surveillance capitalism

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pages: 918 words: 257,605

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

algorithmic bias, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, disinformation, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, Ian Bogost, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, surveillance capitalism, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck, Yochai Benkler, you are the product

Classification: LCC HF5415.32 (ebook) | LCC HF5415.32 .Z83 2018 (print) | DDC 306.3–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018003901 ISBNs: 978-1-61039-569-4 (hardcover), 978-1-61039-570-0 (ebook) E3-20181129-JV-NF-ORI CONTENTS Cover Title Page Copyright Dedication The Definition INTRODUCTION 1 Home or Exile in the Digital Future PART I THE FOUNDATIONS OF SURVEILLANCE CAPITALISM 2 August 9, 2011: Setting the Stage for Surveillance Capitalism 3 The Discovery of Behavioral Surplus 4 The Moat Around the Castle 5 The Elaboration of Surveillance Capitalism: Kidnap, Corner, Compete 6 Hijacked: The Division of Learning in Society PART II THE ADVANCE OF SURVEILLANCE CAPITALISM 7 The Reality Business 8 Rendition: From Experience to Data 9 Rendition from the Depths 10 Make Them Dance 11 The Right to the Future Tense PART III INSTRUMENTARIAN POWER FOR A THIRD MODERNITY 12 Two Species of Power 13 Big Other and the Rise of Instrumentarian Power 14 A Utopia of Certainty 15 The Instrumentarian Collective 16 Of Life in the Hive 17 The Right to Sanctuary CONCLUSION 18 A Coup from Above Acknowledgments About the Author Praise for The Age of Surveillance Capitalism Detailed Table of Contents Notes Index This book is dedicated to the past and the future: In memory of my Beloved, Jim Maxmin.

It revives Karl Marx’s old image of capitalism as a vampire that feeds on labor, but with an unexpected turn. Instead of labor, surveillance capitalism feeds on every aspect of every human’s experience. Google invented and perfected surveillance capitalism in much the same way that a century ago General Motors invented and perfected managerial capitalism. Google was the pioneer of surveillance capitalism in thought and practice, the deep pocket for research and development, and the trailblazer in experimentation and implementation, but it is no longer the only actor on this path. Surveillance capitalism quickly spread to Facebook and later to Microsoft. Evidence suggests that Amazon has veered in this direction, and it is a constant challenge to Apple, both as an external threat and as a source of internal debate and conflict.

The test of my efficacy will be in how well this map and its concepts illuminate the unprecedented and empower us with a more cogent and comprehensive understanding of the rapid flow of events that boil around us as surveillance capitalism pursues its long game of economic and social domination. The Age of Surveillance Capitalism has four parts. Each presents four to five chapters as well as a final chapter intended as a coda that reflects on and conceptualizes the meaning of what has gone before. Part I addresses the foundations of surveillance capitalism: its origins and early elaboration. We begin in Chapter 2 by setting the stage upon which surveillance capitalism made its debut and achieved success. This stage setting is important because I fear that we have contented ourselves for too long with superficial explanations of the rapid rise and general acceptance of the practices associated with surveillance capitalism.


Reset by Ronald J. Deibert

23andMe, active measures, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, availability heuristic, bitcoin, blockchain, blood diamonds, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Cal Newport, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, coronavirus, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, global village, Google Hangouts, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, liberal capitalism, license plate recognition, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megastructure, meta-analysis, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, New Journalism, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, QAnon, ransomware, Robert Mercer, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, sorting algorithm, source of truth, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, the medium is the message, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

But the model that Zuboff memorably helped christen “surveillance capitalism” would spread like wildfire to encompass and eventually dominate the entire global economy. At the core of surveillance capitalism is a relatively simple concept: in exchange for services given to consumers (mostly for free), industries monitor users’ behaviour in order to tailor advertisements to match their interests. “This new form of information capitalism,” Zuboff explains, “aims to predict and modify human behaviour as a means to produce revenue and market control.”33 Surveillance capitalism did not emerge out of nowhere, and it certainly did not just spring from the minds of Silicon Valley entrepreneurs like Page and Brin.

It is the latter that makes surveillance capitalism distinct from prior forms of capitalism, according to Zuboff. The novelty is to see our private human experiences as free raw material that can be endlessly mined. On one level, it is the perfect sustainable resource: our habits, preferences, relationships, moods, and private thoughts are like constantly replenishing wells. On another level, as we shall see in chapter 4, it is entirely unsustainable, dependent as it is on toxic mining of raw materials, rising energy consumption, and non-recyclable waste. Under surveillance capitalism, social media drill into personal human experiences by whatever ingenious means may be derived from their proliferating sensors, and then turn them into what Zuboff calls “behavioral surplus” — proprietary data that is used for predictive signalling.

In other words, all the sensors that envelop and monitor you are so blended into the taken-for-granted reality, the unquestioned environment that surrounds you, that they become, in effect, invisible. The less we question this environment, the more platforms can undertake extensive surveillance of our behaviour with as little friction as possible. Under surveillance capitalism, says Zuboff, our ignorance is their bliss.36 * * * There is an inertia, an inexorable logic, to surveillance capitalism. This logic, manifest in each and every new social media innovation, compels platforms to acquire data about consumers from ever more fine-grained, distributed, and overlapping sources of information. These sources dig deeper into our habits, our social relationships, our tastes, our thoughts, our heartbeats, our energy consumption, our sleep patterns, and so on.


pages: 380 words: 109,724

Don't Be Evil: How Big Tech Betrayed Its Founding Principles--And All of US by Rana Foroohar

"side hustle", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, AltaVista, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cashless society, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, death of newspapers, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Etonian, Filter Bubble, future of work, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, independent contractor, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Kenneth Rogoff, life extension, light touch regulation, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, PageRank, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, price discrimination, profit maximization, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, search engine result page, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, supply-chain management, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WeWork, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Harvard Business School professor emerita Shoshana Zuboff and other scholars have decried the rise of “surveillance capitalism,” which is, as Zuboff defines it, “a new economic order that claims human experience as free raw material for hidden commercial practices of extraction, prediction and sales,” as well as “a parasitic economic logic in which the production of goods and services is subordinated to a new global architecture of behavioral modification” via digital surveillance technologies.18 She believes (and I would agree) that surveillance capitalism represents a significant threat to our economic and political systems, as well as a potential instrument for social control.19 I’ve also come to believe that curbing Silicon Valley’s nefarious side effects will become “the signature economic issue [for lawmakers] over the next five years, especially as automation increases and they make investments into other areas of the economy,” as one staffer for an influential senior Democratic senator has put it to me.

Harter says that Google could “easily see, looking at the litigation over Napster, that they needed a growth map in Washington to get ahead of any opposition.”9 Harter understood that Google needed to devalue intellectual property and prioritize access to user data in order to ensure its supremacy—and by all accounts, the Googlers understood that, too. In fact, that was one of their major competitive advantages. As Shoshana Zuboff lays out in her book The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, Page, Brin, and Schmidt (along with Hal Varian) were the first in Silicon Valley to fully understand the concept of “behavioral surplus,” in which “human experience is subjugated to surveillance capitalism’s market mechanisms and reborn as ‘behavior.’ ”10 What she’s saying, in simple terms, is that everything we do, say, and think—online and in many cases offline—has the potential to be monetized by platform tech firms.

Tom Hamburger and Matea Gold, “Google, Once Disdainful of Lobbying, Now a Master of Washington,” The Washington Post, April 12, 2014. 17. Rana Foroohar, “Silicon Valley Has Too Much Power,” Financial Times, May 14, 2017; Foroohar, “Echoes of Wall Street in Silicon Valley’s Grip.” 18. Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: Public Affairs, 2019), introductory page. 19. Shoshana Zuboff, “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology, April 17, 2015. 20. Niall Ferguson, The Square and the Tower: Networks and Power, from the Freemasons to Facebook (New York: Penguin, 2018).


pages: 386 words: 113,709

Why We Drive: Toward a Philosophy of the Open Road by Matthew B. Crawford

1960s counterculture, Airbus A320, airport security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, British Empire, Burning Man, call centre, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, deskilling, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Fellow of the Royal Society, gig economy, Google Earth, Herbert Marcuse, hive mind, Ian Bogost, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, Lyft, Network effects, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, security theater, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social graph, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, Wall-E, Works Progress Administration

Felten, “No Silver Bullet: De-identification Still Doesn’t Work,” July 9, 2014, Arvind Narayanan—Princeton (personal website), http://randomwalker.info/publications/no-silver-bullet-de-identification.pdf, as cited in Zuboff, Age of Surveillance Capitalism, p. 245. 3.Jennifer Valentino-deVries et al., “Your Apps Know Where You Were Last Night, and They’re Not Keeping It Secret,” New York Times, December 10, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/12/10/business/location-data-privacy-apps.html. 4.Zuboff, Age of Surveillance Capitalism, p. 8 (emphases in original). 5.Zuboff, Age of Surveillance Capitalism, pp. 217–218. 6.Zuboff, Age of Surveillance Capitalism, p. 238. 7.Zuboff, Age of Surveillance Capitalism, p. 201. 8.Zuboff, Age of Surveillance Capitalism, p. 240. 9.Monte Zweben, “Life-Pattern Marketing: Intercept People in Their Daily Routines,” SeeSaw Networks, March 2009, as cited in Zuboff, Age of Surveillance Capitalism, p. 243. 10.Dyani Sabin, “The Secret History of ‘Pokémon GO,’ as Told by Creator John Hanke,” Inverse, February 28, 2017, https://www.inverse.com/article/28485-pokemon-go-secret-history-google-maps-ingress-john-hanke-updates. 11.See Natasha Dow Schull, Addiction by Design: Machine Gambling in Las Vegas (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012), and the chapter “Autism as a Design Principle” in my The World Beyond Your Head. 12.Various journalists took it upon themselves to actually read the pages-long privacy policy and data-collection practices of the Pokémon Go!

“Location information can reveal some of the most intimate details of a person’s life—whether you’ve visited a psychiatrist, whether you went to an A.A. meeting, who you might date,” said Senator Ron Wyden, Democrat of Oregon . . . .3 Like many interested citizens, I have been reading analyses and critiques of Silicon Valley for the last twenty-five years, and even contributed a few of my own. But it was only upon reading Shoshana Zuboff’s masterwork The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, published in 2019, that the big picture came into view. What follows is heavily indebted to her work, both the details and the larger frame. Let’s start with the big picture of surveillance capitalism and some definitions, and work our way to the implications for internet-mediated mobility. Zuboff is emerita professor at Harvard Business School. She writes: Surveillance capitalism unilaterally claims human experience as free raw material for translation into behavioral data.

STREET VIEW: SEEING LIKE GOOGLE 1.Alistair Jamieson, “Google Will Carry On with Camera Cars Despite Privacy Complaints over Street Views,” Telegraph, April 9, 2009 (reporting an interview in the Times), https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/google/5130068/Google-will-carry-on-with-camera-cars-despite-privacy-complaints-over-street-views.html. 2.Shoshanna Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: Public Affairs, 2018), p. 44. 3.Zuboff, Age of Surveillance Capitalism, p. 48. 4.Zuboff, Age of Surveillance Capitalism, pp. 146–50. 5.James C. Scott, Seeing Like a State (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998), p. 53. 6.Scott gives some historical examples of geographic inscrutability (to outsiders) playing this defensive role.


pages: 404 words: 115,108

They Don't Represent Us: Reclaiming Our Democracy by Lawrence Lessig

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, Cass Sunstein, Columbine, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disinformation, do-ocracy, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, Parag Khanna, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Steven Levy, surveillance capitalism, Upton Sinclair, Yochai Benkler

Microsoft assures users that no personally identifiable data is gathered from Skype and that the data is not used for advertising. “Skype Translator Privacy FAQ,” Skype, available at link #126. 96.Andrew C. Oliver, “In Memory of Aaron Swartz: Stealing Is Not Stealing,” InfoWorld, January 17, 2013, available at link #127. 97.Zuboff, Surveillance Capitalism, 521. 98.Zuboff, Surveillance Capitalism, 92. 99.Zuboff, Surveillance Capitalism, 339–40. 100.Zuboff, Surveillance Capitalism, 451. 101.Chris Nodder, Evil by Design: Interaction Design to Lead Us into Temptation (Indianapolis, IN: John Wiley, 2013). 102.Steve Henn, “Online Marketers Take Note of Brains Wired for Rewards,” NPR, July 24, 2013, available at link #128. 103.Hayley Tsukayama, “Video Game Addiction Is a Real Condition, WHO Says.

While they conclude that consumer surplus from the platform is, on balance, positive, they found that deactivating users reduced online activity generally, were less informed and less polarized about news, were happier, and demonstrated a large persistent reduction in Facebook use after the experiment. 109.See Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein, Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Welfare, and Happiness (New York: Penguin, 2009). 110.Mark Zuckerberg, “The Facts About Facebook,” Wall Street Journal, January 24, 2019, available at link #133. 111.Zuboff, Surveillance Capitalism, 310. 112.Dirk Bergemann and Alessandro Bonatti, “The Economics of Social Data” (working paper, January 15, 2019). 113.This example is purely hypothetical, although in 2016, Microsoft received a patent for “User Behavior Monitoring on a Computerized Device.” The patent envisions a device monitoring behavior, and then alerting different groups, including, Zuboff reports, “insurance companies.” See Zuboff, Surveillance Capitalism, 411–12. 114.McNamee, Zucked, 101. 115.Zeynep Tufekci, “How Social Media Took Us from Tahrir Square to Donald Trump,” MIT Technology Review (August 14, 2018), available at link #134.

But when the tech companies tripped onto the gold that was flowing across the wires, they realized that this was the enormous surplus—the “behavioral surplus”—that would make Silicon Valley rich. All of that is insanely great. Indeed, I want to exaggerate here so you don’t miss my point. My argument is fundamentally different from the work of surveillance skeptics, like Shoshana Zuboff. Her magisterial book, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, tells a terrifying story of the emergence of a new form of capitalism that trades fundamentally on surveillance. There is tons to learn from her analysis, and much to be anxious about. We do not begin to understand the scope of this surveillance, or how it is changing, fundamentally, our relation to each other.


pages: 448 words: 117,325

Click Here to Kill Everybody: Security and Survival in a Hyper-Connected World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, 3D printing, algorithmic bias, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, business process, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Heinemeier Hansson, disinformation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Firefox, Flash crash, George Akerlof, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of radio, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, loose coupling, market design, medical malpractice, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ransomware, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, security theater, self-driving car, Seymour Hersh, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, uranium enrichment, Valery Gerasimov, web application, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler, zero day

The dynamics of all of this are complicated, so we’ll take it a step at a time. SURVEILLANCE CAPITALISM CONTINUES TO DRIVE THE INTERNET Corporations want your data. The websites you visit are trying to figure out who you are and what you want, and they’re selling that information. The apps on your smartphone are collecting and selling your data. The social networking sites you frequent are either selling your data, or selling access to you based on your data. Harvard Business School professor Shoshana Zuboff calls this “surveillance capitalism,” and it’s the business model of the Internet. Companies build systems that spy on people in exchange for services.

EVERYONE FAVORS INSECURITY 56The FBI wants you to have security: I’ll talk about this in Chapter 11, but here’s just one recent example: Cyrus Farivar (7 Mar 2018), “FBI again calls for magical solution to break into encrypted phones,” Ars Technica, https://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2018/03/fbi-again-calls-for-magical-solution-to-break-into-encrypted-phones. 57“surveillance capitalism”: Shoshana Zuboff (17 Apr 2015), “Big other: Surveillance capitalism and the prospects of an information civilization,” Journal of Information Technology 30, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2594754. 57Companies are trying to figure out: Aaron Taube (24 Jan 2014), “Apple wants to use your heart rate and facial expressions to figure out what mood you’re in,” Business Insider, http://www.businessinsider.com/apples-mood-based-ad-targeting-patent-2014-1.

In Chapter 2, I discuss the primary way we maintain security in our systems—patching vulnerabilities when they’re discovered—and why that will fail on the Internet+. Chapter 3 talks about how we prove who we are on the Internet, and how we can hide who we are. In Chapter 4, I explain the political and economic forces that favor insecurity: surveillance capitalism, cybercrime, cyberwar—and the more invasive corporate and government practices that feed off insecurity. Finally, in Chapter 5, I describe why the risks are increasing, and how they will become catastrophic. “Click here to kill everybody” is hyperbole, but we’re already living in a world where computer attacks can crash cars and disable power plants—both actions that can easily result in catastrophic deaths if done at scale.


The Smart Wife: Why Siri, Alexa, and Other Smart Home Devices Need a Feminist Reboot by Yolande Strengers, Jenny Kennedy

"side hustle", active measures, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cyber-physical system, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, game design, gender pay gap, Grace Hopper, hive mind, Ian Bogost, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, Milgram experiment, Minecraft, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, pattern recognition, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, Turing test, Wall-E, women in the workforce

“The real aim of the Internet of Things,” believes digital economy researcher Miranda Hall, “is to suck up as much data as possible [and] then work out what to do with it at a later point.”61 In her landmark book The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, the professor emerita Shoshana Zuboff launches a scathing attack on some of the Big Five internet companies (notably Google, Facebook, and Microsoft, and to a lesser extent Amazon) for their unilateral claims to human experience “as free raw materials for translation into behavioral data.” Surveillance capitalism, writes Zuboff, is “parasitic and self-referential”—like a “vampire,” it feeds on the human experience, and packages these up as commodities for third parties and “means to others’ ends.”

This corresponds with the findings in International Risk Governance Council, IRGC Guidelines for Emerging Risk Governance (Lausanne, Switzerland: International Risk Governance Council, 2015), https://www.irgc.org/risk-governance/emerging-risk/a-protocol-for-dealing-with-emerging-risks/. 61. Miranda Hall, “Beware the Smart Home,” Autonomy, November 2018, http://autonomy.work/portfolio/beware-the-smart-home/. 62. Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: PublicAffairs, 2019), 8, 9–10 (emphasis in original). 63. Zuboff, Age of Surveillance Capitalism, 21. 64. Maggie Astor, “Your Roomba May Be Mapping Your Home, Collecting Data That Could Be Shared,” New York Times, July 25, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/25/technology/roomba-irobot-data-privacy.html. 65.

The aim “is no longer to automate information flows about us,” asserts Zuboff. “The goal now is to automate us.”62 In the future, then, we may become the smart wives. Zuboff has many concerns about these startling developments, notably the threat that they pose to people’s “right to sanctuary” as surveillance capital creates “a world of ‘no exit’ with profound implications for the human future at this new frontier of power.”63 Look and Hunches—two smart wife add-ons that are following us into the most intimate parts of our lives—provide telling examples, as we have already discussed. Even our friendly Rosie-inspired robovac was caught up in a surveillance dispute in 2017, when the CEO of iRobot—the company that makes Roombas—suggested selling the maps of his customers’ living rooms to Google, Apple, or Alphabet in the next few years without their explicit consent.64 It came almost as an afterthought, once the company realized the collective value of holding these plans.


pages: 116 words: 31,356

Platform Capitalism by Nick Srnicek

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, deskilling, disintermediation, future of work, gig economy, independent contractor, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, mittelstand, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, platform as a service, quantitative easing, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, the built environment, total factor productivity, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unconventional monetary instruments, unorthodox policies, Zipcar

ZDNet, 23 February. http://www.zdnet.com/article/germanys-vision-for-industrie-4-0-the-revolutionwill-be-digitised (accessed 10 June 2016). Zuboff, Shoshana. 2015. ‘Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization’. Journal of Information Technology, 30 (1): 75–89. doi: 10.1057/jit.2015.5. Zuboff, Shoshana. 2016. ‘Google as a Fortune Teller: The Secrets of Surveillance Capitalism’. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 5 March. http://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/debatten/the-digital-debate/shoshana-zuboff-secrets-of-surveillance-capitalism-14103616.html (accessed 12 June 2016). Zucman, Gabriel. 2015. The Hidden Wealth of Nations: The Scourge of Tax Havens, translated by Teresa Lavender Fagan.

The more users interact with a site, the more information can be collected and used. Equally, as users wander around the internet, they are tracked via cookies and other means, and these data become ever more extensive and valuable to advertisers. There is a convergence of surveillance and profit making in the digital economy, which leads some to speak of ‘surveillance capitalism’.27 Key to revenues, however, is not just the collection of data, but also the analysis of data. Advertisers are interested less in unorganised data and more in data that give them insights or match them to likely consumers. These are data that have been worked on.28 They have had some process applied to them, whether through the skilled labour of a data scientist or the automated labour of a machine-learning algorithm.


Artificial Whiteness by Yarden Katz

affirmative action, AI winter, algorithmic bias, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, cellular automata, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, David Graeber, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, housing crisis, income inequality, information retrieval, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, rent control, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Seymour Hersh, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, surveillance capitalism, talking drums, telemarketer, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

The global antisurveillance protests catalyzed by Snowden’s disclosures foretold the downfall of Silicon Valley’s “big data” doctrine: the idea that having more data collected by the likes of Google is universally beneficial. Scholars and media commentators began referring to Silicon Valley’s agenda as “surveillance capitalism,” arguing that Google’s practices exemplify the term.7 That platform companies were exploiting their users’ data for profit and political gain became commonsense. The proliferation of narratives about “Russian interference” in the U.S. presidential election of 2016—which identified Facebook and Twitter as major culprits—only reinforced this notion.8 Once viewed as somewhere between democratizing forces and benign entities, platform companies were now seen as potentially dangerous political actors.

As Nick Srnicek writes, “Platforms became an efficient way to monopolise, extract, analyse, and use the increasingly large amounts of data that were being recorded.” Nick Srnicek, Platform Capitalism (Malden, Mass.: Polity, 2017), 42–43.     6.   Glenn Greenwald, No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the US Surveillance State (New York: Macmillan, 2014).     7.   Shoshana Zuboff, “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology 30, no. 1 (2015): 75–89.     8.   See the controversy surrounding Cambridge Analytica as reported, for instance, in “Cambridge Analytica Files,” Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/news/series/cambridge-analytica-files.     9.   

As Shoshana Zuboff has argued, the behaviorist frame aligns closely with the ideology of the major platform companies. These platforms are used to delegate “rewards and punishments of a new kind of invisible hand,” making it possible to modify “the behaviors of persons and things for profit and control.” Zuboff, “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology 30, no. 1 (2015): 75–89.   52.   For examples of the fascination with “explainable AI,” see Weinberger, “Our Machines Now Have Knowledge”; Finale Doshi-Velez et al., Accountability of AI Under the Law: The Role of Explanation (Cambridge, Mass.: Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society Research Publication, 2017); David Weinberger, “Don’t Make AI Stupid in the Name of Transparency,” Wired, January 28, 2018.


pages: 159 words: 42,401

Snowden's Box: Trust in the Age of Surveillance by Jessica Bruder, Dale Maharidge

anti-communist, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, cashless society, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, computer vision, crowdsourcing, disinformation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, license plate recognition, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, medical malpractice, Occupy movement, off grid, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Robert Bork, Seymour Hersh, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steven Levy, surveillance capitalism, Tim Cook: Apple, web of trust, WikiLeaks

p. 99 number of voice-activated assistants could rival earth’s human population: Judith Shulevitz, “Alexa, Should We Trust You?,” Atlantic, November 2018; Ronan De Renesse, “Digital Assistant and Voice AI–Capable Device Forecast: 2016–21,” Ovum, April 28, 2017, ovum.informa.com. p. 99 surveillance capitalism: Shoshona Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (PublicAffairs, 2019). p. 101 Amazon technology analyzes human voice to determine ethnic origin, gender, age, health, and mental state: Madison Malone Kircher, “I Don’t Want My Echo Dot to Be Able to Tell When I’m Sick,” New York, October 15, 2018; Belle Lin, “Amazon’s Accent Recognition Technology Could Tell the Government Where You’re From,” Intercept, November 15, 2018; Jon Brodkin, “Amazon Patents Alexa Tech to Tell if You’re Sick, Depressed and Sell You Meds,” Ars Technica, October 11, 2018, arstechnica.com.

As Amazon saturates the market with new smart speakers, it also works to expand the capabilities of those it has already sold via software updates. The “smarter” they get, the better such devices become at extracting continuous — and ever-greater — profits from users worldwide. The writer Shoshana Zuboff has referred to this model as “surveillance capitalism,’’ and most ordinary folk have more to fear from it than they do from the NSA. A panopticon in every parlor, after all, is good for business. Amazon’s patents offer what could be a sneak preview of the future. They include technologies to mine ambient speech for keywords and share them with advertisers, even in the absence of a “wake” command.

“Independent” is the most important word in the preceding sentence. If the United States were to create such an entity, its mission would be twofold: protecting citizens from both the corporations that monetize our data and the law enforcement agencies they collude with under the banner of surveillance capitalism. This may sound like a terribly remote hope. Given the state of political turmoil in the United States, it’s a dream that could easily sound naive. But we refuse to submit to cynicism. If a ragtag band of concerned citizens could shepherd Snowden’s secrets from the darkness onto the front pages of international newspapers, it’s worth asking yourself: what can I do?


pages: 297 words: 83,651

The Twittering Machine by Richard Seymour

4chan, anti-communist, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Cal Newport, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hive mind, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, patent troll, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Rat Park, rent-seeking, replication crisis, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart cities, Snapchat, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Every time we fill in a Captcha, where we are asked to transcribe some letters and numbers to ‘prove we are human’ and get access to our emails, we may be helping a commercial firm digitize an archive.53 In the emerging world, free labour is extracted from customers under the guise of ‘participation’ and ‘feedback’. From the point of view of freedom, says Shoshana Zuboff, this new ‘surveillance capitalism’ is worse than the panopticon.54 The panopticon teaches us to conform with dominant norms. But that sort of power at least acknowledges that we might not conform. In surveillance capitalism, by contrast, the mechanisms of observation and manipulation are designed without any assumption of psychological self-determination. Conformity disappears into the machinery, an order of stimulus–response, cause and effect.

Every time we fill . . . Moshe Z. Marvit, ‘How Crowdworkers Became the Ghosts in the Digital Machine’, The Nation, 5 February 2014. 54. From the point of view of freedom, says Shoshana Zuboff . . . Shoshana Zuboff, ‘Big Other: surveillance capitalism and the prospects of an information civilisation’, Journal of Information Technology, 2015, No. 30, pp. 75–89; Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power, Profile Books, 2019. 55. Ludwig Börne . . . Quoted in Walter Benjamin, The Arcades Project, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA: 1999, p. 514. 56.

Marcus Gilroy-Ware, Filling the Void: Emotion, Capitalism and Social Media, Repeater Books: London, 2017, Kindle loc. 288. 6. As William Davies has argued . . . William Davies, ‘Neoliberalism and the revenge of the “social”’, openDemocracy, 16 July 2013. 7. Our lives have become . . . Shoshana Zuboff, ‘Big Other: surveillance capitalism and the prospects of an information civilisation’, Journal of Information Technology, 2015, No 30, pp. 75–89. 8. . . . redolent of the ‘Skinner Box’ . . . B. F. Skinner, The Behavior of Organisms: An Experimental Analysis, B. F. Skinner Foundation: Cambridge, MA, 1991. 9. . . . according to former editor-in-chief . . .


pages: 239 words: 80,319

Lurking: How a Person Became a User by Joanne McNeil

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, Chris Wanstrath, citation needed, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, feminist movement, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kim Stanley Robinson, l'esprit de l'escalier, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mondo 2000, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, packet switching, PageRank, pre–internet, profit motive, QAnon, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Turing complete, We are the 99%, web application, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, you are the product

Heartwarming images of ten-year-old girls learning Python could temporarily overshadow other issues that Silicon Valley was increasingly held accountable for, like the vast and growing economic inequality in the Bay Area, the omnisurveillance that Edward Snowden’s disclosures brought to public attention, surveillance capitalism, and how the tech industry exacerbated lack of public trust in institutions. Capitalizing on intersectionality isn’t an altogether bad thing. It’s just complicated. It is wonderful, for example, that Google provides pads and tampons in men’s rooms of some of its offices. Google also lets people announce their pronouns with stickers at tech conference check-ins, but meanwhile Google donates money to anti-LGBTQ politicians.

Contrast that with Yelp and TripAdvisor listings, which also have only one page for each subject, but host consumer reviews, and can get overwhelmed with positive or negative fake reviews, such as the comments that piled up on user-review sites for the Red Hen in Lexington, Virginia, after the restaurant refused service to White House press secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders in 2018. In addition to its eschewal of surveillance capitalism and tracking, another aspect that distinguishes Wikipedia from other internet platforms with traffic at its scale is its accountability mechanisms. Again, all of this is imperfect—bad at times, terrible even, and an object lesson in transparency as tumult—but the mechanisms exist. There are rules, and these rules are easy to find.

Goodreads and Twitch, the livestreaming video platform, are Amazon subsidiaries, but their social media operations are small in comparison to services like cloud computing, logistics, and retail. A good explanation of the difference between users and customers can be found in “The Discovery of Behavioral Surplus,” in Shoshana Zuboff’s The Age of Surveillance Capitalism (Public Affairs, 2019): “There is no economic exchange, no price, and no profit. Nor do users function in the role of workers … Users are not paid for their labor, nor do they operate the means of production.” 1. SEARCH In 2015, Google restructured itself and renamed its holding company “Alphabet,” but no one seems to actually call it that other than its shareholders.


pages: 1,172 words: 114,305

New Laws of Robotics: Defending Human Expertise in the Age of AI by Frank Pasquale

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, algorithmic bias, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, coronavirus, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, decarbonisation, deskilling, digital twin, disinformation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, finite state, Flash crash, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, high net worth, hiring and firing, Ian Bogost, independent contractor, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, late capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, medical malpractice, meta-analysis, Modern Monetary Theory, Money creation, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, obamacare, paradox of thrift, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Philip Mirowski, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, QR code, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, smart cities, smart contracts, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Bannon, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telepresence, telerobotics, The Future of Employment, Therac-25, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing test, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, wage slave, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working poor, Works Progress Administration, zero day

Andrew Brooks, “The Hidden Trade in Our Second-Hand Clothes Given to Charity,” Guardian, February 13, 2015, https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/sustainable-fashion-blog/2015/feb/13/second-hand-clothes-charity-donations-africa. 72. Shoshana Zuboff, “The Secrets of Surveillance Capitalism,” Frankfurter Allegemeine Zeitung, March 5, 2016, http://www.faz.net/aktuell/feuilleton/debatten/the-digital-debate/shoshana-zuboff-secrets-of-surveillance-capitalism-14103616-p2.html. 73. Steven Rosenfeld, “Online Public Schools Are a Disaster, Admits Billionaire, Charter School-Promoter Walton Family Foundation,” AlterNet, February 6, 2016, http://www.alternet.org/education/online-public-schools-are-disaster-admits-billionaire-charter-school-promoter-walton; Credo Center for Research on Education Outcomes, Online Charter School Study 2015 (Stanford, CA: Center for Research on Education Outcomes, 2015), https://credo.stanford.edu/pdfs/OnlineCharterStudyFinal2015.pdf. 74.

Alternately, students may try to instrumentalize their reactions so completely that there is no space between their own desires and responses and those expected from increasingly computerized authorities. However great the merit of social harmony and cohesion, such frozen order is an affront to freedom and judgment. POSITIVE OPTIONS FOR ROBOTIC HELPERS If regulators can tame surveillance capitalism’s omnivorous appetite for data and control, robotic assistance could play a positive role in many classrooms. Shifting the frame from students controlled by technology to students themselves controlling and playing with it is critical. Rather than simply herding students from one digital environment to another, inspiring educators show them how to influence and even create such environments.

This cynical pair of rationales for laissez-faire is particularly dangerous in data regulation, since norms can change quickly as people jostle for advantage.63 Uncoordinated, we rapidly reach an equilibrium that forces everyone to reveal more to avoid disadvantages. Cooperating to put together some enforceable rules, we can protect ourselves from a boundless surveillance capitalism.64 For example, some jurisdictions are beginning to pass laws against firms micro-chipping workers by subcutaneously injecting a rice-sized sensor underneath their skin.65 That project of self-protection is urgent, because subordinating inclusion is bound to become more popular over time.


pages: 511 words: 132,682

Competition Overdose: How Free Market Mythology Transformed Us From Citizen Kings to Market Servants by Maurice E. Stucke, Ariel Ezrachi

affirmative action, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, Corrections Corporation of America, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, delayed gratification, disinformation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Garrett Hardin, George Akerlof, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Chrome, greed is good, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, income per capita, independent contractor, information asymmetry, invisible hand, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, mortgage debt, Network effects, out of africa, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, precariat, price anchoring, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, sunk-cost fallacy, surveillance capitalism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, ultimatum game, Vanguard fund, winner-take-all economy, Yochai Benkler

In the advertising world, this is known as “behavioral advertising”—in which personal and behavioral data mined from online activities are used to match ads to the interests of the target audience. The Fun Kid Racing app’s marketing of its users’ data through the Google ecosystem is one small instance of the phenomenon Harvard Business School Professor Emerita Shoshana Zuboff has defined as “surveillance capitalism.” Surveillance capitalism “operates through unprecedented asymmetries in knowledge and the power that accrues to knowledge. Surveillance capitalists know everything about us, whereas their operations are designed to be unknowable to us. They accumulate vast domains of new knowledge from us, but not for us . . . for the sake of others’ gain, not ours.”8 By piecing together information gleaned from multiple sources, including the 2018 lawsuit brought by New Mexico’s attorney general against Tiny Lab, Google, and others,9 and recent reports from the United Kingdom,10 French,11 Australian,12 and German13 antitrust agencies, we can get a few glimpses of how this environment is designed by the likes of Google and Facebook.

Alyssa Newcomb, “Google Hit with FTC Complaint over ‘Inappropriate’ Kids Apps,” NBC News, December 19, 2018, https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/tech-news/google-hit-ftc-complaint-over-inappropriate-kids-apps-n949666; Google Play Developer Policy Center, “Families,” accessed April 30, 2019, https://play.google.com/about/families/. 5.Tiny Lab, “Tiny Lab Kids,” accessed April 30, 2019, https://www.tinylabkids.com. 6.Scott Goodson, “If You’re Not Paying for It, You Become the Product,” Forbes, March 5, 2012, https://www.forbes.com/sites/marketshare/2012/03/05/if-youre-not-paying-for-it-you-become-the-product. 7.NM AG Complaint ¶ 3. 8.Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: Public Affairs, 2019), 11. 9.NM AG Complaint. 10.Unlocking Digital Competition: Report of the Digital Competition Expert Panel (London: March 2019), https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/785547/unlocking_digital_competition_furman_review_web.pdf (the “Furman Report”). 11.Autorité de la Concurrence, Opinion no. 18-A-03 of 6 March 2018 on Data Processing in the Online Advertising Sector, http://www.autoritedelaconcurrence.fr/doc/avis18a03_en_.pdf (“Autorité Report”). 12.Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (ACCC), Digital Platforms Inquiry: Preliminary Report (December 2018), https://www.accc.gov.au/focus-areas/inquiries/digital-platforms-inquiry/preliminary-report (“ACCC Preliminary Report”). 13.Bundeskartellamt, “Bundeskartellamt Prohibits Facebook from Combining User Data from Different Sources,” news release, February 7, 2019, https://www.bundeskartellamt.de/SharedDocs/Meldung/EN/Pressemitteilungen/2019/07_02_2019_Facebook.html; Bundeskartellamt, “Preliminary Assessment in Facebook Proceeding: Facebook’s Collection and Use of Data from Third-Party Sources Is Abusive,” news release, December 19, 2017, https://www.bundeskartellamt.de/SharedDocs/Meldung/EN/Pressemitteilungen/2017/19_12_2017_Facebook.html. 14.James B.

See Federal Trade Commission fuel shortage incidents on airlines, 56–58, 61 Fun Kid Racing app (Tiny Lab), 194–95, 199, 202–3 Gallup, 277 Gamemakers, 192–224 overview, xiii, 192, 195–96 addictive qualities built into apps, 196–203 advertisers bidding on targets, 208–9 attracting bidders, 207–9 benefits of their technology, 221 business models, 198, 220 children’s data gleaned for advertisers, 193–95 controlling what we see or don’t see, 218–22 creating an illusion of choice and control, 211–15 extracting our personal data, 203–7 Google and FB dominance, 208, 210, 213–15 identifying consumers’ weaknesses for advertisers, 199–201 lack of transparency, 209–10 media and traffic from Google and FB, 210 offering developers a helping hand, 198, 204 payment for free services, 216–18 privacy assurance and policies, 194, 206–7, 211, 212, 217–18 profit from auctions, 209–11 surveillance capitalism, 195 targeting consumers, 204–5 toxic competition, 192–93, 203, 206–7, 220–22, 223 tracking software, 204–7, 217, 222 See also Facebook; Google gaming disorder, 202 Gates, Dominic, 265 gazelles with trackers metaphor, 92–93 General Data Protection Regulation, Europe, 287 General Mills, 64 GEO Group, 167, 172, 173, 175, 176 German printing industry, 244 Germany’s antitrust authority and Facebook, 222 Glass-Steagall Act (1933), 127–28 global economic crisis, causes of, 130 Goldberg, Shmuli, 103–4 Goldman Sachs, 274–76 Google auction of user data to advertisers, 208–9 Fun Kid Racing app, 193–95, 199 initial creation of, 282–83 Location History feature, 212–13 time spent on, 196 YouTube, 196, 208–9, 210, 215 See also Gamemakers Google Books Ngram Viewer, 131, 131–32, 132 government’s role in promoting healthy competition, 260–72 failure of, leading to financial crisis of 2008, 261–64 preventing exploitation of human weaknesses, 267–69 providing a safety net, 269–72 regulation of the market, 260 regulatory guides for the competition machine, 264–67 See also policy makers greed-inspired competition, 235–36, 237, 240.


pages: 237 words: 67,154

Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet by Trebor Scholz, Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, capital controls, citizen journalism, collaborative economy, collaborative editing, collective bargaining, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, deskilling, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hiring and firing, income inequality, independent contractor, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, minimum viable product, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer, post-work, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, SETI@home, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Yochai Benkler, Zipcar

Data, identity, and reputation are critical in the platform economy. Silicon Valley aspires to turn data into a new asset class—a commodity to be sold and traded in financial markets, with property regimes surrounding it. Shoshana Zuboff of Harvard Business School calls this new reality “surveillance capitalism.” We have to move from surveillance capitalism to a system that is able to socialize data—such as with new forms of cooperativism and democratic social innovation. Cities, for instance, should be able to run distributed common data infrastructure on their own, with systems that ensure the security, privacy, and sovereignty of citizens’ data.

Unchecked, they could pose grave dangers. Platform co-ops can succeed at building privacy-positivity and basic decency into products and sell this as a competitive advantage against venture capitalist-backed tech companies that lack such qualities because they practice what is increasingly recognized as surveillance capitalism, the extraction of our data to modify our behaviors at scale. Learn from those who are succeeding already. Stocksy United is winning by being a design-led co-op that serves its design-oriented customers through co-ownership. Loconomics is gaining traction in the micro-labor market by solving pain-points of customers that VC-backed startups don’t even touch, such as certifying the safety credentials of service providers.


pages: 210 words: 65,833

This Is Not Normal: The Collapse of Liberal Britain by William Davies

Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, centre right, Chelsea Manning, coronavirus, corporate governance, Covid-19, COVID-19, credit crunch, deindustrialization, disinformation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, family office, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, gig economy, global pandemic, global village, illegal immigration, Internet of things, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, loadsamoney, London Interbank Offered Rate, mass immigration, moral hazard, Neil Kinnock, Northern Rock, old-boy network, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, prediction markets, quantitative easing, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, statistical model, Steve Bannon, Steven Pinker, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, universal basic income, web of trust, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler

This amounts to what I’ve termed the ‘disenchantment of politics by economics’.11 It also generates an attitude in which the purpose of social relations is to provide data and revenue to some third party. Threaded through the technologies of the credit derivative and the platform is a neoliberal rationality which expands the reach of financial calculation into areas previously governed by social norms. The rise of so-called surveillance capital in the twenty-first century was preordained by an economic and political rationality that dates back to the mid-twentieth century.12 This is disastrous for political liberalism. Dating back to the mid-seventeenth century, and the work of Thomas Hobbes in particular, liberalism’s key concern has been how to artificially manufacture trust.

As neoliberal reforms have sought to elevate financial mechanisms and metrics above legal ones, the defence of rights and due process has frequently become an anti-capitalist one. See, for instance, how liberal norms around privacy are an essential tool of resistance to the mission creep of ‘surveillance capital’. And as neoconservatives have sought to elevate executive decisions above legal and judicial authority, it has frequently been those on the left who are found deploying liberal–legal arguments against the state. On issues such as deportations, legal aid, detention without trial and ‘extraordinary rendition’, it has repeatedly been the left (and not the neoliberal centre) that has done the job of defending the rule of law and judicial process.

Milonakis, From Economics Imperialism to Freakonomics: The Shifting Boundaries Between Economics and Other Social Sciences, Routledge, 2009. 10 See N. Maclean, Democracy in Chains: The Deep History of the Radical Right’s Stealth Plan for America, Penguin, 2016. 11 W. Davies, The Limits of Neoliberalism: Authority, Sovereignty and the Logic of Competition, Sage, 2014. 12 S. Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power, Profile Books, 2019. 13 See J. Vogl, The Ascendency of Finance, John Wiley, 2017. 14 See W. Streeck, How Will Capitalism End? Essays on a Failing System, Verso, 2017. 15 D. Harvey, ‘The “New” Imperialism: Accumulation by Dispossession’, Socialist Register 40. 16 As Jean-François Lyotard wrote in his 1979 The Postmodern Condition (Manchester University Press, 1984, pp. 4–5): ‘The relationships of the suppliers and users of knowledge to the knowledge they supply and use is now tending, and will increasingly tend, to assume the form already taken by the relationship of commodity producers and consumers to the commodities they produce and consume – that is, the form of value.


pages: 462 words: 129,022

People, Power, and Profits: Progressive Capitalism for an Age of Discontent by Joseph E. Stiglitz

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, central bank independence, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, deglobalization, deindustrialization, disinformation, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, gig economy, global supply chain, greed is good, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, late fees, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, meta-analysis, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Savings and loan crisis, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, two-sided market, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, working-age population, Yochai Benkler

Unfortunately, as the discussion below will illustrate, there are many uses of Big Data that disadvantage consumers as a whole, and especially informationally disadvantaged consumers. Some have referred to the market economy that is evolving using Big Data as surveillance capitalism. See, for instance, John Bellamy Foster and Robert W. McChesney, “Surveillance Capitalism,” Monthly Review, July 1, 2014; Shoshana Zuboff, “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology 30, no. 1 (2015): 75–89; and Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism (New York: Public Affairs, 2019). 17.“Perfect” price discrimination is the practice of trying to charge each consumer the maximum he is willing to pay for a good or service.


pages: 506 words: 133,134

The Lonely Century: How Isolation Imperils Our Future by Noreena Hertz

"side hustle", Airbnb, airport security, algorithmic bias, Asian financial crisis, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Broken windows theory, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, Cass Sunstein, centre right, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, dark matter, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, disinformation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, independent contractor, industrial robot, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, meta-analysis, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Pepto Bismol, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, rent control, RFID, Ronald Reagan, San Francisco homelessness, Second Machine Age, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Great Good Place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban planning, Wall-E, WeWork, working poor

Even before the coronavirus struck, over half of global companies with more than 1,000 employees were using ‘non-traditional techniques to monitor staff, including tracking keystrokes, monitoring email conversations and even monitoring conversations between staff’.23 ‘User-activity monitoring’ – UAM, as this new world of workplace surveillance is known – was on track to be a $3.3 billion industry by 2023.24 Now, with a rapid rise in remote working as a result of the pandemic, as well as increased emphasis on productivity, worker surveillance has significantly ramped up. We are living in an age that Shoshana Zuboff has called the ‘Age of Surveillance Capitalism’.25 An age in which for increasing numbers of people your employer is not only constantly watching you, but constantly using AI, Big Data and a whole host of ever more intrusive and granular measuring devices to draw all kinds of conclusions about you. Such conclusions can determine your career trajectory including whether you will be promoted or fired, yet they are all too often based on data that is absent of context and doesn’t take into account extenuating circumstances.

Twenge, Jean M. iGen: Why Today’s Super-Connected Kids Are Growing Up Less Rebellious, More Tolerant, Less Happy – and Completely Unprepared for Adulthood – and What That Means for the Rest of Us (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017). Yang, Keming. Loneliness: A Social Problem (London; New York: Routledge, 2019). Zuboff, Shoshana. The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: Public Affairs, 2019). Notes CHAPTER ONE: This is the Lonely Century 1 ‘Covid-19: One Third of Humanity under Virus Lockdown’, The Economic Times, 25 March 2020, https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/international/world-news/covid-19-one-third-of-humanity-under-virus-lockdown/articleshow/74807030.cms?

Roberts, Behind the Screen: Content Moderation in the Shadows of Social Media (Yale University Press, 2019). 91 Sebastian Deri, Shai Davidai and Thomas Gilovich, ‘Home alone: why people believe others’ social lives are richer than their own’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 113, no. 6 (December 2017), 858–77. 92 ‘Childline: More children seeking help for loneliness’, BBC News, 3 July 2018, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-44692344. 93 J. Clement, ‘U.S. group chat frequency 2017, by age group’. Statista, 5 November 2018, https://www.statista.com/statistics/800650/group-chat-functions-age-use-text-online-messaging-apps/. 94 Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism (Public Affairs, 2019); see also John Harris, ‘Death of the private self: how fifteen years of Facebook changed the human condition’, Guardian, 31 January 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/jan/31/how-facebook-robbed-us-of-our-sense-of-self. 95 Josh Constine, ‘Now Facebook says it may remove Like counts’, TechCrunch.com, 2 September 2019. https://techcrunch.com/2019/09/02/facebook-hidden-likes/; Greg Kumparak, ‘Instagram will now hide likes in 6 more countries’, TechCrunch.com, 17 July 2019, https://techcrunch.com/2019/07/17/instagram-will-now-hide-likes-in-6-more-countries/. 96 Amy Chozick, ‘This Is the Guy Who’s Taking Away the Likes’, New York Times, 17 January 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/17/business/instagram-likes.html. 97 ‘Over Three Quarters of Brits Say Their Social Media Page is a Lie’, Custard Media, 6 April 2016, https://www.custard.co.uk/over-three-quarters-of-brits-say-their-social-media-page-is-a-lie/. 98 Sirin Kale, ‘Logged off: meet the teens who refuse to use social media’, Guardian, 29 August 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/aug/29/teens-desert-social-media. 99 Harris, ‘Death of the private self’. 100 Rebecca Jennings, ‘Facetune and the internet’s endless pursuit of physical perfection’, Vox, 25 July 2019, https://www.vox.com/the-highlight/2019/7/16/20689832/instagram-photo-editing-app-facetune. 101 Chris Velazco, ‘Apple highlights some of the best (and most popular) apps of 2019’, Engadget, 3 December 2019, https://www.engadget.com/2019/12/03/apple-best-apps-of-2019-iphone-ipad-mac/. 102 Elle Hunt, ‘Faking it: how selfie dysmorphia is driving people to seek surgery’, Guardian, 23 January 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2019/jan/23/faking-it-how-selfie-dysmorphia-is-driving-people-to-seek-surgery. 103 Jessica Baron, ‘Does Editing Your Selfies Make You More Likely to Want Plastic Surgery?’


pages: 345 words: 92,063

Power, for All: How It Really Works and Why It's Everyone's Business by Julie Battilana, Tiziana Casciaro

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, Asperger Syndrome, blood diamonds, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, different worldview, disinformation, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, fundamental attribution error, future of work, gig economy, hiring and firing, impact investing, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mega-rich, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steven Pinker, surveillance capitalism, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, zero-sum game

It can even know where we are at a given time, what we sound like, and how we look.33 Because they know what we need and want, these companies have tremendous power that can benefit or harm us depending on how it is used and by whom. The temptation to use control over highly valued resources for less than virtuous purposes is ever-present. In her book The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, social psychologist Shoshana Zuboff meticulously documented how companies profit from using and selling our personal data.34 Initially, tech companies captured users’ data to improve the services they offered. Then, in the 1990s, some began using this information to generate revenue by targeting us with ads they knew we were likely to respond to.

See Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Vintage Books, 1995). 31 Yuval Noah Harari, “Why Technology Favors Tyranny,” The Atlantic, September 13, 2018, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2018/10/yuval-noah-harari-technology-tyranny/568330/. 32 Adam Satariano, “How My Boss Monitors Me While I Work From Home,” New York Times, May 6, 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/06/technology/employee-monitoring-work-from-home-virus.html. 33 Amy Webb, The Big Nine: How the Tech Titans and Their Thinking Machines Could Warp Humanity (New York: PublicAffairs, 2020). 34 Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: PublicAffairs, 2020). 35 Tobias Rose-Stockwell, “This Is How Your Fear and Outrage Are Being Sold for Profit,” Medium, August 12, 2019, https://medium.com/@tobiasrose/the-enemy-in-our-feeds-e86511488de. See also Tim Wu, The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get inside Our Heads (Vancouver, B.C.: Langara College, 2020). 36 Agrawal, Gans, and Goldfarb, Prediction Machines, 43. 37 Open Hearing on Foreign Influence Operations’ Use of Social Media Platforms (Company Witnesses), Before the Select Committee on Intelligence of the United States Senate, 115th Cong. (2018) (statement of Jack Dorsey, CEO of Twitter). 38 Jerrold Nadler and David N.

For a comprehensive list of locations of any word or phrase, use your reading system’s search function. 2008 financial crisis, 118, 126 48 Laws of Power, The (Greene), 19 Aakash’s story, 82–84 abuse of power, 21, 37, 43, 110–13 access to valued resources changing power balance, 8–13, 194 collective choices, 195 expanding networks for, 194 Ning’s story, 61, 63–64 personal data surveillance, 151–54 purposeful use of technology and, 148, 150 reclaiming democratic power, 197 Adbusters, 118 Age of Surveillance Capitalism, The (Zuboff), 152 agitation, 118–20, 137, 154, 195, 196, 238n7 agricultural revolution, 142 AI Now Institute, 160 Aladdin, x algorithms, 148–51, 153, 158–60 Alighieri, Dante, 41 Alinsky, Saul D., 20 Allegory of Good and Bad Government, The (Lorenzetti), 165 Allen, Danielle, 186 Alphabet Workers Union, 157–58 altruism, 26, 30–31, 36–38, 55, 196 Amazon, 112, 152, 153, 157, 159 Amnesty International, 156 Andersen, Lene Rachel, 187, 188, 258n83 Anderson, Cameron, 211n25, 212n10, 212n13, 230n12, 250n3 Anderson, Elizabeth, 177 antitrust legislation, 11, 159 apartheid, 117 Appiah, Kwame Anthony, 218n18, 220n34 Apple, 113, 151, 153, 157, 158 Arab Spring, 109, 117, 118 Ardern, Jacinda, 53–54 Arendt, Hannah, 96 Argentina’s marriage equality story, 131–37, 242n34 Argentine LGBT Federation, 133–37, 242n34 Aristotle, 55, 57 artificial intelligence (AI), 148–49 Associação Saúde Criança (Instituto DARA), 28 attention economy, 152–53 attraction strategy, 8–11, 9, 12, 194 Austen, Jane, 46 authoritarianism, xvii, 36–38, 43, 122, 152, 185 authority-power relationship, 66–68, 69–70, 73 #BalanceTonPorc, 137 Banaji, Mahzarin R., 231n19, 231n20, 233n48 Banerjee, Abhijit V., 114 Barefoot College’s innovation, 144–46, 148, 161 Bastida, Xiye, 121–24 Beard, Mary, 101 Beauvoir, Simone de, 102 belonging, 2, 7, 58, 82, 105, 118, 133, 168, 187, 194, 221n40 See also valued resources: affiliation benefit corporations (B-Corps), 176 Bentham, Jeremy, 151, 245n30 Berners-Lee, Tim, 147, 148 betweenness, 79–81, 79, 153 Bhatia, Karan, 157 bias algorithmic, 150–51 fundamental attribution error, 16 negativity bias, 19 status quo bias, 74 confirmation bias, 88 See also stereotypes, racism, gender inequality BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, and People of Color), 88, 117, 151, 196 Björkman, Tomas, 187, 188, 258n83 Black Lives Matter movement, 117, 139, 141, 147–48 Black Voters Matter Fund, 190 Blau, Peter M., 261n4 Bloomberg, Michael, 130 Boards of Directors, 66, 86–89, 91–92, 128–130, 157, 169, 174–177, 188 Bonaparte, Napoleon, 47 Bourdieu, Pierre, 231n26, 232n34 Brass, Daniel J., 226n12 Brave New World (Huxley), 164 Brock, Timothy, 135 Brodsky, Greg, 162–63 Brown, LaTosha, 190–91 Browner, Carol, 80, 81, 84 Buddhism, 32–33 Buffett, Warren, 114 Buolamwini, Joy, 150 Burke, Tarana, 137 Burt, Ronald S., 227n25, 228n36, 236n66 Business Roundtable, 175–76 Caesar, Julius, 101 Cailliau, Robert, 147, 148 Capital (Marx), 110 Carnegie, Andrew, 110–11 Caro, Robert A., 14–15 Carus, Titus Lucretius, 41 caste system, 91–92 Castells, Manuel, 199, 231n26, 239n2, 261n9 Catholic Church, 131, 135 certified coaches, 5, 209n4 change-makers, 74, 78 Channapatna artisans, 47, 50 chattel slavery, 91–92 checks on power, 165–92 collective responsibility, 189–92 employee representation, 177–82 organizational power sharing, 167–73, 191–92 oversight and accountability, 173–77 societal power sharing, 182–84, 192, 256n63 structural limits, 165–66 See also civic education and engagement, civic vigilance Chenoweth, Erica, 124 Chomsky, Noam, 219n25, 257n77 Cialdini, Robert B., 210n15, 227n23 Citizens United, 118 civic education and engagement, 184–88 civic vigilance, 184–86, 192, 257n74, 257n79 Civil Rights Act, 14 Clegg, Stewart, 236n64, 262n22 Cleisthenes, 182, 256n63 climate science, 45–46 Clinton, Bill, 80 Coats, Michael, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171 Code of Hammurabi, 100–01 codetermination, 181 Cohen, Joshua, 257n75, 259n96 collective action consolidation strategy, 11–12, 111, 112 Google employees story, 154–58 keeping power in check, 192 power distribution responsibility, 195 shifting power balance and, 115, 178–79 collective movements, 117–39 agitation, 118–20, 137, 154, 195, 196, 239n6 digital technology and, xvii, 137–39, 154–58, 242n40 innovation, 119–20, 125–30, 147–49, 154, 195, 196 orchestration, 119–20, 131–37, 154, 195, 196 public agenda and, 120–25 shifting power balance, 115 collective orientation, 32, 36, 195 collective responsibility, 189–92 Community Interest Companies, 176 concentration of wealth, 162, 175–76, 189–90 confirmation bias, 88 Confucius, 55 consolidation strategy, 8, 9, 11–12, 111, 112, 142, 194 Contract with America (Gingrich), 80 Cook, Tim, 158 cooperatives, 162–63, 179–81 Cordeiro, Vera, 27–29, 33, 38–39, 166 Courpasson, David, 247n57, 262n22 COVID-19, 38, 49, 176 Creighton, Mandell, 24 CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), 162, 164, 249n79 Crozier, Michel, 225n6 Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, 42 Cuddy, Amy J.


pages: 335 words: 97,468

Uncharted: How to Map the Future by Margaret Heffernan

23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, clean water, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, discovery of penicillin, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, George Santayana, gig economy, Google Glasses, index card, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, job automation, Kickstarter, late capitalism, lateral thinking, Law of Accelerating Returns, liberation theology, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Murray Gell-Mann, Nate Silver, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, passive investing, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Rosa Parks, Sam Altman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart meter, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Tim Cook: Apple, twin studies, University of East Anglia

Wolmar, Christian, Driverless Cars: On a Road to Nowhere, London Publishing Partnership, 2018 19 For examples here, see Eubanks, Virginia, Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police and Punish the Poor, St Martin’s Press, New York, 2017, as well as O’Neill, Cathy, Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy, Allen Lane, London, 2016, and reports from the AI Now Institute: ainowinstitute.org 20 ‘Overcoming Speed Bumps on the Road to Telematics’, www2.deloitte.com/­content/­dam/­insights/us/­articles/­telematics-in-auto-insurance/­DUP-695_Telematics-in-the-Insurance-Industry_vFINAL.pdf, accessed 20 August 2019. Also quoted in Zuboff, Shoshana, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power, Public Affairs, New York, 2019 21 ‘Good Judgment Project research found that super-forecasters can anticipate events 400 days ahead that other forecasters can only see 150 days ahead’, www.goodjudgment.com, accessed 29 January 2019 22 www.youtube.com/­watch?

guccounter=1&guce_referrer_us=aHR0cHM6Ly93­d3cuZWN­vc2lhLm­9yZy9zZWFyY2g_cT1hbWF6b24rYW50aWNpcGF0b3J5K3­Nob3BwaW5­nJmFkZG9uPXNhZmFya­Q&­guce_referrer_cs=tQBTN1R67wK4N8­Ucod2ewA, accessed 21 August 2019 44 Of course, the company might make the wrong choices (it forever sends me emails recommending that I buy books I’ve written), but that’s okay, because the first few I’ll be allowed to keep as a gesture of goodwill 45 Zuboff, Shoshana, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, op. cit. 46 Strangely this comment appears to have been made without irony or any awareness that our financial systems are imperfect. Pentland, Alex, ‘Society’s Nervous System: Building Effective Government, Energy, and Public Health Systems’, hd.media.mit.edu/­tech-reports/­TR-664.pdf, accessed 20 August 2019 4 NO AVAILABLE DATASETS 1 For more detail, see Kania, John and Kramer, Mark, ‘Embracing Emergence: How Collective Impact Addresses Complexity’, Stanford Social Innovation Review, 21 January 2013.

When people use our app, we can capture their behaviors and identify good and bad [ones]. Then we develop “treatments” and “data pellets” that select good behaviors. We can test how actionable our cues are for them and how profitable certain behaviors are for us.’ Zuboff, Shoshana, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, op. cit. The book is replete with jaw-dropping interviews with Silicon Valley leaders proudly discussing the efficiency of inevitability when it can be forced. INDEX A note about the index: The pages referenced in this index refer to the page numbers in the print edition. Clicking on a page number will take you to the ebook location that corresponds to the beginning of that page in the print edition.


pages: 332 words: 100,245

Mine!: How the Hidden Rules of Ownership Control Our Lives by Michael A. Heller, James Salzman

23andMe, Airbnb, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, endowment effect, estate planning, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Garrett Hardin, gig economy, Hernando de Soto, Internet of things, land tenure, Mason jar, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil rush, planetary scale, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, rent control, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, The future is already here, Tim Cook: Apple, Tragedy of the Commons, you are the product, Zipcar

In 2018, insights: Steve Lohr, “Calls Mount to Ease Big Tech’s Grip on Your Data,” New York Times, July 25, 2019. If you want a sense of what companies know about you, see Thorin Klosowski, “Big Companies Harvest Our Data. This Is Who They Think I Am,” New York Times, May 28, 2020. “surveillance capitalism”: Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: PublicAffairs, 2019). “Imagine if General Motors”: Lohr, “Calls Mount.” Chapter 4: My Home Is Not My Castle “Dad, there’s a drone”: “Hillview Man Arrested for Shooting Down Drone; Cites Right to Privacy,” WDRB, July 28, 2015.

Collecting, analyzing, and selling this data is truly what drives the Internet economy. In 2018, insights into American’s desires, attitudes, and activities online were worth an estimated $76 billion—if just half of that revenue were shared with individuals, each would receive a check for $122. Shoshana Zuboff has named this business model “surveillance capitalism.” As one economist puts it bluntly: “Imagine if General Motors did not pay for its steel, rubber or glass—its inputs. That’s what it’s like for the big internet companies. It’s a sweet deal.” This is why so many apps are free. But as tech articles repeat: when the app is free, you are the product.


pages: 379 words: 109,223

Frenemies: The Epic Disruption of the Ad Business by Ken Auletta

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, corporate raider, crossover SUV, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, forensic accounting, Google Glasses, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, NetJets, Network effects, pattern recognition, pets.com, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, éminence grise

What if you have a knee replacement that failed and you sue the manufacturer and the manufacturer goes to Acxiom and subpoenas your behavioral history to show you viewed ads about canoeing? Does that mean you went canoeing? It means you’re interested in canoeing.” Advertisers would be keen on having access to medical records so they could market pharmaceutical products. The accumulation of data to predict future behavior has been labeled surveillance capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff, a professor of business administration at Harvard Business School. Its pioneers have been digital companies like Google and Facebook that derive their marketing power from shadowing citizens and using data to become fortune-tellers. “The game,” Zuboff wrote, “is no longer about sending you a mail-order catalogue or even about targeting online advertising.

See mobile phones/smartphones Smith, Adam, 10 Smith, Brett Kassan, 68 Smith, Shane, 125, 235 Snapchat, 137–38 advertising revenues of, 23 Snaptivity, 287 SocialCode, 161–63 socially conscious advertising, 220, 307–9 Unilever and, 217 Weed on, 254–56 Sorrell, Jack, 101–2, 107 Sorrell, Martin, 10, 13, 15, 23, 79, 101–17, 139, 273, 282, 297 on Amazon as threat to ad agencies, 262, 300 on ANA’s choice of Ebiquity to investigate kickback allegations, 18 on Cannes Lions Festival, 257, 336, 338 as CFO at Saatchi & Saatchi, 104, 105–7 childhood of, 101–2 compensation of, 112 on consulting companies as competitive threat, 208–9 disparagement of creatives by, 112–13 on disruption threat, 30–31, 82, 117 education of, 102–4 on Facebook and Google, 101, 117, 123–24, 127 as financial adviser at James Gulliver Associates, 104 at IMG, 103–4 intensity and persistence of, 114–15 Levy and, 113–14, 233, 234 on list of best performing CEOs, 117 management style of, 111–12 on mobile, 178 on new competition agencies face, 101 on public relations firms, 216 reverse takeover of Garland Communications and, 105–6 second marriage of, 114–16 view of Kassan and MediaLink, 31, 101 See also WPP Sorrell, Sally, 101 Sorrell, Sandra Finestone, 104 Spangenberg, Karl, 63 Spiegel, Evan, 137 Spiegel, Matt, 64 Spotify, 313 Starbucks, 304 Starr, Paul, 23–24 State Street Global Advisors’ Fearless Girl statue, 309–10 Steinberg, Jeremy, 212 Stengel, Jim, 250, 256, 290–91 Stevenson, Adlai, 41 Stevenson, Robert Louis, 47 Steyer, James, 183 StrawberryFrog, 308 Streets Were Paved with Gold, The (Auletta), 2 subscription model, 311–15 subtle ad pitches, 96–97 Sullivan, Margaret, 177 Sun Also Rises, The (Hemingway), 37 Super Bowl 2016 advertising, 184, 185, 187 surveillance capitalism, 164 Taco Bell, 80 targeted advertising, 131–33, 160–61, 197–98 T Brand Studios, 206–8 tech companies, as competitive threat to ad agencies, 213–16 television/television networks CBS (See CBS) Gotlieb on fundamentals impacting, 321 as inflection point for advertising, 28 number of viewers, 2015–2017, 193–196, 200, 320 programmatic advertising and, 198 streaming services offered by, 321–22 targeted ads, inability to offer, 197–98 Upfronts, 198, 199, 200–203 Tencent, 32, 146, 161 Tesla, 305 Tesler, Lenard B., 61 The Betches, 221–22 Thinking, Fast and Slow (Kahneman), 184 Thomas, Philip, 250, 252–53, 337 Thompson, Ben, 331 Thompson, Mark, 206–7, 235, 307 Thomson, Robert, 273 3% Conference, 232 Three Blind Mice (Auletta), 3 Time Inc., 208 Time Warner acquisition of AT&T, 297, 299 tobacco, 42–43 Tobaccowala, Rishad, 10, 31–32, 36–37, 46, 146, 147, 236–37 on agency resilience, 282 on AI, 302 on Amazon as threat to ad agencies, 263 on ANA report, 244–45 on delivering utilities and services, 270–71 empathy in marketing of Bank of America, 95–96 on in-house content creation, 220 on Kassan and MediaLink, 70–71, 318 Toffler, Alvin, 14 “Tradeoff Fallacy, The” (Turow), 168 Transformation 2016, 229–37 transparency guidelines, 229–30 Trump, Donald, 186, 312 Trump administration, 297–99 Trump campaign, 294–97 amount spent on advertising, 295 celebrity endorsements, value of, 296 media coverage and, 295–96 targeting data, use of, 296–97 trust issues, between clients and advertising agencies, 35–36, 48–49, 76, 144, 244, 245 Turow, Joseph, 160, 168 21st Century Fox, 76, 335 24/7 Media, 110, 111, 150 Uber, 47 Underclass, The (Auletta), 2 Unilever, 64, 76, 212 agency fees and ad cutbacks of, 319 Dollar Shave Club and, 285, 297 forms Unilever Studio for creative work, 80 Vaseline ad, 185–86, 217 Vaseline Healing Project, 217 unique selling proposition, 41, 308 unverified ads, 136 Upfronts, 198, 199, 200–203 Uva, JC, 48, 66 VandeHei, Jim, 312 Van Veen, Ricky, 166–67 Vaseline ads, 185–86, 217 Vaynerchuk, Gary, 87–91, 306 VaynerMedia, 88–91 Chase Bank account and, 87, 89–91 revenue of, 87 social media marketing and, 88 Vaynerchuk founds, 88 work with GE, 86, 87 Verizon, 137, 160, 263 Vice, 81, 207, 208 Viv, 262, 268–69 Volvo, 307 von Borries, Philippe, 66, 207–8 Wacksman, Barry, 284, 286 Walgreens, 271 Wall Street Journal, 176–77, 207, 313 Walmart, 272 Washington Post, 314 Watson, 211–12 WCRS Group, 143 Weapons of Math Destruction: How Bid Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy (O’Neil), 274–75 Weather Company (weather.com), 210, 211–12 WeChat, 32, 146 Weed, Keith, 46, 47–48, 64, 78, 135, 146, 148, 160–61, 325 on Cannes Lions Festival, 258 at CES, 225 on online advertising directed to bots, 323–24 on socially conscious advertising, 254–56 See also Unilever Weisman, Tony, 249–50 Weitzman, Howard, 61, 73 Western International Media, 143 Wheeler, Tom, 169, 298 Where the Suckers Moon: An Advertising Story (Rothenberg), 40 Whittaker, James, 267, 303 Wieser, Brian, 10, 216, 265, 330 Wildness, 180 Williams, Evan, 311–12 Wind, Jerry, 174 Wire and Plastic Products.

* Julia Angwin, Terry Parris, Jr., and Surya Mattu, “What Facebook Knows About You,” ProPublica, September 28, 2016. * Sarah Perez, “Google’s New ‘About Me’ Page Lets You Control What Personal Info Others Can See,” TechCrunch.com, November 11, 2015. * Shoshana Zuboff, “The Secrets of Surveillance Capitalism,” Frankfurter Allgemeine, March 5, 2016. * Sandy Parakilas, “Facebook Won’t Protect Your Privacy,” New York Times op-ed page, November 20, 2017. * As we see, data on the size of the ad-blocking community vary wildly. * The disparity between Mary Meeker’s figure of 5.2 billion mobile phones and Carolyn Everson’s figure of 7.2 billion is a reminder that gathering global data involves some guesswork


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The Costs of Connection: How Data Is Colonizing Human Life and Appropriating It for Capitalism by Nick Couldry, Ulises A. Mejias

"side hustle", 23andMe, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, colonial rule, computer vision, corporate governance, dark matter, data acquisition, data is the new oil, different worldview, discovery of the americas, disinformation, diversification, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hiring and firing, income inequality, independent contractor, information asymmetry, Infrastructure as a Service, intangible asset, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, job automation, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, payday loans, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Scientific racism, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, software studies, sovereign wealth fund, surveillance capitalism, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, Thomas Davenport, Tim Cook: Apple, trade liberalization, trade route, undersea cable, urban planning, wages for housework

Data colonialism interposes infrastructures of data extraction directly into the texture of human life and so risks deforming human experience in a fundamental way, invading the space of the self on which the values of autonomy and freedom in all their forms depend.130 Our Argument within the Wider Debate about Data and Capitalism Why is it that so far we have talked simply of capitalism and not digital capitalism, informational capitalism, communicative capitalism, platform capitalism, or surveillance capitalism, to name some rival terms?131 The reason is straightforward. No convincing argument has yet been made that capitalism today is anything other than what it has always been: the systematic organization of life so as to maximize value, resulting in the concentration of power and wealth in very few hands.

Therefore, when we use the term capitalism with a contemporary reference, we mean capitalism as it is now developing in societies in which “the production, accumulation and processing of information” is growing.132 Surveillance is certainly part of this, again as we have emphasized, but not sufficiently to brand today’s capitalism as surveillance capitalism. For, within the longer history of colonialism and capitalism, surveillance has often been the accompaniment to the direct appropriation of laboring bodies for value (think of the slave plantation).133 What is new today is not so much surveillance but rather the networks of social relations in which vastly extended modes of appropriating human life through data work to order economic and social life as a whole.

Zelizer, Viviana. Economic Lives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010. Zittrain, Jonathan. The Future of the Internet—And How to Stop It. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008. Žižek, Slavoj. Living in the End Times. 2nd ed. London: Verso, 2011. Zuboff, Shoshana. “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization.” Journal of Information Technology 30, no. 1 (2015): 75–89. Zuboff, Shoshana. In the Age of the Smart Machine. New York: Basic Books, 1988. Zuckerberg, Ethan. “The Internet’s Original Sin.” The Atlantic, August 14, 2014. Zuckerberg, Mark.


pages: 412 words: 115,048

Dangerous Ideas: A Brief History of Censorship in the West, From the Ancients to Fake News by Eric Berkowitz

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, colonial rule, coronavirus, COVID-19, disinformation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Index librorum prohibitorum, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, microaggression, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, New Urbanism, pre–internet, QAnon, Ralph Nader, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, source of truth, Steve Bannon, surveillance capitalism, undersea cable, WikiLeaks

During a 2019 US measles outbreak, Facebook distributed anti-vaccination ads to pregnant women. “Platforms are . . . incentivized to permit and even to encourage the spread of extreme or controversial harmful speech, as it is likely to directly benefit them financially,” write Jeff Gary and Ashkan Soltani.59 This has been called, among other things, the attention economy and surveillance capitalism, but the effect is the same: user engagement is snared with material that is “likely to be false, demagogic, conspiratorial, and incendiary,” says law professor Jack Balkin, which appeals to the users’ “fear, envy, anger, hatred, and distrust,” and which is then turned to profit through the sale of the data such attention generates.

See also censorship Curtis, Michael Kent, 155 Cyprian of Antioch, 42–43 Czechoslovakia, 188 Daily Express (publication), 196 Daily Telegraph (publication), 122 damnatio memoriae, 39–40, 41, 44, 77 Dante Alighieri, 61–62, 63 Darnton, Robert, 102, 104, 255 D’Ascoli, Cecco, 62 Das Kapital (Marx), 136 data harvesting, 230, 250. See also surveillance capitalism Daumier, Honoré, 139 David, Jacques-Louis, 107 Davis, Elmer, 195 Death in the Nude (film), 164 Debs, Eugene, 180–81 Declaration of Independence (US), 232 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (France), 89, 106 decorative images. See imagery; paintings, censorship of “Decree on the Press” (Lenin), 206 Defence of the Realm Act (England), 171 Defoe, Daniel, 92 De Morny, Marquise, 161–62 Demosthenes, 21 Denmark, 133, 243–44, 247 Dennis v.

See also Russia Spain, 121, 133 Spanish conquistadors, 3, 9 Spanish Earth (film), 191 Spinoza, Baruch, 70, 86, 212 The Spirit of ’76 (film), 177 Spock, Benjamin, 210–11 Stabili, Francesco degli (Cecco d’Ascoli), 62 Stalin, Joseph, 41–42, 206 Stamp Acts (England), 92, 112 Stark, Gary, 163 Stationers’ Company, 80–81, 84, 85 statues: in Ancient China, 1; in Afghanistan, 77; in Ancient Greece, 25; in Ancient Rome, 34, 39–41, 50–51; in England, 76–77; in France, 106; in Ukraine, 41–42 Statute of Treasons (1351, England), 67, 97 Steakley, James, 184 Steinbeck, John, 160, 194 Stephen, James, 67 Stephen, Leslie, 132–33 Stephen the Younger (saint), 57 Stokes, Rose, 177 Stone, Geoffrey, 115, 157 Stories of the Intifada (Green), 204–5 Storm of Steel (Jünger), 167 Strachey, Lytton, 192 Stratton Oakmont, 226 Stravinsky, Igor, 186 Stubbs, John, 81 Suetonius, 32, 33, 41 Sunday Express (publication), 193 The Suppression of Poisonous Opinions (Stephen), 132–33 surveillance capitalism, 222–25. See also data harvesting; online speech Sweden, 244 Swift, Jonathan, 92 Symposium (Plato), 27 Syria, 19, 20, 232 Tacitus, 30, 37, 40 Taiwan, 234 Taliban, 77 Talmud, 15–16, 17–20, 58–59, 73 Tarquinius Superbus, Lucius (king), 34 Tatian, 52 Taylor v. Mississippi, 209 Team of Vipers (Sims), 213 Technologies of Freedom (Pool), 220–21 Terence, 58 terrorism, 227, 241.


pages: 268 words: 76,702

The System: Who Owns the Internet, and How It Owns Us by James Ball

Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, Chelsea Manning, cryptocurrency, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, packet switching, patent troll, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Crocker, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, The Chicago School, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, yield management, zero day

., Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech, Oxford University Press, 2018. Wu, T., The Curse of Bigness: Antitrust in the New Gilded Age, Columbia Global Reports, 2018. Zittrain, J., The Future of the Internet – And How to Stop It (s.n.), Yale University Press, 2009. Zuboff, S., The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for the Future at the New Frontier of Power, Profile Books Ltd, 2019. NOTES INTRODUCTION 1This analysis takes some inspiration and reasoning from Tim Wu’s The Curse of Bigness, cited at greater length in the conclusion. 2https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2017/12/06/the-richest-1-percent-now-owns-more-of-the-countrys-wealth-than-at-any-time-in-the-past-50-years/?

aat=1&t=111&dnt=111 15https://www.eff.org/privacybadger 16https://www.eff.org/https-everywhere 17https://certbot.eff.org/ 18This is a pseudonym, but one Kidane uses in real life with his diaspora community too. 19https://uk.kantar.com/tech/social/2018/gen-z-is-the-generation-taking-a-stand-for-privacy-on-social-media/ 20Cohn notes this line of reasoning is central to Cory Doctorow’s online privacy themes in his young adult book, Little Brother. 21https://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/wikipedia.org 22https://stats.wikimedia.org/v2/#/en.wikipedia.org 23https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Statistics 24https://foundation.wikimedia.org/wiki/2016-2017_Fundraising_Report 25https://www.vogue.co.uk/article/how-the-conduit-plans-to-change-the-world 26https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bomis 27https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_of_Wikipedia_in_Turkey 28https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:LE15_Gender_overall_in_2018.png 29https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/10/how-wikipedia-is-hostile-to-women/411619/ 30https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05947-8 31As highlighted in a Twitter thread from Demos’s Carl Miller here: https://twitter.com/carljackmiller/status/1022055586471534592 32Zittrain is the author of The Future of the Internet – And How To Stop It, which is well worth a read. CONCLUSION 1https://www.populationpyramid.net/world/2018/ 2I was at first relatively sure I had coined this term myself, but a Google search throws up a few results, including this from Shoshana Zuboff (author of The Age of Surveillance Capitalism) article from 2014: https://www.shoshanazuboff.com/new/my-new-article-on-the-weapons-of-mass-detection/ 3http://www.cityam.com/273662/sainsburys-shares-crash-asda-merger-torpedoed 4https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-26266689 5https://www.theguardian.com/business/2012/jan/31/fred-goodwin-stripped-of-knighthood 6The idea that the internet is an essential service may still be contentious to some, but consider this: the idea would have been laughable a decade ago, but now in a country like the UK it is immensely difficult to access information on utility bills and payments, taxation, social housing lists, benefit information and applications, and more, without it.


pages: 272 words: 76,154

How Boards Work: And How They Can Work Better in a Chaotic World by Dambisa Moyo

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Boeing 737 MAX, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, deglobalization, don't be evil, Donald Trump, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global pandemic, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, index fund, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, long term incentive plan, Lyft, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, old-boy network, Pareto efficiency, passive investing, remote working, Ronald Coase, Savings and loan crisis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, sovereign wealth fund, surveillance capitalism, The Nature of the Firm, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, Vanguard fund, Washington Consensus, WeWork, women in the workforce

Similarly, the success of the leading technology companies today—primarily social media platforms and search engines—has brought into question whether it is legitimate for businesses to collate, use, and manipulate individual users’ data to the extent that they do. Outrage on this issue has been vocalized in books like The Age of Surveillance Capitalism, which went as far as to call for breaking up large tech companies and instituting much tighter regulation. From a board perspective, I believe that the question of data privacy is much more complex than these discussions make it out to be. In fact, I see two specific issues that complicate the immediate instinct to pass judgment on matters of data privacy.

Fortune, May 29, 2019. https://fortune.com/2019/05/29/netflix-abortion-georgia-angela-merkel-2019-ipos-broadsheet-may-29/. . “A VC Community Introduces a Gender Quota: The Broadsheet.” Fortune, July 12, 2019. https://fortune.com/2019/07/12/a-vc-community-introduces-a-gender-quota-the-broadsheet/. Zuboff, Shoshana. The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power. London: Profile Books, 2019. ALSO BY DAMBISA MOYO Edge of Chaos: Why Democracy Is Failing to Deliver Economic Growth—and How to Fix It Winner Take All: China’s Race for Resources and What It Means for the World How the West Was Lost: Fifty Years of Economic Folly—and the Stark Choices Ahead Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa Praise for How Boards Work “How Boards Work is exactly what any prospective—or sitting—board member needs to understand the true rigors and realities of board life.


The Internet Trap: How the Digital Economy Builds Monopolies and Undermines Democracy by Matthew Hindman

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, bounce rate, cloud computing, computer vision, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, disinformation, Donald Trump, fault tolerance, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, Ida Tarbell, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the telescope, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, lake wobegon effect, large denomination, longitudinal study, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, New Economic Geography, New Journalism, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, price discrimination, recommendation engine, Robert Metcalfe, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Stewart Brand, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Chicago School, Thomas Malthus, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Yochai Benkler

And, of course, the biggest digital firms increasingly serve as a one-stop-shop for all kinds of personal data: email, browsing history, location data, and increasingly even credit-card purchase data. The temptation for governments to use this data through legal or covert means is strong. Any effective response to “surveillance capitalism”38 must begin with the evolutionary audience dynamics that led us here. User surveillance at firms like Google came first and foremost out of the imperative to grow faster than others. A/B testing and audience data collection were used to improve and personalize recommendations even before they were applied to targeted advertising—indeed, before Google had a clear business model at all.

Retrieved from http://www.ibtimes.com/bing-vs -google-microsoft%C5%9B-pepsi-challenge-backfires-780715. Zelizer, B. (2009). Journalism and the academy. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen and T. Hanitzsch (eds.), The handbook of journalism studies (pp. 29–41). New York: Routledge. Zuboff, S. (2015). Big other: surveillance capitalism and the prospects of an information civilization. Journal of Information Technology, 30(1), 75–89. INDEX Italic pages refer to figures and tables ABC News, 75 A/B testing: attention economy and, 13; personalization and, 43, 53, 57; nature of the internet and, 170, 174–76; news and, 150–54, 158; recommendation systems and, 43; tilted playing field and, 27–28, 31 Accelerated Mobile Platform (AMP), 80, 144, 179 activism, 48, 103, 169 Adams, William, 65 Adaptive Semantics, 19 advertising: attention economy and, 3–4, 7, 11, 13; branding and, 28–32, 36, 86, 166; click-through rates and, 56–57; cost per thousand impressions (CPM) and, 69; economic geography and, 3–4, 63, 67–69, 80; Google and, 68–69; inversion of, 135, 178; local vs. national per-person rates and, 68; models and, 181–84; nature of internet and, 163–64, 168, 176, 178; new economics of, 67–69; news and, 102, 109, 129, 134–35, 138, 140–46, 163–64, 168, 176, 178; newspapers and, 11, 28, 57, 68–69, 102, 129, 135, 138, 140, 142–44, 164, 178–79; political economy and, 38, 40–41, 48, 56–58, 60; property targeting and, 56–57; remnant, 69; Super Bowl and, 68; television and, 68; tilted playing field and, 15, 17, 25, 28–36, 30 African Americans, 123–25, 126, 191 agglomeration, 9, 63, 82–83 aggregation, 65–67, 76–77 AIG, 86 Ajax, 34 algorithms: black box problem and, 52; deep learning and, 21; filters and, 39, 43, 48, 54, 60; K-nearest neighbor, 44–45, 54; lessons from, 48–53, 59–61; nature of internet and, 178; need for more data and, 50–51, 61; news and, 147, 151–52; personalization and, 39–44, 48–54, 60–61; principle component analysis (PCA) and, 46; Restricted Boltzmann Machine, 46; ridge regression, 46; root mean-squared error (RMSE) and, 43–44, 47–48, 50; Russian hackers and, 178; search costs and, 41–43; singular value decomposition (SVD), 45, 58–59.


pages: 340 words: 97,723

The Big Nine: How the Tech Titans and Their Thinking Machines Could Warp Humanity by Amy Webb

Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic bias, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, backpropagation, Bayesian statistics, Bernie Sanders, bioinformatics, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, disinformation, distributed ledger, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Flynn Effect, gig economy, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Inbox Zero, Internet of things, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, New Urbanism, one-China policy, optical character recognition, packet switching, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, superintelligent machines, surveillance capitalism, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, uber lyft, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day

We agree to constant surveillance in exchange for services. This allows the G-MAFIA to generate revenue so that it can improve and expand its offerings to us, whether we are individual consumers or enterprise customers like companies, universities, nonprofits, or government agencies. It’s a business model predicated on surveillance capitalism. Which, if we’re being completely honest, is a system we’re OK with here in the US—otherwise we’d have long stopped using services like Gmail, Microsoft Outlook, and Facebook. In order to work properly, they must gain access to our data trails, which are mined, refined, and packaged. I’m assuming that you use at least one of the products and services offered by the G-MAFIA.

See also Dartmouth Workshop Siri, 13, 43, 119 Skype, 215 Smart city pilot programs: in optimistic scenario of future, 168, 176 Smart glasses: Apple, 161; Applezon, 191; in catastrophic scenario of future, 221; Google, 191; in pragmatic scenario of future, 191, 192 Smartphones: Apple, 94; in pragmatic scenario of future, 191 Social Credit Score system, 6, 80, 82, 152, 154, 209; in Rongcheng, 81; tradeoffs for desirable, 211 Socrates, 17 Sorenson, Arne, 75 South China Morning Post, 69–70 Southern, Taryn, 15 SpaceX, 87 Splinternets, 83; pragmatic scenario of future and, 198 Spy birds, 77–78 Stanford, 60, 63; Artificial Intelligence Lab, 65 Stasis: among U.S. policymakers and think tanks, 213; cigarette smoking danger and, 213; climate change and, 213 Step reckoner, 21, 24 Subscription model, smart wearables and tools: in pragmatic scenario of future, 192–193 Suleyman, Mustafa, 43, 117 Summit supercomputer, 146 Sunstein, Cass, 142 Supercomputers, 146 Surveillance capitalism, 95 Sweeney, Latanya, 113–114, 122 Syllogistic logic, Aristotle and, 18 Synthetic data, 182 Tanzania, 83, 200, 210 Taobao, 68–69 Technology, deployment of: need for technical simulations and risk mapping before, 241–242 Tencent, 3, 5, 9, 49, 65, 67, 70–71, 96, 158; cloud service, 71; conversational interfaces, 76; corporate slogan, 70; digital assistant, 71; facial and object recognition lab, 71; healthcare partnerships, 71, 76; management philosophy, 100; market value, 71; mobile payment system, 71, 186; movie studio, 71; original product, 70; pharmaceutical company investments, 71 Tencent Pictures, 71 Tenpay, 71, 186 Tensor Processing Units (TPUs), 91 TensorFlow, 91, 92, 139 TensorFlow Object Detection API, 91 TensorFlow-GAN, 91 Terminator, The: Skynet, 2 Tesla, BAT investment in, 72 Thinking machines, 23, 24, 25, 35, 36, 50–51, 60, 98, 106, 127, 135, 138, 149, 150, 154; ceding control to, 131; computers as, 22; first, 145; generally intelligent, 159, 189 Thousand Talents Plan, 84–85 Tiān Māo, 13 Tianhe-1 supercomputer, 146 Tinsley, Marlon, 39; versus CHINOOK, 39 Transparency: among G-MAFIA in catastrophic scenario of future, 208; G-MAFIA Coalition adoption of as core value in optimistic scenario of future, 157; in pragmatic scenario of future, 188.


Mindf*ck: Cambridge Analytica and the Plot to Break America by Christopher Wylie

4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, chief data officer, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, computer vision, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, disinformation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Etonian, first-past-the-post, Google Earth, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Potemkin village, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Bannon, surveillance capitalism, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Valery Gerasimov, web application, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

In the last economic revolution, industrial capitalism sought to exploit the natural world around us. It is only with the advent of climate change that we are now coming to terms with its ecological externalities. But in this next iteration of capitalism, the raw materials are no longer oil or minerals but rather commodified attention and behavior. In this new economy of surveillance capitalism, we are the raw materials. What this means is that there is a new economic incentive to create substantial informational asymmetries between platforms and users. In order to be able to convert user behavior into profit, platforms need to know everything about their users’ behavior, while their users know nothing of the platform’s behavior.

Emma Briant (for uncovering critical evidence); Harry Davies, Ann Marlowe, and Wendy Siegelman (for your early investigative work); my former academic supervisor Dr. Carolyn Mair (for reviewing this book and teaching me so much about psychology, data, and culture); and Professor Shoshana Zuboff (whose work on surveillance capitalism helped me refine so many ideas). Perhaps most important, I want to recognize the hundreds of thousands of people who shared this story, called their representatives, marched in protests, held up placards, and sent me encouraging messages—there are so many people I have never even met who have passionately had my back throughout this journey.


pages: 372 words: 100,947

An Ugly Truth: Inside Facebook's Battle for Domination by Sheera Frenkel, Cecilia Kang

affirmative action, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, clean water, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, global pandemic, hockey-stick growth, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, immigration reform, independent contractor, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, QAnon, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Sam Altman, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social web, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, surveillance capitalism, Travis Kalanick, WikiLeaks

Sandberg’s behavioral advertising prototype treated human data as financial instruments bartered in markets like corn or pork belly futures. Her handiwork was “a contagion,” the official added, echoing the words of academic and activist Shoshana Zuboff, who a year earlier had described Sandberg as playing “the role of Typhoid Mary, bringing surveillance capitalism from Google to Facebook, when she signed on as Mark Zuckerberg’s number two.”3 With scant competition to force the leaders to consider the wellbeing of their customers, there was “a proliferation of misinformation and violent or otherwise objectionable content on Facebook’s properties,” the attorneys general alleged in their complaint.

., antitrust case filed in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, Case 1:20-cv-03589-JEB, Document 4, filed December 9, 2020. https://ag.ny.gov/sites/default/files/state_of_new_york_et_al._v._facebook_inc._-_filed_public_complaint_12.11.2020.pdf. 3. the words of academic and activist Shoshana Zuboff: John Naughton, “‘The Goal is to Automate Us’: Welcome to the Age of Surveillance Capitalism,” Observer, January 20, 2019. 4. Zuckerberg and Sandberg met at a Christmas party: Elise Ackerman, “Facebook Fills No. 2 Post with Former Google Exec,” Mercury News, March 5, 2008. 5. $85.9 billion in revenue in 2020: Facebook, “Facebook Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2020 Results,” press release, January 27, 2021.


Border and Rule: Global Migration, Capitalism, and the Rise of Racist Nationalism by Harsha Walia

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, crack epidemic, dark matter, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Food sovereignty, G4S, global pandemic, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, land reform, late capitalism, mandatory minimum, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, pension reform, Rana Plaza, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, special economic zone, Steve Bannon, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, surveillance capitalism, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, seventy walls now exist in our barbwired and walled world.17 Securitization has also turned the border into a dystopic testing ground, constituting a five-hundred-billion-dollar border security industry18 that flaunts virtual walling through intrusive electronic surveillance technologies, automated decision-making, predictive data analytics, facial recognition software, and biometric systems tested on migrants and refugees by blood-sucking leeches like Amazon, Palantir, Elbit Systems, and European Dynamics. Migrants and refugees are at the forefront of becoming, as Shoshana Zuboff calls it, “the sources of surveillance capitalism’s crucial surplus: the objects of a technologically advanced and increasingly inescapable raw-material-extraction operation.”19 These physical, digital, and symbolic changes to border security are “the most durable and profound consequence of the global war on terror” and are some of the most expensive projects undertaken by states.20 Cutting through and hurting fragile habitats and armed with surveillance drones hunting humans, border walls are key technologies of state governance.

Shear and Julie Hirschfeld Davis, “Shoot Migrants’ Legs, Build Alligator Moat: Behind Trump’s Ideas for Border,” New York Times, October 1, 2019, www.nytimes.com/2019/10/01/us/politics/trump-border-wars.html. 13.Ryan Devereaux, “Mining the Future,” The Intercept, October 3, 2019, https://theintercept.com/2019/10/03/climate-change-migration-militarization-arizona/. 14.Associated Press, “Trump Administration to Expand DNA Collection at Border and Give Data to FBI,” Guardian, October 3, 2019, www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/oct/02/us-immigration-border-dna-trump-administration. 15.Wendy Brown, Walled States, Waning Sovereignty (New York and Cambridge: Zone Books, 2017), 132. 16.Brown, Walled States, 105. 17.Reece Jones, “Introduction,” in Open Borders: In Defense of Free Movement, Reece Jones, ed. (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2019), 3. 18.Todd Miller, Border Patrol Nation: Dispatches from the Front Lines of Homeland Security (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2014), 42. 19.Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: PublicAffairs, 2019), 10. 20.Reece Jones, Border Walls: Security and the War on Terror in the United States, India, and Israel (London: Zed Books, 2012), 2. 21.Kate Smith, “Immigrant Deportation Filings Hit Record High in 2018, New Report Shows,” CBS News, November 8, 2018, www.cbsnews.com/news/ice-deportations-in-2018-hit-record-high/. 22.Emily Kassie, “Detained: How the US Built the World’s Largest Immigrant Detention System,” Guardian, September 24, 2019, www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/sep/24/detained-us-largest-immigrant-detention-trump. 23.National Catholic Reporter Editorial Staff, “Editorial: Don’t Look Away from Concentration Camps at the Border,” National Catholic Reporter, June 19, 2019, www.ncronline.org/news/opinion/editorial-dont-look-away-concentration-camps-border. 24.César Cuauhtémoc Garcia Hernández, “Abolishing Immigration Prisons,” Boston University Law Review 97, no. 1 (2017): 245–300. 25.UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Women on the Run: First-Hand Accounts of Refugees Fleeing El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico, October 26, 2015, www.unhcr.org/5630f24c6.html. 26.Alice Speri, “Detained, Then Violated,” The Intercept, April 11, 2018, https://theintercept.com/2018/04/11/immigration-detention-sexual-abuse-ice-dhs/. 27.Nicoll Hernández-Polanco quoted in Adam Frankel, “Do You See How Much I’m Suffering Here?


pages: 134 words: 41,085

The Wake-Up Call: Why the Pandemic Has Exposed the Weakness of the West, and How to Fix It by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

Admiral Zheng, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, Corn Laws, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, global pandemic, Internet of things, invisible hand, James Carville said: "I would like to be reincarnated as the bond market. You can intimidate everybody.", Jones Act, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, McMansion, night-watchman state, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parkinson's law, pensions crisis, QR code, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Bannon, surveillance capitalism, trade route, universal basic income, Washington Consensus

China’s use of facial recognition technology is designed to make a Panopticon out of the entire country. Is the West slipping into the same trap? Google and Facebook make their money by monitoring their customers, providing them with free and useful services but also raising the specter of what Shoshana Zuboff has called the “Age of Surveillance Capitalism.” The Western state is collecting ever more data on us, somewhat chaotically. Covid has given the state an excuse to create a surveillance society. Israel has even authorized Shin Bet, its domestic security force, to break into people’s mobile phones without their permission. The Panopticon may help keep us alive, but it is also bringing us closer to a future in which we are watched by our smartphones, filmed by cameras on every street corner, and obliged to scan bar codes when we get on the train.


pages: 475 words: 134,707

The Hype Machine: How Social Media Disrupts Our Elections, Our Economy, and Our Health--And How We Must Adapt by Sinan Aral

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, computer vision, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, Covid-19, COVID-19, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, death of newspapers, disinformation, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Drosophila, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, global pandemic, hive mind, illegal immigration, income inequality, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multi-sided market, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, performance metric, phenotype, recommendation engine, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Second Machine Age, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social software, social web, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, the strength of weak ties, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, WikiLeaks, Yogi Berra

But it was also a cauldron of misinformation about impending national lockdowns and false cures, nationalistic finger-pointing between the United States and China, and foreign interference designed to fan the flames of our fears. Privacy debates took on new meaning during the COVID crisis as the threat of “surveillance capitalism” morphed into lifesaving “disease surveillance.” Facebook wasn’t surveilling for profit during COVID; it was filling gaps in inadequate national disease surveillance programs with scalable symptom surveys that identified the pandemic’s spread. At the same time, Google, Apple, and MIT developed Bluetooth-based contact tracing systems that would alert users who opted in if they had come in close physical proximity to the Bluetooth-enabled device of a COVID carrier.

In the end, we’ll get out of this wave of innovation what we put into it. If we use this technology in positive, egalitarian ways, we can promote positive social change and create substantial social and economic value. But if we are not careful, we can also inadvertently create an unequal, authoritarian world in which surveillance capitalism directs our behavior toward corporate and governmental ends, without regard for the social and economic implications. As we influence each other, through word and deed online, we continue to create the digital world we inhabit. And eventually, we’ll reap what we have sown. By studying the laws, we can understand how governments attempt to correct the market failures created by the Hype Machine and examine what effect regulations have on business, politics, and society.


pages: 170 words: 49,193

The People vs Tech: How the Internet Is Killing Democracy (And How We Save It) by Jamie Bartlett

Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer vision, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disinformation, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta-analysis, mittelstand, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, off grid, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, strong AI, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, ultimatum game, universal basic income, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y Combinator, you are the product

Doing it through tech allows them to add a glossy veneer of progress on top of some very familiar behaviour. Over the years, the big tech firms have very carefully cultivated the Californian Ideology: even though they are massive multi-billion-dollar corporations with huge PR teams, they pitch themselves as anti-establishment; even though they are built on a model of data extraction and surveillance capitalism, they purport to be promoting exciting and liberating technology; even though they are dominated by rich white guys, they talk of social justice and equality. I sometimes think it must be very confusing to be Mark Zuckerberg. In 2014, only 2 per cent of Facebook staff were black and less than a third were women.


pages: 208 words: 57,602

Futureproof: 9 Rules for Humans in the Age of Automation by Kevin Roose

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, automated trading system, basic income, Bayesian statistics, big-box store, business process, call centre, choice architecture, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, disinformation, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Freestyle chess, future of work, gig economy, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, hustle culture, income inequality, industrial robot, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, Lyft, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta-analysis, Narrative Science, new economy, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Productivity paradox, QAnon, recommendation engine, remote working, risk tolerance, robotic process automation, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

The book that kicked off the futurist craze, and still one of the best examples of writing about the psychological effects of technological change. The Human Use of Human Beings by Norbert Wiener (1950). An examination of the morality of machines, written by one of my all-time favorite technological thinkers. In the Age of the Smart Machine by Shoshana Zuboff (1988). Zuboff is better known these days as the author of Surveillance Capitalism, but her earlier book was a prescient look at the future of work during the first IT boom of the 1980s. Notes Introduction I got my first glimpse Kevin Roose, “The Hidden Automation Agenda of the Davos Elite,” New York Times, January 25, 2019. Aristotle mused that automated weavers Sean Carroll, “Aristotle on Household Robots,” Discover, September 28, 2010.


pages: 202 words: 62,901

The People's Republic of Walmart: How the World's Biggest Corporations Are Laying the Foundation for Socialism by Leigh Phillips, Michal Rozworski

Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carbon footprint, central bank independence, Colonization of Mars, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, corporate raider, decarbonisation, discovery of penicillin, Elon Musk, G4S, Garrett Hardin, Georg Cantor, germ theory of disease, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, hiring and firing, independent contractor, index fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, linear programming, liquidity trap, mass immigration, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, Norbert Wiener, oil shock, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, post scarcity, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, strikebreaker, supply-chain management, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tragedy of the Commons, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing

The locations of forward operating bases in Helmand Province, Afghanistan, were there for anyone to observe. Ruser even spotted GPS points in the Antarctic that appeared not to correlate to any known research installation. “Is there a hidden base?” he half-joked. Can we leap over the dichotomy of surveillance capitalism versus surveillance communism? Could a major goods distributor such as Amazon or a social network like Facebook be built as an international nonprofit cooperative, democratically controlled by a society independent of both the market and the state? We admit that these are difficult questions to which we don’t have answers.


pages: 196 words: 61,981

Blockchain Chicken Farm: And Other Stories of Tech in China's Countryside by Xiaowei Wang

4chan, AI winter, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, cloud computing, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, Covid-19, COVID-19, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Garrett Hardin, gig economy, global pandemic, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, Internet of things, job automation, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, land reform, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer lending, precision agriculture, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, Tragedy of the Commons, universal basic income, WeWork, Y Combinator

I think of him and his lifelong awareness of being watched. We have a sense of how entangled we are in a culture of surveillance and, especially these days, how that culture proliferates with smart devices like Alexa in our homes, or as we spew clever quips on social media. The awareness of surveillance capitalism grows. Yet as a tactic of policing, surveillance has always been crucial in making criminality throughout history, drawing a line between those on the so-called right and wrong sides of society. And this line drawing is enabled by distilling life into arbitrary parts: class, race, gender, with the line of criminality itself constantly shifting throughout time, serving political-economic crises.


pages: 213 words: 70,742

Notes From an Apocalypse: A Personal Journey to the End of the World and Back by Mark O'Connell

Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, California gold rush, carbon footprint, Carrington event, clean water, Colonization of Mars, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Donner party, Elon Musk, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, life extension, low earth orbit, Marc Andreessen, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, off grid, Peter Thiel, post-work, Sam Altman, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, surveillance capitalism, the built environment, yield curve

Like Vicino’s bunkers, this seemed to me to represent a radical acceleration of the mechanisms by which our civilization was already driven. Thiel, in this sense, loomed particularly large. Through his data analytics company Palantir, he was a presiding presence in the increasingly oppressive, though only fleetingly visible, environment of surveillance capitalism. He was known for his extreme libertarian views. “I no longer believe,” he had once written, “that freedom and democracy are compatible.” His conception of freedom had less to do with existential liberty, with meaningful human lives within flourishing communities, than it had to do with not having to share resources—the freedom of wealthy people from taxation, from any obligation to materially contribute to society.


pages: 265 words: 74,000

The Numerati by Stephen Baker

Berlin Wall, Black Swan, business process, call centre, correlation does not imply causation, Drosophila, full employment, illegal immigration, index card, Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, McMansion, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, PageRank, personalized medicine, recommendation engine, RFID, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, surveillance capitalism, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

., [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>] BusinessWeek (magazine), [>], [>] "Butterfly" shoppers, [>], [>] BuzzMetrics (company), [>], [>] Cameras (surveillance) at Accenture, [>], [>]–[>] in casinos, [>]–[>] in homes of the elderly, [>]–[>], [>] in public places, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>] See also Facial recognition; Photos; Surveillance Capital IQ, [>], [>] Capital One, [>] Carbonell, Jaime, [>] Carbon nanotube, [>] Carley, Kathleen, [>]–[>] Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), [>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>] Casablanca (movie), [>] Casinos, [>]–[>], [>] Cavaretta, Michael, [>] Cell phones Bluetooth technology for, [>]–[>] data produced by, [>], [>], [>], [>]–[>] technical issues associated with, [>] tracking use of, [>], [>], [>]–[>] Central Intelligence Agency.


pages: 706 words: 202,591

Facebook: The Inside Story by Steven Levy

active measures, Airbnb, Airbus A320, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, Oculus Rift, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sexual politics, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social software, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, surveillance capitalism, Tim Cook: Apple, Tragedy of the Commons, web application, WeWork, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Y2K, you are the product

Analog Research Lab: Background comes from personal interviews and David Cohen, “A Look at the Analog Research Lab, the Source of All of Those Posters in Facebook’s Offices,” Adweek, February 6, 2019; “Ben Barry Used to be Called Facebook’s Minister of Propaganda,” Typeroom, June 26, 2015; Steven Heller, “The Art of Facebook,” The Atlantic, May 16, 2013; and Fred Turner, “The Arts at Facebook: An Aesthetic Infrastructure for Surveillance Capitalism,” Poetics, March 16, 2018. in its original sense: I helped circulate this definition by my own book Hackers (Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984). younger people were . . . smarter: Mark Coker, “Startup Advice for Young Entrepreneurs from Y Combinator,” VentureBeat, March 26, 2007. he gathered the company: Jessica E.

US 8,825,764 B2 with Michael Nowak, San Francisco, CA (US); Dean Eckles, Palo Alto, CA (US) as inventors. The date of patent is September 2, 2014. While it’s unclear how this specific technique was employed, a detailed discussion of Facebook’s data mining is found in Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: Public Affairs, 2019). “Entity Graph”: This was described to me by Cameron Marlow, who was once head of Facebook’s Data Science team. the most controversial study: Adam D. I. Kramer, Jamie E. Guillory, and Jeff T.


pages: 303 words: 81,071

Infinite Detail by Tim Maughan

3D printing, augmented reality, bitcoin, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cognitive dissonance, friendly fire, global supply chain, Internet of things, Mason jar, off grid, Panamax, post-Panamax, ransomware, RFID, security theater, self-driving car, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, surveillance capitalism, the built environment, urban decay, urban planning

Connection error. A string of undecipherable numbers and letters. “You make me so fucking angry sometimes. I mean, I fucking get it, you hate Apple, you hate the Internet, you hate fucking everything. You don’t want to put photos on iCloud because it’s not safe, privacy blah fucking blah, surveillance capitalism blah blah, you’re so fucking self-righteous—” “Scott! Listen to me! I didn’t touch the fucking photos! There’s a problem with the server, that’s all. Didn’t you have them backed up locally anyway?” He knows, the second the last word leaves his mouth, that it’s the wrong thing to have said.


pages: 304 words: 80,143

The Autonomous Revolution: Reclaiming the Future We’ve Sold to Machines by William Davidow, Michael Malone

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, QWERTY keyboard, ransomware, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, trade route, Turing test, two and twenty, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, urban planning, zero day, zero-sum game, Zipcar

,” The Economist, May 31, 2018, https://www.economist.com/leaders/2018/05/31/does-chinas-digital-police-state-have-echoes-in-the-west. 2. “More Data and Surveillance Are Transforming Justice Systems,” The Economist,, June 2, 2018, https://www.economist.com/technology-quarterly/2018-05-02/justice. 3. Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism (New York: Public Affairs, 2019), 282–290. 4. Surveillance-Video, product catalog, https://www.surveillance-video.com/license-plate-cameras/ (accessed June 27, 2019). 5. Will Oremus, “Forget Security Cameras. Stores Are Using Face Recognition to See If You’re a Shoplifter,” Slate, November 24, 2015, http://www.slate.com/blogs/moneybox/2015/11/24/stores_are_using_face_recognition_to_catch_shoplifters.html (accessed June 27, 2019). 6.


pages: 308 words: 85,880

How to Fix the Future: Staying Human in the Digital Age by Andrew Keen

23andMe, Ada Lovelace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, digital map, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, Filter Bubble, Firefox, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, income inequality, independent contractor, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, precariat, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, the High Line, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

At first I was part of a small group of dissenting authors who challenged the conventional wisdom about the internet’s beneficial impact on society. But over the last few years, as the zeitgeist has zigged from optimism to pessimism about our technological future, more and more pundits have joined our ranks. Now everyone, it seems, is penning polemics against surveillance capitalism, big data monopolists, the ignorance of the online crowd, juvenile Silicon Valley billionaires, fake news, antisocial social networks, mass technological unemployment, digital addiction, and the existential risk of smart algorithms. The world has caught up with my arguments. Nobody calls me the Antichrist anymore.


pages: 326 words: 91,559

Everything for Everyone: The Radical Tradition That Is Shaping the Next Economy by Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Mechanical Turk, back-to-the-land, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, disruptive innovation, do-ocracy, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Food sovereignty, four colour theorem, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hydraulic fracturing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Money creation, multi-sided market, new economy, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Pier Paolo Pasolini, post-work, precariat, premature optimization, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, smart contracts, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, surveillance capitalism, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, undersea cable, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar

Julia Cartwright, Jean François Millet: His Life and Letters (Swan Sonnenschein, 1902), 177; for an exploration of the economic significance of gleaning in Jewish tradition, see Joseph William Singer, The Edges of the Field: Lessons on the Obligations of Ownership (Beacon Press, 2000). 13. See Anna Bernasek and D. T. Mongan, All You Can Pay: How Companies Use Our Data to Empty Our Wallets (Nation Books, 2015); Nick Couldry, “The Price of Connection: ‘Surveillance Capitalism,’” Conversation (September 22, 2016); Virginia Eubanks, Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor (St. Martin’s Press, 2018); Frank Pasquale, The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information (Harvard University Press, 2015); Astra Taylor, The People’s Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age (Metropolitan Books, 2014); Joseph Turow et al., The Tradeoff Fallacy: How Marketers Are Misrepresenting American Consumers and Opening Them Up to Exploitation, report from the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania (June 2015); James Joyce quoted from Finnegans Wake in Marshall McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man (University of Toronto Press, 1962), 278. 14.


pages: 362 words: 97,288

Ghost Road: Beyond the Driverless Car by Anthony M. Townsend

A Pattern Language, active measures, AI winter, algorithmic trading, asset-backed security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backpropagation, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, business process, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, car-free, carbon footprint, computer vision, conceptual framework, congestion charging, connected car, creative destruction, crew resource management, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, dematerialisation, deskilling, drive until you qualify, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, extreme commuting, financial innovation, Flash crash, gig economy, Google bus, haute couture, helicopter parent, independent contractor, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, megacity, minimum viable product, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, Peter Calthorpe, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Ray Oldenburg, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, software as a service, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The future is already here, The Future of Employment, The Great Good Place, too big to fail, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, US Airways Flight 1549, Vernor Vinge

., “Pioneering Driverless Electric Vehicles in Europe: The City Automated Transport Systems (CATS),” Transportation Research Procedia 13 (2016): 30–39, https://hal.inria.fr/hal-01357309/document. 103a completely redesigned vehicle: “Sion, CH Is Piloting AVs,” Initiative on Cities and Autonomous Vehicles, Bloomberg Philanthropies, accessed February 20, 2019, https://avsincities.bloomberg.org/global-atlas/europe/ch/sion-ch; “Project ‘SmartShuttle,’” PostBus, accessed February 2019, https://www.postauto.ch/en/project-smartshuttle. 103driverless shuttles crawled along: “These 61 Cities Are Piloting AVs for Transit,” Initiative on Cities and Autonomous Vehicles, Bloomberg Philanthropies, accessed February 2019, https://avsincities.bloomberg.org/global-atlas/tags/transit. 104ferried more than 1.5 million passengers: National League of Cities, “Sustainability: Weaving a Microtransit Mesh,” Autonomous Vehicles: Future Scenarios, accessed April 12, 2019, http://avfutures.nlc.org/sustainability. 104sold more than 100 Armas and went public: “Navya Updates Its 2018 Revenue Target,” Navya, December 7, 2018, https://navya.tech/en/press/navya-updates-its-2018-revenue-target/. 105cut operating costs by as much as 40 percent: National League of Cities, “Sustainability: Weaving a Microtransit Mesh.” 106a “curb kiss” fee: Michael Cabanatuan and Kurtis Alexander, “Google Bus Backlash: S.F. to Impose Fees on Tech Shuttles,” SFGate, January 21, 2014, https://www.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/Google-bus-backlash-S-F-to-impose-fees-on-tech-5163759.php. 107a planned driverless-shuttle network: City of Bellevue, Washington, and City of Kirkland, Washington, “A Flexible, Electric, Autonomous Commutepool System,” Bellevue-Kirkland USDOT (grant proposal, 2018). 108leftover data has value in predicting human behavior: Shoshana Zuboff, Surveillance Capitalism (New York: Public Affairs, 2019). 109launched its own MaaS effort in 2019: Adele Peters, “In Berlin, There’s Now One App to Access Every Mode of Transportation,” Fast Company, February 18, 2019, https://www.fastcompany.com/90308234/in-berlin-theres-now-one-app-to-access-every-mode-of-transportation. 109draws on a highly successful deployment in Vilnius: Douglas Busvine, “From U-Bahn to E-Scooters: Berlin Mobility App Has It All,” Reuters, September 24, 2019, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-tech-berlin/from-u-bahn-to-e-scooters-berlin-mobility-app-has-it-all-idUSKBN1W90MG. 110the role of mobility-service integrator: Peters, “In Berlin.” 110off to a slow start selling subscriptions: Julia Walmsley, “Watch Out, Uber.


pages: 518 words: 107,836

How Not to Network a Nation: The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet (Information Policy) by Benjamin Peters

Albert Einstein, American ideology, Andrei Shleifer, Benoit Mandelbrot, bitcoin, Brownian motion, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, disinformation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Davies, double helix, Drosophila, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, hive mind, index card, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, linear programming, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, scientific mainstream, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, the strength of weak ties, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, transaction costs, Turing machine, Yochai Benkler

Both international and internal critics, including the British organizational cyberneticist Stafford Beer, were critical of Soviet management techniques.7 More than a network, the OGAS Project as formulated by Glushkov outlines a daring technocratic economic imagining that was meant to operate in a future Soviet information society by digitizing, supervising, and optimizing the coordination challenges besetting the national command economy. The associated costs and scale of such a supercharged system were accordingly colossal. Glushkov captured the sentiment of network effects, which is still alive in surveillance capitalism’s promotion of big data today, in this phrase: “world practice shows that the larger the object for which an information-management system is created, the greater its economic effect.”8 More than komchamstvo, or Lenin’s term for “Communist boasting,” the basic OGAS blueprint affirms its staggering magnitude.


pages: 324 words: 106,699

Permanent Record by Edward Snowden

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Berlin Wall, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, disinformation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, peak oil, pre–internet, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, surveillance capitalism, trade route, WikiLeaks, zero day

If most of what people wanted to do online was to be able to tell their family, friends, and strangers what they were up to, and to be told what their family, friends, and strangers were up to in return, then all companies had to do was figure out how to put themselves in the middle of those social exchanges and turn them into profit. This was the beginning of surveillance capitalism, and the end of the Internet as I knew it. Now, it was the creative Web that collapsed, as countless beautiful, difficult, individualistic websites were shuttered. The promise of convenience led people to exchange their personal sites—which demanded constant and laborious upkeep—for a Facebook page and a Gmail account.


pages: 300 words: 106,520

The Nanny State Made Me: A Story of Britain and How to Save It by Stuart Maconie

banking crisis, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Boris Johnson, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, David Attenborough, Desert Island Discs, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Etonian, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, G4S, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, housing crisis, job automation, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, North Sea oil, Own Your Own Home, Plutocrats, plutocrats, rent control, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, surveillance capitalism, The Chicago School, universal basic income, Winter of Discontent

By privatising not just industries but all the risks formerly dealt with by a benevolent state – vaccinations, ill health, unemployment or workplace injury – the new system forced everybody to start calculating risks at the front of their minds in a way my parents’ generation never had to. All this leads to a kind of evaporation of consent for democracy as surveillance capitalism and algorithmic control by big corporations grows. Loss of faith in human self. That’s what we’ve got to get back. You can fight it.’ In his book, Clear Bright Future, Mason outlines some of the small but crucial ways you can fight back against the rise of the machines and the tyranny of the algorithm: never use the automated checkouts, always wait for an assistant, look your barista in the eye and engage with them, not your phone.


pages: 416 words: 112,268

Human Compatible: Artificial Intelligence and the Problem of Control by Stuart Russell

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Alfred Russel Wallace, algorithmic bias, Andrew Wiles, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, blockchain, brain emulation, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer vision, connected car, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, Garrett Hardin, Gerolamo Cardano, ImageNet competition, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the wheel, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mark Zuckerberg, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, NP-complete, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, positional goods, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, robotic process automation, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, surveillance capitalism, Thales of Miletus, The Future of Employment, The Theory of the Leisure Class by Thorstein Veblen, Thomas Bayes, Thorstein Veblen, Tragedy of the Commons, transport as a service, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, Von Neumann architecture, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, zero-sum game

For details on Stasi files, see Cullen Murphy, God’s Jury: The Inquisition and the Making of the Modern World (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012). 3. For a thorough analysis of AI surveillance systems, see Jay Stanley, The Dawn of Robot Surveillance (American Civil Liberties Union, 2019). 4. Recent books on surveillance and control include Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (PublicAffairs, 2019) and Roger McNamee, Zucked: Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe (Penguin Press, 2019). 5. News article on a blackmail bot: Avivah Litan, “Meet Delilah—the first insider threat Trojan,” Gartner Blog Network, July 14, 2016. 6.


pages: 482 words: 121,173

Tools and Weapons: The Promise and the Peril of the Digital Age by Brad Smith, Carol Ann Browne

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic bias, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Boeing 737 MAX, business process, call centre, Celtic Tiger, chief data officer, cloud computing, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, disinformation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, immigration reform, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, national security letter, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, pattern recognition, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, ransomware, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, school vouchers, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, surveillance capitalism, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tim Cook: Apple, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Julia Carrie Wong, “Mark Zuckerberg Apologises for Facebook’s ‘Mistakes’ over Cambridge Analytica,” Guardian, March 22, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/mar/21/mark-zuckerberg-response-facebook-cambridge-analytica. Back to note reference 14. See Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism: The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (New York: PublicAffairs, 2019). Back to note reference 15. Julie Brill, “Millions Use Microsoft’s GDPR Privacy Tools to Control Their Data — Including 2 Million Americans,” Microsoft on the Issues (blog), Microsoft, September 17, 2018, https://blogs.microsoft.com/on-the-issues/2018/09/17/millions-use-microsofts-gdpr-privacy-tools-to-control-their-data-including-2-million-americans/.


pages: 578 words: 131,346

Humankind: A Hopeful History by Rutger Bregman

Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Broken windows theory, call centre, David Graeber, domesticated silver fox, Donald Trump, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Garrett Hardin, Hans Rosling, invention of writing, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, placebo effect, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, surveillance capitalism, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tragedy of the Commons, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, universal basic income, World Values Survey

Originally published in 1944. 39Tine de Moor, ‘Homo Cooperans. Institutions for collective action and the compassionate society’, Utrecht University Inaugural Lecture (30 August 2013). 40See, for example, Paul Mason, Postcapitalism. A Guide to Our Future (London, 2015). 41See, for example, Shoshana Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism. The Fight for a Human Future at the New Frontier of Power (London, 2019). 42Damon Jones and Ioana Elena Marinescu, ‘The Labor Market Impacts of Universal and Permanent Cash Transfers: Evidence from the Alaska Permanent Fund’, NBER Working Paper (February 2018). 43I’ve also written about this study in North Carolina and about universal basic income elsewhere.


Building and Dwelling: Ethics for the City by Richard Sennett

Buckminster Fuller, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, creative destruction, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Downton Abbey, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, housing crisis, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, open borders, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Richard Florida, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, surveillance capitalism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Yochai Benkler

Saunders (1981) (London: Penguin Books, 1992). 11. William James, ‘Pragmatism, Action and Will’, in Pragmatism: The Classic Writings, ed. H. S. Thayer (Cambridge, Mass.: Hackett, 1982), p. 181. 12. Yochai Benkler, ‘Degrees of Freedom, Dimensions of Power’, Daedalus 145, no. 1 (2016): 20, 23. See also Shoshana Zuboff, ‘Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of Information Civilization’, Journal of Information Technology 30, no. 1 (2015): 75–89, and Tim Wu, The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires (New York: Knopf, 2010). 13. The Burckhardt phrase appears in English in Ernst Cassirer, ‘Force and Freedom: Remarks on the English Edition of Jacob Burckhardt’s “Reflections on History”’, The American Scholar 13, no. 4 (1944): 409–10. 14.


pages: 516 words: 116,875

Greater: Britain After the Storm by Penny Mordaunt, Chris Lewis

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, Covid-19, COVID-19, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, David Attenborough, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, full employment, gender pay gap, global pandemic, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, impact investing, Khartoum Gordon, lateral thinking, Live Aid, loss aversion, low skilled workers, microaggression, mittelstand, moral hazard, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Panamax, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, remote working, road to serfdom, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, surveillance capitalism, transaction costs, transcontinental railway

They see no reason to accept standards that previous generations endured; they see a world that has leapt into the future and a political system stuck in the past; they’re frustrated by the lack of listening and slow pace of change; unsurprisingly, they see the political system itself as the problem; they want a more modern approach. There’s a reason for repeating the phrase ‘they see’, because they really do see. It’s the first generation to be able to see really clearly the level of wrongdoing. Sure, surveillance capitalism allows those at the top to see into the lives of those below. But what’s not always understood by those at the top is that the process is reciprocal. Those at the bottom can see into the lives of those at the top. So, that’s where we start in this chapter – the problem as they see it. The need for modernisation in Britain is at its height in terms of understanding equality and the need for justice and balance.


pages: 491 words: 141,690

The Controlled Demolition of the American Empire by Jeff Berwick, Charlie Robinson

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, airport security, American Legislative Exchange Council, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, Corrections Corporation of America, Covid-19, COVID-19, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, dark matter, disinformation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, epigenetics, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, fiat currency, financial independence, global pandemic, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, mandatory minimum, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, offshore financial centre, open borders, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, private military company, Project for a New American Century, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, security theater, self-driving car, Seymour Hersh, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, South China Sea, surveillance capitalism, too big to fail, unpaid internship, urban decay, WikiLeaks, working poor

FACT: In the Book of Revelation [13:16-17], written about 2000 years ago, the Bible warned about being branded with an ID code: “And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark”. FACT: Microsoft owns International patent #060606 (#666) which is a cryptocurrency system using humans who have been chipped as the “Miners”. Surveillance capitalism is of course in line with 1984 – a George Orwell hit written 71 years ago which should have prepared the public for the reality of a Big Brother dystopia, but clearly did not. Especially if one looks at the ease with which the Coronavirus has, seemingly overnight, enabled governments all over the world to implement mass totalitarian surveillance under the auspice of creating weapons against disease.


pages: 524 words: 130,909

The Contrarian: Peter Thiel and Silicon Valley's Pursuit of Power by Max Chafkin

3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, anti-communist, bank run, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, borderless world, charter city, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, Covid-19, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, David Graeber, disinformation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Ethereum, Extropian, facts on the ground, Ferguson, Missouri, Frank Gehry, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, Haight Ashbury, helicopter parent, hockey-stick growth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, prosperity theology / prosperity gospel / gospel of success, QAnon, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, regulatory arbitrage, Renaissance Technologies, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Bannon, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, technology bubble, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, the new new thing, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K, yellow journalism

His first company, PayPal, pioneered ecommerce and—after being spun out of the company to which Thiel sold it, eBay—is worth nearly $300 billion, as of early 2021. Palantir, his second company, popularized the concept of data mining after 9/11 and paved the way for what critics of the technology industry call surveillance capitalism. More recently, it became a key player in the Trump administration’s immigration and defense projects. The company is worth around $50 billion; Thiel controls it and is its biggest shareholder. As impressive as this entrepreneurial resume might be, Thiel has been even more influential as an investor and backroom deal maker.


pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

3D printing, algorithmic bias, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, Ian Bogost, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, surveillance capitalism, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, Yochai Benkler

The infrastructure and design of this network of networks do play a certain role in sanctioning many of these myths—for example, the idea that “the Internet” is resistant to censorship comes from the unique qualities of its packet-switching communication mechanism—but “the Internet” that is the bane of public debates also contains many other stories and narratives—about innovation, surveillance, capitalism—that have little to do with the infrastructure per se. French philosopher Bruno Latour, writing of Louis Pasteur’s famed scientific accomplishments, distinguished between Pasteur, the actual historical figure, and “Pasteur,” the mythical almighty character who has come to represent the work of other scientists and entire social movements, like the hygienists, who, for their own pragmatic reasons, embraced Pasteur with open arms.


pages: 614 words: 168,545

Rentier Capitalism: Who Owns the Economy, and Who Pays for It? by Brett Christophers

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, collective bargaining, congestion charging, corporate governance, David Graeber, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, disintermediation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Etonian, European colonialism, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, G4S, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, greed is good, haute couture, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, independent contractor, intangible asset, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, land reform, land value tax, light touch regulation, Lyft, manufacturing employment, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, peak oil, Piper Alpha, precariat, price discrimination, price mechanism, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Right to Buy, risk free rate, Ronald Coase, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, software patent, surveillance capitalism, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Uber for X, uber lyft, very high income, wage slave, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy, working-age population, yield curve, you are the product

One zettabyte = 1 trillion gigabytes, or 1021 bytes. IDC, ‘The Digital Universe of Opportunities: Rich Data and the Increasing Value of the Internet of Things’, April 2014, at emc.com. 17. Lanchester, ‘You Are the Product’. On the surveillance business of contemporary digital capitalism more broadly, see S. Zuboff, The Age of Surveillance Capitalism (London: Profile, 2019). 18. ‘Datafication’ is the term used by Jathan Sadowski in his ‘When Data Is Capital: Datafication, Accumulation, and Extraction’, Big Data & Society, doi: 10.1177/2053951718820549. 19. Economist, ‘Data Is Giving Rise to a New Economy’, 6 May 2017. 20. K. Granville, ‘Facebook and Cambridge Analytica: What You Need to Know as Fallout Widens’, New York Times, 19 March 2018. 21.


pages: 812 words: 205,147

The Anarchy: The Relentless Rise of the East India Company by William Dalrymple

British Empire, colonial rule, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, global reserve currency, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, land reform, lone genius, megacity, offshore financial centre, reserve currency, spice trade, surveillance capitalism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile

For as recent American adventures in Iraq have shown, our world is far from post-imperial, and quite probably never will be. Instead Empire is transforming itself into forms of global power that use campaign contributions and commercial lobbying, multinational finance systems and global markets, corporate influence and the predictive data harvesting of the new surveillance-capitalism rather than – or sometimes alongside – overt military conquest, occupation or direct economic domination to effect its ends. Four hundred and twenty years after its founding, the story of the East India Company has never been more current. Glossary Aftab the Sun Akhbars Indian court newsletters Alam the world.


Designing Data-Intensive Applications: The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable, and Maintainable Systems by Martin Kleppmann

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, functional programming, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, surveillance capitalism, Tragedy of the Commons, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

ISBN: 978-0-393-35217-7 [97] The Grugq: “Nothing to Hide,” grugq.tumblr.com, April 15, 2016. [98] Tony Beltramelli: “Deep-Spying: Spying Using Smartwatch and Deep Learning,” Masters Thesis, IT University of Copenhagen, December 2015. Available at arxiv.org/abs/1512.05616 [99] Shoshana Zuboff: “Big Other: Surveillance Capitalism and the Prospects of an Information Civilization,” Journal of Information Technology, volume 30, number 1, pages 75–89, April 2015. doi:10.1057/jit.2015.5 [100] Carina C. Zona: “Consequences of an Insightful Algorithm,” at GOTO Berlin, November 2016. [101] Bruce Schneier: “Data Is a Toxic Asset, So Why Not Throw It Out?


pages: 1,237 words: 227,370

Designing Data-Intensive Applications: The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable, and Maintainable Systems by Martin Kleppmann

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, functional programming, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, surveillance capitalism, Tragedy of the Commons, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

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