Guggenheim Bilbao

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pages: 342 words: 90,734

Mysteries of the Mall: And Other Essays by Witold Rybczynski

additive manufacturing, airport security, Buckminster Fuller, City Beautiful movement, edge city, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Jane Jacobs, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Silicon Valley, the High Line, urban renewal, young professional

Although they built some striking campus buildings and several high-profile museums, including the handsome Sainsbury Wing of the National Gallery in London, they also lost prominent commissions, notably the Staten Island ferry terminal and the new Philadelphia concert hall. They stuck to their guns, but it turned out that ducks—or rather titanium artichokes, in the case of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao—not decorated sheds, were what clients and the public wanted. Frank Gehry is, of course, the architect du jour. The Guggenheim in Bilbao is not only at the cutting edge of architectural design but also a hit with the public. Hundreds of thousands of people have flocked to an obscure Basque industrial city, attracted by his extraordinary sculptural confection of titanium curves. If the new Guggenheim that he has designed for New York City is built, it will likely be a great success.

After all, when people say that such and such a city is “lively” or “exciting” or “interesting,” they are really talking about its center, not its residential districts. Architecture plays an important role. Cities have always built monumental buildings—city halls, opera houses, concert halls—but out of civic pride and for local consumption. Now cities erect buildings whose chief aim is to attract visitors. Following the remarkable success of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, which since it opened in 1997 has brought almost five million visitors to that aging industrial port city, the formula for success is clear. Eye-popping architecture + cultural attractions = more tourists. This unprecedented wave of high-profile construction projects has been good for architects; it is less clear how good it is for cities. How often can the Bilbao effect be replicated before it wears thin?

Traditionally, a building is an icon when it is a popularly recognized symbol of something larger than itself—like the White House, the Eiffel Tower, and the Empire State Building. Architectural icons are generally anointed by the public, sometimes a long time after they are built. So why do developers think that they can create instant icons? Frank Gehry and the Bilbao Guggenheim, that’s why. The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, an industrial city in northern Spain, opened in 1997. Using innovative computer technology, Gehry designed and built a structure of striking originality and formal inventiveness. The swirling shapes covered in highly reflective titanium were astonishing, unlike any other building that people had ever seen. Moreover, unlike most avant-garde creations—one thinks of atonal music or Nouvelle Vague cinema—the Bilbao Guggenheim was fun.


pages: 162 words: 42,595

Architecture: A Very Short Introduction by Andrew Ballantyne

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dematerialisation, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, late capitalism, means of production, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Stewart Brand, the built environment

Kersting 17 Model of Temple of Juno Sospita, Lanuvium – Etruscan temple, according to Vitruvius (5th century BC) © David Lees/Corbis 18 Seagram Building, Manhattan, New York City (1954–8); architects: Mies van der Rohe (1886–1969) and Philip Johnson (born 1906) © Bettmann/Corbis 19 Opera House, Sydney, Australia (1957–73); architect: Jorn Utson (born 1918) © Eye Ubiquitous/Corbis 20 Chicago Tribune Tower, Chicago, Illinois (1923–5); architects: John Mead Howells (1868–1959) and Raymond Hood (1881–1934) Underwood & Underwood/Corbis 21 Métro entrance surrounds, Paris, France (1899–1905); architect: Hector Guimard (1867–1942) © Philippa Lewis/Edifice 22 Expiatory Church of the Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain (begun 1882); architect: Antoni Gaudí (1852–1926) © A. F. Kersting 23 Mausoleum of the Taj Mahal, Agra, India (1630–53); architect: Ustad ‘Isa (dates unknown) © A. F. Kersting 24 Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain (1997); architect: Frank Gehry (born 1929) Erika Barahona Ede/© FMGB Guggenheim Bilbao 25 Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France (1977); architects: Renzo Piano (born 1937) and Richard Rogers (born 1933) © Eye Ubiquitous/Corbis Introduction I met a traveller from an antique land Who said, ‘Two vast and trunkless legs of stone Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand Half-sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command, Tell that its sculptor well those passions read Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things, The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed; And on the pedestal these words appear: “My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings, Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!”

It is a world away from the studio conditions in which Gehry invents the building form. He once made an armchair by gluing corrugated cardboard into a large block, and then modelling it with a chainsaw. 24. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain (1997); architect: Frank Gehry (born 1929). Frank Gehry was born in Canada, first moved to California as a student, and then settled and started an architectural practice there, initially making fairly conventional designs. His experimental work, starting with his own house in Santa Monica, has taken him in the direction of designing buildings that have more in common with the traditions of sculptural form than with architecture. The design for the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao is spectacular and eye-catching, and has helped to draw international attention to a provincial Spanish city, establishing it on the cultural map of the world.

It is very much a postcolonial design, which can command the respect of the former colonials, while presumably satisfying the needs of the local community. In many respects it exactly reverses the attitudes to Indian culture on display at the Brighton Pavilion (Figure 3) where the idea of India is conjured up as an exotic fairyland. At Chandigarh we have an image of India, or more specifically the Punjab, as a modern working state that has a serious role to play. The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao belongs very securely in the realm of global tourist culture (Figure 24). It is a building that has had importance in reviving the fortunes of a small city, by making it a place that people from all over the world want to visit. The benefits to the city are much greater than the cost of the building, extravagant though that might seem. The collection of art works that it houses could have been seen just as clearly in a modest and inconspicuous building that excited no one.


pages: 441 words: 135,176

The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful--And Their Architects--Shape the World by Deyan Sudjic

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen

A building emerges from such a process as the product of a whole series of small decisions and accidents, as well as political lobbying, and the manufacture of consensus. Not the least of those accidents was the choice of jurors. Among them was a close friend of Koolhaas’s, Charles Jencks, the American son-in-law of the governor of a British colonial bank in Shanghai during the communist victory of 1949, whose book on postmodernism was first translated into Mandarin in 1986. According to Jencks, ‘The rhetorical part of the brief was describing the Guggenheim in Bilbao… Though height was not mentioned, they clearly wanted a landmark.’ Jencks recalls his initial caution. ‘I was afraid of being duped, that whatever I said would be used to endorse what might turn out to be a different outcome from the jury’s decision.’ He was eager to depoliticize what some see as an essentially political process. ‘I am here for architecture independent of any other considerations,’ he announced at the jury’s opening session, heard in silence by a room full of people still reluctant to voice an opinion.

When a second casting of ‘The Day the Wall Came Down’ was installed in Berlin, Goodnight claims she was awarded the Central Intelligence Agency’s Medal of Freedom, perhaps the least-known, and certainly the most two-edged, honour that the world of culture can offer. To judge by her horses, executed in a manner that might owe something to the animators of the Lord of the Rings trilogy, Goodnight is backing into territory occupied by Jeff Koons. Her work is no doubt every bit as sincere, even if it is less famous and less knowing than that of the man who put a giant topiary puppy outside the Guggenheim in Bilbao. But her attempt to capture the spirit of a divided country liberated from the Stasi yoke in the form of a pack of horses – roaming through Berlin, pawing at the ground in front of the Brandenburg Gate and getting in the way of the traffic – is just maladroit. Casual observers might conclude that Goodnight’s sculpture has been attacked by a gang of anarchic Texan troublemakers wielding spray cans.

The model for what the catalogue called the Lewis Residence – ‘house’ was much too modest a word for it – included a shiny blue plastic fish, a pointed Moorish dome, folds of red cloth, and strips of metal foil, that had been collaged together. This particular project began as an invitation to remodel an existing house in Lyndhurst, Ohio, and was eventually abandoned, ten years later, after the design had ballooned into an all-new fantasy palace sprawling over no less than 42,000 square feet. The unbuilt house gets twelve pages in the catalogue, second only to the Guggenheim in Bilbao with fourteen. Gehry tactfully suggests that the Lewis project allowed him to explore the themes that have shaped his work ever since. People who commission Frank Gehry to design houses for them are a group unlike any other. Among their characteristics, self-doubt is conspicuous by its absence. The client for the Lewis house, Peter Benjamin Lewis, became chairman of the Guggenheim’s board of trustees in 1998 and is a man who personally contributed $77 million to the museum, before he acrimoniously resigned in 2005.


pages: 239 words: 56,531

The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Designers IOD craft their Webstalker software to give visual form to the sprawl of the network, and Lisa Jevbratt maps out the Web as an interactive color field. Aaron Koblin makes a live-action video for Radiohead’s song “House of Cards” without cameras or lights, using 3-D tracking technologies that create data streams that viewers/users can then remix with new angles and visuals to post to YouTube. The green-on-black datascapes in The Matrix films simultaneously virtualize and realize the Wachowski Brothers’ pop mysticism. Even Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Bilbao and Disney Concert Hall, those most sensuous of twenty-firstcentury signifiers, can be seen as manifestations of the CATIA 3-D software used to design them. Ubiquitous computing and geographic information systems are virtual figuring machines, constantly popping out new data points from previously mute spaces and maps. How are we to describe these products of the culture machine? The culture machine was originally tagged as the ultimate in “postmodernism.”

Buckminster, 73–74 Future of the Internet and How to Stop It, The (Zittrain), 83, 188n5 Gaming, 23, 33–34, 188n25 arcades and, 15, 71 consoles and, 71 handheld, 71 interactive, 57 ludic stickiness and, 70–74 rejuveniles and, 67 running room and, 74–77 shooters, 72 Gardner, Howard, 138 Gates, Bill, 144, 162–166, 196n21 Gehry, Frank, 39 “Gentle Art of Reperceiving, The” (Wack), 112 Geodesic domes, 73 Gernsback, Hugo, 109 “Gernsback Continuum, The” (Gibson), 110 Gerritzen, Mieke, 102 Gestalt psychology, 42–43 Gibson, James Jerome, 16 204 INDEX Gibson, William, 110, 131 Gillespie, Dizzy, 25–26 Gish, Lillian, 61 Gladwell, Malcolm, 43 Global Business Network (GBN), 113, 115, 191n18, 192n20 Global Positioning System (GPS), 81, 101 Gmail, 176 GNU, 171, 173 God’s eye view, 33–34 Golden Nica, 169–170 Googie diners, xi Google, 197n29 Adstar and, 177 Blogger and, 177 brand building and, 177 Doubleclick and, 177 home page of, 176–177, 197n30 Searchers and, 144, 174–177 Stanford and, 149 Web 2.0 and, 177 YouTube and, 177 Google Maps, 176 Googleplex, 177 Gopher, 169 Gorky, Maxim, 103 “Got Milk?” campaign, 31 Gould, Stephen Jay, 133 Graphic design, 31, 45, 64, 102, 181n7 Graphic user interface, 161 Great Depression, 107 Great Wall of China, 75 Greek myths, 75, 175 Greenwich Village, 84–85 Grey Album, The (Danger Mouse), 54–55 Gropius, Walter, 36 Guardian syndrome, 85–86 Guggenheim Bilbao, 39 Gulags, 107 Gutenberg press, 11, 137–138 Gysin, Brion, 52 Habits of mind, 9–10 Hackers, 22–23, 54, 67, 69, 162, 170–173 Hartmann, Frank, 125 Harvard Business Review, 112 Harvard Crimson, 36 Hasids, 135 Headline News (CNN), 58 Heidegger, Martin, 29 Heisenberg, Werner, 37 Hello Kitty, 90 Hewlett, Bill, 145, 157 Hewlett-Packard (HP), 149, 153, 172 Hierarchies cultural, 1, 24, 29, 93, 114 technical, 123, 155, 175–176, 189n8 High fructose corn syrup (HFCS), 4, 7–9, 181n6 Hindus, 135 Hip-hop, 53–54, 61 Hirai, Kazumasa, 108 Hiroshima, 100–101 Hitchcock, Alfred, 44 Holocaust, 107 Homebrew Computer Club, 163 Homer, 28, 93–95 Hope (campaign poster), 31 Hosts Berners-Lee and, 144, 167–169, 175 description of term, xv Stallman and, 170–171 Torvalds and, 144, 167–173 World Wide Web and, xv “House of Cards” (Radiohead), 39 Howe, Jeff, 189n14 Hustlers, 156 description of term, xv desktops and, xv Gates and, 144, 162–166, 196n21 Jobs and, 144, 162–167, 186n12, 196n21 Hypercontexts, xvi, 7, 48, 76–77 Hyperlinking, 52–53, 57, 150 205 INDEX Hypertextuality, 51–53, 108, 145, 150, 158, 166, 168 IBM, 145, 170, 195n11 as Big Blue, 156, 164 Gates and, 164–165 650 series and, 154–155 System/360 series and, 155 Watsons and, 144, 153–157, 165–166 Iliad (Homer), 28 I Love Lucy (TV show), 47 India, 135 Individualism, 13, 98 Information, 98 algorithms and, 46, 144, 174–177 bespoke futures and, 100–101, 124– 126, 190n8, 193n34 culture machine and, 143–149, 152– 153, 163, 167–168, 172, 176–178, 196n17, 197n29 downloading/uploading and, 1, 4, 11 Gutenberg press and, 11, 137, 138 mashing and, 25, 54–55, 57, 74 Neurath and, 125 overload of, 81 peer-to-peer networks and, 15, 54, 92, 116, 126 Shannon and, 148 stickiness and, 22–23, 32–35, 184n15 storage and, 47, 60, 153, 196n17 unimodernism and, 45–49, 55, 60, 65–66, 74 Web n.0 and, 80–81, 92 World War II and, 146–147 Information overload, 22, 149 Info-triage, xvi, 20–23, 121, 132, 143 Infoviz, 58 Intel, 149, 156 Intellectual property copyright and, 54, 88–95, 123, 164, 166, 173, 177 Mickey Mouse Protection Act and, 90 public domain and, 91 Interactive environments, xiv, 24, 39, 57, 69, 71, 83, 114–119, 126 Intergalactic Computer Network, 108, 152, 168 International System of Typographic Picture Education, 125 Internet, xiii, 180n1, 184n15 AOL television and, 9 development of computer and, 145, 168–171, 174 stickiness and, 15, 22, 27, 30 unimodernism and, 56 viral distribution and, 30, 56, 169 Web n.0 and, 79, 83, 92 Interpretation of Dreams (Freud), 43–44 Interventionism, 14, 41, 126, 190n8 IOD, 39 IPad, 167 IPhone, 15, 167 Iraq, 100 Islam, 134 Isotypes, 44, 125, 193n34 Israeli settler movement, 135 ITunes, 167 Jackson, Samuel L., 30 Jacobs, Jane, 84–86 Jacquard loom, 11 James, William, 128 Japanese art, xi, 49 Jay Z, 55 Jazz, 25–27, 160 Jevbratt, Lisa, 39 Jobs, Steve, 144, 162–167, 186n12, 196n21 Joyce, James, 94–95 Junk culture, 5–10 Kael, Pauline, 135 Kawai art, xi Kay, Alan, 144, 157, 160–167, 195n16, 206 INDEX as patriarch, 144, 147–148, 151–152, 163, 168 personal computers and, 152 symbiosis and, 151–152 vision of participation by, 151–152 Life hacking, 22 Lincoln Center, 85 Linnaeus, Carolus, 80 Linux, 75, 169–173, 197n27 Livre de prières tissé’ d’apres les enlumineurs des manuscrits du XIVe au XVIe siècle (Roux), 10–11 London, 25–26, 100, 130 Looking Backward (Bellamy), 108 Lorenz, Edward, 117–118 Los Angeles: The Architecture of Four Ecologies (Banham), 10 Lost (TV show), 181n8 Love letter generator, 18–19 Lucky Jim (Amis), 32 Luhrmann, Baz, 60–63 Lynn, Greg, 64 Kay, Alan (continued) 196n17 Kennedy, John F., xi Kino-eye, 44 Kiss (band), 63 “Kitch’s Bebop Calypso” (song), 25–27 Koblin, Aaron, 39 Kodak, 15 Koolhaas, Rem, 49 Koran, 28 Kraus, Karl, 66, 75 Krikalev, Sergei K., 50–51 Kubrick, Stanley, 107 Kuwata, Jiro, 108 Langer, Ellen J., 183n6 Language bespoke futures and, 126, 135 calypso and, 25 hypertextuality and, 51–53, 108, 145, 150, 158, 166, 168 Joyce and, 94 mass culture and, 31 PostScript and, 55–56 Larrey, Dominique Jean, 21 Larson, Jonathan, 61 Latour, Bruno, 130, 185n19 Leary, Timothy, 145 Le Corbusier, 44 Léger, Fernand, 45 Legibility wars, 31 Lehmann, Chris, 184n16 Leibniz, Gottfried, 149 Let Us Now Praise Famous Men (Agee and Burroughs), 40–41 Levine, Sherrie, 41 Libertarianism, 13, 98 Library of Congress, 89 Licensing, 164–165 Licklider, J.C.R.


pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

“You are a pompous man,” he said—and waved his hand in a dismissive gesture, much as Louis XIV might have used to wave away some offending underling. He was unmistakably shooing or waving the questioner away from the microphone, as an inferior—again, in a gesture hardly ever seen in post-feudal times.7 Gehry was clearly having a bad day, but his imperiousness is worth recounting as a metaphor for some of his work—not all, but some. Kent was no doubt recalling his son Ethan’s visit to Gehry’s masterpiece, the Guggenheim Bilbao, an experience he describes in the Project for Public Spaces website’s “Hall of Shame.” After failing to find the front door and taking note of the treeless, depopulated plaza, Ethan observed a mugging, something he later learned was common there. He adds, “In the span of 10 minutes that we spent around the museum, I witnessed the first mugging of my life—and I’ve lived my entire life in New York City.”8 Robberies are no longer very common in New York, but the same goes for Bilbao—except for certain problem places.

See milliontreesnyc.org. STEP 9: MAKE FRIENDLY AND UNIQUE FACES 1. Jan Gehl, Cities for People, 88. 2. Ibid., 137. 3. Ibid., 77. 4. Ibid., 151. 5. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 175–78. 6. Chris Turner, “What Makes a Building Ugly?” 7. James Fallows, “Fifty-Nine and a Half Minutes of Brilliance, Thirty Seconds of Hauteur.” 8. Ethan Kent, “Guggenheim Museum Bilbao,” Project for Public Spaces Hall of Shame. 9. Léon Krier, The Architecture of Community, 70. 10. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 291. 11. David Owen, Green Metropolis, 178. 12. Ibid., 181. 13. Jacobs, 91. 14. Ibid., 91n. STEP 10: PICK YOUR WINNERS 1. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 166. 2. Blair Kamin, “Ohio Cap at Forefront of Urban Design Trend.” 3.

“New PPW Results: More New Yorkers Use It, Without Clogging the Street.” streetsblog.org, December 8, 2010. _____. “NYCHA Chairman: Parking Minimums ‘Working Against Us.’” streetsblog.org, October 17, 2011. Keates, Nancy. “A Walker’s Guide to Home Buying.” The Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2010. Keen, Judy. “Seattle’s Backyard Cottages Make a Dent in Housing Need.” usatoday.com, May 26, 2010. Kent, Ethan. “Guggenheim Museum Bilbao.” Project for Public Spaces Hall of Shame, pps.org. Klotz, Deborah. “Air Pollution and Its Effects on Heart Attack Risk.” The Boston Globe, February 28, 2011. Koch, Wendy. “Cities Roll Out Bike-Sharing Programs.” USA Today, May 9, 2011. Kolbert, Elizabeth. “XXXL: Why Are We So Fat?” The New Yorker, July 20, 2009. Kolozsvari, Douglas, and Donald Shoup. “Turning Small Change into Big Changes.”


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2008 Data Profile for City of Detroit, generated using American FactFinder; and Glaeser and Gyourko, “Urban Decline and Durable Housing.” 64 Spain has turned to transportation: Catan, “Spain’s Bullet Train.” 64 Liverpool had a flurry of new construction: “Liverpool, Capital Of Culture 2008: City on the up—It’s All in the Facades,” Guardian Magazine (London), Jan. 5, 2008. 64 The high-speed ... the rail connection: Catan, “Spain’s Bullet Train.” 65 Research has found ... just one job: Busso and Kline, “Do Local Economic Development Programs Work?” 65 from 1.4 million visitors in 1994 to 3.8 million in 2005: Plöger, “Bilbao City Report,” 30. 65 attracts a million visitors: “Guggenheim Bilbao Receives 5% Fewer Visits,” El Mundo, www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2009/01/12/cultura/1231778022.html. 66 nine hundred new jobs: Plaza, “Guggenheim Museum Bilbao,” 459. 66 cost the Basque treasury $240 million: Ibid., 461. 66 the National Centre ... closed the same year: “Debts Rock Pop Museum,” BBC News, Oct. 18, 1999, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/478616.stm. 66 a total of 62,500 units: Plöger, “Leipzig City Report.” 66 lost more than half of its 1970 population: U.S.

Shrinking to Greatness Many cities around the world have experienced some version of Detroit’s fate, and politicians have implemented many approaches to urban decline. U.S. cities have mainly tried to build their way out of decline. Spain has turned to transportation, spending tens of billions of dollars on high-speed rail, partly as a way to boost economic growth in poorer areas. Other places, like Italy, have used large tax subsidies to encourage enterprise in poorer regions. Many European cities have tried cultural strategies like the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. In 2008, Liverpool had a flurry of new construction to celebrate its one-year stint as Europe’s capital of culture. Which of these strategies can actually reverse urban decline? Which strategies generate benefits that cover their costs? In the nineteenth century, when moving goods was enormously expensive, places with good transportation links, like New York or Liverpool, enjoyed a huge edge.

Helping poor people is simple justice; helping poor places is far more difficult to justify. Why should the government effectively bribe people to live in declining areas? Why should growing areas be handicapped simply to keep people in older places? Moreover, investments in places don’t always benefit the people living there. How were the residents of Poletown helped when the city of Detroit helped General Motors evict them? Renters who lived near the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao may well have been hurt by the art gallery, at least if they had little taste for contemporary art or architecture, because their rents rose significantly. The conflict between people and place got national attention in 2005 when Hurricane Katrina destroyed a great swath of New Orleans. President Bush got into the urban-renewal business and declared that “the great city of New Orleans will rise again.”


pages: 349 words: 95,972

Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives by Tim Harford

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affirmative action, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, assortative mating, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Basel III, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Erdős number, experimental subject, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Frank Gehry, game design, global supply chain, Googley, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, Inbox Zero, income inequality, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, microbiome, out of africa, Paul Erdős, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Turing test, urban decay, William Langewiesche

The architect Frank Duffy, while admiring the daring of the project, comments, “Perhaps its gravest weakness is that it is a place where ‘play’ is enforced on everyone, all the time.”15 Jay Chiat saw himself as a revolutionary figure, a man chosen by destiny to tear down the conventions of office life. And, in some ways, his plans did prove visionary. Hiring Gehry showed impeccable taste; this was several years before the Guggenheim Bilbao would make Gehry the most famous architect on the planet. The bright colors, different architectural zones, clusters of couches interspersed with large tables, and use of mobile technology to free workers have all been widely copied. Chiat’s desire to make the office more like a university campus—“The idea is, you go to lectures, gather information, but you do your work wherever you like”—was also ahead of its time.

., 93 Gariboldi, Italo, 129 Gawande, Atul, 153 Gehry, Frank, 70, 73, 80, 81 Genesis (band), 9 Geneva, 25 Germany, 1–5, 7–9, 20, 33, 174 forests in, 150–53, 205–7, 215, 216, 278n2 Nazi, 227–29, 259 in World Wars, 117–18, 122, 128–31, 135, 142, 143n, 145–48, 227 Gernsback, Hugo, 251 Gettysburg Address, 92 GI Bill, 75 Gigerenzer, Gerd, 165, 167n Gilead Sciences, 141 Gill, Tim, 262 Glasgow, 214 Golding, William, 45 Goldstein, Harvey, 158 Google, 24, 70, 80–82, 127, 139, 188–89, 191, 196 Gordimer, Nadine, 26 Gould, Stephen Jay, 26 GPS failures, 192–94, 196, 198 Granovetter, Mark, 36–37 Gray, Peter, 260 Gréco, Juliette, 97n Greece, 129, 163–64 Green, Lee, 166–67 Green, Nicola, 101–3 Greenberg, Andy, 187 Grindr, 244–45 Gruber, Howard, 27, 29 Guggenheim Bilbao, 70 Habit of yes, 105–7 Hackers, 75–78, 247–48 Haldane, Andy, 165–66, 170–73 Halle, Morris, 75, 76 Hankins, Victor, 187–88 Hannibal, 134 Hansa Studios (Berlin), 8 Harcourt, Bernard E., 224 Harrington, Brooke, 50–51, 58 Harris, T George, 85–86 Hartig, Georg, 206 Harvard Business Review, 141 Harvard University, 156, 243–44 Haslam, Alex, 65–68 Hastie, Reid, 46 Haworth, Guy, 121 Health care, 149–50, 152–55, 157–61, 166, 172, 173 Heart attacks, 154, 165–67, 169 Helicobacter pylori, 207–8 Herman Miller, Inc., 83 Heuristics, 165 Hidalgo, Cesar, 215–16 Hilbert, David, 226–27 Hirschberg, Julia, 238 Hitler, Adolf, 128, 129, 147–48, 227, 228 House, Simon, 9 How Buildings Learn (Brand), 79 Howard-Jones, Paul, 19 Human Error (Reason), 183 Humphrey, Laura, 241–42 Hunt-Davis, Ben, 33–35, 38, 39 Hunter-Tilney, Ludovic, 15 IBM Research, 240 Ibrahim, Rahinah, 189–90 Improvisation, 91–115, 253, 257, 264 in business, 127, 137, 143 creativity and, 1–4, 95–101, 105, 108–10 in military strategy, 119, 123, 128n, 129–30, 135, 139–40, 143–46 in public speaking, 94–95, 108–15 in workplace, 72, 75 Incentives.


pages: 247 words: 43,430

Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey

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Benoit Mandelbrot, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Guggenheim Bilbao, mandelbrot fractal, Occupy movement, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, sorting algorithm, stochastic process, strong AI, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%

Analysis computation In classical engineering, the space of feasible designs is limited by our capability for analysis. For example, designing the Eiffel Tower was possible because Gustave Eiffel developed novel analytic techniques, in particular for dealing with wind load. Now tools for computer-aided design and analysis make it possible to build almost anything that can be imagined. Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is my favorite example. Design search Engineering is sometimes described as a search for solutions in a landscape of possible designs. Increasingly, the search process can be automated. For example, genetic algorithms explore large design spaces and discover solutions human engineers would not imagine (or like). The ultimate genetic algorithm, evolution, notoriously generates designs that violate the rules of human engineering.

connected graphs, What’s a Graph?, Connected Graphs directed graph, What’s a Graph? regular graph, What’s a Graph? simple graph, What’s a Graph? undirected graph, What’s a Graph? GraphWorld, Representing Graphs grassroots, A New Kind of Engineering gravitation, A New Kind of Science Great Man theory, SOC, Causation, and Prediction grid, Game of Life, Percolation, Sand Piles Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, A New Kind of Engineering H Hacken, Wolfgang, The Axes of Scientific Models Haldane, J.B.S., Falsifiability half-life, What’s a Graph? harmonics, Spectral Density hash function, Hashtables HashMap, Hashtables hashtables, Hashtables Hertz, Spectral Density Hist, Zipf’s Law histograms, Cumulative Distributions hoisting, Spectral Density holism, A New Kind of Model holistic model, Reductionism and Holism, Reductionism and Holism Homo economicus, The Axes of Scientific Models homogeneous, The Axes of Scientific Models hop, Stanley Milgram hurricane, Realism, Instrumentalism I id, Instrumentalism immutable objects, Representing Graphs implementing cellular automata, Implementing CAs implementing Game of Life, Implementing Life in operator, Analysis of Search Algorithms incompleteness, A New Kind of Thinking Incompleteness Theorem, A New Kind of Thinking indeterminism, A New Kind of Thinking indexing, Analysis of Basic Python Operations, Fast Fourier Transform infinite loop, Generators infinite sequence, Iterators inheritance, Representing Graphs, Representing Graphs __init__, Representing Graphs instantiate, CADrawer instrumentalism, A New Kind of Model, Instrumentalism interactions, minimizing, A New Kind of Engineering interface, CADrawer, CADrawer implementing, CADrawer specifying, CADrawer IPython, Summing Lists isolation of components, A New Kind of Engineering __iter__, Iterators iterator, Iterators iteritems, List Comprehensions itertools, Iterators J join, Analysis of Basic Python Operations K Kansas, Stanley Milgram kernel, Implementing Life KeyError, Hashtables Kosko, Bart, A New Kind of Thinking Kuhn, Thomas, Paradigm Shift?


pages: 69 words: 18,758

Turning Pro: Tap Your Inner Power and Create Your Life's Work by Steven Pressfield

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barriers to entry, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, fear of failure, Guggenheim Bilbao

It seems counterintuitive, but it’s true: in order to achieve “flow,” magic, “the zone,” we start by being common and ordinary and workmanlike. We set our palms against the stones in the garden wall and search, search, search until at last, in the instant when we’re ready to give up, our fingers fasten upon the secret door. Like a child entering a meadow, we step over the threshold, forgetting everything except the butterfly that flits across our vision. From this play arises Guernica and The Godfather and the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao. A MARINE GETS TWO SALARIES There’s a well-known gunnery sergeant who, when his young Marines complain about their pay, explains that they get two salaries: A financial salary and a psychological salary. The Marine’s financial salary is indeed meager. But what about the psychological salary—the feeling of pride and honor, the sense of belonging to a brotherhood with a brave and noble history, and knowing that, no matter what happens, you remain a member of that fraternity as long as you live?


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

See also Sabrina Van Der Ley and Markus Richter, Megastructure Reloaded: Visionäre Stadtentwürfe Der Sechzigerjahre Reflektiert Von Zeitgenössischen Künstlern = Visionary Architecture and Urban Design of the Sixties Reflected by Contemporary Artists (Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2008). 50.  The Bilbao region in Spain experienced significant economic growth concurrent with the opening of the Frank Gehry designed Guggenheim Bilbao and opening in 1997. The “Bilbao effect” is a termed coined by Peter Eisenman to refer to the misguided hope of second-tier cites that adding some flashy new architectural icons would magically boost their city's brand and regional economy. 51.  Perhaps a future Erich von Daniken will interpret Foster's structures as proof of alien intelligence on Earth's moon. 52.  Yes, “Ladies and Gentlemen, We Are Floating in Space.” 53. 

See also interfaces architecture and, 165–166 computational intensification of, 171–172 effectiveness, 230 function of, 224–225, 229, 231, 297, 338–339 images of systemic interrelationality, 266 limitations, 226 normative essentiality of, 226 older, Apps versus, 168 ubiquity of, 249 User interfaces, 219–221, 223 Grasshopper, 320 Great Maginot Firewall, 112–113 green urbanism, 181–182 grids architectural expression of, 296 City layer, 149–153 to come, 294–295 descriptive and generative function, 150 Earth-wide, 37–38, 90–97, 149–153, 170, 180, 192, 229, 280, 294–296, 393n53 economy of motility, 38 freeways as, 280 lines of mobility forming channels, 38 smart, 92–96, 393n53 sovereignty of reversibility, 37 Stack interfacial systems as, 229 urban, 149–151, 160, 170, 178–179 volumetric, 37 Griffith, Saul, 258–261, 263, 268 Grossraum American, 31–32 Google, 34–35, 39, 134, 295, 318, 372 Schmittian, 31–32, 371 Grosz, Elizabeth, 84–85, 89, 288 ground is abstraction, 33 Groys, Boris, 41, 239–240, 425–427nn46–47 Guattari, Félix, 84, 158 Guggenheim Bilbao, 410n50 guns, 344–345 Habermas, Jürgen, 360 habit, 420n17 habitats, 237–239, 310, 424n41 habitus, 424n41 hacker-User distinction, 35 hacking cars, 283–284 war, 401n45 haecceities addressable, 212, 216, 264, 273, 279 mapping and linking, 296 hands the App transforming, 150, 238, 297 as interfaces, 222–223, 226, 236–239 Hansen, James, 98 Hansen, Mark, 265 Hansen, Robin, 317 Haque, Usman, 203, 392n40 Haraway, Donna, 385n25 HavenCo, 400n42 Hayek, Friedrich, 42, 328–329 Heatherwick, Thomas, 184 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 55 Hegelian struggle, 397n19 Heidegger, Martin, 28–29, 131, 205, 304, 308, 421n19 Her (Jonze), 277 Hermes, 210 Hertz, Garnet, 275–276 Hertzian geography, 195 Herzog & de Meuron, 187, 311 High Rise (Ballard), 311 Himalayas, 97 Hirschman, Albert, 313 Hobbes, Thomas, 20, 328 Holmes, Brian, 418n43 “Holy War: Mac vs.


pages: 313 words: 92,053

Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard

augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

Work by University of Toronto neuroscientist Oshin Vartanian has shown that exposure to curved or jagged contours in architectural interiors can change our patterns of brain activity.8 The presentation of curves produces strong activation in brain areas like the orbitofrontal cortex and cingulate cortex—areas of our brain that are associated with reward and pleasure. Jagged edges can cause increases in activity of the amygdala—an important part of our fear-detecting and response systems. In architectural terms, it may well have been the graceful curves of Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Bilbao that reduced famed fellow architect Philip Johnson to tears when he first laid eyes upon the building. In contrast, the strong reactions elicited by Libeskind’s work in Toronto, notably similar to those brought about by architect I.M. Pei’s design for the new entryway to the Louvre, may have had their origin in patterns of brain responses related to our innate need to recognize fearsome environmental risks.


pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

The selling and branding of place, and the burnishing of the image of a place (including states), becomes integral to how capitalist competition works. The production of geographical difference, building upon those given by history, culture and so-called natural advantages, is internalised within the reproduction of capitalism. Bring a signature architect to town and create something like Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. This helps put that city on the map of attractors for mobile capital. If geographical differences between territories and states did not exist, then they would be created by both differential investment strategies and the quest for spatial monopoly power given by uniqueness of location and of environmental and cultural qualities. The idea that capitalism promotes geographical homogeneity is totally wrong.

.: The World is Flat 132 futures, energy 24 futures markets 21 Certificates of Deposit 262 currency 24 Eurodollars 262 Treasury instruments 262 G G7/G8/G20 51, 200 Galileo Galilei 89 Gates, Bill 98, 173, 221 Gates foundation 44 gays, and colonisation of urban neighbourhoods 247, 248 GDP growth (1950–2030) 27 Gehry, Frank 203 Geithner, Tim 11 gender issues 104, 151 General Motors 5 General Motors Acceptance Corporation 23 genetic engineering 84, 98 genetic modification 186 genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 186 gentrification 131, 256, 257 geographical determinism 210 geopolitics 209, 210, 213, 256 Germany acceptance of state interventions 199–200 cross-border leasing 142–3 an export-dominated economy 6 falling exports 141 invasion of US auto market 15 Nazi expansionism 209 neoliberal orthodoxies 141 Turkish immigrants 14 Weimar inflation 141 Glass-Steagall act (1933) 20 Global Crossing 100 global warming 73, 77, 121, 122, 187 globalisation 157 Glyn, Andrew et al: ‘British Capitalism, Workers and the Profits Squeeze’ 65 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 156 gold reserves 108, 112, 116 Goldman Sachs 5, 11, 20, 163, 173, 219 Google Earth 156 Gould, Stephen Jay 98, 130 governance 151, 197, 198, 199, 201, 208, 220 governmentality 134 GPS systems 156 Gramsci, Antonio 257 Grandin, Greg: Fordlandia 188, 189 grassroots organisations (GROS) 254 Great Depression (1920s) 46, 170 ‘Great Leap Forward’ 137, 138, 250 ‘Great Society’ anti-poverty programmes 32 Greater London Council 197 Greece sovereign debt 222 student unrest in 38 ‘green communes’ 130 Green Party (Germany) 256 ‘green revolution’ 185–6 Greenspan, Alan 44 Greider, William: Secrets of the Temple 54 growth balanced 71 compound 27, 28, 48, 50, 54, 70, 75, 78, 86 economic 70–71, 83, 138 negative 6 stop in 45 Guggenheim Museu, Bilbao 203 Gulf States collapse of oil-revenue based building boom 38 oil production 6 surplus petrodollars 19, 28 Gulf wars 210 gun trade 44 H habitat loss 74, 251 Haiti, and remittances 38 Hanseatic League 163 Harrison, John 91 Harrod, Roy 70–71 Harvey, David: A Brief History of Neoliberalism 130 Harvey, William vii Haushofer, Karl 209 Haussmann, Baron 49, 167–8, 169, 171, 176 Hawken, Paul: Blessed Unrest 133 Hayek, Friedrich 233 health care 28–9, 59, 63, 220, 221, 224 reneging on obligations 49 Health Care Bill 220 hedge funds 8, 21, 49, 261 managers 44 hedging 24, 36 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 133 hegemony 35–6, 212, 213, 216 Heidegger, Martin 234 Helú, Carlos Slim 29 heterogeneity 214 Hitler, Adolf 141 HIV/AIDS pandemic 1 Holloway, John: Change the World without Taking Power 133 homogeneity 214 Hong Kong excessive urban development 8 rise of (1970s) 35 sweatshops 16 horizontal networking 254 household debt 17 housing 146–7, 149, 150, 221, 224 asset value crisis 1, 174 foreclosure crises 1–2, 166 mortgage finance 170 values 1–2 HSBC 20, 163 Hubbert, M.


pages: 464 words: 116,945

Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism by David Harvey

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, California gold rush, call centre, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, drone strike, end world poverty, falling living standards, fiat currency, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Food sovereignty, Frank Gehry, future of work, global reserve currency, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, peak oil, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wages for housework, Wall-E, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

There is an interesting geographical version of this same phenomenon. Cities like Barcelona, Istanbul, New York and Melbourne get branded, for example, as tourist destinations or as hubs for business activities by virtue of their unique characteristics and special cultural qualities. If there are no particularly unique features to hand, then hire some famous architect, like Frank Gehry, to build a signature building (like the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao) to fill the gap.6 History, culture, uniqueness and authenticity are everywhere commodified and sold to tourists, prospective entrepreneurs and corporate heads alike, yielding monopoly rents to landed interests, property developers and speculators. The role of the class monopoly rent that is then gained from rising land values and property prices in cities like New York, Hong Kong, Shanghai, London and Barcelona is hugely important for capital in general.

., Disposable Women and Other Myths of Global Capitalism, New York, Routledge, 2006 Index Numbers in italics indicate Figures. 2001: A Space Odyssey (film) 271 A Abu Ghraib, Iraq 202 acid deposition 255, 256 advertising 50, 121, 140, 141, 187, 197, 236, 237, 275, 276 Aeschylus 291 Afghanistan 202, 290 Africa and global financial crisis 170 growth 232 indigenous population and property rights 39 labour 107, 108, 174 ‘land grabs’ 39, 58, 77, 252 population growth 230 Agamben, Giorgio 283–4 agglomeration 149, 150 economies 149 aggregate demand 20, 80, 81, 104, 173 aggregate effective demand 235 agribusiness 95, 133, 136, 206, 247, 258 agriculture ix, 39, 61, 104, 113, 117, 148, 229, 239, 257–8, 261 Alabama 148 Algerian War (1954–62) 288, 290 alienation 57, 69, 125, 126, 128, 129, 130, 198, 213, 214, 215, 263, 266–70, 272, 275–6, 279–80, 281, 286, 287 Allende, Salvador 201 Althusser, Louis 286 Amazon 131, 132 Americas colonisation of 229 indigenous populations 283 Amnesty International 202 anti-capitalist movements 11, 14, 65, 110, 111, 162 anti-capitalist struggle 14, 110, 145, 193, 269, 294 anti-globalisation 125 anti-terrorism xiii apartheid 169, 202, 203 Apple 84, 123, 131 apprenticeships 117 Arab Spring movement 280 Arbenz, Jacobo 201 Argentina 59, 107, 152, 160, 232 Aristotelianism 283, 289 Aristotle 1, 4, 200, 215 arms races 93 arms traffickers 54 Arrighi, Giovanni 136 Adam Smith in Beijing 142 Arthur, Brian: The Nature of Technology 89, 95–9, 101–4, 110 artificial intelligence xii, 104, 108, 120, 139, 188, 208, 295 Asia ‘land grabs’ 58 urbanisation 254 assembly lines 119 asset values and the credit system 83 defined 240 devalued 257 housing market 19, 20, 21, 58, 133 and predatory lending 133 property 76 recovery of 234 speculation 83, 101, 179 associationism 281 AT&T 131 austerity xi, 84, 177, 191, 223 Australia 152 autodidacts 183 automation xii, 103, 105, 106, 108, 138, 208, 215, 295 B Babbage, Charles 119 Bangkok riots, Thailand (1968) x Bangladesh dismantlement of old ships 250 factories 129, 174, 292 industrialisation 123 labour 108, 123, 129 protests against unsafe labour conditions 280 textile mill tragedies 249 Bank of England 45, 46 banking bonuses 164 electronic 92, 100, 277 excessive charges 84 interbank lending 233 and monopoly power 143 national banks supplant local banking in Britain and France 158 net transfers between banks 28 power of bankers 75 private banks 233 profits 54 regional banks 158 shell games 54–5 systematic banking malfeasance 54, 61 Baran, Paul and Sweezy, Paul: Monopoly Capitalism 136 Barcelona 141, 160 barrios pobres ix barter 24, 25, 29 Battersea Power Station, London 255 Battle of Algiers, The (film) 288 Bavaria, Germany 143, 150 Becker, Gary 186 Bernanke, Ben 47 Bhutan 171 billionaires xi, 165, 169, 170 biodiversity 246, 254, 255, 260 biofuels 3 biomedical engineering xii Birmingham 149 Bitcoin 36, 109 Black Panthers 291 Blade Runner (film) 271 Blankfein, Lloyd 239–40 Bohr, Niels 70 Bolivia 257, 260, 284 bondholders xii, 32, 51, 152, 158, 223, 240, 244, 245 bonuses 54, 77, 164, 178 Bourdieu, Pierre 186, 187 bourgeois morality 195 bourgeois reformism 167, 211 ‘Brady Bonds’ 240 Braudel, Fernand 193 Braverman, Harry: Labor and Monopoly Capital 119 Brazil a BRIC country 170, 228 coffee growers 257 poverty grants 107 unrest in (2013) 171, 243, 293 Brecht, Bertolt 265, 293 Bretton Woods (1944) 46 brewing trade 138 BRIC countries 10, 170, 174, 228 Britain alliance between state and London merchant capitalists 44–5 banking 158 enclosure movement 58 lends to United States (nineteenth century) 153 suppression of Mau Mau 291 surpluses of capital and labour sent to colonies 152–3 welfare state 165 see also United Kingdom British Empire 115, 174 British Museum Library, London 4 British Petroleum (BP) 61, 128 Buffett, Peter 211–12, 245, 283, 285 Buffett, Warren 211 bureaucracy 121–2, 165, 203, 251 Bush, George, Jr 201, 202 C Cabet, Étienne 183 Cabral, Amilcar 291 cadastral mapping 41 Cadbury 18 Cairo uprising (2011) 99 Calhoun, Craig 178 California 29, 196, 254 Canada 152 Cape Canaveral, Florida 196 capital abolition of monopolisable skills 119–20 aim of 92, 96–7, 232 alternatives to 36, 69, 89, 162 annihilation of space through time 138, 147, 178 capital-labour contradiction 65, 66, 68–9 and capitalism 7, 57, 68, 115, 166, 218 centralisation of 135, 142 circulation of 5, 7, 8, 53, 63, 67, 73, 74, 75, 79, 88, 99, 147, 168, 172, 177, 234, 247, 251, 276 commodity 74, 81 control over labour 102–3, 116–17, 166, 171–2, 274, 291–2 creation of 57 cultural 186 destruction of 154, 196, 233–4 and division of labour 112 economic engine of 8, 10, 97, 168, 172, 200, 253, 265, 268 evolution of 54, 151, 171, 270 exploitation by 156, 195 fictitious 32–3, 34, 76, 101, 110–11, 239–42 fixed 75–8, 155, 234 importance of uneven geographical development to 161 inequality foundational for 171–2 investment in fixed capital 75 innovations 4 legal-illegal duality 72 limitless growth of 37 new form of 4, 14 parasitic forms of 245 power of xii, 36, 47 private capital accumulation 23 privatisation of 61 process-thing duality 70–78 profitability of 184, 191–2 purpose of 92 realisation of 88, 173, 192, 212, 231, 235, 242, 268, 273 relation to nature 246–63 reproduction of 4, 47, 55, 63, 64, 88, 97, 108, 130, 146, 161, 168, 171, 172, 180, 181, 182, 189, 194, 219, 233, 252 spatiality of 99 and surplus value 63 surpluses of 151, 152, 153 temporality of 99 tension between fixed and circulating capital 75–8, 88, 89 turnover time of 73, 99, 147 and wage rates 173 capital accumulation, exponential growth of 229 capital gains 85, 179 capital accumulation 7, 8, 75, 76, 78, 102, 149, 151–5, 159, 172, 173, 179, 192, 209, 223, 228–32, 238, 241, 243, 244, 247, 273, 274, 276 basic architecture for 88 and capital’s aim 92, 96 collapse of 106 compound rate of 228–9 and the credit system 83 and democratisation 43 and demographic growth 231 and household consumerism 192 and lack of aggregate effective demand in the market 81 and the land market 59 and Marx 5 maximising 98 models of 53 in a new territories 152–3 perpetual 92, 110, 146, 162, 233, 265 private 23 promotion of 34 and the property market 50 recent problems of 10 and the state 48 capitalism ailing 58 an alternative to 36 and capital 7, 57, 68, 115, 166, 218 city landscape of 160 consumerist 197 contagious predatory lawlessness within 109 crises essential to its reproduction ix; defined 7 and demand-side management 85 and democracy 43 disaster 254–5, 255 economic engine of xiii, 7–8, 11, 110, 220, 221, 252, 279 evolution of 218 geographical landscape of 146, 159 global xi–xii, 108, 124 history of 7 ‘knowledge-based’ xii, 238 and money power 33 and a moneyless economy 36 neoliberal 266 political economy of xiv; and private property rights 41 and racialisation 8 reproduction of ix; revivified xi; vulture 162 capitalist markets 33, 53 capitalo-centric studies 10 car industry 121, 138, 148, 158, 188 carbon trading 235, 250 Caribbean migrants 115 Cartesian thinking 247 Cato Institute 143 Central America 136 central banks/bankers xi–xii, 37, 45, 46, 48, 51, 109, 142, 156, 161, 173, 233, 245 centralisation 135, 142, 144, 145, 146, 149, 150, 219 Césaire, Aimé 291 CFCs (chloro-fluorocarbons) 248, 254, 256, 259 chambers of commerce 168 Chandler, Alfred 141 Chaplin, Charlie 103 Charles I, King 199 Chartism 184 Chávez, Hugo 123, 201 cheating 57, 61, 63 Cheney, Dick 289 Chicago riots (1968) x chicanery 60, 72 children 174 exploitation of 195 raising 188, 190 trading of 26 violence and abuse of 193 Chile 136, 194, 280 coup of 1973 165, 201 China air quality 250, 258 becomes dynamic centre of a global capitalism 124 a BRIC country 170, 228 capital in (after 2000) 154 class struggles 233 and competition 150, 161 consumerism 194–5, 236 decentralisation 49 dirigiste governmentality 48 dismantlement of old ships 250 dispossessions in 58 education 184, 187 factories 123, 129, 174, 182 famine in 124–5 ‘great leap forward’ 125 growth of 170, 227, 232 income inequalities 169 industrialisation 232 Keynesian demand-side and debt-financed expansion xi; labour 80, 82, 107, 108, 123, 174, 230 life expectancy 259 personal debt 194 remittances 175 special economic zones 41, 144 speculative booms and bubbles in housing markets 21 suburbanisation 253 and technology 101 toxic batteries 249–50 unstable lurches forward 10 urban and infrastructural projects 151 urbanisation 232 Chinese Communist Party 108, 142 Church, the 185, 189, 199 circular cumulative causation 150 CitiBank 61 citizenship rights 168 civil rights 202, 205 class affluent classes 205 alliances 143, 149 class analysis xiii; conflict 85, 159 domination 91, 110 plutocratic capitalist xiii; power 55, 61, 88, 89, 92, 97, 99, 110, 134, 135, 221, 279 and race 166, 291 rule 91 structure 91 class struggle 34, 54, 67, 68, 85, 99, 103, 110, 116, 120, 135, 159, 172, 175, 183, 214, 233 climate change 4, 253–6, 259 Clinton, President Bill 176 Cloud Atlas (film) 271 CNN 285 coal 3, 255 coercion x, 41–4, 53, 60–63, 79, 95, 201, 286 Cold War 153, 165 collateralised debt obligations (CDOs) 78 Collins, Suzanne: The Hunger Games 264 Colombia 280 colonialism 257 the colonised 289–90 indigenous populations 39, 40 liberation from colonial rule 202 philanthropic 208, 285 colonisation 229, 262 ‘combinatorial evolution’ 96, 102, 104, 146, 147, 248 commercialisation 262, 263, 266 commodification 24, 55, 57, 59–63, 88, 115, 140, 141, 192, 193, 235, 243, 251, 253, 260, 262, 263, 273 commodities advertising 275 asking price 31 and barter 24 commodity exchange 39, 64 compared with products 25–6 defective or dangerous 72 definition 39 devaluation of 234 exchange value 15, 25 falling costs of 117 importance of workers as buyers 80–81 international trade in 256 labour power as a commodity 62 low-value 29 mobility of 147–8 obsolescence 236 single metric of value 24 unique 140–41 use value 15, 26, 35 commodity markets 49 ‘common capital of the class’ 142, 143 common wealth created by social labour 53 private appropriation of 53, 54, 55, 61, 88, 89 reproduction of 61 use values 53 commons collective management of 50 crucial 295 enclosure of 41, 235 natural 250 privatised 250 communications 99, 147, 148, 177 communism 196 collapse of (1989) xii, 165 communist parties 136 during Cold War 165 scientific 269 socialism/communism 91, 269 comparative advantage 122 competition and alienated workers 125 avoiding 31 between capitals 172 between energy and food production 3 decentralised 145 and deflationary crisis (1930s) 136 foreign 148, 155 geopolitical 219 inter-capitalist 110 international 154, 175 interstate 110 interterritorial 219 in labour market 116 and monopoly 131–45, 146, 218 and technology 92–3 and turnover time of capital 73, 99 and wages 135 competitive advantage 73, 93, 96, 112, 161 competitive market 131, 132 competitiveness 184 complementarity principle of 70 compounding growth 37, 49, 222, 227, 228, 233, 234, 235, 243, 244 perpetual 222–45, 296 computerisation 100, 120, 222 computers 92, 100, 105, 119 hardware 92, 101 organisational forms 92, 93, 99, 101 programming 120 software 92, 99, 101, 115, 116 conscience laundering 211, 245, 284, 286 Conscious Capitalism 284 constitutional rights 58 constitutionality 60, 61 constitutions progressive 284 and social bond between human rights and private property 40 US Constitution 284 and usurpation of power 45 consumerism 89, 106, 160, 192–5, 197, 198, 236, 274–7 containerisation 138, 148, 158 contracts 71, 72, 93, 207 contradictions Aristotelian conception of 4 between money and the social labour money represents 83 between reality and appearance 4–6 between use and exchange value 83 of capital and capitalism 68 contagious intensification of 14 creative use of 3 dialectical conception of 4 differing reactions to 2–3 and general crises 14 and innovation 3 moved around rather than resolved 3–4 multiple 33, 42 resolution of 3, 4 two modes of usage 1–2 unstable 89 Controller of the Currency 120 corporations and common wealth 54 corporate management 98–9 power of 57–8, 136 and private property 39–40 ‘visible hand’ 141–2 corruption 53, 197, 266 cosmopolitanism 285 cost of living 164, 175 credit cards 67, 133, 277 credit card companies 54, 84, 278 credit financing 152 credit system 83, 92, 101, 111, 239 crises changes in mental conceptions of the world ix-x; crisis of capital 4 defined 4 essential to the reproduction of capitalism ix; general crisis ensuing from contagions 14 housing markets crisis (2007–9) 18, 20, 22 reconfiguration of physical landscapes ix; slow resolution of x; sovereign debt crisis (after 2012) 37 currency markets, turbulence of (late 1960s) x customary rights 41, 59, 198 D Davos conferences 169 DDT 259 Debord, Guy: The Society of the Spectacle 236 debt creation 236 debt encumbrancy 212 debt peonage 62, 212 decentralisation 49, 142, 143, 144, 146, 148, 219, 281, 295 Declaration of Independence (US) 284 decolonisation 282, 288, 290 decommodification 85 deindustrialisation xii, 77–8, 98, 110, 148, 153, 159, 234 DeLong, Bradford 228 demand management 81, 82, 106, 176 demand-side management 85 democracy 47, 215 bourgeois 43, 49 governance within capitalism 43 social 190 totalitarian 220, 292 democratic governance 220, 266 democratisation 43 Deng Xiaoping x depressions 49, 227 1930s x, 108, 136, 169, 227, 232, 234 Descartes, René 247 Detroit 77, 136, 138, 148, 150, 152, 155, 159, 160 devaluation 153, 155, 162 of capital 233 of commodities 234 crises 150–51, 152, 154 localised 154 regional 154 developing countries 16, 240 Dhaka, Bangladesh 77 dialectics 70 Dickens, Charles 126, 169 Bleak House 226 Dombey and Son 184 digital revolution 144 disabled, the 202 see also handicapped discrimination 7, 8, 68, 116, 297 diseases 10, 211, 246, 254, 260 disempowerment 81, 103, 116, 119, 198, 270 disinvestment 78 Disneyfication 276 dispossession accumulation by 60, 67, 68, 84, 101, 111, 133, 141, 212 and capital 54, 55, 57 economies of 162 of indigenous populations 40, 59, 207 ‘land grabs’ 58 of land rights of the Irish 40 of the marginalised 198 political economy of 58 distributional equality 172 distributional shares 164–5, 166 division of labour 24, 71, 112–30, 154, 184, 268, 270 and Adam Smith 98, 118 defined 112 ‘the detail division of labour’ 118, 121 distinctions and oppositions 113–14 evolution of 112, 120, 121, 126 and gender 114–15 increasing complexity of 124, 125, 126 industrial proletariat 114 and innovation 96 ‘new international division of labour’ 122–3 organisation of 98 proliferating 121 relation between the parts and the whole 112 social 113, 118, 121, 125 technical 113, 295 uneven geographical developments in 130 dot-com bubble (1990s) 222–3, 241 ‘double coincidence of wants and needs’ 24 drugs 32, 193, 248 cartels 54 Durkheim, Emile 122, 125 Dust Bowl (United States, 1930s) 257 dynamism 92, 104, 146, 219 dystopia 229, 232, 264 E Eagleton , Terry: Why Marx Was Right 1, 21, 200, 214–15 East Asia crisis of 1997–98 154 dirigiste governmentality 48 education 184 rise of 170 Eastern Europe 115, 230 ecological offsets 250 economic rationality 211, 250, 252, 273, 274, 275, 277, 278, 279 economies 48 advanced capitalist 228, 236 agglomeration 149 of dispossession 162 domination of industrial cartels and finance capital 135 household 192 informal 175 knowledge-based 188 mature 227–8 regional 149 reoriented to demand-side management 85 of scale 75 solidarity 66, 180 stagnant xii ecosystems 207, 247, 248, 251–6, 258, 261, 263, 296 Ecuador 46, 152, 284 education 23, 58, 60, 67–8, 84, 110, 127–8, 129, 134, 150, 156, 168, 183, 184, 185, 187, 188, 189, 223, 235, 296 efficiency 71, 92, 93, 98, 103, 117, 118, 119, 122, 126, 272, 273, 284 efficient market hypothesis 118 Egypt 107, 280, 293 Ehrlich, Paul 246 electronics 120, 121, 129, 236, 292 emerging markets 170–71, 242 employment 37 capital in command of job creation 172, 174 conditions of 128 full-time 274 opportunities for xii, 108, 168 regional crises of 151 of women 108, 114, 115, 127 see also labour enclosure movement 58 Engels, Friedrich 70 The Condition of the English Working Class in England 292 English Civil War (1642–9) 199 Enlightenment 247 Enron 133, 241 environmental damage 49, 61, 110, 111, 113, 232, 249–50, 255, 257, 258, 259, 265, 286, 293 environmental movement 249, 252 environmentalism 249, 252–3 Epicurus 283 equal rights 64 Erasmus, Desiderius 283 ethnic hatreds and discriminations 8, 165 ethnic minorities 168 ethnicisation 62 ethnicity 7, 68, 116 euro, the 15, 37, 46 Europe deindustrialisation in 234 economic development in 10 fascist parties 280 low population growth rate 230 social democratic era 18 unemployment 108 women in labour force 230 European Central Bank 37, 46, 51 European Commission 51 European Union (EU) 95, 159 exchange values commodities 15, 25, 64 dominance of 266 and housing 14–23, 43 and money 28, 35, 38 uniform and qualitatively identical 15 and use values 15, 35, 42, 44, 50, 60, 65, 88 exclusionary permanent ownership rights 39 experts 122 exploitation 49, 54, 57, 62, 68, 75, 83, 107, 108, 124, 126, 128, 129, 150, 156, 159, 166, 175, 176, 182, 185, 193, 195, 208, 246, 257 exponential growth 224, 240, 254 capacity for 230 of capital 246 of capital accumulation 223, 229 of capitalist activity 253 and capital’s ecosystem 255 in computer power 105 and environmental resources 260 in human affairs 229 and innovations in finance and banking 100 potential dangers of 222, 223 of sophisticated technologies 100 expropriation 207 externality effects 43–4 Exxon 128 F Facebook 236, 278, 279 factories ix, 123, 129, 160, 174, 182, 247, 292 Factory Act (1864) 127, 183 famine 124–5, 229, 246 Fannie Mae 50 Fanon, Frantz 287 The Wretched of the Earth 288–90, 293 fascist parties 280 favelas ix, 16, 84, 175 feminisation 115 feminists 189, 192, 283 fertilisers 255 fetishes, fetishism 4–7, 31, 36–7, 61, 103, 111, 179, 198, 243, 245, 269, 278 feudalism 41 financial markets 60, 133 financialisation 238 FIRE (finance, insurance and real estate) sections 113 fishing 59, 113, 148, 249, 250 fixity and motion 75–8, 88, 89, 146, 155 Food and Drug Administration 120 food production/supply 3, 229, 246, 248, 252 security 253, 294, 296 stamp aid 206, 292 Ford, Martin 104–8, 111, 273 foreclosure 21, 22, 24, 54, 58, 241, 268 forestry 113, 148, 257 fossil fuels 3–4 Foucault, Michel xiii, 204, 209, 280–81 Fourier, François Marie Charles 183 Fourierists 18 Fourteen Points 201 France banking 158 dirigiste governmentality under de Gaulle 48 and European Central Bank 46 fascist parties 280 Francis, Pope 293 Apostolic Exhortation 275–6 Frankfurt School 261 Freddie Mac 50 free trade 138, 157 freedom 47, 48, 142, 143, 218, 219, 220, 265, 267–270, 276, 279–82, 285, 288, 296 and centralised power 142 cultural 168 freedom and domination 199–215, 219, 268, 285 and the good life 215 and money creation 51 popular desire for 43 religious 168 and state finances 48 under the rule of capital 64 see also liberty and freedom freedom of movement 47, 296 freedom of thought 200 freedom of the press 213 French Revolution 203, 213, 284 G G7 159 G20 159 Gallup survey of work 271–2 Gandhi, Mahatma 284, 291 Gaulle, Charles de 48 gay rights 166 GDP 194, 195, 223 Gehry, Frank 141 gender discriminations 7, 8, 68, 165 gene sequences 60 General Motors xii genetic engineering xii, 101, 247 genetic materials 235, 241, 251, 261 genetically modified foods 101 genocide 8 gentrification 19, 84, 141, 276 geocentric model 5 geographical landscape building a new 151, 155 of capitalism 159 evolution of 146–7 instability of 146 soulless, rationalised 157 geopolitical struggles 8, 154 Germany and austerity 223 autobahns built 151 and European Central Bank 46 inflation during 1920s 30 wage repression 158–9 Gesell, Silvio 35 Ghana 291 global economic crisis (2007–9) 22, 23, 47, 118, 124, 132, 151, 170, 228, 232, 234, 235, 241 global financialisation x, 177–8 global warming 260 globalisation 136, 174, 176, 179, 223, 293 gold 27–31, 33, 37, 57, 227, 233, 238, 240 Golden Dawn 280 Goldman Sachs 75, 239 Google 131, 136, 195, 279 Gordon, Robert 222, 223, 230, 239, 304n2 Gore, Al 249 Gorz, André 104–5, 107, 242, 270–77, 279 government 60 democratic 48 planning 48 and social bond between human rights and private property 40 spending power 48 governmentality 43, 48, 157, 209, 280–81, 285 Gramsci, Antonio 286, 293 Greco, Thomas 48–9 Greece 160, 161, 162, 171, 235 austerity 223 degradation of the well-being of the masses xi; fascist parties 280 the power of the bondholders 51, 152 greenwashing 249 Guantanamo Bay, Cuba 202, 284 Guatemala 201 Guevara, Che 291 Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao 141 guild system 117 Guinea-Bissau 291 Gulf Oil Spill (2010) 61 H Habermas, Jürgen 192 habitat 246, 249, 252, 253, 255 handicapped, the 218 see also disabled Harvey, David The Enigma of Capital 265 Rebel Cities 282 Hayek, Friedrich 42 Road to Serfdom 206 health care 23, 58, 60, 67–8, 84, 110, 134, 156, 167, 189, 190, 235, 296 hedge funds 101, 162, 239, 241, 249 managers 164, 178 Heidegger, Martin 59, 250 Heritage Foundation 143 heterotopic spaces 219 Hill, Christopher 199 Ho Chi Minh 291 holocausts 8 homelessness 58 Hong Kong 150, 160 housing 156, 296 asset values 19, 20, 21, 58 ‘built to order’ 17 construction 67 controlling externalities 19–20 exchange values 14–23, 43 gated communities ix, 160, 208, 264 high costs 84 home ownership 49–50 investing in improvements 20, 43 mortgages 19, 21, 28, 50, 67, 82 predatory practices 67, 133 production costs 17 rental markets 22 renting or leasing 18–19, 67 self-built 84 self-help 16, 160 slum ix, 16, 175 social 18, 235 speculating in exchange value 20–22 speculative builds 17, 28, 78, 82 tenement 17, 160 terraced 17 tract ix, 17, 82 use values 14–19, 21–2, 23, 67 housing markets 18, 19, 21, 22, 28, 32, 49, 58, 60, 67, 68, 77, 83, 133, 192 crisis (2007–9) 18, 20, 22, 82–3 HSBC 61 Hudson, Michael 222 human capital theory 185, 186 human evolution 229–30 human nature 97, 198, 213, 261, 262, 263 revolt of 263, 264–81 human rights 40, 200, 202 humanism 269 capitalist 212 defined 283 education 128 excesses and dark side 283 and freedom 200, 208, 210 liberal 210, 287, 289 Marxist 284, 286 religious 283 Renaissance 283 revolutionary 212, 221, 282–93 secular 283, 285–6 types of 284 Hungary: fascist parties 280 Husserl, Edmund 192 Huygens, Christiaan 70 I IBM 128 Iceland: banking 55 identity politics xiii illegal aliens (‘sans-papiers’) 156 illegality 61, 72 immigrants, housing 160 imperialism 135, 136, 143, 201, 257, 258 income bourgeois disposable 235 disparities of 164–81 levelling up of 171 redistribution to the lower classes xi; see also wages indebtedness 152, 194, 222 India billionaires in 170 a BRIC country 170, 228 call centres 139 consumerism 236 dismantlement of old ships 250 labour 107, 230 ‘land grabs’ 77 moneylenders 210 social reproduction in 194 software engineers 196 special economic zones 144 unstable lurches forward 10 indigenous populations 193, 202, 257, 283 dispossession of 40, 59, 207 and exclusionary ownership rights 39 individualism 42, 197, 214, 281 Indonesia 129, 160 industrial cartels 135 Industrial Revolution 127 industrialisation 123, 189, 229, 232 inflation 30, 36, 37, 40, 49, 136, 228, 233 inheritance 40 Inner Asia, labour in 108 innovation 132 centres of 96 and the class struggle 103 competitive 219 as a double-edged sword xii; improving the qualities of daily life 4 labour-saving 104, 106, 107, 108 logistical 147 organisational 147 political 219 product 93 technological 94–5, 105, 147, 219 as a way out of a contradiction 3 insurance companies 278 intellectual property rights xii, 41, 123, 133, 139, 187, 207, 235, 241–2, 251 interest compound 5, 222, 224, 225, 226–7 interest-rate manipulations 54 interest rates 54, 186 living off 179, 186 on loans 17 money capital 28, 32 and mortgages 19, 67 on repayment of loans to the state 32 simple 225, 227 usury 49 Internal Revenue Service income tax returns 164 International Monetary Fund (IMF) 49, 51, 100, 143, 161, 169, 186, 234, 240 internet 158, 220, 278 investment: in fixed capital 75 investment pension funds 35–6 IOUs 30 Iran 232, 289 Iranian Revolution 289 Iraq war 201, 290 Ireland dispossession of land rights 40 housing market crash (2007–9) 82–3 Istanbul 141 uprising (2013) 99, 129, 171, 243 Italy 51,161, 223, 235 ITT 136 J Jacobs, Jane 96 James, C.L.R. 291 Japan 1980s economic boom 18 capital in (1980s) 154 economic development in 10 factories 123 growth rate 227 land market crash (1990) 18 low population growth rate 230 and Marshall Plan 153 post-war recovery 161 Jewish Question 213 JPMorgan 61 Judaeo-Christian tradition 283 K Kant, Immanuel 285 Katz, Cindi 189, 195, 197 Kenya 291 Kerala, India 171 Keynes, John Maynard xi, 46, 76, 244, 266 ‘Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren’ 33–4 General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money 35 Keynesianism demand management 82, 105, 176 demand-side and debt-financed expansion xi King, Martin Luther 284, 291 knowledge xii, 26, 41, 95, 96, 100, 105, 113, 122, 123, 127, 144, 184, 188, 196, 238, 242, 295 Koch brothers 292 Kohl, Helmut x L labour agitating and fighting for more 64 alienated workers 125, 126, 128, 129, 130 artisan 117, 182–3 and automation 105 capital/labour contradiction 65, 66, 68–9, 146 collective 117 commodification of 57 contracts 71, 72 control over 74, 102–11, 119, 166, 171–2, 274, 291–2 deskilling 111, 119 discipline 65, 79 disempowering workers 81, 103, 116, 119, 270 division of see division of labour; domestic 196 education 127–8, 129, 183, 187 exploitation of 54, 57, 62, 68, 75, 83, 107, 108, 126, 128, 129, 150, 156, 166, 175, 176, 182, 185, 195 factory 122, 123, 237 fair market value 63, 64 Gallup survey 271–2 house building 17 housework 114–15, 192 huge increase in the global wage labour force 107–8 importance of workers as buyers of commodities 80–81 ‘industrial reserve army’ 79–80, 173–4 migrations of 118 non-unionised xii; power of 61–4, 71, 73, 74, 79, 81, 88, 99, 108, 118–19, 127, 173, 175, 183, 189, 207, 233, 267 privatisation of 61 in service 117 skills 116, 118–19, 123, 149, 182–3, 185, 231 social see social labour; surplus 151, 152, 173–4, 175, 195, 233 symbolic 123 and trade unions 116 trading in labour services 62–3 unalienated 66, 89 unionised xii; unpaid 189 unskilled 114, 185 women in workforce see under women; worked to exhaustion or death 61, 182 see also employment labour markets 47, 62, 64, 66–9, 71, 102, 114, 116, 118, 166 labour-saving devices 104, 106, 107, 173, 174, 277 labour power commodification of 61, 88 exploitation of 62, 175 generation of surplus value 63 mobility of 99 monetisation of 61 private property character of 64 privatisation of 61 reserves of 108 Lagos, Nigeria, social reproduction in 195 laissez-faire 118, 205, 207, 281 land commodification 260–61 concept of 76–7 division of 59 and enclosure movement 58 establishing as private property 41 exhausting its fertility 61 privatisation 59, 61 scarcity 77 urban 251 ‘land grabs’ 39, 58, 77, 252 land market 18, 59 land price 17 land registry 41 land rents 78, 85 land rights 40, 93 land-use zoning 43 landlords 54, 67, 83, 140, 179, 251, 261 Latin America ’1and grabs’ 58, 77 labour 107 reductions in social inequality 171 two ‘lost decades’ of development 234 lawyers 22, 26, 67, 82, 245 leasing 16, 17, 18 Lebed, Jonathan 195 Lee Kuan-Yew 48 Leeds 149 Lefebvre, Henri 157, 192 Critique of Everyday Life 197–8 left, the defence of jobs and skills under threat 110 and the factory worker 68 incapable of mounting opposition to the power of capital xii; remains of the radical left xii–xiii Lehman Brothers investment bank, fall of (2008) x–xi, 47, 241 ‘leisure’ industries 115 Lenin, Vladimir 135 Leninism 91 Lewis, Michael: The Big Short 20–21 LGBT groups 168, 202, 218 liberation struggle 288, 290 liberty, liberties 44, 48–51, 142, 143, 212, 276, 284, 289 and bourgeois democracy 49 and centralised power 142 and money creation 51 non-coercive individual liberty 42 popular desire for 43 and state finances 48 liberty and freedom 199–215 coercion and violence in pursuit of 201 government surveillance and cracking of encrypted codes 201–2 human rights abuses 202 popular desire for 203 rhetoric on 200–201, 202 life expectancy 250, 258, 259 light, corpuscular theory of 70 living standards xii, 63, 64, 84, 89, 134, 175, 230 loans fictitious capital 32 housing 19 interest on 17 Locke, John 40, 201, 204 logos 31 London smog of 1952 255 unrest in (2011) 243 Los Angeles 150, 292 Louis XIV, King of France 245 Lovelace, Richard 199, 200, 203 Luddites 101 M McCarthyite scourge 56 MacKinnon, Catherine: Are Women Human?


pages: 578 words: 168,350

Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West

Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor

., 17–18, 210, 355 Geanakoplos, John, 382 Gehry, Frank, 259 Gell-Mann, Murray, 435 general relativity, 339, 422, 428, 429 genes (genetics), 79–80, 84–85 genomics, 80, 97 geometry of urban systems, 288–90 George Mason University, 382 George Westinghouse Company, 123–24 geriatric survivors, 403, 405–6, 406 Gillooly, Jamie, 174 Glaeser, Edward, 213, 262 global population explosion, 209–13, 210 global sustainability, 28–32, 213–15, 411–26 global warming, 173, 177–78, 215, 233, 237–38 Godzilla, 36, 39, 158, 160–62, 163 Godzilla (film), 36 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 328–29 Goff, Bruce, 259 Golden Gate Bridge, 61, 62 Google, 32, 184, 361, 403–4 Grand Canyon, 127, 137 Grand Unified Theory (GUT), 82–83, 427–30 grand unified theory of complexity, 430–31 grand unified theory of sustainability, 411–26, 431 gravity, 48, 76–77 gravity waves, 77 Gray, Jim, 443 Great Britain (ship), 67 Great Eastern (ship), 65, 67–71, 73, 74, 300 Great Western (ship), 67 Great Western Railway, 64–66 Great Western Steamship Company, 66–68 greed, and social networks, 286–88 greenhouse effect, 178, 237, 243 Greenwich Village (New York City), 260, 261 group identity and cohesiveness, 305–9 growth, 163–73 bounded, 31, 173, 391 innovation and limits of, 59–63 metabolism of cities and, 371–78 open-ended. See open-ended growth theory of, 27–28, 171–73 growth curves, 27–29, 166–72, 169–71 of birds, fish and mammals, 170 in closed system, 221–22, 222 of cows, 169 of guinea pigs, 168 of guppies, 168 of hens, 169 of insects, 170 of tumors, 170, 171 Guggenheim Bilbao Museum, 259 Gulliver’s Travels (Swift), 128 Gustav II Adolf, 70 Haldane, J.B.S., 97 half-life, 190–91 Hamilton, Marcus, 386, 402 Harry Potter books, 183 Hawking, Stephen, 20, 403 Hayflick limit, 188 health and scaling, 51–52, 55–56, 57–59 health span, 183, 184 heart attacks, and HDL levels, 441 heartbeats, 118–21, 124–26, 155, 157, 196 pace of life and, 204–5 per lifetime of animals, 2, 2n, 3, 5, 6, 95, 196, 204 heart (cardiovascular) disease, 126, 193, 193–94 Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, 107 Helbing, Dirk, 271–72 heliocentrism, 37–38 hexagons, 289–90 hierarchy of life, 99–103, 101 hierarchy of social group structures, 305–9, 306, 315–16 Higgs particle, 78, 83, 110, 338, 444–46 high-density lipoproteins (HDL), 441 high energy physics, 83–84, 107, 405 Hiroshima atomic bombing, 47 Hitler, Adolf, 292 Hollingsworth, Rogers, 433–34 homeostasis, 395–96 homeotherms, 173 Hong Kong Stock Exchange, 390 Hour of the Wolf (film), 178 Houston, 310 Howard, Ebenezer, 254–56, 256, 263, 289 “How Long Is the Coast of Britain?


Eastern USA by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, jitney, license plate recognition, Mason jar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, the High Line, the payments system, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

For local information, check out the Roanoke Valley Visitor Information Center ( 540-342-6025; www.visitroanokeva.com; 101 Shenandoah Ave NE; 9am-5pm) in the old Norfolk & Western train station. The striking Taubman Museum of Art (www.taubmanmuseum.org; 110 Salem Ave SE; adult/child $7/4; 10am-5pm Tue-Sat, to 8pm Fri, noon-5pm Sun), opened in 2008, is set in a sculptural steel-and-glass edifice that’s reminiscent of the Guggenheim Bilbao (it’s no coincidence, as architect Randall Stout was a one-time associate of Frank Gehry). Inside, you’ll find a superb collection of artworks spanning 3500 years (particularly strong in 19th- and 20th-century American works). Currently undergoing a massive $27 million renewal project, Center in the Square ( 540-342-5700; www.centerinthesquare.org; 1 Market Sq; 10am-5pm Tue-Sat, from 1pm Sun) is the city’s cultural heartbeat, with a science museum and planetarium (adult/child $8/6), local history museum (adult/child $3/2) and theater.


pages: 481 words: 120,693

Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else by Chrystia Freeland

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, call centre, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, double helix, energy security, estate planning, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, global village, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, high net worth, income inequality, invention of the steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberation theology, light touch regulation, linear programming, London Whale, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, NetJets, new economy, Occupy movement, open economy, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Solar eclipse in 1919, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, Washington Consensus, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

But for Gehry, who began his work just twenty years later, globalization was the making of his career. His first foreign commission, the Vitra Design Museum in Germany, was in 1989, six years after Bunshaft’s big international gig. But what was a nightcap for Bunshaft was the main course for Gehry. Since 1989, half of his work has been outside the United States, including landmark buildings like the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. Gehry is more than an architect—he is a starchitect, a neologism coined to describe the small band of elite international architects whose personal brands transcend their buildings. He has appeared in Apple’s iconic black-and-white “Think Different” ad campaign, parodied himself on the Simpsons, and helped Arthur and his friends build a tree house on the children’s cartoon. He has even designed a hat for Lady Gaga.


pages: 356 words: 186,629

Frommer's Los Angeles 2010 by Matthew Richard Poole

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AltaVista, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Maui Hawaii, Saturday Night Live, sustainable-tourism, upwardly mobile

Walt Disne y C oncert Hall The strikingly beautiful Walt D isney Concer t Hall isn’t just the ne w home of the Los Angeles P hilharmonic; it’s a key element in an urban revitalization effort now underway Downtown. The Walt Disney family insisted on the best and, with an initial gift of $50 million to build a world-class per formance venue, that’s what they got: A masterpiece of design b y world-renowned architect Frank Gehry, and an acoustical quality that equals or surpasses those of the best concer t halls in the world. Similar to Gehry’s most famous architectural masterpiece, the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, the concert hall’s dramatic stainless-steel exterior consists of a series of undulating curved surfaces that partially envelop the entire building, presenting multiple glimmering facades to the surr ounding neighborhood. Within is a dazzling 2,273seat auditorium r eplete with cur ved woods and a dazzling array of organ pipes (also designed by Gehry), as well as Joachim Splichal’s Patina restaurant, the hip Concert Hall Cafe, a bookstore, and a gift shop.


USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

For local information, check out the Roanoke Valley Visitor Information Center ( 540-342-6025; www.visitroanokeva.com; 101 Shenandoah Ave NE; 9am-5pm) in the old Norfolk & Western train station. The striking Taubman Museum of Art (www.taubmanmuseum.org; 110 Salem Ave SE; adult/child $7/4; 10am-5pm Tue-Sat, to 8pm Fri, noon-5pm Sun) , opened in 2008, is set in a sculptural steel-and-glass edifice that’s reminiscent of the Guggenheim Bilbao (it’s no coincidence, as architect Randall Stout was a one-time associate of Frank Gehry). Inside, you’ll find a superb collection of artworks spanning 3500 years (particularly strong in 19th- and 20th-century American works). Currently undergoing a massive $27 million renewal project, Center in the Square ( 540-342-5700; www.centerinthesquare.org; 1 Market Sq; 10am-5pm Tue-Sat, from 1pm Sun) is the city’s cultural heartbeat, with a science museum and planetarium (adult/child $8/6), local history museum (adult/child $3/2) and theater.


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Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn

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affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional

As a healing piece of the vision for rebuilding Ground Zero, the cultural program carried deep meaning: LMDC officials and planners wanted it to be a “living memorial,” a way to celebrate life through the arts and “infuse the redevelopment with hope and energy drawn from the human spirit.”1 Everyone agreed on the ideal, even family members of the victims of 9/11. All around the world, culture had taken on importance as a driver of economic transformation. It had become a well-established strategy. Museums were opening in all kinds of places, built as destinations; the celebrated Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, designed by Frank Gehry brought worldwide attention to the phenomenon. Arts and culture were rooted in policymakers’ ideas of what makes a strong and attractive urban district, and cities everywhere were investing heavily in culture. The logic of using arts needed little emphasis in New York. New York City, especially Manhattan, held uncontested primacy among American cultural centers.

France (Lonely Planet, 8th Edition) by Nicola Williams

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active transport: walking or cycling, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information trail, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Sloane Ranger, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

But you ain’t seen nothin’ yet: at the time of writing, the Centre Pompidou–Metz (www.centrepompidou-metz.fr) – a branch of the inside-out original in Paris – was supposed to open its doors to aficionados of modern and contemporary art from the fall of 2009. The design, by Shigeru Ban (Tokyo) and Jean de Gastines (Paris), is like nothing else ever conceived by the human mind. Locals hope the museum, covered by an undulating, translucent membrane of teflon-coated fibreglass designed to trap rainwater for irrigation, will do for Metz what the Guggenheim did for Bilbao. Until the grand opening, you can learn about the project at the Maison du Projet ( 1-8pm May-Sep, 11am-5pm Oct-Apr), next to the construction site. Tours The tourist office’s audioguides (€7), available in three languages (English, French and German), cover the city centre (1½ hours) and the Quartier Impérial (45 minutes). Sleeping Metz’ hotels are great value. Except in summer, they’re fullest Monday to Thursday.