that most Western content producers can only dream of.


pages: 452 words: 134,502

Hacking Politics: How Geeks, Progressives, the Tea Party, Gamers, Anarchists and Suits Teamed Up to Defeat SOPA and Save the Internet by David Moon, Patrick Ruffini, David Segal, Aaron Swartz, Lawrence Lessig, Cory Doctorow, Zoe Lofgren, Jamie Laurie, Ron Paul, Mike Masnick, Kim Dotcom, Tiffiniy Cheng, Alexis Ohanian, Nicole Powers, Josh Levy

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, hive mind, immigration reform, informal economy, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liquidity trap, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prisoner's dilemma, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, Skype, technoutopianism, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

We are going to have to learn to do more with less. Networks can play a role here as well. Kickstarter, a crowd-funding network, launched only a few years ago, will provide more support for creators this year than the National Endowment for the Arts. In the UK, lawmakers are just as frustrated as we are that banks are still not lending to small businesses, but the irregulatory framework has allowed FundingCircle, a peer-to-peer network of lenders and borrowers, to flourish. Lawmakers have begun encouraging their constituents not just to “shop local” and “eat local.” They are asking them to “lend local,” creating a brand new source of working capital for small businesses and an emotional and financial return for lenders. There are many other examples of networks making a difference in civil society from mapping slums in Kenya, to getting at-risk kids in New York to take better care of their health, to empowering mothers in Boston to take on gang violence.


pages: 474 words: 130,575

Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine

23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

It had about a $2 million annual budget, a half dozen full-time employees, and a small group of dedicated volunteer coders around the world who helped develop, test, and release its product: a free cloaking app that worked on the basis of a technique called “onion routing.” Users downloaded and launched a specialized Tor Internet browser that redirected their traffic onto a parallel volunteer peer-to-peer network, bouncing it around randomly before sending it off to its final destination. This trick disconnected the origin and destination of a person’s Internet browsing stream and theoretically made it impossible for cops, spies, hackers, or anyone else monitoring Internet traffic to observe where users were coming from and where they were going. In lay terms, onion routing is like a street hustler playing a shell game with network traffic: people can see it go under one of the shells, but they never know where it ends up.


Producing Open Source Software: How to Run a Successful Free Software Project by Karl Fogel

active measures, AGPL, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, collaborative editing, continuous integration, corporate governance, Debian, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, GnuPG, Hacker Ethic, Internet Archive, iterative process, Kickstarter, natural language processing, patent troll, peer-to-peer, pull request, revision control, Richard Stallman, selection bias, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, SpamAssassin, web application, zero-sum game

Share Management Tasks as Well as Technical Tasks Share the management burden as well as the technical burden of running the project. As a project becomes more complex, an increasing proportion of the work becomes about managing people and information flow. There is no reason not to share that burden, and sharing it does not necessarily require a top-down hierarchy either. In fact, what happens in practice tends to be more of a peer-to-peer network topology than a military-style command structure. Sometimes management roles are formalized and sometimes they happen spontaneously. In the Subversion project, we have a patch manager, a translation manager, documentation managers, issue managers (albeit unofficial), and a release manager. Some of these roles we made a conscious decision to initiate, others just happened by themselves. Here we'll examine these roles, and a couple of others, in detail (except for release manager, which was already covered in the section called “Release manager” and the section called “Dictatorship by Release Owner” earlier in this chapter).


pages: 289

Hustle and Gig: Struggling and Surviving in the Sharing Economy by Alexandrea J. Ravenelle

"side hustle", active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, Broken windows theory, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, East Village, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Howard Zinn, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, low skilled workers, Lyft, minimum wage unemployment, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, passive income, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, precariat, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, very high income, white flight, working poor, Zipcar

Part of the shifting of risk from employer to worker means than workers are responsible for knowing their own limits—what might make them ill, what might injure them, and how much they can accomplish in a few hours—and plan accordingly. That type of advance planning is challenging enough for people with steady white-collar employment. But for workers who find themselves in a variety of workplaces and dealing with different “bosses” daily, such planning is nearly impossible. For TaskRabbit workers, especially, this can be a problem. Under the peer-to-peer model, workers are often hired by individuals who may not fully understand what they’re asking them to do, or who may downplay the description to avoid scaring off a potential worker. Natasha, twenty-eight, tries to weed out work that she’s uncomfortable with, but sometimes clients aren’t forthcoming with details. Recently I had a task where a woman said, “I had construction in my home. I just need you to help me clean.”


pages: 444 words: 127,259

Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber by Mike Isaac

"side hustle", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, call centre, Chris Urmson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, family office, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, money market fund, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, off grid, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, software as a service, software is eating the world, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Y Combinator

Almost immediately after Scour closed its doors, Kalanick started brainstorming with Michael Todd, one of his Scour co-founders. In relatively short order, the two of them dreamed up what Kalanick called his “revenge business,” a way to get back at the RIAA and MPAA, and the other companies who sued the partners and torpedoed Scour. That company was called Red Swoosh. “We basically took our expertise in peer-to-peer technology, took those thirty-three litigants, and turned them into customers,” Kalanick said. The new idea was similar to Scour: Red Swoosh would use connected “peer” computers in a network to transfer files between systems in a more efficient way. This time, however, those files weren’t going to be illegal downloads; the media companies were going to supply the files themselves. Kalanick would convince the RIAA and MPAA and others to hire Red Swoosh to deliver multimedia files—videos, music, whatever—to paying customers via set-top boxes on their TVs, or to their home computers.


pages: 478 words: 149,810

We Are Anonymous: Inside the Hacker World of LulzSec, Anonymous, and the Global Cyber Insurgency by Parmy Olson

4chan, Asperger Syndrome, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Firefox, hive mind, Julian Assange, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, pirate software, side project, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

“The group posted a string of Twitter messages in which it took credit for the breach.” Topiary started requesting donations for LulzSec and used Twitter and Pastebin to provide the thirty-one-digit number that acted as the group’s new Bitcoin address. Anyone could anonymously donate to their anonymous account if he converted money into the Bitcoin currency and made a transfer. Bitcoin was a digital currency that used peer-to-peer networking to make anonymous payments. It became increasingly popular around the same time LulzSec started hacking. By May, the currency’s value was up by a dollar from where it had been at the start of the year, to $8.70. A few days after soliciting donations, Topiary jokingly thanked a “mysterious benefactor who sent us 0.02 BitCoins. Your kindness will be used to fund terror of the highest quality.”


Active Measures by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, 4chan, active measures, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, continuation of politics by other means, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, guest worker program, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, peer-to-peer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

Another decade after that, Edward Snowden, the iconic intelligence leaker who likewise combined a belief in the power of encryption with far-out libertarian ideas, also appeared wrapped in the American flag on the cover of Wired. The movement’s breathless optimism expressed itself in slogans and themes: that information wanted to be free, sources open, anonymity protected, and personal secrets encrypted by default, yet government secrets could be exposed by whistle-blowers, preferably anonymously, on peer-to-peer networks. Much of this idealism was and is positive, and in many ways, activist projects have helped strengthen information security and internet freedom. And yet, at the fringes, this emerging subculture embraced a combination of radical transparency and radical anonymity, along with hacking-and-leaking, stealing-and-publishing—and thus created what had existed only temporarily before: the perfect cover for active measures, and not only thanks to the white noise of anonymous publication activity, from torrents to Twitter.


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

More recently, analysts of digital utopianism have dated the communitarian rhetoric surrounding the introduction of the Internet to what they have imagined to be a single, authentically revolutionary social movement that was somehow crushed or co-opted by the forces of capitalism.75 By confusing the New Left with the counterculture, and the New Communalists with both, contemporary theorists of digital media have often gone so far as to echo the utopians of the 1990s and to reimagine its peer-to-peer technologies as the rebirth in hardware [ 34 ] Chapter 1 and software of a single, “free” culture that once stood outside the mainstream and can do so again.76 A closer look at the New Left and the New Communalists, however, reveals critical differences between the two movements and suggests that neither achieved a complete break with the society it aimed to change. From its earliest days, the New Left was a primarily political movement, albeit one with communitarian strains.


pages: 501 words: 145,943

If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

See Inequality Plastic grocery bag ban, 149 Plasticity, 218 Police collaboration, 107–108 Polis, 3, 14, 164 Polling, deliberative, 257, 308, 350, 390n28 Pontiac, Michigan, emergency managers, 321 Pooled sovereignty, 156 Popular sovereignty, 155 Population: of cities, 35, 55, 361n3; of slums, 178–179, 183 Portland, Oregon, bike-share program, 137 Porto Alegre, Brazil, participatory budgeting in, 304–306, 395n6 Poverty, 19–20; amelioration of, 216–224; as fact of life, 180. See also Inequality Power: of nation-states, 9–11, 147; participation vs., 5 Pragmatism: of cities, 6, 13–14, 23–24, 215; of mayors, 90–92 Prahalad, C. K., 229 Prison population racial differences, 185 Privacy International, 258 Problem solving, 13, 70–71, 90 P2P (peer-to-peer) technology, 266 Public sector jobs, 199–201 Public spaces, 44–48, 71; and culture, 273, 274–280 Public transportation inequality, 195–197 “Push” technology, 253, 257 Race and inequality, 182, 185, 186 Rama, Edi, 86 Rape in India, 181, 201, 204, 382n69 “Rebel towns,” 324 Redlining, 198 Refugee camps, 16 Regional representation, 345–347 Representation, 342–348; challenges of, 342–344; of commuters, 345; and electoral district, 346; and failure of nationality, 156; and opt-in/opt-out rights, 346; on parliament of mayors, 346–347, 352–355; of regions, 345–347; as trusteeship, 347–348 Republican class in U.S., 34–35 413 RFID tags, 243 Rio Conventions, 134 Rio de Janeiro, inequalities in transportation, 195–196 Romney, Mitt, 218, 322 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 7, 32–34, 161, 283, 299 Ruble, Blair, 173 Rural life.


pages: 834 words: 180,700

The Architecture of Open Source Applications by Amy Brown, Greg Wilson

8-hour work day, anti-pattern, bioinformatics, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, David Heinemeier Hansson, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, friendly fire, Guido van Rossum, linked data, load shedding, locality of reference, loose coupling, Mars Rover, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, peer-to-peer, Perl 6, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, Ruby on Rails, side project, Skype, slashdot, social web, speech recognition, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WebSocket

The Arpanet was in use in the United States and the Internet was being designed as an upgrade, but Europe had thrown its weight behind the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) effort, and for a while it appeared that OSI might triumph. Both of these used leased lines from the phone companies; in the US that speed was 56 Kbps. Probably the most successful network of the time, in terms of numbers of computers and people connected, was the UUCP network, which was unusual in that it had absolutely no central authority. It was, in some sense, the original peer-to-peer network, which ran over dialup phone lines: 9600 bps was about the fastest available for some time. The fastest network (at 3 Mbps) was based on the Ethernet from Xerox, which ran a protocol called XNS (Xerox Network Systems)—but it didn't work outside of a local installation. The environment of the time was rather different than what exists today. Computers were highly heterogeneous, to the extent that there wasn't even complete agreement to use 8-bit bytes.


pages: 611 words: 188,732

Valley of Genius: The Uncensored History of Silicon Valley (As Told by the Hackers, Founders, and Freaks Who Made It Boom) by Adam Fisher

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bob Noyce, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Byte Shop, cognitive dissonance, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Elon Musk, frictionless, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, nuclear winter, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, popular electronics, random walk, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, The Hackers Conference, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, tulip mania, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y Combinator

Steven Johnson: At the time, the web was fundamentally a literary metaphor: “pages”—and then these hypertext links between pages. There was no concept of the user; that was not part of the metaphor at all. Mark Pincus: I mark Napster as the beginning of the social web—people, not pages. For me that was the breakthrough moment, because I saw that the internet could be this completely distributed peer-to-peer network. We could disintermediate those big media companies and all be connected to each other. Steven Johnson: To me it really started with blogging in the early 2000s. You started to have these sites that were oriented around a single person’s point of view. It suddenly became possible to imagine, Oh, maybe there’s another element here that the web could also be organized around? Like I trust these five people, I’d like to see what they are suggesting.


Version Control With Git: Powerful Tools and Techniques for Collaborative Software Development by Jon Loeliger, Matthew McCullough

continuous integration, Debian, distributed revision control, GnuPG, Larry Wall, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pull request, revision control, web application, web of trust

Subversion (SVN), introduced in 2001, quickly became popular within the free software community. Unlike CVS, SVN committed changes atomically and had significantly better support for branches. BitKeeper and Mercurial were radical departures from all the aforementioned solutions. Each eliminated the central repository; instead, the store was distributed, providing each developer with his own shareable copy. Git is derived from this peer-to-peer model. Finally, Mercurial and Monotone contrived a hash fingerprint to uniquely identify a file’s content. The name assigned to the file is a moniker and a convenient handle for the user and nothing more. Git features this notion as well. Internally, the Git identifier is based on the file’s contents, a concept known as a content-addressable file store. The concept is not new. [See “The Venti Filesystem,” (Plan 9), Bell Labs, http://www.usenix.org/events/fast02/quinlan/quinlan_html/index.html.]


pages: 700 words: 201,953

The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd

accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Veblen good, Wave and Pay, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

What is needed, rather, is a more diffuse concept of sovereignty. Such arguments place a different complexion on the question of monetary sovereignty, shifting attention away from the national state (money)–global market (finance) dichotomy favored by Strange and others, toward a set of richer and more nuanced questions about how money and finance map onto diffuse configurations of economic and political agents, as well as economic forms such as peer-to-peer networks. The multitude is not a social body: it cannot be sovereign (Hardt and Negri 2005: 330). It cannot be reduced to a unity, and it does not submit to a unity.30 If the age of Empire is the age of the multitude, this is because there is no unitary political subject, such as a party, people, or nation (Hardt and Negri 2005: 331). As they conceive it, moreover, the idea of the multitude inverts the way in which money has traditionally been held to render all humans interchangeable.


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

"Robert Solow", Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

Oxford Dictionary of Current English Ozaki, Muneto p2p networks Packard, David Pahl, Ray Pain, Kathy Paris, El Paris, El/World Media Palo Alto Research Center, Xerox Panofsky, Erwin Paraguay parenthood Paris: Belleville; service center; Villejuif Park, Young-bum Parkinson, G