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pages: 158 words: 16,993

Citation Needed: The Best of Wikipedia's Worst Writing by Conor Lastowka, Josh Fruhlinger

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airport security, citation needed, en.wikipedia.org, jimmy wales, peak oil, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking

Lost in the oppressive wackiness is the depressing fact glossed over in the first sentence: an ostrich, crushed by debt, prostitutes itself into slavery to Mickey Mouse for the meager potential reward of just three hundred dollars. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wacky_Races Male lactation Though boys and men have nipples, many are unaware that they also have mammary glands[citation needed] This claim was tested in an informal poll conducted on a New York City street corner. It proved that you will be beaten severely if you ask a bunch of random men whether they are aware that they have mammary glands. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Male_lactation Terminology of homosexuality Jizz Junkie[citation needed] Most find this term pejorative and prefer “semen enthusiast.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terminology_of_homosexuality Joanna of Castile The early stages of Joanna and Philip’s relationship were quite passionate, and the feeling was mutual.

But after Hollywood and Madison Avenue shoved it down our throats for the better part of two decades, it’s slowly become just another hackneyed cliché. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hushpuppy The Harlem Globetrotters on Gilligan’s Island The original script was going to be known as The Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders on Gilligan’s Island, but was changed to have the Harlem Globetrotters star instead.[citation needed] The pillow fight scenes suffered immensely from the change. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Harlem_Globetrotters_on_Gilligan’s_Island Da Vinci’s Notebook Enormous Penis is often wrongly assumed to be a Frank Zappa song. When it is, in fact, one of John Philip Sousa’s most underrated works. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Da_Vinci’s_Notebook Punxsutawney Phil During the rest of the year, Phil lives in the town library with his “wife” Phyllis.

The quotes indicate the sinful, never legally sanctioned (but oft-consummated) nature of Phil and Phyllis’s sham marriage. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punxsutawney_Phil Lew Zealand His thrown fish are unique in that they return to him once thrown. Something Katherine Hepburn’s thrown fish could never quite get the hang of. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lew_Zealand Animal Fancy One theory for the term “fan”, for one who supports a sports team or any public figure, is that it is likewise derived from this use of “fancy”. Other theories exist, however, including the idea that fan is short for fanatic. Consider too, the expression, “Well, fancy that.” Are you still considering it? We didn’t tell you that you could stop. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Animal_fancy Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III: The Manhattan Project Despite the fact that the cover art features the Turtles fighting a Triceraton, no Triceratons appear in the game.

pages: 247 words: 43,430

Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey

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Benoit Mandelbrot, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Guggenheim Bilbao, mandelbrot fractal, Occupy movement, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, sorting algorithm, stochastic process, strong AI, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%

You can read more about game theory at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Game_theory. Appendix A. Call for Submissions The case studies in this book were written by students at Olin College, and edited by Lisa Downey and Allen Downey. They were reviewed by a program committee of faculty at Olin College who chose the ones that met the criteria of interest and quality. I am grateful to the program committee and the students. I invite readers to submit additional case studies. Reports that meet the criteria will be published in an online supplement to this book, and the best of them will be included in future print editions. The criteria are the following: The case study should be relevant to complexity. For an overview of possible topics, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complexity and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complex_systems.

One interesting kind is the Erdős-Rényi model, denoted , which generates graphs with n nodes, where the probability is p that there is an edge between any two nodes. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erdos-Renyi_model. Example 2-4. Create a file named RandomGraph.py, and define a class named RandomGraph that inherits from Graph and provides a method named add_random_edges that takes a probability p as a parameter and, starting with an edgeless graph, adds edges at random so that the probability is p that there is an edge between any two nodes. Connected Graphs A graph is connected if there is a path from every node to every other node. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connectivity_(graph_theory). There is a simple algorithm to check whether a graph is connected. Start at any vertex and conduct a search (usually a breadth-first-search or BFS), marking all the vertices you can reach.

This transition is sometimes called a “phase change” as an analogy with physical systems that change state at some critical value of temperature. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_transition. Example 2-6. One of the properties that displays this kind of transition is connectedness. For a given size n, there is a critical value, , such that a random graph is unlikely to be connected if and very likely to be connected if . Write a program that tests this result by generating random graphs for values of n and p, and then computing the fraction of the values that are connected. How does the abruptness of the transition depend on n? You can download my solution from http://thinkcomplex.com/RandomGraph.py. * * * [3] Much of this biography follows http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Erdos. Iterators If you have read the documentation of Python dictionaries, you might have noticed the methods iterkeys, itervalues, and iteritems.

pages: 197 words: 35,256

NumPy Cookbook by Ivan Idris

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business intelligence, cloud computing, computer vision, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, mandelbrot fractal, p-value, sorting algorithm, statistical model, transaction costs, web application

We can determine the steady state based on end of day close prices. Far into the distant future or in theory infinite time, the state of our Markov chain system will not change anymore. This is also called a steady state (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steady_state). The stochastic matrix (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stochastic_matrix) A, which contains the state transition probabilities, and when applied to the steady state, will yield the same state x. The mathematical notation for this will be as follows: Another way to look at this is as the eigenvector (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eigenvalues_and_eigenvectors) for eigenvalue 1. How to do it... Now we need to obtain the data. Obtain one year of data.One way we can do this is with Matplotlib (refer to the Installing Matplotlib recipe in Chapter 1, Winding Along with IPython, if necessary).

The Fibonacci series is a sequence of integers starting with zero, where each number is the sum of the previous two; except, of course, the first two numbers zero and one. For more information, read the Wikipedia article about Fibonacci numbers at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci_number . This recipe uses a formula based on the golden ratio, which is an irrational number with special properties comparable to pi. It we will use the sqrt, log, arange, astype, and sum functions. How to do it... The first thing to do is calculate the golden ratio (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_ratio), also called the golden section or golden mean. Calculate the golden ratio.We will be using the sqrt function to calculate the square root of five: phi = (1 + numpy.sqrt(5))/2 print "Phi", phi This prints the golden mean: Phi 1.61803398875 Find the index below four million.Next in the recipe, we need to find the index of the Fibonacci number below four million.

arange Creates an array with a specified range. astype Converts array elements to a specified data type. sum Calculates the sum of array elements. See also The Indexing with booleans recipe in Chapter 2, Advanced Indexing and Array Concepts Finding prime factors Prime factors (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_factor) are prime numbers that divide an integer exactly without a remainder. Finding prime factors seems almost impossible to crack. However, using the right algorithm—Fermat's factorization method (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermat%27s_factorization_method) and NumPy—it becomes very easy. The idea is to factor a number N into two numbers c and d, according to the following equation: We can apply the factorization recursively, until we get the required prime factors. How to do it...

pages: 629 words: 142,393

The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Post-materialism, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Supreme Court, Speech at the American Bar Association Annual Meeting (Aug. 9, 2003)(revised Aug. 14, 2003), available at http://www.supremecourtus.gov/publicinfo/speeches/sp_08—09—03.html; Wikipedia, Rule of Law, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rule_of_law (as of June 1, 2007, 08:30 GMT). 66. Wiki Truth, Jimbo Found Out, http://www.wikitruth.info/index.php?title=Jimbo_Found_Out (last visited June 1, 2007). 67. Wikipedia, Articles for Deletion/Angela Beesley, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia: Articles_for_deletion/Angela_Beesley (as of Jan 6. 2007, 19:17 GMT). 68. Wikipedia, Articles for Deletion/Angela Beesley (3rd nomination), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Angela_Beesley_(3rd_nomination) (as of May 3, 2007, 16:46 GMT). 69. 17 U.S.C. § 512 (2000); see also Wikipedia, Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_Copyright_Infringement_Liability _Limitation_Act (providing a summary of the § 512 provisions of the DMCA) (as of June 1, 2007, 09:00 GMT); supra Ch. 5, note 83 and accompanying text. 70.

See Ward Cunningham, Wiki Design Principles http://www.c2.com/cgi/wikiiWiki DesignPrinciples (as of Mar. 26, 2007, 12:00 GMT) (explaining that his goals for the first release of Wiki included designing an “organic” system in which “[t]he structure and text content of the site are open to editing and evolution,” in which “[t]he mechanisms of editing and organizing are the same as those of writing so that any writer is automatically an editor and organizer,” and in which “[a]ctivity within the site can be watched and reviewed by any other visitor to the site”). Cunningham also notes that an additional principle was that “[e]verybody can contribute; nobody has to.” Id. 84. See Meyers, supra note 82; Wikipedia, Ward Cunningham, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Ward_Cunningham (as of May 10, 2007, 13:31 GMT); Wikipedia, Wiki, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WikiWiki (as of May 16, 2007, 23:11 GMT). 85. See Wikipedia, Wiki, supra note 84; Wikipedia, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Wikipedia#History (as of May 16, 2007, 15:44 GMT). 86. For further discussion of commons-based peer production (including an examination of free software and Wikipedia) as an alternate economic modality, see Benkler, supra note 65, at 334—36. 87. There is evidence this is, in fact, already occurring.

See Wikipedia Meta-Wiki, Wikipedia, http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia (as of June 1, 2007, 08:15 GMT). 30. Wikipedia Meta-Wiki, Three-Revert Rule, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia: Three-revert_rule (as of June 1, 2007, 08:15 GMT). 31. Wikipedia policy prohibits “wheel wars”—cases in which a Wikipedia administrator repeatedly undoes the action of another—just as it prohibits edit wars. See Wikipedia, Wheel War, http://en.wikipedia.Org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wheel_war (as of May 30, 2007 at 21:40 GMT). A meta-meta-rule is that while administrators do not second-guess each others’ actions without good reason, some restrictions require persistent consensus among admins—nearly any admin may unprotect a page or remove a block. 32. See Wikipedia, Wikipedia: No Legal Threats, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia: No_legal_threats (as of May 30, 2007 at 21:41 GMT). 33. E.g., Wikipedia Meta-Wiki, Editing with Tor, http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Tor (as ofJUNE 1, 2007, 08:15 GMT) (“English Wikipedia tends to block every Tor node.”). 34.

pages: 323 words: 65,306

Programming in CoffeeScript by Mark Bates

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don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, MVC pattern, node package manager, Ruby on Rails, single page application, web application

xxiii xxiv Programming in CoffeeScript notes 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JavaScript 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajax_(programming) 3. http://www.prototypejs.org/ 4. http://documentcloud.github.com/backbone/ 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model–view–controller 6. http://www.adobe.com/ 7. http://www.apple.com/ios/ 8. http://www.coffeescript.org 9. http://www.rubyonrails.org 10. http://www.rubyinside.com/rails-3-1-adopts-coffeescript-jquery-sass-andcontroversy-4669.html 11. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruby_(programming_language) 12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_(programming_language) 13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_(programming_language) 14. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C%2B%2B 15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Php 16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.NET_Framework 17. http://www.jquery.com 18. https://github.com/madrobby/zepto 19. http://documentcloud.github.com/backbone 20. http://pivotal.github.com/jasmine/ 21. http://ruby-doc.org/docs/ProgrammingRuby/html/ref_c_object.html#Object.method_ missing 22. http://nodejs.org Part I Core CoffeeScript In this first half of the book we are going to cover everything you’ve ever wanted to know, and everything you’ll ever need to know, about CoffeeScript.

We’ve looked at the pros and cons of the ways that CoffeeScript can be compiled and are now armed with the knowledge we need to be able to play with the examples in the rest of this book. Finally, we dug into the coffee command to learn the most important options and parameters we can pass to it. Notes 1. Read-eval-print loop - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Read-eval-print_loop 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Html 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unobtrusive_JavaScript 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Json 5. Touching a file means lots of different things on different operating systems, but usually just saving the file is enough of a “touch” to trigger the -w into doing its magic. 6. https://github.com/guard/guard 7. https://github.com/TrevorBurnham/jitter 8. http://jashkenas.github.com/coffee-script/documentation/docs/command.html 2 The Basics N ow that we’ve covered the boring stuff, like compiling and executing your CoffeeScript, we will start covering how to actually write it.

In the original outline for this book, this chapter was originally part of Chapter 2, “The Basics,” but I felt there was so much information here that it deserved its own chapter. This chapter could have been called “The Basics—Part 2.” I’m telling you this because, armed with the knowledge contained within this chapter and Chapter 2, we have covered the basic building blocks of CoffeeScript. We can now start looking at the really fun stuff. Notes 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operator_(programming) 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conditional_(programming) 3. http://www.yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ternary_operation 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switch_statement 63 This page intentionally left blank 4 Functions and Arguments I n this chapter we are going to look at one of the most essential parts of any language, the function. Functions allow us to encapsulate reusable and discrete code blocks. Without functions our code would be one long, unreadable, and unmaintainable mess.

pages: 255 words: 78,207

Web Scraping With Python: Collecting Data From the Modern Web by Ryan Mitchell

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AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, cloud computing, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Guido van Rossum, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, optical character recognition, random walk, self-driving car, Turing test, web application

Obviously, you can define as many fields as you’d like (url, content, header image, etc.), but I’m simply collecting the title field from each page, for now. In your newly created articleSpider.py file, write the following: from scrapy.selector import Selector from scrapy import Spider from wikiSpider.items import Article class ArticleSpider(Spider): name="article" allowed_domains = ["en.wikipedia.org"] start_urls = ["http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page", "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Python_%28programming_language%29"] def parse(self, response): item = Article() title = response.xpath('//h1/text()')[0].extract() print("Title is: "+title) item['title'] = title return item The name of this object (ArticleSpider) is different from the name of the directory (WikiSpider), indicating that this class in particular is responsible for spidering only through article pages, under the broader category of WikiSpider.

Using modi‐ fied code from Chapter 3, the following script does just that: from urllib.request import urlopen from bs4 import BeautifulSoup import datetime import random import re random.seed(datetime.datetime.now()) def getLinks(articleUrl): html = urlopen("http://en.wikipedia.org"+articleUrl) bsObj = BeautifulSoup(html) return bsObj.find("div", {"id":"bodyContent"}).findAll("a", href=re.compile("^(/wiki/)((?!:).)*$")) def getHistoryIPs(pageUrl): #Format of revision history pages is: #http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Title_in_URL&action=history pageUrl = pageUrl.replace("/wiki/", "") historyUrl = "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=" +pageUrl+"&action=history" print("history url is: "+historyUrl) html = urlopen(historyUrl) bsObj = BeautifulSoup(html) #finds only the links with class "mw-anonuserlink" which has IP addresses #instead of usernames ipAddresses = bsObj.findAll("a", {"class":"mw-anonuserlink"}) addressList = set() for ipAddress in ipAddresses: addressList.add(ipAddress.get_text()) return addressList links = getLinks("/wiki/Python_(programming_language)") while(len(links) > 0): for link in links: print("-------------------") historyIPs = getHistoryIPs(link.attrs["href"]) for historyIP in historyIPs: print(historyIP) newLink = links[random.randint(0, len(links)-1)].attrs["href"] links = getLinks(newLink) This program uses two main functions: getLinks (which was also used in Chapter 3), and the new getHistoryIPs, which searches for the contents of all links with the 66 | Chapter 4: Using APIs class mw-anonuserlink (indicating an anonymous user with an IP address, rather than a username) and returns it as a set.

You should already know how to write a Python script that retrieves an arbitrary Wikipedia page and produces a list of links on that page: from urllib.request import urlopen from bs4 import BeautifulSoup html = urlopen("http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kevin_Bacon") bsObj = BeautifulSoup(html) for link in bsObj.findAll("a"): if 'href' in link.attrs: print(link.attrs['href']) If you look at the list of links produced, you’ll notice that all the articles you’d expect are there: “Apollo 13,” “Philadelphia,” “Primetime Emmy Award,” and so on. However, there are some things that we don’t want as well: //wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Privacy_policy //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Contact_us In fact, Wikipedia is full of sidebar, footer, and header links that appear on every page, along with links to the category pages, talk pages, and other pages that do not contain different articles: /wiki/Category:Articles_with_unsourced_statements_from_April_2014 /wiki/Talk:Kevin_Bacon Recently a friend of mine, while working on a similar Wikipedia-scraping project, mentioned he had written a very large filtering function, with over 100 lines of code, in order to determine whether an internal Wikipedia link was an article page or not.

pages: 589 words: 69,193

Mastering Pandas by Femi Anthony

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Amazon Web Services, Bayesian statistics, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Internet of things, natural language processing, p-value, random walk, side project, statistical model, Thomas Bayes

We can then invoke the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem (CLT) and denote the mean of sample means as an estimate of the true population mean. The population mean is also referred to as the expected value of the population. The mean, as a calculated value, is often not one of the values observed in the dataset. The main drawback of using the mean is that it is very susceptible to outlier values, or if the dataset is very skewed. For additional information, please refer to these links at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sample_mean_and_sample_covariance, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_large_numbers, and http://bit.ly/1bv7l4s. The median The median is the data value that divides the set of sorted data values into two halves. It has exactly half of the population to its left and the other half to its right. In the case when the number of values in the dataset is even, the median is the average of the two middle values.

A memoryless random variable exhibits the property whereby its future state depends only on relevant information about the current time and not the information from further in the past. An example of modeling a Markovian/memoryless random variable is modeling short-term stock price behavior and the idea that it follows a random walk. This leads to what is called the Efficient Market hypothesis in Finance. For more information, refer to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Random_walk_hypothesis. The PDF of the exponential distribution is given by =. The expectation and variance are given by the following expression: For a reference, refer to the link at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exponential_distribution. The plot of the distribution and code is given as follows: In [15]: import scipy.stats clrs = colors.cnames x = np.linspace(0,4, 100) expo = scipy.stats.expon lambda_ = [0.5, 1, 2, 5] plt.figure(figsize=(12,4)) for l,c in zip(lambda_,clrs): plt.plot(x, expo.pdf(x, scale=1.

A good example in the area of retail would be Target Corporation, which has invested substantially in big data and is now able to identify potential customers by using big data to analyze people's shopping habits online; refer to a related article at http://nyti.ms/19LT8ic. Loosely speaking, big data refers to the phenomenon wherein the amount of data exceeds the capability of the recipients of the data to process it. Here is a Wikipedia entry on big data that sums it up nicely: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_data. 4 V's of big data A good way to start thinking about the complexities of big data is along what are called the 4 dimensions, or 4 V's of big data. This model was first introduced as the 3V's by Gartner analyst Doug Laney in 2001. The 3V's stood for Volume, Velocity, and Variety, and the 4th V, Veracity, was added later by IBM. Gartner's official definition is as follows: "Big data is high volume, high velocity, and/or high variety information assets that require new forms of processing to enable enhanced decision making, insight discovery and process optimization."

pages: 398 words: 86,023

The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih

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Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Marshall McLuhan, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K

title=The_Death_and_Life_of_Great_American _Cities & oldid=5639 (retrieved June 8, 2007). 36. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Rambot/Delete 17:32, 11 Sep 2003 (UTC). 37. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Bots#Restrictions_on _specific_tasks. 38. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Seth_Ilys/Dot_Project. 39. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Seth_Ilys/Dot_Project. 40. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Ignore_all_rules& oldid=54587. 41. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Neutral_point_of_view. 42. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Notability. 43. Wikipedia has come so far that inclusion implies societal validation of a concept. 44. http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikien-l/ 2003-November/008153.html. 45. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Edit_war. Notes_233 46. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Three_revert _rule _enforcement. 47.

Larry Sanger, “Let’s make a wiki” (email), Nupedia-L mailing list, Nupedia, January 10, 2001, http://web.archive .org/web/20030414014355/http://www.nupedia.com/ pipermail/nupedia-l/ 2001-January/000676.html (retrieved on May 1, 2008). 21. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Mark_Richards/Archive_2#The_ .22Encyclo pedia_that_Slashdot_Built.22_Awards. 22. Simon Winchester, The Meaning of Everything (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003). 23. Ibid, p. 108. 24. Ibid, p. 57. 25. Ibid, p. 200. 26. http://huettermann.net/index.php/?cat-2 . 27. 2006 figure. Chapter 5. COMMUNITY AT WORK (THE PIRANHA EFFECT) 28. CNN, December 5, 2005, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:SushiGeek/Wales_inter view_transcript. 29. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Be_bold& oldid=38947. 30. http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikien-l/ 2003-February/001149.html. 31. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Advice_for_new_administrators. 32. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Awareness_statistics. 33. http://stats.wikimedia.org/EN/TablesWikipediaEN.htm. 34. 4,687 editors made more than 100 edits each that month. 35. http://wikisummaries.org/index.php?

From “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” p. 65. 68. http://www.firstmonday.org/Issues/issue8_12/ciffolilli/. 69. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.03/wiki.html. 234_Notes 70. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml ?title=Albert_Einstein& diff=2380047& oldid= 2380036 . 71. http://wikimania2006.wikimedia.org/wiki/Proceedings:MP1. Chapter 8. CRISIS OF COMMUNITY 72. http://wwwtcsdaily.com/article .aspx?id=111504A. 73. http://ascii.textfiles.com/archives/000060.html. 74. http://www.news.com/In-search -of-the-Wikipedia-prankster—page-2/2008-1029_3 -5995977-2 .html ?tag=st.next. 75. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Semi-protection_policy#Semi -protection. 76. http://chronicle.com/wiredcampus/index.php?id=1909. 77. http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/02/28/wikipedia=oops/. 78. http://en.wikipedia.org / w/ index.php?title =Talk:Imprimatur& diff= prev& oldid= 12614544. 79. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Administrators%27_notice board/Incidents& diff=47360865& oldid=47360559. 80. http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Jimmy_Wales_asks _Wikipedian_to_resign_ %22his_po sitions_of_trust %22_over_nonexistent_degrees. 81. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia_Signpost/2007-03-05/Essjay.

pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, digital map, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

Rebecca MacKinnon, Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom (New York: Basic, 2013). 9. Rebecca MacKinnon, “Keynote Speech on Surveillance,” in Opening Ceremony of the Freedom Online Conference, 2013, accessed September 30, 2014, http://consentofthenetworked.com/2013/06/17/freedom-online-keynote/. 10. “Aaron Swartz,” Wikipedia, accessed June 29, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aaron_Swartz. 11. “Russian Business Network,” Wikipedia, accessed June 19, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Business_Network. 12. “Zero-Day Attack,” Wikipedia, accessed June 21, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-day_attack. 13. “U.S.-Style Personal Data Gathering Is Spreading Worldwide,” Forbes, accessed June 29, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/adamtanner/2013/10/16/u-s-style-personal-data-gathering-spreading-worldwide/; Paul Schwartz, Managing Global Privacy (Berkeley: ThePrivacyProjects.org, January 2009), accessed September 30, 2014, http://theprivacyprojects.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/The-Privacy-Projects-Paul-Schwartz-Global-Data-Flows-20093.pdf. 14.

Empire of Connected Things 1. Internet Census 2012: Port Scanning /0 Using Insecure Embedded Devices, 2012, accessed September 15, 2014, http://internetcensus2012.bitbucket.org/paper.html. 2. Edith Penrose and Christos Pitelis, The Theory of the Growth of the Firm (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009); “Edith Penrose,” Wikipedia, accessed June 23, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edith_Penrose. 3. “Hudson’s Bay Company,” Wikipedia, accessed June 15, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hudson’s_Bay_Company; “East India Company (English Trading Company),” Encyclopedia Britannica, accessed June 16, 2014, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/176643/East-India-Company. 4. “ITU: Committed to Connecting the World,” accessed June 16, 2014, http://www.itu.int/. 5. “Internet Users in the World,” Internet World Stats: Usage and Population Statistics, June 30, 2012, http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. 6.

“Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group,” Wikipedia, accessed June 20, 2014, http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_Threat_Research_Intelligence_Group. 34. Associated Press, “US Secretly Created ‘Cuban Twitter’ to Stir Unrest and Undermine Government,” Guardian, April 3, 2014, accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/03/us-cuban-twitter-zunzuneo-stir-unrest. 35. “Storm Botnet,” Wikipedia, accessed June 30, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Storm_botnet. 36. “Kraken Botnet,” Wikipedia, accessed June 19, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kraken_botnet. 37. “The Spamhaus Project,” accessed June 20, 2014, http://www.spamhaus.org/. 38. Raphael Satter, “Spamhaus Hit with ‘Largest Publicly Announced DDoS Attack’ Ever, Affecting Internet Users Worldwide,” Huffington Post, March 27, 2013, accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/27/spamhaus-cyber-attack_n_2963632.html?

pages: 336 words: 90,749

How to Fix Copyright by William Patry

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, barriers to entry, big-box store, borderless world, business intelligence, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, means of production, moral panic, new economy, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, web application, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

For a fascinating discussion of the concept of authorship in Renaissance Italy and of the Venetian Council of Ten Decree of 1545, see Joanna Kostylo’s Commentary on the Venetian Decree of 1545 regulating author/printer relations, on the invaluable Primary Sources in Copyright website. Professor Kostylo’s commentary is available at: http://www.copyrighthistory.org/cgi-bin/kleioc/0010/exec/ ausgabeCom/%22i_1545%22. See Early Music Borrowing (Honey Meconi ed. 2004); http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parody_mass. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josquin_des_Prez. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraphrase_mass. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josquin_des_Prez. K. 180. For further examples and a discussion, see Charles Rosen’s article, “Influence: Plagiarism and Inspiration,” in 19th Century Music, Issue 2, Autumn 1980, pages 87–100. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_%28web_application_ hybrid%29; Matthew Rimmer, Copyright Law and Mash-Ups: A Policy Paper, Australian National University (2010); “Mashing-Up Culture: The Rise of User-Generated Content,” Proceedings from the COUNTER Workshop, Uppsala University, May 13–14, 2009); James Boyle, The Public Domain, Chapter 6 (“I Got a Mashup”) (2008, Yale University Press); Olufunmilayo Arewa, From J.C.

., a private industrial group run by Len Blavatnik, a Russian businessman. 266 NOTES TO PAGES 21–26 22. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Courts and Intellectual Property of the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. House of Representatives,106th Congress, 2d Session, page 120 (May 25, 2000). Serial No. 145. Available at: http://commdocs.house.gov/ committees/judiciary/hju65223.000/hju65223_0f.htm. 23. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Studio_system. 24. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinema_of_the_United_States# Golden_Age_of_Hollywood. 25. 334 U.S. 131 (1948). 26. Edward Jay Epstein, The Big Picture: Money and Power in Hollywood 112 (2006, Random House). See also Schuyler Moore, The Biz: The Basic Business, Legal and Financial Aspects of the Film Industry (2007, 3d edition, Silman-James Press). 27. http://thehollywoodeconomist.blogspot.com.

Thucydides, Book Five, History of the Peloponnesian Wars, reproduced in The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War 352 (Robert Strassler ed., The Free Press 1996). The Athenians made good on this realpolitik by killing the Melian men, enslaving the Melian women and children, and then repopulating it as an Athenian state. See http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Melian_dialogue, and A.B., Bosworth. “The Humanitarian Aspect of the Melian Dialogue.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 113 (1993): 31, http://www.jstor.org/stable/632396; W. Liebeschuetz. “The Structure and Function of the Melian Dialogue.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 88 (1968): 75, http://www.jstor. org/stable/628672. 47. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melian_dialogue. 48. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8681410. See http://www .michaelgeist.ca/content/view/5563/125/. 49. See http://business.financialpost.com/2011/05/30/judge-approvessettlement-in-music-royalties-class-action/. 50.

pages: 524 words: 143,993

The Shifts and the Shocks: What We've Learned--And Have Still to Learn--From the Financial Crisis by Martin Wolf

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air freight, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, break the buck, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, light touch regulation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandatory minimum, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market fragmentation, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Real Time Gross Settlement, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, very high income, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

The International Monetary Fund’s Global Financial Stability Report for April 2006 stated, baldly and boldly: ‘There is growing recognition that the dispersion of credit risk by banks to a broader and more diverse set of investors, rather than warehousing such risk on their balance sheets, has helped make the banking and overall financial system more resilient.’ See Global Financial Stability Report (Washington DC: International Monetary Fund, 2006), p. 51. 8. On IKB, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IKB_Deutsche_Industriebank, on the eight Norwegian municipalities, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terra_Securities_scandal, and on Narvik, in particular, which lost $18 million in August 2007, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Narvik. 9. Skidelsky, Keynes, p. 8, and Tom Braithwaite and Chris Tighe, ‘Patient Queues in Very British Bank Run’, Financial Times, 14 September 2007. 10. Paul McCulley invented the term ‘Shadow Banking System’ for intermediation via money-market funds, special investment vehicles (SIVs), conduits and hedge funds.

See Lawrence Summers, ‘Why Stagnation might Prove to be the New Normal’, 15 December 2013, Financial Times, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/87cb15ea-5d1a-11e3-a558-00144feabdc0.html. On Alvin Hansen, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alvin_Hansen. 55. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sovereign_wealth_fund#Size_of_SWFs and http://www.swfinstitute.org/fund-rankings/. 56. See Kenneth Rogoff, ‘Globalization and Global Deflation’, Paper prepared for the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City conference on ‘Monetary Policy and Uncertainty: Adapting to a Changing Economy’, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, 29 August 2003, https://www.imf.org/external/np/speeches/2003/082903.htm. 57. See ‘Moore’s Law’, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore’s_law. 58. On the forces driving inequality and their consequences, see Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Rising (Paris: OECD, 2011), Joseph Stiglitz, The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers our Future (New York and London: Norton, 2012), and Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Cambridge, MA, and London, England, 2014). 59.

‘Communiqué’, Meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, Busan, Republic of Korea, 5 June 2010, http://www.ft.com/cms/422d6406-7093-11df-96ab-00144feabdc0.pdf. 2. Financial Times, 22 August 2013, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/6fea2b90-09bf-11e3-ad07-00144feabdc0.html. 3. ‘Declaration on Strengthening the Financial System’, London Summit, 2 April 2009, http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/economy/g20_summit/2009-1/annex2.html. 4. On Basel III, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basel_III. 5. On Basel I, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basel_I. 6. On Basel II, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basel_II. 7. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, ‘Basel III: A Global Regulatory Framework for More Resilient Banks and Banking Systems’, December 2010 (revised June 2011), http://www.bis.org/publ/bcbs189.pdf. See also Independent Commission on Banking, Final Report: Recommendations, London, September 2011, p. 84, https://hmt-sanctions.s3.amazonaws.com/ICB20final%20reportICB%2520Final%2520Report%5B1%5D.pdf. 8.

pages: 372 words: 67,140

Jenkins Continuous Integration Cookbook by Alan Berg

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anti-pattern, continuous integration, Debian, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, job automation, performance metric, revision control, web application, x509 certificate

You should now see an extra sub-directory named FULL-{timestamp}, where {timestamp} is the time to the second that the full backup was created. Click on the Restore icon. A select box restore backup form will be shown with the dates of the backups. Select the backup just created. Click on the Restore button. To guarantee the consistency, restart the Jenkins server. How it works... The backup scheduler uses the cron notation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cron). 1 0 * * 7 means every seventh day of the week at 00:01 AM. 1 1 * * * implies that differential backup occurs once per day at 1.01 A.M. Every seventh day, the previous differentials are deleted. Differential backups contain only files that have been modified since the last full backup. The plugin looks at the last modified date to work out which files need to be backed up. The process can sometimes go wrong if another process changes the last modified date, without actually changing the content of the files. 61 is the number of directories created with backups.

A fuzzer goes through a series of URLs, appends different parameters blindly, and checks the response from servers. The inputted parameters are variations of scripting commands such as<script>alert("random string");</script>. An attack vector is found if the server's response includes the unescaped version of the script. Cross Site Scripting attacks are currently one of the more popular forms of attack (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_scripting). The attack involves injecting script fragments into the client's browser so that the script runs as if it comes from a trusted website. For example, once you have logged in to an application, it is probable that your session ID is stored in a cookie. The injected script might read the value in the cookie and then send the information to another server ready for an attempt at reuse.

This action not only removes the risk of running unsolicited JavaScript, but also removes some flexibility for you as the administrator of the Job. You can no longer add formatting tags, such as font. The Mask Passwords plugin removes the password from the screen or the console, replacing each character of the password with the letter "x", thus avoiding accidental reading. You should also always keep this plugin turned on, unless you find undocumented side effects or need to debug a Job. Cross Site Request Forgery (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_request_forgery) occurs, for example, if you accidentally visit a third-party location. A script at that location then tries to make your browser perform an action (such as delete a Job) by making your web browser visit a known URL within Jenkins. Jenkins, thinking that the browser is doing your bidding, then complies with the request. Once the nonce feature is turned on, Jenkins avoids CSRF by generating a random one-time number called a nonce that is returned as part of the request.

pages: 262 words: 80,257

The Eureka Factor by John Kounios

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active measures, Albert Einstein, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Flynn Effect, functional fixedness, Google Hangouts, impulse control, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Necker cube, pattern recognition, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, theory of mind, US Airways Flight 1549, Wall-E, William of Occam

(San Francisco: Cengage Learning, 2011). A Matter of Interpretation 1 For background about Gestalt psychology and its origins, see Wikipedia, s.v. “Gestalt psychology,” last modified July 6, 2014, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestalt_psychology/. A summary of early Gestalt research on insight can be found in R. E. Mayer, “The Search for Insight: Grappling with Gestalt Psychology’s Unanswered Questions,” in The Nature of Insight, ed. R. J. Sternberg and J. E. Davidson (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1995), pp. 3–32. 2 Information about the Wright brothers’ propeller design can be found here at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wright_brothers#cite_note-47. Insight Is Creative 1 For a recent discussion of definitions of insight, see J. Kounios and M. Beeman, “The Cognitive Neuroscience of Insight,” Annual Review of Psychology 65 (2014): 71–93. 2 For a discussion of definitions of creativity, see J.

Woodworth, Experimental Psychology (New York: Henry Holt, 1938), 818. CHAPTER 3: THE BOX * * * 1 The origin of the phrase “Columbus’s egg” is discussed in Wikipedia, s.v. “Egg of Columbus,” last modified May 14, 2014, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbus_Egg. The story may be apocryphal, or the egg trick may have been performed by the Italian architect Filippo Brunelleschi. 2 Figure 3.1 (Columbus standing an egg on its end) was taken from J. Trusler, The Works of William Hogarth: In a Series of Engravings with Descriptions, and a Comment on Their Moral Tendency (London: Jones, 1833), en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Columbus_egg.jpg. Figure 3.2 (Christopher Columbus’s Egg Puzzle) can be found in S. Loyd, Cyclopedia of Puzzles: en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Creativity_-_An_Overview/Thinking_outside_the_box#mediaviewer/File:Eggpuzzle.jpg. 3 An early classic study of the Nine-Dot Problem is described in N.

Morgan’s quote is derived from Morgan, “A Morphological Life,” Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 26 (1988): 1–9. 2 Rebecca Woodings’s story can be found here: www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/12/14/AR2009121402863.html. Thoughts from the Fringe 1 The quote from William Rowan Hamilton’s letter to his son is adapted from en.wikiquote.org/wiki/William_Rowan_Hamilton. Information about Hamilton can be found at Wikipedia, s.v. “William Rowan Hamilton,” last modified July 28, 2014, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Rowan_Hamilton. A relatively accessible explanation of Hamilton’s idea is given at plus.maths.org/content/curious-quaternions. The picture of the plaque commemorating Hamilton’s discovery is found at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:William_Rowan_Hamilton_Plaque_-_geograph.org.uk_-_347941.jpg. The tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon is another example of thought from the fringe. It sometimes occurs while you’re trying to remember something, usually a word. As with intuition, you can’t remember the specific word, but you know it’s there, because it feels like it’s on the tip of your tongue.

pages: 480 words: 99,288

Mastering ElasticSearch by Rafal Kuc, Marek Rogozinski

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Amazon Web Services, create, read, update, delete, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, full text search, information retrieval

This is an expert setting. The following options are available: the internaldefault comparison algorithm based on optimized implementation of the Damerau Levenshtein similarity algorithm, damerau_levenshtein is the implementation of the Damerau Levenshtein string distance algorithm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damerau–Levenshtein_distance), levenstein which is an implementation of Levenshtein distance (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levenshtein_distance), jarowinkler which is an implementation of the Jaro-Winkler distance algorithm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaro-Winkler_distance) and finally the ngram, which is an n-gram based distance algorithm. Note Because we've used the terms suggester during the initial examples, we decided to skip showing how to query the terms suggester and how the response would look like in this place.

You can read more about the n-gram smoothing models by visiting at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N-gram#Smoothing_techniques and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katz's_back-off_model (which is similar to the stupid backoff model described). Laplace The Laplace smoothing model is also called additive smoothing. When used (in order to use it, we need to use the laplace value as its name), a constant value equal to the value of the alpha parameter (which is by default 0.5) will be added to counts to balance the weights of frequent and infrequent n-grams. As mentioned, the Laplace smoothing model can be configured using the alpha property, which is by default set to 0.5. The usual values for this parameter are typically equal or below 1.0. You can read more about additive smoothing at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Additive_smoothing. Linear interpolation Linear interpolation is the last smoothing model that takes the values of the lambdas provided in the configuration and uses them to calculate weights of trigrams, bigrams and unigrams.

Communicating with ElasticSearch We talked about how ElasticSearch is built, but after all, the most important part for us is how to feed it with data and how to build your queries. In order to do that ElasticSearch exposes a sophisticated API. The primary API is REST based (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Representational_state_transfer) and is easy to integrate with practically any system that can send HTTP requests. ElasticSearch assumes that data is sent in the URL, or as the request body as JSON document (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSON). If you use Java or language based on JVM, you should look at Java API, which in addition to everything that is offered by the REST API has built-in cluster discovery. It is worth mentioning that Java API is also used internally by the ElasticSearch itself to do all the node to node communication.

pages: 1,309 words: 300,991

Vanished Kingdoms: The Rise and Fall of States and Nations by Norman Davies

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, Corn Laws, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, labour mobility, land tenure, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Red Clydeside, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, trade route, urban renewal

Henry Kamen, Philip V of Spain: The King who Reigned Twice (New Haven, 2001). III 125. www.spain-flag.eu/region-spain-flags/aragon.htm (2008). 126. Armand de Fluvià i Escorsa, Els quatre pals: l’escut dels comtes de Barcelona (Barcelona, 1994). 127. See J. Llobera, The Role of Historical Memory in (Ethno)Nation-Building (London, 1996). 128. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/els_segadors (2011). 129. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/himno_de_aragon (2011). 130. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/himno_de_la_comunidad_valenciana (2011). 131. ‘The Anthem of Majorca’, http://www.consellmallorca.net/?&id_parent=272&id_section=1855&id_son=749& (2011). 132. ‘Hymne á la Catalogne’, http:www.oasisdesartistes.com/modules/newbbex/viewtopic.php? (2011). 133. Bisson, Medieval Crown, pp. 189–90. Chapter 5. LITVA Bibliographical Note.

I 1. http://un.org/members/list.shtml (2008). 2. http://montenegro.embassyhomepage.com (2008). 3. www.visit-montenegro.com/tourism-mcc.htm (2008). 4. http://www.summitpost.org/durmitor/152176 (2011). 5. Claire Wrathall, ‘A Star Reborn’, Financial Times (4–5 June 2011); http://www.amanresorts.com. 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/podgorica (2008). 7. http://en.wikipedia.org.wiki/cetinje (2008). 8. BBC News, 14 November 2002; Steve Hanke, ‘Inflation Nation’, Wall Street Journal (24 May 2006). 9. http://media.transparency.org/news_room/in_focus/2008/cpi2008 (2008); Russia weighed in at 147th, and Belarus at 151st. Denmark is top, Somalia bottom. 10. ‘Controversy over Montenegrin ethnic identity’, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/montenegrins. 11. ‘Montenegro’s Referendum’, www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?=4144 (2006). 12. Radio Free Europe, 17 October 2008. 13. www.earthconservation.net/dam-effect-on-environment.html (2011). 14. http://www.eupolitics.einnews.com/news/eu-enlargement-montenegro (2011). 15.

The overwhelming mass of general works on Burgundy are written from the French perspective, and the great majority of them concentrate heavily on the history of the late medieval duchy. See, for example, Henri Drouot, Histoire de Bourgogne (Paris, 1927), or Jean Richard, Histoire de Bourgogne (Paris, 1957). There is no standard study of the imperial Kingdom of Burgundy in English, and no broad survey of Burgundian history as a whole. I 1. See www.brk.dk; also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/bornholm (2007). 2. See www.cimber.com (2010), www.airliners.net/aviation-forums/general_aviation/4474449 (2010). 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki.bornholmsk_dialect (2011); J. D. Prince, ‘The Danish Dialect of Bornholm’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 63/2 (1924), pp. 190–207. 4. ‘Bornholmsk Folkemusik’, http://www.myspace.com/habbadam (2010). 5. J. H. Hopkins, ‘Bornholm Disease’, British Medical Journal, 1/4664 (May 1950). 6. Martin Anderson Nexo, Pelle Eroberen (1910), translated as Pelle the Conqueror (London, 1916) and turned into a film directed by Bille August in 1987. 7. http://www.iau.org.tw. 8.

pages: 523 words: 143,639

Red November: Inside the Secret U.S.-Soviet Submarine War by W. Craig Reed

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Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, cable laying ship, centre right, cuban missile crisis, en.wikipedia.org, nuclear winter, operation paperclip, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, upwardly mobile

Moore, Potomac Books, 2004, provided a reference for submarine designations and capabilities Running Critical: The Silent War, Rickover, and General Dynamics, Patrick Tyler, Harper & Row Publishers, 1986 The Submarine: A History, Thomas Parrish, Penguin Books, 2004 Power Shift: The Transition to Nuclear Power in the U.S. Submarine Force as Told by Those Who Did It, Dan Gillcrist, iUniverse, 2006 WEBSITES http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyman_G._Rickover http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Nautilus_(SSN-571) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Cubera_(SS-347) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greater_Underwater_Propulsion_Power_Program http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W._Grider http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Seawolf_(SSN-575) http://www.iwojima.com/ CHAPTER 2 PRIMARY INTERVIEWS Donald Ross, Ph.D., former DEMON sonar project lead in San Diego, provided excellent information regarding SOSUS capabilities and development of submarine sonar systems.

Goodman, Prince ton University Press, 1989 The Soviet Union and the Arms Race, David Holloway, Yale University Press, 1984 WEBSITES http://www.lostsubs.com/E_Cold.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Thresher_(SSN-593) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bathyscaphe_Trieste http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_Preserver_(ARS-8) http://usnavyphotos.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/ars-8-usspreserver1res cue-85x11.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_McNamara http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Military-Communications/US-Navy-worldwide-HF-DF-system-AN-FRD-10-or-Bullseye-United-States.html http://www.jproc.ca/rrp/masset.html http://www.onpedia.com/encyclopedia/Wullenweber http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wullenweber http://coldwar-c4i.net/CDAA/history.html http://www.r-390a.net/faq-systems.htm http://groups.msn.com/ctoseadogs/wullenwebers1.msnw http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/an-flr-9.htm http://www.eham.net/forums/Elmers/201472 http://www.espionageinfo.com/Pr-Re/Radio-Direction-Finding-Equipment.html CHAPTER 12 PRIMARY INTERVIEWS Frank Turban, former communications technician “T-Brancher” chief and spook, provided keen insights into missions conducted by the USS Swordfish around the time of K-129’s demise.

Chapters 11 and 15 detail interesting information about the use of HFDF Huff Duffs during World Wars I and II. WEBSITES http://www.researcheratlarge.com/Pacific/RDF/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USS_George_Washington_(SSBN-598) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UGM-27_Polaris http://rusnavy.com/science/electronics/rv6.htm http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/systems/sosus.htm http://russianfun.net/technology/secret-soviet-submarine-base-in-sevastopol/ http://www.angelfire.com/falcon/usspillsbury-der_133/elequip.html http://www.jproc.ca/sari/counter.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_frequency http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Jutland CHAPTER 4 PRIMARY INTERVIEWS William Reed, LT, USN, Retired. Robert Lynn Wortman, CD, RCN, RCMP, Retired, former Bore-sight/Bulls Eye HFDF systems and Wullenweber arrary engineer.

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Manage Partitions With GParted (How-To) by Unknown

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Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Ruby on Rails

References The partition table name mdsos dates back to 1983 when support for partitioned media was introduced with IBM PC DOS 2.0. IBM PC DOS was a rebranded version of Microsoft MS DOS. For more information on disk partitioning, the msdos partition table—also known as Master Boot Record (MBR), the GUID partition table, PC/BIOS, and EFI, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disk_partitioning http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOS http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extensible_Firmware_Interface Copying a partition (Become an expert) Copying a partition can be a complex and long running operation. As there are implications to copying a partition, we discuss these along with the steps to copy a partition. How to do it... Select the source partition to copy: Choose the Partition | Copy menu option to place a copy of the partition in the copy buffer.

Another reason is that GPT supports 128 primary partitions, whereas msdos is limited to 4 primary partitions. Note that RAIDs that use msdos partition tables do not require this repair step because there is only one copy of the msdos partition table, which is located at the start of the disk device. Reference information For more information on RAIDand the GUID partition table, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAID, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table. Rescuing data from a lost partition (Become an expert) If you delete or otherwise lose a partition and realize that you need some data from the partition, there is still some hope. This recipe describes the steps to attempt data rescue from a lost or deleted partition. Getting ready While we hope it never happens to you, if you lose a partition by accidental deletion or by some other method and you do not have a backup of your data, this recipe may help you to rescue data from your partition.

pages: 204 words: 58,565

Keeping Up With the Quants: Your Guide to Understanding and Using Analytics by Thomas H. Davenport, Jinho Kim

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Black-Scholes formula, business intelligence, business process, call centre, computer age, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, forensic accounting, global supply chain, Hans Rosling, hypertext link, invention of the telescope, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, margin call, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Myron Scholes, Netflix Prize, p-value, performance metric, publish or perish, quantitative hedge fund, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, six sigma, Skype, statistical model, supply-chain management, text mining, the scientific method

Saul Hansell, “Google Answer to Filling Jobs Is an Algorithm,” New York Times, January 3, 2007, www.nytimes.com/2007/01/03/technology/03google.html. 8. “Joseph Jagger,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Jagger; “Joseph Jagger: The Man Who Broke the Bank,” www.wildjackcasino.com/ joseph-jagger.html; “Joseph Jagger,” www.realmoneycasinos.net/joseph-jagger. html; “Roulette—The Men Who Broke the Bank at Monte Carlo—Joseph Jagger,” www.wiseguyroulette.com/roulette-history/joseph-jagger/. 9. Rama Ramakrishnan, “Three Ways to Analytic Impact,” The Analytic Age blog, July 26, 2011, http://blog.ramakrishnan.com/. 10. People v. Collins, 68 Cal. 2d 319 (1968); http://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=2393563144534950884; “People v. Collins,” http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/People_v._Collins. Chapter 3 1. A. M. Starfield, Karl A. Smith, and A. L. Bleloch, How to Model It: Problem Solving for the Computer Age (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1994), 19. 2.

Anand Rajaraman, “More Data Usually Beats Better Algorithms,” Datawocky (blog), March 24, 2008, http://anand.typepad.com/datawocky/2008/03/more-data-usual.html. 10. Daryl Morey, “Success Comes from Better Data, Not Better Analysis,” blog post, Harvard Business Review, August 8, 2011, http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/08/ success_comes_from_better_data.html. 11. “Tycho Brahe,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tycho_Brahe; Michael Fowler, “Tycho Brahe,” http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/1995/ lectures/tychob.html; Arthur Koestler, The Watershed: A Biography of Johannes Kepler (Doubleday, 1960); “Johannes Kepler,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Johannes_Kepler; “Johannes Kepler: The Laws of Planetary Motion,” http://csep10 .phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/kepler.html; Michael Fowler, “Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler,” http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/lectures/tycho.htm; Michael Fowler, “Johannes Kepler,” http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/ 1995/lectures/kepler.html; “Johannes Kepler,” Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/315225/Johannes-Kepler; Ann Lamont, “Johannes Kepler: Outstanding Scientist and Committed Christian,” 1:1, http://www.answersingenesis.org/creation/v15/i1/kepler.asp, December 1, 1992. 12.

David Schmitt, “Tell a Story,” June 27, 2012, http://www.allanalytics.com/ author.asp?id=2092&doc_id=246428. 4. I. Bernard Cohen, The Triumph of Numbers: How Counting Shaped Modern Life (New York: W.W. Norton, 2006), chapter 9; “Florence Nightingale,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Nightingale; P. Nuttall, “The Passionate Statistician,” Nursing Times 28 (1983): 25–27. 5. Gregor Mendel, “Experiments in Plant Hybridization,” http://www.mendelweb.org/; “Gregor Mendel,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gregor_Mendel; Seung Yon Rhee, Gregor Mendel, Access Excellence, http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/Gregor_Mendel.php; “Mendel’s Genetics,” anthro.palomar.edu/mendel/mendel_1.htm; David Paterson, “Gregor Mendel,” www .zephyrus.co.uk/gregormendel.html; “Rocky Road: Gregor Mendel,” Strange Science, www.strangescience.net/mendel.htm; Wolf-Ekkehard Lönnig, “Johann Gregor Mendel: Why His Discoveries Were Ignored for 35 Years,” www.weloennig .de/mendel02.htm; “Gregor Mendel and the Scientific Milieu of His Discovery,” www.2iceshs.cyfronet.pl/2ICESHS_Proceedings/Chapter_10/R-2_Sekerak.pdf; “Mendelian Inheritance,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mendelian_ inheritance. 6.

pages: 467 words: 116,094

I Think You'll Find It's a Bit More Complicated Than That by Ben Goldacre

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call centre, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Desert Island Discs, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, Flynn Effect, jimmy wales, John Snow's cholera map, Loebner Prize, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, placebo effect, publication bias, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Simon Singh, statistical model, stem cell, the scientific method, Turing test, WikiLeaks

view=long&pmid=16014596 Kids Who Spot Bullshit, and the Adults Who Get Upset About It Kids Who Spot: http://www.badscience.net/2011/06/kids-who-spot-bullshit-and-the-adults-who-get-upset-about-it/ Ryan Giggs’s penis: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryan_Giggs Brain Gym: http://www.badscience.net/2011/06/category/brain-gym/ writing about since 2003: http://www.badscience.net/2011/06/2003/06/work-out-your-mind/ pay hundreds of thousands: http://www.davidcolarusso.com/blog/?p=48 hundreds of state schools: http://www.google.co.uk/search?q=%22brain+gym%22+inurl%3Asch.uk Emily Rosa: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emily_Rosa published a scientific paper: http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/279/13/1005.full Journal of the American Medical Association: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journal_of_the_American_Medical_Association practitioners were deeply unhappy: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emily_Rosa Rhys Morgan: http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2010/sep/15/miracle-mineral-solutions-mms-bleach www.crohnsforum.com: http://www.crohnsforum.com/ finding official documents: http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm220756.htm The adults banned him: http://thewelshboyo.co.uk/?

id=369 ‘Who is Having Babies’: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/births 1209.pdf ‘Dog Shoots Man’: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/02/01/ap/strange/main6162474.shtml ‘Dog Shoots Man in Back’: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,291687,00.html another in Iowa: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/7068549.stm Puppy Shoots Man: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5950304 Datamining for Terrorists Would Be Lovely If It Worked Datamining for Terrorists: http://www.badscience.net/2009/02/data mining-would-be-lovely-if-it-worked/ This week Sir David Omand: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/feb/25/database-state-ippr-paper described how the state: http://www.ippr.org/publicationsandreports/publication.asp?id=646 what statisticians call the ‘specificity’: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sensitivity_(tests) Benford’s Law: Using Stats to Bust an Entire Nation for Naughtiness Benford’s Law: http://www.badscience.net/2011/09/benfords-law-using-stats-to-bust-an-entire-nation-for-naughtiness/ something called Benford’s Law: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benford%27s_law 61,838,154 in 2009: http://www.google.co.uk/publicdata/explore?ds=d5bncppjof8f9_&met_y=sp_pop_totl&idim=country:GBR&dl=en&hl=en&q=uk+population think about why this happens: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benfords_law testingbenfordslaw.com: http://testingbenfordslaw.com/ Twitter users’ follower counts: http://testingbenfordslaw.com/twitter-users-by-followers-count books in different libraries: http://testingbenfordslaw.com/total-number-of-print-materials-in-us-libraries countries’ economic data: http://econpapers.repec.org/article/blagermec/v_3a10_3ay_3a2009_3ai_3a_3ap_3a339-351.htm the results were published: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-0475.2011.00542.x/abstract hat-tip to Tim Harford: http://timharford.com/2011/09/look-out-for-no-1/ macroeconomic data: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/esa95_supply_use_input_tables/data/workbooks online repository Eurostat: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/esa95_supply_use_input_tables/introduction run several investigations: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/product_details/publication?

q=coffee+hallucinations+location%3Auk exactly what the researchers did: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.10.032 survey is still online: http://psychology.dur.ac.uk:82/srj/caffeine2.html ‘Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale’: http://www.google.co.uk/search?q=Launay-Slade+Hallucination+Scale alternative explanations: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confounding_variable the academic paper: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.10.032 the press release: http://www.alphagalileo.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=readrelease&releaseid=535120&ez_search=1 ‘multiple comparisons’: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiple_comparisons no one was there: http://www.thinkgeek.com/caffeine/accessories/5a65/ draw a target around them: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_sharpshooter_fallacy Voices of the Ancients Voices of the Ancients: http://www.badscience.net/2010/01/voices-of-the-ancients/ Daily Mail: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1240746/Prehistoric-sat-nav-set-ancestors-Britain.html the Metro: http://www.metro.co.uk/news/807855-did-prehistoric-satnav-help-britons-find-their-way Matt Parker: http://www.standupmaths.com/ applied the same techniques: http://bengoldacre.posterous.com/did-aliens-play-a-role-in-woolworths BIG DATA There’s Something Magical About Watching Patterns Emerge from Data There’s Something Magical: http://www.badscience.net/2011/06/theres-something-magical-about-watching-patterns-emerge-from-data/ British Medical Journal: http://www.bmj.com/content/342/bmj.d2983.full first NHS reforms: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/nhs Give Us the Data A consultation is under way: http://c561635.r35.cf2.rackcdn.com/A-Consultation-on-Data-Policy-for-a-Public-Data-Corporation.pdf foolishly restrictive: http://pdcconsult.ernestmarples.com/ everyday government data: http://www.theguardian.com/politics/government-data forbidden to repurpose it: http://hadleybeeman.net/2011/01/26/uses-for-open-data/ TheyWorkForYou.com: http://www.theyworkforyou.com/ all our postcode information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postcodes_in_the_United_Kingdom the house-number boundaries: http://ernestmarples.com/blog/2010/01/postcode-petition-response-our-reply/ make the government: http://pdcconsult.ernestmarples.com/ Care.data Can Save Lives: But Not If We Bungle It greatest need in the NHS http://www.theguardian.com/society/nhs at risk by the bungled: http://www.nature.com/news/power-to-the-people-1.14505?

pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

See the spreadsheet by Jeremiah Owyang at https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/12xTPJNvdOZVzERueyA-dILGTtL_KWKTbmj6RyOg9XXs/edit#gid=1884009904. CHAPTER 2: EXCESS CAPACITY 1. “Owning and Operating Your Vehicle Just Got a Little Cheaper According to AAA’s 2014 ‘Your Driving Costs’ Study,” AAA NewsRoom, May 9, 2014, http://newsroom.aaa.com/2014/05/owning-and-operating-your-vehicle-just-got-a-little-cheaper-aaas-2014-your-driving-costs-study. 2. “AT&T Corporation,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AT%26T_Corporation. 3. Ibid. 4. “Skype,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skype. 5. Craig Newmark, “What Was the True Genesis of Craigslist?,” Quora.com, January 22, 2012. 6. “About Craigslist,” www.craigslist.org/about/open_source”AT&T Corporation. 7. “iPhone Unlocked: AT&T Loses iPhone Exclusivity, August 24, 2007, 12:00PM EDT,” Engadget, August 24, 2007, www.engadget.com/2007/08/24/iphone-unlocked-atandt-loses-iphone-exclusivity-august-24-2007. 8.

“Military Satellite System to Go Public,” CNN.com, March 29, 1996. 3. “Improving the Civilian Global Positioning System (GPS),” speech by President Bill Clinton, May 1, 2000, http://clinton3.nara.gov/WH/EOP/OSTP/html/0053_4.html. 4. “Global Positioning System,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System. 5. Barbara van Schewick, “Network Neutrality and Quality of Service: What a Non-Discrimination Rule Should Look Like,” Center for Internet and Society, June 11, 2012. 6. “Minitel,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minitel. 7. Jack Clark, “NHS Tears Out Its Oracle Spine in Favour of Open Source,” TheRegister.com, October 10, 2013, www.theregister.co.uk/2013/10/10/nhs_drops_oracle_for_riak. 8. Stephen Crocker, “How the Internet Got Its Rules,” New York Times, April 6, 2009. 9.

Andrew Leonard, “You’re Not Fooling Us, Uber! 8 Reasons Why the ‘Sharing Economy’ Is All About Corporate Greed,” Salon.com, February 17, 2014. 10. Lisa Fleisher, “Thousands of European Cab Drivers Protest Uber, Taxi Apps,” Wall Street Journal, June 11, 2014. 11. Megan McArdle, “Why You Can’t Get a Taxi,” The Atlantic, May 2012. 12. “Taxicab,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxicab. 13. “Taxicabs of the United Kingdom,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxicabs_of_the_United_Kingdom#cite_note-The_Knowledge-3. 14. Jeff Bercovici, “Uber’s Ratings Terrorize Drivers and Trick Riders. Why Not Fix Them?” Forbes.com, August 14, 2014. 15. Andy Kessler, “Brian Chesky: The ‘Sharing Economy’ and Its Enemies,” Wall Street Journal, January 17, 2014. 16. “Freelancing in America: A National Survey of the New Workforce,” 2014, independent study commissioned by the Freelancers Union and ElanceoDesk, http://chaoscc.ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/freelancinginamerica_report-1.pdf. 17.

pages: 408 words: 63,990

Build Awesome Command-Line Applications in Ruby: Control Your Computer, Simplify Your Life by David B. Copeland

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Chris Wanstrath, database schema, en.wikipedia.org, full stack developer, Ruby on Rails, web application

The system itself will be actually executing your application, and future developers may need to integrate your command-line apps into larger systems of automation (similar to how our database backup script integrates mysqldump). In the next chapter, we’ll talk about how to make your apps interoperate with the system and with other applications. Footnotes [19] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principle_of_least_astonishment [20] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nroff [21] http://defunkt.io/gem-man/ [22] http://rtomayko.github.com/ronn/ [23] The Wikipedia entry for the UNIX man system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Man_page#Manual_sections) has a good overview of the other sections if you are interested. [24] http://daringfireball.net/projects/markdown/ [25] http://rtomayko.github.com/ronn/ronn-format.7.html [26] Savvy users can alias man to be gem man -s, which tells gem-man to use the system manual for any command it doesn’t know, thus providing one unified interface to the system manual and the manual of installed Ruby command-line apps.

Is there a way to make the experience of these users just as good as for everyone else? In the next chapter, we’ll learn how to make our applications configurable in an easy way that will allow users to customize the default behavior of our apps, all without sacrificing ease of use, helpfulness, or interoperability. Footnotes [33] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rc_file [34] http://www.multicians.org/shell.html [35] http://cukes.info [36] http://www.rspec.info [37] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSON [38] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teletypewriter Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Chapter 6 Make Configuration Easy In the previous chapter, we learned how the design decisions we make provide direction to our users about how to use our apps. But, what about advanced users, who use our apps regularly but in unusual ways?

If you thought OptionParser was too verbose or you didn’t like the way your command suite looked using GLI, never fear; there’s more than one way to do it. In the appendix that follows, we’ll take a quick tour of some other popular command-line libraries and show you how our running examples, db_backup and todo, might look using tools like Thor, Main, and Trollop. Footnotes [48] http://betterthangrep.com/ [49] http://mxcl.github.com/homebrew [50] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_blindness [51] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANSI_escape_code [52] http://github.com/sickill/rainbow [53] http://flori.github.com/term-ansicolor/ Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Appendix 1 Common Command-Line Gems and Libraries To keep things simple, we’ve used only a handful of tools to demonstrate the principles presented in this book. We chose OptionParser because it’s a standard library available with Ruby, and we used GLI because of the ease with which we can add the necessary features of a command suite.

pages: 237 words: 64,411

Humans Need Not Apply: A Guide to Wealth and Work in the Age of Artificial Intelligence by Jerry Kaplan

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, bank run, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Brian Krebs, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, haute couture, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, information asymmetry, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, Satoshi Nakamoto, school choice, Schrödinger's Cat, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

For an amazingly insightful analysis of the effects of increased communication and decreased energy cost across everything from living cells to civilizations, see Robert Wright, Nonzero (New York: Pantheon 2000). 7. Amazon Web Services (AWS), accessed November 25, 2014, http://aws.amazon.com. 8. W. B. Yeats, “The Second Coming,” 1919, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Second_Coming_(poem). 3. ROBOTIC PICKPOCKETS 1. At least, that’s the way I remember it. Dave may have a different recollection, especially in light of the fact that Raiders wasn’t released until 1981. 2. David Elliot Shaw, “Evolution of the NON-VON Supercomputer,” Columbia University Computer Science Technical Reports, 1983, http://hdl.handle.net/10022/AC:P:11591. 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MapReduce, last modified December 31, 2014. 4. James Aley, “Wall Street’s King Quant David Shaw’s Secret Formulas Pile Up Money: Now He Wants a Piece of the Net,” Fortune, February 5, 1996 http://archive.fortune.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/1996/02/05/207353/index.htm. 5.

These figures are almost identical to present-day Mozambique (http://feedthefuture.gov/sites/default/files/country/strategies/files/ftf_factsheet_mozambique_oct2012.pdf, accessed November 29, 2014) and Uganda (http://www.farmafrica.org/us/uganda/uganda, accessed November 29, 2014). Income data is from the World DataBank, “GNI per Capita, PPP (Current International $)” table, accessed November 29, 2014, http://databank.worldbank.org/data/views/reports/tableview.aspx#. 4. For example, Robert Reich (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Reich, last modified December 31, 2014); Paul Krugman (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Krugman, last modified December 12, 2014); and the recent influential book by Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-first Century (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap, 2014). 5. This analogy relies primarily on income data from the U.S. Census (http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/data/historical/families/index.html, last modified September 16, 2014). 6.

Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies (New York: Norton, 2014). 1. TEACHING COMPUTERS TO FISH 1. J. McCarthy, M. L. Minsky, N. Rochester, and C. E. Shannon, A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence, 1955, http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/history/dartmouth/dartmouth.html. 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathaniel_Rochester_(computer_scientist), last modified March 15, 2014. 3. Committee on Innovations in Computing and Communications: Lessons from History, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board, National Research Council, Funding a Revolution (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999), 201. 4. Daniel Crevier, AI: The Tumultuous History of the Search for Artificial Intelligence (New York: Basic Books 1993), 58, 221n. 5.

pages: 215 words: 56,215

The Second Intelligent Species: How Humans Will Become as Irrelevant as Cockroaches by Marshall Brain

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Amazon Web Services, basic income, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, digital map, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, income inequality, job automation, knowledge worker, mutually assured destruction, Occupy movement, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Stephen Hawking, working poor

id=28 [53] http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03wpf59 [54] http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03wpf59 [55] http://www.reddit.com/r/manna [56] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaska_Permanent_Fund [57] http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2014/04/11/3425609/walmart-prices-food-stamps/ [58] http://marshallbrain.com/manna1.htm [59] http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/evil [60] http://chimpanzeefacts.net/are-chimpanzees-endangered.html [67] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_Demilitarized_Zone#Nature_reserve [68] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_uploading [69] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_cities_by_population_density [70] http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/36769422/ns/technology_and_science-space/t/hawking-aliens-may-pose-risks-earth/#.T2YyfBEge5I [71] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equation [72] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superluminal_communication [73] http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/CES0000000001 Manna - Two Visions of Humanity's Future The book "Manna - Two Views of Humanity's Future" is a novella originally published on MarshallBrain.com in 2003.

We should make the most of it for every person on the planet. References [1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tragedy_of_the_commons [2] https://wiki.rit.edu/display/smfl/Rubylith [3] http://gizmodo.com/a-humans-guide-to-googles-many-robots-1509799897# [4] http://braininitiative.nih.gov/ [5] https://www.humanbrainproject.eu/ [6] http://www.computershopper.com/components/reviews/intel-core-i7-4790k [7] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_Core_i7_microprocessors [8] http://www.naplestech.com/shopcart/intel_i7_processors.asp#gsc.tab=0 [9] http://nvidianews.nvidia.com/news/nvidia-launches-tegra-x1-mobile-super-chip [10] http://www.engadget.com/2015/03/27/toshiba-intel-3d-nand-chips [11] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C_YZtKXXCvg [12] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactions_to_Occupy_Wall_Street#Police_response [13] http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2014/01/10/the-biggest-question-facing-the-u-s-economy-why-are-people-dropping-out-of-the-workforce/ [14] https://www.youtube.com/watch?

id=28 [53] http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03wpf59 [54] http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03wpf59 [55] http://www.reddit.com/r/manna [56] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alaska_Permanent_Fund [57] http://thinkprogress.org/economy/2014/04/11/3425609/walmart-prices-food-stamps/ [58] http://marshallbrain.com/manna1.htm [59] http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/evil [60] http://chimpanzeefacts.net/are-chimpanzees-endangered.html [67] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_Demilitarized_Zone#Nature_reserve [68] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mind_uploading [69] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_States_cities_by_population_density [70] http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/36769422/ns/technology_and_science-space/t/hawking-aliens-may-pose-risks-earth/#.T2YyfBEge5I [71] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drake_equation [72] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superluminal_communication [73] http://data.bls.gov/timeseries/CES0000000001 Manna - Two Visions of Humanity's Future The book "Manna - Two Views of Humanity's Future" is a novella originally published on MarshallBrain.com in 2003. It is a fictional work that contains two different predictions for how the world might look after robots and automation have taken over all of the jobs that humans perform today. For more information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manna_(novel) http://www.amazon.com/Manna-Two-Visions-Humanitys-Future-ebook/dp/B007HQH67U http://marshallbrain.com/manna1.htm http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/7902912-manna http://www.reddit.com/r/Manna Manna - Chapter 1 Depending on how you want to think about it, it was funny or inevitable or symbolic that the robotic takeover did not start at MIT, NASA, Microsoft or Ford.

pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

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Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, fixed income, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

Just as we continued to update automobile safety regulations in ways that were unforeseen during the invention moment, we will continue to update the regulatory requirements around the blockchain over the lifetime of its evolution. NOTES 1. A term popularized in Clayton Christensen’s book (The Innovator’s Dilemma) suggesting that successful companies can put too much emphasis on customers’ current needs, and fail to adopt new technology or business models, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Innovator%27s_Dilemma. List of U.S. executive branch czars, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._executive_branch_czars. 2. Source: Author’s sample survey of market leaders, April 2016. 3. Java, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_%28programming_language%29. 4. IDC Study, http://www.infoq.com/news/2014/01/IDC-software-developers. 5. These are popular programming languages. 6. https://cryptoconsortium.org/ 4 BLOCKCHAIN IN FINANCIAL SERVICES “The worst place to develop a new business model is from within your existing business model.”

Leslie Lamport, Robert Shostak, and Marshall Pease, The Byzantine Generals Problem. http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/lamport/pubs/byz.pdf. 6. IT Does not Matter, https://hbr.org/2003/05/it-doesnt-matter. 7. PayPal website, https://www.paypal.com/webapps/mpp/about. 8. Personal communication with Vitalik Buterin, February 2016. 9. Byzantine fault tolerance, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_fault_tolerance. 10. Proof-of-stake, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proof-of-stake. 2 HOW BLOCKCHAIN TRUST INFILTRATES “I cannot understand why people are frightened of new ideas. I’m frightened of the old ones.” –JOHN CAGE REACHING CONSENSUS is at the heart of a blockchain’s operations. But the blockchain does it in a decentralized way that breaks the old paradigm of centralized consensus, when one central database used to rule transaction validity.

A blockchain implementation will have a number of new architectural and functional components that need to work in harmony. Companies will need to decide what implementation approaches to choose, based on their own competencies and choice of external partnerships. You should not just see the Blockchain as a problem-solving technology. Rather, it is a technology that lets you innovate and target new opportunities. NOTES 1. Ira Magaziner, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ira_Magaziner. 2. “List of U.S. executive branch czars,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_U.S._executive_branch_czars. 3. MaidSafe, http://maidsafe.net/. 7 DECENTRALIZATION AS THE WAY FORWARD “All things are difficult before they’re easy.” –THOMAS FULLER A DECENTRALIZED TECHNOLOGY (the blockchain) will telegraph a decentralized world. If we thought the blockchain’s destiny was just to infiltrate enterprise systems and replace intermediaries, think again.

ucd-csi-2011-02 by Unknown

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bioinformatics, en.wikipedia.org, pattern recognition, The Wisdom of Crowds

Two examples relevant for this paper are the pages on network motifs and hierachical clustering; at the time of writing, these pages are not necessarily inaccurate but they are not comprehensive or authoritative. It is clear from an examination of the edit history of these pages that they have not received much attention from Wikipedia contributors. 1 Fatally Flawed: Refuting the Recent Study on Encyclopedic Accuracy by the Journal Nature, http: //corporate.britannica.com/britannica_nature_response.pdf 2 See Wikipedia articles at:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Featured_ articles. 3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Version_1.0_Editorial_Team/ Assessment 1 In this paper we present some preliminary work exploring the hypothesis that the effectiveness of the collaboration in Wikipedia is revealed to some extent in the edit graph – the two-mode graph of articles and contributors to those articles. We have extracted edit graphs for nine sections of Wikipedia (see Table 1) and characterized each of these graphs in terms of network motif profiles.

Each dataset constitutes a target graph for GraphGrep and the 134 network motifs are used as the query graphs. When using GraphGrep for network motif counting care must be taken to handle graph automorphisms. For instance, GraphGrep returns six when both the target and query graphs are simple triangles. To correct for this, each count is divided by the number of automorphisms of the query graphs. 4 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_sociologists http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premier_League 5 http://github.com/ChrisSalij/PageAnalyzer Footballers Sociologists Chelsea Everton West Ham Utd. French British German American Italian 18th Century Nodes 161 160 203 370 374 308 1,092 82 480 Pages 33 30 45 74 62 55 235 11 83 Users 128 130 158 296 312 253 857 71 397 Edges 941 959 1,330 1,275 734 1,009 3,393 130 1,710 Table 1: The nine Wikipedia datasets. 3 AP-Edges 682 625 786 1,133 720 897 3,242 126 1,598 PP-Edges 259 334 544 142 14 112 151 4 112 Chelsea West Ham United Everton American British Born in 18 century Italian French German Italian French British Born.in.18.century American Everton West.Ham.United Chelsea German Figure 1: A clustering of the nine network motif profiles based on correlation. 3.2 Normalization of Network Motif Profiles The number of network motif instances in a graph depends on the size and the density of the graphs.

pages: 274 words: 93,758

Phishing for Phools: The Economics of Manipulation and Deception by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller, Stanley B Resor Professor Of Economics Robert J Shiller

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Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, Bernie Madoff, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, equity premium, financial intermediation, financial thriller, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, greed is good, income per capita, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, late fees, loss aversion, Menlo Park, mental accounting, Milgram experiment, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, publication bias, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave

Virginia Shiller has always supported our work, and for years has been asked for her judgment: this idea, up or down, as she has also generously contributed ideas of her own. And we also want to thank our administrative assistants Bonnie Blake, Carol Copeland, Shanti Karunaratne, and Patricia Medina, who helped us carve out time for our writing endeavors. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Akerlof.indb 179 179 6/19/15 10:24 AM Akerlof.indb 180 6/19/15 10:24 AM b i b l i o g r a p hy “200 West Street.” Wikipedia. Accessed October 22, 2014. http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/200_West_Street. Abramson, John. Overdosed America: The Broken Promise of American Medi­ cine. 3rd ed. New York: Harper Perennial, 2008. Adrian, Tobias, and Hyun Song Shin. “Liquidity and Leverage.” Journal of Financial Intermediation 19, no. 3 (July 2010): 418–37. Agarwal, Sumit, John C. Driscoll, Xavier Gabaix, and David Laibson. “The Age of Reason: Financial Decisions over the Life Cycle and Implications for Regulation.”

Chu, Jenny, Jonathan Faasse, and P. Raghavendra Rau. “Do Compensation Consultants Enable Higher CEO Pay? New Evidence from Recent Dis­ closure Rule Changes.” September 23, 2014. Accessed May 27, 2015. http:// papers.ssrn.com/sol3/Papers.cfm?abstract_id=2500054. Cialdini, Robert B. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. New York: Harper­ Collins, 2007. “Cinnabon.” Wikipedia. Accessed October 22, 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Cinnabon. Cinnabon, Inc. “The Cinnabon Story.” Accessed October 31, 2014. http:// www.cinnabon.com/about-us.aspx. Clarke, Sally H. “Unmanageable Risks: MacPherson v. Buick and the Emergence of a Mass Consumer Market.” Law and History Review 23, no. 1 (2005): 1–52. Clifford, Catherine, and Chris Isidore. “The Fall of IndyMac.” Cable News Network, July 13, 2008. Accessed December 1, 2014. http://money.cnn .com/2008/07/12/news/companies/indymac_fdic/.

Harper, Christine. “Goldman’s Tourre E-Mail Describes ‘Frankenstein’ Derivatives.” Bloomberg Business, April 25, 2010. Accessed March 15, 2015. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2010-04-24/-frankenstein -derivatives-described-in-e-mail-by-goldman-s-fabrice-tourre. Harper, Sean. http://truecostofcredit.com/400926. Website now closed. “Harry Reid.” Wikipedia. Accessed December 1, 2014. http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/Harry_Reid. Healey, James R. “Government Sells Last of Its GM Shares.” USA Today, December 10, 2013. Healy, David. Pharmageddon. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2012. Hennessey, Ray. “The 15 Ronald Reagan Quotes Every Business Leader Must Know.” Accessed January 16, 2015. http://www.entrepreneur.com/ article/234547. 190 Akerlof.indb 190 BIB LIOGR APHY 6/19/15 10:24 AM Hickman, W.

pages: 719 words: 181,090

Site Reliability Engineering by Betsy Beyer, Chris Jones, Jennifer Petoff, Niall Richard Murphy

Air France Flight 447, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, continuous integration, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, database schema, defense in depth, DevOps, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Flash crash, George Santayana, Google Chrome, Google Earth, job automation, job satisfaction, linear programming, load shedding, loose coupling, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum viable product, MVC pattern, performance metric, platform as a service, revision control, risk tolerance, side project, six sigma, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, trickle-down economics, web application, zero day

We have found that continuous data processing with strong guarantees, as provided by Workflow, performs and scales well on distributed cluster infrastructure, routinely produces results that users can rely upon, and is a stable and reliable system for the Site Reliability Engineering team to manage and maintain. 1 Wikipedia: Extract, transform, load, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extract,_transform,_load 2 Wikipedia: Big data, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_data 3 Jeff Dean’s lecture on “Software Engineering Advice from Building Large-Scale Distributed Systems” is an excellent resource: [Dea07]. 4 Wikipedia: System Prevalence, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/System_Prevalence 5 The “model-view-controller” pattern is an analogy for distributed systems that was very loosely borrowed from Smalltalk, which was originally used to describe the design structure of graphical user interfaces [Fow08]. 6 Wikipedia: Model-view-controller, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model%E2%80%93view%E2%80%93controller Chapter 26. Data Integrity: What You Read Is What You Wrote Written by Raymond Blum and Rhandeev Singh Edited by Betsy Beyer What is “data integrity”?

You can then switch from planning recovery to planning prevention, with the aim of achieving the holy grail of all the data, all the time. Achieve this goal, and you can sleep on the beach on that well-deserved vacation. 1 Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability; see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACID. SQL databases such as MySQL and PostgreSQL strive to achieve these properties. 2 Basically Available, Soft state, Eventual consistency; see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eventual_consistency. BASE systems, like Bigtable and Megastore, are often also described as “NoSQL.” 3 For further reading on ACID and BASE APIs, see [Gol14] and [Bai13]. 4 Binary Large Object; see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_large_object. 5 See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-day_(computing). 6 Clay tablets are the oldest known examples of writing. For a broader discussion of preserving data for the long haul, see [Con96]. 7 Upon reading this advice, one might ask: since you have to offer an API on top of the datastore to implement soft deletion, why stop at soft deletion, when you could offer many other features that protect against accidental data deletion by users?

In essence, Google has adapted known reliability principles that were in many cases developed and honed in other industries to create its own unique reliability culture, one that addresses a complicated equation that balances scale, complexity, and velocity with high reliability. 1 E911 (Enhanced 911): Emergency response line in the US that leverages location data. 2 Electrocardiogram readings: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrocardiography. 3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safety_integrity_level 4 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corrective_and_preventive_action 5 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Competent_authority 6 http://ehstoday.com/safety/nsc-2013-oneill-exemplifies-safety-leadership. 7 See “FACTS, Section B” for the discussion of Knight and Power Peg software in [Sec13]. 8 “Regulators blame computer algorithm for stock market ‘flash crash’,” Computerworld, http://www.computerworld.com/article/2516076/financial-it/regulators-blame-computer-algorithm-for-stock-market—flash-crash-.html.

The Economic Singularity: Artificial intelligence and the death of capitalism by Calum Chace

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

language=en [cccxxxviii] http://motherboard.vice.com/read/sleep-tech-will-widen-the-gap-between-the-rich-and-the-poor [cccxxxix] Covered in detail in my previous book, “Surviving AI”. [cccxl] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_and_drugs_and_rock_and_roll [cccxli] I am that terrible old cliché: a socialist student whose left-wing views did not long survive contact with the world of work. As a trainee BBC journalist writing about Central and Eastern Europe long before the Berlin Wall fell, I soon realised how fortunate I was to have grown up in the capitalist West. I didn’t expect to be heading back in the other direction in later life. [cccxlii] https://edge.org/conversation/john_markoff-the-next-wave [cccxliii] http://uk.pcmag.com/robotics-automation-products/34778/news/will-a-robot-revolution-lead-to-mass-unemployment [cccxliv] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milgram_experiment [cccxlv] http://www.prisonexp.org/ [cccxlvi] http://fourhourworkweek.com/2014/08/29/kevin-kelly/ [cccxlvii] https://www.edge.org/conversation/kevin_kelly-the-technium [cccxlviii] http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/165acton.html [cccxlix] http://mercatus.org/sites/default/files/Brito_BitcoinPrimer.pdf [cccl] http://www.dugcampbell.com/byzantine-generals-problem/ [cccli] http://www.economistinsights.com/technology-innovation/analysis/money-no-middleman/tab/1 [ccclii] : The Machine Intelligence Research Institute (MIRI) in Northern California, The Future of Humanity Institute (FHI) and the Centre for the Study of Existential Risk (CSER) in England’s Oxford and Cambridge respectively, and the Future of Life Institute (FLI) in Massachussetts.

The physicist and science fiction author Vernor Vinge argued in 1993 that artificial intelligence and other technologies would cause a singularity in human affairs within 30 years. This idea was picked up and popularised by the inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil, who believes that computers will overtake humans in general intelligence in 1929, and a singularity will arrive in 2045. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technological_singularity [v] The event horizon of a black hole is the point beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer, or in other words, the point of no return. The gravitational pull has become so great as to make escape impossible, even for light. [vi] http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/universal-basic-income/?utm_content=buffer71a7e&utm_medium=social&utm_source=plus.google.com&utm_campaign=buffer [vii] At the end of this video: http://bit.ly/1MtEqNb [viii] https://www.minnpost.com/macro-micro-minnesota/2012/02/history-lessons-understanding-decline-manufacturing [ix] http://blogs.rmg.co.uk/longitude/2014/07/30/guest-post-pirate-map/ [x] https://www.weforum.org/pages/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-by-klaus-schwab [xi] http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/259572/eib3_1_.pdf.

utm_content=buffer71a7e&utm_medium=social&utm_source=plus.google.com&utm_campaign=buffer [vii] At the end of this video: http://bit.ly/1MtEqNb [viii] https://www.minnpost.com/macro-micro-minnesota/2012/02/history-lessons-understanding-decline-manufacturing [ix] http://blogs.rmg.co.uk/longitude/2014/07/30/guest-post-pirate-map/ [x] https://www.weforum.org/pages/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-by-klaus-schwab [xi] http://www.ers.usda.gov/media/259572/eib3_1_.pdf. Employment in agriculture declined in absolute terms as well, from 11.7m in 1900 to 6.0m in 1960. http://www.nber.org/chapters/c1567.pdf [xii] www.ons.gov.cuk/ons/rel/census/2011-census-analysis/170-years-of-industry/170-years-of-industrial-changeponent.html [xiii] http://www.americanequestrian.com/pdf/us-equine-demographics.pdf [xiv] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automation#cite_note-7 [xv] M. A. Laughton, D. J. Warne (ed), Electrical Engineer's Reference book [xvi] http://www.oleantimesherald.com/news/did-you-know-gas-pump-shut-off-valve-was-invented/article_c7a00da2-b3eb-54e1-9c8d-ee36483a7e33.html [xvii] Radio frequency Identification tags. They can take various forms – for instance, some have inbuilt power sources, while others are powered by interacting with nearby magnetic fields, or the radio waves which interrogate them.

pages: 98 words: 25,753

Ethics of Big Data: Balancing Risk and Innovation by Kord Davis, Doug Patterson

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4chan, business process, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Occupy movement, performance metric, Robert Bork, side project, smart grid, urban planning

In Sweden, the FRA Law authorizes the Swedish government to tap all voice and Internet traffic that crosses its borders—without a warrant. It was met with fierce protests across the political spectrum (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FRA_law). British privacy laws are a complex and complicated set of regulations that face serious challenges resulting from how people use platforms that rely on big data, such as Twitter (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/05/23/uk-privacy-law-thrown-int_n_865416.html). The number of closed-circuit television cameras (CCTV) in London is estimated to be almost two million (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed-circuit_television). And it is well known that the Chinese government heavily regulates Internet traffic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_in_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China). Just a few examples from only three countries show the wide variety of values at play in how technology in general, and big data in particular, are utilized and managed.

At risk are the very benefits of big data innovation itself. In late 2011 and early 2012, the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) put before Congress was met with fierce resistance from a wide variety of industries, organizations, and individuals. The primary reason was the belief that the provisions of the proposed law would severely constrain innovation in the future using technical tools such as big data (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stop_Online_Piracy_Act). Part of the debate centered around the belief that the members of Congress supporting the bill were either misinformed by interested parties about how the technology worked and how innovation was made possible, or they were just simply unaware of the realities of how Internet and big data technologies worked in the first place. In either case, SOPA represents a classic example of how a lack of transparent and explicit discourse about how a critical piece of our economy and society works had the potential to significantly limit our collective ability to benefit from those tools.

Victims of abuse or people who suffer from the same disease can share their experiences and gain an invaluable sense of connection and community through the use of ostensibly anonymous online identities. These perspectives, however, motivate the question: have we lost or gained control over our ability to manage how the world perceives us? In 1993, the New Yorker famously published a cartoon with canines at the keyboard whose caption read: “On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_the_Internet,_nobody_knows_you%27re_a_dog). At the time, this was funny because it was true. Today, however, in the age of prevalent big data, it is not only possible for people to know that you’re a dog, but also what breed you are, your favorite snacks, your lineage, and whether you’ve ever won any awards at a dog show. In those instances where an individual intentionally keeps any information about their identity private, at least one ethical question arises: what right do others have to make it public?

pages: 157 words: 35,874

Building Web Applications With Flask by Italo Maia

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continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, full stack developer, minimum viable product, MVC pattern, premature optimization, web application

Each table is isolated from one another and the related data may be retrievable, thanks to the relations established by the foreign keys! The data normalization techniques are a set of rules used to allow proper scattering of the data across the tables so that the related tables are easily fetched and redundancy is kept to a minimum. Tip Please, refer to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Database_normalization for an overview of database normalization. For an overview of the normal forms, please refer to the following links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_normal_form http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_normal_form http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_normal_form We may now proceed! Hands on Let's begin by installing the library into our environment and trying out a few examples: pip install sqlalchemy On to our first example! Let's create a simple employee database for a company (maybe yours?)

Writing and consulting languages are vendor-specific, and you may have to give up on ACID too in a tradeoff for speed, lots of speed! You have probably guessed it already! This chapter is all about the M layer of MVC, that is, how to store and access your data in a transparent way with Flask! We'll look at the examples of how to use query and write to both the database types, and when to choose which one to use. Tip ACID is the acronym for atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability. Refer to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACID for a cozy definition and overview. SQLAlchemy SQLAlchemy is an amazing library for working with relational databases. It was made by the Pocoo Team, the same folks that brought you Flask, and is considered "The Facto" Python SQL library. It works with SQLite, Postgres, MySQL, Oracle, and all SQL databases, which comes with compatible drivers. SQLite describes itself as a self-contained, serverless, zero-configuration, and transactional SQL database engine (https://sqlite.org/about.html).

: from sqlalchemy import create_engine db = create_engine('sqlite:///employees.sqlite') # echo output to console db.echo = True conn = db.connect() conn.execute(""" CREATE TABLE employee ( id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY, name STRING(100) NOT NULL, birthday DATE NOT NULL )""") conn.execute("INSERT INTO employee VALUES (NULL, 'marcos mango', date('1990-09-06') );") conn.execute("INSERT INTO employee VALUES (NULL, 'rosie rinn', date('1980-09-06') );") conn.execute("INSERT INTO employee VALUES (NULL, 'mannie moon', date('1970-07-06') );") for row in conn.execute("SELECT * FROM employee"): print row # give connection back to the connection pool conn.close() The preceding example is pretty simple. We create a SQLAlchemy engine, grab a connection from the connection pool (engine handles that for you) and then we execute the SQL command to create a table, insert a few rows and query to see whether everything occurred as expected. Tip Visit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connection_pool for the connection pool pattern overview. (This is important, really!) In our insertion, we provided the value NULL to the primary key id. Be aware that SQLite will not populate the primary key with NULL; instead, it will ignore the NULL value and set the column with a new, unique, across the table integer. That's SQLite- specific behavior. Oracle, for example, would require you to insert a sequence's next value explicitly in order to set a new unique column value for the primary key.

pages: 536 words: 73,482

Programming Clojure by Stuart Halloway, Aaron Bedra

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continuous integration, en.wikipedia.org, general-purpose programming language, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Paul Graham, Ruby on Rails, type inference, web application

Footnotes [33] http://norvig.com/21-days.html [34] http://lampwww.epfl.ch/papers/idealhashtrees.pdf [35] http://tinyurl.com/clojure-persistent-vector [36] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fibonacci_number [37] For more on how the JVM manages its stack, see “Runtime Data Areas” at http://tinyurl.com/jvm-spec-toc. [38] On today’s JVMs, languages can provide automatic TCO for some kinds of recursion but not for all. Since there is no general solution, Clojure forces you to be explicit. When and if general TCO becomes widely supported on the JVM, Clojure will support it as well. [39] Hat tip to Jeff Brown, who posed this problem over breakfast at a No Fluff, Just Stuff symposium. [40] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hofstadter_sequence [41] 3.06 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo, 4 GB 667 MHz DDR2 SDRAM, Ubuntu 10.10, SSD Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf.

Clojure’s macro implementation is easy to learn and use correctly for common tasks and yet powerful enough for the harder macro-related tasks. In the next chapter, you will see how Clojure is bringing macros to mainstream programming. Footnotes [50] http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/node/2232 [51] http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-clojure-protocols/?ca=drs- [52] http://clojure.org/datatypes [53] Notice more than one pitch maps to 1, 3, 6, 8, and 10. [54] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cage [55] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleatoric_music Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Chapter 7 Macros Macros give Clojure great power. With most programming techniques, you build features within the language. When you write macros, it is more accurate to say that you are “adding features to” the language. This is a powerful and dangerous ability, so you should follow the rules in Section 7.1, ​When to Use Macros​, at least until you have enough experience to decide for yourself when to bend the rules.

You have seen Clojure’s expressive syntax, learned about Clojure’s approach to Lisp, and seen how easy it is to call Java code from Clojure. You have Clojure running in your own environment, and you have written short programs at the REPL to demonstrate functional programming and the reference model for dealing with state. Now it is time to explore the entire language. Footnotes [8] Software Estimation: Demystifying the Black Art [McC06] is a great read and makes the case that smaller is cheaper. [9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homoiconicity [10] http://www.paulgraham.com/icad.html [11] http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html [12] http://github.com/technomancy/leiningen [13] http://github.com/technomancy/leiningen [14] pst is available only in Clojure 1.3.0 and greater. [15] Creating a new REPL will prevent name collisions between your previous work and the sample code functions of the same name.

Scala in Action by Nilanjan Raychaudhuri

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continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, fault tolerance, general-purpose programming language, index card, MVC pattern, type inference, web application

All operations are performed by sending messages to objects. All user-defined types are objects. Scala supports all these qualities and uses a pure object-oriented model similar to that of Smalltalk[4] (a pure object-oriented language created by Alan Kay around 1980), where every value is an object, and every operation is a message send. Here’s a simple expression: 4 “Smalltalk,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smalltalk. 1 + 2 In Scala this expression is interpreted as 1.+(2) by the Scala compiler. That means you’re invoking a + operation on an integer object (in this case, 1) by passing 2 as a parameter. Scala treats operator names like ordinary identifiers. An identifier in Scala is either a sequence of letters and digits starting with a letter or a sequence of operator characters. In addition to +, it’s possible to define methods like <=, -, or *.

The basic Actor architecture relies on a shared-nothing policy and is lightweight in nature. It’s not analogous to a Java thread; it’s more like an event object that gets scheduled and executed by a thread. The Scala Actor model is a better way to handle concurrency issues. Its shared-nothing architecture and asynchronous message-passing techniques make it an easy alternative to existing thread-based solutions. 9 “Actor model,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Actor_model. History of the Actor model The Actor model was first proposed by Carl Hewitt in 1973 in his paper “A Universal Modular ACTOR Formalism for Artificial Intelligence” and was later on improved by Gul Agha (“ACTORS: A Model of Concurrent Computation in Distributed Systems”). Erlang was the first programming language to implement the Actor model. Erlang is a general-purpose concurrent programming language with dynamic typing.

Instead, Scala supports something called singleton objects. A singleton object allows you to restrict the instantiation of a class to one object.[5] Implementing a singleton pattern in Scala is as simple as the following: 4 “Cutting out Static,” Gilad Bracha blog, Room 101, Feb. 17, 2008, http://gbracha.blogspot.com/2008/02/cutting-out-static.html. 5 “Singleton pattern,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singleton_pattern. object RichConsole { def p(x: Any) = println(x) } Here RichConsole is a singleton object. The object declaration is similar to a class declaration except instead of class you’re using the object keyword. To invoke the new p method, you have to prefix it with the class name, as you’d invoke static methods in Java or C#: scala> :l RichConsole.scala Loading RichConsole.scala... defined module RichConsole scala> RichConsole.p("rich console") rich console You can import and use all the members of the RichConsole object as follows: scala> import RichConsole._ import RichConsole._ scala> p("this is cool") this is cool The DB object introduced in listing 3.2 is nothing but a factory to create DB instances representing a database in MongoDB: object DB { def apply(underlying: MongDB) = new DB(underlying) } What’s interesting here is that when you use a DB object as a factory, you’re calling it as if it’s a function, DB(underlying.getDB(name)), whereas you’d expect something like DB.apply(underlying.getDB(name)).

pages: 315 words: 85,791

Technical Blogging: Turn Your Expertise Into a Remarkable Online Presence by Antonio Cangiano

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Albert Einstein, anti-pattern, bitcoin, bounce rate, cloud computing, en.wikipedia.org, John Gruber, Lean Startup, Network effects, revision control, Ruby on Rails, search engine result page, slashdot, software as a service, web application

Turning the page will lead you into the fourth part of the book, which is devoted to reaping the benefits of your work as a blogger. This is the fun part, where you’ll learn how to maximize your reward as well as experience the satisfaction of having your content be widely read and appreciated. Footnotes [76] http://lesswrong.com [77] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Straw_man [78] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad_hominem [79] http://xkcd.com/386 [80] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Godwin's_law Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Part 4 Benefit from It Chapter 10 Making Money from Your Blog For I can raise no money by vile means. William Shakespeare This section of the book is where you learn strategies to reap the benefits of your blogging activities. We’ll start by looking at direct, easy-to-implement ways you can earn money from your blog.

Footnotes [124] http://personalizemedia.com/garys-social-media-count [125] http://cafemom.com or http://patientslikeme.com, respectively. [126] http://youtube.com [127] http://geni.com or http://goodreads.com, respectively. [128] http://govloop.com or http://channeldb2.com, respectively. [129] http://foursquare.com [130] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_networking_websites [131] http://facebook.com/bookmarks/pages [132] http://linkedin.com/companies [133] http://twitter.com/acangiano [134] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_currency [135] http://google.com/webmasters/+1/button, http://twitter.com/about/resources, and http://developers.facebook.com/docs/plugins, respectively. [136] http://tweetdeck.com [137] http://hootsuite.com [138] http://socialoomph.com [139] http://bufferapp.com [140] For a real life example of how this can backfire, check out the “Ragu Hates Dads” disaster at http://cc-chapman.com/2011/ragu-hates-dads

Note that DNS propagation can take several hours, so if you want to work with your domain name right away, you can edit your local hosts file to have the domain name point to the right IP locally. This change enables you to use your domain name instead of the IP as you configure your self-hosted blog even before the DNS records have become visible to the world. On *nix systems this is usually located at /etc/hosts. For Windows, consult the Wikipedia page at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hosts_(file). In your hosts file, you should include a line that looks like this: ​ yoursitename.com​ Replace the fictitious IP and domain name with your real ones. If you don’t know the IP of your server, you should check the emails your hosting company sent you when you registered with them, because it’s usually located there. Logging into your hosting account will also typically provide you with this information.

Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

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Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/ index.php?title=Gda%C5%84sk&oldid=333254700 Gdańsk: Difference between revisions. (2002a, June 28). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gda%C5%84s k&diff=prev&oldid=107671 Gdańsk: Difference between revisions. (2002b, June 29). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gda%C5%84s k&diff=next&oldid=107930 Gdańsk: Difference between revisions. (2004, February 10). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gda%C5%84sk &diff=2355452&oldid=2355317 Gdańsk: Difference between revisions. (2012, June 26). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gda%C5%84sk&diff=49939 0993&oldid=499387188 Gedajlovic, E., Lubatkin, M.

See also [[WP:Namespace#Pseudo-namespaces]], [[WP:Shortcuts]]. 2. Also sometimes used as an abbreviation for WikiProject (see also WPP). Notes PROLOGUE 1.  I purposefully avoid providing citations to these discussions to protect the subjects. 2.  For ease of reference, all citations to the English Wikipedia are presented in a shortened format. For example, [[WP:Size_comparisons]] can be found at https:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WP:Size_comparisons (or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Wikipedia:Size_comparisons, because “WP” is a shortcut to “Wikipedia”). Double square brackets are characteristic of the markup code of wiki technology, often used by people to collaborate in creating and modifying content on the web. They allow easy visual differentiation of this type of citation. I n t ro d u c t io n 1.  The ethnographic study discussed in this book took place in 2006–2012, when I was particularly active on the Polish Wikipedia (where I was elected an administrator and a bureaucrat—roles are described in more detail in Chapter 2) and the English Wikipedia, which both serve as the basis of the analysis.

Ostrom’s principles related to smaller communities, and it can be assumed that Wikipedia is a pioneer in addressing many of the social organization problems of scale and that not all principles of open-collaboration communities may be fully applicable to it. C h a p t er 5 1.  Essjay’s original talk page no longer exists, but this post has been archived at http://www.wikipedia-watch.org/essjay.html. 2.  This post is archived at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_talk:Ess jay&oldid=112480415#Slashdot. 3. This post is archived at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_ talk:Essjay&oldid=112480415. No t e s t o C h a p t er 6   2 3 3 C h a p t er 6 1. For a useful taxonomy of contributions to Wikimedia projects, see “Research:Contribution Taxonomy Project,” 2012. 2.  I wrote these words two days after I was appointed one of seven members of the FDC, and I was later elected chair.

pages: 385 words: 101,761

Creative Intelligence: Harnessing the Power to Create, Connect, and Inspire by Bruce Nussbaum

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3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, declining real wages, demographic dividend, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, game design, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, invisible hand, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Gruber, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, race to the bottom, reshoring, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, Tesla Model S, The Chicago School, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The Myth of the Rational Market, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, tulip mania, We are the 99%, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

In 2012, Greenberg looked at the fast growth of R/GA to over one thousand and decided to split it up into teams of 150 each and add new services, from product design to strategic consulting; Nike+, http://judgeseyesonly.com/nikeplus.html, accessed September 13, 2012. 134 So R/GA designed a website: personal interview with Greenberg; http://judgeseyesonly.com/nikeplus_video.html. 135 There are many different kinds of games: personal interview with Katie Salen, June 6, 2011, New York City; Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman, Rules of Play: Game Design Fundamentals (Boston: MIT Press, 2004), 80–83. 136 Friedrich Froebel: One of the legends of product design, Tucker Viemeister first presented this connection between progressive education and design and creativity at a DMI conference that I cochaired with David Butler, the design director of Coca-Cola. It was eye-opening, and I asked him to present it to my class, which he did, in the spring of 2011. He’s the only designer I know who was named after a car, the Tucker, which his father designed. http://www.friedrichfroebel.com/, accessed October 20, 2012. 136 the progressive education movement expanded: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montessori_education, accessed September 13, 2012; http://www.montessori-ami.org, accessed September 13, 2012; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wal dorf_schools, accessed September 13, 2012. 136 In 2007, Katie Salen: interview with Katie Salen, June 6, 2011. 136 received a MacArthur Foundation grant: http://www.instituteofplay.org/about, accessed September 13, 2012. 137 Salen puts on a weeklong summer: interview with Katie Salen, June 6, 2011, Institute of Play, http://www.instituteofplay.org/work/ projects/mobile-quest, accessed September 13, 2012. 137 Perhaps that is why 72 percent: Video Game Voters, http://videogamevoters.org/pages/top_10_gamer_facts/, accessed September 13, 2012. 137 StarCraft II: John Gaudiosi, “Major League Gaming Wraps Record-Breaking 2011 Season with Over $600,000 in Cash and Prizes,” GamerLive.TV, November 21, 2011, accessed September 13, 2012, http://www.gamerlive.tv/article/major-league-gaming-wraps-record-breaking -2011-season-over-600000-cash-and-prizes; Gunnar Technology Eyewear, http://www.gunnars.com/events/gunnar-mlg-providence-national-championships/, accessed September 13, 2012. 138 Re-Mission is a game: Re-Mission website, http://www.re-mission.net/, accessed September 13, 2012. 138 The game was created by HopeLab: “About HopeLab,” http://www.hopelab.org/about-us/, accessed September 13, 2012. 138 According to a study conducted: Pamela M.

Pollock, “A Video Game Improves Behavioral Outcomes in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: A Randomized Trial,” Pediatrics, vol. 122, no. 2, August 1, 2008, accessed September 13, 2012, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/122/2/e305.full. 138 “A game designer”: Edutopia, “Big Thinkers,” http://www.edutopia.org/digital-generation -katie-salen-video?page=1,accessed September 13, 2012; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SimCity, accessed October 21, 2012. 139 Humans vs. Mosquitoes: http://humansvsmosquitoes.com/background/, accessed September 13, 2012; Lauren Graham, “Climate Conversations—Can a Game Combat Malaria?” AlertNet, July 17, 2012, accessed October 20, 2012, http://www.trust.org/alertnet/blogs/climate- conversations/can-a-game-combat-malaria/. 139 It was designed by students: Ibid. 140 In 1485, Leonardo da Vinci: http://www.flyingmachines.org/davi.html, accessed September 13, 2012. 140 It was not only a beautiful work: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ornithopter, accessed September 13, 2012. 140 in 1959, a wealthy British businessman: Aza Raskin, “Wanna Solve Impossible Problems?

__source=vty, accessed September 9, 2012. 191 Corning is developing new: http://9to5mac.com/2012/ 06/04/corning-announces-slim-flexible-willow-glass-video/, accessed September 5, 2012; http://www.apple.com/about/job-creation/, accessed September 9, 2012; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gorilla_Glass, accessed September 9, 2012. 191 From its founding in 1939: In the spring of 2012, I assembled a panel of six retired HP engineers and researchers who’d worked there from the early glory days through the company’s decline, and spent two days talking with them in order to understand the culture of HP and how it had changed. 191 advanced degrees in electrical engineering: Lee Fleming, “Finding the Organizational Sources of Technological Breakthroughs: The Story of Hewlett-Packard’s Thermal InkJet,” Industrial and Corporate Change, vol. 11, no. 5, 1059–84 (Oxford University Press, 2002); “Case Study: Spitting Image,” Economist, September 19, 2002, accessed September 10, 2012, http://www.economist.com/node/1324685. 192 “HP Labs was a wonderful place”: Fleming, “Finding the Organizational Sources of Technological Breakthroughs.” 192 “I bore easily”: Ibid. 192 “very far, very fast”: Ibid. 192 In 1978, Vaught and Donald: Ibid. 192 From the beginning of what: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dot_matrix_printer, accessed September 5, 2012; http://eightiesclub.tripod.com/id325.htm, accessed September 5, 2012. 192 Dot-matrix printers were “impact printers”: Stan Retner, “History of Inkjet Printers Development,” Toner Cartridge Depot, November 21, 2007, accessed September 5, 2012, http://blog.tonercartridgedepot.com/2007/ 11/21/history-of-inkjet-printers-development/. 192 Printing was slow and loud: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dots_per_inch, accessed September 5, 2012. 192 In fact, the joke going: personal interviews with the six retired HP engineers I talked with in Portland, Oregon, in the spring of 2012. 193 For most of its early history: Ibid.; Frank Cloutier, “Building One of the World’s Largest Technology Businesses (and How to Have Fun and Profit from Your Hobbies),” presentation at MIT, March, 2, 2004, accessed at http://techtv-dev.mit.edu/videos/ 15930-building-one-of-the-world-s-largest-technology-businesses-and-how-to-have-fun-and-profit-from-your-home. 193 “We weren’t the largest”: Cloutier, “Building One of the World’s Largest Technology Businesses.” 193 And yet on Christmas Eve: Fleming, “Finding the Organizational Sources of Technological Breakthroughs; “Case Study: Spitting Image.” 193 as Vaught caught sight: Fleming, “Finding the Organizational Sources of Technological Breakthroughs.” 193 “Inventors just don’t go home”: Ibid. 193 “if you think about it”: Ibid. 193 (Because of this explosive process): Thomas Kraemer, “Printing Enters the Jet Age,” American Heritage Invention and Technology, Spring 2001, vol. 6, no. 4, 18–27; accessed September 5, 2012, http://tomsosu.blogspot.com/2012/ 02/history-of-hp-inkjet-printers-in.html. 194 “They had tremendous fun”: Alan G.

pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

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23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change (Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 32. 41. “The Ninety-Five Theses,” Wikipedia, accessed August 13, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Ninety-Five_Theses. 42. J. Katz, The Silent World of Doctor and Patient (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984), 7–8. 43. American Medical Association, Code of Medical Ethics, 1847, http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/about-ama/our-history/history-ama-ethics.page. 44. Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, 303. 45. “Sacrosanctum Concilium,” Wikipedia, accessed August 13, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacrosanctum_Concilium. 46. “Ad Orientem,” Wikipedia, accessed August 13, 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ad_orientem. 47. J. Schuessler, “Wired: Putting a Writer and Readers to a Test,” New York Times, November 30, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/30/books/arnon-grunberg-is-writing-while-connected-to-electrodes.html. 48.

That may be especially apropos, given the symbol’s original suggestion of a godlike nature of physicians, and the tradition of paternalism that the AMA, along with many physicians, inherited from the ancient world. FIGURE 2.2: Evolution of the caduceus symbol in medicine and its adoption by the American Medical Association. Sources: (left and middle) “Caduceus,” Wikipedia, accessed August 13, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caduceus; and (right) “History of AMA Ethics,” American Medical Association, accessed August 13, 2014, http://www.ama-assn.org/ama. The American Medical Association The American Medical Asssociation was founded in 1847, and for more than 160 years since, says its website, the AMA’s Code of Medical Ethics has been the “authoritative ethics guide for practicing physicians.”25 Authoritative it has been.

This is the first chapter of the “My” section of the book; each one is about different components of your information. Later in the book we’ll get to the transformative implications of having and owning your GIS data. FIGURE 5.1: Differences in our ability to map an infectious disease epidemic. Sources: (left) “1854 Broad Street Cholera Outbreak,” Wikipedia, accessed August 13, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1854_Broad_Street_cholera_outbreak; and (right) J. L. Gardy et al., “Whole-Genome Sequencing and Social-Network Analysis of a Tuberculosis Outbreak,” New England Journal of Medicine 364 (2011): 730–739. The human GIS comprises multiple layers of demographic, physiologic, anatomic, biologic, and environmental data (Figure 5.2) about a particular individual.5 This is a rich, multi-scale, mosaic of a human being, which can be used to define one’s medical essence; when fully amassed and integrated, it is what a digitized person looks like, at least for the sake of how medical care can be rendered.

pages: 398 words: 86,855

Bad Data Handbook by Q. Ethan McCallum

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, business intelligence, cellular automata, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, commoditize, conceptual framework, database schema, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, iterative process, labor-force participation, loose coupling, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, recommendation engine, selection bias, sentiment analysis, statistical model, supply-chain management, survivorship bias, text mining, too big to fail, web application

For Java people, there is Apache’s OpenNLP project at http://opennlp.apache.org/, and a commercial library called LingPipe, available at http://alias-i.com/lingpipe/. * * * [8] http://www.weotta.com [9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_language_processing [10] http://citygrid.com/ [11] http://bit.ly/X9sqWR [12] http://nltk.org [13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text_classification [14] http://www.cs.cornell.edu/people/pabo/movie-review-data/ [15] http://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/llee/papers/sentiment.pdf [16] http://bit.ly/QibGfE [17] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naive_Bayes_classifier [18] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximum_entropy_classifier [19] https://github.com/japerk/nltk-trainer [20] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Part-of-speech_tagging [21] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chunking_(computational_linguistics) [22] http://www.slideshare.net/japerk/corpus-bootstrapping-with-nltk Chapter 7.

Slow connections cause timeouts when loading pages, so your program has to fail gracefully and move on, keeping a history of what you were and were not able to save so that you can make a second (or third or fourth) pass to get more data. However, it is sometimes a fun challenge to reverse-engineer a website and figure out how they do things under the hood, notice common design approaches, and end up with some interesting data to work with in the end. * * * [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No_Child_Left_Behind_Act [6] http://www.crummy.com/software/BeautifulSoup/ [7] https://github.com/bolinfest/chickenfoot/ Chapter 6. Detecting Liars and the Confused in Contradictory Online Reviews Jacob Perkins Did you know that people lie for their own selfish reasons? Even if this is totally obvious to you, you may be surprised at how blatant this practice has become online, to the point where some people will explain their reasons for lying immediately after doing so.

Until then, you may be able to make do with files. I hope that you have been able to extract lessons from my experience. My aim with this chapter has been to provide a different view on how to structure a data mining project. You have not found the universal truth here. Hopefully, what you have found is a series of useful tools that you can apply bits of in future projects. Thank you for reading. Kia kaha. * * * [59] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkinson%27s_Law_of_Triviality [60] http://code.google.com/p/protobuf/ [61] http://thrift.apache.org/ Chapter 13. Crouching Table, Hidden Network Bobby Norton “You were enlightened?” “No. I didn’t feel the bliss of enlightenment. Instead… I was surrounded by an endless sorrow.” —Yu Shu Lien describing the effects of bad data (…or something similar…) to Li Mu Bai in Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon Data is good to the extent that it can be quickly analyzed to reveal valuable information.

pages: 314 words: 94,600

Business Metadata: Capturing Enterprise Knowledge by William H. Inmon, Bonnie K. O'Neil, Lowell Fryman

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affirmative action, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, continuous integration, corporate governance, create, read, update, delete, database schema, en.wikipedia.org, informal economy, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, semantic web, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application

Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. New York: Penguin Group, 2006. ✦ Von Krogh, Georg, Ichijo, Kazuo, and Nonaka, Ikujiro. Enabling Knowledge Creation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. ✦ Wikipedia. “Tacit Knowledge.” Referenced July 13, 2006. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Tacit knowledge ✦ Wikipedia. “Knowledge Worker.” Referenced July 12, 2006. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_worker ✦ Wikipedia. “Internet.” Referenced July 20, 2006. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/The_Internet ✦ Wikipedia. “Groupware.” Referenced July 16, 2006. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/Groupware C H A P T E R TA B L E O F CO N T E N T S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................121 Technical Sources of (Both Business and Technical) Metadata ...............................................................................122 Editing the Metadata as It Passes into the Enterprise Metadata Repository .....................................................128 Turning Technical Metadata into Business Metadata .......................................................................................................135 Summary .......................................................................................................137 Introduction CHAPTER 7 Capturing Business Metadata from Existing Data This chapter explores all the general sources of metadata.

HR Magazine, February 2006. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_2_51/ai_n16101872 ✦ Sun Executive Boardroom. “How to Deal with a Graying Workforce.” January, 2004. http://www.sun.com/br/0104_ezine/man_graying.html ✦ Von Krogh, Georg, et al. Enabling Knowledge Creation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ✦ Wikipedia. “Knowledge Base.” Referenced on November 26, 2006, http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_base ✦ Wikipedia. “Knowledge Management.” Referenced on November 25, 2006, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_management ✦ Wikipedia. “Tacit Knowledge.” Referenced on November 25, 2006, http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tacit_knowledge This page intentionally left blank In Summary 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 16.1 Introduction ................................................................................................273 The Importance of Business Metadata .......................................274 Business Metadata and Metadata Initiatives...........................275 The Essence of Business Metadata................................................276 Lessons Learned in the Field .............................................................278 What Does the Future Hold?.............................................................

CNN, September 30, 1999. http://www.cnn.com/TECH/space/9909/30/mars. metric.02/ ✦ Seybold, Patty. “Where Do Search and Findability Fit in Your Business Strategy?” Outside Innovation, 2006. http://outsideinnovation.blogs.com/ pseybold/2006/06/where_do_search.html ✦ Wahl, Zach. “Masterclass: Business Taxonomy, Part I.” Inside Knowledge, October 31, 2006. http://www.ikmagazine.com/ ✦ Wikipedia. “NATO Bombing of the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade.”Referenced on October 26, 2006. http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/NATO_Bombing_of_the_Chinese_embassy_in_Belgrade C H A P T E R TA B L E O F CO N T E N T S 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................79 Why Consolidate or Integrate Metadata? ....................................80 Metadata Project Planning and Scoping Considerations .................................................................................................... 82 Defining the Scope of the Metadata Repository ....................85 Summary ..........................................................................................................87 Introduction As organizations moved to an understanding of the need for enterprise information, rather than just application information, corporations recognized that they needed to do something about their metadata.

pages: 519 words: 104,396

Priceless: The Myth of Fair Value (And How to Take Advantage of It) by William Poundstone

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availability heuristic, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, equal pay for equal work, experimental economics, experimental subject, feminist movement, game design, German hyperinflation, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, index card, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, market bubble, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nash equilibrium, new economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Philip Mirowski, Potemkin village, price anchoring, price discrimination, psychological pricing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, working poor

., 429. 29 “Psychophysics is an exact doctrine”: Fechner 1966, 8. 30 “Carving Meat and Setting the Table”: Heidelberger 2004, 43. 30 “But then I ruined my eyesight”: Fechner’s autobiographical note is translated in ibid., 322. 30 “People called Fechner a fool”: quoted in ibid., 323. 30 Little Book on Life After Death: See ibid., 44. 31 “How much stronger or weaker”: quoted in Stevens 1975, 59. 31 Plateau biography: Ibid., 7; en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Plateau. 33 power curve rule can be stated in seven words: Stevens 1975, 16. 33 “As an experimental fact”: Ekman and Sjöberg 1965, quoted in Stevens 1975, 266. 5. Black Is White 34 “tell us how matters stand out there”: Stevens 1975, 18. 34 “For example, is it the differences”: Ibid., 18. 35 “The print in this book looks black”: Ibid., 79. 35 Category and magnitude scales: There is a concise, nontechnical discussion of response scales in Kahneman, Schkade, and Sunstein 1998, 53–55.

The Price Scale 42 “Smitty was a close man with a dollar”: Miller 1975, 431. 43 “Suppose I were to tell you”: Stevens 1975, 6. 43 $35 to $50: Ibid. 44 Indow study: Ibid., 235–37. 44 Social status: Ibid., 244–45. 44 Seriousness of theft: Ibid., 258–59. 8. Input to Output 49 Mob types: See Tuohy 2001. Goffstein took over the Riviera after his boss, Gus Greenbaum, was murdered by the Chicago mob (apparently). 49 Murphy biography: See Wikipedia entry, “Charles B. G. Murphy,” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_B._G._Murphy. Murphy’s Wood Kalb Foundation also supported psychiatry at Yale. 49 He came up with Ward Edwards: Paul Slovic interview, July 1, 2008. 49 Murphy asked to use the Four Queens for experiments: Phillips and von Winterfeldt 2006. 51 “revealed preference”: See Samuelson 1947. 51 “impossible for the behavior”: Simon 1945, 79. 51 “How any grown-up”: quoted in Mirowski 2002, 454. 52 “Do you think the ratio”: Phillips and von Winterfeldt 2006. 53 “was nutty”: Barbara Tversky interview, July 8, 2008. 53 “occasional colorful and forthright behavior”: Phillips and von Winterfeldt 2006. 53 “Ruth’s excellent, if often exotic cooking”: Ibid. 53 Paper titled “Behavioral Decision Theory”: Edwards 1961. 53 (“a marvelous person”): Lichtenstein interview, July 28, 2008. 53 “was actually interested in the economic theories”: Ibid. 53 “comparing incomparables”: cited in Goldstein and Einhorn 1987, 250. 53 “Always choose the bet”: Edwards 1961, describing “A Study of Decision Making Under Risk” by C.

He doubts there were any profits after expenses. 73 Game unpopular, Ponticello wanted to improve: Slovic interview, July 1, 2008. 74 “The results of this experiment”: Lichtenstein and Slovic 2006, 75. 74 “There is a natural concern”: Ibid. 76 “I call them as I see them”: Tversky and Thaler 1990, 210. 76 “It would be an overstatement”: Lichtenstein and Slovic 2006, xvi. 76 “Each of the blind men was partly right”: See Wikipedia entry, “Blind Men and an Elephant,” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blind_Men_and_an_Elephant. 12. Cult of Rationality 77 “If you can’t talk about a preference”: Lichtenstein interview, July 29, 2008. 77 “The first time I talked about it”: Lichtenstein interview, July 28, 2008. 78 “I was very young”: Camerer interview, Nov. 28, 2008. 78 “would get taken advantage of in the markets”: Ibid. 78 Economics and “irrationality”: This capsule history is indebted to the more detailed account in Laibson and Zeckhauser 1998. 78 “to discredit the psychologists’ work”: Grether and Plott 1979, reprinted in Lichtenstein and Slovic 2006, 77. 79 “We knew Charlie Plott”: Lichtenstein interview, July 29, 2008 79 “Plott is pretty good at spotting”: Camerer interview, Nov. 28, 2008. 79 “In a very real sense”: Grether and Plott 1979, reprinted in Lichtenstein and Slovic 2006, 85. 79 “Unsophisticated Subjects,” other hypotheses: Grether and Plott 1979. 80 “amplifier”: Colin Camerer’s word, in Camerer interview, Nov. 28, 2008. 80 Admiring letters from cranks: Ibid. 13.

pages: 315 words: 70,044

Learning SPARQL by Bob DuCharme

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database schema, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, G4S, linked data, semantic web, SPARQL, web application

@prefix d: <http://learningsparql.com/ns/data#> . @prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . d:c1 a skos:Concept ; xl:prefLabel d:label1 . d:c2 a skos:Concept ; xl:prefLabel d:label2 ; skos:broader d:c1 . d:c3 a skos:Concept ; xl:prefLabel d:label3 ; skos:broader d:c1 . d:label1 a xl:Label ; xl:literalForm "Mammal" ; dc:source <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammal> . d:label2 a xl:Label ; xl:literalForm "Dog" ; dc:source <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog> . d:label3 a xl:Label ; xl:literalForm "Cat" ; dc:source <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat> . Note Note that this SKOS-XL example includes extra triples about the source of each term, using the Dublin Core source property, to show SKOS-XL’s flexibility. You can add all the metadata you want, from any namespaces you want, to these terms. If you CLEAR the data currently in your Fuseki dataset (see update request ex324.ru) and upload the ex327.ttl data above (the SKOS data, not the ex328.ttl SKOS-XL data) into it, you can then run the following update request in Fuseki’s SPARQL Update panel to convert the stored SKOS data into SKOS-XL data: # filename: ex329.ru PREFIX skos: <http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#> PREFIX xl: <http://www.w3.org/2008/05/skos-xl#> DELETE { ?

If you send a browser to http://dbpedia.org/snorql/, you’ll see a form where you can enter a query and select the format of the results you want to see, as shown in Figure 1-2. For our experiments, we’ll stick with “Browse” as our result format. Figure 1-2. DBpedia’s SNORQL web form I want DBpedia to give me a list of albums produced by the hip-hop producer Timbaland and the artists who made those albums. If Wikipedia has a page for Some Topic at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Some_Topic, the DBpedia URI to represent that resource is usually http://dbpedia.org/resource/Some_Topic, so after finding the Wikipedia page for the producer at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timbaland, I sent a browser to http://dbpedia.org/resource/Timbaland, found plenty of information (although it was redirected to http://dbpedia.org/page/Timbaland, because when a browser asks for the information, DBpedia redirects it to the HTML version of the data), and knew that this was the right URI to represent him in queries.

.> | | rdfs:comment | "Joseph Hocking (November 7, 1860–March ..."@en | | skos:subject | cat:Cornish_writers | | skos:subject | cat:English_Methodist_clergy | | skos:subject | cat:19th-century_Methodist_clergy | | skos:subject | cat:People_from_St_Stephen-in-Brannel | | skos:subject | cat:1860_births | | skos:subject | cat:1937_deaths | | skos:subject | cat:English_novelists | | rdfs:label | "Joseph Hocking"@en | | foaf:page | <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Hocking> | ------------------------------------------------------------------ This result doesn’t have a ton of data, but only because I deliberately picked an obscure person to ask about. I also trimmed the data in the two places where you see ... above to make it easier to fit on the page; the rdfs:comment value describing the British novelist/minister is actually an entire paragraph.

pages: 999 words: 194,942

Clojure Programming by Chas Emerick, Brian Carper, Christophe Grand

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Amazon Web Services, Benoit Mandelbrot, cloud computing, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, finite state, Firefox, game design, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, Larry Wall, mandelbrot fractal, Paul Graham, platform as a service, premature optimization, random walk, Ruby on Rails, Schrödinger's Cat, semantic web, software as a service, sorting algorithm, Turing complete, type inference, web application

Evaluating that list data structure is what defines the function. * * * [6] Clojure is by no means the only homoiconic language, nor is homoiconicity a new concept. Other homoiconic languages include all other Lisps, all sorts of machine language (and therefore arguably Assembly language as well), Postscript, XSLT and XQuery, Prolog, R, Factor, Io, and more. [7] The natural language parse tree was mostly lifted from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parse_tree. The Reader Although Clojure’s compilation and evaluation machinery operates exclusively on Clojure data structures, the practice of programming has not yet progressed beyond storing code as plain text. Thus, a way is needed to produce those data structures from textual code. This task falls to the Clojure reader. The operation of the reader is completely defined by a single function, read, which reads text content from a character stream[8] and returns the next data structure encoded in the stream’s content.

In Clojure, functional programming means: A preference for working with immutable values; this includes: The use of immutable data structures that satisfy simple abstractions, rather than mutable bags of state The treatment of functions as values themselves, enabling higher-order functions A preference for declarative processing of data over imperative control structures and iteration The natural incremental composition of functions, higher-order functions, and immutable data structures in order to solve complex problems by working with higher-level (or, right-level) abstractions These are all part of the foundation for many of the more advanced features of Clojure that you may have heard of—in particular, Clojure’s fantastic support for concurrency, parallelism, and more generally, providing defined semantics for the management of identities and changing state, which we’ll cover separately in Chapter 4. * * * [35] After you’ve internalized what we provide here, you may find the Wikipedia entry for functional programming to be a surprisingly good springboard for diving deeper into a variety of related topics: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_programming. [36] Note that it is possible to use functional programming principles even in languages—like Java—that do little to encourage (and sometimes actively discourage) FP styles. This is made much easier if you have some quality persistent data structures and implementations of FP fundamentals like those provided by the Google Guava (https://code.google.com/p/guava-libraries/) or Functional Java (http://functionaljava.org) libraries.

[45] In Chapter 12, we provide examples of how Clojure’s facilities make many familiar object-oriented patterns unnecessary or invisible. [46] Perhaps you recall the confusion and uncertainty that existed around double-checked locking some years ago—eventually resolved, but with much complexity and the help of a new JVM memory model: http://www.cs.umd.edu/~pugh/java/memoryModel/DoubleCheckedLocking.html. [47] A.k.a. Heisenbugs, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heisenbug. First-Class and Higher-Order Functions Despite the great variability about what “functional programming” means in different languages, one requirement is consistent: functions must themselves be values, so that they may be treated like any other data, accepted as arguments and returned as results by other functions. Functions as data permits a means of abstraction that a language without first-class functions lacks.

pages: 310 words: 89,653

The Interstellar Age: Inside the Forty-Year Voyager Mission by Jim Bell

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Albert Einstein, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Edmond Halley, Edward Charles Pickering, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, gravity well, Isaac Newton, Kuiper Belt, Mars Rover, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, Pluto: dwarf planet, polynesian navigation, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Stephen Hawking, V2 rocket

perspectives to come from the Voyagers that would follow: Amateur astronomer and planetary image processor Ted Stryk has compiled a nice collection of Pioneer 11 “greatest hits” images of Saturn online at strykfoto.org/pioneersaturn.htm. perhaps some other complex hydrocarbons: This and other early pioneering planetary spectroscopic discoveries were made by the Dutch-American astronomer Gerard P. Kuiper, who is widely regarded as one of the founding fathers of modern planetary science. There’s a nice Wikipedia biography of Kuiper online at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_Kuiper. could have led to the formation of life on Earth: Wikipedia’s entry on the Miller-Urey experiments at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miller-Urey_experiment is a great starting point for learning more about these famous early efforts at understanding the possible origins of life on Earth and other habitable worlds. Voyager’s cameras were blind to the surface itself: Uncovering those secrets, including discovering the hoped-for seas of ethane and methane, would have to wait more than twenty-five years, when the Cassini Saturn orbiter, armed with cloud-penetrating radar inspired by Voyager’s discoveries, would finally map the fascinating geology and hydrology of Titan and when the ESA Huygens probe would get near-surface images just before landing.

only slightly above the plane of the planets: See heavens-above.com/SolarEscape.aspx. modern-day spacecraft forensics: For more details, see The Planetary Society’s director of projects Bruce Betts’s April 19, 2012, blog post “Pioneer Anomaly Solved!” at planetary.org/blogs/bruce-betts/3459.html. just under four light-years away: For information about Voyager 1’s predicted encounter with Gliese 445, see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gliese_445, and for information about Voyager 2’s predicted encounter with Ross 248, see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ross_248. “redirect the spacecraft as closely as possible . . .”: Carl Sagan, et al., Murmurs of Earth, pages 235–36. evidence of planets around other nearby stars: The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia, online at exoplanet.eu/catalog, contains lists, plots, and links to the now more than 1,800 planets discovered around nearby stars that are (mostly) like our sun, via a variety of ground-based and space-based methods.

some in Congress have asked (really): For an example, see NASA historian Stephen J. Garber’s article “Searching for Good Science: The Cancellation of NASA’s SETI Program,” Journal of British Interplanetary Society 52 (1999): 3–12 (online at history.nasa.gov/garber.pdf). Why should American taxpayers support NASA?: Wikipedia has a fairly comprehensive entry on the history of the NASA budget, with links to more information, at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Budget_of_NASA. inspiration is priceless during tough times: Watch and read Neil deGrasse Tyson’s passionate 2012 testimony to the US Senate’s Commerce, Science, and Transportation Committee on Neil’s own website, at haydenplanetarium.org/tyson/read/2012/03/07/past-present-and-future-of-nasa-us-senate-testimony. complications of a stroke, passed away in late 2005: A nice “In Memoriam” piece written by several of Ed Danielson’s professional colleagues can be found in the planetary science journal Icarus 194 (2008): 399–400 (online at dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.icarus.2007.12.007).

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Conscious Capitalism, With a New Preface by the Authors: Liberating the Heroic Spirit of Business by John Mackey, Rajendra Sisodia, Bill George

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Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, Flynn Effect, income per capita, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, shareholder value, six sigma, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, wealth creators, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

.§ * Vineet Nayar, Employees First, Customers Second: Turning Conventional Management Upside Down (Boston: Harvard Business Press, 2010); see also Gary Hamel, The Future of Management (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2007). † Nayar, Employees First, Customers Second. § HCL Technologies, Annual Report (US GAAP), 2005–2006; and Wikipedia, s.v. “HCL Technologies,” last modified June 24, 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HCL_Technologies. A Journey Worth Taking Building a conscious business is a challenging but wonderfully rewarding and meaningful undertaking, whether such a business is created from scratch or is the outcome of a transformation. We recognize that many leaders have become weary of change. It seems there is a new set of buzzwords to deal with every few years—from total quality management to the reengineering of business processes to Six Sigma and numerous others.

McCloskey, Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can’t Explain the Modern World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 48–57. 4. “South Korea GDP,” Trading Economics Web page, n.d., www.tradingeconomics.com/south-korea/gdp. 5. Matt Rosenberg, “Current World Population,” About.com, January 1, 2011, http://geography.about.com/od/obtainpopulationdata/a/worldpopulation.htm. 6. Wikipedia, s. v. “life expectancy,” last modified June 5, 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_expectancy; United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, CD-ROM ed. (New York: United Nations, 2011). 7. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, “Hunger,” Web portal, 2012, www.fao.org/hunger/en/; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, The State of Food Insecurity in the World (Rome: FAO, 2010); Population Reference Bureau, 2010 World Population Data Sheet (Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, 2010). 8.

Index of Leading Economic Indicators, 2003, published by the American Enterprise Institute; Steve Raynor, “The International Challenge of Climate Change,” November 24, 2004, 12. 20. Jack Hollander, The Real Environmental Crisis: Why Poverty, Not Affluence, Is the Environment’s Number One Enemy (Berkeley: University of California, 2004). Chapter Eleven 1. Sam Walton, Made in America (New York: Bantam, 1993). 2. Wikipedia, s.v. “labor unions in the United States,” last modified June 8, 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_unions_in_the_United_States; Morgan Reynolds, “A History of Labor Unions from Colonial Times to 2009,” Mises Daily (Ludwig von Mises Institute), July 17, 2009, http://mises.org/daily/3553#part12. 3. Ibid. 4. Steven Greenhut, Plunder: How Public Employee Unions Are Raiding Treasuries, Controlling Our Lives and Bankrupting the Nation (Santa Ana, Calif.: Forum Press, 2009). 5. Remarks shared at a private dinner in Dallas, October 6, 2011. 6.

pages: 199 words: 43,653

Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal

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Airbnb, AltaVista, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, en.wikipedia.org, framing effect, game design, Google Glasses, Inbox Zero, invention of the telephone, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Oculus Rift, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QWERTY keyboard, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, the new new thing, Toyota Production System, Y Combinator

Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 12, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=5_Whys&oldid=581315459. [liv] For more on the need for social belonging, see: Fiske, Susan T. Social Beings: a Core Motives Approach to Social Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: J. Wiley, 2010. Chapter 3: Action [lv] “What Causes Behavior Change?.” BJ Fogg’s Behavior Model. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.behaviormodel.org/ [lvi] Deci, Edward L., and Richard M. Ryan. “Self-determination Theory: A Macrotheory of Human Motivation, Development, and Health.” Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne 49, no. 3 (2008): 182–185. doi:10.1037/a0012801. [lvii] “Barack Obama ‘Hope’ Poster.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, November 5, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Barack_Obama_%22Hope%22_poster&oldid=579742540.

Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, 1994. [vii] Verplanken, Bas, and Wendy Wood. “Interventions to Break and Create Consumer Habits.” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing 25, no. 1 (March 2006): 90–103. doi:10.1509/jppm.25.1.90. [viii] Wood W, Neal DT (2007) A new look at habits and the habit-goal interface. Psychol Rev 114(4):843–863[viii]. [ix] “Pinterest.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 21, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pinterest&oldid=587088493. [x] “What Causes Behavior Change?.” BJ Fogg’s Behavior Model. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.behaviormodel.org/. [xi] Robert Sapolsky: Are Humans Just Another Primate? Accessed December 19, 2013. http://fora.tv/2011/02/15/Robert_Sapolsky_Are_Humans_Just_Another_Primate. [xii] Brevers, Damien, and Xavier Noël. “Pathological Gambling and the Loss of Willpower: A Neurocognitive Perspective.”

“Pathological Gambling and the Loss of Willpower: A Neurocognitive Perspective.” Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology 3, no. 0 (September 26, 2013). doi:10.3402/snp.v3i0.21592. [xiii] “The Acceleration of Addictiveness,” Paul Graham. Accessed November 12, 2013. http://www.paulgraham.com/addiction.html. [xiv] “Night of the Living Dead.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, December 18, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Night_of_the_Living_Dead&oldid=586570022. [xv] Thaler, Richard H., Cass R. Sunstein, and John P. Balz. Choice Architecture. SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, April 2, 2010. http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1583509. [xvi] For a memorable acronym of the Hook Model, think “ATARI”, as in the 1980s video gaming console. “A hook has four parts: Trigger, Action, Reward, and Investment.

pages: 138 words: 40,787

The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit, Daniel Obodovski

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Freestyle chess, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet of things, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, Paul Graham, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, software as a service, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, yield management

We will also continue our discussions with industry experts about what is happening, what might happen, and what needs to happen to bring about the vision of the Internet of Things. 1 Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution Is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy (Lexington, MA: Digital Frontier Press, 2011), p.297. 2 Nokia, Machine-to-Machine: Let Your Machines Talk (2004). http://www.m2mpremier.com/uploadFiles/m2m-white-paper-v4.pdf. 3 The observation that the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years. (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore%27s_law.) 4 Motorola, Aspira Intelligence Everywhere (1999). 5 Mark Weiser, “The Computer for the 21st Century,” Scientific American, Special Issue: Communications, Computers, and Networks, September 1991. 6 Glen Allmendinger and Ralph Lombreglia, “Four Strategies for the Age of Smart Services,” Harvard Business Review, October 2005. 7 Ericsson, More Than 50 Billion Connected Devices (February 2011). http://www.ericsson.com/res/docs/whitepapers/wp-50-billions.pdf. 8 W.

OBD is an automotive term referring to a vehicle’s self-diagnostic and reporting capability. OBD systems give the vehicle owner or a repair technician access to information for various vehicle subsystems. Modern OBD implementations use a standardized digital communications port to provide real-time data, in addition to a standardized series of diagnostic trouble codes, or DTCs, which allow one to identify and remedy malfunctions within the vehicle. (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OBD-II#OBD-II.) Chapter 3 THE FUTURE OF THE SILENT INTELLIGENCE Business is going to change more in the next ten years than it has in the last fifty. ~ Bill Gates We made a point in chapter 1 that the exponential growth of the Internet of Things is going to have a profound effect on our lives over the next five to ten years. If we are correct, the quote above that opens Bill Gates’s book Business @ the Speed of Thought: Succeeding in the Digital Economy,15 written over a decade ago, seems to be more relevant today than ever.

Also Garry Kasparov, “The Chess Master and the Computer,” New York Review of Books, February 11, 2010. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2010/feb/11/the-chess-master-and-the-computer/. 17 Second Life is an online virtual world developed by Linden Lab. It was launched on June 23, 2003. A number of free client programs, or Viewers, enable Second Life users to interact with one another through avatars (also called Residents). (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Life.) 18 Peer-to-peer car-sharing services like Getaround, JustShareIt, and others are in operation. We don’t know if they’ll be successful, but this type of service would not be possible without M2M. 19 After this interview and just before this book was published, BodyMedia was acquired by Jawbone. Chapter 4 CORE APPLICATION DOMAINS Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic

Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge by Cass R. Sunstein

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, availability heuristic, Build a better mousetrap, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, framing effect, hindsight bias, information asymmetry, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, market bubble, market design, minimum wage unemployment, prediction markets, profit motive, rent control, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, slashdot, stem cell, The Wisdom of Crowds, winner-take-all economy

All quotations from the Wikipedia site are available via http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page. 252 / Notes to Pages 140–50 6. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Replies_to_common_ objections. 7. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Stop_hand.png. 8. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category: NPOV_disputes. 9. Taken from http://www.lessig.org/blog/archives/003012.shtml. 10. See “A Wiki For Your Thoughts” (June 17, 2005), available at http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/opinion/la-edwiki17jun17,1,1789326.story. 11. See Where is the Wikitorial? (undated), available at http:// www.latimes.com/news/opinion/editorials/la-wiki-splash,0, 1349109.story. 12. For the full story, and the final version, see http://en.wikipedia. org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Improve_this_article_about_ Wikipedia&direction=next&oldid=23806738. 13.

See James Surowiecki, The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies, and Nations (New York: Doubleday, 2004). 2. John Zajc, “This Week in SABR” (Society for American Baseball Research, Cleveland, Ohio), Oct. 9, 2004 (Results of playoff prediction survey), available at http://www.sabr.org/ sabr.cfm?a=cms,c,1123,3,212. 3. The story is told in “Kasparov Against the World,” http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kasparov_versus_The_World. 4. See Cass R. Sunstein et al., “Assessing Punitive Damages,” Yale Law Journal 107 (1998): 2095–99 (showing that small groups often reflect judgments of community as whole, at least when their judgments are made on a bounded scale). 5. See Sergey Brin and Lawrence Page, “The Anatomy of a LargeScale Hypertextual Web Search Engine,” Computer Networks & ISDN System 30 (1998): 107–10, available at http://dbpubs .stanford.edu:8090/pub/1998–8. 6.

Lawrence Lessig has done a great deal of important work on the relationship between innovation and openness, in a way that is evidently influenced by the success of open source software. See Lawrence Lessig, Free Culture (New York: Penguin, 2005); Lawrence Lessig, The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World (New York: Vintage, 2002). 19. See Peter Woodford, “Open-Source Medicine: Cure for What Ails the Third World?,” available at http://www.nationalreview ofmedicine.com/issue/2004/09_23/ government_medicine02_17.html. 20. See Woody Guthrie, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Woody_ Guthrie 21. Lawrence Lessig, “Open Source Baselines: Compared to What?,” in Government Policy toward Open Source Software, ed. Robert Hahn et al. (Washington, DC: Brookings, 2002), 50. Notes to Pages 153–65 / 253 22. Ibid., 53. 23. GNU General Public License (vol. 2, 1991), § 2©, available at http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php. 24. Strong copyleft licenses, and the GPL specifically, are commonly used in the open source community: Of the 65,439 open source projects hosted by SourceForge.net, fully 45,151, or 68.9 percent, use the GPL (SourceForge.net. figures as of July 22, 2005).

pages: 823 words: 220,581

Debunking Economics - Revised, Expanded and Integrated Edition: The Naked Emperor Dethroned? by Steve Keen

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, butterfly effect, capital asset pricing model, cellular automata, central bank independence, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, collective bargaining, complexity theory, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental subject, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Henri Poincaré, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, iterative process, John von Neumann, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market microstructure, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, place-making, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, random walk, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Schrödinger's Cat, scientific mainstream, seigniorage, six sigma, South Sea Bubble, stochastic process, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, total factor productivity, tulip mania, wage slave, zero-sum game

7 The actual equations were: ‘the rate of change of x with respect to time equals the constant a multiplied by (y–z); the rate of change of y with respect to time equals x multiplied by (b–z) minus y; the rate of change of z with respect to time equals (x multiplied by y) minus (c multiplied by z).’ 8 I use chapter and section references for Marx, rather than page numbers, since his work is now freely accessible via the Internet from the site www.marxists.org/archive/marx/. 9 The two equations are linked, because workers’ wage demands depend on the rate of employment, while investment – which determines the rate of growth – depends on income distribution (a higher workers’ share means lower profits, and hence lower investment). 10 For more details, see the Wikipedia entries en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Functional_flow_block_diagram, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfer_function, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_space_(controls) and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_engineering. Chapter 10 1 he became Fed chairman in February 2006, having briefly served as chairman of the president’s Council of economic advisers before that. 2 more strictly, a market demand curve can have any shape that can be described by a polynomial equation. This rules out a curve that returns two or more prices for the same quantity, but allows curves that return the same price for many different quantities. 3 keynes lumped what we today term neoclassical economists with those we today call the classical economists.

See desai (1981) and kaldor (1982) for critiques of the monetarist period. 32 See www.ukagriculture.com/production_cycles/pigs_production_cycle.cfm. 33 None of these made it through to the version of rational expectations that was incorporated into models of the macroeconomy. 34 ‘ergodic’ is a frequently misunderstood term, especially within economics. It is properly defined by the Wiktionary (en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ergodic), and the Wikipedia entry on ergodic Theory (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ergodic_theory) makes the important point that ‘For the special class of ergodic systems, the time average is the same for almost all initial points: statistically speaking, the system that evolves for a long time “forgets” its initial state.’ This is not the case for complex or chaotic models, which show ‘sensitive dependence on initial conditions’ (see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfly_effect and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaos_theory). 35 I can think of no more apt term to describe the group that led the campaign to make macroeconomics a branch of neoclassical microeconomics. Certainly the neoclassical attitude to researchers who refused to use ‘rational expectations’ in their models approached the old mafia cliché of ‘an offer you can’t refuse’: ‘assume rational expectations, or your paper won’t get published in a leading journal.’ 36 This is based on the belief that output would be higher (and prices lower) under competition than under monopoly, which I showed to be false in Chapter 4. 37 a rule of thumb that asserts that the central bank can control inflation by increasing real interest rates roughly twice as much as any increase in inflation.

To regard someone who has worked only one hour in a week as employed is simply absurd – at least fifteen hours of work at the minimum wage are needed to be paid even the equivalent of unemployment benefits. Similar distortions apply in other countries. The USA, for example, ceases counting someone as unemployed if they have been out of work for more than a year – a change in definition introduced in 1994 (see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unemployment# United_States_Bureau_of_Labor_Statistics and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_Population _Survey#Employment_classification for more details). Abuses of statistics like this have prompted private citizens to record what official statistics ignore. The opinion-polling organization Roy Morgan Research (www.roymorgan.com.au/) now publishes its own survey of Australian unemployment, which it puts at 7.9 percent versus the recorded figure of 5.5 percent (the not-seasonally-adjusted figure as of January 2011).

pages: 71 words: 14,237

21 Recipes for Mining Twitter by Matthew A. Russell

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en.wikipedia.org, Google Earth, natural language processing, NP-complete, social web, web application

Example 1-29. Analyzing friendship cliques (see http://github.com/ptwobrussell/Recipes-for-Mining -Twitter/blob/master/recipe__clique_analysis.py) # -*- coding: utf-8 -*import sys import json import networkx as nx 50 | The Recipes G = sys.argv[1] g = nx.read_gpickle(G) # # # # Finding cliques is a hard problem, so this could take a while for large graphs. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NP-complete and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clique_problem cliques = [c for c in nx.find_cliques(g)] num_cliques = len(cliques) clique_sizes = [len(c) for c in cliques] max_clique_size = max(clique_sizes) avg_clique_size = sum(clique_sizes) / num_cliques max_cliques = [c for c in cliques if len(c) == max_clique_size] num_max_cliques = len(max_cliques) max_clique_sets = [set(c) for c in max_cliques] people_in_every_max_clique = list(reduce(lambda x, y: x.intersection(y), max_clique_sets)) print print print print print print print print print print 'Num 'Avg 'Max 'Num cliques:', num_cliques clique size:', avg_clique_size clique size:', max_clique_size max cliques:', num_max_cliques 'People in all max cliques:' json.dumps(people_in_every_max_clique, indent=4) 'Max cliques:' json.dumps(max_cliques, indent=4) For purposes of illustration, Mining the Social Web (O’Reilly) included an analysis conducted in mid-2010 that determined the following statistics for Tim O’Reilly’s ~700 friendships: Num Avg Max Num Num cliques: 762573 clique size: 14 clique size: 26 max cliques: 6 people in every max clique: 20 Some of the more interesting insight from the analysis was that there are six different cliques of size 26 in Tim O’Reilly’s friendships, which means that those six variations of 26 people all “know” one another to the point that they were at least interested in receiving each other’s status updates in their tweet stream.

Practically speaking, this means that for a very large graph, you either need to wait a very long time to get an exact answer to the problem of finding cliques, or you need to be willing to settle for an approximate solution. The implementation that NetworkX offers should work fine on commodity hardware for graphs containing high-hundreds to low-thousands of nodes (possibly even higher) before the time required to compute cliques becomes unbearable. See Also http://networkx.lanl.gov/reference/generated/networkx.algorithms.clique.find_cliques .html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clique_problem 1.19 Analyzing the Authors of Tweets that Appear in Search Results Problem You want to analyze user profile information as it relates to the authors of tweets that appear in search results. Solution Use the /search resource to fetch search results, and then extract the from_user field from each search result object to look up profile information by screen name using either the /users/show or /users/lookup resources.

pages: 520 words: 129,887

Power Hungry: The Myths of "Green" Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future by Robert Bryce

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Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, flex fuel, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Menlo Park, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog

Africa 15 Indonesia Australia 16 Turkey Mexico 17 Iran Taiwan 18 Australia Iran 19 Taiwan Turkey 20 Netherlands Saudi Arabia Sources: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2009, http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_energy_review_2008/STAGING/local_assets/2009_downloads/renewables_section_2009.pdf; Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook (data retrieved via Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_(PPP). From Pearl Street to EveryGenerator.com: A Story of Rising Power Density and Falling Costs Electricity and electricity generation have become so commonplace that we forget just how cheap electricity has become. But a comparison of the hardware used by Edison with today’s generators brings the enormous improvements made over the past century into focus.

., http://www.howstuffworks.com/horsepower.htm/printable. 4 Joule invented the British Thermal Unit (Btu). 5 One joule is the amount of energy needed to move an object with a force of 1 newton (N) over a distance of 1 meter (m). The newton is a unit of force named after Isaac Newton. One watt is equal to 1 joule per second (1 W = 1 J/s). Americans are well acquainted with the watt from buying lightbulbs, hair dryers, and various other appliances. 6 Wikipedia, “Joule,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joule. 7 Richard A. Muller, Physics for Future Presidents: The Science Behind the Headlines (New York: W. W. Norton, 2008), 72. 8 Renewableenergyworld.com, “US Geothermal Capacity Could Top 10 GW,” October 2, 2009, http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/news/article/2009/10/us-geothermal-capacity-could-top-10-gw. 9 Arnulf Grübler, “Transitions in Energy Use,” Encyclopedia of Earth, 2008, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Energy_transitions, 163. 10 Energy-density metrics for area are uncommon. 11 John Pearley Huffman, “Generations,” May 8, 2003, http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/Features/articleId=93327#3. 12 “2010 Ford Fusion Review,” n.d., http://www.edmunds.com/ford/fusion/2010/review.html. 13 Here’s the math.

., http://www.motortrend.com/new_cars/04/ferrari/f430/index.html. 25 InternetAutoguide, n.d., http://www.internetautoguide.com/car-specifications/09-int/1999/acura/tl/index.html. 26 “2010 Ford Fusion Review.” 27 John Pearley Huffman, “Generations,” May 8, 2003, http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/Features/articleId=93327#3. 28 Calculated by author from home A/C unit, which draws 19.2 amps at 220 volts, for 4,224 watts. 29 Wikipedia, “Honda Super Cub,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honda_Super_Cub. 30 Based on author’s personal Yard Machines lawnmower. 31 Measured at author’s home with a Kill A Watt, August 27, 2009. 32 “Home Wattage Calculator,” n.d., http://www.poweredgenerators.com/wattage-calculator.html. This source puts a toaster at 1,250 watts. 33 Ben Hewitt, “Tour de Lance,” Wired, July 2004, http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.07/armstrong.html. 34 “Home Wattage Calculator,” n.d., http://www.poweredgenerators.com/wattage-calculator.html.

pages: 244 words: 20,327

Structuring Backbone Code With RequireJS and Marionette Modules by David Sulc

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en.wikipedia.org, MVC pattern, web application

Of course, we’ll see that having many regions come in handy with a more complex interface, but that’s for later… Now, instead of displaying a simple message in the console, we instantiate a new view when our application has started and use our pre-defined region to display it. You’ll now understand how region definitions work (line 16): the key on the left is what we call our region within our Marionette application, while the value on the right is a jQuery selector present in our page. In other words, by declaring a region with mainRegion: "#main-region", we’re saying that calling ²¹http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_concerns ²²https://developer.mozilla.org/en/docs/JavaScript/Guide/Working_with_objects Download from Wow! eBook <www.wowebook.com> Displaying a Static View 9 ContactManager.mainRegion.show(staticView); means “put the contents of staticView inside the element corresponding to the jQuery selector #main-region”. With our latest modifications, our index.html now looks like this: index.html 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 <!

Refer to the full index.html included below if you’re unsure where this code gets inserted. You’ll notice that we’ve got some special <%= %> tags in there. These serve the same purpose as in many templating languages (ERB in Rails, PHP, JSP, etc.): they allow the templating engine to interpret them and include the resulting output within the rendered result. By default, Marionette ²⁷http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model%E2%80%93view%E2%80%93controller ²⁸http://backbonejs.org/#Model Download from Wow! eBook <www.wowebook.com> Displaying a Model 16 uses Underscore’s templating engine²⁹ where <%= %> means output will be displayed, and <% %> tags which allow arbitrary javascript to be executed (such as an if condition). Since the model is serialized and passed on to the view template, writing <%= firstName %> means the model’s firstName attribute will be displayed.

Instead, let’s leverage events (line 6): Triggering an event in assets/js/app.js 1 2 3 ContactManager.on("initialize:after", function(){ if(Backbone.history){ Backbone.history.start(); 4 if(this.getCurrentRoute() === ""){ ContactManager.trigger("contacts:list"); } 5 6 7 8 9 } }); Then, we update the URL fragement and call the appropriate action within our controller by listening for that same event (lines 15-18): Responding to the navigation event in assets/js/apps/contacts/contacts_app.js 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ContactManager.module("ContactsApp", function(ContactsApp, ContactManager, Backbone, Marionette, $, _){ ContactsApp.Router = Marionette.AppRouter.extend({ appRoutes: { "contacts": "listContacts" } }); 8 9 10 11 12 13 var API = { listContacts: function(){ ContactsApp.List.Controller.listContacts(); } }; 14 ⁸⁸http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Don%27t_repeat_yourself Download from Wow! eBook <www.wowebook.com> Implementing Routing 15 16 17 18 79 ContactManager.on("contacts:list", function(){ ContactManager.navigate("contacts"); API.listContacts(); }); 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 ContactManager.addInitializer(function(){ new ContactsApp.Router({ controller: API }); }); }); Much better! We now have proper URL handling without needing to trigger routes.

pages: 188 words: 9,226

Collaborative Futures by Mike Linksvayer, Michael Mandiberg, Mushon Zer-Aviv

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4chan, Benjamin Mako Hill, British Empire, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative economy, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late capitalism, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, Network effects, optical character recognition, packet switching, postnationalism / post nation state, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, stealth mode startup, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application

He also claimed that this would be a tough “fact” for the Environmentalists to compete with, retorting “Explain that, Al Gore!” It was great TV, but created problems for Wikipedia. So many people responded to Colbert’s rallying cry that Wikipedia locked the article on Elephants to protect it from further vandalism. <h p://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia_Signpost/2006-0807/Wikiality> Furthermore, Wikipedia banned the user Stephencolbert for using an unverified celebrity name (a violation of Wikipedia’s terms of use <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Stephencolbert>. 53 Colbert and his viewers’ edits were perceived as mere vandalism that was disrespectful of the social contract that the rest of Wikipedia adhered to, thus subverting the underlying fabric of the community. Yet they were following the social contract provided by their leader and his initial edit.

As a pie ce of cutle ry or kitche nware , a fork is a tool consisting of a handle with se ve ral narrow tine s (usually two, thre e or four) on one e nd. The fork, as an e ating ute nsil, has be e n a fe ature primarily of the We st. <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fork> 2. (so ware ) Whe n a pie ce of so ware or othe r work is split into two branche s or variations of de ve lopme nt. In the past, forking has implie d a division of ide ology and a split of the proje ct. With the adve nt of distribute d ve rsion control, forking and me rging be come s a le ss pre cipitous, divisive action. <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fork_%28so ware_development%29> The disruptive force of forking is greater in an environment whose default is to maintain code in centralized, collaboratively maintained repositories such as Subversion. Entry and exit in the project implicate both a division of participants and the need to erect new infrastructural support.

However, it is conceivable, if fanciful, that control of the means of production could nurture a feeling of autonomy that empowers further action outside of the market. Autonomous individuals and communities Glossary: Autonomy Autonomy is a conce pt found in moral, political, and bioe thical philosophy. Within the se conte xts it re fe rs to the capacity of a rational individual to make an informe d, un-coe rce d de cision. In moral and political philosophy, autonomy is o e n use d as the basis for de te rmining moral re sponsibility for one 's actions. <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autonomy> The work of late twe ntie th-ce ntury thinke rs and fe minist scholars proble matize s the notion that an individual subje ct could e ithe r pre ce de all social formations or could possibly make rational de cisions. Inste ad the body is se e n as a site in which all manne r of social force s are made manife st, articulate d in physiological, psychological and biological ways.

pages: 201 words: 63,192

Graph Databases by Ian Robinson, Jim Webber, Emil Eifrem

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Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, bioinformatics, commoditize, corporate governance, create, read, update, delete, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, linked data, loose coupling, Network effects, recommendation engine, semantic web, sentiment analysis, social graph, software as a service, SPARQL, web application

An R-Tree is a graph-like index that describes bounded boxes around geographies.5 Using such a structure we can describe overlapping hierarchies of locations. For example, we can represent the fact that London is in the UK, and that the postal code SW11 1BD is in Battersea, which is a district in London, which is in south-eastern England, which in turn is in Great Britain. And because UK postal codes are fine-grained, we can use that boundary to target people with somewhat similar tastes. 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-tree 22 | Chapter 2: Options for Storing Connected Data Such pattern matching queries are extremely difficult to write in SQL, and laborious to write against aggregate stores, and in both cases they tend to perform very poorly. Graph databases, on the other hand, are optimized for precisely these types of traversals and pattern matching queries, providing in many cases millisecond responses; moreover, most graph databases provide a query language suited to expressing graph constructs and graph queries—in the next chapter, we’ll look at Cypher, which is a pattern matching language tuned to the way we tend to describe graphs using diagrams.

Continuing with our example use case, let’s assume that we can update the graph from our regular network monitoring tools, thereby providing us with a near real-time view of the state of the network 6. When a user reports a problem, we can limit the physical 6. With a large physical network, we might use Complex Event Processing to process streams of low-level network events, updating the graph only when the CEP solution raises a significant domain event. See: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complex_event_processing 36 | Chapter 3: Data Modeling with Graphs fault-finding to problematic network elements between the user and the application and the application and its dependencies. In our graph we can find the faulty equipment with the following query: START user=node:users(id = 'User 3') MATCH (user)-[*1..5]-(asset) WHERE asset.status! = 'down' RETURN DISTINCT asset The MATCH clause here describes a variable length path between one and five relationships long.

Because of the schema-free nature of graph databases, geospatial data can reside in the database beside other kinds of data—social network data, for example—allowing for complex multidimensional querying across several domains.3 Geospatial applications of graph databases are particularly relevant in the areas of tel‐ ecommunications, logistics, travel, timetabling and route planning. Master Data Management Master data is data that is critical to the operation of a business, but which itself is nontransactional. Master data includes data concerning users, customers, products, sup‐ pliers, departments, geographies, sites, cost centers and business units. In large organ‐ 2. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R-tree 3. Neo4j Spatial is an open source library of utilities that implement spatial indexes and expose Neo4j data to geotools. See https://github.com/neo4j/spatial 96 | Chapter 5: Graphs in the Real World isations, this data is often held in many different places, with lots of overlap and redun‐ dancy, in many different formats, and with varying degrees of quality and means of access.

pages: 696 words: 111,976

SQL Hacks by Andrew Cumming, Gordon Russell

bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, database schema, en.wikipedia.org, Erdős number, Firefox, full text search, Hacker Ethic, Paul Erdős, Stewart Brand, web application

Msg 105, Level 15, State 1, Server PUMA\SQLEXPRESS, Line 3 Unclosed quotation mark after the character string ', 1058997333) '. (1 row affected) (1 row affected) Notice that one of the films, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, includes an apostrophe that has caused an error. We'll fix that in the next section. First, look at the equivalent Linux commands for sending data from a web page to MySQL (be sure to replace GO with a semicolon [;] in gross.xsl before you try to run this): $ wget -O source.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest-grossing_ films --23:17:49-- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest-grossing_films => \Qsource.htm' Resolving en.wikipedia.org... Connecting to en.wikipedia.org||:80... connected. HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK Length: unspecified [text/html] [ <=> ] 34,831 27.48K/s 23:17:50 (27.41 KB/s) - \Qsource.htm' saved [34831] $ xsltproc -o gross.sql gross.xsl source.htm $ mysql -u scott -ptiger dbname -e 'source gross.sql' ERROR 1064 (42000) at line 30 in file: 'gross.sql': You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near 's Stone', 1058997333); INSERT INTO film VALUES ( 'Star ' at line 2 The preceding example uses the wget command to copy the web page to the filesystem and uses xsltproc to process the stylesheet (notice that the parameters are reversed compared to msxsl).

If you are processing several pages with the same structure you can reuse the sheet, but if the source format changes you will have to change the sheet to accommodate it. 6.1.2. The Input Document To extract data from an XHTML document you might need to use a little trial and error. You need to look at the raw HTML from the target page and identify the tag or tags that contain the data you are looking for. Look at the HTML from Wikipedia; this section is part of a much larger document (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest-grossing_films): <table class="wikitable"> <caption><b>List of highest-grossing films (adjusted)</b></caption> <tr> <th>Rank</th> <th>Movie name</th> <th>Worldwide Gross</th> </tr> <tr> <td>1</td> <td><i><a href="/wiki/Gone_with_the_Wind_%28film%29" title="Gone with the Wind (film)">Gone With the Wind</a></i> (<a href="/wiki/1939" title="1939">1939</a>)</td> <td>$2,699,710,936</td> </tr> <tr> <td>2</td> <td><i><a href="/wiki/Snow_White_and_the_Seven_Dwarfs_%281937_film%29" title="Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 film)">Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs</a></i> (<a href="/wiki/1937" title="1937">1937</a>)</td> <td>$2,425,862,786</td> </tr> You must identify enough of the surrounding structure to uniquely identify the text that you need.

Most other systems require a semicolon in place of the word GO. 6.1.4. Running the Hack The XSLT processor will take a page directly from the Web, and you can store the results in the file gross.sql before loading it into SQL Server. In this example, the stylesheet, gross.xsl, is in the current directory, but it can be in any directory or even in a remote URL. You can run the hack from a Windows command prompt as follows: C:>msxsl http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_highest-grossing_films gross.xsl -o gross.sql C:>sqlcmd -E -S(local)\SQLExpress -d dbname 1> CREATE TABLE film (title VARCHAR(256), gross BIGINT) 2> GO 1> QUIT C:>sqlcmd -E -S(local)\SQLExpress -d dbname -i gross.sql (1 row affected) (1 row affected) (1 row affected) (1 row affected) (1 row affected) (1 row affected) (1 row affected) Msg 102, Level 15, State 1, Server PUMA\SQLEXPRESS, Line 3 Incorrect syntax near 's'.

pages: 88 words: 22,980

One Way Forward: The Outsider's Guide to Fixing the Republic by Lawrence Lessig

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collapse of Lehman Brothers, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, jimmy wales, Occupy movement, Ronald Reagan

They are “mainly white … married, older than 45, more conservative than the general population, and likely to be more wealthy and have more education” (“Tea Party movement,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tea_Party_movement, accessed January 12, 2012). Sixty-two percent of Tea Partiers call themselves conservative Republicans (Skocpol and Williamson, Tea Party, 27–28). 9 “Grassroots activists, roving billionaire advocates, and right-wing media purveyors—these three forces, together, create the Tea Party and give it the ongoing clout to buffet and redirect the Republican Party” (Skocpol and Williamson, Tea Party, 13). 10 Skocpol and Williamson, Tea Party, 12. 11 Glenn H. Reynolds, “Tea Parties: Real Grassroots,” New York Post, April 13, 2009; http://www.nypost.com/p/news/opinion/opedcolumnists/item_kjS1kZbRyFntcyNhDJFlSK, accessed January 13, 2012. 12 “Occupy Wall Street,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupy_Wall_Street, accessed January 12, 2012. 13 Skocpol and Williamson, Tea Party, 32. 14 Pew Research Center, “Frustration with Congress Could Hurt Republican Incumbents” (December 15, 2011), 11. 15 Indeed, as I’ve traveled across the country to see these different groups, each of them has its own character.

(Vt. 2011). 42 See, for example, the Yarmuth Amendment H.J. Res 97, 112th Cong. (2011); the Move to Amend Amendment (http://movetoamend.org/amendment, accessed January 2, 2012); and the Get Money Out Amendment (http://www.getmoneyout.com, accessed January 3, 2012). 43 Disclosure: I am a noncompensated member of the Advisory Board of Americans Elect. 44 “Icelandic Loan Guarantees Referendum, 2010,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icelandic_loan_guarantees_referendum,_2010 (accessed January 13, 2012). 45 See http://ohmygov.com/printfriendly.aspx?=7435. 46 State Elections Enforcement Commission, Citizens’ Election Program 2010: A Novel System with Extraordinary Results 2 (January 2011). 47 130 S.Ct. 876 (2010). 48 Dan Eggen, “Large Majority Opposes Supreme Court Decision,” Washington Post, February 17, 2010 (http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/02/17/AR2010021701151.html ). 49 558 U.S. ___ (2010), slip.

pages: 511 words: 111,423

Learning SPARQL by Bob Ducharme

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Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, G4S, hypertext link, linked data, place-making, semantic web, SPARQL, web application

@prefix d: <http://learningsparql.com/ns/data#> . @prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/> . d:c1 a skos:Concept ; xl:prefLabel d:label1 . d:c2 a skos:Concept ; xl:prefLabel d:label2 ; skos:broader d:c1 . d:c3 a skos:Concept ; xl:prefLabel d:label3 ; skos:broader d:c1 . d:label1 a xl:Label ; xl:literalForm "Mammal" ; dc:source <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammal> . d:label2 a xl:Label ; xl:literalForm "Dog" ; dc:source <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dog> . d:label3 a xl:Label ; xl:literalForm "Cat" ; dc:source <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat> . Note Note that this SKOS-XL example includes extra triples about the source of each term, using the Dublin Core source property, to show SKOS-XL’s flexibility. You can add all the metadata you want, from any namespaces you want, to these terms. (On the down side, the extra complexity of SKOS-XL has prevented it from getting much support or traction.)

If you send a browser to http://dbpedia.org/snorql/, you’ll see a form where you can enter a query and select the format of the results you want to see, as shown in Figure 1-2. For our experiments, we’ll stick with “Browse” as our result format. I want DBpedia to give me a list of albums produced by the hip-hop producer Timbaland and the artists who made those albums. If Wikipedia has a page for “Some Topic” at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Some_Topic, the DBpedia URI to represent that resource is usually http://dbpedia.org/resource/Some_Topic. So, after finding the Wikipedia page for the producer at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timbaland, I sent a browser to http://dbpedia.org/resource/Timbaland. I found plenty of data there, so I knew that this was the right URI to represent him in queries. (The browser was actually redirected to http://dbpedia.org/page/Timbaland, because when a browser asks for the information, DBpedia redirects it to the HTML version of the data.)

.> | | rdfs:comment | "Joseph Hocking (November 7, 1860–March ..."@en | | skos:subject | cat:Cornish_writers | | skos:subject | cat:English_Methodist_clergy | | skos:subject | cat:19th-century_Methodist_clergy | | skos:subject | cat:People_from_St_Stephen-in-Brannel | | skos:subject | cat:1860_births | | skos:subject | cat:1937_deaths | | skos:subject | cat:English_novelists | | rdfs:label | "Joseph Hocking"@en | | foaf:page | <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Hocking> | ------------------------------------------------------------------ This result doesn’t have a ton of data, but only because I deliberately picked an obscure person to ask about. I also trimmed the data in the two places where you see ... above to make it easier to fit on the page; the rdfs:comment value describing the British novelist and minister is actually an entire paragraph.

pages: 369 words: 80,355

Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren't the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room by David Weinberger

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airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, Debian, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of journalism, Galaxy Zoo, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, linked data, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pluto: dwarf planet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, slashdot, social graph, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

May 11, 2010, http://blogs.hbr.org/imagining-the-future-of-leadership/2010/05/whats-your-primary-focus-leade.html. 8 From the Wikipedia entry “Virginia Tech Massacre,” http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Virginia_Tech_massacre&oldid=4183 36016. 9 Andrea Forte and Amy Bruckman, “Scaling Consensus: Increasing Decentralization in Wikipedia Governance,” Proceedings of HICSS [Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences], Waikoloa, Hawaii, January 2008, http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/handle/10535/5638/ForteBruckmanScalingConsensus.pdf%3Fsequence%3D1. 10 “Virginia Tech Massacre,” http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Virginia_Tech_massacre&oldid=418336016. 11 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:NOT. 12 Quoted in Forte and Bruckman, “Scaling Consensus,” p. 6. 13 See http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Notability&oldid=386469793. 14 Interview with Jimmy Wales, October 1, 2010. 15 Ibid. 16 Kristie Lu Stout, “Reclusive Linux Founder Opens Up,” World Business section of CNN.com, May 29, 2006, http://edition.cnn.com/2006/BUSINESS/05/18/global.office.linustorvalds/.

See Jacob Jacoby, “Perspectives on Information Overload,” Journal of Consumer Research (March 1984): 432–435 at 432. 18 Richard Saul Wurman, Information Anxiety (Doubleday, 1989), p. 35, citing Peter Large, The Micro Revolution Revisited (F. Pinter, 1984). 19 Wurman, Information Anxiety, p. 34. 20 Roger E. Bohn and James E. Short, “How Much Information? 2009 Report on American Consumers,” Global Information Industry Center, University of California–San Diego (2009), p. 7, http://hmi.ucsd.edu/howmuchinfo.php. 21 This figure is cited at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zettabyte. 22 Quoted in Ann Blair, “Reading Strategies for Coping with Information Overload ca. 1550–1700,” Journal of the History of Ideas 63, no. 1 (January 2003): 11–28 at 15. 23 Quoted in Daniel Rosenberg, “Early Modern Information Overload,” Journal of the History of Ideas 63, no. 1 (January 2003): 1–9. at 1, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3654292. 24 Quoted in Richard I. Yeo, “A Solution to the Multitude of Books: Ephraim Chambers’s ‘Cyclopedia’ (1728) as ‘The Best Book in the Universe,’” Journal of the History of Ideas 63, no. 1 (January 2003): 61–72 at 62. 25 Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Dialogues and Letters, translated by Charles Desmond Nuttall Costa (Penguin, 1997), p. 45. 26 Quoted in Yeo, “A Solution to the Multitude of Books,” p. 62. 27 Bohn and Short, “How Much Information?”

pages: 361 words: 76,849

The Year Without Pants: Wordpress.com and the Future of Work by Scott Berkun

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barriers to entry, blue-collar work, Broken windows theory, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Hangouts, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Lean Startup, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, remote working, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Stallman, Seaside, Florida, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the map is not the territory, Tony Hsieh, trade route, zero-sum game

Notes 1 For the quote, famous in geek circles, go to “The Science in Science Fiction,” Talk of the Nation, November 30, 1999, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1067220. 2 A. J. Jacobs, The Year of Living Biblically (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2007). 3 The full list of commandments in the Old Testament can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/613_commandments. 4 Jody Thompson and Cari Ressler proposed a concept called ROWE, or Results Only Work Environment, at Best Buy, and they consult with companies on the concept (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ROWE). However, ROWE was never mentioned once at Automattic. 5 See Alex Williams, “Working Alone, Together,” New York Times, May 3, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/05/fashion/solo-workers-bond-at-shared-workspaces.html?_r=0 for background. For a directory of spaces around the world, see http://wiki.coworking.com/w/page/29303049/Directory. 6 Tracy Kidder, The Soul of a New Machine (New York: Back Bay Books, 2000), 63. 7 Valve Handbook for New Employees (Bellevue, WA: Valve Corporation, 2012), http://www.valvesoftware.com/company/Valve_Handbook_LowRes.pdf. 8 Franz Kafka, The Trial (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

It felt great to stand in front of the company as a team and show what we'd put together. There were plenty of questions about Hovercards and how they'd work in different situations. Most of what I remember are the notable oohs and aahs as we did our demonstration, sounds I hadn't heard about software I'd worked on with a team of people for far too long. Notes 1 A good overview of the history of fire teams is at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fireteam. 2 David McCullough, The Great Bridge (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983), 381. Chapter 8 The Future of Work, Part 1 Books about the future of work make the same mistake: they fail to look back at the history of work or, more precisely, the history of books about the future of work and how wrong they were. Few visions of the future come true, as we're very bad at predicting much of anything.

Notes 1 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992; originally published 1961). The theory was developed by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, “Broken Windows,” Atlantic Monthly (March 1982). 2 Just as a broken leg will take more time to fix than a scratch, a simple incoming-versus-fix chart discounts possibly important details such as the scope of each issue. 3 A good summary of the problems with evaluating programming work based on lines of code is at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Source_lines_of_code#Disadvantages. Chapter 11 Real Artists Ship In September 1983, the Apple Macintosh project was far behind schedule. The team was burning out but still had significant work left to do. Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple and visionary leader of the project, walked by the team's main hallway and wrote on a nearby easel what would become one of his best-known sayings: “Real Artists Ship.”

pages: 206 words: 70,924

The Rise of the Quants: Marschak, Sharpe, Black, Scholes and Merton by Colin Read

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Albert Einstein, Bayesian statistics, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, collateralized debt obligation, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discovery of penicillin, discrete time, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, Henri Poincaré, implied volatility, index fund, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market clearing, martingale, means of production, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, naked short selling, Paul Samuelson, price stability, principal–agent problem, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, RAND corporation, random walk, risk tolerance, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, stochastic process, The Chicago School, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Works Progress Administration, yield curve

Jacob Marschak and Roy Radner, Economic Theory of Teams. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1972. 8 The Early Years 1. www.rand.org/about/history.html, date accessed January 23, 2012. 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Dantzig, date accessed January 23, 2012. 3. Ibid. 4. Harry Markowitz, “Portfolio Selection,” Journal of Finance, 7(1) (1952), 77–91. 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jack_L._Treynor, date accessed January 23, 2012. 6. William Sharpe, “How to Rate Management of Investment Funds,” Harvard Business Review, 43 (1965), 63–75. 7. William Sharpe and Kay Mazuy, “Can Mutual Funds Outguess the Market?” Harvard Business Review, 44 (1966), 131–6. 9 The Times 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_System/360, date accessed January 23, 2012. 10 The Theory 1. William F. Sharpe, “A Simplified Model for Portfolio Analysis,” Management Science, 9(2) (1963), 277–93. 2.

.), Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds; and Confusion de Confusiones (New York: Wiley, 1996). Notes 185 5. Isaac de Pinto (1771), An Essay on Circulation of Currency and Credit in Four Parts and a Letter on the Jealousy of Commerce, translated with annotations by S. Baggs (1774), London; reprinted by Gregg International Publishers (1969). 6. Robert J. Leonard, “Creating a Context for Game Theory,” History of Political Economy, 24 (Supplement) (1992), 29–76, at p. 39. 7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Bachelier, date accessed January 23, 2012. 8. Alfred Cowles and H. Jones, “Some A Posteriori Probabilities in Stock Market Action,” Econometrica, 5(3) (1937), 280–94. 9. Louis Bachelier, “Theorie de la speculation,” Annales scientifiques de l’Ecole Normale Superieure, 3rd series, 17 (1900), 21–86. 10. C.M. Sprenkle, “Warrant Prices as Indications of Expectations and Preferences,” Yale Economic Essays, 1(22) (1961), 178–231. 16 Applications 1.

Merton, “A ‘Motionless’ Motion of Swift’s Flying Island,” Journal of the History of Ideas, 27 (1966), 275–7. 20 The Theory 1. Robert C. Merton, “Theory of Rational Option Pricing,” Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, 4(1) (1973), 141–83. 2. Robert C. Merton, “On the Pricing of Contingent Claims and the ModiglianiMiller Theorem,” Journal of Financial Economics, 5(3) (1977), 241–9. 21 Applications 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_International_Group, date accessed January 23, 2012. Notes 187 22 The Nobel Prize, Life, and Legacy 1. Paul Samuelson, “Mathematics of Speculative Price,” in R.H. Day and S.M. Robinson (eds), Mathematical Topics in Economic Theory and Computation, Philadelphia, PA: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1972. Reprinted in SIAM Review, 15(1) (1973), 1–42. 2. Peter L.

pages: 462 words: 172,671

Clean Code: A Handbook of Agile Software Craftsmanship by Robert C. Martin

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continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, finite state, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, iterative process, place-making, Rubik’s Cube, web application, WebSocket

Third, it violates the Single Responsibility Principle7 (SRP) because there is more than one reason for it to change. Fourth, it violates the Open Closed Principle8 (OCP) because it must change whenever new types are added. But possibly the worst problem with this function is that there are an unlimited number of other functions that will have the same structure. For example we could have 7. a. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single_responsibility_principle b. http://www.objectmentor.com/resources/articles/srp.pdf 8. a. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open/closed_principle b. http://www.objectmentor.com/resources/articles/ocp.pdf isPayday(Employee e, Date date), or deliverPay(Employee e, Money pay), or a host of others. All of which would have the same deleterious structure. The solution to this problem (see Listing 3-5) is to bury the switch statement in the basement of an ABSTRACT FACTORY,9 and never let anyone see it.

The Law of Demeter There is a well-known heuristic called the Law of Demeter2 that says a module should not know about the innards of the objects it manipulates. As we saw in the last section, objects hide their data and expose operations. This means that an object should not expose its internal structure through accessors because to do so is to expose, rather than to hide, its internal structure. 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Law_of_Demeter More precisely, the Law of Demeter says that a method f of a class C should only call the methods of these: • C • An object created by f • An object passed as an argument to f • An object held in an instance variable of C The method should not invoke methods on objects that are returned by any of the allowed functions. In other words, talk to friends, not to strangers.

[AOSD]: Aspect-Oriented Software Development port, http://aosd.net [ASM]: ASM Home Page, http://asm.objectweb.org/ [AspectJ]: http://eclipse.org/aspectj [CGLIB]: Code Generation Library, http://cglib.sourceforge.net/ [Colyer]: Adrian Colyer, Andy Clement, George Hurley, Mathew Webster, Eclipse AspectJ, Person Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2005. [DSL]: Domain-specific programming language, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domain-specific_programming_language [Fowler]: Inversion of Control Containers and the Dependency Injection pattern, http://martinfowler.com/articles/injection.html [Goetz]: Brian Goetz, Java Theory and Practice: Decorating with Dynamic Proxies, http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/java/library/j-jtp08305.html [Javassist]: Javassist Home Page, http://www.csg.is.titech.ac.jp/~chiba/javassist/ [JBoss]: JBoss Home Page, http://jboss.org [JMock]: JMock—A Lightweight Mock Object Library for Java, http://jmock.org [Kolence]: Kenneth W.

pages: 351 words: 123,876

Beautiful Testing: Leading Professionals Reveal How They Improve Software (Theory in Practice) by Adam Goucher, Tim Riley

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Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Black Swan, call centre, continuous integration, Debian, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Grace Hopper, index card, Isaac Newton, natural language processing, p-value, performance metric, revision control, six sigma, software as a service, software patent, the scientific method, Therac-25, Valgrind, web application

.‡ Lint and compiler warnings are two examples of static analysis. Static analysis can be used to find style issues, but the main reason to use it is to find subtle problems. Often these problems can occur in uncommon situations, such as error conditions (i.e., the worst possible time to make a bad situation worse). # http://pypi.python.org/pypi/fusil/ * http://svn.python.org/view?view=rev&revision=64775 † http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_code_analysis ‡ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_review BEAUTIFUL IS BETTER THAN UGLY 125 For example, static analysis can find invalid memory uses or memory leaks in error-handling code. Very often, the problems it finds can lead to crashes in conditions that rarely happen or that are hard to reproduce. By contrast, dynamic analysis is good for finding problems in code that already has test cases. Static analysis is a nice complement and finds problems in code that isn’t executed.

When calling a C function from Python, Python wraps the arguments in a tuple. The C function then needs to parse this tuple into C-native ints and chars that it can operate on. To make this easier, we provide a function called PyArg_ParseTuple()† that operates a lot like the C scanf()‡ function. One example call looks like the following: § http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix_utilities ‖ http://docs.python.org/extending/index.html # http://pychecker.sourceforge.net/ * http://www.logilab.org/857 † http://docs.python.org/c-api/arg.html ‡ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scanf 126 CHAPTER NINE static PyObject *string_replace(PyStringObject *self, PyObject *args) { Py_ssize_t count = -1; PyObject *from, *to; if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "OO|n:replace", &from, &to, &count)) return NULL; ... } If from, to, or count has a different type than the format string claims, PyArg_ParseTuple could write garbage to memory and cause a crash or, worse, a security vulnerability.

I will either manually correlate database interactions that I can control in the frontend with the actual code or use a script to pull out all the database calls and inspect that. SQL injection is a problem that has a known solution: parameterized SQL and/or diligent escaping so code inspection is a quick and efficient way of identifying this type of problem. Appropriate permissions Can a user of a certain permission class do what they should be able to do? And only what they should be able to do? * http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-site_scripting † http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SQL_injection 236 CHAPTER SEVENTEEN Information leakage Can a user access/view/modify information they should not be able to access? Consider a multitenant system with Coke and Pepsi as two of your clients. Clearly, Coke should not be able to see Pepsi’s information, and vice versa. L: Languages The next letter and layer of testing that is done centers around Languages.

pages: 472 words: 117,093

Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future by Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson

3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, airline deregulation, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, complexity theory, computer age, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, disintermediation, distributed ledger, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, family office, fiat currency, financial innovation, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, law of one price, Lyft, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precision agriculture, prediction markets, pre–internet, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, yield management, zero day

-“Veronica-Mars”-Movie-Opens-March. 262 “One could argue that”: Marc Andreessen, interview by the authors, August 2015. 263 In early 2016, Indiegogo introduced: Jacob Kastrenakes, “Indiegogo Wants Huge Companies to Crowdfund Their Next Big Products,” Verge, January 6, 2016, http://www.theverge.com/2016/1/6/10691100/indiegogo-enterprise-crowdfunding-announced-ces-2016. 263 “real-time customer feedback”: Indiegogo, “Indiegogo for Enterprise,” accessed February 8, 2017, https://learn.indiegogo.com/enterprise. 263 including some of the world’s largest hedge funds: Telis Demos and Peter Rudegeair, “LendingClub Held Talks on Funding Deals with Och-Ziff, Soros, Third Point,” Wall Street Journal, last updated June 9, 2016, https://www.wsj.com/articles/lendingclub-and-hedge-funds-have-discussed-major-funding-deals-1465476543. 263 In 2014, well over half: Shelly Banjo, “Wall Street Is Hogging the Peer-to-Peer Lending Market,” Quartz, March 4, 2015, https://qz.com/355848/wall-street-is-hogging-the-peer-to-peer-lending-market. 264 “Teespring is the modern method”: Andreessen, interview, August 2015. 264 “In general it is not the owner”: Joseph Schumpeter, The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1934), 66. 265 Eric von Hippel: Eric von Hippel, Democratizing Innovation (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006). 265 “Wouldn’t it be nice”: Alexia Tsotsis, “TaskRabbit Turns Grunt Work into a Game,” Wired, July 15, 2011, https://www.wired.com/2011/07/mf_taskrabbit. 265 Apple acquired 70 companies: Wikipedia, s. v. “List of Mergers and Acquisitions by Apple,” last modified January 21, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mergers_and_acquisitions_by_Apple. 265 Facebook more than 50: Wikipedia, s. v. “List of Mergers and Acquisitions by Facebook,” last modified February 4, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mergers_and_acquisitions_by_Facebook. 265 Google nearly 200: Wikipedia, “List of Mergers and Acquisitions by Alphabet,” last modified February 2, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mergers_and_acquisitions_by_Alphabet. 266 Facebook paid $1 billion for Instagram: Evelyn M. Rusli, “Facebook Buys Instagram for $1 Billion,” New York Times, April 9, 2012, https://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/04/09/facebook-buys-instagram-for-1-billion. 266 more than $20 billion for WhatsApp: Facebook Newsroom, “Facebook to Acquire WhatsApp,” February 19, 2014, http://newsroom.fb.com/news/2014/02/facebook-to-acquire-whatsapp. 267 D.

McAfee, “Wikipedia (A),” Harvard Business School Courseware, 2007, https://courseware.hbs.edu/public/cases/wikipedia. 247 Nupedia had twelve completed articles: Ibid. 247 “Humor me”: Larry Sanger, “My Role in Wikipedia (Links),” LarrySanger.org, accessed February 8, 2017, http://larrysanger.org/roleinwp.html. 247 By 2016 there were 36 million articles: Wikipedia, s. v. “History of Wikipedia,” accessed February 8, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wikipedia. 248 Wikipedia was the sixth-most-popular website: Alexa, “Wikipedia.org Traffic Statistics,” last modified February 7, 2017, http://www.alexa.com/siteinfo/wikipedia.org. 248 “other people using the encyclopedia can check”: Wikipedia, s. v. “Wikipedia:Verifiability,” last modified February 27, 2017, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability. 249 Slack, a group-level tool: Josh Costine, “Slack’s Rapid Growth Slows as It Hits 1.25M Paying Work Chatters,” October 20, 2016, https://techcrunch.com/2016/10/20/slunk. Chapter 11 WHY THE EXPERT YOU KNOW IS NOT THE EXPERT YOU NEED 252 That’s the conclusion: Karim Lakhani et al., “Prize-Based Contests Can Provide Solutions to Computational Biology Problems,” Nature Biotechnology 31, no. 2 (2013): 108–11, http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v31/n2/full/nbt.2495.html. 253 The popular MegaBLAST algorithm: Ibid. 253 The idAb algorithm: Ibid. 253 Dr.

# More specifically, Chambers described the Cyclopaedia as “Containing the Definitions of the Terms, and Accounts of the Things Signify’d Thereby, in the Several Arts, both Liberal and Mechanical, and the Several Sciences, Human and Divine: the Figures, Kinds, Properties, Productions, Preparations, and Uses, of Things Natural and Artificial; the Rise, Progress, and State of Things Ecclesiastical, Civil, Military, and Commercial: with the Several Systems, Sects, Opinions, etc; among Philosophers, Divines, Mathematicians, Physicians, Antiquaries, Criticks, etc.: The Whole Intended as a Course of Ancient and Modern Learning.” ARTFL Project, “Chambers’ Cyclopaedia,” accessed February 7, 2017, https://artfl-project.uchicago.edu/content/chambers-cyclopaedia. ** “Verifiable accuracy” became part of the “five pillars” intended to guide the Wikipedia community. Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Five Pillars,” last modified February 6, 2017, at 10:52, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Five_pillars. †† Larry Sanger left the Wikipedia community in the early years of the twenty-first century over differences about its governance. He came to feel that it was harmfully antiauthoritarian. Larry Sanger [timothy, pseud.], “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia, Part II,” Slashdot, April 19, 2005, https://slashdot.org/story/05/04/19/1746205/the-early-history-of-nupedia-and-wikipedia-part-ii. ‡‡ Wikipedians are not paid for their contributions and are mostly anonymous, so fame is of limited power as an incentive.

pages: 225 words: 61,388

Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is a Better Way for Africa by Dambisa Moyo

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Live Aid, M-Pesa, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War

Make the cycle stop. The best time to plant a tree is twenty years ago. The second-best time is now. African proverb Notes Preface 1. For details of the Battle of Adowa see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BattleofAdowa. Introduction 1. The 2001 Labour Party Conference was held in the City of Brighton and Hove. 1. The Myth of Aid 1. Various UNAIDS reports on the global AIDS epidemic. 2. Freedom House: http://www.freedomhouse.org; and International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance: http://www.idea.int/. 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JSESecuritiesExchange; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZimbabweStockExchange. 4. In terms of Price/Earnings (essentially a measure of how much value investors predict in the future of African companies), African P/Es, at 15 times, have been roughly commensurate with the emerging economies’ (Brazil, Russia, India and China) average of 19 times. 5.

Studies on the impact of democracy on economic growth are cautious in their conclusions and suggest no direct link per se between democracy and development. 10. Interview with Rwanda’s President Kagame, Time, September 2007, at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1666064,00.html. 11. From Brenthurst Foundation July 2007 Discussion Paper: ‘Speech by His Excellency President Paul Kagame’. 3. Aid Is Not Working 1. Details of the 1885 Berlin Conference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BerlinConference. 2. ‘Institutions that provide dependable property rights, manage conflict, maintain law and order, and align economic incentives with social costs and benefits are the foundation of long-term growth. The quality of institutions is key: good institutions are those that provide public offcials with the incentives to provide market-fostering public goods at least cost in terms of corruption and rent seeking.

pages: 151 words: 38,153

With Liberty and Dividends for All: How to Save Our Middle Class When Jobs Don't Pay Enough by Peter Barnes

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Alfred Russel Wallace, banks create money, basic income, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, computerized trading, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the map is not the territory, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy

Joyce Appleby, The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism (New York: W. W. Norton, 2010), 153. 14. “Robots don’t complain, or demand higher wages, or kill themselves,” Economist, August 6, 2011, http://www.economist.com/node/21525432. 15. Harold Meyerson, “Back from China?” American Prospect, December 2011, 43. Chapter 3: Fix the System, Not the Symptoms 1. “Pareto principle,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pareto_principle. 2. Joshua M. Epstein and Robert L. Axtell, Growing Artificial Societies: Social Science from the Bottom Up (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996). 3. Chuck Collins, 99 to 1: How Wealth Inequality Is Wrecking the World and What We Can Do about It (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2012). 4. Leo Barnes, “The Economic Equivalent of War,” Antioch Review, Summer 1944. 5.

Drug companies claim that they use the extra money for research, but in fact they spend far more on marketing than on research. Dean Baker, “Reducing Waste with an Efficient Medicare Prescription Drug Benefit,” Center for Economic and Policy Research Issue Brief, Washington, DC, January 2013, http://www.cepr.net/documents/publica-tions/medicare-drug-2012-12.pdf. 11. For an explanation of fractional reserve banking, see “Fractional reserve banking,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fractional_reserve_banking. 12. For data on financial-industry profits, see Sameer Khatiwada, “Did the financial sector profit at the expense of the rest of the economy? Evidence from the United States,” Discussion paper 206, International Institute for Labour Studies, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010, figure 1, p. 2, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---inst/documents/publication/wcms_192804.pdf.

Social Security and Medicare Boards of Trustees, A Summary of the 2013 Annual Reports, http://www.ssa.gov/oact/trsum/; US Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Financial Data Handbookfor 2012, http://workforcesecurity.doleta.gov/unemploy/hb394/hndbkrpt.asp. 3. When applied to nature, co-owned wealth user fees can be thought of as value subtracted fees—that is, compensation for harm done. They both internalize and discourage externalities, a benefit that value added taxes don’t provide. 4 “European Union value added tax,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union_value_added_tax. Philippe van Parijs calculates that an EU-wide dividend of about $3,250 per year would require an increase in EU VAT rates of about 20 percent. Social European Journal, July 3, 2013, http://www.social-europe.eu/author/philippe-van-parijs. 5. CLEAR Act text, http://www.cantwell.senate.gov/issues/Leg_Text.pdf. 6. Robert Pollin and James Heintz, Transaction Costs, Trading Elasticities, and the Revenue Potential of Financial Transaction Taxes for the United States, Political Economy Research Institute (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts/Amherst, 2011), http://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/research_brief/PERI_FTT_Research_Brief.pdf.

pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

Jan Krikke, “The Most Popular Operating System in the World,” Linux Insider, October 3, 2003, http://www.linuxinsider.com/story/31855.html. 29.  “Asking the Project Leader: Where's TRON Headed in the Future?” 1996, http://tronweb.super-nova.co.jp/sakamurainterview_tw42.html. Images of TRON diagrams can be found most easily on Wikipedia, but are also on this book's companion website, thestack.org. See http://tronweb.super-nova.co.jp/tronlogo.html; http://tronweb.super-nova.co.jp/homepage.html; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TRON_Project. 30.  As discussed, the four-layer TCP/IP “won,” but for purposes of explication, the open systems interconnection (OSI) seven-layer model provides a more detailed profile. As indicated, the OSI model is a standardized subdivision of component zones and functions of information networks into logical discrete layers, each of which provides specific “services” to the layer just beneath in the stack and receives services from the layer just above it.

New York University economist Paul Romer is a leading advocate for the vision. 6.  See this discussion of Gelernter's influence on the conceptual development of the Cloud: David Gelernter, John Markoff, and Clay Shirky, “Lord of the Cloud,” Edge, April 29, 2009, http://edge.org/conversation/lord-of-the-cloud. For a sense of Gelernter's political conservatism, see http://www.nationalreview.com/author/david-gelernter. 7.  See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unix_time. 8.  Sun Microsystems’ old tagline, “the network is the computer” has been realized, especially if the definition of network is expanded to include both the physical computing network and the network of users providing content and feedback. 9.  See Stu Woo, “Welcome to Amazon Town,” Wall Street Journal, December 20, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970204058404577108821485438232. 10. 

See the white paper studies by Cisco: “The Zettabyte Era: Trends and Analysis,” June 10, 2014, http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/VNI_Hyperconnectivity_WP.pdf, and “Cisco Global Cloud Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2013–2018” http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/global-cloud-index-gci/Cloud_Index_White_Paper.pdf. 27.  For a basic definition and explanation, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polarization-division_multiplexing. 28.  See Eric Price and David P. Woodruff, “Applications of the Shannon-Hartley Theorem to Data Streams and Sparse Recovery,” 2012, retrieved from IBM Watson researcher site May 8, 2015, http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/files/us-dpwoodru/pw12.pdf. 29.  For the OptIPuter project, for example, each major component could be on a different continent, but they all work together as if it were a single self-contained machine.

pages: 1,076 words: 67,364

Haskell Programming from first principles by Christopher Allen, Julie Moronuki

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c2.com, en.wikipedia.org, natural language processing, spaced repetition, Turing complete, Turing machine, type inference, web application, Y Combinator

When we’re writing code we want people to be able to reuse in other projects, we make a library and choose which modules we want to expose. Where software libraries are code arranged in a manner so that they can be reused by the compiler in the building of other libraries and programs, executables are applications that the operating system will run directly. If you’d like to read further on this, here are a few links. 1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Static_library 2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executable Editing the Cabal file Let’s get back to editing that cabal file a bit. Ours is named hellohaskell.cabal and is in the top level directory of the project. Right now, your cabal file should look something like : -- Initial hello-haskell.cabal generated by cabal init. -- For further documentation, -- see http://haskell.org/cabal/users-guide/ name: version: 1 2 3 4 5 hello-haskell lens library Github repository https://github.com/ekmett/lens Haddock website https://www.haskell.org/haddock/ Hackage guidelines https://wiki.haskell.org/Package_versioning_policy Pipes hackage page http://hackage.haskell.org/package/pipes Pandoc github repository https://github.com/jgm/pandoc/ CHAPTER 13.

The idea is to take a template of phrases, fill them in with blindly selected categories of words, and see if saying the final version is amusing. Using an example from the Wikipedia article on Mad Libs: "___________! he said ______ as he jumped into his car exclamation adverb ____ and drove off with his _________ wife." noun adjective We can make this into a function, like the following: 1 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mad_Libs CHAPTER 15. MONOID, SEMIGROUP 580 import Data.Monoid type type type type type Verb = String Adjective = String Adverb = String Noun = String Exclamation = String madlibbin' :: Exclamation -> Adverb -> Noun -> Adjective -> String madlibbin' e adv noun adj = e <> "! he said " <> adv <> " as he jumped into his car " <> noun <> " and drove off with this " <> adj <> " wife." Now you’re going to refactor this code a bit!

This is sometimes disambiguated by being referred to as abstract algebra. c) A third and final way algebra is used is to refer to a vector space over a field with a multiplication. When Haskellers refer to algebras, they’re usually talking about a somewhat informal notion of operations over a type and its laws, such as with semigroups, monoids, groups, semirings, and rings. 15.16 Follow-up resources 1. Algebraic structure; Simple English Wikipedia; https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algebraic_structure 2. Algebraic structure; English Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algebraic_structure Chapter 16 Functor Lifting is the ”cheat mode” of type tetris. Michael Neale 599 CHAPTER 16. FUNCTOR 16.1 600 Functor In the last chapter on Monoid, we saw what it means to talk about an algebra and turn that into a typeclass. This chapter and the two that follow, on Applicative and Monad, will be on a similar topic. Each of these algebras is more powerful than the last, but the general concept here will remain the same: we abstract out a common pattern, make certain it follows some laws, give it an awesome name, and wonder how we ever lived without it.

pages: 394 words: 118,929

Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg

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A Pattern Language, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, c2.com, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Larry Wall, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Clay Shirky wrote about Christopher Alexander’s “A City Is Not a Tree” in the Many to Many blog on April 26, 2004, at http://many.corante.com/archives/2004/04/26/a_ city_is_not_a_tree.php. Alexander’s article was originally published in Architectural Forum, April–May 1965. It is available online at http://www.arquitetura.ufmg.br/rcesar/alex/_city index.cfm. The story of Donn Denman and the cancellation of MacBasic is at Folklore.org, at http://www.folklore.org/StoryView.py?project=Macintosh& story=MacBasic.txt. Wikipedia defines Foobar at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foo_bar, and fubar at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FUBAR. “because people read these names”: Ward Cunningham’s talk at the OOPSLA Conference, October 2004, Vancouver, B.C. Alec Flett first posted his parody of Hungarian notation on a Mozilla newsgroup in 1999. He repeated it in a blog posting from June 14, 2004, at http://www.flett.org/archives/2004/06/14/16.34.17/ index.htm. Joel Spolsky traced the forking of Hungarian notation in “Making Wrong Code Look Wrong,” May 11, 2005, at http://www.joelonsoftware.com/articles/Wrong.htm.

“Three years” represents the time I spent observing the Chandler project from January 2003 through December 2005. “4,732 bugs” is the number of bugs entered into the Chandler Bugzilla database on the date I completed writing the manuscript for this book; the number has since climbed. CHAPTER O SOFTWARE TIME The game Sumer (also known as Hamurabi or Hammurabi) is documented in Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamurabi. Full Basic code for the game can be found in David H. Ahl, ed., BASIC Computer Games (Creative Computing, 1978). Salon’s content management software is documented in an article in the online magazine Design Interact at http://www.designinteract.com/features_d/salon/index.htm. Chad Dickerson wrote about it in his InfoWorld blog at http://weblog.infoworld.com/dickerson/000170.htm.

Bill Gates’s comments on the GPL as Pac-Man were widely reported in 2001, for instance on CNET News.com at http://news.com.com/2100-1001-268667.htm. Torvalds’s “Just a hobby” quotation is from his 1991 message announcing the Linux project to the comp.os.minix newsgroup. It is archived many places online, e.g. at http://www.linux.org/people/linus_post.htm. “that purists call GNU-Linux”: a good account of this issue is in Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GNU/Linux_naming_ controversy. The “Free speech” vs. “Free beer” argument is outlined at http://www.gnu.org/ philosophy/free-sw.htm. All quotations from “The Cathedral and the Bazaar” may be found in the online version at http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar/index.htm. Apache market share is tracked by the Netcraft survey at http://news.netcraft.com/archives/web_server_ survey.htm.

pages: 504 words: 89,238

Natural language processing with Python by Steven Bird, Ewan Klein, Edward Loper

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bioinformatics, business intelligence, conceptual framework, Donald Knuth, elephant in my pajamas, en.wikipedia.org, finite state, Firefox, Guido van Rossum, information retrieval, Menlo Park, natural language processing, P = NP, search inside the book, speech recognition, statistical model, text mining, Turing test

Why? ○ Consider the sequence of words: Buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo. This is a grammatically correct sentence, as explained at http://en .wikipedia.org/wiki/Buffalo_buffalo_Buffalo_buffalo_buffalo_buffalo_Buffalo_buf falo. Consider the tree diagram presented on this Wikipedia page, and write down a suitable grammar. Normalize case to lowercase, to simulate the problem that a listener has when hearing this sentence. Can you find other parses for this sentence? How does the number of parse trees grow as the sentence gets longer? (More examples of these sentences can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ho mophonous_phrases.) ◑ You can modify the grammar in the recursive descent parser demo by selecting Edit Grammar in the Edit menu. Change the first expansion production, namely 8.9 Exercises | 323 NP -> Det N PP, to NP -> NP PP.

('fir', ['F', 'ER1']) ('fire', ['F', 'AY1', 'ER0']) ('fire', ['F', 'AY1', 'R']) ('firearm', ['F', 'AY1', 'ER0', 'AA2', 'R', 'M']) ('firearm', ['F', 'AY1', 'R', 'AA2', 'R', 'M']) ('firearms', ['F', 'AY1', 'ER0', 'AA2', 'R', 'M', 'Z']) ('firearms', ['F', 'AY1', 'R', 'AA2', 'R', 'M', 'Z']) ('fireball', ['F', 'AY1', 'ER0', 'B', 'AO2', 'L']) For each word, this lexicon provides a list of phonetic codes—distinct labels for each contrastive sound—known as phones. Observe that fire has two pronunciations (in U.S. English): the one-syllable F AY1 R, and the two-syllable F AY1 ER0. The symbols in the CMU Pronouncing Dictionary are from the Arpabet, described in more detail at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arpabet. Each entry consists of two parts, and we can process these individually using a more complex version of the for statement. Instead of writing for entry in entries:, we replace entry with two variable names, word, pron . Now, each time through the loop, word is assigned the first part of the entry, and pron is assigned the second part of the entry: >>> for word, pron in entries: ... if len(pron) == 3: ... ph1, ph2, ph3 = pron ... if ph1 == 'P' and ph3 == 'T': ... print word, ph2, ... pait EY1 pat AE1 pate EY1 patt AE1 peart ER1 peat IY1 peet IY1 peete IY1 pert ER1 pet EH1 pete IY1 pett EH1 piet IY1 piette IY1 pit IH1 pitt IH1 pot AA1 pote OW1 pott AA1 pout AW1 puett UW1 purt ER1 put UH1 putt AH1 The program just shown scans the lexicon looking for entries whose pronunciation consists of three phones .

The loose structure of Toolbox files makes it hard for us to do much more with them at this stage. XML provides a powerful way to process this kind of corpus, and we will return to this topic in Chapter 11. The Rotokas language is spoken on the island of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. This lexicon was contributed to NLTK by Stuart Robinson. Rotokas is notable for having an inventory of just 12 phonemes (contrastive sounds); see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rotokas_language 2.5 WordNet WordNet is a semantically oriented dictionary of English, similar to a traditional thesaurus but with a richer structure. NLTK includes the English WordNet, with 155,287 words and 117,659 synonym sets. We’ll begin by looking at synonyms and how they are accessed in WordNet. Senses and Synonyms Consider the sentence in (1a). If we replace the word motorcar in (1a) with automobile, to get (1b), the meaning of the sentence stays pretty much the same: (1) a.

pages: 65 words: 12,949

Getting Started with Pyparsing by Paul McGuire

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Getting Started with Pyparsing 6 Best Practice: Start with a BNF Before just diving in and writing a bunch of stream-of-consciousness Python code to represent your grammar, take a moment to put down on paper a description of the problem. Having this will: • Help clarify your thoughts on the problem • Guide your parser design • Give you a checklist of things to do as you implement your parser • Help you know when you are done Fortunately, in developing parsers, there is a simple notation to use to describe the layout for a parser called Backus-Naur Form (BNF). You can find good examples of BNF at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/backus-naur_form. It is not vital that you be absolutely rigorous in your BNF notation; just get a clear idea ahead of time of what your grammar needs to include. For the BNFs we write in this book, we'll just use this abbreviated notation: • ::= means "is defined as" • + means "1 or more" • * means "0 or more" • items enclosed in []are optional • succession of items means that matching tokens must occur in sequence • | means either item may occur Use the Grammar to Parse the Input Text In early versions of pyparsing, this step was limited to using the parseString method, as in: assignmentTokens = assignmentExpr.parseString("pi=3.14159") to retrieve the matching tokens as parsed from the input text.

Here is a sample S-expression describing an authentication certificate: (certificate (issuer (name (public-key rsa-with-md5 (e |NFGq/E3wh9f4rJIQVXhS|) (n |d738/4ghP9rFZ0gAIYZ5q9y6iskDJwASi5rEQpEQq8ZyMZeIZzIAR2I5iGE=|)) aid-committee)) (subject (ref (public-key rsa-with-md5 (e |NFGq/E3wh9f4rJIQVXhS|) (n |d738/4ghP9rFZ0gAIYZ5q9y6iskDJwASi5rEQpEQq8ZyMZeIZzIAR2I5iGE=|)) tom mother)) (not-after "1998-01-01_09:00:00") (tag (spend (account "12345678") (* numeric range "1" "1000")))) The attraction of S-expressions is that they consist purely of lists of basic character or numeric strings, with structure represented using nested parentheses. The languages Lisp and Scheme use S-expressions as their actual program syntax. Here is a factorial function written in Common Lisp: (defun factorial (x) (if (zerop x) 1 (* x (factorial (- x 1))))) The online Wikipedia article (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/s-expression) has more background and additional links for further information on S-expressions. In computer science classes, it is common to assign as homework the development of an S-expression parser. Doing so with pyparsing is actually a fairly straightforward task. This is also our first case of a recursive grammar, in which some expressions can be written in terms of other expressions of the same type.

pages: 76 words: 20,238

The Great Stagnation by Tyler Cowen

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Asian financial crisis, Bernie Madoff, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, income inequality, indoor plumbing, life extension, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Peter Thiel, RAND corporation, school choice, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban renewal

FRBSF Economic Letter 2005-05, March 11, 2005, www.frbsf.org/publications/economics/letter/2005/el2005-05.pdf. For the chart on the U.S. health care system, I drew from R. Glenn Hubbard and Peter Navarro, Seeds of Destruction: Why the Path to Economic Ruin Runs Through Washington, and How to Reclaim American Prosperity, FT Press: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2010, p. 177. For one look at life expectancy figures, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_life_expectancy. There are differing measures of life expectancy, but it is well established that quite a few poorer countries do as well, or just about as well, as the United States. On the difficulties of measuring the value of health care spending, see Robin Hanson, “Showing that You Care: The Evolution of Health Altruism,” Medical Hypotheses, 2008, 70, 4, pp. 724-742, www.overcomingbias.com/2008/03/showing-that-yo.html.

Hanushek and Alfred A. Lindseth, Schoolhouses, Courthouses, and Statehouses: Solving the Funding-Achievement Puzzle in America’s Public Schools, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009. That same book, on p.298, offers the statistic on U.S. educational spending as a percentage of GDP and the comparison with Iceland. In 2006, government spending at all levels was 36.1 percent of U.S. GDP; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government_spending. I am using a pre-crisis number to adjust for the fall in GDP from the financial crisis; in that sense, this number is an approximate one and thus a more conservative estimate than what a completely current calculation would yield. For one example of Michael Mandel’s writings, see “Official GDP, Productivity Stats Tell a Different Story of U.S. Economy,” Seeking Alpha, May 10, 2010, http://seekingalpha.com/article/204083-official-gdpproductivity-stats-tell-a-different-story-of-u-s-economy.

pages: 321 words: 85,893

The Vegetarian Myth: Food, Justice, and Sustainability by Lierre Keith

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British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Drosophila, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Gary Taubes, Haber-Bosch Process, McMansion, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, peak oil, placebo effect, Rosa Parks, the built environment

Defeat Diabetes Foundation. http://www.defeatdiabetes.org/ aboutdiabetes.htm (accessed on July 15, 2007). Adam, B.D. “Age, Structure, and Sexuality: Reflections on the Anthropological Evidence on Homosexual Relations.” Journal of Homosexuality 11, 1985: pp. 19-33. Adolescent Medicine Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society, “Eating Disorders in Adolescents: Principles of Diagnosis and Treatment.” Paediatrics and Child Health 3, no. 3, 1998: pp. 189-92. “Agricultural Policy.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agricultural_policy#​ Dumping_is_harmful_to_developing_world_farmers (accessed on April 3, 2007). Aldana, Steven G. The Culprit and the Cure: Why Lifestyle Is the Culprit Behind America’s Poor Health and How Transforming That Lifestyle Can Be the Cure. North Mapleton, UT: Maple Mountain Press, 2005. Allport, Susan. The Primal Feast: Food, Sex, Foraging and Love. New York: Harmony Books, 2000.

Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2005. Hornbacher, Marya. Wasted: A Memoir of Anorexia and Bulimia. New York: Harper Perennial, 1999. Horwich, T.B., M.A. Hamilton, and G.C. Fonarow . “Low Serum Cholesterol Is Associated with Marked Increase in Mortality in Advanced Heart Failure.” Journal of Cardiac Failure 8, no. 4, 2002: pp. 216-224. “Inedia.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inedia (accessed on July 16, 2007). Jackson, Wes. New Roots for Agriculture. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1981. Jacobs D., et al. “Report of the Conference on Low Blood Cholesterol: Mortality Associations.” Circulation 86, no. 3, September 1992: pp. 1046-60. Jeffreys, Sheila. The Industrial Vagina: The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade. London: Routledge, 2008. ----“Sado-Masochism: The Erotic Cult of Fascism.”

The Great Cholesterol Con: The Truth About What Really Causes Heart Disease and How To Avoid It. London: John Blake Publishing Ltd., 2007. Key, T.J., M. Thorogood, P.N. Appleby, and M.L. Burr. “Dietary Habits and Mortality in 11,000 Vegetarians and Non-vegetarians: Detailed Findings from a Collaborative Analysis of 5 Prospective Studies.” British Medical Journal, no. 313, 1996: pp. 775-9. “Keystone Species.” Wikipedia. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keystone_species (accessed on November 12, 2008). Krech, Shepard. The Ecological Indian: Myth and History. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., 1999. Kunstler, James Howard. The Long Emergency: Surviving the End of Oil, Climate Change, and Other Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Grove Press, 2006. ----“Speech to Second Vermont Republic.” http://www.kunstler.com/spch_ Vermont%20Oct%2005.htm (accessed December 14, 2007).

pages: 459 words: 103,153

Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford

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Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Netflix Prize, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, PageRank, Piper Alpha, profit motive, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, web application, X Prize, zero-sum game

page=0%2C0 93 Duke Nukem Forever was never finished: Clive Thompson, ‘Learn to let go’, Wired, January 2010, http://www.wired.com/magazine/2009/12/fail_duke_nukem/all/1 93 Gamers have been eagerly awaiting Elite 4: ‘Frontier reveals Elite 4’, http://uk.pc.ign.com/articles/092/092218p1.html 93 The plane took a quarter of a century to enter service: measuring time from original government specification. Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-22_Raptor; Ben Rich & Leo Janos, Skunk Works (New York: Sphere, 1994), p. 350; Samuel H. Williamson, ‘Six ways to compute the relative value of a U.S. dollar amount, 1790 to present’, MeasuringWorth, 2009, http://www.mea-suringworth.com/uscompare/ 93 You will discover that by the year 2000: The Hudson Institute, The Year 2000: A Framework for Speculation on the Next 33 Years, Herman Kahn & Anthony J.

Economy, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703344704574610350092009062.html 104 ‘Firms are reluctant to risk their money’: McKinstry, Spitfire, pp. 34–5. 105 There is an inconvenient tale behind this: I have drawn much of this account from Dava Sobel’s Longitude (London: Fourth Estate, 1996). 106 Compared with the typical wage of the day: Officer, ‘Purchasing power of British pounds’, cited above, n. 10. 107 In 1810 Nicolas Appert: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolas_Appert 107 Ultimately the Académie began to turn down: Maurice Crosland, ‘From prizes to grants in the support of scientific research in France in the nineteenth century: The Montyon legacy’, Minerva, 17(3) (1979), pp. 355–80, and Robin Hanson, ‘Patterns of patronage: why grants won over prizes in science’, University of California, Berkeley, working paper 1998, http://hanson.gmu.edu/whygrant.pdf 108 Innovation prizes were firmly supplanted: Hanson, ‘Patterns of patronage’. 109 The prize was eventually awarded in September 2009: a follow-up prize was announced and then cancelled following a lawsuit over privacy.

fta=y&pagewanted=all; and a press release from the Taiwan International Orchid Show 2010, http://www.tios.com.tw/tios_test/eng/5_2taiwan.php 148 Silicon Valley venture capitalists need lose little sleep: Jim Pickard, ‘Venture capital fund turned £74m into £5m’, Financial Times, 9 March 2010, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/76859892-2ae1-11df-886b-00144feabdc0.html; and Josh Lerner’s opening statement in The Economist debate on Industrial Policy: http://www.econo-mist.com/debate/overview/177/Industrial%20policy 149 The Holy Roman Emperor himself: Sebastian Mallaby, ‘The politically incorrect guide to ending poverty’, The Atlantic, July/August 2010, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/07/the-politically-incorrect-guide-to-ending-poverty/8134/1/; Wikipedia; Simon Heffer, ‘Lübeck: the town that said no to Hitler’, Daily Telegraph, 2 June 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/city-breaks/5428909/Lübeck-The-town-that-said-no-to-Hitler.html 151 Romer has pushed the charter city concept: Paul Romer, ‘For richer, for poorer’, Prospect, issue 167, 27 January 2010. 151 Before turning down the job of Chief Economist of the World Bank: David Warsh, ‘Learning by doing’, Economic Principals, 19 July 2009, http://www.economicprincipals.com/issues/2009.07.19/571.html 151 He argues that foreign ownership: author interview with Paul Romer, 20 September 2010. 152 It’s a free economic zone: Sean Campbell, ‘Metropolis from scratch’, Next American City, issue 8, April 2005, http://americancity.org/magazine/issue/i08/; and Greg Lindsay, ‘Cisco’s big bet on New Songdo: creating cities from scratch’, Fast Company, 1 February 2010, http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/142/the-new-new-urbanism.html 5 Climate change or: Changing the rules for success 154 ‘I think we’re going to find’: Prince Charles, interview with the BBC, October 2005, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4382264.stm 154 ‘Evolution is cleverer than you are’: obituary: Professor Leslie Orgel, The Times, 6 December 2007, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article3006557.ece 154 A dazzling lecturer at London’s Royal Insttution: Gabrielle Walker & Sir David King, The Hot Topic (Bloomsbury, 2008), pp. 14–18; Wikipedia entry on John Tyndall, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Tyndall; & James Rodger Fleming, Historical Perspectives on Climate Change (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 68–71. 155 Earth’s atmosphere contains traces of other gases: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report, Table 6.1, http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_tar/?src=/climate/ipcc_tar/wg1/221.htm#tab61 156 ‘Comparing a single atom of oxygen’: cited in Fleming, Historical Perspectives, pp. 70–1. 156 Richard Lindzen, a contrarian meteorologist: ‘350 science’ at 350.org http://www.350.org/about/science; and ‘Top climate scientists share their outlook’, FT Magazine, 20 November 2009. 158 But that is what has just happened to Geoff: Geoff Mason is fictional.

pages: 286 words: 82,065

Curation Nation by Rosenbaum, Steven

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, future of journalism, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, means of production, PageRank, pattern recognition, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, Yogi Berra

Penguin Press 2008 Chapter 8 David Sarno: “Twitter creator Jack Dorsey illuminates the site’s founding document. Part I” latimes.com, February 18, 2009. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/technology/2009/02/twitter-creator.html “Twitter” retreived from wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter Kevin O’Keefe: “Twitter’s growth continues at super-linear rate: Powerful professional and business development tool for lawyers” kevin.lexblog.com, July 5, 2010. http://kevin.lexblog.com/2010/07/articles/twitter-1/twitters-growth-continues-at-superlinear-rate-powerful-professional-and-business-development-tool-for-lawyers/ “Esther Dyson” retrieved from wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esther_Dyson James Turner: “Tim O’Reilly - Why Twitter Matters for News” radar.oreilly.com, May 7, 2009. http://radar.oreilly.com/2009/05/tim-oreilly-why-twitter-matt.html Rachel Sklar “Fair Use: Okay, Let’s Talk About It” mediaite.com, August 13, 2010. http://www.mediaite.com/online/fair-use-okay-lets-talk-about-it/ Chapter 9 Dylan Stableford: “Jay Rosen on Content Farms: Demand Media Not Evil, But Still Demonic” thewrap.com, July 7, 2010. http://www.thewrap.com/media/column-post/jay-rosen-content-farms-demand-media-not-evil-still-demonic-19027 “Web Site Interest: curation.” http://www.google.com/insights/search/#q=curation&cmpt=q Kara Swisher: “Demand Media Is Mad as Hell and, Well, Pens a Manifesto (And Here It Is!)”

from=hp.featured Additional material from Amy Wilson re: StreamingGourmet from an interview with the author, July 2010 “Wallace, DeWitt—Overview, Personal Life, Career Details, Chronology: DeWitt Wallace, Social and Economic Impact.” http://encyclopedia.jrank.org. http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/6384/Wallace-DeWitt.html#ixzz175HPPn00 Michael Kinsley: “Advice for Newsweek from Henry Luce” theatlanticwire.com, May 21, 2010. http://www.theatlanticwire.com/editor-at-large/view/article/Advice-for-Newsweek-from-Henry-Luce-11 “Cable Television History” retrieved from inventors.about.com. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blcabletelevision.htm Diane Makar Murphy: “The History of Cable TV” ehow.com. http://www.ehow.com/about_5068693_history-cable-tv.html “Wallace, DeWitt—Overview, Personal Life, Career Details, Chronology: DeWitt Wallace, Social and Economic Impact” retrieved from encyclopedia.jrank.org. http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/6384/Wallace-DeWitt.html Alan Brinkley: “What Would Henry Luce Make of the Digital Age?” time.com, April 8, 2010. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1978794,00.html#ixzz0n9k5AEGK “Reader’s Digest” retrieved from wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reader%27s_Digest Steven Rosenbaum: “What Susan Boyle Taught Me About Advertising” mediabizblogger.com, May 4, 2009. http://www.jackmyers.com/commentary/media-business-bloggers/44299967.html Andrew LaVallee: “The Susan Boyle Bubble” blogs.wsj.com, April 16, 2009. http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2009/04/16/the-susan-boyle-bubble//?from=hp.featured Steven Rosenbaum: “The Conundrum of Costs: Ava Seave on Moguls and Curation” huffingtonpost.com, February 18, 2010. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/steve-rosenbaum/the-conundrum-of-costs-av_b_467978.html Janet Maslin: “A Magazine Master Builder” nytimes.com, April 19, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/20/books/20book.html?

Penguin Group 2009 Josh Halliday, “Forbes to launch ‘major upgrade’ of social media” guardian.co.uk, August 3, 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/pda/2010/aug/03/forbes-social-media Jeff Bercovici: “Lewis Dvorkin on the Future of Forbes: More ‘Entrepreneurial,’ ‘Scalable’” dailyfinance.com, July 1, 2010. http://www.dailyfinance.com/story/media/lewis-dvorkin-on-the-future-of-forbes-more-entrepreneurial-an/19537682/ Marshall Kirkpatrick: “Google CEO Schmidt: ‘People Aren’t Ready for the Technology Revolotion’” readwriteweb.com, August 4, 2010. http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/google_ceo_schmidt_people_arent_ready_for_the_tech.php Dan Tynan: “Prepare for Data Tsunami, Warns Google CEO” pcworld.com, August 6, 2010. http://www.pcworld.com/article/202817/prepare_for_data_tsunami_warns_google_ceo.html?tk=hp_new “Jeff Jarvis” retrieved from wikipedia.org. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jeff_Jarvis David Chase: “Forbes Magazine, The History” ezinearticles.com. http://ezinearticles.com/?Forbes-Magazine,-The-History&id=88697 David Carr: “A Gamble on a Weekly That Paid Off” nyimes.com, August 8, 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/09/business/09carr.html?_r=1&ref=david_carr Steven Rosenbaum: “Fast Company Founder on future of Curation & Magazines” huffingtonpost.com, January 30, 2010. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/steve-rosenbaum/fast-company-founder-on-f_b_443152.html Steven Rosenbaum: “Is ‘Everyone’ the Media now?”

pages: 346 words: 92,984

The Lucky Years: How to Thrive in the Brave New World of Health by David B. Agus

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3D printing, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, butterfly effect, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Drosophila, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Kickstarter, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, microcredit, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, publish or perish, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Thomas Malthus, wikimedia commons

Page 68 The photo of the cave, entitled “Lechuguilla Cave Pearlsian Gulf,” comes from Wikipedia and was uploaded by Beyond Science, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lechuguilla_Cave#/media/File:Lechuguilla_Cave_Pearlsian_Gulf.jpg, accessed August 7, 2015. Page 72: Photo of Sir William Osler. Medical archives of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Used with permission. Page 73: Caricature of Sir William Osler. Medical archives of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Used with permission. Page 74: My Osler residency team. Medical archives of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Used with permission. Page 96–100: Examples of the Bills of Mortality. Courtesy of Jay Walker, the Walker Library of the History of Human Imagination. Used with permission. Page 106: The illustration of the mitochondria comes from Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mitochondrion_structure.svg. Page 110: The illustration of new reproductive techniques is an adaptation of a similar illustration featured in the article.

Wikimedia Commons, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/5/59/Dr_Metchnikoff_in_his_Laboratory.jpg. Page 35: Caricature of Metchnikoff. Reprinted with permission of the Institut Pasteur—Musée Pasteur. Page 39: “End of History” illustration. Courtesy of author. Page 42: The Hydra image comes from Wikimedia Commons, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Hydra_magnipapillata.jpg. Page 44: The killifish image comes from Wikimedia Commons, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nothobranchius_furzeri#/media/File:Nothobranchius_furzeri_GRZ_thumb. Page 46: Quantification of biological aging graphic. Duke University School and Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences. Used with permission. Page 50: Tumor sequencing results (lung cancer). Courtesy of Foundation Medicine, Inc. Page 51: Paraffin blocks. Courtesy of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP), the oldest and largest breast and colorectal cancer research group in the world.

Adapted from the Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2015. Courtesy of author. Pages 130–132: Charts and Figures from the Task Force Report on Noncommunicable Diseases, copyright 2015 by the Council on Foreign Relations. Reprinted with permission. The data source is Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Page 161: Cartoon of Jenner’s inoculations. Public Domain. Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_cow_pock.jpg. Page 189: Physical activity and life expectancy. Data from S. C. Moore et al., “Leisure Time Physical Activity of Moderate to Vigorous Intensity and Mortality: A Large Pooled Cohort Analysis,” PLOS Medicine 9, no. 11 (2012): E1001335. Graphic courtesy of author and based on similar graphic in paper. National Cancer Institute and the Public Library of Sciences. Used with permission.

pages: 259 words: 73,193

The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in a World of Constant Connection by Michael Harris

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4chan, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Burning Man, Carrington event, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Glasses, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, moral panic, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test

The world’s arbiter of truth: “Wikipedia: List of Hoaxes on Wikipedia,” accessed January 13, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:List_of_hoaxes_on_Wikipedia. Four years later, I asked: “Who is Erica Feldman . . . ?,” snapshot from January 6, 2014, via Google’s cache, http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:Q77Wj1JfErsJ:wiki.answers.com/Q/Who_is_erica_feldman_the_one_that_invented_the_hair_straightnener+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca&client=firefox-a. There are even hoaxes about hoaxes: “List of Fictitious People,” Wikipedia.com, accessed January 15, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_fictitious_people&diff=211003619&oldid=205705808. I see there are currently: “Wikipedia:Statistics,” Wikipedia, accessed January 17, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Statistics. Printing Wikipedia in a book: “Wikipedia:Size in Volumes,” Wikipedia, accessed January 17, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Size_in_volumes.

Printing Wikipedia in a book: “Wikipedia:Size in Volumes,” Wikipedia, accessed January 17, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Size_in_volumes. “I guess we will just have to accept”: Roger C. Schank, Making Minds Less Educated Than Our Own (Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008), vii. In 2013, only 12 cases: Dave Craven, e-mail messages to author, June 26, 2013, and January 22, 2014. a stunning 91 percent of Wikipedia editors: “Editor Survey 2011,” Wikipedia: Meta-Wiki, accessed January 15, 2014, http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Editor_Survey_2011. “the actual inventor” of the hair iron: “Hoaxes, or Why Wikipedia Needs Flagged Revisions,” accessed January 15, 2014, http://wikipediocracy.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=647&p=12233. She died in New York: “Madame C. J. Walker,” MIT Inventor of the Week Archive, accessed January 15, 2014, http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/cjwalker.html.

pages: 304 words: 80,965

What They Do With Your Money: How the Financial System Fails Us, and How to Fix It by Stephen Davis, Jon Lukomnik, David Pitt-Watson

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activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Admiral Zheng, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computerized trading, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, income inequality, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Kenneth Arrow, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Northern Rock, passive investing, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks

Adam Smith was professor of moral philosophy at Glasgow University and is supposed to have fallen into a tanning pit while focusing on a conversation with a friend about economics. Author Isaac Asimov claimed, almost certainly apocryphally, that Gauss was interrupted in the middle of solving a mathematics problem to be told his wife was dying. “Tell her to wait a moment ’til I am done” was his reply. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Smith and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Friedrich_Gauss. 7. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbos 31a. 8. En.Wikipedia.org/wiki/Adam_Smith. 9. Pitt speech on introducing his budget, February 17, 1792, quoted in John Kenneth Galbraith, A History of Economics (Hamish Hamilton, 1987), 61. 10. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Oxford University Press, 2008), bk 1, chap 2. 11. Smith claimed that 240 times the number of pins could be created in this way than by an artisan working alone. 12.

Coase might also have noted that in making this bimodal distinction, economists were separating away those parts of the economy (what they called public goods) where economic models do not predict at all well, thus leaving economic models to cover “private goods.” They chose this route rather than noting that transaction costs in all goods complicated the economic models they were using. 32. Coase, The Firm, the Market, and the Law, 15. 33. Andrew Scott, private interview for this book, October 2014. 34. En.wikipedia.org/wiki/There_are_known_knowns. 35. Some economists, notably Frank Knight at the University of Chicago, have written extensively about the dichotomy between predictable risk and uncertainty, which cannot be calculated. But many continue to focus only on risk. 36. Nassim Nicholas Taleb, The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable (Random House, 2010), xxxix. 37. Andrew G. Haldane, “Tails of the Unexpected,” speech given at University of Edinburgh, June 8–9, 2012, p. 20, http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/Documents/speeches/2012/speech582.pdf. 38.

pages: 251 words: 76,225

The Geek Feminist Revolution by Kameron Hurley

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, clean water, commoditize, desegregation, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, Kickstarter, means of production, Skype, women in the workforce

Kameron Hurley, “What living in South Africa taught me about racism in America,” kameronhurley.com, http://www.kameronhurley.com/what-living-in-south-africa-taught-me-about-racism-in-america/. 2. “History of slavery in California,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery_in_California. 3. Greg Nokes, “Black Exclusion Laws in Oregon,” The Oregon Encyclopedia, http://oregonencyclopedia.org/articles/exclusion_laws/#.VSfNvPnF-So. 4. Elizabeth McLagan, “The Black Laws of Oregon, 1844–1857,” BlackPast.org, http://www.blackpast.org/perspectives/black-laws-oregon-1844-1857. 5. “The Eye of the Beholder,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Eye_of_the_Beholder. 6. John Rudolf, “Where Mental Asylums Live On,” The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/03/opinion/sunday/where-mental-asylums-live-on.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1. 7.

“Bury Your Gays,” TV Tropes, http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/BuryYourGays. I’ll Make the Pancakes: On Opting In—and Out—of the Writing Game 1. Christine Miserandino, “The Spoon Theory,” butyoudontlooksick.com, http://www.butyoudontlooksick.com/articles/written-by-christine/the-spoon-theory/. PART II: GEEK Some Men Are More Monstrous Than Others: On True Detective’s Men and Monsters 1. “Dale Cooper,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dale_Cooper. Die Hard, Hetaerae, and Problematic Pin-Ups: A Rant 1. “Clarion’s 2014 Literary Pin-up Calendar,” The Clarion Foundation, https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/clarion-s-2014-literary-pin-up-calendar#/story. 2. James M. Davidson, Courtesans and Fishcakes: The Consuming Passions of Classical Athens. University of Chicago Press, 2011. 3. Justin Landon, “Do the successful get a free pass?”

“Slavery Takes Root in Colonial Virginia,” Digital History, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3576. What Living in South Africa Taught Me About Being White in America 1. “A Matter of Color: African Americans Face Discrimination,” Oregon State Archives, http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/exhibits/ww2/life/minority.htm. 2. “History of African Americans in Chicago,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_African_Americans_in_Chicago. 3. Aura Bogado and Voting Rights Watch, “Watch a Colorado GOP Poll Watcher Report a ‘High Concentration of People of Color,’” The Nation, http://www.thenation.com/article/watch-colorado-gop-poll-watcher-report-high-concentration-people-color/. It’s About Ethics in Dating 1. Zachary Jason, “Game of Fear,” Boston Magazine, http://www.bostonmagazine.com/news/article/2015/04/28/gamergate/. 2.

pages: 254 words: 79,052

Evil by Design: Interaction Design to Lead Us Into Temptation by Chris Nodder

4chan, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, game design, haute couture, jimmy wales, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, late fees, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Netflix Prize, Nick Leeson, Occupy movement, pets.com, price anchoring, recommendation engine, Rory Sutherland, Silicon Valley, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile

“The Influence Of Product Variety On Brand Perception And Choice.” Marketing Science 26.4 (2007): 460–472. Recommendation engines: Xavier Amatriain and Justin Basilico. “Netflix Recommendations: Beyond the 5 stars (Part 1)” (techblog.netflix.com). April 6, 2012. Retrieved December 2012. Pre-pick your preferred option Priming: Wikipedia provides a great introduction and launching off point at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Priming_(psychology). Disclosure: I worked on the user experience for XP Service Pack 2, used as an example here. Make options hard to find or understand PC Pitstop EULA: Larry Magid. “It Pays To Read License Agreements.” (pcpitstop.com). Undated. Retrieved December 2012. NebuAd: Ed Markey. “Key Lawmakers Question Local Provider Over Use of NebuAd Software Without Directly Notifying Customers” (markey.house.gov).

Loss twice as “powerful” as gain: Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk.” Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society 47 (1979): 263–291. The Tom Sawyer effect Tom Sawyer quotes: Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens). The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. The American Publishing Company, 1884. Instill doubt to prevent cancellations Statistics on BSE: Wikipedia en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bovine_spongiform_encephalopathy. Retrieved December 2012. Nearly 50 billion burgers/year in the USA: Ellen Rolfes. “The Hidden Costs of Hamburgers.” PBS Newshour“The Rundown” blog (pbs.org). August 2, 2012. Retrieved December 2012. Impatience leads to compliance People become more conservative under time pressure: Mark Hwang. “Decision making under time pressure: A model for information systems research.”Information & Management 27 (1994): 197–203.

“Having less, giving more: The influence of social class on prosocial behavior.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 99.5 (2010): 771–784. Higher social classes are more selfish: Jennifer E. Stellar, Vida M. Manzo, Michael W. Kraus, and Dacher Keltner. “Class and compassion: Socioeconomic factors predict responses to suffering.” Emotion 12.3 (2012): 449–459. Learning from casinos Monty Hall Problem: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monty_Hall_problem. Lottery sales and gambling income data: North American Association of State and Provincial Lotteries. Lottery Sales and Profits (naspl.org). 60 percent of adults report playing at least once per year: National Gambling Impact Study Commission staff-generated report on lotteries (1999). 72 percent of all gambling: The majority of gambling income comes from casinos (41 percent) and lotteries (31 percent).

pages: 1,085 words: 219,144

Solr in Action by Trey Grainger, Timothy Potter

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business intelligence, cloud computing, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, fault tolerance, finite state, full text search, glass ceiling, information retrieval, natural language processing, performance metric, premature optimization, recommendation engine, web application

In contrast to the default scorer, which counts the frequency of query terms in each fragment, BM25 is a state-of-the-art tf-idf scoring function for calculating the similarity between a document or fragment and a query.[3] The BM25 scorer gives a natural boost to fragments containing terms that occur less frequently in the index. We see evidence of this in the results for the second document where rain stands out because it’s a less frequent term in the index than blue or fireball, so it’s given more weight by BM25 scoring. 3 The mathematics behind BM25 are beyond the scope of this book, so we’ll refer you to the Wikipedia page for BM25; see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Okapi_BM25. The primary drawback of PostingsHighlighter is that it requires accurate term offsets to be set on terms during indexing. Let’s use the Solr Analysis form we worked with in chapter 6 to see how term offsets are calculated during text analysis. Figure 9.8 shows term offsets calculated during analysis of the example sighting we’ve been working with throughout this chapter.

One way to think about distance between two terms is by considering how many changes you have to make to one of the terms to change it to the other term. For example, the distance between atmosphear and atmosphere is 2: one change to remove the a and another to add an e on the end. A well-known algorithm for calculating the string distance between two terms is the Levenshtein distance;[2] setting distanceMeasure to internal uses the Levenshtein distance algorithm. 2 “Levenshtein distance,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levenshtein_distance. The accuracy parameter is a floating value between 0 and 1 that determines how accurate the suggestions need to be. The higher the number, the more accurate the suggestions will be, but you will also have more misses, cases for which no suggestions are available. If you set accuracy too low, Solr will generate more suggestions but they may not always make sense to your users.

Once you’ve finished your Solr development (or downloaded the most recent official release to use out of the box), you’ll be ready to build Solr and deploy it to a production environment, which is covered in the following section. 12.2. Deploying Solr Solr builds into a standard Java web application archive (WAR file), which means it can be deployed in any modern servlet container. If you are unfamiliar with how WAR files integrate into Java servlet containers to power web applications, you can check out http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WAR_file_format_(Sun) for a quick introduction. When you launch the example Solr application (using start.jar as we have throughout the book), an embedded version of Jetty, a Java servlet container, is launched to run the solr.war file, though many users choose to deploy Solr into Apache Tomcat or other servlet containers. If you’re writing another Java application, it’s also possible to add direct code references to the Solr libraries and embed Solr within your application.

pages: 95 words: 23,041

Mobile First by Luke Wroblewski

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augmented reality, en.wikipedia.org, RFID, Steve Jobs, web application

_While_Mobile_Email_Usage_on_the_Rise 7http://news.bango.com/2010/02/16/600-percent-growth-in-mobile-web-usage/ 8http://mobithinking.com/mobile-marketing-tools/latest-mobile-stats 9http://www.morganstanley.com/institutional/techresearch/pdfs/MS_Economy_Internet_Trends_102009_FINAL.pdf 10http://www.mediapost.com/publications/?fa=Articles.showArticle&art_aid=120590 11http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1361 12http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1269 13http://techcrunch.com/2010/12/13/google-mobile-searches-grew-130-percent-in-q3/ 14http://www.mobiadnews.com/?p=5133 15http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8aaOtVJQcg0 16http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T9_(predictive_text) 17http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-520862.html 18http://www.comscore.com/Press_Events/Press_Releases/2010/3/Facebook_and_Twitter_Access_via_Mobile_Browser_Grows_by_Triple-Digits 19http://newsroom.cisco.com/dlls/ekits/Cisco_VNI_Global_Mobile_Data_Traffic_Forecast_2010_2015.pdf 20http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?

mt=8 36http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1649086/detect-rotation-of-android-phone-in-the-browser-with-javascript 37http://mail.glustech.com/SnowGlobe/ 38http://thenextweb.com/apps/2010/12/21/hidden-safari-mobile-feature-reveals-augmented-reality-capability/ Chapter 4 39http://www.dmolsen.com/mobile-in-higher-ed/2011/02/07/the-university-home-page-mobile-first/ 40http://xkcd.com/773/ Chapter 5 41http://paidcontent.org/article/419-pontiflex-about-half-of-mobile-app-clicks-are-accidental/ 42http://developer.apple.com/library/ios/#documentation/UserExperience/Conceptual/MobileHIG/Introduction/Introduction.html 43http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1085 44http://go.microsoft.com/?linkid=9713252 45http://www.lukew.com/touch 46http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1197 47http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_enhancement Chapter 6 48http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1198 49http://mashable.com/2010/08/07/ebay-facts/ 50http://mashable.com/2011/01/07/40-of-all-tweets-come-from-mobile/ 51http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?691 52http://www.medien.ifi.lmu.de/pubdb/publications/pub/deluca2007pmc/deluca2007pmc.pdf 53http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1235 54http://diveintohtml5.org/ 55http://www.quirksmode.org/html5/inputs_mobile.html Chapter 7 56http://www.quirksmode.org/blog/archives/2010/09/combining_meta.html 57http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?

pages: 476 words: 132,042

What Technology Wants by Kevin Kelly

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Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Buckminster Fuller, c2.com, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer vision, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, George Gilder, gravity well, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, life extension, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, off grid, out of africa, performance metric, personalized medicine, phenotype, Picturephone, planetary scale, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, Richard Florida, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Kaczynski, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Vernor Vinge, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Hardy Eshbaugh. (1995) “Systematics Agenda 2000: An Historical Perspective.” Biodiversity and Conservation, 4 (5). http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00056336. 105 “Evolution is remarkably reproducible”: Sean Carroll. (2008) “The Making of the Fittest DNA and the Ultimate Forensic Record of Evolution.” Paw Prints, p. 154. 106 evolution is hundreds long and counting: (2009) “List of Examples of Convergent Evolution.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_examples_of_convergent_evolution&oldid=344747726. 107 many of which evolved independently: John Maynard Smith and Eors Szathmary. (1997) The Major Transitions in Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press. 107 which uses a bubble to breathe: Richard Dawkins. (2004) The Ancestor’s Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, p. 592. 109 “independently reevolved fins”: George McGhee. (2008) “Convergent Evolution: A Periodic Table of Life?”

Nature, 410 (6827). http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35068645. 120 “encoded implicitly in the genome”: Lynn Helena Caporale. (2003) “Natural Selection and the Emergence of a Mutation Phenotype: An Update of the Evolutionary Synthesis Considering Mechanisms That Affect Genomic Variation.” Annual Review of Microbiology, 57 (1). 121 from the same starting point: (2009) “Skeuomorph.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Skeuomorph&oldid=340233294. 122 “the embodiment of contingency”: Stephen Jay Gould. (1989) Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and Nature of History. New York: W. W. Norton, p. 320. 123 The Triad of Evolution: Inspired by Stephen Jay Gould. (2002) The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, p. 1052; designed by the author. 124 “walk through genetic drift”: Simon Conway Morris. (2004) Life’s Solution: Inevitable Humans in a Lonely Universe.

Film Junk. http://www.filmjunk.com/2007/03/07/when-movies-come-in-pairs-examples-of-hollywood-deja-vu/. 145 a device called Toto: Tad Friend. (1998, September 14) “Copy Cats.” New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/1998/09/14/1998_09_14_051_TNY_LIBRY_000016335. 146 simultaneous spontaneous creation: (2009) “Harry Potter Influences and Analogues.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Harry_Potter_influences_and_analogues&oldid=330124521. 148 Parallels in Blow Gun Culture: Collage by the author from archival materials. 149 the exquisite timing of when to blow: Robert L. Rands and Caroll L. Riley. (1958) “Diffusion and Discontinuous Distribution.” American Anthropologist, 60 (2), p. 282. 149 what we call abacus: John Howland Rowe. (1966) “Diffusionism and Archaeology.”

Programming Android by Zigurd Mednieks, Laird Dornin, G. Blake Meike, Masumi Nakamura

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anti-pattern, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Google Earth, interchangeable parts, iterative process, loose coupling, MVC pattern, revision control, RFID, web application

It isn’t a formal protocol the way that HTTP is. It is more of a conceptual framework for using HTTP as a basis for easy access to data. While REST implementations may differ, they all strive for simplicity. Android’s content provider API formalizes REST-like operations into an API and is designed in the spirit of REST’s simplicity. You can find more information on REST on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/REST. Content provider components are the heart of the Android content model: by providing a ContentProvider, your application can share data with other applications and manage the data model of an application. A companion class, ContentResolver, enables other components in an Android system to find content providers. You will find content providers throughout the platform, used both in the operating system and in applications from other developers.

Database Transactions Database transactions make sequences of SQL statements atomic: either all statements succeed or none of them have any effect on the database. This can be important, for instance, if your app encounters an unfortunate occurrence such as a system crash. A transaction will guarantee that if the device fails partway through a given sequence of operations, none of the operations will affect the database. In database jargon, SQLite transactions support the widely recited ACID transaction properties: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACID. With SQLite, every database operation that modifies a database runs in its own database transaction, which means a developer can be assured that all values of an insert will be written if the statement succeeds at all. You can also explicitly start and end a transaction so that it encompasses multiple statements. For a given transaction, SQLite does not modify the database until all statements in the transaction have completed successfully.

Finally, let’s delete a record using its ID: sqlite> DELETE FROM video WHERE _id = 1; sqlite> SELECT _id, description FROM videos; 2|Epic Fail Bicycle 3|Epic Fail Wagon 4|Epic Fail Sidewalk 5|Epic Fail Motorcycle SQL and the Database-Centric Data Model for Android Applications Now that you have some basic SQL programming knowledge, we can start thinking about how to put it to use in an Android application. Our goal is to create robust applications based on the popular Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern that underlies well-written UI programs, specifically in a way that works well for Android. Wikipedia has background information on MVC at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_view_controller. One fundamental difference between mobile phone apps and desktop apps is how they handle persistence. Traditional desktop-based applications—word processors, text editors, drawing programs, presentation programs, and so on—often use a document-centric form of the MVC pattern. They open a document, read it into memory, and turn it into objects in memory that form the data model.

pages: 655 words: 141,257

Programming Android: Java Programming for the New Generation of Mobile Devices by Zigurd Mednieks, Laird Dornin, G. Blake Meike, Masumi Nakamura

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anti-pattern, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Google Earth, interchangeable parts, iterative process, loose coupling, MVC pattern, revision control, RFID, web application, yellow journalism

It isn’t a formal protocol the way that HTTP is. It is more of a conceptual framework for using HTTP as a basis for easy access to data. While REST implementations may differ, they all strive for simplicity. Android’s content provider API formalizes REST-like operations into an API and is designed in the spirit of REST’s simplicity. You can find more information on REST on Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/REST. Content provider components are the heart of the Android content model: by providing a ContentProvider, your application can share data with other applications and manage the data model of an application. A companion class, ContentResolver, enables other components in an Android system to find content providers. You will find content providers throughout the platform, used both in the operating system and in applications from other developers.

Database Transactions Database transactions make sequences of SQL statements atomic: either all statements succeed or none of them have any effect on the database. This can be important, for instance, if your app encounters an unfortunate occurrence such as a system crash. A transaction will guarantee that if the device fails partway through a given sequence of operations, none of the operations will affect the database. In database jargon, SQLite transactions support the widely recited ACID transaction properties: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACID. With SQLite, every database operation that modifies a database runs in its own database transaction, which means a developer can be assured that all values of an insert will be written if the statement succeeds at all. You can also explicitly start and end a transaction so that it encompasses multiple statements. For a given transaction, SQLite does not modify the database until all statements in the transaction have completed successfully.

Finally, let’s delete a record using its ID: sqlite> DELETE FROM video WHERE _id = 1; sqlite> SELECT _id, description FROM videos; 2|Epic Fail Bicycle 3|Epic Fail Wagon 4|Epic Fail Sidewalk 5|Epic Fail Motorcycle SQL and the Database-Centric Data Model for Android Applications Now that you have some basic SQL programming knowledge, we can start thinking about how to put it to use in an Android application. Our goal is to create robust applications based on the popular Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern that underlies well-written UI programs, specifically in a way that works well for Android. Wikipedia has background information on MVC at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_view_controller. One fundamental difference between mobile phone apps and desktop apps is how they handle persistence. Traditional desktop-based applications—word processors, text editors, drawing programs, presentation programs, and so on—often use a document-centric form of the MVC pattern. They open a document, read it into memory, and turn it into objects in memory that form the data model.

Exploring ES6 - Upgrade to the next version of JavaScript by Axel Rauschmayer

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anti-pattern, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, MVC pattern, web application, WebSocket

. • hex() turns a number into a string with two hexadecimal digits. decodeSOF0() parses the segment SOF0: Typed Arrays 327 function decodeSOF0(dv, start) { // Example (16x16): // FF C0 00 11 08 00 10 00 10 03 01 22 00 02 11 01 03 11 01 var data = {}; start += 4; // skip marker 0xFFC0 and segment length 0x0011 var data = { bitsPerColorComponent: dv.getUint8(start), // usually 0x08 imageHeight: dv.getUint16(start+1, IS_LITTLE_ENDIAN), imageWidth: dv.getUint16(start+3, IS_LITTLE_ENDIAN), numberOfColorComponents: dv.getUint8(start+5), }; return JSON.stringify(data, null, 4); } More information on the structure of JPEG files: • “JPEG: Syntax and structure²⁴” (on Wikipedia) • “JPEG File Interchange Format: File format structure²⁵” (on Wikipedia) 20.8 Availability Much of the Typed Array API is implemented by all modern JavaScript engines, but several features are new to ECMAScript 6: • • • • • Static methods borrowed from Arrays: TypedArray<T>.from(), TypedArray<T>.of() Prototype methods borrowed from Arrays: TypedArray<T>.prototype.map() etc. Typed Arrays are iterable Support for the species pattern An inheritance hierarchy where TypedArray<T> is the superclass of all Typed Array classes It may take a while until these are available everywhere. As usual, kangax’ “ES6 compatibility table²⁶” describes the status quo. ²⁴https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JPEG#Syntax_and_structure ²⁵https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JPEG_File_Interchange_Format#File_format_structure ²⁶https://kangax.github.io/compat-table/es6/#typed_arrays 21. Iterables and iterators ECMAScript 6 introduces a new interface for iteration, Iterable. This chapter explains how it works, which language constructs consume data via it (e.g., the new for-of loop) and which sources provide data via it (e.g., Arrays). 21.1 Overview The following two entities play important roles in iteration: • Iterable: An iterable is a data structure that wants to make its elements accessible to the public.

Such a media type can be associated with a file via an HTTP header: Content-Type: application/ecmascript;version=6 It can also be associated via the type attribute of the <script> element (whose default value² is text/javascript): <script type="application/ecmascript;version=6"> ··· </script> This specifies the version out of band, externally to the actual content. Another option is to specify the version inside the content (in-band). For example, by starting a file with the following line: ¹http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_media_type ²http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/scripting-1.html#attr-script-type 13 One JavaScript: avoiding versioning in ECMAScript 6 14 use version 6; Both ways of tagging are problematic: out-of-band versions are brittle and can get lost, in-band versions add clutter to code. A more fundamental issue is that allowing multiple versions per code base effectively forks a language into sub-languages that have to be maintained in parallel.

. • You can split code into multiple modules and it will continue to work (as long as you don’t try to change the values of imports). 17.3.5 Support for cyclic dependencies Two modules A and B are cyclically dependent⁵ on each other if both A (possibly indirectly/transitively) imports B and B imports A. If possible, cyclic dependencies should be avoided, they lead to A and B being tightly coupled – they can only be used and evolved together. Why support cyclic dependencies, then? Occasionally, you can’t get around them, which is why support for them is an important feature. A later section has more information. Let’s see how CommonJS and ECMAScript 6 handle cyclic dependencies. ⁵http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circular_dependency 253 Modules Cyclic dependencies in CommonJS The following CommonJS code correctly handles two modules a and b cyclically depending on each other. //------ a.js -----var b = require('b'); function foo() { b.bar(); } exports.foo = foo; //------ b.js -----var a = require('a'); // (i) function bar() { if (Math.random()) { a.foo(); // (ii) } } exports.bar = bar; If module a is imported first then, in line i, module b gets a’s exports object before the exports are added to it.

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The Personal MBA: A World-Class Business Education in a Single Volume by Josh Kaufman

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Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, business process, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Heinemeier Hansson, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, discounted cash flows, Donald Knuth, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Santayana, Gödel, Escher, Bach, high net worth, hindsight bias, index card, inventory management, iterative process, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Lao Tzu, loose coupling, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, Network effects, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, place-making, premature optimization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, side project, statistical model, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, subscription business, telemarketer, the scientific method, time value of money, Toyota Production System, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, Yogi Berra

A simple blood test by your doctor can verify the levels of many essential nutrients—always consult with your MD before making any major changes to your diet or supplement intake. 4 For more on the neurophysiology of the brain, check out Kluge: The Haphazard Construction of the Human Mind by Gary F. Marcus (Faber & Faber, 2008). 5 http://macfreedom.com. 6 http://www.proginosko.com/leechblock.html. 7 http://www.timessquarenyc.org/facts/PedestrianCounts.html. 8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_business_cycle_theory. 9 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tulip_mania. 10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dot-com_bubble. 11 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_housing_bubble. CHAPTER 8: WORKING WITH YOURSELF 1 http://www.pomodorotechnique.com/. 2 http://www.pnas.org/content/103/31/11778.abstract. 3 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/hfes/hf/2006/00000048/00000002/art00014. 4 http://www.paulgraham.com/makersschedule.html. 5 http://crashcourse.personalmba.com. 6 Personally, I work with the folks at Timesvr.com—they’re skilled, fast, friendly, and cost effective. 7 http://davidseah.com/pceo/etp. 8 http://govleaders.org/powell.htm. 9 For a complete look at my personal productivity system, visit http://book.personalmba.com/bonus-training/. 10 http://www.markforster.net/autofocus-system/. 11 For an example of how I do this, visit http://book.personalmba.com/bonus-training/.

CHAPTER 2 : VALUE CREATION 1 For an example of how I do this, visit http://book.personalmba.com/bonus-training/. 2 A legally binding contract or promise not to share information about a business or business idea with others. 3 Louviere called the approach “MaxDiff ” testing: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MaxDiff. 4 For an example of how to conduct Relative Importance Testing for your business idea, visit http://book.personalmba.com/bonus-training/. 5 http://www.kifaru.net/radio.htm. 6 http://www.youtube.com/user/miguelcaballerousa. CHAPTER 4: SALES 1 http://www.petradiamonds.com/im/press_display.php?Id=2010/26feb10. 2 You can find the formulas at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discounted_cash_flow. CHAPTER 5: VALUE DELIVERY 1 For an example of how I do this, visit http://book.personalmba.com/bonus-training/. 2 Before the advent of the printing press, bibles were copied and illuminated (decorated and illustrated) by cloistered monks, who spent years working on a single copy. 3 http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2008/01/better_than_fre.php. 4 We’ll discuss Toyota’s recall woes later in “The Paradox of Automation.” 5 “Inside the Box,” Wired, March 2010.

Trend Commandments: Trading for Exceptional Returns by Michael W. Covel

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Albert Einstein, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, commodity trading advisor, correlation coefficient, delayed gratification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, family office, full employment, Lao Tzu, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market microstructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Sharpe ratio, systematic trading, the scientific method, transaction costs, tulip mania, upwardly mobile, Y2K, zero-sum game

The index was first published in 1957 and includes 500 leading companies. Moving Average: A moving average series can be calculated for any time series, but is most often applied to market prices. Moving averages are used to smooth out short-term fluctuations, thus highlighting potentially longerterm trends. A Vulcan mind-meld allows the sharing of thoughts, experiences, memories, and knowledge with another individual—via touch. Average True Range: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_True_ Range (look this one up if you don’t know it!). There’s no earthly way of knowing, Which direction we are going, There’s no knowing where we’re rowing, Or which way the rivers flowing, Is it raining? Is it snowing? Is a hurricane a-blowing? Not a speck of light is showing, So the danger must be growing, Are the fires of hell a-glowing? Is the grisly reaper mowing? Yes, the danger must be growing, Cause the rowers keep on rowing, And they’re certainly not showing, Any signs that they are slowing!

Francis Storrs, “The 50 Wealthiest Bostonians.” Boston Magazine, May 15, 2006. See http://www.bostonmagazine.com/articles/the_50_wealthiest_bostonians/. 4. Dr. Steve Sjuggerud, “How to Make $80 Million in a Brutal Bear Market.” Daily Wealth, April 11, 2009. See http://www.Dailywealth.com. 5. Martin Schwartz, Pit Bull: Lessons from Wall Street’s Champion Day Trader. New York: Harper Collins, 1999. 6. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Harding (mathematician). 7. Jack D. Schwager, Market Wizards. New York: NYIF Corp., 1989. 8. See http://www.absolutereturn-alpha.com. 9. Jack D. Schwager, The New Market Wizards. New York: HarperBusiness, 1992. 247 10. See http://www.forbes.com/profile/louis-bacon. 11. See http://www.forbes.com/profile/paul-tudor-jones. 12. Man Group front page, March 23, 2011. See http://www.mangroupplc.com/. 13. 2008 Sunrise Capital Chart. 14. 2009 Sunrise Capital Chart. 15. 2010 Sunrise Capital Chart. 16.

Ariana Eunjung Cha, “China Leaves Small Investors Behind on Road to Capitalism.” Washington Post Foreign Service, May 3, 2008. See http://www.washingtonpost.com/ wp-dyn/content/article/2008/05/02/AR2008050204009.html. Crowded House 1. Zen proverb. 2. Keith Campbell, Campbell & Co., Managed Account Reports. Black Box 1. South Park, “Chief Aid,” episode 27, October 7, 1998. 2. “Black box.” See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_box. 3. Ben Hogan. 4. Shaun Jordan video interview, “Managed Futures with Abraham Trading Co.” March 8, 2011. See http://www.cmegroup.com/education/managed-futures-with-abrahamtrading-co.html. Endnotes 259 5. Blog entry. See http://www.michaelcovel.com. 6. Blog response to “The reason people gave Madoff money; same reason they don’t give it to Trend Followers.” January 5, 2011.

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Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, digital map, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

Tremoglie, “Terrorist Tracking Technology,” American Daily, September 3, 2004, http://www.americandaily.com/article/2048. 277 “cannot guarantee the software” Graham-Rowe, “Intelligence Analysis Software to Predict Terrorist Attacks in the Future”; Applied Systems Intelligence, ASI Continues Growth by Putting Brains in Army’s Robots; Eng, Digital Warriors Artificial Intelligence May Help Spot Future Terrorism Attacks; Tremoglie, “Terrorist Tracking Technology.” 277 “is more terrifying than losing one’s privacy” Graham-Rowe, “Intelligence Analysis Software to Predict Terrorist Attacks in the Future”; “Orwellian” quote from Wikipedia, “Information Awareness Office,” December 25, 2007 (cited January 11, 2008); available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_Awareness_Office. 14. LOSERS AND LUDDITES: THE CHANGING BATTLEFIELDS ROBOTS WILL FIGHT ON AND THE NEW ELECTRONIC SPARKS OF WAR 279 “Technological progress” “Albert Einstein Quotes,” Brainy Quote, 2008 (cited January 31, 2008); available at http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/alberteins164554.html. 279 “Increasingly, we live in a world” Ralph Peters, “The Culture of Future Conflict,” Parameters 25, no. 4 (1995). 279 “I am a miner’s son” “Ralph Peters,” Wikipedia, August 3, 2007 (cited August 3, 2007); available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ralph_Peters. 280 “simply one of the most creative” Ralph Peters, Beyond Baghdad: Postmodern War and Peace, 1st ed.

Singer, March 22, 2007. 35 “it was a big problem” Ibid. 35 “It saddens me to know” Ibid. 35 In the words of one U.S. officer Boot, War Made New, 383. 35 Predators carried out 2,073 missions Bill Sweetman, “USAF Predators Come of Age in Iraq and Afghanistan as Reaper Waits in the Wings,” Jane’s International Defence Review 39, no. 6 (2006): 52. 36 Global Hawk can fly “RQ-4 Global Hawk,” Wikipedia, March 24, 2007 (cited March 30, 2007); available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Hawk. 36 “you basically hit the land button” Air force officer, interview at Pentagon, Peter W. Singer, March 31, 2008. 36 The plane itself costs some $35 million Renae Merle, “Price of Global Hawk Surveillance Program Rises,” Washington Post, 2004, A17. 36 the U.S. Air Force plans to spend Bill Sweetman, “Long Range Endurance UAS Targets the Adversary,” Jane’s International Defence Review 39, no. 8 (2006): 41. 37 “It is more of a rush” Kevin Maurer, “Pilotless Plane Guides 82nd,” Fayetteville (NC) Observer, August 13, 2004. 37 “You throw the bird up” Noah Shachtman, “Attack of the Drones,” Wired 13.06 (2005), http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.06/drones.html. 37 the number of Ravens in service Ibid. 37 “reconnaissance with firepower” Owen West and Bing West, “Lessons from Iraq,” Popular Mechanics 182, no. 8 (2005): 50. 37 there were 5,331 drones Tom Vanden Brook, “Report: Insurgents Benefit from Drone Shortage,” USA Today, March 25, 2008. 37 “given the growth trends” David A.

See also Robert Capps, “The 50 Best Robots Ever,” Wired 14.01 (2006), http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.01/robots.html?pg=2&topic=robots&topic_set=. 45 the field of modern chemistry J. Boone Bartholomees Jr., “The Heirs of Archimedes: Science and the Art of War through the Age of Enlightenment,” Parameters 35, no. 4 (2005): 136. 46 “to see what would happen” “Charles Babbage,” Wikipedia, April 20, 2007 (cited April 20, 2007); available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Babbage. 46 “I called an official” Robert Finkelstein, “Military Robotics: Malignant Machines or the Path to Peace,” paper presented at the Military Robotics Conference, Institute for Defense and Government Advancement, Washington, DC, April 10-12, 2006. 47 the Germans protected their coast Steven M. Shaker and Alan R. Wise, War Without Men : Robot on the Future Battlefield (Washington, DC: Pergamon Brassey’s International Defense Publishers Inc., 1988). 48 load them up with twenty-two thousand pounds of Torpex Anthony J.

PostGIS in Action, 2nd Edition by Regina O. Obe, Leo S. Hsu

call centre, crowdsourcing, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Earth, job automation, McMansion, megacity, Mercator projection, Network effects, openstreetmap, planetary scale, profit maximization, Ruby on Rails, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, traveling salesman, web application

Licensed to tracy moore <nordick.an@gmail.com> www.it-ebooks.info Introducing PostGIS 9 You’ll be hard pressed to find the following features in other spatial databases:  Functions to work with GeoJSON and Keyhole Markup Language (KML), allow- ing web applications to talk directly to PostGIS without the need for additional serializing schemes or translations  Comprehensive geometry-processing functions that go far beyond basic geometric operations, including functions for fixing invalid geometries and for simplifying and deconstructing geometries  Built-in 3D and topology support  Over 150 seamless operations for working with vectors and rasters in tandem, as well as for converting between the two families GeoJSON and KML data formats Geographic JavaScript Object Notation (GeoJSON; http://geojson.org) and Keyhole Markup Language (KML; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keyhole_Markup_Language) are two of the most popular vector formats used by web-mapping applications:  GeoJSON is an extension of JSON that’s used for representing JavaScript objects. It adds to the JSON standard support for geographic objects.  KML is an XML format developed by Keyhole (which was purchased by Google), first used in Google’s mapping products and later supported by various mapping APIs.

Recall from basic geometry (or common sense) the minimum number of points needed to form an area? Three—a triangle. The mathematical underpinning of TINs is based on triangulating key peak and valley point locations of a surface to form non-overlapping connected area pockets. The most common form of Licensed to tracy moore <nordick.an@gmail.com> www.it-ebooks.info 43 Geometry triangulation used in GIS is Delaunay triangulation (explained on Wikipedia: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delaunay_triangulation). PostGIS 2.1 specifically added a powerful ST_DelaunayTriangles function to convert a “well-behaved” polygon collection into a TIN. But one shortcoming of ST_DelaunayTriangles is that it can’t convert polyhedral surfaces to TINs. For that conversion, you need to use ST_Tesselate, which is packaged with SFCGAL and will convert polygon collections as well. PostGIS 2.0 added many new functions specifically for use with polyhedral surfaces and TINS; go to http://postgis.net/docs/PostGIS_Special_Functions_Index.html #PostGIS_TypeFunctionMatrix to find the full list.

It seemed to display the first geometry column of a table. uDig can’t handle heterogeneous geometry columns. It allowed us to pick a column with mixed subtypes, but it was never able to display it. Although uDig allows you to write queries, uDig doesn’t understand SQL. Instead, you have to resort to a more obscure web query standard called Common Query Language (CQL). CQL As of version 1.2, CQL renamed itself Contextual Query Language. You can learn more about CQL on Wikipedia at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Contextual_Query_Language. Licensed to tracy moore <nordick.an@gmail.com> www.it-ebooks.info 134 5.4.2 CHAPTER 5 Using PostGIS on the desktop Connecting to PostGIS uDig has the easiest interface for connecting to PostGIS. Choose Layer > Add from the menu, and PostGIS appears as a data source (shown at the left in figure 5.13). Figure 5.13 Adding database connections in uDig You can alternatively use the GeoTools built into uDig to connect.

pages: 370 words: 100,856

Moonshot: The Inside Story of Mankind's Greatest Adventure by Dan Parry

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en.wikipedia.org, Norman Mailer, V2 rocket, white flight

See NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://history.nasa.gov/alsj/a12/a12_lmpcuff.pdf 2 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire. 3 David Harland, The First Men on the Moon; and http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/samples/ 4 http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/samples/ 5 David West Reynolds, Apollo, The Epic Journey to the Moon; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon 6 Harland, op. cit. 7 Collins, op. cit. 8 Ibid. 9 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth. 10 Ibid. 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid.; http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/tech_and_web/specials/space/article2582966.ece; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzz_Aldrin 13 Buzz Aldrin, roll 382, 22:13:01:17. 14 Harland, op. cit. 15 Neil Armstrong in conversation with Eric Jones, at NASA's Lunar Surface Journal http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html 16 BBC News, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/2272321.stm; and http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2410431.stm GLOSSARY AGS Abort Guidance System AOS Acquisition of Signal BIG Biological Isolation Garment CapCom Spacecraft Communicator CMP Command Module Pilot CSM Command and Service Module DAP Digital Autopilot DOI Descent Orbit Insertion DPS Descent Propulsion System DSKY [Computer] Display and Keyboard EASEP Early Apollo Surface Experiment Package EMU Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit EVA Extra-vehicular Activity FIDO Flight Dynamics Officer GET Ground Elapsed Time IMU Inertial Measurement Unit LEB Lower Equipment Bay LES Launch Escape System LEVA Lunar Extra-vehicular Visor Assembly LLTV Lunar Landing Training Vehicle LM Lunar Module LMP Lunar Module Pilot LOI Lunar Orbit Insertion LOS Loss Of Signal LRL Lunar Receiving Laboratory RRR Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector MCC Mid-Course Correction MESA Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly MOCR Mission Operations Control Room MQF Mobile Quarantine Facility MSFN Manned Space Flight Network NASCOM NASA Communications Network PDI Powered Descent Initiation PGNS Primary Guidance and Navigation System PLSS Portable Life Support System PPK Personal Preference Kit PSE Passive Seismic Experiment PTC Passive Thermal Control S-IC First Stage of the Saturn V S-II Second Stage of the Saturn V S-IVB Third Stage of the Saturn V SWC Solar Wind Composition (Collector) TEI Trans-Earth Injection TLI Trans-lunar Injection BIBLIOGRAPHY Books, focusing on contemporary works and first-hand accounts Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth, Random House, 1973 David A.

.; and Andrew Chaikin, A Man on the Moon (Penguin,1994). 11 Chaikin, op. cit. 12 Hansen, op. cit. 13 Kranz, op. cit. 14 Hansen, op. cit. 15 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth; and Slayton, op. cit. 16 Kranz, op. cit. 17 Chris Kraft, Flight. 18 Collins, op. cit. 19 Kraft, op. cit. 20 Collins, op. cit. 21 Ibid. 22 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.; also see Hansen, op. cit. 23 Hansen, op. cit. 24 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon. 25 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.1201-fm.html; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Guidance_Computer 26 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.; and Collins, op. cit. 27 http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/a11.jo.fc.1.html 28 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit. 29 Collins, op. cit. 30 Ibid. 31 Ibid. Chapter 7: Risks and Risky Remedies 1 Deke Slayton, Deke!. 2 David Shayler, Disasters and Accidents in Manned Spaceflight. 3 Slayton, op. cit. 4 Ibid. 5 Dr James Hansen, First Man. 6 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire. 7 Ibid. 8 Ibid. 9 Frank Borman, roll 386, 06:30:10. 10 Collins, op. cit. 11 Ibid. 12 Ibid. 13 Frank Borman, roll 386, 06:30:10. 14 Susan Borman, roll 388, 08:02:47:21. 15 Collins, op. cit. 16 Bill Anders, roll 1376, 16:14:22:28. 17 Andrew Chaikin, A Man on the Moon. 18 Ibid.; and Bill Anders, roll 1376 16:39:02:27. 19 Hansen, op. cit. 20 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth; and Hansen, op. cit. 21 Hansen, op. cit.; and personal conversation between the author and Neil Armstrong, Barcelona, 12/4/08. 22 Hansen, op. cit. 23 Ibid. 24 Ibid. 25 Ibid. 26 Ibid. 27 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon. 28 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit. 29 Slayton, op. cit.; and Hansen, op. cit. 30 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit. 31 Slayton, op. cit. 32 Ibid. 33 Chris Kraft, Flight. 34 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit. 35 Ibid. 36 Hansen, op. cit. 37 Collins, op. cit. 38 Ibid. 39 Hansen, op. cit. 40 Collins, op. cit. 41 Hansen, op. cit. 42 Ibid. 43 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit. 44 Buzz Aldrin interview, roll 382, 22:29:40:29. 45 Hansen, op. cit. 46 Slayton, op. cit.; Kraft, op. cit.; Hansen, op. cit.; and Andrew Smith, Moondust 47 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit. 48 Kraft, op. cit.; and Hansen, op. cit. 49 Buzz Aldrin, roll 383, 23:01:05:14. 50 Buzz Aldrin, roll 382, 22:13:01:17. 51 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit. 52 Ibid. 53 Slayton, op. cit. 54 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit. 55 Ibid. 56 Hansen, op. cit.; and Collins, op. cit.

.), Before This Decade Is Out, University Press of Florida, 2002 Loyd Swenson, James Grimwood and Charles Alexander, This New Ocean, NASA, 1998 Guenter Wendt, The Unbroken Chain, Apogee Books, 2001 Websites history.nasa.gov/monograph4 history.msfc.nasa.gov/saturn_apollo/first_saturn_rocket.html history.nasa.gov/SP-4205 www.thespacereview.com/article/735/1 www.chron.com/content/chronicle/special/jfk/houston/stories/dinner.html www.britannica.com/eb/article-9057747/Outer-Space-Treaty#145193.hook www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/speeches.hom/670127.asp www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.1201-fm.html en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Guidance_Computer www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/a11.jo.fc.1.html www.thespacereview.com/article/188/3 www.thespacereview.com/article/735/1 www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/moon/peopleevents/p_wives.html news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7085003.stm www.hq.nasa.gov/pao/History/SP-4204 www.parkes.atnf.csiro.au/news_events/apollo11 www.uss-hornet.org/history/apollo www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/samples news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/2272321.stm news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2410431.stm Use the following NASA link to find out when the International Space Station can be seen with the naked eye above your home town: spaceflight.nasa.gov/realdata/sightings/index.html INDEX Aaron, John Abernathy, Reverend Ralph Agena target vehicle Air and Space Museum see Smithsonian Institution Aldrin, Buzz (Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr) Apollo 8 career post-Apollo 11 childhood Gemini flights landing on the moon launch, Apollo 11 launch preparation, Apollo 11 MIT moon, on appearance of moon walk, NASA, joins Neil Armstrong and position in Apollo program PR duties, Apollo 11 quarantine, Apollo 11 re-entry and landing, Apollo 11 rendezvous expert return to Eagle, Apollo 11 return to earth, Apollo 11 selected for Apollo 11 selection for moon walk on surface of moon, Apollo 11 training undocking, Apollo 11 command and lunar modules US Navy Aldrin, Gene Aldrin, Joan Algranti, Joe Anders, Bill Apollo, Project Apollo 1 tragedy, effect upon costs of Kennedy and see Kennedy, John F.

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Seven Databases in Seven Weeks: A Guide to Modern Databases and the NoSQL Movement by Eric Redmond, Jim Wilson, Jim R. Wilson

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Amazon Web Services, create, read, update, delete, data is the new oil, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, full text search, general-purpose programming language, linked data, MVC pattern, natural language processing, node package manager, random walk, recommendation engine, Ruby on Rails, Skype, social graph, web application

Footnotes [9] http://allthingsdistributed.com/files/amazon-dynamo-sosp2007.pdf [10] http://www.basho.com/ [11] http://www.erlang.org/ [12] http://ruby-lang.org [13] http://rubygems.org [14] http://rubygems.org/gems/riak-client [15] http://research.google.com/archive/mapreduce.html [16] http://wiki.basho.com/Replication.html [17] http://wiki.basho.com/MapReduce.html [18] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MapReduce [19] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_clock [20] http://wiki.basho.com/Vector-Clocks.html [21] http://lucene.apache.org/solr/ [22] http://code.google.com/p/leveldb/ [23] http://aws.amazon.com/ec2/ [24] http://wiki.basho.com/Loading-Data-and-Running-MapReduce-Queries.html [25] http://code.google.com/p/protobuf/ Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Chapter 4 HBase Apache HBase is made for big jobs, like a nail gun.

Several open source projects rely on Redis, from Resque, a Ruby-based asynchronous job queueing service, to session management in the Node.js project SocketStream. Regardless of the database you choose as your SOR, you should certainly add Redis to the mix. Footnotes [53] http://redis.io [54] http://www.memcached.org/ [55] http://download.freebase.com/datadumps/latest/browse/book/isbn.tsv [56] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloom_filter [57] http://martinfowler.com/bliki/DatabaseThaw.html [58] http://download.freebase.com/datadumps/latest/browse/music/group_membership.tsv [59] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_warehouse Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Chapter 9 Wrapping Up Now that we’ve made it through the databases, congratulations are in order! We hope you’ve gained an appreciation for these seven databases. If you use one in a project, we’ll be happy. And if you decide to use multiple databases, like we saw at the end of the Redis chapter, we’ll be ecstatic.

pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Varian, Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy (Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1998), p. 3. 5. Jules Verne, Works of Jules Verne (New York: V. Parke, 1911), http://archive.org/details/worksofjulesvern01vernuoft. 6. Shapiro and Varian, Information Rules, p. 21. 7. “Friendster,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Friendster&oldid=559301831 (accessed June 27, 2013); “History of Wikipedia,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Wikipedia&oldid=561664870 (accessed June 27, 2013); “Blogger (service),” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Blogger_(service)&oldid=560541931 (accessed June 27, 2013). 8. “Top Sites,” Alexa: The Web Information Company, http://www.alexa.com/topsites (accessed September 8, 2012). 9. “IBM Watson Vanquishes Human Jeopardy Foes,” PCWorld, February 16, 2011, http://www.pcworld.com/article/219893/ibm_watson_vanquishes_human_jeopardy_foes.html. 10.

Joel Waldfogel, “Copyright Protection, Technological Change, and the Quality of New Products: Evidence from Recorded Music Since Napster,” Working Paper (National Bureau of Economic Research, October 2011), http://www.nber.org/papers/w17503. 2. Albert Gore, The Future: Six Drivers of Global Change (New York: Random House, 2013), p. 45. 3. The English Wikipedia has over 2.5 billion words, which is over fifty times as many as Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Wikipedia: Size Comparisons,” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, July 4, 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Size_comparisons&oldid=562880212 (accessed August 17, 2013). 4. Actually, 90 percent of apps on smartphones are now free. Alex Cocotas, “Nine Out Of Ten Apps On Apple’s App Store Are Free,” Business Insider, July 19, 2013, http://www.businessinsider.com/nine-out-of-10-apps-are-free-2013-7#ixzz2cojAAOCy (accessed August 17, 2013). 5. Cannibalization of SMS services by free over-the-top (OTT) service is estimated to cost telephone companies over $30 billion in 2013, according to the analyst group Ovum.

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The Book of CSS3 by Peter Gasston

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centre right, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, web application, wikimedia commons

The effects of different values on the box-sizingproperty Please note that although I only discuss the width property in all of these examples, the exact same rules apply to an element’s height property. (You may also note that this works in exactly the same way as a browser that is put into “quirks” mode.) Note If you’re a younger developer you may not remember “quirks” mode. It’s a system that emulates the incorrect way that Internet Explorer 5.5 used to lay out web pages; you can read more about it on Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quirks_mode). I use the box-sizing property in a few examples throughout this book, so if the effects (and benefits) aren’t immediately apparent right now, they should become clearer as you work through the rest of the chapters. Browser-Specific Prefixes In the previous section, I briefly discussed using browser-specific prefixes on the box-sizing property. As CSS3 is still in a state of change and revision, you’ll see these mentioned a lot throughout the rest of this book, so I’ll take some time to talk about these in more detail.

In this example, I don’t have to use an extra rule—without it, I would have to use something like this: p abbr { border-bottom: 6px double black; } p:last-child abbr { border-bottom-color: white; } Although this may not seem like a big savings, it means I can update the parent element color and not have to worry about setting the color on any relevant children. On a large site with many different color combinations, you can see that currentColor would be extremely handy. The currentColor value is currently implemented in Firefox, WebKit, and Opera, and is planned for inclusion in IE9. * * * [4] This image is taken from Wikimedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HSL_color_solid_cylinder_alpha_lowgamma.png) and is published under a Creative Commons Attribution license. Matching the Operating System’s Appearance In CSS2, you could use colors from different aspects of your operating system to give websites a more “native” appearance. You could, for instance, match the background color of a button element on a web page with that of a button element on your system by using the following code: button { background-color: ButtonFace; } This functionality has been deprecated in CSS3 and has been replaced by the appearance property, which is introduced in the Basic User Interface Module.

Mozilla has suggested the specification be modified to support their proposed change, as the current spec means only pixel values can be used for matrix transformations. This is the key difference among the different browsers’ implementations. In the examples in the rest of this chapter I’ll use unitless values, because they are more common. If you want to skew an element, well, this is where it becomes a lot more complex—here’s where I need to introduce the trigonometric functions. You can read a full explanation of these functions on Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigonometric_functions#Sine.2C_cosine_and_tangent), but here’s a quick and dirty summary: The trigonometric functions are ratio values used to calculate angles in a triangle. The first trigonometric function I’ll use is tan (tangent), which is required to skew an element along the x- or y-axis. Referring to the original matrix syntax, the x-axis is supplied as a value to b and the y as a value to c.

Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents by Lisa Gitelman

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Andrew Keen, computer age, corporate governance, deskilling, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, optical character recognition, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Turing test, Works Progress Administration

On the edgelessness of digital objects generally, see Craig Mod, “The Digital-­Physical: On Building Flipboard for iPhone & Finding the Edges of Our Digital Narratives,” March 2012, accessed 25 May 2013, http://craigmod.com/journal/digital _physical/. 64. For an extended inquiry into this point, see Alexander R. Galloway, The Interface Effect (Cambridge: Polity, 2012), chapter 1. 65. “Portable Document Format,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PDF, accessed 31 July 2012. 156    N OT E S TO I N T R O D U C T I O N 66. The executability of code is discussed in detail in Alexander R. Galloway, Protocol: How Control Exists after Decentralization (Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 2006), e.g., 165; Anne Eisenberg, “Hot off the Presses, Conductive Ink,” New York Times, 30 June 2012. 67. See M. Mitchell Waldrop, The Dream Machine: J.

Lions, “Preface,” in “A Commentary on the Sixth Edition unix Operating System,” 1977, accessed 24 June 2013, http://warsus.github.io/lions-/. 61. Douglas C. Engelbart, “Quarterly Technical Letter Report 6,” 28 November 1967, Box 2, Douglas C. Engelbart Papers, 1953–1998 (MO638), Stanford University Libraries, Stanford, CA. See also Kelty, Two Bits, 198. 62. Wikipedia, “Living Document,” accessed 1 July 2011, http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Living _document. “Functional documents” is the phrase used in Request for Comments 115: R. W. Watson and J. B. North, “Some Network Information Center Policies on Handling Documents,” April 1971, accessed 24 June 2013, http://www.rfc-­editor.org/rfc/rfc115.txt. 63. J. Brooks, “Profiles,” 47. 64. I’ve written elsewhere on documents as distinct from format, as Latourian “matters of concern,” made meaningful in the social networks of their potential circulation (Lisa Gitelman, Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of Culture [Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 2006], chapter 4). 65.

Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin, Remediation: Understanding New Media (Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 1999). pdfs can of course be edited and revised using software designed for that purpose. 11. Kenneth Goldsmith, Uncreative Writing: Managing Language in the Digital Age (New York: Columbia University Press, 2011), 156. 12. Wikipedia, “Portable Document Format,” accessed 17 July 2012, http://en .wikipedia.org/wiki/Portable_Document _Format. 13. I explore this question in Lisa Gitelman, Always Already New: Media, History, and the Data of Culture (Cambridge, MA: mit Press, 2006), chapter 4. 14. “Processural,” I believe, is a coinage by N. Katherine Hayles. See “Materiality Has Always Been in Play, An Interview with N. Katherine Hayles by Lisa Gitelman,” 2002, accessed 26 June 2013, http://iowareview.uiowa.edu/TIRW/TIRW _ Archive/tirweb/feature/hayles/interview.htm. 15.

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The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

By contrast, in more rigidly: Li Qian, “Chinese Dominate Ranking of Young CEOs,” China Daily, January 24, 2007, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2007-01/24/content_791703.htm. China’s biggest social media: “Ma Huateng,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ma_Huateng. Its largest e-commerce company: Michelle FlorCruz, “Who Is Jack Ma? Five Things to Know about the Alibaba Founder before the IPO,” International Business Times, May 6, 2014, http://www.ibtimes.com/who-jack-ma-five-things-know-about-alibaba-founder-ipo-1580890; “Lei Jun,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lei_Jun. Grain is nicknamed “white oil” because: Jon Gosier, “A Look at the Apps4Africa 2011 Winners,” Appfrica (blog), January 14, 2012, http://blog.appfrica.com/2012/01/14/a-look-at-the-apps4africa-2011-winners/. Agriculture provides 85 percent of exports: “Tanzania,” in The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tz.html.

As of this writing: “AADHAAR Generation Progress in India,” Unique Identification Authority of India, Government of India, https://portal.uidai.gov.in/uidwebportal/dashboard.do?lc=h. In the 2000s, Brazil did: Patti Domm, “Growing Middle Class Fuels Brazil’s Economy,” CNBC, April 28, 2011, http://www.cnbc.com/id/42785493#. During the same period, Argentina: “Immigration to Argentina,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immigration_to_Argentina#cite_note-ref1-1. By 1914, Argentina ranked: “A Century of Decline,” Economist, February 15, 2014, http://www.economist.com/node/21596582/print. With oil reserves set to dry: Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, “Saudi Oil Well Dries Up,” Telegraph, September 5, 2012, http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/finance/ambroseevans-pritchard/100019812/saudi-oil-well-dries-up/; “Gross Domestic Product 2014,” World Development Indicators database, World Bank, July 1, 2015, http://databank.worldbank.org/data/download/GDP.pdf.

In the developing world: Katty Kay and Claire Shipman, “Fixing the Economy Is Women’s Work,” Washington Post, July 12, 2009, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/07/10/AR2009071002358.html. According to the World Bank: “Women, Business and the Law,” World Bank Group, http://wbl.worldbank.org/data. The world’s largest Muslim-majority: “List of Islands of Indonesia,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_islands_of_Indonesia. This culture extends to government: Yenni Kwok, “Indonesia’s Elections Feature Plenty of Women, But Respect in Short Supply,” Time, April 8, 2014, http://time.com/53191/indonesias-election-features-plenty-of-women-but-respect-in-short-supply/. In factories they were given: “The Lives of Rural and Urban Chinese Women under State Capitalism,” Mount Holyoke College, https://www.mtholyoke.edu/~jejackso/Women%20Under%20Mao.htm.

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Market Risk Analysis, Quantitative Methods in Finance by Carol Alexander

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asset allocation, backtesting, barriers to entry, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, constrained optimization, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, discounted cash flows, discrete time, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, implied volatility, interest rate swap, market friction, market microstructure, p-value, performance metric, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Sharpe ratio, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, value at risk, volatility smile, Wiener process, yield curve, zero-sum game

Another useful law of matrix algebra is that the transpose of a product of two matrices is the product of the transposes in reverse order: AB = B A (I.2.1) A similar change of ordering is necessary when we take the inverse of a product of two square matrices – see below. I.2.2.3 Singular Matrices The unit or identity matrix I is a special square matrix with 1s along the main diagonal and 0s everywhere else. For instance, the 4 × 4 identity matrix is ⎛ ⎞ 1 0 0 0 ⎜0 1 0 0⎟ ⎟ I=⎜ ⎝0 0 1 0⎠ 0 0 0 1 4 See http://en.wikipedia.org for more information. For instance, the associative law is ABC = ABC. Thus, to multiply three matrices together, we can do the products in either order, provided we do not change the order of the matrices in the product. Essential Linear Algebra for Finance 41 It acts like the number 1 in ordinary algebra, i.e. AI = A and IA = A. The inverse of a square matrix A is denoted by A−1 . It has the property that AA−1 = −1 A A = I, where I is the n × n identity matrix.

One such add-in, developed by Leonardo Volpi of the Foxes team, Italy, has plenty of matrix functions including eigenvector and eigenvalue routines, Cholesky decomposition, covariance and correlation and so forth. It has been used for the examples in this book where Excel cannot perform the exercise without an add-in.7 6 7 For more details on this and other eigenvalue algorithms, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eigenvalue_algorithm. This add-in should be loaded just like any other Excel add-in: under ‘Tools’ select ‘Add-Ins’ and then browse to locate the add-in as you have placed it on your machine. Having added this in once, you should not need to do so again. 54 Quantitative Methods in Finance Example I.2.10: Using an Excel add-in to find eigenvectors and eigenvalues Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the correlation matrix ⎛ ⎞ 1 05 02 1 03 ⎠ C = ⎝ 05 02 03 1 Solution The power iteration method has been used for this example.

In the spreadsheet for this example we use the add-in command MLU to obtain the matrices ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ 1 0 0 0 2 2 2 −3 ⎜ 05 ⎜ 1 0 0⎟ −2 7 −05 ⎟ ⎟ U = ⎜0 ⎟ L=⎜ ⎝ 0 ⎠ ⎝ −05 1 0 0 0 65 775 ⎠ 05 −05 038 1 0 0 0 −073 and then we verify the relationship (I.2.33). We cannot always guarantee the existence of an LU decomposition for a square matrix, but there are various alternatives that may be used. For instance, any square matrix will have an LU decomposition if we permute of the rows or columns of L and U. Further details can be found on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LU_decomposition. I.2.6 PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS Principal component analysis is based on the spectral decomposition of a covariance matrix or a correlation matrix. That is, we use the relationship A = WW where A is either a covariance matrix or the corresponding correlation matrix. If PCA is performed on a correlation matrix then the results will only be influenced by the correlations of returns, but if the input to PCA is a covariance matrix then the results will be influenced by the volatility of the returns as well as the correlations of returns.

pages: 448 words: 71,301

Programming Scala by Unknown

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domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, general-purpose programming language, loose coupling, type inference, web application

[SXR] A Scala source code browser, http://github.com/harrah/browse/tree/master. [Szyperski1998] Clemens Szyperski, Component Software: Beyond Object-Oriented Programming, Addison-Wesley Longman Limited, 1998. [TDD] Test-Driven Development, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Test-driven_develop ment. [Terracotta] Terracotta, http://terracotta.org/. [TestNG] TestNG, http://testng.org/. [Turbak2008] Franklyn Turbak, David Gifford, and Mark A. Sheldon, Design Concepts of Programming Languages, The MIT Press, 2008. [TypeInference] Type inference, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_inference. [VanRoy2004] Peter Van Roy and Seif Haridi, Concepts, Techniques, and Models of Computer Programming, The MIT Press, 2004. [Wampler2008] Dean Wampler, Traits vs. Aspects in Scala, http://blog.objectmentor .com/articles/2008/09/27/traits-vs-aspects-in-scala.

[Cucumber] Cucumber - Making BDD Fun, http://cukes.info. [DesignByContract] Building bug-free O-O software: An introduction to Design by Contract™, http://archive.eiffel.com/doc/manuals/technology/contract/. 387 Download at WoweBook.Com [Deursen] Arie van Deursen, Paul Klint, and Joost Visser, Domain-Specific Languages: An Annotated Bibliography, http://homepages.cwi.nl/~arie/papers/dslbib/. [EBNF] Extended Backus-Naur Form, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Backus– Naur_Form. [Eiffel] Eiffel Software, http://eiffel.com. [Ford] Bryan Ford, The Packrat Parsing and Parsing Expression Grammars Page, http: //pdos.csail.mit.edu/~baford/packrat/. [Ford2009] Neal Ford, Advanced DSLs in Ruby, http://github.com/nealford/presenta tions/tree/master. [Fowler2009] Martin Fowler, Domain Specific Languages (forthcoming), http://martin fowler.com/dslwip/.

References | 389 Download at WoweBook.Com [Okasaki1998] Chris Okasaki, Purely Functional Data Structures, Cambridge University Press, 1998. [Ortiz2007] Jorge Ortiz, Fun with Project Euler and Scala, http://scala-blogs.org/2007/ 12/project-euler-fun-in-scala.html. [Ortiz2008] Jorge Ortiz, Manifests: Reified Types, http://scala-blogs.org/2008/10/mani fests-reified-types.html. [OSullivan2009] Bryan O’Sullivan, John Goerzen, and Don Steward, Real World Haskell, O’Reilly Media, 2009. [PEG] Parsing Expression Grammar, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parsing_expression _grammar. [Pierce2002] Benjamin C. Pierce, Types and Programming Languages, The MIT Press, 2002. [Pollak2007] David Pollak, The Scala Option class and how lift uses it, http://blog.lostlake .org/index.php?/archives/50-The-Scala-Option-class-and-how-lift-uses-it.html. [QuickCheck] QuickCheck, Automated Specification-Based Testing, http://www.cs .chalmers.se/~rjmh/QuickCheck/.

pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

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3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, peer-to-peer rental, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

In 2012, the figure was 306 per cent in Ireland, 230 per cent in Portugal and 104 per cent in Britain. 67 http://ftalphaville.ft.com/2010/11/08/397221/the-likely-cost-of-irelands-bank-bailout/ GNP figure in 2012 is €127 billion: https://namawinelake.wordpress.com/2012/12/16/irelands-gnp-and-gdp-in-2012/ 68 See in particular pages 72-75 of Aftershock: Reshaping the World After the Crisis, Little, Brown: 2010. 69 Ibid, page 74 70 See http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123371182830346215.html and http://blogs.ft.com/maverecon/2009/01/the-good-bank-solution/ 71 Philippe Legrain, Aftershock: Reshaping the World After the Crisis, Little, Brown: 2010, page 75. 72 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_bank_failures_in_the_United_States_(2008–present). Checked on 18 May 2013 73 http://uk.reuters.com/article/2013/02/01/uk-dutch-finance-cbank-idUKBRE9100A420130201 74 http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/645b24e6-adbc-11e2-82b8-00144feabdc0.html 75 http://www.eba.europa.eu/-/eba-publishes-results-of-the-basel-iii-monitoring-exercise-as-of-end-2012 Around a third of the 170 banks surveyed by the EBA failed to meet the very weak Basel target of a 3-per-cent equity buffer, with a combined capital shortfall of €133 billion.

Code: nasq_ki 102 Mancur Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations, Yale: 1984 103 http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/b31dd248-d785-11e2-a26a-00144feab7de.html 104 At the European Summit in The Hague in 1969, the heads of state and government of the European Community agreed to prepare a plan for economic and monetary union. The Werner Report was drawn up by a working group chaired by Pierre Werner, Luxembourg’s prime minister and minister for finances, and presented in October 1970. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Werner_Plan 105 If the debt-to-GDP ratio exceeded the 60 per cent limit, it should at least have "sufficiently diminished and must be approaching the reference value at a satisfactory pace". 106 More precisely, ten-year government bond yields close to the EU average. 107 The no-bailout clause was initially in the 1993 Maastricht Treaty and later in the 2009 Lisbon Treaty that encompasses and amends the Maastricht Treaty.

The Bank of England could buy the bonds of the new British Investment Bank, simultaneously providing more effective monetary stimulus and improving businesses’ access to credit, as Adam Posen, a former member of the Bank of England’s monetary policy committee, has advocated. 441 The government has already published a National Infrastructure Plan, but has so far done little actual investment. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/209279/PU1524_IUK_new_template.pdf 442 Kevin Cahill, Who Owns the World: The Hidden Facts Behind Landownership, Mainstream, 2006 443 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_elected_hereditary_peers_under_the_House_of_Lords_Act_1999 444 Simon Tilford, "Why British prosperity is hobbled by a rigged land market", Centre for European Reform, 13 February 2013 http://centreforeuropeanreform.blogspot.co.uk/2013/02/why-british-prosperity-is-hobbled-by.html 445 Idem 446 Idem 447 Idem 448 http://www.economist.com/news/finance-and-economics/21592646-monetary-policy-may-call-end-house-price-party-castles-made-sand 449 Idem 450 http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/sep/25/merkel-germany-europe-tortoise-us-china 451 http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/4f975822-1405-11e3-9289-00144feabdc0.html 452 http://www.economist.com/node/21552567 453 Eurostat, gross domestic product at market prices, volume, index 2005 =100.

pages: 505 words: 127,542

If You're So Smart, Why Aren't You Happy? by Raj Raghunathan

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Broken windows theory, business process, cognitive dissonance, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, fundamental attribution error, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, Phillip Zimbardo, placebo effect, science of happiness, Skype, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thorstein Veblen, Tony Hsieh, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

., “Immune Neglect: A Source of Durability Bias in Affective Forecasting,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75(3) (1998): 617. For misforecasting in consumer contexts, see V. M. Patrick, D. J. MacInnis, and C. W. Park, “Not as Happy as I Thought I’d Be? Affective Misforecasting and Product Evaluations,” Journal of Consumer Research 33(4) (2007): 479–89. For a more reader-friendly version, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affective_forecasting. we . . . give . . . negative events from . . . past a positive spin: See A. Keinan and R. Kivetz, “Productivity Orientation and the Consumption of Collectable Experiences,” Journal of Consumer Research 37(6) (2011): 935–50. It is precisely because: For findings on how women are less willing to have another child during childbirth, but change their mind later, see J.

Norton, 2012), and J. M. Schwartz, and S. Begley, The Mind and the Brain (New York: Springer Science and Business Media, 2009). 100,000 students on January 1, 2016: Projection based on expected growth in number of enrolled learners in the course. the world’s most popular MOOC: Coursera is an initiative of Stanford University to democratize education. You can learn more about it by going to: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coursera. top-ten list of Coursera courses: In terms of number of “active learners” (which refers to the number of students who have watched at least one lecture). class-central.com: See https://www.class-central.com/provider/coursera?sort=rating-up. As of October 27, 2015, the course ranked #4 of all Coursera courses offered up until that point. I regularly get e-mails from students: You can read many of the reviews for the course by going to www.class-central.com/mooc/2860/coursera-a-life-of-happiness-and-fulfillment#course-all-reviews.

the field of positive psychology: For more on the origins and objectives of positive psychology, see M. E. Seligman, T. A. Steen, N. Park, and C. Peterson, “Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions,” American Psychologist 60(5) (2005): 410–21, and S. L. Gable and J. Haidt, “What (and Why) Is Positive Psychology?” Review of General Psychology 9(2) (2005): 103–10. For a more user-friendly version, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Positive_psychology. the tendency to find closure or meaning: Work by Pennebaker and others suggests that the attempt to find meaning and closure for events, even negative ones, helps improve happiness levels. See J. W. Pennebaker, “Putting Stress into Words: Health, Linguistic, and Therapeutic Implications,” Behaviour Research and Therapy 31(6) (1993): 539–48. For related research, see J.

pages: 231 words: 71,248

Shipping Greatness by Chris Vander Mey

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corporate raider, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fudge factor, Google Chrome, Google Hangouts, Gordon Gekko, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, performance metric, recommendation engine, Skype, slashdot, sorting algorithm, source of truth, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, web application

It’s incredibly easy to sign up—you use your Facebook account—and your landing page is great because Pinterest suggests people for you to follow and fills your page with lovely images that you care about. Here’s a tip to help ensure you experience what new users experience: when you hit feature complete and again when you hit code complete, make sure you delete all your data and accounts and start from scratch. * * * [3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uncertainty_principle Chapter 6. How to Measure Greatness YOU CAN FREQUENTLY ASSESS the quality of a team by the quality of their metrics. Metrics are the lifeblood of a team lead because everything in your job is a negotiation, and metrics provide a rational foundation for discussion. If you don’t back up your statements with metrics, you’ll sound like Animal the Muppet. You also need metrics because you are constantly making judgment calls, and good data creates good (or at least defensible) judgment.

Let’s all get together with the boss and get on the same page. We’re having a good time. We made these fun demos! Sounds good. (…and go talk to senior management. There’s no point in asking a team that’s happily playing catch to win the World Series unless that’s actually the stated goal.) Thank God you’re here. You’re welcome. What did the last person do that helped you so much? * * * [4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MacArthur_Maze Chapter 9. How to Build Great, Shippable Technology IF YOU WANT TO ship a great product quickly, you must be able to ask insightful questions, provide good directional guidance, and make smart technical decisions about what you must build now and what you can build later. You must also be able to evaluate and hire engineering managers. Therefore, you must understand your technology at least as well as you understand the oil in your car.

Just as we discussed having the answer service and the decider service return results independently, you too should ask if there are parts of the system that can be decoupled. For example, if you can load the advertising separately, such that those systems can function fully independently, you’ll have a much more resilient system, and users will be able to complete their primary task even if the advertising system is broken. * * * [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore%27s_law Chapter 10. How to Be a Great Shipping Communicator IF YOU ARE TRYING to ship software, you almost certainly have a ton of information to disseminate, statuses to gather, checkups to perform, and other details to sweat. You’re going to need to send a lot of email and run a lot of meetings. That’s the bad news, but it’s why they pay you. The good news is that it’s not hard to be great at either one, if you have a little technique.

pages: 271 words: 77,448

Humans Are Underrated: What High Achievers Know That Brilliant Machines Never Will by Geoff Colvin

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Ada Lovelace, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Black Swan, call centre, capital asset pricing model, commoditize, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, Freestyle chess, future of work, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial cluster, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, job automation, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Narrative Science, new economy, rising living standards, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs

A striking bit of data from the Cleveland Clinic’s experience . . . James Merlino, Service Fanatics: How to Build Superior Patient Experience the Cleveland Clinic Way (McGraw Hill Education, 2015). CHAPTER SIX The F-4 Phantom fighter jet . . . See http://web.archive.org/web/20110604105623/http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/military/f4/firsts.htm. Also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McDonnell_Douglas_F-4_Phantom_II, which directs to various statistical sources. Their top-of-the-line plane, the MiG-21 . . . See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikoyan-Gurevich_MiG-21. In the first few years of the Vietnam War . . . Description of the history and operations of the Navy Fighter Weapons School, and later quotations from “Mugs” McKeown, are from “‘You Fight Like You Train’ and TOP GUN Crews Train Hard,” Armed Forces Journal International, May 1974, pp. 25–26, 34.

CHAPTER SEVEN Paul Azinger had two problems . . . Azinger tells the story of captaining the 2008 U.S. Ryder Cup team in Cracking the Code (Looking Glass Books, 2010), which he cowrote with Ron Braund, a clinical therapist who helped him devise his strategy. They had lost five of the six previous tournaments . . . Data on Ryder Cup history and players are from www.rydercup.com and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryder_Cup. His doctors had ordered him not to play . . . Reported in Hank Haney, The Big Miss: My Years Coaching Tiger Woods (Three Rivers Press, 2012). “No grand idea was ever born in a conference . . .” http://classiclit.about.com/od/fitzgeraldfsco/a/F-Scott-Fitzgerald-Quotes_2.htm. Or as the great ad man David Ogilvy put it . . . Reported in Kenneth Roman, The King of Madison Avenue: David Ogilvy and the Making of Modern Advertising (Palgrave Macmillan, 2009).

pages: 265 words: 74,807

Our Robots, Ourselves: Robotics and the Myths of Autonomy by David A. Mindell

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Air France Flight 447, autonomous vehicles, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Chris Urmson, digital map, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fudge factor, index card, John Markoff, Mars Rover, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, telepresence, telerobotics, trade route, US Airways Flight 1549, William Langewiesche, zero-sum game

Ehrhard, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the United States Armed Services: A Comparative Study of Weapon System Innovation (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000), 16. their arrow-straight trajectories: David Mindell, Between Human and Machine: Feedback, Control, and Computing Before Cybernetics (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000). A few even flew in Iraq in 2003: “Ryan Firebee,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryan_Firebee, accessed June 16, 2015. little evidence of this “white scarf syndrome”: Ehrhard, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, 41. “only the obscure novelty of a mechanical feat”: Ibid., 652, 674. Karem said in a recent interview: Mark Harris, “The Dronefather,” The Economist 405, no. 8813 (December 2012). Also see Richard Whittle, “The Man Who Invented the Predator,” Air & Space (April 2013).

“US Military Announces New Medal for Cyberwarfare and Drone Operation,” The Verge, http://www.theverge.com/2013/2/13/3985802/us-military-announces-distinguished-warfare-medal-for-cyberwarfare-drones, accessed May 17, 2014. “US Defense Secretary Downgrades Drone Medal after Outcry,” The Verge, http://www.theverge.com/2013/4/15/4228112/defense-secretary-downgrades-drone-medal-distinguishing-device, accessed May 17, 2014. “Distinguished Warfare Medal,” Wikipedia, May 4, 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Distinguished_Warfare_Medal&oldid=607013488, accessed May 16, 2014. “Medals for Drone Warriors Canceled,” New York Times, April 15, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/16/us/politics/medals-for-drone-warriors-canceled.html, accessed July 23, 2014. “whether there isn’t danger enough to give us glory”: William Keeler, quoted in David Mindell, Iron Coffin: War, Technology, and Experience Aboard the USS Monitor, 2nd edition (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012).

Curtis Karnow, “The Application of Traditional Tort Theory to Embodied Machine Intelligence,” paper presented at the Robotics and Law Conference, Center for Internet and Society, Stanford Law School, April 2013. Also see the blog of the Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Committee of the American Bar Association, http://apps.americanbar.org/dch/committee.cfm?com=ST248008. The certification approach for software on life-critical systems: See, for example, DO-178B, the software certification standard required by the FAA: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DO-178B. define levels of automation in cars: Erik Stayton, “Driverless Dreams: Narratives, Ideologies, and the Shape of the Automated Car,” Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2015. “Navy Drones with a Mind of Their Own”: James Paduano, et al., “TALOS: An Unmanned Cargo Delivery System for Rotorcraft Landing to Unprepared Sites.” Submitted to American Helicopter Society 2015 Annual Forum, May 2015.

Everydata: The Misinformation Hidden in the Little Data You Consume Every Day by John H. Johnson

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Black Swan, business intelligence, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, Mercator projection, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, obamacare, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, publication bias, QR code, randomized controlled trial, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, statistical model, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thomas Bayes, Tim Cook: Apple, wikimedia commons, Yogi Berra

Peter Coy, “FAQ: Reinhart, Rogoff, and the Excel Error That Changed History,” Bloomberg Business website, April 18, 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/ bw/articles/2013‑04‑18/­faq-​­reinhart-​­rogoff-​­and-​­the-​­excel-​­error-​­that-​­changed -​­history. 29. “Wikipedia: About,” Wikipedia, accessed June 13, 2015, https://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/Wikipedia:About. 30. That said, even when the data does come from a trusted media source, you should at least recognize the fact that a few large media conglomerates are responsible for much of the news and entertainment you consume on a daily basis, which could have a significant effect on what you see and hear. 31. “Ten Things You May Not Know About Wikipedia,” Wikipedia, accessed June 13, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Ten_things_you_may_not _know_about_Wikipedia#You_can.27t_actually_change_anything_in_Wikipedia .E2.80.A6. 32. “Food Product Dating,” United States Department of Agriculture website, accessed June 16, 2015, http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/­food -​­safety-​­education/­g et-​­answers/­f ood-​­safety-​­fact-​­sheets/­f ood-​­labeling/­f ood -​­product-​­dating/­food-​­product-​­dating. 33.

Wisegeek website, accessed August 11, 2015, http://www.wisegeek.com/­what-​­does-​­cherry-​­picking-​­mean.htm. 9. Edward J. Fox and Stephen J. Hoch, “­Cherry-​­Picking,” Journal of Marketing 69, no. 1 (2005): 46–62. 10. John Allen Paulos, “Why Do We Believe That Catastrophes Come in Threes?,” ABC News website, July 5, 2009, http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/Whos Counting/story?id=7988416. 11. “2009: Deaths,” Wikipedia website, accessed April 25, 2015, http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/2009#Deaths. And no, we don’t recommend Wikipedia as a primary source. 12. And, in case you’re wondering, the three teams that won game one and went on to win the World Series were the ’87 Twins, ’84 Tigers, and the ’80 Phillies. “1988 World ­Series-​­Game 1‑Bottom of the 9th,” Dailymotion website, accessed April 25, 2015, http://www.dailymotion.com/video/­xd2fhk_1988 -​­world-​­series-​­game‑1‑­bottom-​­of_sport. 13.

Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World by Cal Newport

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8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business climate, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, new economy, Nicholas Carr, popular electronics, remote working, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, statistical model, the medium is the message, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

The New Yorker, January 25, 2013. http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/books/2013/01/what-nate-silver-gets-wrong.html. Information about David Heinemeier Hansson comes from the following websites: • David Heinemeier Hanson. http://david.heinemeierhansson.com/. • Lindberg, Oliver. “The Secrets Behind 37signals’ Success.” TechRadar, September 6, 2010. http://www.techradar.com/us/news/internet/the-secrets-behind-37signals-success-712499. • “OAK Racing.” Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OAK_Racing. For more on John Doerr’s deals: “John Doerr.” Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/profile/john-doerr/. The $3.3 billion net worth of John Doerr was retrieved from the following Forbes.com profile page on April 10, 2014: http://www.forbes.com/profile/john-doerr/. “We are in the early throes of a Great Restructuring” and “Our technologies are racing ahead”: from page 9 of Brynjolfsson, Erik, and Andrew McAfee.

“I’ll choose my targets with care”: Ibid., 14. A Psychological Argument for Depth For more on the experience sampling method, read the original article here: Larson, Reed, and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. “The Experience Sampling Method.” New Directions for Methodology of Social & Behavioral Science. 15 (1983): 41-56. You can also find a short summary of the technique at Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experience_sampling_method. “The best moments usually occur”: from page 3 of Csikszentmihalyi, Flow. “Ironically, jobs are actually easier to enjoy”: Ibid., 162. “jobs should be redesigned”: Ibid., 157. A Philosophical Argument for Depth “The world used to be”: from page xi of Dreyfus, Hubert, and Sean Dorrance Kelly. All Things Shining: Reading the Western Classics to Find Meaning in a Secular Age.

Richard Koch’s 1998 book, The 80/20 Principle (New York: Crown, 1998), seems to have helped reintroduce the idea to a business market. Tim Ferriss’s 2007 mega-seller, The 4-Hour Workweek (New York: Crown, 2007), popularized it further, especially among the technology entrepreneur community. The Wikipedia page on the Pareto principle has a good summary of various places where this general idea applies (I drew many of my examples from here): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pareto_principle. Quit Social Media “Everything’s more exciting when it’s a party” and general information on Ryan Nicodemus’s “packing party”: “Day 3: Packing Party.” The Minimalists. http://www.theminimalists.com/21days/day3/. Average number of Twitter followers statistic comes from: “Average Twitter User Is an American Woman with an iPhone and 208 Followers.” Telegraph, October 11, 2012. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/news/9601327/Average-Twitter-user-is-an-an-American-woman-with-an-iPhone-and-208-followers.html.

pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

Michel, “Get Off the Bus.” 34. http://www.propublica.org/special/reportingnetwork-signup 35. http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2008/03/1000_true_fans.php 36. http://www.cjr.org/feature/the_josh_marshall_plan.php 37. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jeff-cohen/josh-marshall-on-the-grow_b_131571.html 38. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jeff-cohen/josh-marshall-on-the-grow_b_131571.html 39. http://www.niemanlab.org/encyclo/talking-points-memo/ 40. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Five_pillars 41. http://blog.oregonlive.com/mapesonpolitics/2010/04/kitzhaber_opponent_of_gorge_ca.html 42. http://storify.com/acarvin/rep-gifford 43. http://storify.com/jcstearns/tracking-journalist-arrests-during-the-occupy-prot 3. Big Political Parties 1. Jack Gilbert, “Failing and Flying,” Refusing Heaven (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2005), 18. 2. http://www.nytimes.com/2000/02/13/weekinreview/the-nation-courting-web-head-cash.html 3.

v=7GSmDsAET7I 29. http://thecable.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/05/11/hagel_reagan _wouldn_t_identify_with_today_s_gop 30. https://secure.actblue.com/about 31. http://www.cnn.com/2011/11/07/tech/web/meetup-2012-campaign-sifry/index.html 32. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.01/dean.html 33. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/06/jobs/06boss.html?_r=1 34. Ibid. 35. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Americans_Elect#Ballot_status 36. http://www.americanselect.org/ 37. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/06/sunday-review/direct-democracy-2-0.html 38. http://transparency.globalvoicesonline.org/ 39. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/04/04/110404fa_fact_ioffe?currentPage=all 40. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-16057045 41. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203986604577257321601811092.html 42. http://techpresident.com/news/wegov/22198/culture-hacking-how-one-project-changing-transparency-chile 43. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?

page_id=401. 24. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.11/brands.html 25. http://blogs.forrester.com/jp_gownder/11-10-04-brand_loyalty_is_declining_total_product_experience_chains_can_help 26. http://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/reviews/preview/local-motors-rally-fighter-off-road-test-drive 27. http://www.wired.com/techbiz/media/news/2005/05/67612?currentPage=all 28. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usage_share_of_web_browsers#Historical_usage_share 29. http://www.orionmagazine.org/index.php/articles/article/6491 30. http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-05-10/more-farms-vie-for-the-1-billion-spent-at-farmers-markets 31. http://www.indyweek.com/BigBite/archives/2011/07/18/crop-mob-raids-66-cities-nationwide 32. http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/pbull/job_creating_solar_energy_is_o.html 33. http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Politics/2011/1107/Bank-Transfer-Day-How-much-impact-did-it-have 34. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/17/fashion/17etsy.html?

pages: 257 words: 64,285

The End of Traffic and the Future of Transport: Second Edition by David Levinson, Kevin Krizek

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Chris Urmson, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Hangouts, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the printing press, jitney, John Markoff, labor-force participation, lifelogging, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Network effects, Occam's razor, oil shock, place-making, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, the built environment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Safety Science 59: pp. 154-162 101 Hughes, Jonathan, Christopher Knittel, Daniel Sperling (2006) Evidence of a shift in the short-run price elasticity of gasoline demand. NBER Working Paper No 12530. Sept. 2006. http://www.nber.org/papers/w12530 102 Figure 3.9 Source: Schoner, Jessica, Greg Lindsey, and David Levinson (2015) Travel Behavior Over Time. MnDOT Report. 103 Occam's Razor, named for William of Ockham (1287-1347) says "among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occam's_razor 104 This is discussed in more detail in Garrison, W. L., & Levinson, D. M. (2014). The Transportation Experience: Policy, Planning, and Deployment. Oxford University Press. 105 Figure 3.10 Source: Historian, US Postal Service (2015-03) Pieces of Mail Handled, Number of Post Offices, Income, and Expenses Since 1789. https://about.usps.com/who-we-are/postal-history/pieces-of-mail-since-1789.pdf 106 Kurzweil, Ray (2005) The Singularity is Near: When Human Transcend Biology.

Photo by David Levinson. 134 It has been suggested that Daimler Benz subsidizes Car2Go in the US, using Smart Fortwo vehicles because it gives them credit on the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards regulating automakers average fleet fuel economy. 135 Boies, Adam (2016) Electrification and Alternative Fuels (Chapter 6) in Levinson, David; Boies, Adam; Cao, Jason; Fan, Yingling. (2016). The Transportation Futures Project: Planning for Technology Change. Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota. Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Digital Conservancy, http://hdl.handle.net/11299/177640. 136 The standard for EV charging in North America is SAE J1772 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SAE_J1772. The standards for fast chargers (superchargers) are still more up in the air. The Tesla Supercharger is not compatible with others e.g. See Kane, Mark (2013) "DC Quick Charging Battle Just Beginning: CHAdeMO Vs. SAE Combo Vs. Tesla Supercharger" InsideEVs http://insideevs.com/dc-quick-charging-battle-just-beginning-chademo-vs-sae-combo-vs-tesla-supercharger/ 137 Battery swap was first proposed in 1900 by L.R.

Source US Census Statistical Abstract http://www.census.gov/prod/2/gen/96statab/app4.pdf and US Federal Highway Administration: Highway Statistics http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2012/vmt422c.cfm 223 See: http://www.strongtowns.org/journal/2015/3/2/transportations-missing-middle 224 See taxonomy of modes at: http://transportationist.org/category/transportation/ 225 Car seats that fit your children is another factor of personal space that favors ownership. 226 List of metros, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_metro_systems 227 Like anything, different surveys with different assumptions produce different transit mode shares. For a comparison see Polzin, S. E., & Chu, X. (2005). A closer look at public transportation mode share trends. Journal of Transportation and Statistics, 8(3), 41-53. Current numbers are reported by the US Bureau of Transportation Statistics, National Transportation Statistics, Table 1-41 "Principal Means of Transportation to Work" http://www.rita.dot.gov/bts/sites/rita.dot.gov.bts/files/publications/national_transportation_statistics/html/table_01_41.html 228 Expenditure data from 1995 to 2009 can be found US Bureau of Transportation Statistics, National Transportation Statistics, Table 3-35 "Transportation Expenditures by Mode and Level of Government from Own Funds, Fiscal Year" http://www.rita.dot.gov/bts/sites/rita.dot.gov.bts/files/publications/national_transportation_statistics/html/table_03_35.html 229 Other simple traffic engineering tools to make on-road transit move faster include location of stops so that vehicles stay in the lane (admittedly blocking cars), but board via all doors simultaneously, with all passengers having prepaid or paying on-board electronically, thereby greatly speeding boarding times (most time is lost in payment).

pages: 692 words: 167,950

The Ripple Effect: The Fate of Fresh Water in the Twenty-First Century by Alex Prud'Homme

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, carbon footprint, Chance favours the prepared mind, clean water, commoditize, corporate raider, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, hydraulic fracturing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, megacity, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, renewable energy credits, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, William Langewiesche

See also the History Channel, “Sandhogs”: http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/shows/tunnellers/episode-guide.html. 123 tunnel-boring machines: http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/tbmfactsheet.pdf. See also Sewell Chan, “Tunnelers Hit Something Big: A Milestone,” New York Times, August 10, 2006. 123 corruption plagued the Board of Water Supply: Grann, “City of Water.” This was confirmed to me by a source who asked not to be identified. 123 $4 billion to the new tunnel: Chan, “Tunnelers Hit Something Big.” 124 the world had 18 “megacities”: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Megacity. 124 In 2007, 336 cities worldwide: Ibid., and Thomas Brinkhof, “The Principal Agglomerations of the World,” www.citypopulation.de. 124 in 2008, for the first time in history: UN Population Fund (UNFPA): State of World Population 2007: http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2007/english/introduction.html. 124 As of 2010, China alone had 43 cities: Christina Larson, “Chicago on the Yangtze,” Foreign Policy, September/October 2010. 125 Bruce Rolen: “As supplies dry up, growers pass on farming and sell water,” US Water News Online, February 2008. 125 Perth, Australia: Patrick Barta, “Amid Water Shortage, Australia Looks to the Sea,” Wall Street Journal, March 11, 2008. 125 America’s total water use: Susan S.

Paul Dalby: David Beasley, “Lessons from Australia: Drought Can Help Georgia Economy,” GlobalAtlanta, February 2, 2009. 137 “virtual water”: Stockholm International Water Institute, 2008: http://www.siwi.org/sa/node.asp?node=282. 138 Senator Bill Heffernan: Tim Johnston, “A drought alters Australian ideas on global warming,” International Herald Tribune, November 7, 2006. 138 Lisa Jackson: John M. Broder, “E.P.A. Clears Way for Greenhouse Gas Rules,” New York Times, April 17, 2009. CHAPTER 13: REVENUE STREAMS 139 In its water laws: For an overview, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_law_in_the_United_States. 141 NAWAPA: Marc Reisner, Cadillac Desert (New York: Penguin Books, 1993), pp. 487–94. Michael Campana, “Canadian Water Exports: Will NAWAPA Return?” WaterWired, January 25, 2008: http://aquadoc.typepad.com/waterwired/2008/01/kennedy-to-cana.html?cid=119725788. 141 approximately 1 million miles of pipeline: “Water Trivia Facts,” US Environmental Protection Agency: http://water.epa.gov/learn/kids/drinkingwater/water_trivia_facts.cfm. 142 Roberts Tunnel: Chris Woodka, “Plumbing the Rockies,” Pueblo Chieftain, December 21, 2009. 142 national water fees average about $458: “Water on Tap: What You Need to Know,” US Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/wot/pdfs/book_waterontap_full.pdf. 142 Denver’s expanding suburbs charge $10,000: David Olinger and Chuck Plunkett, “Suburban aggression,” Denver Post, November 22, 2005. 142 Dave Miller: “Gunnison River Basin: Union Park Reservoir,” Coyote Gulch blog, August 20, 2010: http://coyotegulch.wordpress.com/2010/08/20/gunnison-river-basin-union-park-reservoir/. 143 Bob Moran: Author’s interviews with Robert Moran, 2006–10. 143 Maurice Strong (pronounced “Morris”): Moran interviews.

See also Leslie Carlson, “Water Colors,” Los Angeles Times, November 22, 2005. 157 dust storms are said to remove: Molly Peterson, “Owens Lake dust kicks up questions about DWP’s eastern Sierra efforts,” Southern California Public Radio, December 12, 2010. 157 LADWP has built a $500 million sprinkler system: “DWP Chief seeks delay in Owens Valley dust clean-up,” Sierra Wave, March 16, 2010. 157 mayor Antonio Villaraigosa: Deborah Amos, “LA Returns Water to the Owens Valley,” National Public Radio, December 7, 2006. 158 Michael Prather: Author’s tour with Michael Prather, May 5, 2007. 158 sixty thousand acre-feet of water a year: Louis Sahagun, “Bird Census at Owens Lake shows nature returning,” Los Angeles Times, April 19, 2009. 158 Los Angeles’s population: “List of most highly populated countries,” Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_most_ highly_populated_countries. 159 In 1990, citizens in the Sierra foothills: John Walton, “Another Owens Valley,” Owens Valley Committee, vol. 5, no. 1 (Summer 2009). 159 Honey Lake Valley fought against: Ibid. 159 Fish Springs Ranch, Dr. Harry Brown and Franklin Raines: Author’s tour of the pipeline with Dr. Harry Brown, May 8, 2007. CHAPTER 15: THE CITY THAT WASN’T SUPPOSED TO BE 160 starting in 1999, the Southwest: US Global Change Research Program: http://downloads.climatescience.gov/usimpacts/pdfs/southwest.pdf. 160 Lake Mead was formed in 1935: Bureau of Reclamation, Lower Colorado Region: http://www.usbr.gov/lc/hooverdam/faqs/lakefaqs.html.

pages: 95 words: 6,448

Mending the Net: Toward Universal Basic Incomes by Chris Oestereich

basic income, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, profit motive, rent-seeking, The Future of Employment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, universal basic income

[12] Davis, A, and Mishel, L, 2014, “CEO Pay Continues to Rise as Typical Workers Are Paid Less,” http://www.epi.org/publication/ceo-pay-continues-to-rise/. [13] Proctor, B, Semega, J, and Kollar, M, 2016, “Income and Poverty in the United States: 2015 - Current Population Reports,” http.s://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2016/demo/p60-256.pdf, 9. [14] Vogel, P, 2016, “The Future of Work?” http://globalfocusmagazine.com/the-future-of-work/. [15] Wikipedia, 2016, “List of recessions in the United States,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_recessions_in_the_United_States. [16] Scharf, K, and Smith, S, 2016, “Peer-to-peer fundraising and ‘relational altruism’ in charitable giving,” http://voxeu.org/article/peer-peer-fundraising-and-relational-altruism-charitable-giving. [17] DeLong, B, 2016, “Musings on ‘Just Deserts’ and the Opening of Plato's Republic,” http://www.bradford-delong.com/2016/09/musings-on-just-deserts-and-the-opening-of-platos-republic-greg-mankiw-defending-the-1-proposes-what-he-cal.html

pages: 39 words: 4,665

Data Source Handbook by Pete Warden

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en.wikipedia.org, Menlo Park, openstreetmap, phenotype, social graph

It’s a REST/JSON interface, and it doesn’t require any authentication or developer signup to access: curl "http://friendfeed.com/api/feed/user?emails=tim%40oreilly.com" { ... "user":{"profileUrl":"http://friendfeed.com/timoreilly", "matchedEmail":"tim@oreilly.com", "nickname":"timoreilly", "id":"d85e8470-25c5-11dd-9ea1-003048343a40", "name":"Tim O'Reilly"} }]} curl "http://friendfeed.com/api/user/timoreilly/profile" {"status":"public","name":"Tim O'Reilly", ... "services":[ {"url":"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blog","iconUrl":"...", "id":"blog","profileUrl":"http://radar.oreilly.com","name":"Blog"}, {"username":"timoreilly","name":"Disqus","url":"http://www.disqus.com/", "profileUrl":"http://www.disqus.com/people/timoreilly/","iconUrl":"...","id":"disqus"}, {"username":"timoreilly","name":"Flickr","url":"http://www.flickr.com/", "profileUrl":"http://www.flickr.com/photos/36521959321%40N01/", "iconUrl":"..."

pages: 449 words: 123,459

The Infinity Puzzle by Frank Close

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Arthur Eddington, dark matter, El Camino Real, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, Isaac Newton, Murray Gell-Mann, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Simon Singh

Strong force: Fundamental force, responsible for binding quarks and antiquarks to make hadrons, and gripping protons and neutrons in atomic nuclei; described by QCD theory. SU2, SU3, and U1: SU2 is an example of the “special unitary group” of 2 × 2 unitary matrices (i.e., the sum of their diagonal members is zero—“traceless”—and their determinant is one). SU3 analogously involves 3 × 3 matrices. See “special unitary group” at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special _unitary_group. For U1, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unitary_group. For simple examples of matrices, see pages 112 and 114 of The New Cosmic Onion by Frank Close. SUSY (supersymmetry): Theory uniting fermions and bosons, where every known particle is partnered by a (yet to be discovered) particle whose spin differs from it by one-half. Symmetry: If a theory or process does not change when certain operations are performed on it, then we say that it possesses a symmetry with respect to those operations.

Polyakov, e-mail to the author, September 17, 2010. 21. A. Migdal and A. Polyakov, November 1965, English version published in Soviet Physics, vol. 24, p. 91 (1967). Their paper makes no mention of Higgs or the others in this chapter. 22. G. Guralnik, e-mail to the author, November 16, 2010. Gilbert’s paper is D. G. Boulware and W. Gilbert, Physical Review, vol. 126, p. 1563 (1962). 23. Guralnik’s memoir is available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Higgs _mechanism and Gerald S. Guralnik, “The History of the Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble Development of the Theory of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Gauge Particles,” International Journal of Modern Physics, vol. A24, p. 2601 (2009). Quotes are from this and the letter to the CERN Courier, December 8 2008, http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/36683. 24. G. Guralnik, e-mail to the author, November 16, 2010. 25.

Llewellyn Smith, interview by the author, March 11, 2010. 21. Llewellyn Smith, Nature, vol. 448, p. 281 (2007). 22. Llewellyn Smith, interview by the author, March 11, 2010. 23. Llewellyn Smith, Nature, vol. 448, p. 281 (2007). 24. Llewellyn Smith, interview by the author, March 11, 2010. chapter  1. Technicolor theory blossomed in the mid-1970s. For a description and list of references, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technicolor_(physics). 2. I am using Higgs Boson as shorthand for whatever manifestation(s) of the field nature may present to us. 3. As an electron accelerator. In the 1970s SLAC provided beams for SPEAR, which broke new ground in the field of electron-positron annihilation, notably with the discovery of charm and of the tau lepton. In the 1990s its very high-energy electron-positron collisions enabled study of the Z 0. 4.

pages: 597 words: 119,204

Website Optimization by Andrew B. King

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AltaVista, bounce rate, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, information retrieval, iterative process, medical malpractice, Network effects, performance metric, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, Steve Jobs, web application

ora: Simulating Search Engines with Lynx The Lynx browser is a free, open source, text-mode browser that sees web pages like search engine crawlers do; that is, it sees only the textual portion of the page. A Lynx viewer is a web-based service designed to view web pages using the Lynx browser. Lynx notation is largely self-explanatory, but note that Lynx indicates a link by using a bracket around the number of the link on the page; for example, [2] signifies the second link on a page. For more information on Lynx see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lynx_(web_browser) and http://www.yellowpipe.com/yis/tools/ (includes a Lynx viewer). As a comparison to the earlier view, the HTML for the old home page began like this: <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Dr. Ken Cirka, DMD</TITLE> <LINK REL="StyleSheet" HREF="/style.css" TYPE="text/css"> <meta name="Description" content="Five star service in dental care is abundant in Dr. Cirka's cosmetic and general dentistry office in Center City Philadelphia

Although this may improve speed and remove some bottlenecks in parallel requests, the impact on servers is yet to be fully understood. Given the likely changes in simultaneous request restrictions, developers should proceed with caution. Given the previous discussion of utilizing additional domains to increase image request parallelization, you might be tempted to use the same trick here, but it will not work. You see, Ajax falls under the security policy known as the Same-Origin Policy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same_origin_policy), which limits you to making requests from the same domain name that served the page. There is currently no way around the two-requests-at-a-time limit to a single fully qualified domain name when making a standard XHR request. Of course, if you use a script tag communication mechanism, you won't have this problem, but as you are no longer using an XHR, you won't have as much control over the request and response.

This turns on the following styles: /* Dynamically enabled classes (artz_tabbox_init) */ .artz .artz-tb .tabs h3, .artz .artz-tb .tabs .tab {display:none;} .artz .artz-tb .tabs .on, .artz .dtabs {display: inline;} So, if you do not have JavaScript, the artz class never gets applied, and thus these styles never get applied. The beauty of this technique is that all of the CSS stays in the CSS, and JavaScript toggles accessibility and applies the artz class that controls visibility. The following code does that trick: tb.parentNode.className+=' artz'; tb.className+=' artz'; For a working example and other accessible progressive enhancement techniques, see http://www.artzstudio.com/artz/ and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_enhancement. Load JavaScript on demand (remote procedure calls) A common Ajax pattern is to load resources on demand as they are needed. You can do the same using only JavaScript without the need for Ajax. Using the DOM you can create a script element and append it to the head element, like this: function include_js(file) { if(document.getElementByTagName) { var html_doc = document.getElementsByTagName('head')[0]; var js = document.createElement('script'); js.setAttribute('src', file); js.setAttribute('type', 'text/javascript'); html_doc.appendChild(js); js.onreadystatechange = function ( ) { // for IE if (js.readyState == 'complete') { alert('JS onreadystate fired'); // return true; } } js.onload = function ( ) { // for non-IE alert('JS onload fired'); // return true; } return false; } else alert('getElementsByTagName not supported'); } ...

pages: 298 words: 43,745

Understanding Sponsored Search: Core Elements of Keyword Advertising by Jim Jansen

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AltaVista, barriers to entry, Black Swan, bounce rate, business intelligence, butterfly effect, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, first-price auction, information asymmetry, information retrieval, intangible asset, inventory management, life extension, linear programming, megacity, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, PageRank, place-making, price mechanism, psychological pricing, random walk, Schrödinger's Cat, sealed-bid auction, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sentiment analysis, social web, software as a service, stochastic process, telemarketer, the market place, The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, yield management

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is another concept without basis from the psychology domain.1 The same goes for Bloom’s Taxonomy in the area of learning.2 The Three Laws of Robotics is a pure science fiction creation from Isaac Asimov.3 In the area of Web searching, there is no theoretical grounding for the informational-navigational-transactional categories [33]. In each of these areas, however, the paradigms caught on and shaped future thought, practice, and research. ╇ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslow’s_hierarchy_of_needs ╇ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bloom’s_Taxonomy 3 ╇ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Laws_of_Robotics 1 2 So, what could account for this widely accepted model not accurately describing actual consumer behavior? One possible explanation is the principle of least effort [10]. Built on information-processing theory [21, 22], the buying funnel is a rational process that assumes potential consumers act rationally and expend resources to find the optimal solution.

., filthy words) are seven English words that the American comedian George Carlin used in a 1972 monologue, “Seven Words You Can’t Say on Television.” The seven words became symbolic of both the U.S. government regulation of the national airwaves and efforts to limit lurid content during family television-viewing time, illustrating the impact and varied meaning that these terms can have. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_dirty_words A quick note on terminology: A keyphrase is a set of one or more keywords that an advertiser selects to trigger an ad. The ad is triggered when a searcher enters a query that matches the keyphrase. A query is a set of one or more terms (a.k.a., keyterms) submitted by a searcher to a search engine. So, we are talking about the same concept, except from different perspectives, as shown Table 3.1.

Django Book by Matt Behrens

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Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), create, read, update, delete, database schema, distributed revision control, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, full text search, loose coupling, MVC pattern, revision control, Ruby on Rails, school choice, slashdot, web application

Examples: 1 becomes “1st”. 2 becomes “2nd”. 3 becomes “3rd”. 254 becomes “254th”. You can pass in either an integer or a string representation of an integer. Markup Filters The package django.contrib.markup includes a handful of Django template filters, each of which implements a common markup languages: textile: Implements Textile (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Textile_%28markup_language%29) markdown: Implements Markdown (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Markdown) restructuredtext: Implements ReStructured Text (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ReStructuredText) In each case, the filter expects formatted markup as a string and returns a string representing the marked-up text. For example, the textile filter converts text that is marked up in Textile format to HTML: {% load markup %} {{ object.content|textile }} To activate these filters, add 'django.contrib.markup' to your INSTALLED_APPS setting.

(This happens because CsrfMiddleware uses a regular expression to add the csrfmiddlewaretoken field to your HTML before the page is sent to the client, and the regular expression sometimes cannot handle wacky HTML.) If you suspect this might be happening, just view the source in your Web browser to see whether csrfmiddlewaretoken was inserted into your <form>. For more CSRF information and examples, visit http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CSRF Humanizing Data The package django.contrib.humanize holds a set of Django template filters useful for adding a “human touch” to data. To activate these filters, add 'django.contrib.humanize' to your INSTALLED_APPS. Once you’ve done that, use {% load humanize %} in a template, and you’ll have access to the filters described in the following sections. apnumber For numbers 1 through 9, this filter returns the number spelled out.

pages: 310 words: 34,482

Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time by Steven Osborn

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3D printing, A Pattern Language, additive manufacturing, air freight, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, c2.com, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mason jar, means of production, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, Oculus Rift, patent troll, popular electronics, QR code, Rodney Brooks, Shenzhen was a fishing village, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software as a service, special economic zone, speech recognition, subscription business, telerobotics, urban planning, web application, Y Combinator

In addition to his notable career as a computer programmer, Ward is a capable electrical engineer who enjoys building weekend projects at home to share with the local Dorkbot group in Portland, Oregon. Steven Osborn: So Ward, have you always had this natural curiosity for inventing things? Ward Cunningham: Yeah, absolutely. I tell people I’m a child of the Sputnik era. The Sputnik era was when kids that showed any interest in math and science or technology were really encouraged, even if that interest was a little 1 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_design_pattern en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extreme_programming 2 178 Chapter 14 | Ward Cunningham: Inventor, Wiki dangerous—playing with electricity, high voltages, throwing sparks, things like that. I would discourage my children from doing those things, but my parents didn’t discourage me. I have an older brother who was really the kind of mad scientist personality in high school. He had friends that formed a network where they’d hear about things and do experiments, and I was the younger brother tagging along.

The boards have very focused reasons for them, and I really like those. Every now and then I see weird things on the silk screen and want to know more. There was one that was a time-travel controller. I would have liked to hear the story behind that. I don’t know what it is. Osborn: Did it have a flux capacitor?6 Laen: A big flux capacitor. Osborn: Was it surface-mount or through a hole? 5 www.wayneandlayne.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeLorean_time_machine#Flux_capacitor 6 Makers at Work Laen: It was 1980s tech, so it was through a hole. Osborn: Oh, that’s good. At least they kept it real. Laen: I see a lot of people make different effects pedals, like guitar effects pedals. I think that’s very cool. There’s a DJ in Ontario who made this custom all-in-one MIDI effects project. It was the biggest board I’ve had in the order so far.

Lesnet: I discourage people overall from trying to do a garage manufacturing line because running a pick-and-place machine is a whole industry unto itself. Being an engineer and running a pick-and-place machine are two different jobs. What you end up doing is getting into the pick-and-place business if you buy one. Suddenly, you spend six months learning how to use the machine, how to 5 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maneki-neko 273 274 Chapter 20 | Ian Lesnet: Slashdot Troll, Dangerous Prototypes calibrate it, how to care for it, how to get usable results out of it. Then you’re not designing hardware anymore. You’re running a pick-and-place machine. I know a lot of people who have bought machines and spent six months getting them up and running and then still have to use a contract manufacturer because the yield is so poor.

pages: 607 words: 133,452

Against Intellectual Monopoly by Michele Boldrin, David K. Levine

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, cognitive bias, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, financial innovation, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jean Tirole, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, linear programming, market bubble, market design, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, new economy, open economy, peer-to-peer, pirate software, placebo effect, price discrimination, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, the market place, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Y2K

Much of the discussion of the DMCA is drawn from the Electronic Frontier Foundation (2003). 14. Ibid., at http://www.eff.org/IP/DMCA/20030102 dmca unintended consequences. html (accessed February 24, 2008). 15. Ibid. 16. At http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grokster on August 20, 2007. As Wikipedia’s content is often modified, this exact text may not be there at a later date. 17. U.S. Supreme Court in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd. , June 27, 2005. Page varies by source. Available onlines at http://w2.eff.org/IP/P2P/MGM v Grokster/04-480.pdf (accessed February 24, 2008). 18. From Mark Cuban’s blog, at http://www.blogmaverick.com/entry/ 1234000230037801/ (accessed February 23, 2007). 19. At http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grokster, on August 20, 2007. 20. Boynton (2004). 21. Senator Fritz Hollings’s Consumer Broadband and Digital Television Promotion Act, S. 2048.

He named it the “steam carriage” and was legally barred from developing it by Boulton and Watt’s successful addition of the high-pressure engine to their patent, though Boulton and Watt never spent a cent to develop it. For the details of this story, readers should see the Web site Cotton Times, at http://www.cottontimes.co.uk/ (accessed February 23, 2008), or Carnegie (1905), pp. 140–1. The “William Murdoch” entry in Wikipedia, at http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/William Murdoch (accessed February 23, 2008), provides a good summary. More generally, various researchers directly connect Murdoch to Trevithick, who is now considered the official inventor (in 1802) of the high-pressure engine. Quite plainly, the evidence suggests that Boulton and Watt’s patent retarded development of the high-pressure steam engine, and thus economic development, by about sixteen years. 6.

Apart from Dutfield (2003), see also Seckelmann (2001) for additional details about the German patent system at the end of the nineteenth century, and Arora, Landau, and Rosenberg (1998) for various historical studies on the growth of the chemical industry. 12. Again, Dutfield (2003), especially Chapters 4 and 5, is our main source of information. Zorina Kahn’s online history of patent laws, at http://eh.net/encyclopedia/ article/khan.patents, provides a useful and easy-to-access summary of the main facts. 13. Quoted [as of February 24, 2008] in http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community patent, on the basis of various media sources, such as http://www.eupolitix.com/ EN/News/200702/7be97fa5-3cb6-403f-aadf-103ad99a9950.htm. 14. To begin learning about the history of the dye industry and the crucial, if not necessarily positive, role patents played in it, see Morris and Travis (1992) and the plenty of references therein. For why patents and monopoly did not allow La Fuchsine to thrive, see Van den Belt (1992).

pages: 468 words: 124,573

How to Build a Billion Dollar App: Discover the Secrets of the Most Successful Entrepreneurs of Our Time by George Berkowski

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Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, Paul Graham, QR code, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Y Combinator

– Steve Jobs, cofounder of Apple Notes Part I: Think Big Chapter 1: The View from the Inside 1 A billion, for the purposes of this book, is the short billion, i.e. a thousand million. 2 ‘List of the Wealthiest Historical Figures’, entry on Wikipedia.org, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_wealthiest_historical_figures. 3 According to estimates from the US Census Bureau. World Population: Historical Estimates of World Population, www.census.gov/population/international/data/worldpop/table_history.php. 4 ‘World Population Milestones’, entry on Wikipedia.org, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_population_milestones. 5 ‘Facebook Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2013 Results’, press release on FB.com, 29 January 2014, investor.fb.com/releasedetail.cfm? ReleaseID=821954. 6 Wolfgang Gruener, ‘Facebook Estimated to Be Running 180,900 Servers’, article on TomsHardware.com, 17 August 2012, www.tomshardware.com/news/facebook-servers-power-wattage-network,16961.html. 7 Rich Miller, ‘Facebook’s $1 Billion Data Center Network’, article on DataCenterKnowledge.com, 2 February 2012, www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2012/02/02/facebooks-1-billion-data-center-network/. 8 Rich Miller, ‘Google Data Center Spending Continues to Soar’, article on DataCenterKnowledge.com, 18 October 2013, www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2013/10/18/google-data-center-spending-continues-to-soar/. 9 Rich Miller, ‘Google Has Spent $21 Billion on Data Centers’, article on DataCenterKnowledge.com, 17 September 2013, www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2013/09/17/google-has-spent-21-billion-on-data-centers/.

Chapter 3: A Billion-Dollar Idea 1 Eric Jackson, ‘Why Silicon Valley Tech Wunderkids Will Only Ever Have 1 Good Business Idea During Their Entire Lives’, article on Forbes.com, 18 June 2012, www.forbes.com/sites/ericjackson/2012/06/18/why-silicon-valley-tech-wunderkids-overestimate-their-own-smarts-and-abilities/. 2 Kevin Rose, ‘Foundation: Evan Williams on Hatching Big Ideas’, article on TechCrunch.com, 28 June 2013, TechCrunch.com/2013/06/28/ foundation-evan-williams-on-hatching-big-ideas/. 3 Evelyn M. Rusli and Douglas MacMillan, ‘Snapchat Spurned $3 Billion Acquisitions Offer from Facebook’, blog post on WSJ.com, 13 November 2013, blogs.wsj.com/digits/2013/11/13/snapchat-spurned-3-billion-acquisition-offer-from-facebook/. 4 ‘Human Universals’, entry on Wikipedia.org, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Universals. 5 Find out more about the app at www.bible.com. 6 Alyson Shontell, ‘With 100 Million Downloads, YouVersion Bible Is A Massive App That No VC Can Touch’, article on BusinessInsider.com, 29 July 2013, www.BusinessInsider.com/youversion-bible-app-has-100-million-downloads-2013-7. 7 Tomi Ahonen, ‘The Annual Industry Numbers and Stats Blog – Yep, this year we will hit the mobile moment’, blog post on Communities Dominate.blogs.com, 6 March 2013, communitiesdominate.blogs.com/brands/2013/03/the-annual-mobile-industry-numbers-and-stats-blogyep-this-year-we-will-hit-the-mobile-moment.html. 8 Mayumi Negishi, ‘Rakuten to Buy Voice-Call App Maker Viber’, article on WSJ.com, 14 February 2014, online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304315004579382014046629596. 9 Sven Grundberg and Juhana Rossi, ‘Earnings Soar at Finnish Game Maker Supercell’, article on WSJ.com, 12 February 2014, online.wsj.com/news/articles/sb10001424052702304703804579378272705325260?

.’, article and video interview on FirstRound.com, firstround.com/article/how-dave-goldberg-of-surveymonkey-built-a-billion-dollar-business-and-still-gets-home-by-5-30. 4 Ibid. 5 Mike Rose, ‘Supercell’s Secret Sauce’, article on Gamasutra.com, 7 December 2012, www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/183064/supercells_secret_sauce.php. 6 Ibid. 7 Alyson Shontell and Andrea Huspeni, ‘15 Incredible Employee Perks That Will Make You Wish You Worked at a Startup’, article on BusinessInsider.com, 31 May 2012, www.BusinessInsider.com/killer-startup-perks-2012-5. 8 Heather Leonard, ‘Facebook Generates Over $1 Million in Revenue Per Employee’, article on BusinessInsider.com, 19 March 2013, www.BusinessInsider.com/facebook-has-high-revenue-per-employee-2013-3. 9 Megan Rose Dickey, ‘“Clash of Clans” Maker Had a Monster Year in 2013: Revenue Increased Nearly Ninefold’, article on BusinessInsider.com, 12 February 2014, www.BusinessInsider.com/gaming-startup-supercell-2013-revenue-2014-2. 10 Steven Levy, ‘Google’s Larry Page on Why Moon Shots Matter’, article on Wired.com, 17 January 2013, www.wired.com/business/2013/01/ff-qa-larry-page/all/. 11 Peter Murray, ‘Google’s Self-Driving Car Passes 300,000 Miles’, article on Forbes.com, 15 August 2012, www.forbes.com/sites/singularity/2012/08/15/googles-self-driving-car-passes-300000-miles/. 12 For more information about Project Loon, visit www.google.com/loon/. 13 ‘Google X’, entry on Wikipedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_X. Chapter 38: Advice from Billion-Dollar CEOs 1 Will Oremus, ‘Google’s Big Break’, article on Slate.com, 13 October 2013, www.slate.com/articles/business/when_big_businesses_were_small/2013/10/google_s_big_break_how_bill_gross_goto_com_inspired_the_adwords_business.html. 2 Ibid. 3 ‘Drew Houston’s Morph from Hacker to Hyper-Growth CEO’, article on FirstRound.com, www.firstround.com/article/Drew-Houstons-morph-from-hacker-to-hyper-growth-CEO. 4 Peter Kafka, ‘Larry Page on Speed: “There are no companies that have good slow decisions”’, article on AllThingsD.com, 27 September 2011, allthingsd.com/20110927/larry-page-on-speed-there-are-no-companies-that-have-good-slow-decisions/. 5 Glen Cathey, ‘LinkedIn Traffic Statistics and User Demographics 2013’, article on BooleanBlackBelt.com, 24 July 2013, booleanblackbelt.com/2013/07/linkedin-traffic-statistics-and-user-demographics-2013/. 6 Juhana Hietala, ‘Rovio Mobile Company Presentation – Dynamic World of Mobile Game Business’, 1 April 2005, www.soberit.hut.fi/T-76.640/Slides/T-76.640_Rovio2005_04_01HUT.pdf. 7 ‘The 30 Best Pieces of Advice for Entrepreneurs’, article on FirstRound.com, firstround.com/article/30-Best-Pieces#ixzz2pRF5EZ8a. 8 Ibid. 9 ‘Drew Houston’s Morph from Hacker to Hyper-Growth CEO’, op. cit. 10 Ibid. 11 ‘The 30 Best Pieces of Advice for Entrepreneurs’, op. cit. 12 Ibid. 13 Eric Savitz, ‘Jack Dorsey: Leadership Secrets of Twitter and Square’, article for Forbes, 5 November 2012 issue, www.forbes.com/sites/ericsavitz/2012/10/17/jack-dorsey-the-leadership-secrets-of-twitter-and-square/. 14 ‘The 30 Best Pieces of Advice for Entrepreneurs’, op. cit.

pages: 382 words: 120,064

Bank 3.0: Why Banking Is No Longer Somewhere You Go but Something You Do by Brett King

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application

See also (http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20111102005712/en/Phone-Bank, http://whatjapanthinks.com/2010/03/20/almost-two-thirds-use-net-banking-in-japan/) 15 For a definition of the Information Age, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_Age 16 A.H. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation”, Psychological Review 50 (1943): 370–96. 17 Countrywide.com 18 Matt Coffin, “The next generation of mortgage lead generation”, LowerMyBills.com. Additional sources: Forrester Research Inc, Federal Trade Commission 19 “Online mortgage sites offer net gains”, Australasian Business Intelligence, 18 September 2006 20 Mortgagebot’s Benchmarks 2011 Report 21 Google Finance Australia 22 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_II 23 The likes of Forbes have measured mass market adoption or critical mass by the benchmark of 25 per cent of the population for developed economies such as the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Australia, etc. or 100 million persons globally (See also http://photos1.blogger.com/blogger/4015/329/1600/technology_adoption_11.jpg).

Internet Advertising Bureau European research shows 91% of European Internet Users visit news websites weekly (http://blog.hi-media.com/426-9m-europeans-go-online-every-week/) 2 Flurry, http://blog.flurry.com/bid/63907/Mobile-Apps-Put-the-Web-in-Their-Rear-view-Mirror 3 FDIC Press Release 2 December 2009 (http://www.fdic.gov/news/news/press/2009/pr09216.html) 4 CTIA The Wireless Association, http://files.ctia.org/pdf/CTIA_Survey_MY_2011_Graphics.pdf 5 World Bank, http://www.cgap.org/gm/document-1.9.49435/Access_to_Financial_Services_and_the_Financial_Inclusion_Agenda_Around_the_World.pdf 6 List of Mobile Operators in the Asia Pacific Region—Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_mobile_network_operators_of_the_Asia_Pacific_region 7 Wired, http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2011/06/internet-a-human-right/ 8 Author’s own estimate based on following sources (http://thenextweb.com/insider/2012/01/30/study-says-web-economy-to-nearly-double-by-2016-driven-by-mobile-growth/, http://articles.businessinsider.com/2012-02-29/research/31109566_1_smartphones-pc-sales-mobile-phone-sales/2) 9 NPD Survey—http://techcrunch.com/2012/07/03/npd-tablets-to-overtake-notebooks-by-2016-as-the-most-popular-mobile-pc/ 10 iCrossing (http://connect.icrossing.co.uk/facebook-hit-billion-users-summer_7709) 11 The average American teenager texts 3364 times per month (Nielsen: How the class of 2011 Engages with Media) 12 Monetise, Forrester and mFoundry usage data.

Keywords: Disruptive, Moore’s Law, 3D Printing, Screens, Image Recognition, Exponential Growth, Haptic Touch, Artificial Intelligence, The Singularity Endnotes 1 Excerpts from A Conversation with Gordon Moore: Moore’s Law (Intel Corporation, 2005), p.1 2 IBM: History of Transistors, IBM 1401 3 http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/text/Ferranti/Ferranti.Sirius.1961.102646236.pdf 4 mKomo.org, “A history of storage costs” (http://www.mkomo.com/cost-per-gigabyte) 5 See http://www.netlingo.com/word/gilders-law.php 6 See Wikipedia.org articles on WiMax, 4G, UMTS, and Spectra Efficiency of long-range networks utilizing 802.11, 802.16, and 802.20 standards 7 CNET News, 19 Nov 2008,Q&A: Kurzweil on tech as a double-edged sword, Natasha Lomas, http://news.cnet.com/cutting-edge/?keyword=Ray+Kurzweil 8 http://www.vice.com/read/ray-kurzweil-800-v16n4 9 Source; BusinessWeek.com (http://www.businessweek.com/technology/bioprinting-the-3d-future-of-organ-transplants-01092012.html) 10 http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-11502715 11 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Trek:_The_Next_Generation 12 SonyInsider.com 13 Wikipedia article on Gyricon 14 Geek.com, “Apple has a mightier mouse that needn’t be moved at all”, 5 Oct 2009 15 USA Today, “Digital Sign Revolution”, 11 April 2012 16 “The Internet? Bah! Hype alert: Why cyberspace isn’t, and will never be, nirvana”, Clifford Stoll, Newsweek, 27 Feb 1995 17 Pew Internet Research showed that the fastest growing demographic on Facebook was the above-50 generation (http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Older-Adults-and-Social-Media.aspx) Chapter 10 A Land in the Data Cloud In 2011 Google launched the Chromebook—a laptop that doesn’t contain a conventional hard disk or hard-coded software.

pages: 319 words: 89,477

The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion by John Hagel Iii, John Seely Brown

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, game design, George Gilder, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Louis Pasteur, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Maui Hawaii, medical residency, Network effects, old-boy network, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, software as a service, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs

And we are deeply indebted to the whole crew at our publisher, Basic Books, including Sandra Beris, Michele Jacob, and most particularly Tim Sullivan, the book’s editor, whose skills, imagination, and sly sense of humor made him truly a pleasure to work with—and made this a far better book than it would have otherwise been. Finally, we’d like to thank the people profiled in this book who were so generous with their time: Jack Hidary, Joi Ito, Tara Lemmey, Ellen Levy, and Yossi Vardi. Notes Introduction 1 The term “soul surfer” is used to “describe a talented surfer who surfs for the sheer pleasure of surfing,” Wikipedia, “Soul Surfer,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soul_Surfer. 2 For more about this billboard, see “What Makes You So Special? With over 1 Million People in the World Able to Do Your Job, Altium Acts to Help More,” Reuters, April 20, 2009, http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS180975+20-Apr-2009+MW20090420. 3 Jeff Mull, “Clear to Land: Dusty Payne Wins Kustom Air Strike and $50,000,” Surfer magazine, April 2009, http://www.surfermag.com/features/onlineexclusives/dusty_payne_wins_kustom_air_strike_and_50000/. 4 Creative talent is increasingly flocking to creative cities.

Chapter 2 1 See Joshua Davis, “Secret Geek A-Team Hacks Back, Defends Worldwide Web,” Wired, November 24, 2008. 2 This account is drawn from conversations and e-mail exchanges with Joi Ito and other people who were involved in this effort to support the protest movement’s freedom of expression. 3 Dunbar fixed his number at approximately 150 people, but field studies performed by anthropologists H. Russell Bernard and Peter Killworth put the number at 290, roughly double Dunbar’s estimate. See Wikipedia article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunbar’s_number#Alternative_numbers. 4 This widely cited quote can be found in many places, including Charles G. Sieloff, “‘If Only HP Knew What HP Knows’: The Roots of Knowledge Management at Hewlett-Packard,” Journal of Knowledge Management 3, no. 1 (1999): 47-53. 5 “Performance fabrics weave together both business elements (e.g., techniques for building shared meaning and trust) and technology elements (e.g., architectures and technology tools) to simplify, strengthen, and amplify relationships among relevant stakeholders across enterprises, thereby enhancing the potential for productive collaboration across a large number of specialized entities.”

Chapter 6 1 Details about Shai Agassi’s early days at SAP and his later work at Better Place are drawn in part from Daniel Roth, “Driven: Shai Agassi’s Audacious Plan to Put Electric Cars on the Road,” Wired, August 18, 2008. 2 Trailing his hand in the wave was the spontaneous innovation made by Laird Hamilton while surfing a “death-defying” wave in Teahupoo, Tahiti, in August 2000. See Wikipedia entry for Laird Hamilton, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laird_Hamilton. 3 See Shai Agassi, “I LOVE Open Source—Really!” SAP Network Blogs, November 11, 2005, https://www.sdn.sap.com/irj/scn/weblogs?blog=/pub/wlg/1700. 4 See John Hagel III, John Seely Brown, and Lang Davison, The 2009 Shift Index: Measuring the Forces of Long-Term Change (San Jose, Calif.: Deloitte Development, June 2009). 5 See Daniel Pink, Free Agent Nation (New York: Warner Books, 2001). 6 Tara Lemmey, interview with the authors, July 10, 2009. 7 Note that what we’re advocating here flips “strategic HR” on its head.

pages: 372 words: 107,587

The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New Economic Reality by Richard Heinberg

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3D printing, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Gini coefficient, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Kenneth Rogoff, late fees, liberal capitalism, mega-rich, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, naked short selling, Naomi Klein, Negawatt, new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, price stability, private military company, quantitative easing, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, short selling, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade liberalization, tulip mania, working poor, zero-sum game

., “Energetic Limits to Economic Growth,” Bioscience 61, no.1 (January 2011), pp. 19–26. 45. Wikipedia, “Overdevelopment,” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overdevelopment. 46. Manfred A. Max-Neef, Antonio Elizalde, and Martin Hopenhayn, “Development and Human Needs,” chapter in Human Scale Development: Conception, Application, and Further Reflections (New York: Apex, 1991), p. 18. 47. Manfred Max-Neef, Antonio Elizalde, and Martin Hopenhayn, (in Spanish) “Desar-rollo a Escala Humana — Una Opción Para el Futuro,” Development Dialogue, número especial (CEPAUR y Fundación Dag Hammarskjold, 1986), p. 12; Manfred Max-Neef et al., “Human Scale Development: An Option for the Future,” Development Dialogue 1 (1989), pp. 7–80. 48. Wikipedia, “International Inequality,” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_inequality. 49. Jim, “Desdemona at 2: The Environmentalist’s Paradox,” Desdemona’s Despair, posted December 2, 2010. 50.

Rebecca Solnit, A Paradise Built in Hell: The Extraordinary Communities That Arise in Disaster (New York: Viking Books, 2009). 2. Lewis Aptekar, Environmental Disasters in Global Perspective (New York: G. K. Hall, 1994). 3. See James Howard Kunstler, The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America’s Man-Made Landscape (New York: Free Press, 1994); and Gregory Greene, “The End of Suburbia,” video documentary, The Electric Wallpaper Co., 2004. 4. Wikipedia, “Transition Towns,” en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transition_Towns. 5. Rob Hopkins, Transition Handbook (White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green, 2008). 6. Hopkins, Transition Handbook, p. 15. 7. Formerly archived at: transitiontowns.org/TransitionNetwork/CheerfulDisclaimer 8. Transition Town Totnes, transitiontowntotnes.org. 9. Rob Hopkins, “Ingredients of Transition: Strategic Local Infrastructure,” Energy Bulletin, posted December 15, 2010. 10.

pages: 327 words: 103,336

Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts

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active measures, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, industrial cluster, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

This argument has been made most forcefully by Donald Green and Ian Shapiro, who argue that when “everything from conscious calculation to ‘cultural inertia’ may be squared with some variant of rational choice theory … our disagreement becomes merely semantic, and rational choice theory is nothing but an ever-expanding tent in which to house every plausible proposition advanced by anthropology, sociology, or social psychology.” (Green and Shapiro, 2005, p. 76). CHAPTER 3: THE WISDOM (AND MADNESS) OF CROWDS 1. See Riding (2005) for the statistic about visitors. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mona_Lisa for other entertaining details about the Mona Lisa. 2. See Clark (1973, p. 150). 3. See Sassoon (2001). 4. See Tucker (1999) for the full article on Harry Potter. See (Nielsen 2009) for details of their Facebook analysis. See Barnes (2009) for the story on movies. 5. For the story about changes in consumer behavior postrecession, see Goodman (2009). Bruce Mayhew (1980) and Frank Dobbin (1994) have both made a similar argument about circular reasoning. 6.

In early 2010, the market capitalization of Google was around $160B, but it has fluctuated as high as $220B. See Makridakis, Hogarth, and Gaba (2009a) and Taleb (2007) for lengthier descriptions of these and other missed predictions. See Lowenstein (2000) for the full story of Long-Term Capital Management. 6. Newton’s quote is taken from Janiak (2004, p. 41). 7. The Laplace quote is taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laplace’s-demon. 8. Lumping all processes into two coarse categories is a vast oversimplification of reality, as the “complexity” of a process is not a sufficiently well understood property to be assigned anything like a single number. It’s also a somewhat arbitrary one, as there’s no clear definition of when a process is complex enough to be called complex. In an elegant essay, Warren Weaver, then vice president of the Rockefeller Foundation, differentiated between what he called disorganized and organized complexity (Weaver 1958), where the former correspond to systems of very large numbers of independent entities, like molecules in a gas.

In particular, Leonard Lodish and colleagues conducted a series of advertising experiments, mostly in the early 1990s using split cable TV (Abraham and Lodish 1990; Lodish et al. 1995a; Lodish et al. 1995b; and Hu et al. 2007). Also see Bertrand et al. (2010) for an example of a direct-mail advertising experiment. Curiously, however, the practice of routinely including control groups in advertising campaigns, for TV, word-of-mouth, and even brand advertising, never caught on, and these days it is mostly overlooked in favor of statistical models, often called “marketing mix models” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing_mix_modeling). 19. See, for example, a recent Harvard Business School article by the president and CEO of comScore (Abraham 2008). Curiously, the author was one of Lodish’s colleagues who worked on the split-cable TV experiments. 20. User anonymity was maintained throughout the experiment by using a third-party service to match Yahoo! and retailer IDs without disclosing individual identities to the researchers.

pages: 302 words: 86,614

The Alpha Masters: Unlocking the Genius of the World's Top Hedge Funds by Maneet Ahuja, Myron Scholes, Mohamed El-Erian

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activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, backtesting, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, diversification, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, family office, fixed income, high net worth, interest rate derivative, Isaac Newton, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, merger arbitrage, Myron Scholes, NetJets, oil shock, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Renaissance Technologies, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, rolodex, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Jobs, systematic trading, zero-sum game

Darcy Bradbury, managing director, D. E. Shaw, October 2011. Sonia Gardner, cofounder, Avenue Capital Group, June 2011. Marc Lasry, cofounder, Avenue Capital Group, February 2011. Charles Spiller, director, Pennsylvania Public School Employees Retirement System, August 2011. References Avenue Capital Management, www.avenuecapital.com, August 2011. Avenue Capital Group, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avenue_Capital, August 2011 Burton, Katherine, Hedge Hunters, New York: Bloomberg Press, 2007. Griffiths, Tony. “The HFMWeek 50 Most Influential People in Hedge Funds,” Hedge Fund Manager Week, October 2010. Skoglund, Jeff, and Michael Marczak. “Automotive High Yield and Bank Loan Weekly Relative Value.” UBS, February 9, 2009. Skoglund, Jeff, and Julie Pearson. “Automotive High Yield and Bank Loan Weekly Relative Value,” UBS, January 22, 2010.

“Ackman on the Rating Agencies: ‘Wait to Rate,’” New York Times Dealbook, June 2, 2010, http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2010/06/02/ackman-on-the-ratings-agencies-wait-to-rate/. “Ackman Questions Lampert on Sears,” New York Times Dealbook, May 6, 2008, http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2008/05/06/ackman-grills-lampert-on-sears/. “Activist Investor Bids for Barnes & Noble, Borders Merger,” Business Pundit, December 7, 2010, www.businesspundit.com/activist-investor-bids-for-barnes-noble-borders-merger/. “Bill Ackman.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Ackman. “Bill Ackman Buys Sears Holdings Corp., Target Corp., Greenlight Capital Re, LTD., Sells Staples Inc.” Guru News, November 17, 2007. http://www.gurufocus.com/forum/read.php?1,17371. Burton, Katherine. “Ackman’s Reputation May Get Marked Down in Target War (Update1).” Bloomberg, April 16, 2009, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=a9wSEaX9F1kI&refer=home.

Wall Street Journal “Texas Journal,” September 20, 2000. Chapter 9: The Derivatives Pioneer: Boaz Weinstein, Saba Capital Management Interviews Boaz Weinstein, founder, Saba Capital, June 2011. Boaz Weinstein, founder, Saba Capital, May 2011. References Agnew, Harriet. “Weinstein’s Saba Raises ‘Black Swan’ Fund.” Financial News, January 27, 2011. “Boaz Weinstein,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boaz_Weinstein. Patterson, Scott. “Star Trader Who Lost Big to Quit Deutsche.” Wall Street Journal, January 10, 2009. Patterson, Scott, and Serena Ng. “Deutsche Bank Fallen Trader Left Behind $1.8 Billion Hole.” Wall Street Journal, February 6, 2009. Phillips, Matt, Jonathan Cheng, and Stephen Grocer. “Where Crisis Survivors Went; They Made Millions Before the Lehman Debacle Hit; Many Remain in Business.”

pages: 605 words: 110,673

Drugs Without the Hot Air by David Nutt

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British Empire, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, offshore financial centre, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), War on Poverty

view=Binary 22. www.unodc.org/pdf/convention_1961_en.pdf 23. www.accionandina.org/documentos/ Wonders-of-the-Coca-Leaf.pdf 24. www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/89/3/10-079905.pdf 25. www.nps.gov/history/local-law/fhpl_indianrelfreact.pdf 26. www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ ld199798/ldselect/ldsctech/151/15101.htm 27. www.beckleyfoundation.org/science/ projects14.html 28. www.ukcia.org/culture/history/colonial.php 29. digital.nls.uk/indiapapers/browse/ pageturner.cfm?id=74908458 30. profdavidnutt.wordpress.com/2010/12/13/ necessity-or-nastiness-the-hidden-law-denying- cannabis-for-medicinal-use/ 31. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barack_Obama 32. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Use_of_performance-enhancing_drugs_in_sport 33. vimeo.com/23580287 34. www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/AGES001e/ 35. www.alcoholconcern.org.uk/assets/files/ Publications/Swept%20under%20the%20carpet.pdf 36. www.guardian.co.uk/science/2011/mar/ 07/safe-level-alcohol-consumption 37. m.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2010/nov/ 05/alcohol-drug-worse-than-heroin?cat=commentisfree&type=article 38. www.ic.nhs.uk/webfiles/publications/ alcohol10/Statistics_on_Alcohol_England_2010.pdf 39. www.eucam.info/eucam/home/marketing-products-and-reports.html?

view=Binary 73. www.camh.net/education/Resources_communities_ organizations/stigma_subabuse_litreview99.pdf 74. www.guardian.co.uk/music/2011/may/20/ pete-doherty-jailed-six-months 75. www.people.com/people/article/ 0,,20243428,00.html 76. www.telegraph.co.uk/news/celebritynews/1937076/ Amy-Winehouse-bailed-over-drugs-video.html 77. content.usatoday.com/communities/entertainment/ post/2011/09/amy-winehouse-died-after-detox-seizure-dad-says/1 78. www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/en/ PositionPaper_English.pdf 79. www.guardian.co.uk/society/2010/apr/20/conservatives-heroin-addiction-treatment-overhaul 80. profdavidnutt.wordpress.com/2010/06/09/ crutch-or-cure-the-realities-of-methadone-treatment/ 81. www.cato.org/pubs/wtpapers/ greenwald_whitepaper.pdf 82. www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/sep/05/portugal-drugs-debate 83. www.soros.org/initiatives/drugpolicy/ articles_publications/publications/ drug-policy-in-portugal-20110829/ drug-policy-in-portugal-20110829.pdf 84. www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/qi/6833236/ QI-quite-interesting-facts-about-wine.html 85. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crack_cocaine#Chemistry 86. m.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/nov/19/ cocaine-rainforests-columbia-santos-calderon? cat=world&type=article 87. www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-12177875 88. collections.europarchive.org/tna/ 20110202220654/http://www.smokefreeengland.co.uk/ what-do-i-do/quick-guide.html 89. www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/ health-news/smoking-ban-has-saved-40000-lives-856885.html 90. www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/ en/index.html 91. www.who.int/tobacco/statistics/tobacco_atlas/en/ 92. news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/ stories/november/18/newsid_2519000/2519675.stm 93. www.advisorybodies.doh.gov.uk/scoth/PDFs/scothnov2004.pdf 94. www.surgeongeneral.gov/ library/secondhandsmoke/report/fullreport.pdf 95. www.gutenberg.org/files/17008/17008-h/17008-h.htm 96. www.youtube.com/watch?

pages: 368 words: 96,825

Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Chapter Three: Five to Change the World 1 Adrian Kingsley-Hughes, “Mobile gadgets driving massive growth in touch sensors,” ZDNet, June 18, 2013, http://www.zdnet.com/mobile-gadgets-driving-massive-growth-in-touch-sensors-7000016954/. 2 Peter Kelly-Detwiler, “Machine to Machine Connections—The Internet of Things—And Energy,” Forbes, August 6, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/peterdetwiler/2013/08/06/machine-to-machine-connections-the-internet-of-things-and-energy/. 3 See http://www.shotspotter.com. 4 Clive Thompson, “No Longer Vaporware: The Internet of Things Is Finally Talking,” Wired, December 6, 2012, http://www.wired.com/2012/12/20-12-st_thompson/. 5 Brad Templeton, “Cameras or Lasers?,” Templetons, http://www.templetons.com/brad/robocars/cameras-lasers.html. 6 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passenger_vehicles_in_the_United_States. 7 Commercial satellite players include: PlanetLabs (already launched), Skybox (launched and acquired by Google), Urthecast (launched), and two still-confidential companies still under development (about which Peter Diamandis has firsthand knowledge). 8 Stanford University, “Need for a Trillion Sensors Roadmap,” Tsensorsummit.org, 2013, http://www.tsensorssummit.org/Resources/Why%20TSensors%20Roadmap.pdf. 9 Rickie Fleming, “The battle of the G networks,” NCDS.com blog, June 28, 2014, http://www.ncds.com/ncds-business-technology-blog/the-battle-of-the-g-networks. 10 AI with Dan Hesse, 2013–14. 11 Unless otherwise noted, all IoT information and Padma Warrior quotes come from an AI with Padma, 2013. 12 Cisco, “2013 IoE Value Index,” Cisco.com, 2013, http://internetofeverything.cisco.com/learn/2013-ioe-value-index-whitepaper. 13 NAVTEQ, “NAVTEQ Traffic Patterns,” Navmart.com, 2008, http://www.navmart.com/pdf/NAVmart_TrafficPatterns.pdf. 14 Juho Erkheikki, “Nokia to Buy Navteq for $8.1 Billion, Take on TomTom (Update 7),” Bloomberg, October 1, 2007, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?

Special thanks to MIT president Paul Gray, who supported me far beyond what I deserved and taught me that MIT has viscosity. You get things done as long as you keep pushing. 14 Locke and Latham, “New Directions in Goal-Setting Theory.” 15 It was my dear friend Gregg Maryniak who first introduced me to this story. As it has been fundamental to my success, a deep debt of gratitude is owed. 16 Wikipedia does a great job with the history of “stone soup,” see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_Soup. Also see Marcia Brown, Stone Soup (New York: Aladdin Picture Books), 1997. 17 AI with Hagel. 18 John Hagel, “Pursuing Passion,” Edge Perspectives with John Hagel, November 14, 2009, http://edgeperspectives.typepad.com/edge_perspectives/2009/11/pursuing-passion.html. 19 Gregory Berns, “In Hard Times, Fear Can Impair Decision Making,” New York Times, December 6, 2008. Chapter Six: Billionaire Wisdom: Thinking at Scale 1 Elon Musk, “The Rocket Scientist Model for Iron Man,” Time, http://content.time.com/time/video/player/0,32068,81836143001_1987904,00.html. 2 Unless otherwise noted, historical details and Musk quotes come from a series of AIs between 2012 and 2014. 3 AI, XPRIZE Adventure Trip, February 2013. 4 Thomas Owen, “Tesla’s Elon Musk: ‘I Ran Out of Cash,’ ” VentureBeat, May 2010, http://venturebeat.com/2010/05/27/elon-musk-personal-finances/. 5 Andrew Sorkin, Dealbook: “Elon Musk, of PayPal and Tesla Fame, Is Broke,” New York Times, June 2010, http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2010/06/22/sorkin-elon-musk-of-paypal-and-tesla-fame-is-broke/?

Chapter Nine: Building Communities 1 Clay Shirky, “How cognitive surplus will change the world,” TED, June 2010, https://www.ted.com/talks/clay_shirky_how_cognitive_surplus_will_change_the_world. 2 The term MTP was first described by Salim Ismail in his recent book Exponential Organizations: Why new organizations are ten times better, faster, cheaper than yours (and what to do about it) to describe a unique, powerful, and simple statement of your mission. Google’s MTP is to “Organize the world’s information.” TED’s MTP is “ideas worth spreading.” 3 This is sometimes called Joy’s Law, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joy’s_Law_(management). 4 For DIY drones, see Chris Anderson, “How I Accidentally Kickstarted the Domestic Drone Boom,” Wired, June 22, 2012, http://www.wired.com/2012/06/ff_drones. For Local Motors, localmotors.com. 5 AI with Gina Bianchini, 2014. 6 Joshua Klein, Reputation Economics: Why Who You Know Is Worth More Than What You Have (New York: Palgrave Macmillan Trade, 2013). 7 All Klein quotes come from an AI with Joshua Klein, 2014. 8 AI with Bianchini. 9 James Glanz, “What Else Lurks Out There?

pages: 576 words: 105,655

Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea by Mark Blyth

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency peg, debt deflation, deindustrialization, disintermediation, diversification, en.wikipedia.org, ending welfare as we know it, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Irish property bubble, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal capitalism, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Philip Mirowski, price stability, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, savings glut, short selling, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, unorthodox policies, value at risk, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Schneider, and Peter Tufano, “Financially Fragile Households,” National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER working paper no. 17072, Cambridge, MA, May 11, 2011 http://www.nber.org/papers/w17072; Lawrence Mishel and Heidi Schieroltz “The Sad but True Story of Wages in America,” Economic Policy Institute, Washington DC, March 15, 2011. http://www.epi.org/publication/the_sad_but_true_story_of_wages_in_america/. 46. Number of guns taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gun_violence_in_the_United_States 47. All figures in this section come from bank financial filings. GDP figures come from Eurostat. Details are found in chapter 3. 48. Nassim N. Taleb, “The Great Bank Robbery,” Project Syndicate, September 2, 2011. http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/the-great-bank-robbery. CHAPTER THREE 1. Greek workers actually work longer hours than their German compatriots.

Ptak describes Erhard as “an avid participant in the ordoliberal mainstream,” Ptak, “Neoliberalism,” 115. Friedrich describes him as “the spokesman for the creed of the neo-liberals in German and European politics.” Freidrich, American Political Science Review 49, 2 (1955): 510. 29. I thank Josef Hien for the details on this important transition period. 30. See the description of the Wirtschaftwunder at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wirtschaftswunder. 31. Allen, “Underdevelopment,” 271. The fact that all of this was made possible by an astonishingly favorable macroeconomic context—the Bretton Woods international monetary system and American acceptance of an undervalued Deutschmark given Germany’s strategic position in the Cold War—should also be acknowledged. It seldom is, however, especially among German policy makers. 32.

Adam Tooze, The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy (New York: Penguin Books, 2006). 56. John Maynard Keynes, “The United States and the Keynes Plan,” New Republic, July 29, 1940, quoted in Bill Janeway, Doing Capitalism in the Innovation Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012), 254. 57. “From Those Wonderful Folks That Brought You Pearl Harbor” is the title of a book that inspired the TV show Mad Men. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerry_Della_Femina. I use it here not to be funny but because it’s fundamentally accurate. Austerity empowered the Japanese military, and so it brought the world Pearl Harbor. 58. Jonathan Kirshner, Appeasing the Bankers: Financial Caution on the Road to War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 2007), 62. 59. Yuji Kuronuma, “Showa Depression: A Prescription for ‘Once in a Century’ Crisis.”

pages: 353 words: 91,520

Most Likely to Succeed: Preparing Our Kids for the Innovation Era by Tony Wagner, Ted Dintersmith

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affirmative action, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, creative destruction, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, immigration reform, income inequality, index card, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, school choice, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

Peer Instruction (Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1996), 4. 30 Ibid., 7. 31 Jackson, Anthony. “Global Competence,” Asia Society. http://asiasociety.org/global competence (accessed December 18, 2014). 32 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kO8x8eoU3L4. 33 Meier, Deborah. The Power of Their Ideas: Lessons for America from a Small School in Harlem (Boston: Beacon Press, 2002). Chapter 5. The Gold Ring: The College Degree 1 Source: Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/College_tuition_in_the_United_States (accessed December 30, 2014). 2 Rhoades, Gary. “The Study of American Professions,” Sociology of Higher Education: Contributions and Their Contexts, ed. Patricia Gumport (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007). 3 Bok, Derek. Higher Learning (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986), 323–24. 4 Keeling, Richard P., and Richard Hersh.

Kindle Edition. 1985–1989. 3 “Enough with the lecturing,” National Science Foundation Press Release 14-064, May 12, 2014. http://nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=131403&org=NSF&from=news (accessed December 17, 2014). 4 Bajak, Aleszu. “Lectures aren’t just boring, they’re ineffective, too, study finds,” Science Insider, May 12, 2014. http://news.sciencemag.org/education/2014/05/lectures-arent-just-boring-theyre-ineffective-too-study-finds (accessed December 17, 2014). 5 Source: Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Education_Group (accessed December 31, 2014). 6 Cuomo, Chris, Chris Vlasto, Gerry Wagschal, et al. “ABC News Investigates For-Profit Education: Recruiters at the University of Phoenix,” ABC News, August 19, 2010. http://abcnews.go.com/TheLaw/profit-education-abc-news-undercover-investigate-recruiters-university/story?id=11411379 (accessed December 17, 2014). 7 Kolowich, Steve.

“Why some colleges are saying no to MOOC deals, at least for now,” Chronicle of Higher Education, December 20, 2014. http://chronicle.com/article/Why-Some-Colleges-Are-Saying/138863/ (accessed December 20, 2014). 8 Daly, Jimmy. “80% of MOOC students already have a college degree,” EdTech, December 4, 2013. http://www.edtechmagazine.com/higher/article/2013/12/80-percent-mooc-students-already-have-college-degree (accessed December 8, 2014). 9 Deamicis, Carmel. “A Q&A with ‘Godfather of MOOCs’ Sebastian Thrun after he disavowed his godchild,” May 12, 2014, http://pando.com/2014/05/12/a-qa-with-godfather-of-moocs-sebastian-thrun-after-he-disavowed-his-godchild/ (accessed December 17, 2014). 10 Brown, Peter C. Make It Stick (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014). Kindle Edition.417. 11 Source: Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harkness_table (accessed December 31, 2014). 12 Mazur, Eric. Peer Instruction (Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1996), 16. 13 Private Conversation, December 31, 2014. 14 From the PBS Frontline documentary. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/where/history.html (accessed December 17, 2014). 15 Owen, David. “Inventing the SAT,” The Alicia Patterson Foundation, April 6, 2011. http://aliciapatterson.org/stories/inventing-sat (accessed December 17, 2014). 16 Jaschik, Scott.

pages: 378 words: 110,518

Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future by Paul Mason

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Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, capital controls, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Claude Shannon: information theory, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, deglobalization, deindustrialization, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Downton Abbey, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, financial repression, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, means of production, Metcalfe's law, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, post-industrial society, precariat, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Transnistria, union organizing, universal basic income, urban decay, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, wages for housework, women in the workforce

Ibid. 24. http://www.digitaltrends.com/mobile/history-of-samsungs-galaxy-phones-and-tablets/ 25. http://www.emc.com/collateral/analyst-reports/idc-the-digital-universe-in-2020.pdf 26. http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx 27. Kelly, http://archive.wired.com/wired/archive/5.09/newrules.html 28. Ibid. 29. R. Konrad, ‘Trouble Ahead, Trouble Behind’, cnet, 22 February 2002, http://news.cnet.com/2008-1082-843349.html 30. Y. Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom (New Haven, 2006) 31. Ibid. 32. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedians 33. https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Staff_and_contractors 34. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia, accessed 28 December 2013 35. http://www.alexa.com/topsites 36. www.monetizepros.com/blog/2013/analysis-how-wikipedia-could-make-2-8-billion-in-annual-revenue/ 37. K. Arrow, ‘Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention’, in The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, NBER, 1962, pp. 609–26 38.

Romer, ‘Endogenous Technological Change’, Journal of Political Economy, vol. 98, no. 5, pt 2 (1990), pp. S71–S102 12. Ibid. p. S72 13. Ibid., pp. S71–S102 14. http://www.billboard.com/biz/articles/news/digital-and-mobile/1567869/business-matters-average-itunes-account-generates-just 15. D. Warsh, Knowledge and the Wealth of Nations: A Story of Economic Discovery (New York, 2007) 16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_A7#cite_note-AnandTech-iPhone5s-A7-2 17. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bill_Gates_Letter_to_Hobbyists.jpg 18. R. Stallman, The GNU Manifesto, March 1985, http://www.gnu.org/gnu/manifesto.html 19. http://gs.statcounter.com 20. http://www.businessinsider.com/android-market-share-2012-11 21. K. Kelly, ‘New Rules for the New Economy’, Wired, 5 September 1977, http://archive.wired.com/wired/archive/5.09/newrules.html 22.

pages: 313 words: 95,077

Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations by Clay Shirky

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Andrew Keen, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, c2.com, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, hiring and firing, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Kuiper Belt, liberation theology, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Merlin Mann, Metcalfe’s law, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, Picturephone, place-making, Pluto: dwarf planet, prediction markets, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Vilfredo Pareto, Yogi Berra

Page 136: Wikipedia deletion and restoration Martin Wattenberg and Fernanda B. Viégas’s work on visualizing the history of Wikipedia edits, “History Flow,” is at www.research.ibm.com/visual/projects/history_flow/. Page 138: Seigenthaler and essjay controversies The Wikipedia articles on the controversy surrounding the John Seigenthaler entry (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Seigenthaler_Sr._Wikipedia_biography_controversy ) and essjay’s faked credentials (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essjay_controversy) are surprisingly good, given that one might expect Wikipedians to pull their punches. Nicholas Carr is also worth reading on this subject; Carr, writing at roughtype.com, is the most insightful and incisive of Wikipedia’s critics. One of his posts worth reading on the essjay controversy is “Wikipedia’s credentialism crisis” (www.roughtype.com/archives/2007/03/wikipedias_cred.php) and Page 140: Ise Shrine Howard Mansfield first noted the linking of the Ise Shrine’s method of construction with its failure to win historic designation from UNESCO in The Same Ax, Twice: Restoration and Renewal in a Throwaway Age, University Press of New England (2000).

Page 18: a plausible promise Eric Raymond’s seminal 1997 essay on open source software, “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” is at catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/ . Raymond’s writings on software and other topics are at www.catb.org/~esr/writings/ . Page 22: Within the Context of No Context, George W. S. Trow, Atlantic Monthly Press (1997). CHAPTER 2: SHARING ANCHORS COMMUNITY Page 25: Birthday Paradox Wikipedia contains a good general guide to the Birthday Paradox, at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birthday_paradox. (As always, Wikipedia also contains links at the bottom of the article to additional materials on the subject.) An alternate formulation of the same math is expressed as “Metcalfe’s law.” Robert Metcalfe, inventor of a core networking technology called Ethernet, proposed that “the value of a network rises with the square of its members,” which is to say that when you double the size of a network, its value quadruples, because so many new links become possible.

pages: 309 words: 84,539

The Burning Shore: How Hitler's U-Boats Brought World War II to America by Ed Offley

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British Empire, en.wikipedia.org, trade route

Greer, “Individual Training of Flying Personnel,” in The Army Air Forces in World War II, vol. 6: Men and Planes, ed. Wesley F. Craven and James L. Cate (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1955), http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/AAF/VI/AAF-VI-17.html. 12.BT-13 Valiant specifications from “Vultee BT-13A Valiant,” Combat Air Museum (Forbes Field, Kansas), www.combatairmuseum.org/aircraft/vultee.html. 13.Barksdale Field history from Barksdale Air Force Base website at Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barksdale_Air_Force_Base#Origins; twin-engine aircraft procurement during 1940–1941 from “Army Air Forces Statistical Digest (World War II),” US Air Force, June 1947 (hereafter “USAAF Statistical Digest”). 14.Kane graduation date from Kane Oral Interview. 15.Christmas crew gathering recounted by U-701 survivor Gerhard Schwendel to Günther Degen. 16.U-701 movements from the U-boat’s Kriegstagebüch (daily war diary) from July 16, 1941, through February 9, 1942 (hereafter “U-701 KTB 1”); crew size from “Report of Interrogation of Survivors of U-701 Sunk by U.S.

Roosevelt’s Navy, 293–299; Knox and Roosevelt reactions from Bertram Hulen, “Our Stand Clear, Officials Insist,” New York Times, November 2, 1941; Associated Press, “Knox Assails Acts That Pass ‘Piracy,’” New York Times, November 2, 1941. 7.American leaders feared Japan attack in Far East from Ronald H. Spector, Eagle Against the Sun: The American War with Japan (New York: Vintage Books, 1985), 96; B-Dienst message from “German Navy Reports of Intercepted Radio Messages,” NARA RG 457, cited in Gannon, Drumbeat, xv; B-Dienst telegram stuns Hitler from Blair, Hitler’s U-boat War, 1:435; Oshima and Ribbentrop talks from “Hiroshi Oshima,” Wikipedia, www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiroshi_Oshima. 8.Raeder and Dönitz urge unrestricted U-boat campaign from Blair, Hitler’s U-boat War, 1:360; also Abbazia, Mr. Roosevelt’s Navy, 230; Führerprinzip from Heinrich Winkler with Alexander Sager, Germany: The Long Road West: 1933–1990 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 37. 9.Jodl repeated Hitler’s comment on Japan and the United States to his interrogators at Nuremberg in 1945 and details of the Rainbow Five leak both cited in Thomas Fleming, “The Big Leak,” American Heritage 38, no. 8 (December 1987). 10.Hitler meets with military commanders in Fleming, “The Big Leak”; Roosevelt radio address on December 9, 1941, from Mount Holyoke College World War II archive at https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/WorldWar2/radio.htm; Hitler’s December 11 Reichstag speech from “Germany’s Declaration of War Against the United States,” Institute for Historical Review, www.ihr.org/jhr/v08/v08p389_Hitler.html; Hitler takes over army command from Fleming, “The Big Leak.” 11.Details of HMS Duke of York arrival in Norfolk from “Telegram: Prime Minister Churchill to President Roosevelt,” in “The Conference at Washington, 1941–42” (hereafter “Arcadia Proceedings”), in US State Department, Foreign Relations of the United States, posted at the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections at http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?

Roosevelt’s Navy, 230; Führerprinzip from Heinrich Winkler with Alexander Sager, Germany: The Long Road West: 1933–1990 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 37. 9.Jodl repeated Hitler’s comment on Japan and the United States to his interrogators at Nuremberg in 1945 and details of the Rainbow Five leak both cited in Thomas Fleming, “The Big Leak,” American Heritage 38, no. 8 (December 1987). 10.Hitler meets with military commanders in Fleming, “The Big Leak”; Roosevelt radio address on December 9, 1941, from Mount Holyoke College World War II archive at https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/WorldWar2/radio.htm; Hitler’s December 11 Reichstag speech from “Germany’s Declaration of War Against the United States,” Institute for Historical Review, www.ihr.org/jhr/v08/v08p389_Hitler.html; Hitler takes over army command from Fleming, “The Big Leak.” 11.Details of HMS Duke of York arrival in Norfolk from “Telegram: Prime Minister Churchill to President Roosevelt,” in “The Conference at Washington, 1941–42” (hereafter “Arcadia Proceedings”), in US State Department, Foreign Relations of the United States, posted at the University of Wisconsin Digital Collections at http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/FRUS/FRUS-idx?id=FRUS.FRUS194143; HMS Duke of York history from “HMS Duke of York,” Wikipedia, www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Duke_of_York_(17). 12.FDR-Churchill first meeting and impressions from Jon Meacham, Franklin and Winston: An Intimate Portrait of an Epic Friendship (New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2004), 4–5; evolution of relationship from Meacham, Franklin and Winston, 47; details of Arcadia Conference from Arcadia Proceedings, Buell, Master of Sea Power, 162–171, and Blair, Hitler’s U-boat War, 1:445–447; Japanese attacks in Far East from Polmar and Allen, World War II, 11–13. 13.Churchill remarks on shipping crisis and FDR expansion of shipbuilding from Blair, Hitler’s U-boat War, 1:446–447; Troopship convoy to leave New York on January 15, 1942, from Arcadia Proceedings, January 11, 1942, 190–193; Churchill on “greatest importance” of prompt arrival of troops from notes by Lt.

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Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital map, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Denise Dubie, “Microsoft Struggling to Convince about Vista,” Computerworld UK, November 19, 2007, http://www.computerworlduk.com/news/it-vendors/microsoft-struggling-to-convince-about-vista-6258/. 9. Robin Bloor, “10 Reasons Why Vista is a Disaster,” Inside Analysis, December 18, 2007, http://insideanalysis.com/2007/12/10-reasons-why-vista-is-a-disaster/2/. 10. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_Vista and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_XP. 11. Steve Lohr and John Markoff, “Windows Is So Slow, but Why?” New York Times, March 27, 2006, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/27/technology/27soft.html?_r=1. 12. Carliss Young Baldwin and Kim B. Clark, Design Rules: The Power of Modularity, vol. 1 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000). 13. Robert S. Huckman, Gary P. Pisano, and Liz Kind, “Amazon Web Services,” Harvard Business School Case 609-048, 2008. 14.

Brad Burnham, “Web Services as Governments,” Union Square Ventures, June 10, 2010, https://www.usv.com/blog/web-services-as-governments. 9. Wolfram Knowledgebase, https://www.wolfram.com/knowledgebase/. Accessed May 30, 2015. 10. “Politicians,” Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau, https://www.cpib .gov.sg/cases-interest/cases-involving-public-sector-officers/politicians. Accessed October 13, 2015. 11. “Corrupt Perceptions Index,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corruption_Perceptions_Index, accessed October 13, 2015; B. Podobnik, J. Shao, D. Njavro, P. C. Ivanov, and H. E. Stanley, “Influence of Corruption on Economic Growth Rate and Foreign Investment,” European Physical Journal B-Condensed Matter and Complex Systems 63, no. 4:547–50. 12. Estimate based on data from Wolfram Knowledgebase. Accessed October 13, 2015. 13. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James A.

pages: 441 words: 96,534

Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan, Seth Solomonow

autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

south of 86th Street: City of New York, PlaNYC, 89. $380 million a year: Ibid., 96. $124 for a seven-axle truck: Metropolitan Transportation Authority, “Approved Bridges and Tunnels Tolls,” accessed August 15, 2015, http://web.mta.info/mta/news/hearings/2015FareTolls/FaresBT.html. five wealthiest counties: New York counties ranked by per capita income, Wikipedia, accessed August 12, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_locations_by_per_capita_income. 57 percent of households: Tri-State Transportation Campaign, “NYC Metropolitan Area Fact Sheets on Congestion Pricing: Brooklyn,” accessed August 7, 2015, http://www.tstc.org/reports/cpfactsheets.php. 100 percent higher: Ibid. two thirds of Brooklyn workers: Ibid. 97.5 percent of Brooklyn: Ibid. 27 percent in a poll: Quinnipiac University, “State Voters Back NYC Traffic Fee 2–1, If Funds Go to Transit, Quinnipiac University Poll Finds; Voters Back Millionaire’s Tax 4–1,” March 24, 2008, accessed August 7, 2014, www.google.com/url?

CHAPTER 7: STEALING GOOD IDEAS 381 people for every 100,000 inhabitants: “Medellin: A City Transformed,” Inter-American Development Bank, accessed August 7, 2015, www.iadb.org/en/topics/citizen-security/impact-medellin,5687.html. 26 per 100,000 inhabitants: “Colombia’s Homicide Rate Reaches 30 Year Low in 2014,” Finance Colombia, January 5, 2015, accessed August 7, 2015, www.financecolombia.com/colombias-homicide-rate-reaches-30-year-low-in-2014/. rise 1,300 feet: “Metrocable (Medellín),” Wikipedia, accessed August 7, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metrocable_%28Medell%C3%ADn%29. cut the two-hour commutes: Numerous examples varying with origin and destinations, including Michael Kimmelman, “A City Rises, Along with Its Hopes,” New York Times, May 18, 2012, accessed August 7, 2015, www.nytimes.com/2012/05/20/arts/design/fighting-crime-with-architecture-in-medellin-colombia.html. sixty thousand passengers a day: Global BRT Data, EMBARQ, accessed August 7, 2015, http://brtdata.org/location/latin_america/colombia/medellin. 15 percent a year: Hernán López, discussion with the authors, February 26, 2015.

an estimated 32,675 American lives were snuffed out: United States Department of Transportation Federal Highway Traffic Safety Administration, “Early Estimate of Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities in 2014,” www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/812160.pdf. more than three times as many people killed: Department of Defense, Operations Iraqi Freedom, New Dawn, Enduring Freedom, Inherent Resolve, Freedom’s Sentinel, accessed August 10, 2015, www.defense.gov/news/casualty.pdf; “Casualties of the September 11 Attacks,” Wikipedia, accessed August 10, 2015, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casualties_of_the_September_11_attacks. nearly three times the number: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Fast Stats: Assault or Homicide,” accessed August 10, 2015, www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/homicide.htm. 29 percent of traffic deaths: United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Traffic Safety Administration, “Traffic Safety Facts,” June 2015, 1, accessed August 10, 2015, www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/812162.pdf.

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The Lights in the Tunnel by Martin Ford

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Albert Einstein, Bill Joy: nanobots, Black-Scholes formula, call centre, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, full employment, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral hazard, pattern recognition, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, Ray Kurzweil, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Thomas L Friedman, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, War on Poverty

Most students in advanced computer science and engineering courses used interactive terminals. However, 7 Copyrighted Material – Paperback/Kindle available @ Amazon THE LIGHTS IN THE TUNNEL / 248 interactive computer time was very expensive, so punch cards were still used in introductory courses. 8 Amdahl MIPS rating: Roy Longbottom’s PC Benchmark Collection, Web: http://www.roylongbottom.org.uk/mips.htm#anchorAmdahl 9 All computer MIPS ratings are taken from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructions_per_second. The MacIntosh and Lisa computers used the Motorola 68000 microprocessor with a rating of 1 MIPS. 10 Calculating the amount in Bill’s pocket: Google makes this easy. Just enter the following in the search box: .01 * 2 ^ ((1986-1975)/2) (replace 1986 with the desired year) 11 Ray Kurzweil, The Singularityin Near: When Humans Transcend Biology, NewYork, Penguin Group, 2005 12 “ “S” and “U” encoded within the interference patterns of quantum electron waves”, Stanford News Service: http://newsservice.stanford.edu/news/2009/january28/small-012809.html 13 Many technologists believe that the exponential progress of information technology will ultimately level off.

Heckman and Paul A. LaFontaine, “The Declining American High School Graduation Rate: Evidence, Sources, And Conse- Copyrighted Material – Paperback/Kindle available @ Amazon Notes / 249 quences”, NBER Reporter: Research Summary 2008, Number 1, web: http://www.nber.org/reporter/2008number1/heckman.html 17 Literacy study, web: http://nces.ed.gov/naal/estimates/overview.aspx 18 SAT Scores, Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SAT 19 “Automation Takes Toll On Offshore Workers” by Paul McDougall, InformationWeek, January 26, 2004. Web: http://www.informationweek.com/news/management/trends/ showArticle.jhtml?articleID=17500858 20 “The share of employment potentially affected by offshoring”, Feb 23, 2006, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Web: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/37/26/36187829.pdf 21 Table of Occupations taken from: Audrey Watson, “Employment and Wages of Typical U.S.

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The Thank You Economy by Gary Vaynerchuk