illegal immigration

225 results back to index

pages: 196 words: 53,627

Let Them In: The Case for Open Borders by Jason L. Riley


affirmative action, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, lump of labour, mass immigration, open borders, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

Human smuggling, document fraud, and corpses in the Arizona desert are other major problems associated with illegal border crossings, and a later chapter will address how U.S. immigration policy might best address those kinds of concerns. Hanson’s paper, however, is narrowly focused on whether our economic welfare is helped or harmed by porous borders. He looks at the fiscal costs and benefits of illegal immigrants and how they compare with those newcomers who use the front door. “This analysis concludes that there is little evidence that legal immigration is economically preferable to illegal immigration,” writes Hanson. “In fact, illegal immigration responds to market forces in ways that legal immigration does not.” How’s that? To begin with, illegal immigrants are more sensitive to the U.S. business cycle. They tend to come when the economy is expanding, and they can more easily migrate to those areas of the country where job growth is fastest because they’re not bound to a single employer.

Medicaid enrollment, by contrast, has since increased—as of 2004, it was up by more than 30 percent since 1994—mainly because states have elected to exercise their option to continue coverage and even expand immigrant eligibility. Some immigration detractors, such as Robert Rector of The Heritage Foundation, claim that even though illegal immigrants themselves don’t qualify for federal welfare benefits, their U.S.-born children, who are citizens, do. Therefore, according to Rector, illegal immigration is indirectly driving welfare caseloads. Sounds plausible, but is it true? Between 1995 and 2004, America’s illegal immigration population is estimated to have doubled to around 12 million. Yet Peter Wehner and Yuval Levin report in the December 2007 issue of Commentary magazine that welfare caseloads over that period are not just down but down dramatically. “Since the high-water mark in 1994, the national welfare caseload has declined by 60 percent.

They’ve gradually moved into other industries, such as construction, hospitality, and health care. Today, just 4 percent of illegal immigrants work in farming, and growers face regular labor shortages. We’re also wasting a lot of money. To appreciate how much, consider this observation from Gordon Hanson, an economist at the University of California at San Diego: For the sake of argument, take literally the estimate that illegal immigration was costing the economy the equivalent of 0.07 percent of GDP annually as of 2002. In that year, the Immigration and Naturalization Service spent $4.2 billion (or 0.04 percent of GDP) on border and interior enforcement, including the detention and removal of illegal aliens, in a year in which half a million net new illegal immigrants entered the country. The $13 billion in proposed border security spending for next year [2008] is already two-and-a half times that figure at 0.10 percent of GDP.

pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas


affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling,, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

. ** Figures are for the period January 1, 2008–September 30, 2008. Source: Irish Government—Department of Enterprise, Trade, and Employment, Dublin. In addition to the above and in the period since 1996 a number of additional laws relating to immigration have been passed: the Immigration Act (1999), which sets out the grounds for deportations; the Illegal Immigrants (Trafficking) Act (2000), which creates offences offenses in relation to facilitating illegal immigration; the Immigration Act (2003), which stipulates the sanctions for carriers of illegal immigrants, and introduces an obligation on state departments to share information on nonnationals for the purpose of administering immigration law, the Ireland 213 Table 14-4. Work Permits Issued by Nationality. 1999–2001 Nationality 1999 2000 2001 Total Australia Belarus Bangladesh Brazil Bulgaria Canada China Czech Republic Estonia India Latvia Lithuania Malaysia Moldova New Zealand Pakistan Philippines Poland Romania Russian Fed.

Eight amnesty programs in the United States between 1986 and 2000 allowed over five million unauthorized workers to come out of the shadows, yet these programs are believed to have ‘‘failed’’ as they have not provided a satisfactory solution to the problem. Other nations, such as France and Spain, also write of ‘‘border controls,’’ some suggest methods of deporting/repatriating illegal immigrants (Ireland, Israel, South Africa, United States), and yet others have a means to amnesty and citizenship (Greece and Thailand). Others merely speak of policies that ‘‘regulate’’ illegal immigration (China, Brazil, Spain). Several of these measures are short-term minimal resolutions to the dilemma of this population. France and the UK indicate stringent approaches and punitive policies for the control of illegal immigration and residence. Russia recognizes the presence of a large undocumented population and a shadow economy and is also aware that this group is often protected by criminal organizations as it receives no support from Russian law enforcement.

Until 2007 the ‘‘50:50 balance’’ between the totality of the exUSSR countries and ‘‘old’’ foreign states that might seem surprising was mainly the result of widespread practices of unregistered employment of labor migrants from Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. Illegality is in fact one of the major characteristics of migration inflows to Russia. Illegal Immigration The dominant type of immigration to Russia, illegal immigration is very diversified. It consists of the following major inflows (Krasinets et al., 2000:80–82): (1) The citizens of the ex-USSR countries who come to Russia in quest of jobs and/or residence. Visa-free regimes based on bilateral and multilateral agreements between most post-Soviet countries allow them to cross the boundaries legally. Russia has signed agreements on visafree entry with all the CIS states except Georgia and Turkmenistan.

pages: 177 words: 50,167

The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics by John B. Judis


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, Winter of Discontent

Washington needs to get tough and fight for ‘We the People,’ not for the special interests who want cheap labor and a minority voting bloc.” In the 2016 campaign, he not only opposed illegal immigration, but favored deportation. His case against illegal immigration was partly economic—they drove down wages and raised social costs—but also socio-cultural—they were a cause of crime. He proposed that Mexico finance a wall with its trade surplus from the United States to stop illegal immigration. Trump’s views on immigration displayed a special animus toward Mexican Americans. Trump described Mexico as sending America people who bring “crime” and “drugs” and who are “rapists.” He described a judge in a lawsuit brought against Trump University as a “Mexican,” even though he was born in Indiana, and called for him to step down from the case.

Seniors on Medicare, who had paid for their insurance, would also see their benefits reduced in order to cover the cost of the Affordable Care Act. Emily Ekins, who did extensive interviews with Tea Party members, writes that the Tea Partiers “tended to view the ACA as a redistributive transfer program that they would be disproportionately responsible for funding.” Tea Partiers viewed illegal immigration the same way. In their interviews, Skocpol and Williamson report, “the major concern was the illegitimate and costly use of government funds and services by illegal immigrants.” Many of the local Tea Party groups were part of the tradition of American populism and reflected opposition from the right to the neoliberal consensus. They objected to the residual elements of New Deal liberalism that neoliberalism had retained, even those popular among Republicans. If anything, they were a throwback to the Jacksonian proto-populists.

In his campaign book, he wrote: America is experiencing serious social and economic difficulty with illegal immigrants who are flooding across our borders. We simply can’t absorb them. . . . The majority of legal immigrants can often make significant contributions to our society because they have special skills and because they add to our nation’s cultural diversity. . . . But legal immigrants do not and should not enter easily. It’s a long, costly, draining, and often frustrating experience—by design. . . . It comes down to this: We must take care of our own people first. Our policy to people born elsewhere should be clear: Enter by the law, or leave. Trump did not waver from this stance over the next 16 years. In his 2011 book, he wrote, “Illegal immigration is a wrecking ball aimed at U.S. taxpayers. Washington needs to get tough and fight for ‘We the People,’ not for the special interests who want cheap labor and a minority voting bloc.”

pages: 316 words: 91,969

Gray Lady Down: What the Decline and Fall of the New York Times Means for America by William McGowan


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, corporate governance, David Brooks, East Village, friendly fire, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, medical residency, New Journalism, obamacare, payday loans, postnationalism / post nation state, pre–internet, uranium enrichment, yellow journalism, young professional

Then he drove to a more secluded location, where he raped and beat her again, this time trying to kill her by hitting her with tree branches and trying to gouge out her eyes. The victim played dead, and later crawled to a nearby house for help. Despite the heinousness of the crime, the Times chose not to cover it, even though it routinely covers other developments in New Haven, including the controversies over granting identity cards to illegal immigrants, and the immigrant community’s fears over federal raids on illegal immigrants with outstanding arrest warrants. • The Times did a piece on how happy immigrant parents were with ethnically themed public charter schools, dismissing concerns about assimilation by quoting ethnic studies professors saying that these parents were being “as American as apple pie.” Meanwhile, the paper has ignored the workings of a Muslim charter school outside Minneapolis where public monies are being spent to advance an Islamist agenda.

The second driver is an intellectual and journalistic framework that romanticizes “the Other” and shrugs off the question of a Latinization or Islamization of American culture as if it were meaningless. Like other liberal institutions, the Times puts the “human rights” of illegal immigrants ahead of the collective right of ordinary American citizens to decide who should be allowed to immigrate and who should not—thereby essentially voiding one of the most fundamental aspects of any country’s sovereignty. At the Times, pressure has steadily increased to erase the distinction between “legal” and “illegal” immigration. As Randal Archibold wrote in April 2006, there is “the awkward question of who is legal and how much it should matter.” Officially, the paper’s style guide says a distinction should be made, but the newsroom reflects a calculated confusion.

Sometimes headlines will use the word “migrant”; the text of reports may use “undocumented worker,” “undocumented migrant,” or “immigrants who are undocumented.” The Times rarely uses the term “illegal alien.” A 2004 story headlined “160 Migrants Seized at Upscale Arizona Home” was obviously about illegal immigrants being smuggled into the country, but the headline refused to say so. One editorial writer, Lawrence Downes, gave an explanation for the evasive vocabulary when he wrote that “America has a big problem with illegal immigration, but a big part of it stems from the word ‘illegal.’ It pollutes the debate. It blocks solutions. Used dispassionately and technically, there is nothing wrong with it. Used as an irreducible modifier for a large and largely decent group of people, it is badly damaging. And as a code word for racial and ethnic hatred, it is detestable.”

pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter


Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism,, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Absent the immigrants, the farm jobs would disappear too, along with an array of jobs from the fields to the packing plant. We would import the asparagus and the strawberries instead. Illegal immigrants do affect prices in the United States. One study calculated that the surge in immigration experienced between 1980 and 2000 reduced the average price of services such as housekeeping or gardening by more than 9 percent, mainly by undercutting wages. Still, it had a negligible impact on natives’ wages because poor illegal immigrants compete in the job market with other poor illegal immigrants. Immigration policy has always been determined by who bears its costs and who draws its benefits. Illegal immigrants are tolerated by the political system because their cheap labor is useful for agribusiness and other industries. It provides affordable nannies to middle-class Americans.

To bring his children into the United States through a checkpoint, he would have to work longer to earn the price of passage. But it would lower the risk that his children would perish along the way. The debate among Americans about illegal immigration is itself a discussion about prices. Critics charge that illegal immigrants lower the price of natives’ labor by offering to do the job for less. They argue that immigrants impose a burden on natives when they consume public services, like education for their children and emergency medical care. These arguments are weaker than they seem. Most illegal immigrants work on the books using false IDs, and have taxes withheld from their paychecks like any other worker. They can’t draw benefits from most government programs. And there is scant evidence that immigrants lower the wages of American workers.

This suggests that despite presidential lip service to the need to reform immigration law, nothing much is likely to be done. Creating a legal path for illegal immigrants to work in the United States would be politically risky and could provide a big incentive for more illegal flows. By contrast, cutting illegal immigration entirely would be prohibitively costly. The status quo is too comfortable to bear tinkering like that. The ebb and flow of immigration will continue to be determined by potential immigrants’ measuring the prospect of a minimum-wage job—perhaps a first step up the ladder of prosperity—against the costs imposed by the harsh border. The price may occasionally be too high. As joblessness soared following the financial crisis of 2008, many potential immigrants decided to stay at home. The Department of Homeland Security estimates the illegal immigrant population dropped by 1 million from its peak in 2007 to 10.8 million in 2009.

pages: 278 words: 93,540

The Full Catastrophe: Travels Among the New Greek Ruins by James Angelos


bank run, Berlin Wall, centre right, death of newspapers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, income inequality, moral hazard, Plutocrats, plutocrats, urban planning

The law was unpopular, however, with the large number of Greeks who believe that “one is born Greek and does not become Greek,” as it’s commonly put. When he was campaigning for the premiership in the spring of 2012, Antonis Samaras, the leader of New Democracy, vowed to abolish the law, which he called a “magnet for illegal immigrants.” A lot of people seemed to approve of this thinking. At a Samaras campaign rally I attended in Athens, his repeated calls for growth-oriented economic policies were not met with nearly as much enthusiasm as his vow to “remove from this place illegal immigrants, who have now become tyrants of the society.” Samaras, around this time, also called the influx of illegal immigrants an “unarmed invasion” and said his election would mean the end of a state that took care of foreigners and forsook its own citizens. After Samaras’s election, parts of the citizenship law he campaigned against were deemed unconstitutional by the country’s highest administrative court.

Underneath appeared a picture of the Germans entering Athens in 1941, and next to it, a picture of Muslims in the street holding up the Koran. The text urged Greeks to resist the migrants as they had resisted the Nazis: “Hellenes. The invader illegal immigrants are within Athens. Brothers! Keep well inside your souls the spirit of freedom. The invaders entered without resistance with the help of ethnic nihilists of our terrorized city. Hellenes! Your hearts high!” The time had come for a “counterattack,” declared the third edition, calling for “EVERYONE IN THE STREETS to defeat the tyrants of our people.” Underneath another picture of an overcrowded boat of migrants, it said: “They aren’t illegal immigrants. They are the fifth column. Among them are found trained commando-saboteurs that impersonate poor illegal immigrants, and at the right moment, they will take an order from the globalizers for enemy actions against our country.”

At the time of the 2012 elections, Greece was in an acute phase of its debt crisis and teetering on the edge of a euro exit that would have sown sudden and profound economic chaos. It was therefore curious that, with such pressing issues at hand, the citizenship law and illegal immigration played such a prominent role in the election campaigning. This no doubt had to do with the rise of Golden Dawn, which gained a great deal of political traction almost solely due to its anti-immigration rhetoric. Other parties felt the need to compete. The tough talk was not limited to the right wing. In the run-up to the elections, the PASOK minister overseeing the police, Michalis Chrisochoidis, vowed to round up 30,000 illegal immigrants and place them in old military bases. He also announced plans to construct a barbwire fence along several miles of the Evros River Valley border, an idea European officials referred to as “pointless,” arguing that migrants would simply find another way in.

pages: 296 words: 78,112

Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency by Joshua Green

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate raider, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Fractional reserve banking, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, low skilled workers, Nate Silver, nuclear winter, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, urban planning

.* But as he navigated the fever swamps of the right, Trump quickly became attuned to the roiling grassroots anger over illegal immigration, which was very much coming from the right. “It was intuitive by him,” said Sam Nunberg, the former Trump adviser, “to use immigration as a new wedge issue.” Recognizing that his base of support would never come from genteel, country-club Republicans, Trump felt free to abandon niceties and embrace the same mean-spiritedness for which he had just criticized Romney. “He digests this stuff,” said Nunberg. “He knew who his audience was going to be—it was not going to be people who want to have policy debates. It was going to be older people, people who work with their hands.” The political fault line Trump stumbled across was one that had lurked beneath the surface of Republican politics for a long time. Illegal immigration divided law-and-order conservatives, who wanted to see lawbreaking immigrants deported, from business-minded conservatives, who preferred to maintain a cheap source of labor, held more ecumenical views, and worried about the risks of alienating Latino voters.

He had first been brought into Trump’s orbit years earlier by David Bossie, the veteran Republican operative, to provide informal counsel on a potential presidential bid. At the time, Bannon hadn’t thought much of Trump’s chances and regarded these visits as an adventure and a lark. He doubted that Trump would run. But this hadn’t prevented him from imparting his nationalist worldview—particularly his hostility to illegal immigration—and long before Trump declared his candidacy, the billionaire was reading Breitbart News articles flagged by Bannon and then printed out on paper (Trump’s preferred medium for reading) and delivered to him in a manila folder by his staff. It was no accident that Trump’s formal declaration of his candidacy, on June 16, 2015, took the form of a bitter paean to American nationalism that quickly veered into an attack on Mexican immigrants as criminals and “rapists.”

Although neither of them could have had any inkling of where they would end up, Bannon would provide Trump with two great services in the years ahead—services without which Trump probably wouldn’t be president. First, he supplied Trump with a fully formed, internally coherent worldview that accommodated Trump’s own feelings about trade and foreign threats, what Trump eventually dubbed “America first” nationalism. One aspect in particular that preoccupied Bannon—the menace of illegal immigration—was something Trump would use to galvanize his supporters from the moment he descended the Trump Tower escalator on June 16, 2015, to declare his candidacy. By then, Bannon had left banking and Hollywood to take over the combative right-wing populist website Breitbart News after the death of its founder, Andrew Breitbart, in 2012. Breitbart’s fixation on race, crime, immigration, radical Islam, and the excesses of political correctness—as well as the site’s dark and inflammatory style—did much to shape Trump’s populist inclinations and inform his political vocabulary.

pages: 361 words: 97,787

The Curse of Cash by Kenneth S Rogoff


Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, cryptocurrency, debt deflation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, ethereum blockchain, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial intermediation, financial repression, forward guidance, frictionless, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, moveable type in China, New Economic Geography, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, RFID, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, The Great Moderation, the payments system, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, unconventional monetary instruments, underbanked, unorthodox policies, Y2K, yield curve

Nevertheless, with the huge continuing influx of illegal workers in the United States and other advanced economies, exploitation of migrant workers remains a pressing issue. Illegal immigration is a cash-intensive process, and the existence of cash makes it far harder for countries to control their borders. First, migrants typically pay smugglers in cash to bring them across the border: $1,000–$3,500 per individual to cross from Mexico to the United States, and $3,000–$10,000 to go from Central Asia to Western Europe, according to a 2011 Financial Action Task Force Report.49 Second and far more important, businesses that choose to rely on illegal immigrant workers can pay them in cash to reduce the risk of detection. It is this final demand from employers that ultimately fuels a large part of illegal immigration.50 The extent of illegal immigration varies tremendously across countries; for one thing, it is much more difficult for immigrants to blend into some countries than into others.

These all carry their risks and costs, however, and government policy can be directed toward magnifying these risks and costs. Controlling borders is likely to become an ever-increasing problem in the future, and improved control has to be listed as a major potential benefit of phasing out cash or restricting its use. That said, any plan to fully phase out cash will need to address the problem of providing amnesty to the existing illegal immigrants. Allowing time to deal with illegal immigration is one of many reasons the proposal in chapter 7 leaves smaller notes in circulation for an indefinite period. To be clear, I strongly favor allowing increased legal migration into advanced economies. Any economist who takes income and wealth inequality seriously realizes that, despite the enormous progress of the past three decades, differences across countries simply swamp the within-country inequality that Thomas Piketty and others worry about.

But tackling the idea seriously takes us on a wide-ranging journey across all the ways that paper currency touches our lives, some concrete, some practical, some extraordinarily abstract. Though there are ever so many ways this topic can be sensationalized and politicized, I try to take a balanced tone throughout, highlighting both the advantages and the risks. This is not an easy task, as many topics are highly emotional. For example, what one person sees as illegal immigration, another might see as an escape mechanism for those fleeing from persecution and extreme poverty. Where does one draw the line between the government’s right to enforce tax laws and the public’s right to privacy? Regardless of readers’ initial prejudices, I suspect many will find the facts presented in this book sobering, and many of the arguments for preserving paper currency in its current form more superficial and less compelling than they might seem.

pages: 399 words: 120,226

Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas by John S. Burnett


British Empire, cable laying ship, Dava Sobel, defense in depth, Exxon Valdez, Filipino sailors, illegal immigration, Khyber Pass, Malacca Straits, North Sea oil, South China Sea, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

His wife, Lin Kuo, worked with the INTERPOL office in Taiwan and became the assistant director of the International Chamber of Commerce’s Commercial Crime Bureau. They were a formidable team and became experts in tracing smuggling routes of illegal immigrants aboard phantom ships.43 If not used in cargo fraud, phantom ships are often used to transport human cargo into the U.S., Middle East, Europe, or Australia. “Once in the United States those [immigrants] on board ask for political asylum,” Ellen says. “The crews of the phantom ships, including the captain, are not sent to prison, they are simply sent back home to do it over and over again.” Indeed, smuggling people is as lucrative as smuggling drugs, and safer. There is not the worldwide concern for the transportation of illegal immigrants as there is for shipping narcotics, and in the unlikely event the organizers are caught, the penalties are much lighter.

There is not the worldwide concern for the transportation of illegal immigrants as there is for shipping narcotics, and in the unlikely event the organizers are caught, the penalties are much lighter. She-tou, the Snakeheads, so called because of the creative smuggling routes that snake from country to country before entering the United States, have bases in Hong Kong, Fujian Province on the southern Chinese mainland, Europe, the U.S., and Canada. They have successfully smuggled several hundred thousand illegal immigrants into the United States and Canada over the past ten years, either by air or by sea aboard previously pirated ships. Many of the illegal immigrants pay the Snakehead organizations in Hong Kong and Fujian up to $35,000 for the passage. If a vessel founders or is arrested, it is of little concern to the syndicates; money for the passage already has been collected or pledged by the families who remain back in China. If the would-be immigrants make it to the promised land alive, they are bought or rented by Asian-owned businesses in the U.S. and Canada as indentured labor; they will spend the rest of their lives working in sweatshops like those in Little Fuzhou, on East Broadway, New York City, earning a couple dollars a day for piecework.

Vibro cholerae, the bacterium responsible for cholera, was found in the ballast water of all ships tested after entering the Chesapeake Bay from foreign ports. Chapter 11 34 There are 2 million illegal immigrants in Malaysia of a population of 23 million. Most of these have been spirited across the Malacca Straits from Indonesia during the past ten years. There is no other practical way to get into Malaysia except through Thailand and that is rarely done; Thais are a different people with different religion, language, and appearance. In January 2002 two police boats, pursuing an Indonesian longboat carrying fifty-four illegal immigrants including several women, were bombarded with firebombs. When police attempted to board, they were attacked by the desperate immigrants armed with parangs and axes. 35 These boats exchange cut timber, copra, and palm oil from Indonesia for cartons of soft drinks, live chickens, and kerosene in Malaysia, an age-old tradition of commerce between the two nations. 36 Article 105 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) allows the seizure of a pirate ship or aircraft: On the high seas, or in any other place outside the jurisdiction of any State, every State may seize a pirate ship or aircraft taken by piracy and under the control of pirates and arrest the persons and seize the property on board.

pages: 250 words: 83,367

Methland by Nick Reding


Alfred Russel Wallace, call centre, crack epidemic, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, trade route, union organizing

Lori Arnold’s description of the reality of many illegal immigrants at the Excel plant—using fake identification, moving from town to town and packing plant to packing plant—sounded a lot like meth’s trajectory around the country as I tried to trace it back in 1999: there, but never quite visible. According to a Pew Hispanic Center report in 2005, there are twelve million illegal immigrants in the United States. Eight hundred and fifty thousand more arrive every year, the report found, along with the fact that 25 percent of all agricultural jobs in the United States are done by illegal immigrants. The link between the agricultural business, meatpacking, and illegal immigration would appear to be self-evident. As University of Missouri sociologist William Heffernan says, “Cracking down on illegal immigration would cripple the [food production] system.”

It’s as simple as that. And when that happens, we’re not only going to lose the six-dollar jobs; we’ll lose the twelve-dollar and the quarter-million-dollar jobs, too. That’s just reality.” When I suggested the often-repeated potential solution of fining companies that employ illegal immigrants while heavily taxing the products of those that move offshore, Souder ignored my suggestion. He instead recited from memory the statistics that had become the pivot points of 2005’s national debate on immigration: three hundred thousand illegal immigrants crossing the Mexican border each year; at least one million undocumented people living in the United States (according to the Pew study, the number is twelve million); rampant identity theft; overburdened hospitals going bankrupt by treating people who can’t pay their medical bills.

Then there was the language barrier. Mexican dealers had a hard time finding customers, despite the fact they employed a strategy of giving away small amounts of highly pure meth in order to create a base of addicts: the same strategy Lori had used on her first night selling crank back in 1984. By 1999, according to both Lori and a former Mexican employee, Ottumwa’s Excel plant had become a clearinghouse for illegal immigrants. That same year, Cargill-Excel placed newspaper advertisements in the poor, industrial border towns of Juárez and Tijuana offering two free months’ rent to workers who could make it to Ottumwa from Mexico. For Cargill and the rest of the packing conglomerates, employing illegals would appear to have been the best of all possible situations, for the simple reason that these employees, lacking legal identification, didn’t technically exist, and therefore had no rights.

pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt


anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

The commission doesn’t like to disappoint the business community. But if it sticks too close to the Chamber of Commerce line, it risks stoking up resentment against illegal immigrants that continues to exist among white middle-class residents. There are regular protests from activists such as Bob Griggs, publisher of the Gwinnett Gazette, who told his readers in 2009 that “illegal immigration costs cities, counties, and the state government an estimated $1.6 billion annually.” The commissioners can’t be sure at any moment how far they might be from a full-fledged populist revolt. In early 2011, the state of Georgia passed one of the nation’s strictest laws targeting illegal immigrants. It remains to be seen what effect this will have on politics in Gwinnett County. IT WOULD BE a mistake to feel too sorry for Gwinnett County.

The white middle class moved to Gwinnett in large part to be safe from urban violence, and through the 1980s and 1990s it was in fact one of the most crime-free places in America. The countywide incidence of crime is still lower than the national average, but in the past several years, the influx of illegal immigrants has created an underclass that has raised the crime rate and brought the previously unknown presence of loitering day laborers into several of the small cities. Whenever there is even a small amount of construction work to be had, day laborers cluster outside strip malls in Gwinnett just as they do in other parts of the country. In 2008, one Norcross resident wrote an angry letter to the Atlanta Journal-Constitution lamenting what he felt had happened to his town. “Illegal immigrants have already broken several laws to get to my neighborhood,” he said, “and I can attest that their penchant for lawbreaking did not stop at our borders.

There are outposts of the Mexican drug trade in Gwinnett, as well as a growing number of meth labs operating out of private dwellings. Longtime residents tend to associate these developments with illegal immigration. It’s dangerous to place much faith in the anger of one resident or anecdotal citizen fears, but no one really disputes that Gwinnett has acquired a crime problem in the past five years. It has also begun to confront the realities of poverty and homelessness. In 1990, the countywide poverty rate was 4 percent. By mid-2009, it had more than doubled to 9 percent, and 11 percent among children. “We are leading the region in the growth of poverty,” says Ellen Gerstein, of the Gwinnett Coalition for Health and Human Services. The issue of what to do about illegal immigrants poses a huge challenge for the five-member Gwinnett County Commission. This governmental body seems in a way to be an anachronism.

pages: 965 words: 267,053

A History of Zionism by Walter Laqueur


Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, strikebreaker, the market place, éminence grise

Given equal opportunity to go to Palestine or to the States, 50 per cent would join the unfortunate Galut Jews in America.† Illegal immigration had never ceased altogether and Hagana began to organise it after the end of the war on a much bigger scale than before. Refugee ships appeared regularly off the shores of Palestine. A few succeeded in breaking the blockade, but most were apprehended and their passengers detained - first in Palestine, and from summer 1946 on in camps in Cyprus. The story of illegal immigration culminated in the case of the President Garfield, an old 4,000-ton Chesepeake Bay steamer which, acquired by Hagana and renamed Exodus 1947, carried some 4,200 illegal immigrants. To discourage any further exploits London decided to turn the ship back to Port de Bove near Marseilles. After the passengers refused to disembark there, they were forcibly disembarked at Hamburg.

.* Defence Some of the halutzim still stranded in Europe in 1938-9 eventually succeeded in reaching the shores of Palestine. They came as illegal immigrants, owing their lives to the systematic efforts undertaken to save as many as possible in contravention of the stringent immigration laws imposed by the mandatory authorities following the outbreak of the Arab riots. An earlier attempt, the voyage of the Velos in 1934, organised by a member of Degania, ended in failure. But after 1937, with tens of thousands of prospective immigrants impatiently waiting for their entry permits, with the clouds of war gathering on the European horizon, and with no change in sight in the attitude of the mandatory government, illegal immigration was resumed on a massive scale. Small, ancient, unseaworthy ships, hardly bigger than motor launches and designed to carry a few dozen passengers only, arrived with many hundreds on board, in conditions the like of which had not been seen anywhere in modern times.

Some of them successfully ran the blockade, others were detected and apprehended. About 11,000 illegal immigrants came in 1939, and even after the outbreak of war some ships continued to arrive; 3,900 men, women and children in 1940, and 2,135 in 1941. After that date immigration, both legal and illegal, dwindled to a mere trickle. Many of the organisers of this illegal traffic were labour Zionists, usually members of kibbutzim. Most of those who came in these ships were members of the Hehalutz and left-wing youth movements. The whole enterprise is another example of the unorthodox activities of the heirs of Borokhov and Syrkin, well outside the confines of the political and industrial struggle. But illegal immigration was merely one aspect of the activities of the Jewish defence organisation, the Hagana, which was dominated by men and women belonging to the labour movement, even though considerable efforts were made to induce non-Socialist groups to participate at every level of Hagana activities.

pages: 249 words: 79,740

The Next Decade: Where We've Been . . . And Where We're Going by George Friedman


airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

The counterargument—that migrants take jobs from others, or that their claims on social services outweigh whatever economic advantages they provide—is not entirely frivolous, but it has some weaknesses. First, 10 percent unemployment in the United States translates into about 15 million people out of work. The Pew Hispanic Center estimates that there are about 12 million illegal immigrants in the United States. If the replacement theory were correct, then getting rid of illegal immigrants would create 12 million job openings, leaving only 3 million unemployed and an unemployment rate of only about 2 percent. That such a replacement scenario seems intuitively illogical argues to the point that most of the low-cost, unskilled labor that is imported does not compete with the existing workforce. The American economy requires additional workers but doesn’t want to increase the pool of citizens dramatically.

Cargoes are readily replaced with little impact on aggregate revenue. It should be much easier to stop illegal immigrants than drugs, because it is easy to detect immigrants once they are in the country. The simplest means of doing this is to institute a national identity card with special paper and embedded codes that make it extremely difficult to forge. No one could be employed until his or her employer first cleared the card via the sort of system currently used for credit card transactions. Any alien without a card would be deported. Any employer who hired him or her would be arrested and charged with a felony. But this simple method is highly unlikely to be employed, in part because many of the people most opposed to illegal immigration also have a deep mistrust of the federal government. The national identity card could be used to track the movement of money and people—to detect tax fraud and deadbeat dads as well as to monitor political organizations—which could easily lead to government abuse.

Therefore, as with the Mexican government and drugs, the best U.S. strategy is to appear to be doing everything possible to stop the movement of immigrants while making certain that these efforts fail. This has been the American strategy on illegal immigrants for many years, creating a tension between short- and mid-term economic interests and long-term political interests. The long-term problem is the shift in demographics—and in potential loyalties—in the borderland. The president must choose between these options, and his only rational course is to allow the future to tend to itself. Given the forces interested in maintaining the status quo, any president who took the steps needed to stop illegal immigration would rapidly lose power. Therefore the best strategy for the president is to continue the current one: hypocrisy. Similarly, the drug issue has a relatively simple solution that will not be implemented: legalization.

pages: 717 words: 150,288

Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham


airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence

This reconfiguration in the nature of borders is being fuelled by what Allen Feldman calls ‘securocratic wars’11 – open-ended and de-territorialized wars (on drugs, crime, terror, illegal immigration, biological threats) organized around vague, all-encompassing notions of public safety rather than around territorial conquest. Their purpose is to maintain state sovereignty, not through external war combined with internal policing, but through raising the spectre of mobilities and flows deemed to contaminate societies and threaten the social order, both internally and externally. Unknown and unknowable, these dangers –terrorism, demographic infiltration, ‘illegal’ immigration, disease (SARS, bird flu, tuberculosis) – are understood to lurk within the interstices of urban and social life, blending invisibly with it.12 EVENTS AND NORMALITY The virtual border, whether it faces outward or inward to foreignness, is no longer a barrier structure but a shifting net, a flexible spatial pathogenesis that shifts round the globe and can move from the exteriority of the transnational frontier into the core of the securocratic state.13 At their root, open-ended, securocratic wars are an attempt to police both subnational and supranational dichotomies of safe and risky places, both within and beyond the territorial limits of nation-states.14 An important component is the distinction between event and background.

They must be sustained by (often hidden) connections elsewhere; they require multiple mobilities and migrations in order to function. Feldman points out, for example, that many ‘gated edifices … depend on small armies of undocumented migrant labor’.209 When overzealous crackdowns on ‘illegal immigrants’ occur, as happened around Long Island’s gated communities in 2008, the super-rich residents of such enclaves soon find their houses uncleaned, their parks untended, their children lacking day care and, ironically, their borders unpoliced. Paradoxically, then, the collapse of such services reveals how ‘illegal immigration’ works across complex, transnational labour geographies and militarizing borders – invisibly sustaining economies, cities and social norms. Yet such migrants live extremely perilous lives. ‘As long as they stay behind the scenes, their brawn and skills are highly appreciated’,210 write Carlos Decena and Margaret Gray, but when they become visible, especially in suburbs, it frequently sparks controversy, demonization, violence and removal.

Crucially, as the Raytheon example again demonstrates, the same constellations of security companies are often involved in selling, establishing and overseeing the techniques and practices of the new military urbanism in both war-zone and homeland cities. Often, as with the EU’s new Europe-wide security policies, states or supranational blocks are not necessarily bringing in high-tech and militarized means of tracking illegal immigrants because they are the best means to address their security concerns. Rather, many such policies are intended to help build local industrial champions by developing their own defence, security or technology companies so they can compete in booming global markets for security technology. In this lucrative export market, the Israeli experience of locking down cities and turning the Occupied Territories into permanent, urban prison camps is proving especially influential.

pages: 458 words: 134,028

Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne


affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white picket fence, women in the workforce, Y2K

Militant Illegals If there is one group of people in America that has generally kept a low profile, it is the 12 million illegal immigrants in this country—and generally with good reason. As Edward R. Murrow said in his famous 1960 documentary, Harvest of Shame, “migrants . . . have the strength to harvest your fruit and vegetables, [but] they do not have the strength to influence legislation.” They have been quiet and in the shadows. As a result, they have been the truly forgotten in America. Now fast-forward to the spring of 2006. A bill introduced by Republican James Sensenbrenner of Wisconsin, and passed by the U.S. House of Representatives, pushed many illegal immigrants and their families too far. The bill would have made it a felony to be in this country illegally, or to give assistance—like food or medical care—to anyone who was. Deeply wounded, American’s illegal immigrants took to the streets.

It is a profound sign of the times that in today’s America, hundreds of thousands of America’s 12 million illegal immigrants not only felt secure enough to march, but found that they wielded actual political power. For the first time in American history, noncitizens’ needs and passions might actually be the critical element that tips a presidential election. It’s not that immigration itself has become America’s top concern. While large majorities of Americans followed the news about the marches, and immigration climbed somewhat on the list of issues Americans consider most important, it still lags well behind Iraq, the economy, and terrorism. And as of this writing, Congress still hasn’t resolved its differences to produce a new immigration law. But what did happen is that the passion of illegal immigrants touched a deep chord with legal immigrants, who sensed that the animus behind the Sensenbrenner legislation was directed at them, too.

In fact, by the time a trend hits 1 percent, it is ready to spawn a hit movie, best-selling book, or new political movement. The power of individual choice is increasingly influencing politics, religion, entertainment, and even war. In today’s mass societies, it takes only 1 percent of people making a dedicated choice—contrary to the mainstream’s choice—to create a movement that can change the world. Just look at what has happened in the U.S. to illegal immigrants. A few years ago, they were the forgotten Americans, hiding from daylight and the authorities. Today they are holding political rallies, and given where they and their legal, voting relatives live, they may turn out to be the new Soccer Moms. Militant immigrants fed up with a broken immigration system just may be the most important voters in the next presidential election, distributed in the key Southwest states that are becoming the new battleground areas.

pages: 311 words: 130,761

Framing Class: Media Representations of Wealth and Poverty in America by Diana Elizabeth Kendall


Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, David Brooks, declining real wages, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, framing effect, Georg Cantor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, haute couture, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, lump of labour, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, working poor

This humorous framing downplays the crisis that outsourcing has created for many U.S. workers and their families. It also minimizes the problems faced by people who increasingly must rely on globalized call centers for technology support and to purchase products and services. In media framing of stories about job loss in the United States, illegal immigration is a key culprit, along with downsizing and outsourcing. Articles and news reports about the “Americano Dream” explain how indigenous workers are pitted against illegal immigrants, sometimes referred to more politely as undocumented workers, who are a source of cheap labor in this country. Frequently, media sources employ this terminology when a major corporation is accused of labor violations, as when Walmart, the nation’s largest private employer (with 1.4 million U.S. workers in 2009), was alleged to be using undocumented workers as cleaning personnel in its megastores.

Although earlier media coverage of the chain had praised Walmart’s economic success and applauded the ingenuity of founder Sam Walton and other members of his family, subsequent news reports focused on the corporation’s questionable labor practices, including the use of undocumented workers.116 According to Walmart officials, the company hired subcontractors to do the janitorial work without knowing that they hired illegal immigrants: After federal agents raided 60 Wal-Mart stores in October and found more than 200 illegal immigrants in the cleaning crews, the world’s largest retailer was 9781442202238.print.indb 155 2/10/11 10:46 AM 156 Chapter 5 quick to defend itself from this enormous embarrassment. Wal-Mart’s officers said they had no idea those workers were illegal, insisting they knew next to nothing about the workers from Mexico, Mongolia, Russia and elsewhere because they were employed by contractors.

Wal-Mart’s officers said they had no idea those workers were illegal, insisting they knew next to nothing about the workers from Mexico, Mongolia, Russia and elsewhere because they were employed by contractors. Nor did Wal-Mart know, its spokesmen said, that the contractors were cutting corners by not paying overtime or Social Security taxes or by flouting other labor laws, as the investigators claimed.117 As the media later reported in articles such as “Wal-Mart Settles Illegal Immigration Case for $11M,” the retailer paid up to end the federal probe and escape criminal charges for using illegal immigrants as custodial workers. Twelve businesses that provided contract janitor services to Walmart also agreed to pay $4 million in fines and pled guilty to criminal immigration charges to resolve the matter.118 Walmart officials emphasized that the chain is a good corporate citizen and does not hire undocumented workers. Walmart’s website states that the company provides good wages and benefits for the workers it hires, and these individuals often include college students and retirees who want to earn extra income.119 In framing media stories such as these, reporters bandy around phrases like “cheap labor” to describe immigrant workers—documented or not—as a potential threat to the indigenous working class.

pages: 209 words: 89,619

The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing


8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, old age dependency ratio, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional

Something similar is happening in Germany, where in many cities migrants already account for a majority of children. Most Americans appear to support the Arizona law. One national poll produced the following results, showing the percentages in favour of each proposition: ● increasing fines for employers of illegal immigrants 80% ● criminalising employment of illegal immigrants 75% ● requiring police to report illegals to federal government 70% ● National Guard patrols of the Mexican border 68% ● building more border fences 60% ● allowing police to demand proof of migrant status 50% ● excluding illegal immigrant children from school 42% ● requiring churches to report illegal immigrants 37% In South Africa, an even more ugly development typifies what is happening in many parts of the world. Millions of migrants slip across the borders and make their way to the townships, particularly around Johannesburg.

Within months, the political left had been swept from power by the xenophobic Northern League. It promptly instituted a crackdown on the Chinese, launching night-time raids on their factories and ‘sweatshops’, rounding up workers and demonising them, just as the League’s political ally, Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, spoke of his determination to defeat ‘the army of evil’, as he described illegal immigrants. A shaken Chinese ambassador hurried from Rome and said that what was going on reminded him of the Nazis in the 1930s. Bizarrely, the Chinese government seemed reluctant to take the migrants back. THE PRECARIAT 5 The problems were not just caused by intolerant locals. The nature of the enclave contributed. While Prato’s old factories struggled to compete, leaving Italian workers to seek alternative sources of income, the Chinese built up a community within a community.

Some migrants do carry drugs, often forced to do so by people traffickers. Some are ‘criminals’; every population group has its share. But demonisation is pervasive. The growth of the migrant precariat in the United States was matched by official commando-style raids on factories suspected of employing ‘illegals’. Although President Obama ordered an end to such raids, they could easily return. The Arizona law of 2010, which made illegal immigration a state misdemeanour as well as a federal civil violation, intensified the tension between migrants and ‘native citizens’ fearful of joining the precariat. It requires local police, after making ‘lawful contact’, to check the immigration status of those who cause ‘reasonable suspicion’ and to arrest them if they lack documents, opening the door to random stopping of Hispanic-looking drivers on minor pretexts.

pages: 736 words: 210,277

1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War by Benny Morris


Albert Einstein, British Empire, family office, friendly fire, illegal immigration, mass immigration

As Colonial Secretary Malcolm MacDonald put it, "If there was trouble in Palestine ... there would be repercussions in Transjordania, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt and even echoes of that trouble in India."36 But Churchill did authorize the establish ment of both the Palmah, a guerrilla strike force of Haganah members to be used if the Germans conquered Palestine, and the Jewish Brigade, a large formation composed mainly of volunteers from the Yishuv that fought with the British army in Italy. The veterans of both were to stand the Yishuv in good stead in the 1948 War. In the first months of World War II, Zionist organizations stepped up efforts to save European Jews from the impending massacre-and to strengthen the Yishuv by bringing them to Palestine-through an illegal immigration operation run mainly by the newly created Institute for Illegal Immigration (hamossad le`aliya bilti ligalit), a secret arm of the Haganah. The British countered with a Royal Navy cordon that intercepted the rickety steamers, and many were stopped and their passengers reshipped to detention camps in Mauritius and, later, Cyprus. But by mid-1941 both Zionist and British efforts had become largely irrelevant: the Germans had overrun Europe and closed its ports while changing their policy toward the Jews from one of encouraging emigration to initiating mass murder.

The three armed groups negotiated a formal accord, known as the Hebrew Rebellion Movement (tnu`athameri ha`ivri), and on the night of 9-io October several Palmah squads raided the British detention camp at Atlit and freed 2o8 incarcerated illegal immigrants.''' What followed was even more dramatic: on the night of i November Palmah sappers blew up railway tracks at 153 points around Palestine and, a few days later, destroyed a patrol vessel and two British coast guard stations, at Giv`at Olga and Sayidna Ali. The British reacted byraiding a handful of kibbutzim, which were suspected of housing illegal immigrants, and panicky troops killed nine civilians and wounded sixty-three. Anti-British emotions crested. Bombings of British installations continued through the winter and spring, culminating in the spectacular simultaneous destruction by Palmah sappers, on the night of 17 June 1946, of eleven bridges connecting Palestine to Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt.

Attlee was bowled over: he complained that Truman "did not wait to acquaint [himself] with the reasons" for the plan.82 Meanwhile, the Haganah pressed on with its illegal immigration campaign. On z7 January 1947, the British took one last shot at resolving the crisis. They reconvened the London conference, this time with the AHC represented. But the Zionists continued to boycott the talks, and the United States declined to send an observer. The Arabs continued to refitse anything short of complete, immediate independence, and the Jews, anything less than Jewish statehood in all or part of Palestine. With no acceptable military solution to the Jewish guerrilla-terrorist and illegal immigration campaigns, and with no political solution to the ZionistArab impasse, Britain had reached the end of the road. On i4 February 1947, the British cabinet decided to wash its hands of Palestine and dump the problem in the lap of the United Nations.

pages: 407 words: 136,138

The Working Poor: Invisible in America by David K. Shipler


always be closing, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, David Brooks, full employment, illegal immigration, late fees, low skilled workers, payday loans, profit motive, Silicon Valley, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, working poor

The immigration agency is usually content to deport the workers without going after the employers as well. A noted exception came in the form of a federal grand jury indictment of Tyson’s Foods and six employees on charges of arranging to have illegal immigrants smuggled into the country and provided with false documents. The case was thin, however, and despite testimony by several employees who pleaded guilty, a federal jury acquitted the company and the three managers who were brought to trial.8 The only authentic piece of identification illegal immigrants can obtain is a driver’s license, and that has become more difficult since the terrorist attacks of September n, 2001. A license is not a necessity for the newest arrivals who don’t have cars and don’t drive farm equipment, but it’s essential for those who want to step off the migrant train and stay in one place for a while, or move up a rung on the job ladder from field hand to tractor driver.

They show the basic landscape of poverty essentially unchanged, except that the contours of hardship have grown slightly more pronounced. Greater disparities of net worth separate the wealthiest and the poorest families, larger gaps in resources divide affluent school districts from others, more children miss school because of asthma, more Americans go without health insurance, more experience hunger, more are imprisoned, fewer workers are unionized, more illegal immigrants do essential jobs, and more of them die in the desert after crossing the border from Mexico. Congress and many state legislatures have raised minimum wages, but they still leave most single-earner families below the poverty line. Astonishing percentages of adults who have been surveyed remain unable to perform everyday tasks in reading, math, and document comprehension, rendering them uncompetitive in a global marketplace.

“They were told that if they tried to resist or escape, their homes in Thailand would be burned, their families murdered, and they would be beaten,” writes Julie Su, one of their lawyers.3 They were shown pictures of a man who had been badly battered after an escape attempt, and they were threatened with the dreaded Immigration and Naturalization Service if they complained—threats that came true, in a way. In 1995, seven years after the involuntary servitude began, and three years after the INS had received its first report on the problem, federal and state agents finally raided the place, “freeing” seventy-one hapless workers only to imprison them in a federal penitentiary pending deportation. The INS, bound by law to detain and deport illegal immigrants, thereby reinforced the intimidation commonly used by employers to enforce their workers’ silence. The official toughness “could only serve to discourage workers from reporting labor law, civil rights, and human rights abuses, and push operations like El Monte further underground,” Su argues. “The INS, we asserted, ought not conspire with exploitative employers.” It took an entire week of vehement demonstrations by Sweatshop Watch members before the tormented Thai workers were released by the immigration agency.

pages: 127 words: 51,083

The Oil Age Is Over: What to Expect as the World Runs Out of Cheap Oil, 2005-2050 by Matt Savinar


Albert Einstein, clean water, energy security, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, invisible hand, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, post-oil, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Rosa Parks, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Y2K

By the year 2050, the US will only have enough arable land to produce food for half its population, and just barely enough water. This is not accounting for the effects of oil depletion, which will severely exacerbate the situation, as will globalization. A. Population Increase The current population in the US is a little under 280 million. The population has been increasing at a rate of 1.1% per year, not including illegal immigration. At this rate, the US 20 The Oil Age is Over population will reach 520 million by the year 2050.20 If illegal immigration continues unabated, that number will increase drastically. B. Arable Land per Person As urbanization and soil erosion continue unabated, the US is projected to only have 290 million acres of arable land by 2050. With a population of 520 million, that means that each person will only have .6 acres of arable land from which they can derive their food.

In light of the energy situation we are facing, why is the Bush administration spending money and cutting services like there's no tomorrow? ................................. 64 63. Why are we going off to the Moon and then to Mars at a time when we should be dealing with these oil shortages? .................................................................................. 65 64. What about Bush's plan to give amnesty to the illegal immigrants from Mexico? Does that have anything to do with Peak Oil?.............................................................. 66 65. Does Peak Oil have anything to do with the war on drugs?......................................... 66 66. I'm a Baby Boomer. What can I expect in the years to come? ..................................... 68 67. I'm a member of Generation X or Generation Y. How will Peak Oil affect me in particular?

Foremost among them are superconducting magnets, plasma control and diagnostics, robotically controlled mining equipment, life-support facilities, rocket-launch vehicles, telecommunications, power electronics, etc. 106 The fact that we are aggressively pursuing such an unviable source of fuel underscores how desperate the situation is getting. D. To send more US jobs offshore Just wanted to see if you were paying attention. 64. What about Bush's plan to give amnesty to the illegal immigrants from Mexico? Does that have anything to do with Peak Oil? Mexico is the third leading oil supplier to the US. According to Dick Cheney's National Energy Report released in May 2001, "Mexico is a leading and reliable source of imported oil. It has a large reserve base, approximately 25% larger than our own proven reserves."107 On May 8, 2003, the US Congressional Committee on International Relations voted to tie reform of US immigration laws with a requirement that Mexico open up its state oil company, Petroleos Mexicanos, to US corporate investors.108 In other words, the US told Mexico, "Give us your oil and we will give you favorable immigration laws." 65.

pages: 784 words: 229,648

O Jerusalem by Larry Collins, Dominique Lapierre


back-to-the-land, colonial rule, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, union organizing

The order laid out the principles which would govern the withdrawal of the only effective instrument Cunningham had with which to maintain order in the coming months, the British Army. It contained one deliberate omission. It made no mention of the British Army being responsible henceforth for law and order in Palestine. • From 1946 to February 1948 according to a report submitted to the War Office by Sir Gordon MacMillan. the last commander in chief of British forces in Palestine, the British intercepted forty-seven shiploads of illegal immigrants, interning 65,307 illegal immigrants in their detention camps on the island of Cyprus. Harassed, humiliated, shot at and insulted for the past two years, that army was fed up with maintaining law and order in Palestine. With an end to the mandate now set, its commander, one of Cunningham's fellow Scots, Sir Gordon MacMillan, was determined not to risk the lives of any more of his soldiers in Palestine except in the pursuit of British interests.

A survivor of the first Zionist combat on the soil of Palestine, the battle of Tel Hai, founder of the first illegal immigration network, his most recent exploit had been successfully smuggling fifteen thousand Rumanians and Bulgarians into Palestine. Shaul Avigour in his Geneva headquarters soon began to run up one of the biggest telephone bills in Switzerland, calling New York, Prague, Buenos Aires, Mexico. The telephone was his only means of communication, as the Haganah had felt it imprudent to install in Switzerland one of the secret radio transmitters with which it linked most European cities to Tel Aviv. The network's code name was 'Gideon', for one of the judges of Biblical Israel. It had been established for the illegal immigration programme, and now it provided secure communications for Avigour's arms buyers.

'Wash up and change,* the driver told him. Tm taking you to Jerusalem. The boss wants to see you/ Avriel had displayed no surprise. For ten years the quiet Austrian intellectual had devoted himself to the Zionist cause, achieving some of its most spectacular triumphs. From Vienna, then Istanbul, Athens and finally Paris, Avriel had supervised one of the most extraordinary adventures of the Jewish movement, the illegal immigration of thousands of European Jews into Palestine. In the middle of the war, he had succeeded in smuggling his men into Hitler's death camps. Over one hundred thousand Jews from every country in Europe were personally indebted to Avriel, and his organization for having got them out of the Nazi inferno and onto the shores of the Promised Land. Now, barely two months after his own return to Palestine, he was once again being called away from his family and his kibbutz.

pages: 358 words: 106,729

Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy by Raghuram Rajan


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business climate, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, diversification, Edward Glaeser, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, implied volatility, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, medical malpractice, microcredit, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, price stability, profit motive, Real Time Gross Settlement, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

This may also explain why Americans give generously to charities: they have more control over who the beneficiaries are.20 Politicians who want to derail benefits legislation have often been quick to raise the specter of hard-earned taxpayer money going to the undeserving, irresponsible, and lazy, and such demagoguery is especially potent when the bogeymen look and behave differently from their constituents. In much of the twentieth century, the targets for demagogues were African Americans, but over time Americans have learned to recognize the deeper purpose behind such language. More recently, illegal immigrants have emerged as the new target, and much angst is expended over the possibility that benefits may leak to them. Indeed, a battle has erupted in the most recent round of health care legislation over the access of illegal immigrants to any form of taxpayer-funded programs. In this debate, few legislators have asked how U.S. society can remain healthy and humane with a sick and unprotected immigrant population in its midst. Finally, business interests and money power have always been an important force in the United States.

The reasons for rising inequality are, of course, a matter of much debate, with both the Left and the Right adhering to their own favored explanations. Other factors, such as the widespread deregulation in recent decades and the resulting increases in competition including for resources (such as talent), the changes in tax rates, the decrease in unionization, and the increase in both legal and illegal immigration, have no doubt all played a part.5 Regardless of how the inequality has arisen, it has led to widespread anxiety. Many have lost faith in the narrative of America as the land of unbounded opportunity, which in the past created the public support that made the United States a bastion of economic freedom. Politicians, always sensitive to their constituents, have responded to these worrisome developments with an attempt at a panacea: facilitating the flow of easy credit to those left behind by growth and technological progress.

Inequality feeds on itself. Moreover, it will precipitate a backlash. When people see a dim economic future in a democracy, they work through political channels to obtain redress, and if the political channel does not respond, they resort to other means. The first victims of a political search for scapegoats are those who are visible and easily demonized, but powerless to defend themselves. Illegal immigrants and foreign workers do not vote, but they are essential to the economy—the former because they often do jobs no one else will touch in normal times, and the latter because they are the source of the cheap imports that have raised the standard of living for all, but especially those with low incomes. There has to be a better way than simply finding scapegoats, and I examine possible solutions in subsequent chapters.

pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason


back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

For during the neoliberal years the super-rich had spared no effort or expense to create a plebeian backlash against the Federal state. From the platform of Fox News, Rupert Murdoch’s employees had railed against big government and high taxes. Across the Bible Belt, the holy book had been brandished by preachers warning against the combined evils of abortion, gay marriage, ‘positive discrimination’ for black people, illegal immigration, big government and high taxes. By February 2009, the religious right in America had an enemy it had always dreamed of: a black president, committed to liberal social policy, big spending and a bailout of Wall Street at the expense of everyone else. In November 2010 they found the means to humiliate him, when the Republicans won a majority in the House of Representatives, including eighty-seven signed-up members of the Tea Party.

He says the trade deal between the USA and Mexico, together with other bilateral deals, is making poverty south of the border worse: When I was in jail I met guys from El Salvador, Ecuador, Honduras—conditions are really hard—they cannot live there; they got no option but to go to other countries. It’s not that they want to be here, but they just don’t have any other option. SB 1070 won’t stop them coming. Arpaio made videos of prisoners in the chain gang under the sun: people see this, but they still come. Latino migrants work, but for precious little: it is a certainty that the impact of illegal immigration is to reduce wages for people like Maurice and Larry in New Mexico, who are US citizens. Fernando tells me that some of his friends are working a 100-hour week, for below the minimum wage: housekeeping, landscaping, kitchen work. ‘They should be creating jobs instead of jails, building schools instead of jails.’ But as Fernando and I sit there in the sweltering heat of the migrant centre, beneath posters with the slogan ‘We Are Human’ and a grimly humorous bumper sticker saying ‘I’m Mexican, Pull Me Over’—President Obama is getting ready to sign away two trillion dollars’ worth of money for building schools and creating jobs.

I met the party’s second in command, Ilias Panagiotaros, in the back yard of the store he runs: a militaria shop, selling police uniforms to serving officers and Combat 18 t-shirts to football hooligans. In his opinion, ‘Greek society is ready—even though no-one likes this—to have a fight: a new type of civil war. On the one side there will be nationalists like us, and Greeks who want our country to be as it used to be, and on the other side illegal immigrants, anarchists and all those who have destroyed Athens several times. Golden Dawn is at war with the political system and those who represent it, with the domestic and international bankers, we are at war with these invaders—immigrants.’ Panagiotaros, one of eighteen fascist MPs, was clear as to the sequencing of the Greek denouement. It would not be like Weimar: it would begin with a left-wing government, and end with the rule of his own party: ‘If Syriza wins the next election, we will win the one after that.

Global Financial Crisis by Noah Berlatsky


accounting loophole / creative accounting, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, centre right, circulation of elites, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate raider, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, George Akerlof, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, moral hazard, new economy, Northern Rock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, working poor

Danny Schechter “Financial Crisis Goes Global, Slams into Europe,” Huffington Post, March 10, 2009. Jay Solomon and Siobhan Gorman “Financial Crisis May Diminish American Sway,” Wall Street Journal, October 17, 2008. Spiegel Online “Ticking Timebomb: The Financial Crisis Reaches Germany’s Economy,” October 15, 2008. Brian Whitley “With Fewer Jobs, Fewer Illegal Immigrants,” Christian Science Monitor, December 30, 2008. 127 CHAPTER Effects of the Global Financial Crisis on Developing Nations 128 3 1 Viewpoint Worldwide, Migrant Workers Are Threatened by Job Losses and Xenophobia Ron Synovitz Ron Synovitz is a senior correspondent in Radio Free Europe’s central newsroom, where he has worked since 1995. In the following viewpoint, Synovitz reports that enormous numbers of migrant workers are losing their jobs in China, the Persian Gulf, and Europe.

In the following viewpoint, Synovitz reports that enormous numbers of migrant workers are losing their jobs in China, the Persian Gulf, and Europe. In response, governments in Spain, Russia, and elsewhere are putting restrictions on the number of foreign workers allowed into their countries. International organizations and advocacy groups worry that such restrictions on foreigners may cause dangerous large-scale migration, enrich criminal organizations by promoting illegal immigration, and encourage xenophobic attitudes toward foreigners. As you read, consider the following questions: 1. In the Persian Gulf, from where does Ron Synovitz assert the majority of migrant workers come? 2. In Spain, where do the majority of migrant workers come from, according to the author? 3. What is the International Organization for Migration (IOM)? Ron Synovitz, “Global Financial Crisis Costs Many Migrant Workers Their Jobs,” Radio Free Europe, December 18, 2008.

But now, the fall in the price of oil that has accompanied the global recession is causing a sharp downturn in development within the six Gulf Cooperation Council states—Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Oman. Analysts say neither the developers, the investors, nor the migrant workers are prepared for what is next. They predict that as many as half of the region’s 13 million foreign workers could lose their jobs in the months ahead. The migrants will either have to stay in the Gulf countries as illegal immigrants or go back to their own countries to seek employment. 130 Effects of the Global Financial Crisis on Developing Nations European countries also are seeing similar problems as a result of the financial crisis. Millions of foreign workers flocked to Spain for jobs from 1994 to 2007 when that country saw continuous economic growth. Most of the 4.5 million migrant workers now in Spain are from Latin America, North Africa, or Eastern Europe.

pages: 357 words: 94,852

No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein

Airbnb, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collective bargaining, Corrections Corporation of America, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, financial deregulation, greed is good, high net worth, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, women in the workforce, working poor

Airstrike in Syria,” Politifact, April 7, 2017,​truth-o-meter/​article/​2017/​apr/​07/​after-syrian-missile-airstrikes-will-trump-change-/. Stocks of two largest private prison companies soared by 43 and 21 percent Heather Long, “Private Prison Stocks Up 100% since Trump’s Win,”, February 24, 2017,​2017/​02/​24/​investing/​private-prison-stocks-soar-trump/. ICE: 34,000 illegal immigrants; 73 percent of whom are held in private facilities Associated Press, “Trump’s Stance on Illegal Immigration May Aid Private Prisons,” Denver Post, November 23, 2016,​2016/​11/​23/​donald-trump-illegal-immigration-may-aid-private-prisons/. Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan at Boeing Dominic Gates and Jim Brunner, “Trump Taps Boeing Executive Pat Shanahan for Deputy Secretary of Defense,” Seattle Times, March 16, 2017. Lee Fang: “President Donald Trump has weaponized the revolving door…” Lee Fang, “Donald Trump Is Filling Top Pentagon and Homeland Security Positions with Defense Contractors,”, March 21, 2017,​2017/​03/​21/​revolving-door-military/.

In 1989, after five Black and Latino teenagers were accused of raping a white woman in Central Park, he bought full-page ads in several New York daily papers calling for the return of the death penalty. The Central Park Five were later exonerated by DNA evidence, and their sentences were vacated. Trump refused to apologize or retract his claims. No wonder, then, that his Justice Department, under the direction of Attorney General Jeff Sessions, is arguing that social services and infrastructure in cities such as New York and Chicago are “crumbling under the weight of illegal immigration and violent crime”—conveniently moving the subject away from years of neoliberal neglect toward the supposed need to crack down on crime, and to bar these cities from declaring themselves “sanctuaries” for immigrants. Divide and Conquer In truth, nothing has done more to help build our present corporate dystopia than the persistent and systematic pitting of working-class whites against Blacks, citizens against migrants, and men against women.

pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders


agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

(That law was opposed by the right-wing Popular Party government but passed by Parliament against its will.) Zapatero’s 2005 law was in a way a mopping-up, designed to ensure that all the residents of Spain’s arrival cities would be legal, tax-paying citizens.26 It was followed, in 2007, by an even more ambitious program, engineered in cooperation with the government of Senegal, designed to deter dangerous illegal sea crossings by migrants and end illegal immigration to Spain. While amnesties offering regularization of “illegal” immigrants have been used throughout the Western world in the postwar decades, Spain’s program was part of a new approach designed to make regularization an option in advance, incorporating rural-to-urban transition into the employment system. Under this program, tens of thousands of Africans every year were granted work permits, allowing them to enter the country legally and work for a year; if their employment contracts were extended, they were allowed to bring over their families and so embark on a path toward citizenship—an effort to prevent the fragmented families and underground lives of the European arrival city and to allow Spain to add half a million immigrants to its economy each year without creating a marginalized class on the outskirts.

Walls and policing regimes have done little to reduce the numbers. In most cases, governments come to realize that millions of potential taxpayers are living below the radar, earning incomes but not paying taxes, and creating gray-market families and awkward legal paradoxes as their deracinated children come of age; the result is usually a mass amnesty. The United States has granted post-facto citizenship to millions of illegal immigrants in recent decades (most recently in the early 1990s); similar amnesties, involving hundreds of thousands of undocumented migrants, have been granted in Spain, Italy, France, Britain, and Germany. More such amnesties are almost certain in the future. A typical example is the U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act, or IRCA, which began in 1986 as a congressional effort to stop, once and for all, the movement of Latin American villagers across the southern border.

After a decade and a half, this exposed and unprotected setting had become a social and humanitarian worry, so, in 2005, the Herndon town council, led by Mayor Michael O’Reilly, voted to create an indoor day-labor center, using county funds and staff from a local church non-profit agency. This initiative attracted anti-immigration forces, such as the vigilante group the Minutemen, which opened a chapter in Herndon. They claimed that it was unacceptable to use taxpayer money to assist illegal immigrants. The proposed center then became the focus of an ugly election for Virginia governor in 2005, in which Republican candidate Jerry Kilgore built much of his campaign around his opposition to Herndon’s approach, making the town a conservative emblem of wrongheaded state support for undocumented migrants. (He lost by a narrow margin.) Then, months after the center opened in a former police station on a two-year funding contract, the people of Herndon responded by voting Mayor O’Reilly out of office by a wide margin in a single-issue campaign devoted to the center and replacing him with Stephen J.

pages: 442 words: 135,006

ZeroZeroZero by Roberto Saviano


Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, call centre, credit crunch, double entry bookkeeping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, open borders, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Steve Jobs, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

If he thinks back on how he was able to stand his ground with the Mancuso family: he was just a kid with a small business then, his turnover ridiculously small. Yet he had resisted the Mancusos for years. Then they crushed him for no reason, just for the sake of trying to squeeze him like an orange picked on the Rosarno plain. And now he’s letting himself be squeezed, like the lowliest illegal immigrant. But he’s not a lowly illegal immigrant. This is not who he is. If he wasn’t afraid as a kid, he shouldn’t be afraid now either, now that he has learned that everyone, whether in Calabria or Colombia, has a hand on his head that can crush him at any time, either in punishment, by mistake, of just for the heck of it. Who knows how long he would have harbored such thoughts, brooding over them ad nauseam. The fact is, one day Bruno makes up his mind.

Whoever survived was guaranteed a place with Los Zetas. Whoever succumbed was buried in a mass grave. In spring 2011, such a grave was discovered in San Fernando; it contained 193 corpses, the victims all killed with powerful blows to the head. And this sadistic carnage occurred just a few months after what has become known as the First San Fernando Massacre. More innocent victims, more mass graves: August 24, 2010. More than seventy illegal immigrants from South and Central America were trying to cross the U.S. border at Tamaulipas. We know about them from a man from Ecuador who survived. In San Fernando he and his companions were joined by a group of Mexicans claiming to be Los Zetas. They herded the immigrants onto a farm and started beating them up. One by one. They either hadn’t paid the “toll” for crossing the border into Los Zetas territory or—more likely—they hadn’t accepted the Zetas’ “request” that they work for them.

When the Soviet regime collapsed, imports proliferated, prices dropped, and the drugs of the West—cocaine and ecstasy—finally made their way onto the market. At first cocaine use was limited to those Russians who could afford to spend the equivalent of three months’ average salary. There was an invasion of substances that found fertile ground in part because of the breakup of neighboring states: wars, open borders, and an army of illegal immigrants unable to find work in the legal economy. For many of them—as in the rest of the world—drug dealing was the only way to earn a living. But the decisive step came with the opening toward the Western Hemisphere, first the United States and Canada, then Latin America and the Caribbean. That part of the world had a high demand for arms, and Russia a notable supply of Soviet military weapons. That part of the world had a massive supply of drugs and a need for money laundering, and Russia, a sizable demand for drugs and a significant supply of outlets for dirty capital.

pages: 801 words: 242,104

Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed by Jared Diamond


clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Donner party, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, means of production, new economy, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, profit motive, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transcontinental railway, unemployed young men

Dominicans and Haitians in the Dominican Republic are divided not only economically but also culturally: they speak different languages, dress differently, eat different foods, and on the average look different (Haitians tending to be darker-skinned and more African in appearance). As I listened to my Dominican friends describing the situation of Haitians in the Dominican Republic, I became astonished by the close parallels with the situation of illegal immigrants from Mexico and other Latin American countries in the United States. I heard those sentences about “jobs that Dominicans don’t want,” “low-paying jobs but still better than what’s available for them at home,” “those Haitians bring AIDS, TB, and malaria,” “they speak a different language and look darker-skinned,” and “we have no obligation and can’t afford to provide medical care, education, and housing to illegal immigrants.” In those sentences, all I had to do was to replace the words “Haitians” and “Dominicans” with “Latin American immigrants” and “American citizens,” and the result would be a typical expression of American attitudes towards Latin American immigrants.

Every month, one reads of would-be immigrants dying in the desert or being robbed or shot, but that does not deter them. Other illegal immigrants come from as far away as China and Central Asia, in ships that unload them just off the coast. California residents are of two minds about all those Third World immigrants seeking to come here to attain the First World lifestyle. On the one hand, our economy is utterly dependent on them to fill jobs in the service and construction industries and on farms. On the other hand, California residents complain that the immigrants compete with unemployed residents for many jobs, depress wages, and burden our already overcrowded hospitals and public education system. A measure (Proposition 187) on the 1994 state election ballot, overwhelmingly approved by voters but then gutted by the courts on constitutional grounds, would have deprived illegal immigrants of most state-funded benefits.

I picture the scene at Gardar as like that in my home city of Los Angeles in 1992 at the time of the so-called Rodney King riots, when the acquittal of policemen on trial for brutally beating a poor person provoked thousands of outraged people from poor neighborhoods to spread out to loot businesses and rich neighborhoods. The greatly outnumbered police could do nothing more than put up pieces of yellow plastic warning tape across roads entering rich neighborhoods, in a futile gesture aimed at keeping the looters out. We are increasingly seeing a similar phenomenon on a global scale today, as illegal immigrants from poor countries pour into the overcrowded lifeboats represented by rich countries, and as our border controls prove no more able to stop that influx than were Gardar’s chiefs and Los Angeles’s yellow tape. That parallel gives us another reason not to dismiss the fate of the Greenland Norse as just a problem of a small peripheral society in a fragile environment, irrelevant to our own larger society.

pages: 753 words: 233,306

Collapse by Jared Diamond


clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Donner party, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, means of production, new economy, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, prisoner's dilemma, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transcontinental railway, unemployed young men

Dominicans and Haitians in the Dominican Republic are divided not only economically but also culturally: they speak different languages, dress differently, eat different foods, and on the average look differently (Haitians tending to be darker-skinned and more African in appearance). As I listened to my Dominican friends describing the situation of Haitians in the Dominican Republic, I became astonished by the close parallels with the situation of illegal immigrants from Mexico and other Latin American countries in the United States. I heard those sentences about "jobs that Dominicans don't want," "low-paying jobs but still better than what's available for them at home," "those Haitians bring AIDS, TB, and malaria," "they speak a different language and look darker-skinned," and "we have no obligation and can't afford to provide medical care, education, and housing to illegal immigrants." In those sentences, all I had to do was to replace the words "Haitians" and "Dominicans" with "Latin American immigrants" and "American citizens," and the result would be a typical expression of American attitudes towards Latin American immigrants.

Every month, one reads of would-be immigrants dying in the desert or being robbed or shot, but that does not deter them. Other illegal immigrants come from as far away as China and Central Asia, in ships that unload them just off the coast. California residents are of two minds about all those Third World immigrants seeking to come here to attain the First World lifestyle. On the one hand, our economy is utterly dependent on them to fill jobs in the service and construction industries and on farms. On the other hand, California residents complain that the immigrants compete with unemployed residents for many jobs, depress wages, and burden our already overcrowded hospitals and public education system. A measure (Proposition 187) on the 1994 state election ballot, overwhelmingly approved by voters but then gutted by the courts on constitutional grounds, would have deprived illegal immigrants of most state-funded benefits.

I picture the scene at Gardar as like that in my home city of Los Angeles in 1992 at the time of the so-called Rodney King riots, when the acquittal of policemen on trial for brutally beating a poor person provoked thousands of outraged people from poor neighborhoods to spread out to loot businesses and rich neighborhoods. The greatly outnumbered police could do nothing more than put up pieces of yellow plastic warning tape across roads entering rich neighborhoods, in a futile gesture aimed at keeping the looters out. We are increasingly seeing a similar phenomenon on a global scale today, as illegal immigrants from poor countries pour into the overcrowded lifeboats represented by rich countries, and as our border controls prove no more able to stop that influx than were Gardar's chiefs and Los Angeles's yellow tape. That parallel gives us another reason not to dismiss the fate of the Greenland Norse as just a problem of a small peripheral society in a fragile environment, irrelevant to our own larger society.

pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Ironically, while most of the recent efforts of the digerati have focused on liberating the data from closed databases, the focus of their future efforts may soon shift to squeezing the open data back in or at least finding ways in which to limit the mobility of that data. This is a particularly important problem for various ethnic minorities who suddenly find themselves under threat, as digitized information has publicly identified them in ways they could not anticipate. In Russia a local branch of the Movement Against Illegal Immigration (DPNI), the country’s powerful anti-immigration network, created a series of online mash-ups in which they put census data about various ethnic minorities living in the Russian city of Volgograd onto an online map. This was not done to get a better understanding of urban life in Russia but to encourage DPNI’s supporters to organize pogroms on those minorities. DPNI is an interesting example of an unabashedly racist organization that has deftly adapted to the Internet era.

“Old Suspicions Magnified Mistrust into Ethnic Riots in Urumqi.” Guardian, July 10, 2009. Weiss, L. “Globalization and National Governance: Antinomy or Interdependence?” Review of International Studies 25 (1999): 59-88. ———. “Globalization and the Myth of the Powerless State.” New Left Review, no. 225 (1997): 3-27. ———. The Myth of the Powerless State. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998. Zuev, D. “The Movement Against Illegal Immigration: Analysis of the Central Node in the Russian Extreme-Right Movement.” Nations and Nationalism 16, no. 2 (2010): 261-284. CHAPTER 10 Achterhuis, Hans, ed. American Philosophy of Technology: The Empirical Turn. Translated by Robert P. Crease. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001. Adas, Michael. Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance.

See also Authoritarian governments; individual dictators Dictator’s dilemma Digital Orientalism “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning” (Rittel and Webber) Dismantling Utopia: How Information Ended the Soviet Union (Shane) Dissidents. See also Cyber-dissidents conference Distributed-Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack Djukov, Alexander Dominguez, Ricardo Domino effect The Doors of Perception (Huxley) Doppelt, Gerald Doran, Michael Dörner, Dietrich Douglas, Susan Dow 36,000 (Glassman) DPNI. See Movement Against Illegal Immigration Dreazen, Yochi Dreyfus, Hubert Dunlap, Orrin Eastern Europe Eastern European Revolution Ebadi, Shirin Economics, and technology Efficiency Egerstad, Dan Egypt El Ghazzali, Kacem Elections “Elude the cat” episode Email address book Enclave extremism Encryption. See also Security The End of History and The Last Man (Fukuyama) Endangered species Entertainment Eriksen, Thomas Hylland Escapism Esfandiari, Golnaz Ethics European Union Exegy Facebook and activism and censorship and democracy and El Ghazzali and face-recognition and Global Network Initiative and group identity and Iran and Saving the Children of Africa and social network lawlessness and social network surveillance See also Social networks Face-recognition Falun Gong Fandy, Mamoun FARC movement FBI Federal Communications Commission Feith, David Fifty-Cent Party Financial Times Firewalls Fischer, Claude Flying magazine Forces of Production (Noble) Foreign Affairs Foreign debt Foreign policy France Franzese, Patrick Free Monem Freedom House Freie Deutsche Jugend Friedman, Thomas Friedrich, Carl Fukuyama, Francis Fuller, Buckminster Fund-raising Fung, Archon Galston, William Game propaganda Ganesan, Arvind Gapper, John Gates, Robert GDR.

pages: 487 words: 147,891

McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld by Misha Glenny


anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, colonial rule, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, forensic accounting, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, place-making, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, trade liberalization, trade route, Transnistria, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile

In Israel, as in most Western countries, it is the trafficked woman and not the client who is the object of law enforcement procedures. When Ludmila first succeeded in escaping, she was handed back to her pimp by the duty sergeant, who happened to be a client of the brothel. In response, she was beaten senseless by her “owner.” The second time she got away, she handed herself in to a police station in another part of town. As is habitual, she was charged with being an illegal immigrant and thrown in a detention center for several months as her deportation order was processed. When she finally arrived back in Chisinau, destitute and traumatized for life, Ludmila could not return to her home, partly for reasons of shame but above all for fear of being found by her traffickers. Hers is an everyday story of life in Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, Egypt, and Israel. The day after I had spoken to Ludmila, her caseworker called.

When he was sentenced in July 2005 for bribery, the federal police and Queiroz in particular rightly patted themselves on the back for the success of an arduous operation fraught with risks. Lao was the most powerful and successful criminal businessman ever arrested in Brazil. But within a few months of his initial incarceration, Roberto Porto, investigator at the Chinese organized crime unit of the São Paulo police, noticed something happening. “Most of the Chinese working in the markets of São Paulo are illegal immigrants. They are unprotected, and the last thing on their mind is to go to the police—they think as soon as they do, they’ll be deported,” he said. “So Lao Kin Chong gave them protection.” In São Paulo’s Chinese community, Lao was the state and the police. “When Lao was arrested two years ago,” Porto continued, “everyone lost their protection.” And that is when things for the Chinese of São Paulo started to get nasty.

Rather, they are effectively travel agents who include illegal entry to a third country in their service remit. In the United States, the Department of Justice floated an idea of offering an amnesty to illegal Chinese immigrants who would testify against the snakeheads. “When the DOJ came to me with this idea,” explained Professor Ko-lin Chin in New Jersey, “I said, ‘You’ve gotta be crazy!’ These snakeheads are regarded as heroes by the illegal immigrants. They pay the fee quite happily—there is no coercion. The snakeheads are heroes, not villains. The last thing the migrants want to do is turn these people in—they want to thank them!” We will never know what Lin Guohua thought of the snakehead who flew him to Belgrade. The Serbian capital witnessed the fastest growth of any Chinatown in the world during the late 1990s, despite Serbia’s status at the time as an international pariah.

pages: 406 words: 113,841

The American Way of Poverty: How the Other Half Still Lives by Sasha Abramsky


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, bank run, basic income, big-box store, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, job automation, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

At some subconscious level she realized that the stories of the people she worked with just couldn’t be hermetically sealed off from her own life experiences. The poverty she saw terrified her and stoked up a host of bigotries and stereotypes. But at some level she recognized how intricately her own story was tied up with that of the destitute people of whom she was so scared. Nowhere is the attempt to wall off the poor as having, somehow, separate narratives from the rest of us more overt than in the roiling politics around illegal immigration. Many observers have noted that starving public institutions of cash is a pastime that state electorates sign off on during times in which populaces are in flux. Smaller, more homogenous populations rarely vote to defund social safety nets and educational infrastructure that they see as benefiting mainly people culturally, linguistically, and racially more like themselves. When, by contrast, public goods are seen mainly as benefiting “others,” people who are blacker and browner, who don’t speak English well, and who have a different set of cultural references, then support for the public sector wobbles.

Large pools of undocumented immigrants and transient workers, he says, make it that much harder to generate mass support for institutions seen as somehow illegitimately rewarding these families for their illegal entry into, or stay within the borders of, America. And as with southern Louisiana parishes and the racism of some of their residents, oftentimes the most extreme politics on immigration comes from people who live in close proximity to, and experience the daily presence of, undocumented populations. FIGHTING TALK In a televised debate in 2010, Arizona state senator Russell Pearce, author of the nation’s toughest anti–illegal immigration law, argued that the Constitution “does give the federal government the responsibility to protect the states from invasion. But it’s right also in the Constitution, it says, when there is an invasion the states have a right, even—even to declare war if you will, you know, they have a right to protect. And again, we’re sovereign states, I mean, just like everybody here. We’re not citizens of the United States.

I don’t have a house. I don’t have a bank account. I don’t have any money saved. There’s not enough. I’ll keep working while I can. My life scares me. I look at the people I work for and think about how I have seen some people treat them. I worry, because what will happen to me when I’m old? I want to study; I want to be a nurse. That’s my biggest dream. Dotted through the West and Southwest, illegal immigration encampments have been built up in recent years. Cumulatively, many hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children now live in these communities. The buildings are basic: third-hand trailers; wooden, cardboard, and tin shacks. The amenities are improvised: some are hooked up to the power grid, water delivery systems, and sewage lines after the fact—a de facto acknowledgment by local counties of their existence, even absent zoning permits and ownership titles.

How I Escaped My Certain Fate by Stewart Lee


carbon footprint, Etonian, illegal immigration, negative equity, quantitative easing

And it did. A drunken young man in a suit in the front row kept shouting that he didn’t want to hear about anything I had to say – admittedly voicing the feelings of most of the room – and that I should talk about illegal immigrants. ‘Talk about illegal immigrants,’ he grunted, ‘talk about fucking illegal immigrants.’ I decided to take a bold course of action and get him onstage and hand him the mic, probably having just read a biography of the erratically inspired American comic Andy Kaufman or some other dangerous piece of literature, to see what he came up with on the subject of illegal immigrants, while I watched from his now vacant seat. I knew it would be incoherent and awful, which it was, as he slurred and stammered about asylum-seekers and how they should be sent back, but my plan was to let the room boil in irritation and fade away, before flipping the mood with a perfectly chosen bon mot.

pages: 267 words: 106,340

Europe old and new: transnationalism, belonging, xenophobia by Ray Taras


affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey

A series of “logistical” problems seemed to make that target date unrealistic. For example, the EU’s border agency Frontex, whose headquarters are in Warsaw—the first EU agency to be based in one of the accession states—had trouble finding suitable job candidates. Lower salary levels in Poland, even for EU employees, made recruitment difficult, thereby threatening to undermine efforts to curb illegal immigration. These problems sparked concerns among some eastern Europeans that they were being treated unequally by their western counterparts and that a two-tier Europe of border controls was coming into existence. To be sure, the need to ensure uniform standards of public security within the Union was brought home by the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, which were planned in Hamburg and other parts of the EU.

The March 2004 bombings on commuter trains around Madrid were largely the work of terrorists of Moroccan background, though 11-M (as the date is cited in Spanish) also involved unprecedented cooperation between Muslim and non-Muslim groups. The Spanish state recognizes Catholicism as the country’s official religion but affords Islam special privileges. These include the teaching of the Qur’an in schools and observation of Muslim religious holidays. Due to its geographical position, Spain has become a primary entry point for African migrants to Europe. In 2006, it was reported that close to 20,000 illegal immigrants had arrived from Africa to the Canary Islands alone. About onethird of all Africans are Muslim, so Spain’s Islamic culture may be becoming less exclusively Moorish. The country with the largest Muslim population in old Europe is France. About 70 percent originate in the north African states of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. The rapid growth of the Islamic population has challenged the strict French practice of separating religion and public life.

Yet the composition of that side was more in keeping with Makine’s ethnic imaginary as well as the Frenchness that National Front leader Jean-Marie Le Pen espoused. But it was not just Le Pen anymore who expressed anti-foreigner sentiments. In the runoff to the 2007 presidential elections, both candidates appealed to the French-French vote. Winner Nicolas Sarkozy proudly pointed to his record as interior minister when he was responsible for expelling tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from France. In 2005, he had attacked the “scum” living in ethnic Arab and Muslim neighborhoods who took part in three weeks of violent protests about living conditions. His electoral promise was to establish a ministry of immigration and national identity that would oversee the propagation of French secular values among all immigrants. Socialist candidate Ségolène Royal also emphasized the need to return to traditional French identity.

pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage,, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

David Card, “The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market,” Working Paper (National Bureau of Economic Research, August 1989), 29. Rachel M. Friedberg, “The Impact of Mass Migration on the Israeli Labor Market,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 116, no. 4 (2001): 1373–1408, doi:10.1162/003355301753265606. 30. Amy Sherman, “Jeb Bush Says Illegal Immigration Is ‘Net Zero,’ ” Miami Herald, September 3, 2012, 31. Gordon F. De Jong et al., “The Geography of Immigrant Skills: Educational Profiles of Metropolitan Areas,” Brookings Institution, June 9, 2011, 32. “State and County QuickFacts,” United States Census Bureau, June 27, 2013,; Vivek Wadhwa et al., “America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Part I,” SSRN Scholarly Paper, Duke Science, Technology & Innovation Paper No. 23 (Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, January 4, 2007), 33.

Mariel brought over one hundred thousand people to the city in less than a year and increased its labor force by 7 percent, yet Card found “virtually no effect on the wages or unemployment rates of less-skilled workers, even among Cubans who had immigrated earlier.”28 Economist Rachel Friedberg reached virtually the same conclusion about mass migration from Russia and the rest of the former Soviet Union into Israel.29 Despite increasing the country’s population by 12 percent between 1990 and 1994, this immigration had no discernible adverse effect on Israeli workers. Despite this and other evidence, concerns persist in America that large-scale immigration of unskilled workers, particularly from Mexico and other Latin American countries and particularly by illegal means, will harm the economic prospects of the native-born labor force. Since 2007, it appears that net illegal immigration to the United States is approximately zero, or actually negative.30 And a study by the Brookings Institution found that highly educated immigrants now outnumber less educated ones; in 2010, 30 percent had at least a college education, while only 28 percent lacked the equivalent of a high school degree.31 Entrepreneurship in America, particularly in technology-intensive sectors of the economy, is fueled by immigration to an extraordinary degree.

pages: 278 words: 88,711

The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century by George Friedman


banking crisis, British Empire, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, mass immigration, megastructure, Monroe Doctrine, pink-collar, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, working poor

Internal pressure, particularly in the south, will divert Russian attention from the west and eventually, without war, it will break. Russia broke in 1917, and again in 1991. And the country's military will collapse once more shortly after 2020. CHAPTER 7 ——————————— AMERICAN POWER AND THE CRISIS OF 2030 Awall is being built along the southern border of the United States. The goal is to keep illegal immigrants out. The United States built its economic might on the backs of immigrants, but since the 1920s there has been a national consensus that the flow of immigrants should be limited so that the economy can absorb them, and to ensure that jobs will not be taken away from citizens. The wall along the Mexican border is the logical conclusion to this policy. In the 1920s, the world was in the midst of an accelerating population explosion.

While NAFTA cut the cost of exports and increased the institutional efficiency of the relationship, the fundamental reality is that Mexico's proximity to the United States has always given it an economic advantage, despite the geopolitical disadvantage that goes with it. Third, there are massive amounts of cash flowing back to Mexico from the United States in the form of remittances from legal and illegal immigrants. Remittances to Mexico have surged and are now its second-largest source of foreign income. In most countries, foreign investment is the primary means for developing the economy. In Mexico, investment by foreigners is being matched by foreign remittances. This remittance system has two effects. It leverages other sources of investment when it is banked. And it serves as a social safety net for the lower classes, to whom most remittances flow.

And across the border, in the neighboring country, an annexation movement can arise. This issue will divide the Mexican-American bloc. Some inhabitants will see themselves as primarily Americans. Others will accept that Americanism but see themselves as having a unique relationship to America and ask for legal recognition of that status. A third group, the smallest, will be secessionist. There will be an equal division within Mexico. One thing to remember is that illegal immigration will have generally disappeared after 2030, when migration to the United States will be encouraged as American national policy. Some on each side of the border will see the problem as solely American and will want to have nothing to do with it lest it interfere with peaceful economic relations with Mexico. Others, though, will see the demographic problems in the United States as a means for redefining Mexico's relations with the United States.

pages: 318 words: 85,824

A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey


affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, debt deflation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, labour market flexibility, land tenure, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Pearl River Delta, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Chicago School, transaction costs, union organizing, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

The trouble was that Mexico had earlier taken to issuing dollar-denominated debt (called tesobonos) to encourage foreign investment, and after the devaluation could not mobilize enough dollars to pay them off. The US Congress refused to help, but Clinton exercised executive powers to put together a $47.5 billion rescue package. He feared a loss of jobs in those US industries exporting to Mexico, the prospect of increasing illegal immigration, and, above all, the loss of legitimacy for neoliberalization and the NAFTA agreements. As a convenient side-effect of the devaluation, US capital could then rush in and buy up all manner of assets at fire-sale prices. While only one of the Mexican banks privatized in 1990 was foreign-owned, by 2000 twenty-four out of thirty were in foreign hands. The exaction of tribute from Mexico by foreign capitalist class interests then became unstoppable.

The second prong of attack entails transformations in the spatial and temporal co-ordinates of the labour market. While too much can be made of the ‘race to the bottom’ to find the cheapest and most docile labour supplies, the geographical mobility of capital permits it to dominate a global labour force whose own geographical mobility is constrained. Captive labour forces abound because immigration is restricted. These barriers can be evaded only by illegal immigration (which creates an easily exploitable labour force) or through short-term contracts that permit, for example, Mexican labourers to work in Californian agribusiness only to be shamelessly shipped back to Mexico when they get sick and even die from the pesticides to which they are exposed. Under neoliberalization, the figure of ‘the disposable worker’ emerges as prototypical upon the world stage.19 Accounts of the appalling conditions of labour and the despotic conditions under which labourers work in the sweatshops of the world abound.

Rights cluster around two dominant logics of power—that of the territorial state and that of capital.43 However much we might wish rights to be universal, it is the state that has to enforce them. If political power is not willing, then notions of rights remain empty. Rights are, therefore, derivative of and conditional upon citizenship. The territoriality of jurisdiction then becomes an issue. This cuts both ways. Difficult questions arise because of stateless persons, illegal immigrants, and the like. Who is or is not a ‘citizen’ becomes a serious issue defining principles of inclusion and exclusion within the territorial specification of the state. How the state exercises sovereignty with respect to rights is itself a contested issue, but there are limits placed on that sovereignty (as China is discovering) by the global rules embedded in neoliberal capital accumulation.

pages: 391 words: 102,301

Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman


Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular capitalism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, zero-sum game

To his list can be added a further set of perplexing global problems: the threat of new trade wars and the international political tensions they will foster; a rising number of failing states and the cross-border problems they spawn; the struggle between nations to gain control of natural resources, in particular oil and food; the renewed strength of authoritarian regimes and ideologies that threaten to clash with the democratic world; cross-border flows of refugees and illegal immigrants; and the growing power of international organized crime in places such as Mexico and the Balkans. Even if tensions between a wounded West and a rising Asia can be contained, the relative weakening of the United States makes it significantly less likely that the world will be able to find solutions to these festering international problems. In the aftermath of the financial crisis, there was much talk of the need for a “new Bretton Woods”—a reference to the conference in 1944 that laid the foundations for the international architecture of the postwar period.

Enlargement was the great achievement of the European Union in the decade after 1995. But high unemployment and a fear of Muslim immigration have largely persuaded Europe to call a halt. The prospects of Turkey fulfilling its longstanding ambition to “join Europe” seem to be receding year by year as European politicians shrink from the implications of adding a Muslim nation of some 70 million people to their Union. Anger about illegal immigration continues to rise in the United States, which is currently thought to play host to over 12 million illegals. That anger is reflected in the popularity of the antimigrant campaigns of Lou Dobbs, the former television host, in books such as Pat Buchanan’s State of Emergency: The Third World Invasion and Conquest of America, and in controversial new laws, such as Arizona’s statute requiring the police to check the papers of suspected illegal migrants.

But high levels of Muslim immigration have provoked a fierce reaction in Europe, which is only likely to heighten as growth slows and unemployment rises. Anti-immigration parties have made serious headway in several European countries, including France, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Denmark, and, most spectacularly, the once famously liberal Netherlands. European Union leaders have responded to a more fearful public mood by increasingly portraying the outside world in threatening terms: railing against cheap Asian goods and illegal immigrants. Both President Nicolas Sarkozy of France and Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany have called for a “Europe that protects.” A European Union that more than doubled in size between 1995 and 2004 is now much more cautious about further expansion. But while the Europeans may look fearfully at the outside world, the real threat to the vaunted “European model” may lie within. Like the United States, the EU was already facing a daunting fiscal challenge as the baby boomers aged and retired.

Gaming the Vote: Why Elections Aren't Fair (And What We Can Do About It) by William Poundstone

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump,, Everything should be made as simple as possible, global village, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, invisible hand, jimmy wales, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, manufacturing employment, Nash equilibrium, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, slashdot, the map is not the territory, Thomas Bayes, transcontinental railway, Unsafe at Any Speed, Y2K

JSM people were already contracted to raise signatures for a conservative ballot initiative, Protect Arizona Now, that would deny public services to illegal immigrants. JSM agreed to collect signatures for Nader in Arizona. The Nader campaign paid two dollars per signature. It appears that the JSM people were sent out with both the Protect Arizona Now and Nader petitions on their clipboards, and theyencouraged people to sign both without worrying overmuch about whether that made any sense. It didn't make any sense. In the June issue of The American Conservative, Nader's former opponent Pat Buchanan asked him point blank whether illegal immigrants should be eligible for welfare. Nader answered that undocumented aliens "should be given all the fair-labor standards and all the rights and benefits of American workers, and if this country doesn't like that, maybe they will do something about the immigration laws."

But, he admitted, "I don't know if they're doing it for me or as a tactic against Bilbray:' The mystery was solved when ads touting Griffith began running on conservative talk radio, saying in part: Think lobbyist Brian Bilbray's a conservative when it comes to immigration? Think again ... Lobbyist Bilbray isn't the candidate to secure our borders. You have a choice. Independent William Griffith is en- 121 GAMING THE VOTE dorsed by the San Diego Minutemen and San Diego Border Alert because he opposes guest worker programs, amnesty, and the hiring of illegal immigrants. Francine Busby supports John McCain's position on immigration-stronger enforcement at the border, better support for border agents, and no amnesty. When it comes to immigration, don't expect lobbyist Brian Bilbray to fix Washington, or fix our borders. I'm Francine Busby, candidate for Congress, and I approve this message. Paid for by Francine Busby for Congress. The Busby/Griffith ads set a new high-water mark for candor.

pages: 282 words: 28,394

Learn Descriptive Cataloging Second North American Edition by Mary Mortimer


California gold rush, clean water, corporate governance, deskilling, illegal immigration, Norman Mailer

Some of the factors that affect the decision on the fullness of a bibliographic description include • library priorities • importance of an item to the collection • relative value of an item • volume of incoming material • availability and experience of staff to process the material • needs of the user. An example of first level: From welcomed exiles to illegal immigrants. - Rowman & Littlefield, c1996. - xxii, 168 p. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0847681483 An example of second level: From welcomed exiles to illegal immigrants : Cuban migration to the U.S., 1959-1995 / by Felix Roberto Masud-Piloto. - Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield, c1996. - xxii, 168 p. ; 24 cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0847681483 (alk. paper). - ISBN 0847681491 (pbk. : alk. paper) Third level would include all elements in AACR2 that are applicable to the item in hand.

pages: 135 words: 53,708

Top 10 San Diego by Pamela Barrus, Dk Publishing


California gold rush, centre right, East Village, El Camino Real, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Silicon Valley, the market place, transcontinental railway, urban renewal

Turn right on Alameda and ride through a typical Coronado neighborhood with Spanish-style houses and bungalows. At 4th, cross the street and walk one block; the Naval Air Station will be on your left. Turn right on 1st. It’s a straight stretch back to the Market Place. Around Town – Southern San Diego As the endangered Western snowy plover seeks a place in which to lay her fragile eggs, the green-and-white vehicles of the US Border Patrol swoop down hillsides, lights blazing, in search of the illegal immigrant. An enormous, rusty, corrugated metal fence, which separates the US and Mexico, slices through the park before plunging into the sea. This southern part of the Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve (see p47) attracts nature lovers who come to hike, ride horses, picnic on the beach, and birdwatch. On the Mexican side of the fence is a lively Mexican community and bullring (see p41).

Driving Without Insurance in Mexico If your car is stolen while over the border, your US car insurance won’t cover it. If you are in any way associated with an accident, your vehicle will be impounded and you will be arrested until liability is sorted out. Protect yourself by buying a policy before driving over the border. Coyotes & Narcotraficantes Coyotes, sometimes called polleros or chicken keepers, smuggle illegal immigrants over the border. A clampdown in San Diego has forced the crossings into the desert, where death by heatstroke is common. Narcotraficantes, or drug smugglers, thrive along the border with the local drug cartel. sewer leaks are common. Especially hardhit beaches are Imperial Beach and Border Field State Park. There are signs indicating safety levels of the water. Streetsmart Left Cars queue up at the Mexico-Tijuana border Right Lifeguard vehicles Smoking Sun Slather on the sunscreen during the day and be sure to take a hat whenever you’re outdoors, especially at SeaWorld and the Zoo.

Let's Explore Diabetes With Owls by David Sedaris


big-box store, call centre, desegregation, illegal immigration, index card, Maui Hawaii, remote working, stem cell

Someone got my license plate number as I was taking off, and the next thing I know, I’m in jail with one charge of second-degree manslaughter and three charges of first-degree murder! Plus the hit-and-run bit. And all because some high-and-mighty legislators in New York State thought they knew better than the rest of us! Of course, if I was gay they’d probably let me off, so I tried kissing my cell mate, an illegal immigrant named Diego Rodríguez, if you can believe it. And I’m here to tell you that, as long as you keep your eyes shut, it’s really not that bad. Understanding Understanding Owls Does there come a day in every man’s life when he looks around and says to himself, I’ve got to weed out some of these owls? I can’t be alone in this, can I? And, of course, you don’t want to hurt anyone’s feelings.

Both Miles and Todd are familiar with protest marches, mostly from their misguided college days, but as my son said, “Walking is walking, Mom, and whether you’re for torture or against it, you’re going to need to drink lots of water. That’s rule number one: Stay Hydrated! You’ll also need some good, comfortable shoes and a hat that’ll keep the sun off your face.” I got a sombrero and hung tea bags off the brim, but Todd said it sent a mixed message, like I supported illegal immigration—which I don’t! He said it was better to wear this cone-shaped thing, a wimple, he called it, though it looked to me more like a dunce cap. He said, “Mom, please. A little sophistication!” I said, “How will it keep the sun off my face?” So he added a visor to the front of it. As for the writing that runs top to bottom, it might look like ASSHOLE, but it’s actually A.S.S.H.O.L.E., which stands for: Another Savvy Senior Hopes Obama Loses Everything That might sound harsh, but it’s how I feel.

pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, call centre, carried interest, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, TaskRabbit, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

When Farage and his colleagues debated the best name for their party in the 1990s, they rejected the word British since it overlapped with the overtly racist British National Party. Farage refers to the BNP as the ‘Bloody Nasty Party’.32 He pointed out that many of UKIP’s potential voters were old enough to remember the Second World War and had a lifelong allergy to fascism. When Theresa May, then Home Secretary, set up a pilot scheme to round up illegal immigrants, he criticised her methods as ‘nasty’ and ‘not the British way’. UKIP is officially opposed to ‘unlimited mass immigration’. But for the most part, it has focused on stopping Britain from turning into ‘a province of the United European superstate’. Only during the Brexit campaign did the party endorse overt xenophobia with its ‘breaking point’ poster showing hordes of Muslim immigrants streaming across the border.

Depending on the society, most of the West is moving either towards populism or plutocracy. In some cases, such as the US, it is falling into a kind of hybrid pluto-populism that looks increasingly Latin American. Donald Trump’s plans to deregulate Wall Street are a perfect illustration. Having railed against its greed on the campaign trail, he is now loosening the restraints on it in office. In the meantime, he plans to satisfy the populist urge by demonising illegal immigrants and Muslims, and indulging in theatre politics. Trump will operate as a kind of Ku Klux Kardashian, combining hard-right pugilism with the best of postmodern vaudeville. It is as though the French Bourbons have come back to life as twenty-first-century neoliberals. They never learn. No matter what the challenge, cake and cheap diversion is the answer. Trump was supposed to have led a revolt against the elites.

pages: 236 words: 67,953

Brave New World of Work by Ulrich Beck


affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, full employment, future of work, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, McJob, means of production, mini-job, postnationalism / post nation state, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

The fact that this breaks up families, because wives and mothers are also economically active and must display ‘flexibility’, is studiously avoided by those who are apologists for both market and family. Mobility between national states, on the other hand, is regarded as ‘migration’ and subjected to major restrictions. At the border posts, ‘desirable flexibility’ thus turns into ‘undesirable migration’, and people who do what is so much demanded within individual countries find themselves being criminalized. They are ‘economic refugees’, ‘asylum-seekers’ or ‘illegal immigrants’, who put themselves in the hands of ‘human traffickers’ – a task discharged within each country by the official employment exchange. How can citizens who believe in universalist values and rights become, within a transnational dimension, enemies of the very mobility for which they insistently call inside their own country? Globalization, understood as despatialization of the social, opens up a new analytical framework and new strategic options.

By the 1980s, Mexico was once again a country of three nations: the criollo minority of elites and the upper-middle-class, living in style and affluence; the huge, poor mestizo majority; and the utterly destitute minority of what was in colonial times called the Republic of Indians – the indigenous peoples of Chiapas, Oaxaca, Michoacan, Guerrero, Puebla, Chihuaha and Sonora, all known today as el México profundo: deep Mexico.69 And Ludger Pries reports that in Puebla, Mexico's fourth largest city with a population of roughly 2 million, when you ride in a taxi and talk to the driver, you can hear life-stories that sound strange to Western ears. It is not at all untypical that the taxi-driver used to be formerly employed as a lorry driver or had been an illegal immigrant in the United States, or even earned his living on the assembly-line at Volkswagen de México. He will then give this or that reason why he ‘voluntarily’ gave up that work situation, bought himself a second-hand Volkswagen Beetle from his severance pay, and set out to work as a taxi-driver ‘on his own account’. Why does a not badly paid employee at the finance ministry voluntarily leave after fifteen years and open a small electrical workshop?

pages: 277 words: 80,703

Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici


Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Compare the sales of the service industry with the sales of household appliances. The increase of services sales (compared with appliance sales) doubled in less than ten years. 1965: 6.3 percent; 1970: 8.7 percent; 1975: 11.8 percent; 1976: 11 percent. 16. The present collapse of the birth rate plays an important role in current discussions of immigration policies (see Michael L. Wachter, “The Labor Market and Illegal Immigration: The Outlook for the 1980s,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33, no. 3 (April 1980): 342-54. 17. This was the case of five female workers at the Cyanamid Company Wilson Island plant (Pleasant County) in West Virginia, who had themselves sterilized for fear of losing their jobs when the company reduced the number of chemicals to which women could be safely exposed. (Timeline of West Virginia Women’s History, compiled by the West Virginia State Archives).

Government Printing Office, 1975. Villapando, Venny. “The Business of Selling Mail-Order Brides.” In Making Waves: An Anthology of Writings By and About Asian American Women, edited by Asian Women United of California. Boston: Beacon Press, 1989. de Waal, Alex. Famine Crimes: Politics and the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. London: Zed Books, 1997. Wachter, Michael L. “The Labor Market and Illegal Immigration: The Outlook for the 1980s.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33, no. 3 (April 1980): 342-54. Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World System. New York: Academic Press, 1974. Walton, John, and David Seddon. Free Markets and Food Riots: The Politics of Global Adjustment. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1994. wan, wind. “A Dialogue with “Small Sister” Organizer Yim Yuelin.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 2, no. 2 (2001): 319-23.

The Haves and the Have-Nots by Branko Milanovic


Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, colonial rule, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, full employment, Gini coefficient, high net worth, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, open borders, Pareto efficiency, Plutocrats, plutocrats, purchasing power parity, Simon Kuznets, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

The camp exploded into riots, and a fight between the guards and would-be future citizens ensued. A part of the former “Center of Reception and Emergency Aid” was burned down. Lampedusa is only one of those European camps. A similar camp, Hal Far, exists in Malta—a camp where African refugees had to hang a huge banner reading “We are humans!” to attract passersby’s attention to the people living there cordoned off by the barbed wire.3 In Spain, which every year expels around 100,000 illegal immigrants, the government has to deal with an even more macabre problem: what to do with the dead bodies of the harraga when they float to the beaches and in midsummer scare off tourists who have come to forget all their daily worries on the beaches of southern Spain? The Spanish government has recently asked the Algerian government to take more than 170 bodies that have thus far been found. But the Algerians refused: first, for not being able to identify the bodies, and, second, for not being sure that the corpses were indeed Algerian (and not Moroccan or Tunisian).4 But perhaps the Algerian government refused for a more profound reason: not to hear the message that the harraga send about the failure of North African societies to provide these young people with any hope of a normal and decent life.

For Italy, see Banca d’Italia, Relazione annuale sul 2008, May 29, 2009, chap. 11, table 11.4, p. 128, available at 3 See David Blanchflower and Chris Shadforth, “Fear, Unemployment, and Migration,” Economic Journal (February 2009): table 17, p. F157. 4 U.S. Department of Homeland Security, based on the estimated increase in Mexican illegal immigrants between 2000 and 2005 (1.3 million). 5 The total number of people killed while trying to cross the Berlin Wall was around two hundred during its twenty-seven-year existence. On an annual basis, the number of Mexican deaths is thus fifty times greater. 6 BBC, July 2, 2007, Vignette 2.5 1 Several hundred Algerian and Tunisian nationals are thought to be imprisoned in Libyan jails. 2 BBC, March 31, 2009; Radio France Inter, March 16, 2009. 3 Ironically, one may recall that in the nineteenth century many Maltese, Sicilians, and Corsicans freely moved over and settled in Tunisia. 4 The Algerian daily El Watan, March 5, 2009. 5 Agence France Presse, March 31, 2009.

pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum


3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

Bush made a mighty effort but was blocked largely by members of his own party, who were so outraged by illegal immigration that they could not think straight about the vital importance of legal immigration. “The H-1B visa program—that is the key to making us the innovators of energy and computers,” said Senator Lindsey Graham, the South Carolina Republican, who has been critical of his own party’s obstinacy on this issue. “It has been for most of our life. If you wanted to get really smart and have a degree that would allow you to be a leader in the world, you came to America. Well, it’s hard as hell to get to America now. And once you get here, it’s hard to stay.” Immigration reform that better secures the borders, establishes a legal pathway toward citizenship for the roughly twelve million illegal immigrants who are here, and enables, even recruits, high-skilled immigrants to become citizens is much more urgent than most of us realize.

Department of Homestead Act (1862) H-1B visa program Honeymooners, The (television show) Hong Kong Hood, John Hoover Digest Hope Street Group Hormats, Robert Horse Feathers (movie) House of Representatives, U.S.; Oversight and Government Reform Committee How (Seidman) Howe, Caroline Hu, Peter Danming Huamei Garment Accessory Company Humphrey, Hubert Hungary Hussein, Saddam hydroelectric power I IBM Iceland Idealab IHS Global Insight illegal immigrants Illinois Immelt, Jeffrey immigration; from Asia; government policy on; innovation and; of victims of oppression; workforce needs and Immigration and Nationality Act (1965) IMPACT teacher evaluation system incentives; in energy and climate policy; for innovation; political India; call centers in; cell phones manufactured in; electric cars in; financial services in; immigrants in U.S. from; Internet sales from; Obama in Indiana Indiana University Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) Indian Youth Climate Network (IYCN) Industrial Revolution information technology; see also IT revolution infrastructure; deterioration of; investment in; lobbying for; modernization of; partisan polarization over; public-private partnership and Inglis, Bob Inhofe, James innovation; in China; during Cold War; connectivity and; education and; in energy technology; immigration and; incentives for; in information technology, see IT revolution; military; partisan polarization and; regulation and; workforce and; see also research and development Innovation Award for Energy and the Environment Intel Corporation; Science Talent Search intellectual property International Monetary Fund International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Internet; bandwidths for; customer service via; democratizing power of; globalization and; origins of; political process and; public-private partnership and; values eroded by interstate highway system Investment Answer, The (Murray) Ipsos Public Affairs Iran; Revolutionary Guard Corps Iraq Iraq war; nation-building goal of; partisan politics and; renewable power use in; Special Forces operations in; surge in; wounded veterans of Ireland Irwin, Neil Islamic terrorism Israel IT revolution; challenges of; merger of globalization and Italy iTunes J Jacobins Jakpor, Otana Agape James, LeBron Japan; bullet trains in; earthquake and tsunami in; education in; fascism in; recycling in Jassy, Andy Jazwiec, John Jefferson, Thomas Jerry Maguire (movie) Jews Jharkhand (India) Jiang, Ruoyi Jobs, Steve John Locke Foundation Johnson, Lyndon B.

pages: 464 words: 121,983

Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein


activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Corrections Corporation of America, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks

Immigration was a key battleground in Greece, and Golden Dawn had harnessed it with cynical precision. There was truth to the claim that the Greek system failed to adequately provide for the surge in asylum seekers living in the community, and this failure had inevitably led to fear and paranoia. “Political asylum is fine—we should help people from Syria and other places that really need our help; but illegal immigrants must be rejected,” Stathis argued. “Illegal invaders must be sent back, and we must sign a new agreement with the EU and Turkey. Areas of Athens are now [violent ghettos] filled with immigrants.” He dreamed of the Greek people giving Golden Dawn a majority at a future election. He knew that one of the ways this could happen was through a party program such as talking to employers, encouraging them to fire immigrants and then hire local Greeks at the same rate of pay.

When challenged on his party’s embracing of Hitler, Panagiotaros was dismissive: “So what if our leader was photographed next to a Nazi swastika forty years ago? If you ask every leader in Europe what they were doing forty years ago you may find some interesting stories, too.” During my time in Greece barely a day passed without new and recent photographs in the media of Golden Dawn members mimicking Nazi iconography. Panagiotaros wanted the EU to operate “a strict immigration policy,” because “illegal immigration is mostly Muslim jihadists who plan to overtake Europe. If Syrians, Libyans, or Iraqis need to go somewhere they should go to the US, the country that caused the wars in their countries. Let the US take these people in.” Panagiotaros claimed to be against rampant privatization, despite the record of his party in parliament backing moves to outsource state services. “Greece has been giving away public assets for years—ports, airports, huge hotels, beaches, islands, roads, bridges.

The reality of privatized detention is one of services cut to the bone, offering the barest minimum of care. Detention Watch Network issued a report in 2013 that examined 250 facilities across the country, many of which were run for profit, and found that none of them could guarantee basic medical care or appropriate protection against sexual and physical abuse. A lack of official oversight exacerbated the problem, along with the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, which allowed inmates to be punished for minor crimes as if they were serious felonies.40 Punishment, not rehabilitation, remained the corporate and governmental focus, as it was more profitable. CCA refused a simple proposal in 2015 from former prisoner and associate director of the Human Rights Defense Center, Alex Friedmann, for the company to commit an additional 5 percent of its net income to reducing recidivism.41 Public opposition to these companies was growing; the Interfaith Prison Coalition launched a campaign in 2015 to boycott and divest from firms that made profit from prison labor and charged exorbitant prices for prisoner phone calls.

pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna


Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, knowledge economy, land reform, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Pearl River Delta, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

By contrast, China’s rapid and widespread upgrading of worker training has meant that since joining the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, it has rapidly outpaced Mexico in manufacturing and textile exports to the United States. Despite Mexico’s geographic advantage, more than three hundred maquiladores have shut down and moved to China, resulting in three hundred thousand Mexican jobs lost, almost directly correlating to a massive spike in illegal immigration into the United States.2 With or without a border fence, Mexico’s problems may become America’s even faster than they already are. Inequality and instability go hand in hand. Outside Mexico City—and certainly within it—is a country of colonial monuments juxtaposed at every turn with ramshackle slums, with public investment in hospitals and schools an afterthought. The former mayor of Mexico City, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, picked up the slack and built his reputation by creating social and food support programs for the elderly across the sprawling metropolis of twenty million people, almost propelling him into the Mexican presidency in 2006—which he lost by a narrow margin and only after the contest was pushed to the electoral court.

This turns border towns like Nuevo Laredo into frightening spectacles of robbery, kidnapping, and gang warfare.4 Mexican immigrants are a double-edged sword for the United States, taking jobs in construction and restaurants Americans don’t want, working harder and for longer hours, but also straining underfunded education and health systems.5 The $16 billion in annual remittances they provide from all fifty American states are a primary source of Mexico’s national income, helping raise its per capita GDP to $9,000, almost double the level at which emigration should begin to decrease. But because the country is so unequal—with up to half the population living in poverty—illegal immigration continues whether America likes it or not. It will require more than laissez-faire NAFTA-nomics to make one country out of Mexico. America’s most magnanimous gesture toward Mexico was bailing out the peso during the 1994 financial crisis, but since then NAFTA has fallen far short of what the EU has done for Turkey. It would be unspeakable in the United States to offer Mexico what it demands the EU grant Turkey: membership, citizenship, members of parliament, open migration, massive subsidies, and language rights within a borderless union.

The influx of low-wage migrant labor has expanded the ranks of the poor, both due to their own numbers and because they reduce the wages of unskilled Americans.24 Almost two decades ago Los Angeles was described as the “capital of the third world” due to its segregated immigrant communities seeking simply to stay afloat with little regard for the broader society.25 Samuel Huntington also recently argued that America’s Anglo-Protestant culture and melting pot creed have been undermined by nonintegrating Hispanic minorities, warning that there cannot be an “Americano dream” to substitute for the American Dream without America becoming a schizophrenic nation.26 But it is hard to speak of a deep “community of values” in America when the primary reason Americans don’t support a welfare state to support the poor is that the poor are disproportionately minorities.27 In a country where recidivist violence seems never more than a few steps away, could white nativism reappear more regularly than it already does? The idea of homeland security seems to have as much to do with illegal immigration coming through the southern border as it does with the threat of terrorism. Americans have shown a fear of the future, one that may only accelerate its arrival. In 2005, Europe, India, the United States, and China were all hit by major storms or flooding. In Germany and Poland, thousands of citizens had their livelihoods wiped away, but through immediate assistance from their governments, people worked together to restore homes and towns as quickly as possible.

pages: 328 words: 100,381

Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State by Dana Priest, William M. Arkin


airport security, business intelligence, dark matter, drone strike, friendly fire, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Julian Assange, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks

Everything the NSA did remained so completely classified that it was impossible to guess whether it or its four-hundred-plus top secret contracting companies were following the law, let alone properly spending taxpayer money. Immigration and Customs Enforcement—the federal government’s second-largest law enforcement agency after 9/11—had started operations against suspected terrorists in the United States, too. To that end, it was getting help from the most elite military Special Operations Forces to target and arrest, if need be, suspected terrorists and illegal immigrants. And even as the Obamas headed toward the bulletproof parade reviewing stand, overseas the CIA was starting a new day targeting individuals from afar using its armed Predator drones, a practice criticized by some as assassination, which had been banned decades before. Many people in Pakistan, where most of the hits took place, saw it as an undeclared war, and their resentment against the United States only grew bigger with each new strike.

Those cameras could see through metal, alerting police to someone hiding, say, in the trunk or on the floor of a car. (They could even tell, by the heat signature underneath its chassis, whether the car had just been turned off.) In Arizona, the Maricopa County sheriff’s office purchased the sort of facial recognition equipment prevalent in war zones, using it to record some nine thousand biometric digital mug shots a month, many of them of illegal immigrants. And, just as soldiers in the field did when trying to keep towns free of insurgents, many American police departments purchased equipment allowing them to record images of license plate numbers belonging to every car going through toll booths and tunnels. Such surveillance was especially intense around larger cities, especially those that had felt the direct impact of the 9/11 attacks. Soon, said authorities in the Washington area, everyone who drives into the nation’s capital will have his car tracked and recorded, a high-tech, invisible version of the so-called ring of steel that the British government imposed on London during the Irish Republican Army killings there in the early 1990s and broadened after 9/11.

pages: 237 words: 72,716

The Inequality Puzzle: European and US Leaders Discuss Rising Income Inequality by Roland Berger, David Grusky, Tobias Raffel, Geoffrey Samuels, Chris Wimer


Branko Milanovic, Celtic Tiger, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, fear of failure, financial innovation, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, Long Term Capital Management, microcredit, offshore financial centre, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, rent-seeking, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, time value of money, very high income

Already by the end of this year we will have reached a new peak of 24 million unemployed in Europe, a figure which could go up to more than 28 million in the next five years, if the cuts and “austerity 96 P.N. Rasmussen only” approach advocated by the European Commission and Conservative governments is implemented. Unemployment figures in the U.S., according to two American professors, Nobel Prize winners both, are even more concerning than official reports indicate. They told me: “Poul, it’s not around 13%; it’s 20%, if you add to the official figure all the illegal immigrants and the informal sector.” If you ask who’s become unemployed due to the crisis, the answer is certainly that only a very small part of it is coming from Wall Street, and they will survive, one way or another. The economic recession here has shown us the underlying fragility of our advanced service-based economies and societies. As we have seen earlier in our history, when you have recessions and business downturns of this kind, those who are hit first – poor people, vulnerable people, minorities, immigrants, those with the lowest incomes, those without any education – have a weak attachment to the labor market.

The question is how to enable prosperity to penetrate. People often talk about it in terms of creating equality of opportunity. I’m not sure that’s concrete enough. I like the example of a category of infrastructure which if constructed could have a real economic impact. Those roads and that economic development would benefit not merely Mexico, but also of course the United States, because real prosperity in Mexico is the deadly enemy of illegal immigration and narcotics trafficking. What are the reasons behind the increase in inequality over the past twenty years in the United States? The rich got too much richer. They got fat, dumb, and happy. Part of it was the movement of the capital markets toward increasingly convoluted and abstruse mechanisms that created vast pools of wealth and people then tithed them at bonus time, at the end of the year.

pages: 273 words: 93,419

Let them eat junk: how capitalism creates hunger and obesity by Robert Albritton


Bretton Woods, California gold rush, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, land reform, late capitalism, means of production, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, South Sea Bubble, the built environment, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile

The penalty for breaching this loyalty to pure profit would be ultimately to lose out to the competition and to cease being a capitalist. In terms of food, a “rational” capitalist will produce unhealthy food if it is more profitable than healthy food, and will utilize polluting and toxic chemical inputs as long as profits are increased by doing so. Similarly “rational” capitalist farmers will pay the lowest possible wages to field workers in order to maximize profits, and if this means hiring illegal immigrants, this will be the direction taken as long as they can get away with it. Because most crops are annual and because capitalist farmers develop expertise and buy machinery for a limited range of production, it may be difficult to switch commodities or to switch into or out of farming in response to profit criteria in the short run. For T H E M A NAG E M E N T O F AG R I C U LT U R E A N D F O O D 23 example, while it may be relatively easy to shift from the production of corn to soybeans (although one would have to wait for the next growing season), it is not easy to shift from grain production to vegetable production, or from milk production to tobacco production.

Capitalist agriculture has always had difficulties with the commodification of labour-power that capitalism needs, because of the seasonal requirements for agricultural labour and the backbreaking nature of so much harvesting labour. This is no doubt one of the stronger reasons that the family farm persisted for so long in the United States. Given the typical low pay and sporadic employment in the agricultural sector, capitalist farmers often have had to rely on vulnerable workers (children, women, “guest” workers, illegal immigrants, immigrants and low-status minorities not protected by unions). In the United States today much of the work on capitalist farms is carried out by vulnerable immigrant labourers, who work very hard for little pay.36 Further, there is a long history of forced labour attached to colonial agriculture, which to some degree has lasted to this day.37 Up until the twentieth century, workers spent as much as 75 percent of their income on food.

pages: 398 words: 86,855

Bad Data Handbook by Q. Ethan McCallum


Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, business intelligence, cellular automata, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, commoditize, conceptual framework, database schema,, Firefox, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, iterative process, labor-force participation, loose coupling, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, recommendation engine, selection bias, sentiment analysis, statistical model, supply-chain management, survivorship bias, text mining, too big to fail, web application

For example, educational attainment, marital status, and number of children are almost always useful in economic analysis, but are not available in the SSA files I use. In addition, this data does not include earnings that are not reported to SSA (for example, earnings from cash-based employment or acquired “under the table”) or earnings from workers who do not have, or do not report, a valid Social Security number. Unreported earnings may be particularly important for research on, say, immigration policy because many immigrants, especially illegal immigrants, do not have—or have invalid—Social Security numbers.[39] Let’s put these differences in datasets in some context. A few years ago, two co-authors and I were interested in examining year-to-year changes in individual earnings and changes in household incomes—so-called earnings and income “volatility.”[40] The question of whether people’s (or households’) earnings (or incomes) had grown more or less volatile between the 1980s and 2000s was a hot topic at the time (and, to some degree, still is) and with administrative data at our disposal, we were uniquely suited to weigh in on the issue.[41] To track patterns in earnings and income volatility over time, we calculated the percentage change in earnings/income using three variables: Earnings/income from the survey data.

In that case, I inferred emigration rates by following longitudinal earnings patterns over time using administrative data; although that was the strength of the analysis (and, to my knowledge, was the first attempt to use administrative data in that way), the weakness of such an approach is that I clearly missed foreign-born workers who were living and working in the country without authorization (that is, illegal immigrants) and thus may not have filed a W-2.[50] Although determining whether the dataset you are using is riddled with reporting errors (and whether those errors actually matter) is difficult, being aware of such data shortcomings will take your research further and, importantly, make the validity of your conclusions stronger. Thus, the basic strategy is to be aware and ask key questions: Is reporting error in your data likely to not be random?

pages: 350 words: 107,834

Halting State by Charles Stross


augmented reality, call centre, forensic accounting, game design, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, lifelogging, Necker cube, Potemkin village, RFID, Schrödinger's Cat, Vernor Vinge, zero day

Meanwhile, in other local footnote news (digested from the dailies by your agents, after they prioritize the important stuff about industry mergers, devkit point releases, and new game announcements): The ongoing squabble between Holyrood and Westminster over who pays for counter-terrorism operations is threatening to turn nasty (because nobody north of the border really believes that Scotland is some kind of terrorism magnet, whatever the bampots in London think). The first minister is making some kind of high-profile announcement about reintroducing free schooling to encourage the birth rate. And a Russian illegal immigrant has been necklaced down in Pilton, the victim of a suspected blacknet gangland slaying. It’s your usual Embra Monday morning rubbish, aside from the Brookmyre special. The bus snakes up the road in due course, flanks rippling with Hollywood explosions advertising Vin Diesel’s latest attempt to revive his ancient and cobwebby career. You climb in and grab the overhead rail, another anonymous traveller among the late flexitime commuters, the young ned females with baby buggies and streaked ponytails, and the buttoned-up Romanian grannies with shapeless wheelie-bags.

Venkmann bends down, picks something up, and leans over the Iron Maiden before releasing it. “Well, there’s a surprise!” “What’s down there?” “It’s a rabbit-hole,” he says slowly, looking around as if at a different landscape. “Where’s it go?” “Looks like Zhongguo shard, going by the map. Which is part of Hentai Animatics’ zone, and we don’t have an admin contract for that. I think you’ve just uncovered an illegal-immigrant tunnel.” SUE: Chop Shop Hackman’s weird outburst has haunted you all through the case team meeting up at the station, despite your hasty cramming on blacknets and anonymizing peer-to-peer crime networks and the people who set them up and skim off the profits; in particular his admonition not to have anything to do with the “bottom-feeding scum.” Bottom-feeding scum are, you might say, something of a professional specialty—and not just when you’re hauling bodies out of the Water of Leith; all you need is to think back to the last open evening at the wee one’s school, and it’s there fair and square in the playground with a squint and a buzz cut to go with the sharpie in its back pocket.

pages: 340 words: 91,387

Stealth of Nations by Robert Neuwirth


accounting loophole / creative accounting, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, full employment, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, pirate software, profit motive, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, yellow journalism

Indeed, in all three countries, the people who earn money off the books spend their ill-gotten gains in the national economies, so you might argue that these nations are indirectly benefitting from this cash-only work. And, since many of these people would give up their clandestine jobs if their income was taxed, you could argue that “tackling” the black economy in this way could be counterproductive. Yet the complaints continue. Politicians routinely denigrade the street trade as the zone of illegal immigrants and criminals. Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi has argued that street peddlers, many of them undocumented migrants from Africa, are committing crimes and taking jobs away from native-born Italians. His proposed solution: deport many of them back to their home countries. In France, President Nicolas Sarkozy has started a series of pogroms against longtime Gypsy residents, who live and work in System D.

Virginia Law Review, vol. 92 (2006). ———. “The Piracy Paradox Revisited.” Stanford Law Review, vol. 61, no. 5 (2009). Remer, Rosalind. “Preachers, Peddlers, and Publishers.” Journal of the Early Republic (Winter 1994). Report of the Mayor’s Push-Cart Commission, City of New York, 1906. Reuters. “Analysis—Faltering Economy Boosts Spain’s Black Market,” March 3, 2011. Reyneri, Emilio. “Illegal Immigration and the Underground Economy,” National Europe Centre Paper No. 66, February 2003, accessed March 8, 2011. Rimbaud, Arthur. Complete Works. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. Rothbard, Murray N. The Ethics of Liberty. New York: New York University Press, 1998. ———. Man, Economy, and State. Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2009. Roy, Ananya. “Why India Cannot Plan Its Cities.” Planning Theory 8, 76 (2009).

pages: 299 words: 83,854

Shortchanged: Life and Debt in the Fringe Economy by Howard Karger


big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, delayed gratification, financial deregulation, fixed income, illegal immigration, labor-force participation, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, microcredit, mortgage debt, negative equity, New Journalism, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, payday loans, predatory finance, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, underbanked, working poor

Not only do immigrants possess fewer educational skills than native workers, but also many of their skills don’t translate into the American workplace.23 Between 2000 and 2002, about 3.3 million illegal immigrants entered in the United States. Mexicans made up 57% of undocumented workers, with another 23% coming from other Latin American countries.24 A significant portion of Hispanic poverty is attributable to these large numbers of illegal workers entering the United States and the low-paying jobs they occupy. Although there is no reliable data about the number of immigrants who use the fringe economy, it is undoubtedly high. The 1996 welfare-reform bill had profound implications for both legal and illegal immigrants. Specifically, the bill disentitled most legal immigrants (including many who had lived in the United States for years but chose not to become citizens) from food stamps, TANF, and Supplemental Security Income (SSI).25 The low wages paid to many immigrants, especially those from Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa, put them squarely in the ranks of the working poor.

pages: 320 words: 97,509

Doctored: The Disillusionment of an American Physician by Sandeep Jauhar


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, delayed gratification, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, medical malpractice, moral hazard, obamacare, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, source of truth, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yogi Berra

She had no health insurance, though the chart stated that her husband did. I asked him if she had a green card. Immigration status was going to be very relevant in deciding how we were going to manage her. As a cardiology fellow at NYU, I had treated several illegal immigrants with end-stage heart failure. Usually there were hospitals in their native countries that performed heart transplants, but if they went back home, they would not be allowed to return to America, so they almost never wanted to discuss that option. (And none of them could afford transplants in their native lands anyway.) In many cases, the only hope for an illegal immigrant with end-stage heart failure was to raise the quarter of a million dollars for a cardiac transplant herself. Her husband didn’t answer my question about her status. “It is essential that you tell us everything,” I urged.

pages: 317 words: 101,475

Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class by Owen Jones


Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Etonian, facts on the ground, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, pension reform, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, rising living standards, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working-age population

But, with the government refusing to build homes and large numbers of foreign-looking people arriving in certain communities, the BNP's narrative just seems to make sense to a lot of people. The BNP's strategy has been obligingly boosted by the right-wing tabloids. '£Sm benefits for disabled migrants who flew home', screams one Daily Express headline. 'Secret report warns of migration meltdown in Britain', warns the Daily Mail. 'Illegal immigrant mum gets four-bedroom house', gasps the Sun. If you are a working-class person struggling to scrape by, who cannot get an affordable home or at least knows others in that position, then being bombarded with these stories gives credence to the BNP narrative: that there aren't enough resources to go round, and immigrants are gettit~g the lion's share of them. Coupled with this strategy is an audacious attempt by the BNP to encroach on Labour's terrain.

'I mean, I'm quite happy in Barking and Dagenham,' says Leslie, and Mora agrees: 'We were born here. And I would never move out of Dagenham.' They are both deeply scornful of 'the crap that the BNP are coming out with ... At the moment they're frightening people, they're saying old people can get chucked out of their house, and it's given to the "illegals". If they can say where the illegals are, fine. But there are no illegal immigrants inthis borough. There's not. I mean, there's good and bad in everybody. But the BNP are very bad.' 'They're very racist, aren't they?' asks Leslie, drawing a quick response from Mora: 'Very, yery racist, they are.' Although neither had faith in politicians at the national level, they did trust their local Labour councillors. But their impression of the BNP was of total incompetence. 'They have done nothing.

pages: 319 words: 95,854

You Are What You Speak: Grammar Grouches, Language Laws, and the Politics of Identity by Robert Lane Greene


anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, discovery of DNA, European colonialism, facts on the ground, haute couture, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Parag Khanna, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

They even come from an American territory, Puerto Rico, where heavy “Americanization” efforts after it was captured from Spain in 1898 failed to turn the island to English. Immigration has increased steadily since the 1920s-era quotas were relaxed in 1965, and with illegal immigration bolstering the legal kind, Hispanics are now the largest minority in the United States. In 2009, Barack Obama nominated Sonia Sotomayor, born in the Bronx, to be the first Hispanic justice on the Supreme Court, in a tacit recognition of Hispanics’ growing political clout. When it came to light that she had once praised the virtues of being a “wise Latina” in a speech, conservatives were apoplectic, many flatly calling her a racist. Mark Krikorian, a professional worrier about illegal immigration, found even the prosody of her name galling, writing in the blog of the conservative National Review magazine: Deferring to people’s own pronunciation of their names should obviously be our first inclination, but there ought to be limits.

pages: 344 words: 100,046

Hidden Family by Stross, Charles


correlation does not imply causation, germ theory of disease, illegal immigration, out of africa, Silicon Valley, trade route

Just in case you’d forgotten, Miriam. I’d have to study for another two years before I can sit for the bar exams.” “You signed up for the course like I asked? That’s good.” “Yeah, well.” Paulette put her empty mug down. “Do you want to go through it all again? Just so I know where I stand?” “Not really, but…” Miriam glanced at Brill. “Look, here’s the high points. This young lady is Brilliana d’Ost. She’s kind of an illegal immigrant, no papers, no birth certificate, no background. She needs somewhere to stay while we sort things out back where she comes from. She isn’t self-sufficient here—she met her very first elevator yesterday evening, and her first train this morning.” Paulette raised an eyebrow. “R-i-i-ght,” she drawled. “I think I can see how this might pose some difficulties.” “I can read and write,” Brill volunteered.

And it’s better for us in the families than for ordinary women, better by far. Did you notice that within the Clan you had rights? Or that outside the Clan, in the ordinary aristocracy, you didn’t? We have at least one ability that is as important, more important, than what’s between our legs: another source of status. But those ordinary peasants you feel such guilt for don’t have any such thing. There’s a better life awaiting me as a humble illegal immigrant in this world than there is as a lady-in-waiting to nobility in my own. Do you think I’d ever go back there for any reason except to help you change the world?” Taken aback, Miriam recoiled slightly. “Ouch,” she said. “I didn’t realize all that stuff. No.” She picked up her wine glass again. “It’s post-colonial guilt, I guess,” she added by way of explanation. “We’ve got a lot of history here, and it’s really ugly in parts.

pages: 422 words: 89,770

Death of the Liberal Class by Chris Hedges


1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate governance, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hive mind, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Lao Tzu, Pearl River Delta, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

“The United States is extremely lucky that no honest, charismatic figure has arisen,” Chomsky went on:Every charismatic figure is such an obvious crook that he destroys himself, like [Joseph] McCarthy or [Richard] Nixon or the evangelist preachers. If somebody comes along who is charismatic and honest, this country is in real trouble because of the frustration, disillusionment, the justified anger, and the absence of any coherent response. What are people supposed to think if someone says, “I have got an answer, we have an enemy”? There it was the Jews. Here it will be the illegal immigrants and the blacks. We will be told that white males are a persecuted minority. We will be told we have to defend ourselves and the honor of the nation. Military force will be exalted. People will be beaten up. This could become an overwhelming force. And if it happens it will be more dangerous than Germany. The United States is the world power. Germany was powerful but had more powerful antagonists.

Antonio Maria Costa, executive director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), has said that the drug trade has permitted the Taliban to thrive and expand despite the presence of NATO troops: “The Taliban’s direct involvement in the opium trade allows them to fund a war machine that is becoming technologically more complex and increasingly widespread.”25 The UNODC estimates the Taliban earned $90 million to $160 million a year from taxing the production and smuggling of opium and heroin between 2005 and 2009, as much as double the amount it earned annually while it was in power nearly a decade ago. And Costa described the Afghanistan-Pakistan border as “the world’s largest free-trade zone in anything and everything that is illicit,” an area blighted by drugs, weapons, and illegal immigration. The “perfect storm of drugs and terrorism” may be on the move along drug trafficking routes through Central Asia, he warned. Opium profits are being pumped into militant groups in Central Asia, and “a big part of the region could be engulfed in large-scale terrorism, endangering its massive energy resources.” “Afghanistan, after eight years of occupation, has become a world center for drugs,” Joya told me:The drug lords are the only ones with power.

pages: 320 words: 86,372

Mythology of Work: How Capitalism Persists Despite Itself by Peter Fleming


1960s counterculture, anti-work, call centre, clockwatching, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, David Graeber, Etonian, future of work, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, Parkinson's law, post-industrial society, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Results Only Work Environment, shareholder value, The Chicago School, transaction costs, wealth creators, working poor

Only with free speech will the American public learn about the superior greatness of the Soviet people. In effect, the powerful party has pulled the rug from under its own feet. Now let us return to the equally open intrigue of the neoliberal enterprise and the societies of control. How might this ideological technique be deployed in a corporate setting? A good illustration pertains to the way communication guerrilla groups challenged a number of European airlines involved in deporting ‘illegal immigrants’. Autonome a.f.r.i.k.a. gruppe (2002) report on the symbolic sabotage of Lufthansa by the German anti-racist collective Kein Mensch ist illegal. They understood that a radical critique would need to bypass the cynical neoliberal distancing norms discussed above. Kein Mensch ist illegal therefore prepared overly positive leaflets using the company’s easily recognizable brand. The leaflets explained to customers that the company was very concerned about customer comfort and safety, but simply could not restrain its prisoners with handcuffs and gags to protect its loyal frequent flyers.

capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 General Motors plant (Michigan) ref1 Goffee, R. ref1 Goldman Sachs ref1 The Good Soldier Svejk (Hasek) ref1 Gordon, D. ref1 Gorz, A. ref1, ref2 Graeber, D. ref1 Groundhog Day (Ramis) ref1 Guattari, F. ref1, ref2, ref3 on criticism/criticality ref1 and de-subjectification ref1 language ref1, ref2 Gujarat NRE ref1 Gulf of Mexico oil spill (2010) ref1 Hamper, B. ref1 Hanlon, G. ref1 Hardt, M. ref1 Hart, A. ref1 Harvard Business Review (HBR) ref1 Harvey, D. ref1, ref2 Hayek, F. ref1, ref2, ref3 health and safety ref1, ref2 ‘Help to Buy’ support scheme ref1 Hirschhorn, N. ref1 Hodgkinson, T. ref1 holiday policy ref1 Houellebecq, Michel ref1, ref2, ref3 human capital ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 human relations movement ref1 Human Resource Management (HRM) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 humour ref1 ‘I, Job’ function ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and biopower ref1, ref2 and death drive ref1, ref2 as escape into work ref1 and illness ref1, ref2, ref3 resisting ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 see also escape; totality refusal see also work, as all-encompassing; working hours illegal immigrants, deportations ref1 illness ref1, ref2 collective ref1, ref2 see also Social Patients’ Collective as desirable experience ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 of managers ref1, ref2 and productive power ref1, ref2 as weapon against capitalism ref1 ‘immersion room’ exercise ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 imperceptibility ref1 see also invisibility incentivization ref1 indexation process ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 informality and authoritarianism ref1, ref2 see also deformalization insecurity ref1 Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM) ref1, ref2, ref3 invisibility ref1, ref2 ‘Invisible Committee’ ref1, ref2 Italian autonomist thought ref1, ref2 Jameson, F. ref1 Jones, G. ref1 Junjie, Li ref1 Kamp, A. ref1 Kein Mensch ist illegal ref1 Kellaway, L. ref1 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) ref1 Keynes, J.M. ref1, ref2 Khrushchev, Nikita ref1, ref2 Kim, Jonathan ref1 King, Stephen ref1 ‘Kitchen Debate’ ref1 Kramer, M. ref1, ref2 labour unions ref1 dissolution of ref1, ref2 language, evolution of ref1 Larkin, P. ref1 Latour, B. ref1, ref2 Laval, C. ref1, ref2 Lazzarato, M. ref1, ref2 leaders backgrounds ref1 remuneration and bonuses ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 see also managers Lefebvre, H. ref1 Leidner, R. ref1 Lewin, D. ref1 liberation management ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 life itself, enlisting ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 lines of flight ref1, ref2 Lordon, F. ref1, ref2, ref3 Lucas, R. ref1, ref2 Lukács, G. ref1 Lynch, R. ref1 McChesney, R. ref1 McGregor, D. ref1 management ref1, ref2 and class function ref1, ref2 as co-ordination ref1 and inducement of willing obedience ref1, ref2 information deficit ref1 and power ref1, ref2 self-justification rituals ref1 as transferable skill ref1, ref2 managerialism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and abandonment ideology ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and boundary management ref1 and conflict-seeking behaviour ref1 division between managers and managed ref1, ref2 general principles of ref1 and leadership ref1 profligate management function ref1 refusing ref1 and securitization ref1 as self-referential abstraction ref1 managers as abandonment enablers ref1, ref2 and deformalization ref1 and engagement of workers ref1, ref2 lack of practical experience ref1 overwork ref1, ref2 see also leaders Marcuse, H. ref1 Market Basket supermarket chain ref1 Marx, K. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Maslow, A. ref1 Matten, D. ref1 meat consumption ref1 Meek, J. ref1 Meyerson, D. ref1 Michelli, J. ref1 Miller, W.I. ref1 Mitchell, David ref1 mobile technology ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Modafinil ref1, ref2 Monaghan, A. ref1 money ref1, ref2 see also accumulation Mooney, G. ref1 Moore, A.E. ref1 Moore, Michael ref1, ref2 music industry ref1 Naidoo, Kumi ref1 NASA ref1 Natali, Vincenzo ref1 Negri, A. ref1, ref2 neoliberal capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and bureaucracy ref1 and ideal worker ref1, ref2 and non-work time ref1, ref2 and paranoia ref1, ref2 resisting ref1, ref2 see also post-labour strategy and threat of abandonment ref1, ref2 and truth telling ref1, ref2, ref3 neoliberalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and class relations ref1, ref2, ref3 and disciplinary power ref1 and human-capital theory ref1 and impossibility ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and micro-fascism ref1 and reign of technocrats ref1 role of state ref1 and truth telling ref1, ref2 and worker engagement ref1, ref2, ref3 Nestlé ref1 New Public Management ref1, ref2 New Zealand, and capitalist deregulation ref1 New Zealand Oil and Gas (NZOG) ref1 Newman, Maurice ref1 Nietzsche, Friedrich ref1, ref2 Nixon, Richard ref1, ref2 Nyhan, B. ref1 obsession ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Onionhead program ref1 overcoding ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 The Pain Journal (Flanagan) ref1, ref2, ref3 paranoia ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 overwork/paranoia complex ref1, ref2 Paris Commune ref1, ref2 Parkinson’s Law ref1 Parnet, C. ref1 Parsons, T. ref1 Peep Show (TV comedy) ref1 pensions ref1, ref2 personnel management ref1 see also Human Resource Management Peters, T. ref1 Philip Morris ref1 Pike River Coal mine (New Zealand) ref1 Pollack, Sydney ref1 Pook, L. ref1 Porter, M. ref1, ref2 post-labour strategy, recommendations ref1 postmodernism ref1, ref2, ref3 power ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and truth telling ref1 Prasad, M. ref1 Price, S. ref1 private companies, transferring to public hands ref1 privatization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 profit maximization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 quantitative easing ref1 Rand, Ayn ref1 rationalization ref1, ref2, ref3 Reifler, J. ref1 reserve army of the unemployed ref1 Ressler, C. ref1 results-only work environment (ROWE) ref1, ref2, ref3 Rimbaud, A. ref1 Rio+20 Earth Summit (2012) ref1 ‘riot grrrl’ bands ref1 rituals of truth and reconciliation ref1 Roberts, J. ref1 Roger Award ref1 Roger and Me (Moore) ref1 Rosenblatt, R. ref1 Ross, A. ref1, ref2 Ross, K. ref1 Rudd, Kevin ref1 ruling class fear of work-free world ref1, ref2 and paranoia ref1, ref2 Sade, Marquis de ref1 Sallaz, J. ref1 Saurashtra Fuels ref1 Scarry, E. ref1 Securicor (G4S) ref1 Segarra, Carmen ref1 self-abnegation ref1 self-employment ref1 self-management ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 self-preservation ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 self-sufficiency ref1, ref2, ref3 shareholder capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 shift work ref1, ref2 see also working hours Shragai, N. ref1 sleep and circadian rhythms ref1 as form of resistance ref1 working in ref1, ref2, ref3 smart drugs ref1, ref2 Smith, Roger ref1 smoking and addiction ref1 dangers of ref1, ref2 scientific research ref1 sociability ref1, ref2 ‘the social’ ref1, ref2 social factory ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and structure of work ref1 social media ref1 Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission ref1 Social Patients’ Collective (SPK) ref1, ref2, ref3 social surplus (commons) ref1, ref2, ref3 socialism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Sontag, S. ref1 Spicer, A. ref1 stakeholder management ref1, ref2 Starbucks ref1 state, theory of ref1 subcontracting ref1, ref2, ref3 subsidization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 suicide as act of refusal ref1 Freud’s definition ref1 work-related ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 surplus labour ref1, ref2 surplus living wage ref1 ‘tagged’ employees ref1 ‘tagged’ prisoner ref1 Tally, Richard ref1 taxation ref1, ref2, ref3 Taylor, F.W. ref1 Taylor, S. ref1 Taylorism ref1 technological progress, and emancipation from labour ref1 Thatcher, Margaret ref1 Thatcherism ref1 They Shoot Horses Don’t They?

Griftopia: Bubble Machines, Vampire Squids, and the Long Con That Is Breaking America by Matt Taibbi


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, carried interest, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, desegregation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, financial innovation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, interest rate swap, laissez-faire capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, medical malpractice, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, obamacare, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Sergey Aleynikov, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

It would be a lot easier to listen to what these people have to say if they would just stop whining about how underappreciated they are and insisting that they’re the only people left in America who’ve read the Constitution. In fact, if you listen to them long enough, you almost want to strap them into chairs and make them watch as you redistribute their tax money directly into the arms of illegal immigrant dope addicts. Which is too bad, because when they get past the pathetic self-regard and start to articulate their grievances, they are rooted in genuine anxieties about what’s going on in this country. In the case of these Westchester County revolutionaries, the rallying cry was a lawsuit filed jointly by a liberal nonprofit group in New York City and the Department of Housing and Urban Development against the county.

The Tea Party and its ilk will have found a way to push the national conversation in the desired idiotic direction. Instead of talking about what to do about the fact that, after all the mergers in the crisis, just four banks now account for half of the country’s mortgages and two-thirds of its credit card accounts, we’ll be debating whether or not we should still automatically grant citizenship to the American-born children of illegal immigrants, or should let Arizona institute a pass-law regime, or some such thing. Meanwhile, half a world away, in little-advertised meetings of international bankers in Basel, Switzerland, the financial services industry will be settling on new capital standards for the world’s banks. And here at home, bodies like the CFTC and the Treasury will be slowly, agonizingly making supertechnical decisions on regulatory questions like “Who exactly will be subject to the new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau?”

pages: 316 words: 103,743

The Emperor Far Away: Travels at the Edge of China by David Eimer


back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, mass immigration, megacity, offshore financial centre, open borders, South China Sea

Once in the hands of police, Aba explained what had happened to her. ‘The police went to see the family and told them, “You can’t buy people, they’re not animals.” They asked me if I wanted to prosecute the family, but I said, “No.” I just wanted to forget it and go home.’ Aba was treated well by the police, a new development in itself. Until recently, the Chinese authorities regarded all trafficked women as illegal immigrants and imprisoned them until they could be returned to their home countries. Three years after disappearing from her parents’ lives, Aba walked alone across the official border crossing to Muse and returned to her house. ‘My mother and father were very shocked to see me,’ said Aba. ‘They started crying and so did I. I was so happy to see them. They didn’t ask me questions about what had happened.

North Koreans reacted to China turning on them by following the dispersal of the Chinese Koreans across Dongbei and beyond. Many of those who cross the border now leave Yanbian quickly and make for the big cities, where the police are not looking for DPRK refugees and they can blend in by claiming to be Chaoxianzu. Others, like Piao’s wife, try and escape to South Korea. There are two routes used to reach Seoul: either via Mongolia, which deports all North Korean illegal immigrants to South Korea automatically, or across China to Yunnan and then on to Thailand. Both the escape lines are run by the South Korean missionaries in Yanji. They fund them by raising money at home and from the American Korean community. One day, Piao’s wife was spirited south-west to Kunming, then to Laos and Bangkok and finally to Seoul. Piao had seen neither her nor his son for four years.

pages: 327 words: 90,542

The Age of Stagnation by Satyajit Das


9 dash line, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative economy, colonial exploitation, computer age, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disintermediation, Downton Abbey, Emanuel Derman, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, margin call, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, open economy, passive income, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, the payments system, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

In 2014, Poland and Sweden unveiled plans to develop Europe's rich deposits of lignite (a highly polluting form of coal) along the German-Polish border, to meet increasing German demand. National interest also makes it difficult for China and India to reduce their reliance on coal-fired electricity generation, despite commitments to reducing carbon emissions. India is building its own Great Wall, a 3,360-kilometer (2,100-mile) border fence surrounding Bangladesh. Designed to prevent illegal immigration, it will also provide protection from future Bangladeshi climate refugees. Economics, according to economist Robert Heilbroner, entails the study of resourcing society. But resource limits require re-evaluating society's consumption of the present at the expense of the future. In 1954, German economist E. F. Schumacher recognized that human beings had begun living off capital: “Mankind has existed for many thousands of years and has always lived off income.

Russia has retaliated, focusing on markets in the Far East for its energy exports, which has implications for current European dependence on Russian gas and oil. Tensions even threaten access to space, due to reliance on Russian launch capabilities following the end of the US Space Shuttle program. The peace dividend from the end of the Cold War may reverse with rising defense spending. The costs of humanitarian relief operations, as well as refugees and illegal immigration driven by instability, are increasing. The risk of armed conflict is ever-present. A 2012 report to US secretary of state Hillary Clinton spoke of China and Japan being one error away from outright war over the Diaoyu, or Senkaku, Islands in the East China Sea. Any conflict over the disputed islands could involve the US, if Japan were to activate treaty commitments. The rise of autarky and nationalism is a dangerous cocktail.

pages: 437 words: 105,934

#Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media by Cass R. Sunstein

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, Donald Trump, drone strike, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, friendly fire, global village, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, prediction markets, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds

Over the last two years, the concerns of Reclaim America have been greatly heightened. Nearly 70 percent of the members carry firearms—some as a result of the group’s conversations. Small but vigorous protests have been planned, organized, and carried out in three state capitals. A march on Washington, DC, is now in the works. Recent discussion has occasionally turned to the need for “self-protection” against illegal immigrants, terrorists, and the state, through civil disobedience and possibly selective “strikes” on certain targets in the public and private sectors. The motivation for this discussion is the widely disseminated view that the “FBI and possibly the CIA” are starting to take steps to “dismember” the group. One member has sent bomb-making instructions to all the other members of Reclaim America. No violence has occurred as yet.

Kelly, 114–15 Gates, Bill, 52–53, 134, 196 general-interest intermediaries: bias and, 148; citizens and, 166; Daily Me and, 20; as default, 25; improving, 230; judgment and, 43; mass media and, 18–19; newspapers and, 13 (see also newspapers); polarization and, 84; power of, 18; republicanism and, 253, 257, 260–61; self-insulation and, 13; shared experiences and, 152; social clarity and, 142–43; spreading information and, 140–43, 148, 151–52, 156; television and, 13 (see also television); as unacknowledged public forums, 41–44, 58 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), 59, 100, 130–32, 217 Gentzkow, Matthew, 115–16, 120–21 Gerken, Heather, 85 Germany, ix, 6, 17, 19, 25, 32, 34, 73, 203, 237 global warming, 68–69, 88, 217 Goodman, Jack, 197–98 Google, 3, 28, 37, 53, 118, 229, 265n2 greenhouse gases, 9, 127, 130–32, 218 group identity, 75–78, 81 Guess, Andrew, 116–17 Habermas, Jürgen, 46–47 Haberstam, Yosh, 120 hacking, 109, 178, 184, 186, 188, 201 Hale, Scott, 105–6, 108 Hamilton, Alexander, 49, 54 Hand, Learned, 249–50 Hardball (TV show), 120 Hardin, Russell, 240 Harvard University, 160 hashtags, 3, 43, 119, 245, 271n23; Congress and, 82; Democrats and, 80–81; entrepreneurs and, 4, 79–82; Internet Relay Chats and, 79; polarization and, 59, 79–82; Republicans and, 80–81; serendipity and, 79–81; Trump and, 83 hate groups, 67–68, 70, 87, 236 HBO, 179 health issues: Affordable Care Act (ACA) and, 81, 129; AIDS/HIV and, 110; bandwagon diseases and, 100; conspiracies and, 125–26; cybercascades and, 99–101; deliberative opinion polls on, 133; democracy and, 23, 29; false information and, 110; famine as metaphor and, 149; GMOs and, 59, 100, 130–32; insurance premiums and, 129; OSHA and, 218–19 Hebrew University, 112 Her (Jonze film), 20–22, 33 heterogeneous society: anti-federalists and, 48; fragmentation and, 51, 135; improving, 216; mass media and, 19; opinion polls and, 134; polarization and, 84, 86, 88–89; public forums and, 38–39, 41, 43; republicanism and, 257, 262; shared experiences and, 140; social problems and, 7; spreading information and, 140, 145, 155; US Constitution and, 48–51 Himelboim, Itai, 118–19 Hitler, Adolf, ix HIV, 110 holidays, 7, 141–42, 242 Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 52–57, 247–48, 250 homogeneous society: Facebook and, 125; polarization and, 69, 86, 92; social media bias and, 135; spreading information and, 151; Twitter and, 119; US Constitution and, 48–51; virtual world and, 13 homophily, 1–2, 5, 117–22 How to Win Friends and Influence People (Carnegie), 160 Huffington Post, 117, 123 Hughes, Chris, 82 human rights, 107 Hurricane Katrina, 19, 139 Hussein, Saddam, 94 Huxley, Aldous, x, 21 ideal speech situation, 47 identity: culture and, 129–35; group, 75–77, 81; judgment and, 129–35; shared, 239 ideologies: cultural cognition and, 129–30; cybercascades and, 115–23, 127, 131; polarization and, 61–62, 65, 81, 94–95; republicanism and, 260; spreading information and, 140; values and, 11, 14–15, 22, 30, 52, 75, 101, 113, 126–32, 142, 145, 163, 165, 169, 227, 232, 235, 253, 258; website choice and, 5, 25 ILOVEYOU virus, 176–78, 186, 191, 207 immigration, 1, 3–4, 11, 19, 39, 66, 129, 159, 235, 246 inert people, ix, 56, 145, 204, 261 information: advertising and, 146, 152–53; algorithms and, 3, 15, 21–22, 28–29, 32, 122–24, 257, 265n2; backfiring corrections and, 93–97, 111; bias and, 151–53 (see also bias); conspiracies and, 124–26; consumer sovereignty and, 52–53 (see also consumer sovereignty); copyright and, 29, 184–85, 195, 200–201, 219; cultural cognition and, 129–30; customized filtering and, 52–53 (see also filtering); cybercascades and, 98–136; Daily Me and, 1–4, 14–15, 19–21, 30–31, 52, 56, 58–59, 114, 153, 253, 255; disclosure policies and, 215, 218–23; easy creation of, 27–28; Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act and, 218; exposure and, 40–41; false, 11, 23, 109–10, 135, 155, 237, 250; fragmentation and, 140–41, 146, 149–55 (see also fragmentation); general-interest intermediaries and, 140–43, 148, 151–52, 156; hashtags and, 3–4, 43, 59, 79–83, 119, 245, 271n23; Internet and, 31, 138, 143–44, 148–54 (see also Internet); must-carry rules and, 215, 226–29; News Feed and, 2, 14–16, 41, 124, 232–33; preferences and, 58; producers and, 145–46; as product, 149; propaganda and, 109, 160, 236–37, 239, 245, 248–50; public forums and, 142, 156 (see also public forums); as public good, 45, 51, 57–58, 147–48, 260; reinforcement and, 63, 72, 78, 81, 114–15, 132, 148, 260–61; rumors and, 103, 108–11, 125, 236–37; self-imposed echo chambers and, 5–13, 17, 20, 50, 57, 59, 68, 71, 81, 90, 93, 114–18, 122–24, 131–32, 153, 163, 244, 262–64; social glue and, 7, 140, 143, 155, 260; social media and, 138–39, 148, 150, 152, 154–55; solidarity goods and, 58, 141–44; sound bites and, 43, 151, 224, 268n19; tipping points and, 102–4, 108–11; trending petitions and, 106; up/down votes and, 112–13; as wildfire, 102–4 innovation, 5, 133, 183, 243 “Inspire” (online terrorist journal), 236 Instagram, 22; cybercascades and, 114; polarization and, 79, 83, 89; public forums and, 36–37; regulation and, 179; spreading information and, 138, 149; terrorism and, 237–38 Internet: access to, 30; advertising and, 28; algorithms and, 3, 15, 21–22, 28–29, 32, 122–24, 257, 265n2; architecture of, 13; baselines and, 23; beginnings of, 181–86; Berners-Lee and, 183; bomb-making instructions and, 192, 235–37; browsing habits and, 5, 21–22, 116, 124; citizens and, 158, 160, 164, 169, 171–74; commercialization of, 183; consumer effect of, 171–74; conveniences of, 31–32; copyright and, 29; cybercascades and, 102, 108–11, 115–16, 123, 133–35; DARPA and, 182–83; death of mass media and, 19; deliberative domains and, 215–17; filtering and, 25–26 (see also filtering); forms of neutrality and, 207–10; free content and, 28; freedom of speech and, 192, 201–10; hashtags and, 3–4, 43, 59, 79–83, 119, 245, 271n23; ideologies and, 5, 25; ILOVEYOU virus and, 176–78, 186, 191, 207; improving, 215–16, 223, 226, 228–29; information available on, 31; isolation index and, 116, 120; legal issues and, 184–88; most popular sites on, 171–72; music and, 3, 21, 31–34, 64, 102, 104–8, 159, 192; online behavior and, 22–23, 65, 83, 98, 116–17, 130, 234–35; overload and, 63–68; Pariser and, 265n2; partyism and, 10; polarization and, 59–60, 64–68, 70, 72, 76–79, 86, 89; politics and, 116–17; potential of, 24; as public forum, 36; public sphere and, 153; regulation and, 178, 182–90; republicanism and, 253–61; self-insulation and, 13; shared experience and, 143; social media and, 22 (see also social media); sovereignty and, 52, 55; spreading information and, 138, 143–44, 148–54; tabloidization and, 223–24; terrorism and, 234–38, 240–43, 245–47; as threat, ix–x; websites and, 3, 6, 13, 22, 27–28, 32–33, 59–60, 62, 65, 67, 106–12, 146, 154, 166, 179, 185–94, 207–8, 212–17, 222–25, 229, 235, 242, 255, 268n18 Internet Relay Chats, 79 Iraq, 18, 42, 64, 93–94, 98, 242 ISIS, 238, 244 Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL), 98, 234, 236, 239, 241–48, 283n22 isolation: filtering and, 27, 38, 64, 98, 115–16, 120–22, 234, 242–43, 254, 265n2; index for, 115–16, 120–21; self-imposed echo chambers and, 5–13, 17, 20, 50, 57, 59, 68, 71, 81, 90, 93, 114–18, 122–24, 131–32, 153, 163, 244, 262–64 Israel, 6, 87, 91, 140–41, 245–46, 284n31 Italy, 6, 124, 203 Jacobs, Jane, 12–13, 260 jarring of parties, 49, 54 Jefferson, Thomas, 51–52 Jews, 96, 185 Jiabao, Wen, 139 jihad, 239, 241–42 John, Peter, 105–6, 108 Jonze, Spike, 20–22, 33 judgment: citizens and, 167, 169–70; cybercascades and, 99, 101–2, 127–35; freedom of speech and, 206; general-interest intermediaries and, 43; identity and, 129–35; insulation and, 51; prediction and, 28; republicanism and, 259, 261; sound bites and, 268n19; strengthening preexisting, 34; terrorism and, 235 Kahan, Dan, 129–31 Kahneman, Daniel, 17–18 Kennedy, Anthony, 36–37 King, Gary, 160–61 Knight, Brian, 120 Koran, 239 Kossinets, Gueorgi, 118 Ku Klux Klan, 109 Lazzaro, Stephanie, 127 legal issues: behavior and, 220–21; Brandeis and, 52–56, 145, 203, 220, 228, 247–48, 250–51; child-support and, 133; commercial speech and, 193, 205, 207; communications and, 220, 227; constitutional doctrine and, 192–201, 204 (see also constitutional doctrine); copyright and, 29, 184–85, 195, 200–201, 219; deliberative democracy and, 25, 34, 44, 48, 55–56, 86, 92, 133–35, 169, 195, 215–17, 220, 222, 228; Dewey and, 252; disclosure policies and, 215, 218–23; educational programming for children and, 170, 181, 197–99, 202, 204–5, 210–11, 221, 226; Facebook’s complicity in terrorism and, 246; First Amendment and, 36, 193, 195–207, 212, 227–28, 231; forms of neutrality and, 207–10; Fourteenth Amendment and, 199; fraud and, 2–6, 74, 109, 200–201, 258; freedom of speech and, 55–56, 191–212; Hand and, 249–50; Holmes and, 52–56, 247–48, 250; interference in communications market and, 177–79; Internet and, 184–88; must-carry rules and, 215, 226–29; national security and, 4, 42, 74, 178, 186, 216, 246; Nuremberg Files and, 191–92, 208; President’s Advisory Committee on the Public Interest Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters and, 196–98; privacy and, 178, 225, 237, 243; property rights and, 179–90, 194, 258; Second Amendment and, 119, 198, 234; self-protection against illegal immigrants and, 235; sexual harassment and, 101; terrorism and, 246–47; unfreedom and, 163; US Constitution and, 247 (see also US Constitution) Lessig, Lawrence, 184 liberals: blogs and, 231; Colorado experiment and, 68–70, 77; confirmation bias and, 123; cybercascades and, 114–23; differing points of view and, 230; Facebook and, 3, 232; and, 228; fragmentation and, 10; polarization and, 61, 64, 68–70, 74, 84–85, 90, 94–95 liberty, 5, 11, 52, 138, 174, 204 limited argument pool, 72, 76 limited options, 164–67, 174 Littleton, Colorado attack, 236 lone-wolf attacks, 241, 244–45 long tails, 149–51, 171 Lorenz, Jan, 113–14 Los Angeles Times, 19, 152 loss aversion, 59 machine learning, 4–5 Madison, James, 45, 51–52, 203, 261 magazines: bias and, 152; choice of, 18; isolation and, 116; free content and, 229; general-interest intermediaries and, 41–42, 257; points of view and, 18, 66, 230; public forums and, 41–42; regulation and, 179, 181–82, 184, 187, 189; Twitter and, 118 majority rule, 53–54, 169–70 Malik, Tashfeen, 241 manipulation, 17, 28–29, 95, 164 Mao Tse-tung, ix Margetts, Helen, 105–6, 108 Marginal Revolution, 22 Martin, Gregory J., 61 martyrdom, 241 mass media: behavior and, 19; bias and, 151–52; death of, 19; echo chambers and, 116; freedom of speech and, 203; as general-interest intermediaries, 18–19; heterogeneous society and, 19; improving, 222; opposing viewpoints and, 71, 84, 207, 215, 231–33, 255; public forums and, 36–37; public sphere and, 153–54.

pages: 126 words: 37,081

Men Without Work by Nicholas Eberstadt


Carmen Reinhart, centre right, deindustrialization, financial innovation, full employment, illegal immigration, jobless men, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral hazard, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

The timing of this fateful shift in work patterns may be significant. The year marked a watershed moment in American social history. It was then President Johnson rolled out his “Great Society” programs, giving birth to the modern welfare state as we know it today. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 initiated a huge new wave of immigration into the United States, substantially increasing legal and illegal immigration, boosting the country’s population, and altering its ethnic composition over the past half century. But 1965 was also an important social milestone for another reason: it was roughly then that a national crime wave began to sweep over the United States. The reaction to the explosion of criminality crystallized in a national consensus that America should suppress crime by arresting, convicting, and incarcerating felons.

pages: 913 words: 299,770

A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn


active measures, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, God and Mammon, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, jobless men, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

For perhaps half a million legal immigrants, passing the tests required for becoming a citizen was quite impossible—they could not read English, were sick or disabled, or were just too old to learn. An immigrant from Portugal living in Massachusetts told a reporter, through an interpreter: “Every day we are afraid the letter will come. What will we do if we lose our checks? We will starve. Oh, my God. It will not be worth living.” Illegal immigrants fleeing poverty in Mexico began to face harsher treatment in the early nineties. Thousands of border guards were added. A Reuters dispatch from Mexico City (April 3, 1997) said about the tougher policy: “Any crackdown against illegal immigration automatically angers Mexicans, millions of whom migrate, legally and illegally, across the 2,000-mile border to the United States in search of jobs each year.” Hundreds of thousands of Central Americans who had fled death squads in Guatemala and El Salvador while the United States was giving military aid to those governments now faced deportation because they had never been deemed “political” refugees.

The new conditions of technology, economics, and war, in the atomic age, make it less and less possible for the guards of the system—the intellectuals, the home owners, the taxpayers, the skilled workers, the professionals, the servants of government—to remain immune from the violence (physical and psychic) inflicted on the black, the poor, the criminal, the enemy overseas. The internationalization of the economy, the movement of refugees and illegal immigrants across borders, both make it more difficult for the people of the industrial countries to be oblivious to hunger and disease in the poor countries of the world. All of us have become hostages in the new conditions of doomsday technology, runaway economics, global poisoning, uncontainable war. The atomic weapons, the invisible radiations, the economic anarchy, do not distinguish prisoners from guards, and those in charge will not be scrupulous in making distinctions.

An ex-GI who had been mutilated by an American land mine came to Minneapolis to join the campaign, joined by a young woman who was traveling all over the world to tell people of the children dying on all continents as a result of millions of land mines planted by the United States and other nations. Four nuns, the “McDonald sisters,” who were indeed sisters, participated in the protest, and were arrested. In 1994 in Los Angeles, in opposition to a new California law that took away basic health and educational rights from the children of illegal immigrants, a quarter of a million people took to the streets in protest. When the United States made clear its intention to drop bombs on Iraq, presumably because Iraq was not allowing inspection of what American officials called “weapons of mass destruction,” Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and other officials spoke to a town meeting in Columbus, Ohio, to build up public support for the bombing.

pages: 879 words: 233,093

The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin


agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation,, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, off grid, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey

Contemporary human migration is nearly triple the number in the early decades of the twentieth century—the last great peak of global migration. While the percentage of the world population that is migratory has remained close to the figure in the early twentieth century, the sheer number of migrants has swollen to historic proportions because of the dramatic rise in human population. More than eighty million human beings migrated to new lands in the 1990s—many more if we count the unaccounted-for illegal immigrants.32 Capital and labor flows are the earmarks of the new globalization process. Each affects the other. Today’s migrants, like migrants of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, are following the money. The search for new economic opportunities is forcing a massive resettlement of human population from south to north and from east to west. The number of international migrants rose dramatically in the last several decades.

The migration to North America has been particularly steep, more than tripling, from 13 million to 41 million between 1970 and 2000.35 Migration into the European Union has also been sizable, rising from 19 to 33 million between 1970 and 2000.36 The biggest concentration of international migration is in the United States, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, and the UK.37 More than a million legal immigrants enter the United States alone each year.38 The number of illegal immigrants in the United States in 2000 was estimated at around seven million, the majority of whom were from Mexico. Of the total immigration to the United States, more than 80 percent has been from developing countries since 1990.39 The United States is now home to 20 percent of the international migrants of the world.40 The rising tide of international migration from poorer to wealthier countries—especially illegal migration—is likely going to turn into a flood in the years ahead as the global economic downturn and the real-time impacts of climate change threaten the survival of hundreds of millions of people.

(Fromm) Tocqueville, Alexis de Today (TV show) toddlers induction discipline and Tolstoy, Leo Tomasello, Michael Tomlinson, John Tonight Show, The (TV show) Torah Totem and Taboo (Freud) Toulmin, Stephen tourism traditional societies transatlantic cable transcendence transportation revolution travel Travers, Jeffrey Treisman, Uri tribes Trilling, Lionel Trist, Eric Trobriand Islands Trotter, Wilfred true self trust Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa) truths tsunamis Tudor England Turkle, Sherry tweens Twenge, Jean M., Dr. Twitter Two Treatises of Government (Locke) UCLA UK Meteorological Office Ulysses (Joyce) United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization Human Development Index (HDI) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change United States credit crisis in greenhouse gas emissions illegal immigrants in income disparity in interstate highway system kiddy consumption in market model in materialism of as media capital as music capital pet industry in presidential election of 2008 religious values in self-help groups in United States Democratic Review universal God universal literacy universality University Hospital (London) University of Amsterdam University of Chicago Oriental Institute University of Groningen University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of North Florida University of Rochester University of St Andrews University of Western Ontario University of Wisconsin uranium urbanization urban life in Roman Empire in Sumeria Utilitarian philosophers utopia Value of the Individual, The: Self and Circumstance in Autobiography (Weintraub) van den Boom, Dymph Varela, Francisco Vedic religion Vegetarian Society vendetta Venice Vermont vernacular (language) vernacular cosmopolitanism Vernadsky,Vladimir Vickers, Sir Brian Vico, Giambattista Victorian architecture Vie de Marianne, La (Chamblain de Marivaux) village life village settlements violence Virginia Declaration of Rights virtual reality Vischer, Robert vision vocabulary Voltaire Vygotsky, Lev Walqa Technology Park (Huesca, Spain) Walter, Katey, Dr.

pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman


3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador are among the most environmentally degraded and deforested regions in Central America. They cut their forests; we got their kids. It is not only Europe and America that have become the promised land for economic and climate migrants from the World of Disorder. So too has the Promised Land. In recent years, Israel has been flooded with some sixty thousand illegal immigrants, mostly from Eritrea and Sudan. Stroll the blocks around the Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv, where many have found shelter, and you’ll see African men on cell phones on every street. They sailed, walked, or drove to Israel’s borders and either slipped in on their own or were smuggled in by bedouins across Egypt’s Sinai Desert. They were attracted not by Zionism or Judaism, but just by the hope of order and work.

“Emerald City of Giving Does Exist” (New York Times article) emerging markets Emerson, Ralph Waldo empathy; live video and Empire of Wealth, An (Gordon) encryption Energryn energy, technological change and energy efficiency Enestvedt, Harold Enova Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Ericsson Eritrea ethics, innovation in; freedom and; leadership and; sustainable values and Ethiopia Ethiopians, in Minnesota Euphrates River Europe: illegal immigration into; wireless networks in European Union; Britain’s exit from evolution; human manipulation of Evolution and Human Behavior Exploratorium exponential change; see also Moore’s law export systems Express, L’ extreme weather “Eye, The” (song) Facebook Facebook Messenger Fadell, Tony Fairchild Semiconductor family planning FAO Food Price Index Fargo (film) Farook, Syed Rizwan Fast Company Faten (Syrian drought refugee) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Trade Commission Feldon, Barbara Fendrik, Ármin Ferguson, Mo.

David Time Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Tipirneni, Ashok Tocqueville, Alexis de topsoil “topsoil of trust” Torvalds, Linus Toynbee, Arnold Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) translation software Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) transparency, in workplace Transparent (TV series) Trestman, Marc tribalism Tropic of Chaos (Parenti) Truman, Harry Trump, Donald trust: community and; financial flows and; as human quality; politics and; sharing economy and; as social capital; social technologies and Trust (Fukuyama) truth, live video and Tunisia TurboTax Turki, Karim Turner, Adair 24/7 Customer Twenty-Fourth Marine Expeditionary Unit Twin Cities Business Twin Cities Metropolitan Council Twitter 2G wireless networks typewriters Uber; surge pricing algorithms of Udacity Uganda, population growth in Ukraine; 2014 uprising in unemployment, political instability and Unesco United Bearing United Nations; Human Development Report Office of; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of; Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of; Population Division of; Refugee Agency (UNHCR) of United Press International (UPI) United States: China’s relations with; global dependence on; illegal immigration into; immigrant entrepreneurs in; Madagascar and; Middle East policy of; population growth in; post–Cold War hegemony of; Russia’s relations with UPS USA Today value sets: of author; community and; cultural identity and; in opinion writing; sustainable vs. situational; see also ethics, innovation in van Agtmael, Antoine Vedantam, Shankar Venezuela Venmo Ventura, Jesse Veritas Genetics Verizon version control systems Vestberg, Hans video, live, empathy and video games Vietnam Vietnam War Visa Vital Signs of the Planet (NASA report) voice prints Volkswagen Beetle wage insurance Wakefield Research Walensky, Norm Walker, Robert Wall Street Journal Walmart, online operations of Wanamaker, John Wanstrath, Chris Warburg, Bettina Waryan, Don Washington Post Waters, Colin water scarcity Watson, Thomas Watson (computer) Watson (software): medical applications of weak signals, detection of weak states: in age of accelerations; biodiversity loss in; breakers and; building stability in; civil wars in; climate change and; in Cold War era; contrived borders of; dwindling foreign aid to; global flows and; infrastructure in; Internet and; population growth in; risk to interdependent world of We Are All Khaled Said (Facebook page) Webster University WeChat Weekend Edition (radio show) Weiner, Jeff Weisman, Alan Welby, Justin Wells, Lin Welsh, Tim West Africa; Ebola outbreak in; migration from WhatsApp “When and Why Nationalism Beats Globalism” (Haidt) White House, 2015 drone crash at White House Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) Whitman, Meg “Why ‘Keep Your Paddle in the Water’ Is Bad Advice for Beginners” (Levesque) “Why What You Learned in Preschool Is Crucial at Work” (Miller) Wieseltier, Leon Wikipedia Williams, Jake Wilson, Dan wind energy Windows Wired wireless networks wisdom, patience and Wolf, Frank women: education of; empowerment of workforce, innovation in; accelerated pace of; blending of technical and interpersonal skills in; computerization and; connectivity and; disruption in; education and; empowerment in; high-wage, middle-skilled jobs in; intelligent assistance in, see intelligent assistance; intelligent assistants and; lifelong learning and; mentors in; middle class and; new social contracts in; on-demand jobs in; retraining in; self-motivation and; self-reinvention and; skill sets and, see skill sets; technological change and; transparency and; see also job seekers World Bank World Cup (2014) World Is Flat, The (Friedman) World of Disorder World of Order World Parks Congress, Sydney “World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision” (U.N.)

pages: 900 words: 241,741

Total Recall: My Unbelievably True Life Story by Arnold Schwarzenegger, Peter Petre


Berlin Wall, California gold rush, call centre, clean water, cleantech, Donald Trump, financial independence, Golden Gate Park, illegal immigration, index card, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shale / tar sands, pension reform, risk tolerance, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Y2K

But Californians love their cars, and none of that mattered. The number of signatures being collected each week for the recall petition went through the roof. Each time Gray Davis made another mistake, I was boiling. What was he doing giving driver’s licenses to illegal immigrants? Why was he increasing fees rather than pushing back on pensions? Why had he taken campaign money from Indian tribes that owned casinos? Why were we running out of electricity? Why would he sponsor job-killing legislation that would force businesses to flee the state? I thought about what I’d do: cut taxes, end driver’s licenses for illegal immigrants, cut the vehicle license fee. Spend no more than the state is taking in. Rebuild California. Find alternatives to fossil fuels. Make the Indian gaming tribes pay their fair share of taxes. Stop the whole system of money in, favors out.

If a lawmaker felt intimidated that I really might be the Terminator—it’s funny how literally people take these movie roles—I wanted him to think of me more as the open-minded Julius in Twins. I’d promised the voters that I would deliver results fast. Within an hour of being sworn in, I canceled the tripling of the vehicle registration fee and, soon after, with the help of the legislators upstairs, got rid of the law allowing drivers’ licenses for illegal immigrants. “Now, that’s what you call action,” I told the cameras. Within two weeks of taking office, I put before the legislature the financial-rescue package on which I’d based my campaign—including a refinancing of California’s debt, a sweeping budget reform, and a reform of the workers’ compensation system that was driving employers out of the state. We were pushing for a “hard spending cap” as the anchor of my budget reform proposal.

pages: 752 words: 201,334

Like Dreamers: The Story of the Israeli Paratroopers Who Reunited Jerusalem and Divided a Nation by Yossi Klein Halevi


back-to-the-land, Boycotts of Israel, Burning Man, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, mass immigration, New Journalism, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, Transnistria, Yom Kippur War

They passed the rows of flat white stones and came to a stone from which rose a modest pillar and on which was chiseled a single word, Anatole’s Hebrew name, “Elimelech.” Though Avital had only been five years old at the time, he vividly recalled that terrible day in 1946, just before Hanukkah, when Anatole was killed. It began with a rumor. Word reached Ein Shemer that British soldiers were surrounding Kibbutz Givat Haim, searching for “illegal immigrants,” as the British referred to Holocaust survivors trying to reach the land of Israel. Jews from around the area, including forty young men from Ein Shemer, rushed toward the besieged kibbutz. In fact there were no survivors hiding there, and the British were instead searching for members of the Haganah Zionist militia who had destroyed a radar station monitoring the sea for refugee boats.

The eighty reservists of Company A included veterans of the paratroopers’ retaliation raids of the mid-1950s, like Arik’s brother-in-law Yosef Schwartz, known informally as Yoske Balagan (“Yoske the mayhem maker”), who was married to Rina’s sister. The veterans loved to tell Yoske stories, like the time he responded to cancellation of weekend leave by setting fire to a field near the base, forcing the army to send the men home. Yoske’s buddy in Company A was Aryeh Weiner, a neighbor of Arik’s from Netzer Sereni. Weiner, whose family survived the war in Romania, had come to pre-state Israel alone at age twelve on an illegal immigrant boat running the British blockade. He claimed he’d gotten his father’s agreement to leave, thanks to a card game: If I win this hand, his father had said, you have my blessings. His father won, and Weiner set off for the Holy Land. Weiner and Yoske wouldn’t let Arik forget that he wasn’t a veteran like them. Who does he think he is, they demanded, this guy who’s never experienced real combat?

Seven-year-old Yisrael would leave the hold, with its iron bunks from floor to ceiling laid so close together that survivors said it reminded them of the camps, and wander up to the deck, just to watch the kibbutznik sailors and listen to their songs. Then two British speedboats appeared. Loudspeakers demanded the surrender of the crew. In the brief battle, refugees threw iron bars at the British soldiers boarding the ship. When the British took control of the ship, Yisrael stood with the grown-ups and sang “Hatikvah,” the Zionist anthem of hope. The Hasenfratzes were sent to a detention camp on Cyprus for illegal immigrants, and eventually landed in Haifa, where they remained, collapsing into the first embrace of home. Growing up in Haifa in the early 1950s, in a two-room apartment that his family shared with another family of survivors, Yisrael dreamed of becoming a kibbutznik—the ultimate Israeli. As an Orthodox boy and a member of the Bnei Akiva youth movement, he would join one of the handful of religious kibbutzim.

pages: 797 words: 227,399

Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer


agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, digital map,, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

Of course, all realize that the drones are actually focused on stopping a different type of border crosser than al-Qaeda agents—illegal immigrants. “But the acceptability of using these systems for border surveillance has increased dramatically since terrorism became such a real, in-our-backyard threat,” says Cyndi Wegerbauer of General Atomics, which sold the Predator drone to the Border Patrol. Indeed, in the war to defend against would-be immigrants, robots have also gone to work not only for the government, but also for the private border patrols, or “militias,” as some have called themselves. One example is the “Border Hawk” drones serving with the American Border Patrol, a private organization operating in Cochise County, Arizona. Some have accused the American Border Patrol of racism. Its founder, Glenn Spencer, is certainly a controversial figure. He describes illegal immigration as “The Second Mexican-American War” and Latin America as “a cesspool of a culture” that threatens the “death of this country.”

Spencer may sound like a sad throwback to the 1950s or even 1350s, but his group’s technology is twenty-first century. They operate three drones that carry video and infrared cameras. The drones are launched by radio control and then automatically fly a patrol pattern using GPS, staying at four hundred feet, just below what the government requires for certification. While in the air, they search out any illegal immigrants crossing the border and record the images to TiVo for playback and review. The group doesn’t arrest the illegal aliens themselves, but passes on the information to the United States Border Patrol as well as loads its robots’ footage onto the Internet using a satellite connection, or, as the group describes, “broadcasting the invasion live on the internet.” Besides battling terrorists and would-be immigrants, the war at home also involves responding to disaster.

pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij


agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

Lately, the American public has begun to worry about these issues, and the immigration question is moving higher up on the national agenda. The overwhelming approval of Proposition 187 in California during the November 1994 elections reflected a rising anti-immigrant feeling—in a nation forged of immigrants. More recently, we have seen television coverage of illegal border crossings and reports on efforts to erect physical barriers to stem the tide of illegal immigration from Mexico; CNN has almost daily news reports under the rubric "broken borders." But on the question of assisting other countries in family-planning campaigns, there is no consensus in the United States. POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT Even if human population stabilizes some time in the second half of this century, and even if it then commences an overall decline, it will be too late for much of what remains today of forests and wildlife that sustain environments and link us with our past.

The Argentinian press reports that known militants' telephone traffic, fiscal transactions, and travel patterns indicate links not only to Sao Paulo and Lebanon but also to disorderly Guayaquil, one of South America's toughest cities, and to sprawling Maracaibo in Venezuela. Where, beyond these cities, the trails lead is uncertain, but consider this: the United States is flanked to the north by a dependable neighbor and to the east and west by wide oceans, but to the south it is exposed to access in various forms, from illegal immigration overland to stepping-stone entry via islands in the Caribbean. The logical route for terrorists would surely be from the south, and the staging area may very well be the Triple Frontier. In recent years the situation has become still more complicated because Venezuela has taken on the characteristics of a malfunctioning state. While the situation in neighboring Colombia, also malfunctioning and under terrorist threat, has remained a largely domestic matter.

pages: 629 words: 142,393

The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man,, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, distributed generation,, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Post-materialism, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Interested citizens can review camera feeds near a reported shot and press a button if they see something strange happening on their computer monitors. Should a citizen do so, other citizens can be asked for verification. If the answer is yes, the police can be sent. In November of 2006, the state of Texas spent $210,000 to set up eight webcams along the Mexico border as part of a pilot program to solicit the public’s help in reducing illegal immigration.44 Webcam feeds were sent to a public Web site, and people were invited to alert the police if they thought they saw suspicious activity. During the month-long trial the Web site took in just under twenty-eight million hits. No doubt many were from the curious rather than the helpful, but those wanting to volunteer came forward, too. The site registered over 220,000 users, and those users sent 13,000 e-mails to report suspicious activity.

See ShotSpotter, ShotSpotter Gunshot Location System (GLS) Overview, (last visited June 1, 2007) (providing an overview of the company’s products); Ethan Watters, Shot Spotter, WIRED MAGAZINE, Apr. 2007, at 146—52, available at (discussing the use and effectiveness of this technology); see also ShotSpotter, ShotSpotter in the News, (last visited June 1, 2007) (providing links to articles discussing the company and its products). 44. Sig Christenson, Border Webcams Rack Up Millions of Hits in a Month, SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS, Dec. 10, 2006, MYSA121106.01A.border_webcam.323e8ed.html. 45. Id. (“[S]tate officials Sunday tout[ed] it as a success beyond anyone’s dreams.”). 46. Assoc. Press, Texas Border Cam Test Catches 10 Illegal Immigrants, CHI. SUN-TIMES, Jan. 8, 2007,,CST-NWS-bord08.article (“It seems to me that $20,000 per undocumented worker is a lot of money” (quoting state Rep. Norma Chavez) [internal quotation marks omitted]); Editorial, Virtual Wall a Real Bust That Didn’t Come Cheap, SAN ANTONIO EXPRESS-NEWS, Jan. 19, 2007, at 6B (“[T]he results are in: The plan bombed.”). 47.

pages: 376 words: 121,254

Cocaine Nation: How the White Trade Took Over the World by Thomas Feiling


anti-communist, barriers to entry, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, illegal immigration, informal economy, inventory management, land reform, Lao Tzu, mandatory minimum, moral panic, offshore financial centre, RAND corporation, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, trade route, upwardly mobile, yellow journalism

Twenty-five years ago, illegal drugs were usually first or second and certainly never lower than fourth in polls of public concerns in the United States. Now the drugs issue trails many others. The country’s political agenda is dominated by the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the measures introduced to manage the recession. The only other domestic issues likely to intrude are healthcare reform and illegal immigration. Scare stories about drugs have passed their sell-by dates. In New York City, the crack scare that so gripped the press in the 1980s came to a swift end once the police had been granted the resources to take back the city’s streets. That done, coverage of drug use and drug markets became onerous and unhelpful. After then Mayor Rudy Giuliani adopted a policy of withholding information about drug-related homicides and counter-drugs operations from the press, drug stories fell off the front pages.

The strongest nation in the world now sees itself as besieged by forces beyond its control.’12 In this intoxicating atmosphere of all-pervading fear, it becomes all the more difficult to persuade Americans that the legalization of drugs would supply more, not less, peace and order. However dramatic the failure to prohibit the use of certain drugs, the lack of a sober appraisal ensures that prohibition is unlikely to be repealed on the grounds of health, ethics or human rights. As countering terrorism, preventing illegal immigration and staving off economic decline come to dominate the political agenda, all three are going to demand greater resources and manpower. The war on drugs will most likely be abandoned for financial reasons, as the United States government is forced to accept that it doesn’t have the resources to prosecute this war to its logical conclusion. It is just a week since the election of Barack Obama to the White House.

pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

Failure to comply with an expulsion order could result in imprisonment.55 By 1936, the foreign population of France had declined by over half a million from its peak.56 The economic crisis in Germany was more long-lasting and had been associated with an even sharper restriction on foreign workers. After World War I, relatively few foreigners worked in Germany, with numbers declining to about 100,000 in 1932 after reaching about a million in 1907.57 Foreign laborers were highly regulated through “strict state control of labour recruitment, employment preference for nationals, sanctions against employers of illegal immigrants and unrestricted police power to deport unwanted foreigners.”58 The Weimar Ordinance on Foreign Workers, which centralized a restrictive admission and control policy, was later implemented by the Nazi regime. With the appointment of Adolf Hitler as German Chancellor in 1933, the ideal of racial purity initially precluded the use of foreign labor. Economic interest quickly overrode ideology, however.

Many others try to enter without authorization. The hiring regulations around high-skilled jobs are more consistently enforced than those around low-skilled workers, so undocumented migrants may work undetected for years. Working outside of the law exposes them to exploitation and abuse. The regulation/enforcement gap in low-skilled sectors represents a political compromise for governments that face pressure to be “tough on illegal immigration,” when key sectors of the economy depend heavily on the low-skilled labor that they provide. Undocumented migration is quietly tolerated because such migrants are feeding critical demands in the workforce. The current situation will be increasingly untenable in the coming decades. Developed countries cannot continue to meet the growing gaps in their workforces through growth in undocumented migration.

pages: 374 words: 114,660

The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality by Angus Deaton


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, Columbian Exchange, creative destruction, declining real wages, Downton Abbey, end world poverty, financial innovation, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, John Snow's cholera map, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, new economy, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, structural adjustment programs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trade route, very high income, War on Poverty

Family incomes have kept up only because more women have been participating in the labor force, so that more families now have more than one earner. What then has been keeping wages down? Globalization is a part of the story; the manufacture of many goods that used to be made in the United States by low-skilled workers has moved to poorer countries, and many companies have sent offshore jobs that used to be done domestically, including “back-office” work (like claims processing) and customer call centers. Legal and illegal immigration has also been blamed for downward pressure on low-skill wages, though such claims remain controversial, and some credible studies show that the effect is small. The rising cost of medical care has also been important; most employees receive health insurance as part of their overall compensation, and most research shows that increases in premiums ultimately come out of wages.16 Indeed, average wages have tended to do badly when health-care costs are rising most rapidly and to do better when health-care costs are rising more slowly.17 The share of GDP going to health care, only 5 percent in 1960, was 8 percent in the mid-1970s but had risen to nearly 18 percent by 2009.

The fraction of private-sector workers who were union members declined from 24 percent in 1973 to only 6.6 percent in 2012. Although the unionization of public-sector workers increased in the 1970s, it has been stagnant since 1979; the majority of union members are now in the public sector. The declining political clout of unions is made worse by the fact that there are other groups that can’t vote at all. Illegal immigrants obviously do not vote, but neither do legal immigrants who are not citizens. Between 1972 and 2002, the ratio of noncitizens to the voting-age population rose fourfold at the same time as they became poorer relative to the general population. As immigration policies changed, legal immigrants moved from being relatively well heeled to being relatively poor; their political voice was quieted even as the political power of unions declined.

pages: 372 words: 111,573

10% Human: How Your Body's Microbes Hold the Key to Health and Happiness by Alanna Collen


Asperger Syndrome, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, biofilm, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, David Strachan, discovery of penicillin, Drosophila, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, Maui Hawaii, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, placebo effect, the scientific method

But when the microbiota gets out of balance, it acts a bit like a mild version of V. cholerae, irritating the immune system. In response, the immune system tries to defend itself by releasing zonulin to loosen the chains, uncouple the cells of the intestinal walls and flush out the system. The gut lining is no longer an impenetrable wall, keeping out everything but tiny food molecules. Instead, it has grown leaky. Through the gaps between the cells seep all sorts of illegal immigrants, making their way to the promised land of the body. Now, this takes us into controversial territory. The concept of a leaky gut is a favourite of the alternative health industry, which can be as rapacious and truth-distorting as its more mainstream sibling, Big Pharma. Claims that ‘leaky gut syndrome’ is the root of all illness, and many other evils beside, are as old as the industry itself.

But the concept may need a rethink, and a rebrand, in the face of the scepticism it currently incurs. Good-quality scientific work into its importance in the genesis of a number of conditions is currently overshadowed by its sullied past. Obesity, allergies, autoimmune diseases and mental health conditions all show significant rises in the permeability of the intestines, with chronic inflammation ensuing. This inflammation comes in the form of an overactive immune system, reacting to the illegal immigrants crossing the gut’s border into the body: from food molecules such as gluten and lactose to bacterial products such as LPS. Sometimes the body’s own cells get caught in the cross-fire, resulting in autoimmune diseases. A balanced and healthy microbiota seems to act as a gatekeeping force reinforcing the integrity of the gut and protecting the sanctity of the body. Not only are allergens and the body’s own cells in the firing line, but also certain members of the microbiota, as appears to be the case with the most ubiquitous of diseases of civilisation: acne.

pages: 476 words: 144,288

1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen


anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, land reform, long peace, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip

They were essentially similar to the conclusions he had reached six months earlier – that 100,000 new immigrants should go to Palestine and that an autonomous, but not entirely independent, Jewish state should now be established. The Arabs vehemently opposed the plan from the start; the Jews broadly accepted it as a basis for negotiation. But a week later Attlee rejected the proposals out of hand, and warned that Britain would take firm action against the ‘illegal’ immigration routes Zionists had established to smuggle Jews from the camps in Germany to Palestine. Jewish guerrilla groups pledged to renew fighting to force the British to leave and grant them their homeland – Israel. It was this that escalated a small-scale series of skirmishes into a widespread war on terrorism – and underlined how painful Britain would find it to retreat from empire.10 * The 475,000 Jews already settled in Palestine, the Yishuv, had mixed feelings about the ‘surviving remnant’ of European Jewry in refugee camps.

We consider Jewish immigration into Palestine should be permitted without the present inhibitions . . . this is not a matter for which the British alone should take responsibility . . . it is indispensable that there should be close agreement and co-operation among the British, American and Soviet governments. Steps should be taken in consultation with these two governments to see whether we cannot get that common support for a policy which will give us a happy, free and prosperous Jewish state in Palestine. Elsewhere, Dalton made it clear to Labour colleagues that it was ‘inherent in our . . . [policy] that there should henceforth be no such thing as a Jewish illegal immigrant.’26 But once in office the Labour leadership changed its mind. The blame for Britain’s failure in Palestine has principally been laid on Ernest Bevin, the Foreign Secretary. In 1946, Bevin was sixty-five, a huge bear of a man and one of the great figures in Labour history – ‘a colossus in more ways than one’, Attlee called him. As the founder of the Transport and General Workers’ Union, he was the most powerful trade union leader there has ever been in Britain.

pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna


1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

-Canada border that stretches from the Arctic to the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean is the world’s longest at almost nine thousand kilometers, but 300,000 people and over $1 billion in daily trade traverse the almost twenty major border crossings. There are many places where borders are stiffening: Israel’s security barrier, the fifteen-kilometer Évros River fence in Greece, and the two-hundred-kilometer Bulgarian barbed-wire fence aimed at curbing illegal immigrants, among others.*4 And yet all of these borders—and even more unfriendly ones—remain porous. And indeed, almost all such fences are terribly costly and ineffective responses to problems that borders cannot solve. If borders are meant to separate territories and societies, then why are ever more populations clustering along them? It is a particular irony that our maps show mostly political borders rather than border demographics and economics, which are the embodiment of the anti-border nature of many border regions.

Trade in North America is dominated by two dozen pairs of interdependent cities—such as New York and Toronto, San Jose and Mexico City, Seattle and Montreal—that together power major industries from cars and planes to electronics and pharmaceuticals.*10 Even proximate cities with violent histories have swapped suspicion for collaboration. San Diego and Tijuana now view the border between them as a hindrance costing $2 billion in lost revenues. Their new mantra is “Dos ciudades, pero una región.” San Diego’s mayor has a satellite office in Tijuana and envisions a bridge linking their airports and a joint Olympic bid for 2024. Crime, illegal immigration, and narco-trafficking have fallen drastically there not because of a more rigid border but because of more investment and job creation across the border. As pipelines, water canals, freight rail corridors, electricity grids, and other infrastructures link hundreds of key economic hubs across the continent’s borders, America should come to think of itself as the heart of an integrated North American supercontinent.

pages: 387 words: 120,155

Inside the Nudge Unit: How Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference by David Halpern


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, collaborative consumption, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, libertarian paternalism, light touch regulation, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nudge unit, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, presumed consent, QR code, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, the built environment, theory of mind, traffic fines, World Values Survey

But despite a number of conversations with political advisers and senior officials in the relevant department, we made little progress for several years, even with the support of the PM. It probably didn’t help that the political advisers in that department weren’t big fans of Steve Hilton, and perhaps coincidentally the department did eventually warm to the approach after he left, at least around some issues. Other ideas that fell on political grounds in 2010–15 included those around illegal immigration (to break the implicit collusion between rogue employers and illegal employees); healthcare (such as clarifying the wishes of patients approaching end of life); social inequality (encouraging people to bequeath benefits to later generations); and changes to incentives to encourage employers to take on the long-term unemployed (in effect, offering a money-back guarantee to take on a young, unemployed person).

Critics might argue that the increase in confidence would have happened anyway, or be entirely due to other factors. Many such issues continue to pass through government in-trays and Ministerial boxes. Some are driven from inside government itself, and many by public demand. Is there more that can be done about the cost of living, to promote social mobility, or address mental health? What to do about new forms of crime, such as cyber-theft or bullying, illegal immigration, or obesity? Should we introduce taxes on unhealthy foods? Should we legalise certain drugs? Many of these issues are choices for society, as markets, technology and preferences evolve, with strong business and special interest views arrayed around them. The key challenge for behavioural scientists is whether our approaches can identify solutions to these challenges that traditional analysis may have missed.

pages: 537 words: 135,099

The Rough Guide to Amsterdam by Martin Dunford, Phil Lee, Karoline Thomas


banking crisis, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, spice trade, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, young professional

The difficulties this created for the police were legion, so finally, in 1996, a special soliciting zone was established and a couple of years later brothels were legalized in the hope that together these changes would bring a degree of stability to the sex industry. The authorities were particularly keen to get a grip on the use of illegal immigrants as prostitutes and also to alleviate the problem of numbers. This legislation is partly the result of a long and determined campaign by the prostitutes’ trade union, De Rode Draad (“The Red Thread”), which has improved the lot of its members by setting up new health insurance and pension schemes – and generally fighting for regular employment rights for prostitutes. Whether this has happened or not is debatable: the number of “window brothels” is limited, so a significant group of women ply their trade illicitly in bars and hotels. There are still lots of illegal immigrants in the Red Light District, and lots of pimps too. The windows, which are rented out for upwards of €100 a day, are less easy to control than registered brothels, and at least half of the District’s prostitutes hand over some of their earnings to a pimp, who will usually be Dutch and often an ex-boyfriend.

America Right or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism by Anatol Lieven

British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, income inequality, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, moral panic, new economy, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, World Values Survey, Y2K

Thus in stages beginning in the 1940s, the U.S. military has deliberately turned itself into the most genuinely multiracial of all U.S. institutions, one where Blacks and others can advance to the highest ranks without having accusations of unfair preference thrown at them.100 Starting with President Harry Truman's decision to desegregate the military in 1948, this development was encouraged by all other presidents, with the conscious intention of strengthening America's civilizational appeal to "colored" peoples tempted by communism.101 For the military, this shift has increasingly become a matter of necessity as well as ideology. After the military abandoned conscription in the wake of Vietnam, it 44 AN EXCEPTIONAL NATIONALISM? became highly dependent on low-income groups for its recruits—among whom the racial minorities are overrepresented. More recently, military service has even become a way for American immigrants (including illegal immigrants) to gain early citizenship—a practice which recalls late imperial Rome. The military also remains deeply mindful of the bitter racial tensions which split the troops in Vietnam, when (thanks to class bias in the conscription system) an army containing a very high proportion of Blacks was commanded by an officer corps which was overwhelmingly White. During the attempt in 2003 to get the Supreme Court to rule against racial preference in higher education, a key part in getting this move rejected was played by friend of the court briefs filed by senior retired military officers, who argued that the well-being of the armed forces requires a large pool of Black university graduates to provide officer material.

Median family income rose by 40 percent in the 1950s and 1960s, but in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s by only some 7 percent, despite the fact that a vastly greater number of women entered full employment over the latter period. Meanwhile income inequality increased considerably. In 1969 the richest 5 percent of families earned 15.6 percent of all income. In 1996, the figure was 20.3 percent.2 Ruthless competition, the lack of state regulation and a minimum wage, the increase in temporary and informal employment, the use of unregistered illegal immigrants and the decline of the trade unions have meant that many jobs which once kept people in the middle classes now barely maintain them at subsistence level. This process was symbolized in 2003 by moves on the part of supermarket chains to freeze salaries and slash benefits.3 The effect of wage cuts and of job insecurity and frequent changes of low-paying jobs is not only to impoverish many working Americans and corrode their family lives; it is also deeply to undermine their personal dignity, their image of themselves as members of the respectable middle classes.4 This combination of factors has undermined the "moral economy" which prevailed for most of American history, whereby a man who worked hard, was honest and did not drink or take drugs could be assured of a steadily rising income, enough to support himself and his wife in their old age and to give his children a head start in social advancement through education.5 Just as in the past America, unlike other countries, was spared the threat of attack on its homeland and civilian population, so most of the nation (except the South) was also spared for most of its history from the economic disasters inflicted by wars, revolutions and externally driven economic transformations that afflicted so many other countries.

The Blockchain Alternative: Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy and Economic Theory by Kariappa Bheemaiah

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, bank run, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, cellular automata, central bank independence, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, constrained optimization, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, deskilling, Diane Coyle, discrete time, distributed ledger, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, interest rate derivative, inventory management, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, large denomination, liquidity trap, London Whale, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, precariat, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, QR code, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Real Time Gross Settlement, rent control, rent-seeking, Satoshi Nakamoto, Satyajit Das, savings glut, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, supply-chain management, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Von Neumann architecture, Washington Consensus

The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) acts as the central identity provider, controlling who has access to the data that they collect and store. To receive a card, individuals submit various documents to a local registrar. If they are unable to provide documentation, an “introducer,” such as an elected representative or a local teacher or doctor, can vouch for the person’s identity. This parallel process decreases the chance of UIDAI storing inaccurate information or providing social services to illegal immigrants or other illicit actors. The UIDAI has a database that holds information such as name, date of birth, and biometrics data that may include a photograph, fingerprint, iris scan, or other information. The Aadhaar program has been very effective in increasing financial inclusion with over one billion people enrolled for accounts; however, there are still some outstanding concerns about information protection and privacy.

A 2014 study done across seven countries (Canada, Australia, Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States) by the Federal Reserve of Boston showed that cash is by the most common means of payment vehicle for small size/low-value transactions ($5, $10), but for larger payments it is increasingly insignificant. However, the same cannot be said for the underground economy. The underground economy includes not only illegal activities such as terrorism, drug trade, bribery, human trafficking, and money laundering, but also tax evasion via cash payments and employment of illegal immigrants. Some crimes are more serious than others, but irrespective of the type of crime being committed, it is the size of the underground economy and especially the impact of tax evasion that are truly noteworthy. Studies done by the US Internal Revenue Service (IRS), show that business owners and corporations report less than their income to evade taxes. As of 2015, one study found that this led to a tax gap (difference between taxes paid and taxes due) of $500 billion in federal taxes in 2015 alone (Rogoff, 2016).

pages: 433 words: 129,636

Dreamland: The True Tale of America's Opiate Epidemic by Sam Quinones

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, British Empire, call centre, centralized clearinghouse, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, feminist movement, illegal immigration, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, obamacare, zero-sum game

One question they addressed concerned the risk of addiction to pain patients when treated with narcotics. “The correct answer was ‘less than one percent,’” Meier wrote. The Man and the Nayarit Northern Nevada By the early 1990s, the Man was doing time at the Northern Nevada Correctional Center, a medium-security prison in Carson City. White inmates ran the yard; blacks were also a force. But the prison’s Mexican population was small and vulnerable. They were mostly illegal immigrants and first-time inmates, wary and quiet, and spoke no English. The Man, bilingual all his life, became their spokesman. Blacks and whites had their own large gardens, watered by underground pipes, where they could grow vegetables, melons, and other food. Mexicans had nothing. He lobbied for a plot where Mexicans could grow their food. Prison officials gave them a piece of land, but it had no water.

“It was an extremely high percentage of sales reps in various states who were making these allegations. This was done in all fifty states. That’s when you rise to corporate culpability.” By the fall of 2006, John Brownlee was prepared to file a case of criminal misbranding against Purdue Pharma, the maker of OxyContin. “Took Over the OxyContin Belt” Columbus, Ohio Forget you have children. This advice was given to Mario, an illegal immigrant, by his new boss from Xalisco, Nayarit. Mario was preparing for what turned out to be a short career as a dispatcher for a black tar heroin cell in Columbus, Ohio, a few years after the Man brought the drug there. “Forget that people may do to your kids what you’re doing to the children of others,” his new boss told him in a restaurant one day. “Otherwise you won’t sleep. “And,” he added, “don’t let the clients die.

pages: 539 words: 139,378

The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion by Jonathan Haidt

4chan, affirmative action, Black Swan, cognitive bias, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, invisible hand, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Necker cube, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, social web, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, ultimatum game

On the left, concerns about equality and social justice are based in part on the Fairness foundation—wealthy and powerful groups are accused of gaining by exploiting those at the bottom while not paying their “fair share” of the tax burden. This is a major theme of the Occupy Wall Street movement, which I visited in October 2011 (see figure 7.5).17 On the right, the Tea Party movement is also very concerned about fairness. They see Democrats as “socialists” who take money from hardworking Americans and give it to lazy people (including those who receive welfare or unemployment benefits) and to illegal immigrants (in the form of free health care and education).18 FIGURE 7.5. Fairness left and right. Top: Sign at Occupy Wall Street, Zuccotti Park, New York City. Bottom: Sign at Tea Party rally, Washington, DC (photo by Emily Ekins). Everyone believes that taxes should be “fair.” (photo credit 7.2) Everyone cares about fairness, but there are two major kinds. On the left, fairness often implies equality, but on the right it means proportionality—people should be rewarded in proportion to what they contribute, even if that guarantees unequal outcomes. 3.

By the time they reach high school and begin to take an interest in politics, the two siblings have chosen different activities (the sister joins the debate team in part for the opportunity to travel; the brother gets more involved with his family’s church) and amassed different friends (the sister joins the goths; the brother joins the jocks). The sister chooses to go to college in New York City, where she majors in Latin American studies and finds her calling as an advocate for the children of illegal immigrants. Because her social circle is entirely composed of liberals, she is enmeshed in a moral matrix based primarily on the Care/harm foundation. In 2008, she is electrified by Barack Obama’s concern for the poor and his promise of change. The brother, in contrast, has no interest in moving far away to a big, dirty, and threatening city. He chooses to stay close to family and friends by attending the local branch of the state university.

pages: 251 words: 63,630

The End of Cheap China: Economic and Cultural Trends That Will Disrupt the World by Shaun Rein


business climate, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, glass ceiling, high net worth, illegal immigration, income per capita, indoor plumbing, job-hopping, Maui Hawaii, price stability, quantitative easing, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trade route, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional, zero-sum game

Few Americans are willing to work for low wages in factories, as their forefathers did in the textile and footwear mills of New England. Even at the height of the financial crisis with 24 million Americans unemployed, with Occupy Wall Street protests erupting across America, thousands of farm jobs in America have gone unfilled, because so many Americans don’t want to work in those conditions. However, the Obama administration has deported a record high of nearly one million illegal immigrants—the very people who were willing to take those jobs. Aside from plentiful jobs causing Chinese wages to rise, there are simply fewer workers, because the one-child policy implemented in 1978 has resulted in an aging population today. The magazine Science found that 22.9 percent of the Chinese population was under the age of 14 in 2000. That number dropped to only 16.6 percent in 2010. Unless the government eases population control laws soon, or allows workers from neighboring countries like Myanmar and Vietnam to work in China, it is doubtful that the labor pool will grow anytime soon.

pages: 147 words: 45,890

Aftershock: The Next Economy and America's Future by Robert B. Reich


Berlin Wall, declining real wages, delayed gratification, Doha Development Round, endowment effect, full employment, George Akerlof, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, job automation, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, mortgage debt, new economy, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, sovereign wealth fund, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, World Values Survey

The newly formed Independence Party pulls enough votes away from both the Republican and Democratic candidates to give its own candidate, Margaret Jones, a plurality of votes, an electoral college victory, and the presidency. A significant number of Independence Party members have also taken seats away from Democrats and Republicans in Congress. The platform of the Independence Party, as well as its message, is clear and uncompromising: zero tolerance of illegal immigrants; a freeze on legal immigration from Latin America, Africa, and Asia; increased tariffs on all imports; a ban on American companies moving their operations to another country or outsourcing abroad; a prohibition on foreign “sovereign wealth funds” investing in the United States. America will withdraw from the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund; end all “involvements” in foreign countries; refuse to pay any more interest on our debt to China, essentially defaulting on it; and stop trading with China unless China freely floats its currency.

Is Everyone Hanging Out Without Me? (And Other Concerns) by Mindy Kaling


Berlin Wall, Burning Man, Donner party, East Village, illegal immigration, index card, medical residency, pre–internet, rent control, Saturday Night Live, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory

The Girl with No Tattoo When Your Boyfriend Fits into Your Jeans and Other Atrocities The Book That Was Never a Blog Always Wear Flats and Have Your Friends Sleep Over: A Step-by-Step How-To Guide for Avoiding Getting Murdered Harry Potter Secret Book #8 Sometimes You Just Have to Put on Lip Gloss and Pretend to Be Psyched I Want Dirk Nowitzki to Host Saturday Night Live So Much That I’m Making It the Title of My Book Barf Me to Death and Other Things I’ve Been Known to Say The Last Mango in Paris (this would work best if “Mango” were the cheeky nickname for an Indian woman, and if I’d spent any time in Paris) So You’ve Just Finished Chelsea Handler’s Book, Now What? Deep-Dish Pizza in Kabul (a touching novel about a brave girl enjoying Chicago-style pizza in secret Taliban-ruled Afghanistan) There Has Ceased to Be a Difference Between My Awake Clothes and My Asleep Clothes I Don’t Know How She Does It, But I Suspect She Gets Help from Illegal Immigrants I Forget Nothing: A Sensitive Kid Looks Back Chubby for Life I DON’T REMEMBER a time when I wasn’t chubby. Like being Indian, being chubby feels like it is just part of my permanent deal. I remember being in first grade, in Mrs. Gilmore’s class at Fiske Elementary School, and seeing that Ashley Kemp, the most popular girl in our class, weighed only thirty-seven pounds. We knew this because we weighed her on the industrial postal scale they kept in the teacher’s supply closet.

Payback: Debt and the Shadow Side of Wealth by Margaret Atwood


carbon footprint, delayed gratification, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, financial independence, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Plutocrats, plutocrats, trickle-down economics, wage slave

He could also — if he was really desperate — sell himself into debt slavery, in which case he’d most likely stay a slave because no one would come forward to redeem him. Debt slavery is by no means a thing of the distant past. Consider present-day India, where a man may be a virtual debt slave all his life — many get into this position through having to provide dowries. Think, too, of the smuggling of illegal immigrants from Asia into North America, where the person smuggled is told he has to work without wages forever in order to pay off the cost of his travel experience. In the nineteenth century, in the mining villages of northern Europe, the company store supplied the place of the slave owner: the miners had to buy their food and the necessities of life from the store, where these things cost more than the miners could ever earn.

pages: 190 words: 61,970

Life You Can Save: Acting Now to End World Poverty by Peter Singer


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Branko Milanovic, Cass Sunstein, clean water, end world poverty, experimental economics, illegal immigration, Martin Wolf, microcredit, Peter Singer: altruism, pre–internet, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, Thomas Malthus, ultimatum game, union organizing

There are many ways in which it is clear, however, that the rich have harmed the poor. Ale Nodye knows about one of them. He grew up in a village by the sea, in Senegal, in West Africa. His father and grandfather were fishermen, and he tried to be one too. But after six years in which he barely caught enough fish to pay for the fuel for his boat, he set out by canoe for the Canary Islands, from where he hoped to become another of Europe’s many illegal immigrants. Instead, he was arrested and deported. But he says he will try again, even though the voyage is dangerous and one of his cousins died on a similar trip. He has no choice, he says, because “there are no fish in the sea here anymore.” A European Commission report shows that Nodye is right: The fish stocks from which Nodye’s father and grandfather took their catch and fed their families have been destroyed by industrial fishing fleets that come from Europe, China, and Russia and sell their fish to well-fed Europeans who can afford to pay high prices.

pages: 230 words: 62,294

The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry From Crop to the Last Drop by Gregory Dicum, Nina Luttinger


California gold rush, clean water, corporate social responsibility, cuban missile crisis, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, European colonialism, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, open economy, price stability, Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place

The Coffee Crisis signaled not just a particularly bad swing in the long-standing coffee cycle, but a new structure for the global coffee trade, one in which life on the farm had reverted to a form that was palpably reminiscent of coffee’s days of overt slavery on colonial plantations. It’s not surprising that the desperation unleashed by the crisis eventually made it back to consuming nations: in one well-known 2001 case, six of the fourteen illegal immigrants to the United States who died of exposure in the Arizona desert were found to be destitute small-scale coffee producers from Veracruz trying for a better life in a land where their coffee sells for twenty times what they could earn for it back home. Worldwide, the financial impact of the crisis was equivalent to the United States, the world’s biggest development donor, halving its aid budget.

pages: 230 words: 60,050

In the Flow by Boris Groys


illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, WikiLeaks

Rather, they want to change these conditions by means of art – not so much inside the art system as outside it, that is, change the conditions of reality itself. Art activists try to change living conditions in economically underdeveloped areas, raise ecological concerns, offer access to culture and education to the populations of poor countries and areas, attract attention to the plight of illegal immigrants, improve conditions for people working in art institutions. In other words, art activists react to the increasing collapse of the modern social state and try to substitute for social institutions and NGOs that for different reasons cannot or will not fulfil their role. Art activists want to be useful, to change the world, to make the world a better place – but at the same time, they do not want to cease to be artists.

Rethinking Islamism: The Ideology of the New Terror by Meghnad Desai


Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, illegal immigration, income per capita, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, means of production, oil shock, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yom Kippur War

.฀ The฀ form฀ that฀ most฀ concerns฀ us฀is฀Global฀Islamism. Global฀ Islamism฀ has฀ arrived฀ at฀ a฀ time฀ when฀ other฀ forces฀ have฀ been฀at฀work฀globalising฀the฀world.฀Internet฀and฀mobile฀telephony฀ made฀ possible฀ by฀ satellite฀ technology,฀ rapid฀ deregulation฀ and฀ liberalising฀ of฀ international฀ capital฀ movements฀ and฀ progressive฀ dismantling฀of฀tariff฀barriers,฀vast฀movements฀of฀legal฀and฀illegal฀ immigrants฀and฀the฀growing฀evil฀of฀human฀trafficking,฀clandestine฀ trade฀in฀drugs฀and฀money-laundering,฀the฀cheapening฀of฀lethal฀arms฀ and฀the฀ease฀with฀which฀they฀are฀traded฀across฀borders฀–฀all฀have฀  made฀the฀world฀of฀the฀last฀ten฀or฀fifteen฀years฀very฀different฀from฀ the฀ previous฀ thirty฀ years.฀ Global฀ Islamism฀ and฀ the฀ terror฀ it฀ has฀ fostered,฀along฀with฀drugs฀and฀arms฀and฀human฀trafficking,฀inhabit฀ the฀dark฀side฀of฀globalisation.฀ It฀is฀necessary฀to฀understand฀the฀true฀nature฀of฀Global฀Islamism฀ if฀we฀are฀to฀defeat฀it,฀since฀otherwise฀its฀lethal฀effects฀will฀spread฀ and฀accelerate.

pages: 257 words: 72,251

Nothing to Hide: The False Tradeoff Between Privacy and Security by Daniel J. Solove


Albert Einstein, cloud computing, Columbine, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, invention of the telephone, Marshall McLuhan, national security letter, security theater, the medium is the message, traffic fines, urban planning

See, e.g., Sheryl Gay Stolberg, Transcripts Detail Secret Questioning in 50’s by McCarthy, N.Y. Times, May 6, 2003, at A1. 19. David Cole, Enemy Aliens, 54 Stan. L. Rev. 953, 960–61 (2002). 20. Stephen Graham, U.S. Frees 80 Afghan Detainees, Phila. Inquirer, Jan. 17, 2005, at A12. 21. Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 524 U.S. 507, 535 (2004). 22. See, e.g., Eric Lichtblau, U.S. Report Faults the Roundup of Illegal Immigrants after 9/11, N.Y. Times, June 3, 2003, at A1. 23. Jerry Markon, U.S. to Free Hamdi, Send Him Home, Wash. Post, Sept. 23, 2004, at A1. 24. Posner, Pragmatism, supra, at 304. 25. See Ellen Schrecker, The Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History with Documents 76–86 (1994); see also Seth F. Kreimer, Sunlight, Secrets, and Scarlet Letters: The Tension between Privacy and Disclosure in Constitutional Law, 140 U.

pages: 265 words: 74,000

The Numerati by Stephen Baker


Berlin Wall, Black Swan, business process, call centre, correlation does not imply causation, Drosophila, full employment, illegal immigration, index card, Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, McMansion, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, PageRank, personalized medicine, recommendation engine, RFID, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

But for a politician in these early days of microtargeting, reaching 7,500 voters with a targeted message is cause for celebration, even if the message spills over to another 2,500. That's a far higher hit ratio than broadcast TV can achieve. To reach my community in North Jersey with a political ad, for example, candidates often have to buy airtime on expensive New York stations. This means that their message spills to millions in New York and neighboring Connecticut who can never vote for them. They're also paying to reach loads of children, illegal immigrants, and the significant crowd of eligible voters who don't bother going to the polls. For campaigns accustomed to such staggering degrees of waste, reaching a targeted voter on three out of four tries sounds almost too good to be true. Looking at it the other way, one quarter of us—43.75 million American voters—are pegged to the wrong tribe. Gotbaum says that the errors put voters into a neighboring group.

pages: 192 words: 72,822

Freedom Without Borders by Hoyt L. Barber


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, diversification, El Camino Real, estate planning, fiat currency, financial independence, fixed income, high net worth, illegal immigration, interest rate swap, money market fund, obamacare, offshore financial centre, passive income, quantitative easing, reserve currency, road to serfdom, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), too big to fail

Politicians like using cashbasis accounting when talking about the deficit, which reflects only this year’s obligations, rather than accrual accounting, which would disclose the total sum owed by the government, including all monies due to holders of notes, bonds, and bills from the past, as well as our current liabilities and all future commitments. This would include Social Security, representing 40 Freedom Without Borders $63 trillion of the total, and which pays out retiree pensions, and health care benefits to Medicare recipients. These facts are part of why the total figure sounds so high, but imagine what the deficit will look like after Obamacare kicks in? Further, illegal immigrants also contribute to the rising deficit. Should this deficit double again in four years, as it did in the previous four, we’ll be looking at $260 trillion in national debt. What comes after trillion? Europe is in bad shape, as well, with the sovereign debt problems of at least a half a dozen countries threatening the entire European Union, including Europe’s ability to keep it together. Just like the U.S. dollar, the euro is in trouble, too, and generally on the same downhill course, with the possibility for collapse.

pages: 373 words: 80,248

Empire of Illusion: The End of Literacy and the Triumph of Spectacle by Chris Hedges


Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Cal Newport, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, haute couture, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, statistical model, uranium enrichment

This betrayal was accompanied with a slick advertising campaign that promoted the laws, used to destroy the working class, as the salvation of the American worker. The North American Free Trade Agreement was peddled by the Clinton White House as an opportunity to raise the incomes and prosperity of the citizens of the United States, Canada, and Mexico. NAFTA would also, we were told, stanch Mexican immigration into the United States. “There will be less illegal immigration because more Mexicans will be able to support their children by staying home,” President Clinton said in the spring of 1993 as he was lobbying for the bill. But NAFTA, which took effect in 1994, had the effect of reversing every one of Clinton’s rosy predictions. Once the Mexican government lifted price supports on corn and beans grown by Mexican farmers, those farmers had to compete against the huge agribusinesses in the United States.

pages: 283 words: 73,093

Social Democratic America by Lane Kenworthy


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, basic income, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, David Brooks, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Kenneth Arrow, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, market bubble, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, school choice, shareholder value, sharing economy, Skype, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, universal basic income, War on Poverty, working poor, zero day

Does this account for the slow growth of family income relative to the economy? No, it does not. The trend in income among families with a head aged 25 to 54, in the prime of the work career, is very similar to that for all families.59 5. There are more immigrants. Immigration into the United States began to increase in the late 1960s. The foreign-born share of the American population, including both legal and illegal immigrants, rose from 5 percent in 1970 to 13 percent in 2007.60 Many immigrants arrive with limited labor market skills and little or no English, so their incomes tend to be low. For many such immigrants, a low income in the United States is a substantial improvement over what their income would be in their home country. So if this accounts for the divorce between economic growth and median income growth over the past generation, it should allay concern.

pages: 233 words: 64,479

The Big Shift: Navigating the New Stage Beyond Midlife by Marc Freedman


airport security, Berlin Wall, David Brooks, follow your passion, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, McMansion, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, transcontinental railway, working poor, working-age population

That initial engagement led to fuller appreciation of the fundamental problems facing her community—and to creating an organization that today is helping thousands of poor and moderate-income people in Cleveland and other parts of Ohio to fight predatory lenders and stay in their homes. Catalino Tapia, a winner in 2008, was a gardener just south of San Francisco, a few miles from where the Samaritan House clinic is housed. He came to the country as an illegal immigrant with six dollars in his pocket, eventually building a small gardening business. Tapia and his wife managed to put their son through UCLA and then law school at Berkeley. At his son’s law school graduation, Tapia was so moved by what had been accomplished that he determined to help other parents from similar backgrounds have the same experience. To do so he created a scholarship fund focused on Latino youth, the Bay Area Gardener’s Foundation.

pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino


3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, lifelogging, market design, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, too big to fail, US Airways Flight 1549, web application, zero-sum game

He learned on the job, a clear reminder that fragmented informal education is becoming a powerhouse for generating high-calibre people. Once Raul had completed building the life-size car we shipped him and it to Australia to meet its makers, the patrons who supported him and made it possible. Getting a visa for Raul to enter Australia was no easy task. Romania is regarded as a high-risk country for illegal immigrants. Our first couple of applications were rejected by immigration because of his unique status of not being a student and not technically being in paid employment. It wasn’t until we applied for special consideration that we were able to get a work visa. This serves as yet another example that the formality of the industrial governmental structures does not serve well a world of pan-global startup projects and border hopping.

pages: 232 words: 77,956

Private Island: Why Britain Now Belongs to Someone Else by James Meek


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, business continuity plan, call centre, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, HESCO bastion, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, Mikhail Gorbachev, post-industrial society, pre–internet, price mechanism, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Washington Consensus, working poor

All businesses above a certain size will be obliged to start offering their employees health cover. Supporters of the law believe it will more than pay for itself; its increased costs will be offset by thinning out the armies of walking wounded who throng hospital emergency rooms, and by spreading risk more widely. But as many as thirty million people will still be left without medical cover – low-paid people in the pro-inequality states, illegal immigrants and people who gamble that they won’t need a doctor and prefer to pay a tax penalty rather than a premium. And even if you are insured in America, and have access to some of the world’s finest medical facilities, just paying the premium each month doesn’t make healthcare free at the point of delivery. Two standard features of US health insurance, before the ACA and under it, are the ‘copay’, a fee for consultations or drugs, and the ‘deductible’, an amount the patient is expected to pay before the insurance kicks in, like the excess on car insurance.

Kill Your Friends by John Niven


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Etonian, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, nuclear winter, sensible shoes, Stephen Hawking

I mean, you’re unlikely to come in from work of a Friday evening and—during the course of a quiet weekend with your girlfriend—spend nearly two grand on coke, crack, booze, Viagra and hookers. I don’t imagine that’s how it goes, is it? Your girlfriend is unlikely to suggest the kind of evening out that will terminate sometime the following afternoon in an Albanian knocking shop in Brixton, up to your nuts in an illegal immigrant. You don’t do that nasty stuff with a girlfriend, do you? You…What do you do? You go to, I don’t know, the cinema? Or maybe for a walk? Stuff like that? But then I think about the downsides. The talking. They’re really into the whole talking thing, girlfriends. Ross has a girlfriend. He tells you about the things they do, the stuff they say. They try and talk to you about complicated weekends away in three months’ time over breakfast.

pages: 243 words: 66,908

Thinking in Systems: A Primer by Meadows. Donella, Diana Wright


affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, game design, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, peak oil, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Whole Earth Review

He suggested, at a time when oil imports were soaring, that there be a tax on gasoline proportional to the fraction of U.S. oil consumption that had to be imported. If imports continued to rise, the tax would rise until it suppressed demand and brought forth substitutes and reduced imports. If imports fell to zero, the tax would fall to zero. The tax never got passed. Carter also was trying to deal with a flood of illegal immigrants from Mexico. He suggested that nothing could be done about that immigration as long as there was a great gap in opportunity and living standards between the United States and Mexico. Rather than spending money on border guards and barriers, he said, we should spend money helping to build the Mexican economy, and we should continue to do so until the immigration stopped. That never happened either.

pages: 229 words: 67,869

So You've Been Publicly Shamed by Jon Ronson


4chan, AltaVista, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, Clive Stafford Smith, cognitive dissonance, Desert Island Discs, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Google Hangouts, illegal immigration, Menlo Park, PageRank, Ralph Nader, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, urban planning, WikiLeaks

‘Some folks say everyone should have high self-esteem, but sometimes people should feel bad.’ Poe’s shaming methods were so admired in Houston society that he ended up getting elected to Congress as the representative for Texas’s 2nd Congressional District. He is currently ‘Congress’s top talker’, according to the Los Angeles Times, having made 431 speeches between 2009 and 2011, against abortion, illegal immigrants, socialized healthcare, etc. He always ends them with his catchphrase: ‘And that’s just the way it is!’ ‘It wasn’t the “theatre of the absurd”.’ Ted Poe sat opposite me in his office in the Rayburn House Office Building in Washington DC. I’d just quoted to him his critic Jonathan Turley’s line - using citizens as virtual props in his personal theatre of the absurd - and he was bristling.

pages: 244 words: 82,548

Here I Am: The Story of Tim Hetherington, War Photographer by Alan Huffman


blood diamonds, British Empire, friendly fire, illegal immigration, Skype

Jeremy Haslam, head of the IOM, had anxiously held the Ionian Spirit at the dock that night, under the threat of resumed shelling, waiting for the bodies to arrive. A high wind chilled the April night as the boat finally departed. The next day, hundreds of people greeted the boat in Benghazi with banners that read “UK & US we grieve for your loss.” Cervera had already left aboard a small fishing boat headed for Malta, which was turned back by NATO forces because it carried illegal immigrants. As a result, he ended up in Benghazi as well. After spending a cold night on the deck of the boat, sleeping under fishing nets, Cervera hired a car at the Benghazi port to drive him to Cairo, and from there he flew to Spain. He said he wasn’t sure why he was so quick to leave. He was confused, perhaps in shock, he thought. After Liohn’s Facebook post, news of the photographers’ deaths had spread quickly.

pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis


barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, jitney, jobless men, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, liberation theology, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

("Middle-class" Russians, for example, spend 40 percent of their income on food as compared to a global middle-income standard of less than one-third.)56 Although the worst "transitional poverty" is hidden from view in derelict regions of the ex-Soviet countryside, the cities display shocking new extremes of overnight wealth and equally sudden misery. In St. Petersburg, for example, income inequality between the richest and poorest decile soared from 4.1 in 1989 to 13.2 in 1996.57 Moscow may now have more billionaires than New York, but it also has more than one million squatters, many of them illegal immigrants from the Ukraine (200,000), China (150,000), Vietnam, and Moldavia; these people live in primitive conditions in abandoned buildings, rundown dormitories, and former barracks. Sweatshop firms, often praised in 53 Akmal Hussain, Pakistan National Human Development Report 2003: Poverty, Growth and Governance, Karachi 2003, pp. 1, 5, 7, 15, 23. 54 Challenge, p. 2. 55 Braithwaite, Grootaert, and Milanovic, Poverty and Social Assistance in Transition Countries, p. 47. 56 Alexey Krasheninnokov, "Moscow," UN-HABITAT Case Study, London 2003, pp. 9-10. 57 Tatyana Protasenko, "Dynamics of the Standard of Living During Five Years of Economic Reform," International journal of Urban and Regional Research 21:3 (1997), p. 449.

pages: 193 words: 63,618

The Fair Trade Scandal: Marketing Poverty to Benefit the Rich by Ndongo Sylla


British Empire, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Doha Development Round, Food sovereignty, global value chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, open economy, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, selection bias, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

It is criticised for (1) paying its employees wages that are barely higher than the poverty line, especially the full-time staff, (2) not providing them with social security, (3) passing on the cost of social security to taxpayers, (4) discriminating against women and (5) forcing suppliers to sell at the lowest possible prices, even if it forces these to relocate to countries such as China or resort to illegal immigrant labour or child labour. In spite of that, it would seem that thanks to its economic ‘management’ model, Wal-Mart saved the average American household close to $2,500 in 2006. However, these figures are provided by a study commissioned by the multinational itself. Whatever the case may be, Wal-Mart proudly displays its sustainability programme on its website as well as the many awards received in this framework.

pages: 252 words: 72,473

Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy by Cathy O'Neil


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, call centre, carried interest, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, Emanuel Derman, housing crisis, I will remember that I didn’t make the world, and it doesn’t satisfy my equations, illegal immigration, Internet of things, late fees, mass incarceration, medical bankruptcy, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price discrimination, quantitative hedge fund, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Rubik’s Cube, Sharpe ratio, statistical model, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working poor

These quieter campaigns are equally deceptive and even less accountable. And they deliver ideological bombs that politicians will only hint at on the record. According to Zeynep Tufekci, a techno-sociologist and professor at the University of North Carolina, these groups pinpoint vulnerable voters and then target them with fear-mongering campaigns, scaring them about their children’s safety or the rise of illegal immigration. At the same time, they can keep those ads from the eyes of voters likely to be turned off (or even disgusted) by such messaging. Successful microtargeting, in part, explains why in 2015 more than 43 percent of Republicans, according to a survey, still believed the lie that President Obama is a Muslim. And 20 percent of Americans believed he was born outside the United States and, consequently, an illegitimate president.

pages: 305 words: 69,216

A Failure of Capitalism: The Crisis of '08 and the Descent Into Depression by Richard A. Posner


Andrei Shleifer, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, debt deflation, diversified portfolio, equity premium, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, reserve currency, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, savings glut, shareholder value, short selling, statistical model, too big to fail, transaction costs, very high income

In the Republican Party they fall into three main groups: believers in (1) free markets, low taxes, and small government—economic conservatives; (2) believers in tough criminal laws and a strong foreign policy— I'll call them security conservatives; and (3) social (mainly religious) conservatives, who are hostile to abortion, gay marriage, pornography, gun control, and a clean separation of church and state. The security and social conservatives converge on hostility to illegal immigrants. The economic and security conservatives are in some tension because a national-security state requires a big government and therefore high taxes, and the economic conservatives are in tension with the social conservatives because the former are libertarian and the latter are interventionist. All three groups have been damaged by recent events and are moving apart from each other because of the blows that the others have received.

Unhappy Union by The Economist, La Guardia, Anton, Peet, John


bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fixed income, Flash crash, illegal immigration, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Northern Rock, oil shock, open economy, pension reform, price stability, quantitative easing, special drawing rights, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, transaction costs, éminence grise

Fuller market access, particularly for agricultural products, has also been notable largely by its absence: three years after the Arab spring began, only Morocco has even begun negotiations on a deep free-trade deal with the EU. As for migration, hostility towards it has grown as the euro crisis has led to rising unemployment, especially in the southern Mediterranean countries. Far from providing more routes to legal migration, ever more resources have been poured into tightening controls on illegal immigration. Leaky boats carrying would-be immigrants continue to sink in the Mediterranean around the Italian island of Lampedusa, one of the nearest parts of the EU to north Africa. Over migration, indeed, the EU now stands towards north Africa rather as the United States stands towards Mexico – and a part of the reason for this is the dire economic consequences of the euro crisis in terms of jobs and growth at home.

pages: 230 words: 79,229

Respectable: The Experience of Class by Lynsey Hanley

Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Etonian, full employment, housing crisis, illegal immigration, invisible hand, liberation theology, low skilled workers, mutually assured destruction, Neil Kinnock, Norman Mailer, Own Your Own Home, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent

Glasman, for his part, had worked with immigrants from South America, West Africa and Eastern Europe at the East London Communities Organisation (TELCO), through which he developed and led the London Citizens campaign to improve wages and conditions for workers in the East End of London. Crucially, given the irony of his later pronouncements, London Citizens also campaigned to formalize the status of illegal immigrants. To me, it seems as though the only way Glasman could have followed his progressive work with London Citizens with such a grimly conservative line on immigration is by mentally separating the working-class people he worked with at TELCO and the working-class people ‘out there’ whom Labour needed to ‘win back’ from the BNP and Ukip. The former must have appeared to him as organized, active and representing the future of cities such as London; the latter, meanwhile, were bewildered, atomized victims in places where progressive thinking could not reach, so there was no alternative but to treat them as separate entities.

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay


3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel,, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

China has arbitraged its labor all along by keeping exchange rates artificially low, studding the countryside with frictionless zones, and turning a blind eye to the 140 million illegal immigrants flooding the coast. All so it can keep growing 8 percent per year—the minimum speed before the wheels start to come off from unemployment and unrest. Until now its people have been largely immobile, confined to the countryside or the factory towns of the Delta, scrimping and saving. All of this will change as the Chinese begin to leave the west for the West, streaming into Africa and Detroit, or places like Prato, the center of Italy’s textile industry. As James Kynge tells the story in China Shakes the World, Prato became a magnet for illegal immigrants smuggled out of China in the 1990s. “A Chinese cloth and garment cutter could expect to take home about 1,000 euros for a month of six-day weeks at fifteen hours a day,” enough to save up until he quit and started a competing factory the next day.

pages: 670 words: 169,815

Ghosts of Empire: Britain's Legacies in the Modern World by Kwasi Kwarteng


Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Etonian, illegal immigration, imperial preference, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, sceptred isle, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

The government had made primary and junior secondary education both compulsory and free; there were only minimal charges for medical treatment, while ‘more than 2 million people lived in 400,000 government provided or government subsidised flats’.22 Hong Kong was probably the most successful exercise in benevolent dictatorship in history. Its success could be measured by the vast influx of immigrants which, every year, descended upon the colony from China. During 1979, some 70,000 legal immigrants entered Hong Kong, while 90,000 illegal immigrants were arrested and repatriated to China. Perhaps the most startling fact of all was that 110,000 illegal immigrants had actually escaped arrest that year and had been merely absorbed into the population. An ‘annual influx of nearly 200,000’ people into Hong Kong could not be ‘sustained without serious social and economic consequences’.23 These figures represented about 5 per cent of the total population of Hong Kong. It would be the equivalent of 15 million people entering the United States today, or 3 million entering Great Britain.

pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells


Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

Overall, in the European Union it was estimated that in the early 1990s the total foreign population of non-European citizens amounted to about 13 million, of which about one-quarter was undocumented.23 The proportion of foreigners in the total population, for the five largest countries of the European Union in 1994, only surpassed 5 percent in Germany; it was actually lower than in 1986 in France; and it was only slightly over the 1986 level in the UK.24 The situation changed in the late 1990s, as Eastern European migrations intensified in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Italy, and African migrants made their way into southern Europe. A relatively new phenomenon was massive illegal immigration particularly from Eastern Europe, often organized by criminal smuggler rings, and including thousands of enslaved women for the profitable prostitution traffic in the civilized Western European countries. In 1999 the number of illegal immigrants into the European Union was estimated at about 500,000 per year, with their main points of destination being Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Italy (see volume III, chapter 3). Because of its restrictive naturalization laws, Germany reached the level of about 10 percent of foreigners in its population, to which should be added undocumented residents.

pages: 573 words: 180,065

On the Trail of Genghis Khan: An Epic Journey Through the Land of the Nomads by Tim Cope


feminist movement, illegal immigration, Iridium satellite, mass immigration, trade route

Having let her go, he broke into my room, pulled me up by the arms, and, drawing his face close to mine, showered me with spittle as he said, “C’mon, Tim! What are you waiting for? Let’s go to the highway!” When I protested sleepily and asked why, he shook me in a rage. “To get prostitutes, of course!” I wasn’t the only one who had to endure these tirades, although I was probably the only one who found them the least bit curious. Sharing the hut with me was Yura, an illegal immigrant from Georgia who worked at the tile factory. His passport and visa had long expired; afraid of what might happen at the border, he hadn’t been home to see his family for four years. His situation had recently become more tenuous because of the deteriorating relations between Russia and Georgia. The nightly TV news was filled with stories condemning Georgia’s president, Mikheil Saakashvili, who was drumming up support for Georgia to join NATO.

Moscow had just banned all imports of Georgian wine, cut off diplomatic relations, and halted cross-border postal services. During the dead of winter a mysterious explosion on the gas pipeline had left the population of Georgia’s capital, Tbilsi, freezing, and Georgia had accused Russia of sabotage. Georgians such as Yura who lived and worked illegally in Russia found themselves the focus of unwanted attention from authorities. Yura’s story would have resonated among hundreds of thousands of illegal immigrants in Russia who had come from former Soviet republics to work but were stuck with expired documents and cut off from family with no support or legal protections. Like everything in Russia, citizenship could be bought at a price, but few could afford the going rate, which apparently was around $5,000. To make matters more complicated, Yura’s girlfriend—a girl from a nearby village—had become pregnant, and he was doing his best to set up his shoebox of a single room as a family home.

pages: 600 words: 165,682

The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967-1977 by Gershom Gorenberg


anti-communist, bank run, colonial rule, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, old-boy network, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

He was driven, he explained afterward, by the thought that “it’s pure chance I’m here and not lying in the dust. Had I been in the bloc at the time, grass would be growing out of me.”87 At Kibbutz Ne’ot Mordechai near the northern tip of Israel, on the other hand, strategic goals were explicitly on the mind of forty-six-year-old commune member Rafael Ben-Yehudah. Ben-Yehudah had left his native Vienna as a teenager in 1938, a month after the Nazis marched in, reached Palestine with a boatful of illegal immigrants who swam to shore, spent World War II in communes of landless workers, became a follower of Yitzhak Tabenkin, and helped found Ne’ot Mordechai on the Jordan River. On June 14, Ben-Yehudah sat down to talk with Dan Laner, a member of Ne’ot Mordechai and the chief of staff of the army’s Northern Command. Ben-Yehudah had decided, even before the cease-fire, that he wanted to establish an Israeli settlement quickly in the occupied Syrian heights.

It could be, he admitted, that Zionism’s struggle with Arab nationalism had accidently begat the Palestinian nation, but the parentage was irrelevant. Israel needed to declare that “we will never repress the rights of the Palestinians to national self-determination, and we are willing to help them establish a state.”42 Eliav was forty-seven, with a hint of a Russian accent from the country he left as a child, and a hint of pudgy Russian cheeks. Before independence he had served in the British army, then captained an illegal immigration boat running the British blockade on Palestine. After a stint of intelligence work and another as an Israeli naval officer, he became Levi Eshkol’s assistant at the Settlement Department, build-ing farm villages and towns for Jewish refugees. It was a standard heroic CV. By the time of the 1967 war, he was deputy industry minister, a rising Mapai man. His next step was not standard: He asked Eshkol for six months off.

pages: 551 words: 174,280

The Beginning of Infinity: Explanations That Transform the World by David Deutsch


agricultural Revolution, Albert Michelson, anthropic principle, artificial general intelligence, Bonfire of the Vanities, conceptual framework, cosmological principle, dark matter, David Attenborough, discovery of DNA, Douglas Hofstadter, Eratosthenes, Ernest Rutherford, first-past-the-post, Georg Cantor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, illegal immigration, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John Conway, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kenneth Arrow, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Stephen Hawking, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Review, William of Occam, zero-sum game

Why should slave-owning states be allocated more political clout in proportion to how many slaves they had? To reduce this effect, a compromise was reached whereby a slave counted as three-fifths of a person for the purpose of apportioning seats in the House. But, even so, three-fifths of an injustice was still considered an injustice by many.* The same controversy exists today in regard to illegal immigrants, who also count as part of the population for apportionment purposes. So states with large numbers of illegal immigrants receive extra seats in Congress, while other states correspondingly lose out. Following the first US census, in 1790, notwithstanding the new Constitution’s requirement of proportionality, seats in the House of Representatives were apportioned under a rule that violated quota. Proposed by the future president Thomas Jefferson, this rule also favoured states with higher populations, giving them more representatives per capita.

pages: 269 words: 104,430

Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez


barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar

One study of Rush Limbaugh’s show demonstrated that “regular listening not only correlates with attitudes that reflect Limbaugh’s message; listening also relates to opinion change toward greater conservatism and antipathy toward Limbaugh’s favorite targets.”58 As in advertising, repetition of a message works: in this study, listeners were more likely to come to agree with Limbaugh on the dead-horse issues he beat most often. While listening to moderate talk radio was shown to lead to being better informed, a survey of adults in San Diego found that more exposure to conservative talk radio resulted in listeners being more misinformed on issues.59 For example, an overwhelming majority of conservative talk radio listeners believed the following patently false statements to be true: “Illegal immigrants cause most of the crime in this area,” “President Reagan cut the national deficit,” “Giving clean needles to drug addicts has increased AIDS in California,” and “Most of the homeless in America are too lazy to work.” Clearly, depending on your station choice, riding in the car may actually make you less knowledgeable about the world you live in. Political talk radio is also overwhelmingly inflammatory.

pages: 303 words: 93,545

I'm a stranger here myself: notes on returning to America after twenty years away by Bill Bryson


illegal immigration, millennium bug, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, telemarketer

America may or may not be heading for an environmental and economic disaster, but if so it certainly isn’t because six people in every hundred were born somewhere else. There aren’t many human acts more foolishly simplistic or misguided, or more likely to lead to careless evil, than blaming general problems on small minorities, yet that seems to be quite a respectable impulse where immigration is concerned these days. Two years ago, Californians voted overwhelmingly for Proposition 187, which would deny health and education services to illegal immigrants. Almost immediately upon passage of the proposition, Governor Pete Wilson ordered the state health authorities to stop providing prenatal care to any woman who could not prove that she was here legally. Now please correct me by all means, but does it not seem just a trifle harsh—a trifle barbaric even—to imperil the well-being of an unborn child because of the actions of its parents? No less astounding in its way, the federal government recently began removing basic rights and entitlements even from legal immigrants.

pages: 327 words: 103,336

Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts


active measures, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city,, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, industrial cluster, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

If that were true, however, then one would expect that people who identify as liberals would tend to espouse the “liberal” perspective on most matters, and that conservatives would espouse a consistently different view. Yet research finds that regardless of whether people identify themselves as liberals or conservatives, what they think about any one issue, like, say, abortion, has relatively little relation to what they believe about other issues, such as the death penalty or illegal immigration. In other words, we have the impression that our particular beliefs are all derived from some overarching philosophy, but the reality is that we arrive at them quite independently, and often haphazardly.15 The same difficulty of reconciling what, individually, appear to be self-evident beliefs shows up even more clearly in the aphorisms that we invoke to make sense of the world. As sociologists are fond of pointing out, many of these aphorisms appear to be direct contradictions of each other.

pages: 258 words: 83,303

Why Your World Is About to Get a Whole Lot Smaller: Oil and the End of Globalization by Jeff Rubin


air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, BRICs, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, energy security, food miles, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Just-in-time delivery, market clearing, megacity, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, profit maximization, reserve currency, South Sea Bubble, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, zero-sum game

Tighter competition for scarcer jobs has historically translated into diminishing political support for higher immigration levels, and enthusiasm for new workers is already cooling. In Australia, immigration targets are set to fall in 2010 for the first time since 1997, and Canada has also given notice that it will be welcoming fewer newcomers in 2010. In the UK, the Home Office has raised the bar for applicants arriving without a job from a Bachelor’s to a Master’s degree. And in the US, rising unemployment and stricter patrols along the Mexican border have slowed illegal immigration to a trickle. And what does that mean for the developing world? As challenging as triple-digit oil prices will be for the world’s richest countries, think how much more challenging they will be for the poorer countries. Just as climate change is already affecting the poorer nations near the equator more cruelly than it does the richer, more temperate countries, rising fuel prices hit those places a lot harder as well.

pages: 254 words: 14,795

Poorly Made in China: An Insider's Account of the Tactics Behind China's Production Game by Paul Midler


barriers to entry, corporate social responsibility, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, full employment, illegal immigration, new economy, out of africa, price discrimination, unpaid internship, urban planning

What Winston meant was that the joint venture facility could do it cheaper. Workers were paid by the ton, and most were averaging about $80 per month. It was even less than what factories paid. At Waste Corp’s plant in New Jersey, workers pulled out only the most obvious pieces of foreign material as the recyclables moved along a fast conveyor belt on their way to be baled. America’s lowest wage earners—illegal immigrants—were earning more than 25 times what workers at the South China facility averaged. China needed great volumes of raw materials like paper fiber, and it also happened to be in a position to sort the product efficiently. Even so, it surprised me to hear from Winston that most of the paper recycled in the United States was making its way to China. It was an interesting business, and I wondered how the government viewed all of it.

pages: 261 words: 103,244

Economists and the Powerful by Norbert Haring, Norbert H. Ring, Niall Douglas


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, bank run, barriers to entry, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, central bank independence, collective bargaining, commodity trading advisor, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, diversified portfolio, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, illegal immigration, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, law of one price, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, new economy, obamacare, old-boy network, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Renaissance Technologies, rolodex, Sergey Aleynikov, shareholder value, short selling, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, ultimatum game, union organizing, Vilfredo Pareto, working-age population, World Values Survey

Such support tends to be popular even with those who do not directly benefit, a fact that economists disparagingly brush aside as proof of ignorance. The truth of the matter might well be that the public understands better than most economists that large, well-paying employers offer something that is worth preserving through adversity. An extreme form of bad job is sweatshop work. This is an exploitative form of employment that is mostly confined to illegal immigrants in developed countries but can be rather prevalent in underdeveloped countries. Work in sweatshops means excessive overtime, wholesale disregard of safety and health conditions, low wages and lack of rights POWER AT WORK 183 and representation. The fact that people work in them at all makes it clear that decent jobs are rationed; otherwise, nobody would choose the very bad working conditions at lower pay which prevail in sweatshops (Chau 2009).

pages: 471 words: 109,267

The Verdict: Did Labour Change Britain? by Polly Toynbee, David Walker


banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, call centre, central bank independence, congestion charging, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Etonian, failed state, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, market bubble, mass immigration, millennium bug, moral panic, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Right to Buy, shareholder value, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, working-age population, Y2K

Perhaps ministers themselves simply did not understand this dimension of globalization. They tried to make the UK as unattractive as possible without rejecting what they still, high-mindedly, defined as the UK’s international obligation to offer asylum. Yet their failure to stem numbers created an impression of state incompetence and uncontrolled borders. The government could not remove large numbers of those judged by tribunals to have no right to stay: their status as illegal immigrants with no right to stay or to work was officially tolerated because there was no other option. They could not be put on planes back to countries such as China that refused to accept them. Instead, they were dispersed to cities with empty housing. ‘The whole thing was mad – give them a voucher and put them on a bus,’ recalled an insider and loyalist, Nick Pearce, who was Blunkett’s special adviser at the time.

pages: 364 words: 99,613

Servant Economy: Where America's Elite Is Sending the Middle Class by Jeff Faux


back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, medical malpractice, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, new economy, oil shock, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working poor, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

One is the resistance to more immigration by Americans who are facing diminished job opportunities. Another is the assumption of great economic benefits. Studies of the economic impact of immigration over the past several decades are, at best, mixed. On the one hand, new immigrants have clearly been a net burden on state and local governments, raising the costs of education, health, and social services. On the other hand, illegal immigrants, who pay taxes but do not get benefits, have been a net gain to the Social Security system. The impact on wages in the short run is negative, which is the core argument for the economic benefit of immigration—that it lowers labor costs. The third shared assumption is that government policy matters little. Rose assumes that the U.S. governing class simply will do the right thing. Friedman thinks that it will be driven by the ancient thirst for power built into human nature.

pages: 346 words: 101,763

Confessions of a Microfinance Heretic by Hugh Sinclair


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Bernie Madoff, colonial exploitation,, end world poverty, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Gini coefficient, high net worth, illegal immigration, inventory management, microcredit, Northern Rock, peer-to-peer lending, pirate software, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, profit motive

I sat down next to Onyeka, and he began to ask me questions about our broader work. He wanted to travel, to see the world, and it appeared our jobs would provide him with such opportunities. However, Nigerians have certain difficulties obtaining visas to travel abroad, and thus Onyeka asked me if I could help him get a visa to leave the country. “Look, if you get a visa to go to Europe, it is not easy to get a job, and they are really strict on illegal immigrants there. Life would be miserable. You would have to do badly paid, boring work, and you would always fear the police, and you would have no healthcare if you have a problem. It really isn’t a good life.” Onyeka then told me his personal story of the last few years. His wife had died of a medical complication, and he was lonely without her and wanted a change, a fresh start. Perhaps he could do jobs similar to ours?

pages: 390 words: 96,624

Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, online collectivism, Parag Khanna, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks

His app mocking President Obama—containing the type of political humor frequently seen on television and in newspapers—was restored soon after Fiore won his Pulitzer. But apps by other cartoonists were not so fortunate. Another satirist, Daniel Kurtzman, saw rejection by Apple of two apps meant to accompany his two satirical books, How to Win a Fight with a Conservative and How to Win a Fight with a Liberal. The apps were programmed to generate ridiculous insults, such as “May a commune of gay, Marxist Muslim illegal immigrants open a drive-through abortion clinic in your church” and “Listen, you bongo-playing vegan, if ignorance is bliss, you must be one happy liberal.” After repeated calls and e-mails, an Apple employee eventually explained that this app had been rejected because it involved insults directed at various groups of people. That the insults were completely ridiculous, and were actually meant to demonstrate that stereotype-based slurs are idiotic, was lost on Apple.

pages: 364 words: 102,528

An Economist Gets Lunch: New Rules for Everyday Foodies by Tyler Cowen


agricultural Revolution, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cognitive bias, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, East Village,, food miles, guest worker program, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, informal economy, iterative process, mass immigration, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, price discrimination, refrigerator car, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce

So far we have been looking at capital in the business of food. Let’s now turn our attention to those who actually make the food. How to Exploit Restaurant Workers First, quality food is cheaper when there is cheap labor available to cook it. In a relatively wealthy country like the United States that can be hard to find. We have a high level of labor productivity, there is a legal minimum wage, and in a lot of parts of the country even illegal immigrant labor earns more than the legal minimum. Still, the one obvious example of cheap labor is in family-owned, family-run Asian restaurants. Family members will work in the kitchen or as waiters and they will be paid relatively little or sometimes nothing at all. Sometimes they’re expected to do the work as part of their contribution to the family. The upshot is that these restaurants tend to offer good food buys.

pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin


Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Whether they are fording the Rio Grande into the United States or crossing the Mediterranean into Europe, migrants will find it more difficult to gain access to places such as North America and western Europe. Countries in the OECD are slowing the flow of legal migrants by lowering immigration quotas. Meanwhile, other steps, such as the physical walls erected along the US border with Mexico, are attempting to curb illegal migration. In Arizona, police now have the authority to ask anyone they suspect of being an illegal immigrant for identity papers. The controversial legislation has echoes of France’s recent deportation of groups of Roma (gypsies) to eastern Europe. In Europe, borders are suddenly reappearing where they haven’t been seen in nearly two decades. One of the consequences of the Arab Spring is a new wave of migration out of North Africa. In the past, Spain and Italy struck deals with Arab dictators such as Moammar Gadhafi to prevent migrants from crossing the Mediterranean and illegally entering continental Europe.

pages: 348 words: 98,757

The Trade of Queens by Charles Stross


business intelligence, call centre, illegal immigration, index card, inflation targeting, land reform, profit motive, Project for a New American Century, seigniorage

Like Nazma Hussein, aged twenty-six, daughter of Yemeni immigrants, married to Ali the cook, cleaning and setting out tables in the front of her family's small lunch diner on K Street NW, worrying about her younger sister Ayesha who is having trouble at school: Papa wants her to come and work in the restaurant until he and Baba can find her a suitable husband, but Nazma thinks she can do better— Like Ryan Baylor, aged twenty-three, a law student at GWU, hurrying along H Street to get to the Burns Law Library and swearing quietly under his breath—overslept, forgot to set his alarm, got a reading list as long as his arm and a hangover beating a brazen kettledrum counterpoint to the traffic noise as he wonders if those cans of Coors were really a good idea the evening before a test— Like Ashanda Roe, aged twenty-eight, working a dead-end shelf-stacking job in a 7-Eleven on D Street NW, sweating as she tears open boxes of Depends and shoves them into position on an end galley, tossing the packaging into a rattly cage and whistling under her breath. She's worrying because her son Darrick, who is only seven, is spending too much time with a bunch of no-good kids who hang out with— Six thousand, two hundred and eighty-six other people, ordinary people, men and women and children, tourists and natives, illegal immigrants and blue bloods, homeless vagrants and ambassadors— Stop all the clocks. In the grand scheme of things, in the recondite world of nuclear war planning, a one-kiloton atomic bomb doesn't sound like much. It's less than a tenth the yield of the weapon that leveled the heart of Hiroshima, a two-hundredth the power of a single warhead from a Minuteman or Trident missile. But the destructive force of a nuclear weapon doesn't correspond directly to its nominal yield; a bomb with ten times the explosive power doesn't cause ten times as much destruction as a smaller one.

pages: 523 words: 111,615

The Economics of Enough: How to Run the Economy as if the Future Matters by Diane Coyle


accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Financial Instability Hypothesis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, low skilled workers, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, megacity, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, principal–agent problem, profit motive, purchasing power parity, railway mania, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, The Design of Experiments, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Spirit Level, transaction costs, transfer pricing, tulip mania, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, web application, web of trust, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

More young people are staying in higher education, and we expect standards to continue improving at every level. It doesn’t feel like an option not to consume more and better health and education services as time goes by. Figure 12. Who will care? Yet one consequence of the way services like these are eating up a rising share of personal and government budgets is the employment of a growing army of low-paid and low-status workers in these sectors, sometimes illegal immigrants. At the same time that many people would insist on the intrinsic value of carers, teachers, and so on, they’ve grown increasingly reluctant to pay them higher wages. There’s definitely a paradox in the willingness to pay for costly entertainment and consumer gadgets compared with the reluctance to pay for higher salaries in social care and teaching. The psychology of this difference would be well worth exploring.

pages: 318 words: 92,257

Floating City: A Rogue Sociologist Lost and Found in New York's Underground Economy by Sudhir Venkatesh


creative destruction, East Village, illegal immigration, side project, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, urban renewal, working poor

I had to have my own independent way of finding these stories, and I needed to see things for myself. For a sociologist, half the job is trying to see the holes in your theory. I needed more prostitutes, more pimps, more madams, more under-the-table employment brokers, more counterfeiters who dealt in fake social security cards—not just the Manjun-approved ones. I especially needed to find more illegal immigrants and learn how the underground economy helped keep them alive. One day I told Shine about my frustration. I meant nothing by it. We were just talking and I was complaining in an ordinary way, as you would about any work problem. I told him that no one really had done a study on the complicated lives of people who toiled underground and it could really help my career. I may have admitted that I was starting to fear that Chicago was the only place I could be a successful academic.

pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey


accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

The more advanced centres of capital accumulation, such as much of western Europe and Japan, have slipped into negative population growth (with attendant problems of ageing populations which pose all manner of problems for sustained capital accumulation), while the rest of Asia, Latin America and Africa continue to increase. China, meanwhile, through draconian restriction on family size, seeks to contain the growth of its already huge 1.2 billion population while the United States has sustained its demographic growth through a more open but now increasingly challenged immigration policy (supplemented by a significant influx of illegal immigrants who provide much of the low-wage labour required for agribusiness, construction and domestic services in particular). People occupy space and have to live on the land somewhere and somehow. How they live, sustain themselves and reproduce the species varies enormously from place to place, but in the process people create places within which they dwell, from the peasant hut, the small village, the favela, the urban tenement, to the suburban tract house or the multimillion-dollar homes in the Hamptons of Long Island, in China’s gated communities or in Sao Paulo’s or Mexico City’s high rise penthouses.

pages: 298 words: 84,394

We Are All Completely Beside Ourselves by Karen Joy Fowler


Albert Einstein, illegal immigration, Schrödinger's Cat, Skype, theory of mind, your tax dollars at work

My gaze had dropped to his chest. A bright yellow road-sign was printed on his T-shirt, with the silhouette of a family running across it. The father was in front, pulling his wife by the hand behind him. The wife was pulling their child and the child had a doll, also by the hand. I’m from Indiana, and Davis is not San Diego. I didn’t know this was an actual road-sign, an encouragement to not hit illegal immigrants with your car. Both child and doll were airborne; that’s how fast the family was running. I could see their legs pumping, the child’s braids whipping behind her. I should maybe say here that I’d taken a couple of pills Harlow gave me. It’s a lucky thing I’d never faced peer pressure before; I turned out to suck at it. “Bullshit,” I said. “Baloney. Hooey. Horse feathers.” Reg said he couldn’t hear me, so we went outside, where I told him about the mirror test.

pages: 252 words: 13,581

Cape Town After Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City by Tony Roshan Samara


conceptual framework, deglobalization, ghettoisation, global village, illegal immigration, late capitalism, moral panic, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, structural adjustment programs, unemployed young men, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, working poor

Reflecting key aspects of the NCPS, these priorities included taking a multifaceted approach to crime reduction that would bring together all the relevant departments and agencies in implementing social crime prevention as a complement to more aggressive strategies. The first 120╇ ·â•‡ Gangsterism and the Policing of the Cape Flats action carried out under Crackdown was the massive cordon and search operation in Johannesburg in March 2000 discussed in chapter 1, the main targets of which were Nigerian crime syndicates and illegal immigrants in the Hillbrow neighborhood. Crackdown came to the Western Cape the next month, and although it had a different target than its predecessors, the structure was fairly similar: It was intelligence driven, emphasized high-density swarm and storm operations targeting national crime hot spots, and relied on crime data analysis and resource clustering. Two of the marked hot spots included the Cape Flats communities of Mitchells Plain and Manenberg, both of which would also become sites for the CFRS the next year.

pages: 391 words: 99,963

The Weather of the Future by Heidi Cullen


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, availability heuristic, back-to-the-land, bank run, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, mass immigration, megacity, millennium bug, out of africa, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, urban planning, Y2K

And so India is in the process of building a fence to keep them out. “I think they were going to build a fence anyway,” says Rahman. “The data on this isn’t clear, but I think the fence was ultimately built for political reasons. And the climate refugee argument is being used as an excuse,” Rahman adds. India maintains that the purpose of the fence is to protect the country against smuggling and terrorism as well as illegal immigration, claiming that about 5 million Bangladeshis are in India illegally. This is a number the government of Bangladesh is quick to contest. The fence runs along India’s porous 2,500-mile border with Bangladesh. It is high, and it’s made of heavily reinforced barbed wire. Climate change may not have created the fence but provides a plausible reason to continue building it. Still, as the Indian government works to complete the fence in the hope of keeping people out, the problem is not so much the people as the climate.

pages: 332 words: 104,587

Half the Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity for Women Worldwide by Nicholas D. Kristof, Sheryl Wudunn


agricultural Revolution, correlation does not imply causation, demographic dividend, feminist movement, Flynn Effect, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, special economic zone, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce

Once on the far balcony, the girls pounded on the window and woke the surprised tenant. They could hardly communicate with him because none of them spoke Malay, but the tenant let them into his apartment and then out its front door. The girls took the elevator down and wandered the silent streets until they found a police station and stepped inside. The police first tried to shoo them away, then arrested the girls for illegal immigration. Rath served a year in prison under Malaysia’s tough anti-immigrant laws, and then she was supposed to be repatriated. She thought a Malaysian policeman was escorting her home when he drove her to the Thai border—but then he sold her to a trafficker, who peddled her to a Thai brothel. Rath’s saga offers a glimpse of the brutality inflicted routinely on women and girls in much of the world, a malignancy that is slowly gaining recognition as one of the paramount human rights problems of this century.

pages: 364 words: 102,225

Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep


battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, creative destruction, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal

These smaller cities will encompass most of the world’s urban growth between now and the year 2030. In many cities, migration has brought disparate ethnic, racial, and religious groups into uneasy contact. It happens in Europe (North Africans in Paris, Pakistanis in London) as well as the United States. Is it any wonder that Arizona would become the epicenter for the American debate over illegal immigration? The political and population center is an instant city, metropolitan Phoenix, roughly sixteen times larger than it was in 1950. Anglo migrants from the north arrived along with migrants from Latin America, making an urban area that’s almost entirely new, where the rules are still being written. The resulting social conflicts challenge the very nature of a city, where people come together to do business or share ideas.

pages: 325 words: 90,659

Narconomics: How to Run a Drug Cartel by Tom Wainwright


Airbnb, barriers to entry, bitcoin, business process, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, failed state, financial innovation, illegal immigration, Mark Zuckerberg, microcredit, price mechanism, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Skype

.), 170 underwear manufacturing, 103–104 union labor in coca production, 11 United Fruit Company, 112 United Kingdom abortive drug deal, 53–55 cartel public relations, 81 Deep Web regulation, 174 locating cannabis farms, 218–219 measuring economics of drug trafficking, 240 prison gang members, 72 synthetic drugs, 156–157 trafficking network, 185–186 two-man smuggling operations, 67–68 United Nations, 14, 139, 246–248, 250–251 United States BZP use, 154 human trafficking, 193–194, 196–201 keeping drug carriers in line, 73–74 mafia services, 97, 99–100 moon rock sales, 111 murder of a government agent, 145–146 prison population, 57–58 Salvadoran gang truce, 48–49 synthetic drugs, 155–156 Uruguay: legalizing marijuana, 252 Valdez Villareal, Édgar, 79 Valor por Tamaulipas (Courage for Tamaulipas), 89 value of drugs business model, 3 cocaine, 9, 15 confiscated drugs, 4–5, 239–240 economic impact of coca eradication programs, 17–19 economics of the war on drugs, 242–244 human trafficking, 199–201 legal marijuana, 229–230 synthetic drugs, 158–159 vigilante justice, 94–95 violence against journalists, 83–86, 88–89, 100–101 dispute resolution without, 70–71 effect of market conditions on, 49–51 ethnic conflict among traffickers, 72–73 execution of business rivals, 30 franchise alliances, 138–139 Guerrero, Mexico, 140–142 Juárez cartel takeover, 38–40 keeping drug carriers in line, 73 kidnappings in Monterrey, 83–84 legalization controversy, 122 media images, 88–89 Mexican cartel turf wars, 87 Mexico’s war on cartels, 31–32, 34–35 personal safety concerns in Guatemala, 108–109 public image of cartels, 80–81 Sinaloa cartel, 79–80 traffickers’ staff turnover rate, 55 vengeance against thugs, 93–95 Zeta franchise, 146–147 See also murder wages and salaries Central America, 107 illegal immigration, 203 payment in product, 114 Walmart, 16–17 Walt Disney Company, 205 war on cartels, Mexico’s, 29–30, 246–250 war on drugs alternatives to incarceration, 74–75 Bolivian coca production, 12 confusing prohibition with control, 250–253 cost to taxpayers, 6 crop subsidies, 20 economic data, 239–240 economic mistakes, 6–7 extravagant spending on, 244–246 increasing drug seizures in the Caribbean, 56–58 meth labs, 206–207 Nixon’s handling of, 254 shifting cocaine traffic from the Caribbean, 56 synthetic drugs, 155–156 targeting drug supply, 241–244 U.S. and Mexican tactics, 36 Welch, Jack, 116 Wells, H.G., 81 wine industry, 195–196 The Wire (television program), 180 women illegal migration, 203–204 prescription painkillers, 210–212 prison populations, 65, 72 World Bank “Doing Business” report, 117–118 World Economic Forum (WEF), 118, 120–122 Zapata, Jaime, 145 Zetas (cartel) Central American corridor, 106 competition over Mexico’s borders, 84 corporate social responsibility, 95 franchising, 136–137, 139–141, 146–147 important figures, 29–30 murder of a U.S. government agent, 145–146 philanthropic activities, 91 public image of, 81–82 territorial control, 144 Courtesy of the author Tom Wainwright is the Britain editor of the Economist.

pages: 452 words: 110,488

The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead by David Callahan


1960s counterculture, affirmative action, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, fixed income, forensic accounting, full employment, game design, greed is good, high batting average, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, McMansion, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old-boy network, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game

If you're a landlord in New York City, with its perpetual housing crisis, you'll be tempted to cut all sorts of corners because you know that these days the city has the resources to send out investigators only if there's a flood or a collapse, leaving much illegal behavior unpunished. If you're Wal-Mart, America's biggest company, you'll be tempted to continue the pervasive practice of forcing workers in your stores to put in overtime without paying them for it or using illegal immigrants. While your friends in Washington have not yet closed down the Department of Labor, they've at least kept it on a starvation diet for the past twenty years, leaving its investigators outgunned. If you are fined, the damage is sure to be less than the money you've made by flouting the most elementary of American labor laws. And if you're an accountant like Michael Conway, you may be tempted to let your clients cheat their shareholders by telling multibillion-dollar lies.

pages: 233 words: 75,712

In Defense of Global Capitalism by Johan Norberg


Asian financial crisis, capital controls, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, Gini coefficient, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, Lao Tzu, liberal capitalism, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Naomi Klein, new economy, open economy, profit motive, race to the bottom, rising living standards, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, union organizing, zero-sum game

Over the course of a lifetime, even those getting off to a poor start in a new country generally put more back into society—and the national treasury—than they get out of it. Far from being a drain on public resources, extensive research by economist Julian Simon found that the average legal immigrant receives less from government and pays in a greater amount in taxes than the average native-born citizen. Though calculations for illegal immigrants are more difficult, even here Simon found a likely net benefit to the host society. Summing up his findings, Simon even estimates the rough dollar amount of benefit each new immigrant provides his host country: Evaluating the future stream of differences as one would when evaluating a prospective dam or harbor, the present value of a newly arrived immigrant family discounted at 3% (inflation adjusted) was $20,600 in 1975 dollars, almost two years’ average earnings of a native family; at 6% the present value was $15,800, and $12,400 at 9%. 22 If some immigrants do become permanently dependent on handouts, that merely illustrates one reason to seriously reform our welfare policy and labor market regulations.

pages: 391 words: 97,018

Better, Stronger, Faster: The Myth of American Decline . . . And the Rise of a New Economy by Daniel Gross


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset-backed security, Bakken shale, banking crisis, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demand response, Donald Trump, Frederick Winslow Taylor, high net worth, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, illegal immigration, index fund, intangible asset, intermodal, inventory management, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, LNG terminal, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, money market fund, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk tolerance, risk/return, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, Wall-E, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Most people are not sufficiently anal or disciplined to devise maps that avoid left turns, as UPS does so assiduously. And while returnable cans lying on the side of the road represent free money, few people stop to pick them up. Besides, there’s a degree to which doing more things for yourself can actually detract from efficiency. If Mitt Romney were to mow his own lawn instead of hiring a landscaping company that may (or may not) employ illegal immigrants, it would save him some money, but his time is likely more valuable than that of the landscapers. Growing your own carrots may be satisfying, but it’s not necessarily cheaper than buying them at Stop & Shop. Finally, there are plenty of very large businesses that rely on consumer inefficiency. Having invested heavily to rope consumers into nonefficient spending, they expend a lot of money and effort to keep them there.

pages: 271 words: 83,944

The Sellout: A Novel by Paul Beatty


affirmative action, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, desegregation, El Camino Real, haute couture, illegal immigration, Lao Tzu, late fees, mass incarceration, p-value, publish or perish, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, telemarketer, theory of mind, War on Poverty, white flight, yellow journalism

When Charisma felt that her students needed a counterbalance to the onslaught of disingenuous pride and niche marketing that took place during Black History and Hispanic Heritage Months, I came up with the one-off idea for Whitey Week. Contrary to the appellation, Whitey Week was actually a thirty-minute celebration of the wonders and contributions of the mysterious Caucasian race to the world of leisure. A moment of respite for children forced to participate in classroom reenactments of stories of migrant labor, illegal immigration, and the Middle Passage. Weary and stuffed from being force-fed the falsehood that when one of your kind makes it, it means that you’ve all made it. It took about two days to convert the long-out-of-business brushless car wash on Robertson Boulevard into a tunnel of whiteness. We altered the signs so that the children of Dickens could line up and choose from several race wash options: Regular Whiteness: Benefit of the Doubt Higher Life Expectancy Lower Insurance Premiums Deluxe Whiteness: Regular Whiteness Plus Warnings Instead of Arrests from the Police Decent Seats at Concerts and Sporting Events World Revolves Around You and Your Concerns Super Deluxe Whiteness: Deluxe Whiteness Plus Jobs with Annual Bonuses Military Service Is for Suckers Legacy Admission to College of Your Choice Therapists That Listen Boats That You Never Use All Vices and Bad Habits Referred to as “Phases” Not Responsible for Scratches, Dents, and Items Left in the Subconscious To the whitest music we could think of (Madonna, The Clash, and Hootie & the Blowfish), the kids, dressed in bathing suits and cutoffs, danced and laughed in the hot water and suds.

pages: 339 words: 99,674

Pay Any Price: Greed, Power, and Endless War by James Risen


air freight, airport security, banking crisis, clean water, drone strike, Edward Snowden, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, large denomination, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Stuxnet, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

Crossing the border still means demands for passports and secondary questioning and even searches, and many on both sides have decided to avoid it as much as possible. “They don’t treat locals any better than anybody else,” said an exasperated Karen Jenne. In an ironic twist, Canadian officials moved in late 2012 to close off the Canadian side of Church Street to stop people from illegally entering Canada from America. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police installed a row of flowerpots across the road, because illegal immigrants in the United States were seeking refuge in Canada, which has easier rules for obtaining political asylum. The fortress-like mentality damaged businesses on both sides of the border. Fewer Canadians are willing to cross to shop in downtown Derby Line, and fewer Americans run errands in Stanstead. “Our business from the American side has gone down drastically,” said Amber Stremmelaar, the daughter of the owner of Pizzeria Steve 2002.

Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky


Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden,, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

Coral Davenport, “Paris Deal Would Herald an Important First Step on Climate Change,” New York Times, 29 November 2015.   5. Coral Davenport, “Nations Approve Landmark Climate Accord in Paris,” New York Times, 12 December 2015.   6. Evangelicals heavily dominate the first Republican primary, in Iowa. Polls there show that of likely Republican voters, “nearly six in 10 say climate change is a hoax. More than half want mass deportations of illegal immigrants. Six in 10 would abolish the Internal Revenue Service” (thereby providing a huge gift to the superrich and corporate sector). Trip Gabriel, “Ted Cruz Surges Past Donald Trump to Lead in Iowa Poll,” New York Times, 12 December 2015.   7. Sociologists Rory McVeigh and David Cunningham found that a significant predictor of current Republican voting patterns in the South is the prior existence of a strong chapter of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1960s.

pages: 344 words: 93,858

The Post-American World: Release 2.0 by Fareed Zakaria


affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, new economy, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional, zero-sum game

Is this because of currency manipulation by those countries, or is it more likely a result of fundamental choices we have made as a country to favor consumption over investment and manufacturing? Our fears extend well beyond terrorism and economics. Lou Dobbs, the former CNN commentator, became the spokesman of a paranoid and angry segment of the country, railing against the sinister forces that are overwhelming us. For many on the right, illegal immigrants have become an obsession. The party of free enterprise has dedicated itself to a huge buildup of the state’s police powers to stop people from working. The Democrats are worried about the wages of employees in the United States, but these fears tend to focus on free trade. Though protecting American firms from competition is a sure path to lower productivity, open economic policies are fast losing support within the party.

pages: 315 words: 99,065

The Virgin Way: Everything I Know About Leadership by Richard Branson


barriers to entry, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, clean water, collective bargaining, Costa Concordia, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, index card, inflight wifi, Lao Tzu, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Northern Rock, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, trade route, zero-sum game

The late TV personality and journalist David Frost, who was one of our celebrity guests on the trip, was renowned for commuting across the Atlantic almost every other day. Just before landing I remember him saying to me, ‘You know, Richard, I’ve probably flown across the pond a thousand times but that’s the first trip I’ve ever made standing up all the way with a drink in my hand!’ The other little-known fact about that inaugural flight into New York is that the very first passenger that Virgin Atlantic landed in the USA was an illegal immigrant. When the aircraft door opened at Newark, we were met by a bevy of local officials at the end of the jetway, all of whom I suspect were more than a little curious to see what this rock-and-roll airline actually looked like. There had been stories all week on New York City radio stations about how Boy George would be flying the airplane, that we would likely be met by drug-sniffing dogs and all sorts of nonsense.

pages: 297 words: 83,563

The Bad-Ass Librarians of Timbuktu: And Their Race to Save the World's Most Precious Manuscripts by Joshua Hammer


crowdsourcing, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, pre–internet, trade route, unemployed young men

Wald spent much of his time monitoring a worsening crisis in the oil-rich Niger Delta of Nigeria, where rebel groups and criminals were kidnapping American oil workers and holding them for multimillion-dollar ransoms. Wald also spotted the potential for trouble in what he called the “vast, ungoverned spaces” of the Sahara. Arab racketeers were making tens of millions of dollars a year running cigarettes, drugs, weapons, and illegal immigrants from Mali and Niger to North Africa and across the Mediterranean to Europe. Some smugglers had links to the Islamist rebel groups that had waged a brutal civil war against the Algerian regime in the 1990s in which tens of thousands of civilians had been killed. The nexus of money, weapons, crime, and radical Islam was worrying the Algerians, and the Americans, who passed on intelligence to them and helped them with border surveillance, shared their concern.

pages: 265 words: 93,231

The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine by Michael Lewis


Asperger Syndrome, asset-backed security, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, diversified portfolio, facts on the ground, financial innovation, fixed income, forensic accounting, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, John Meriwether, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, medical residency, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt,, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Robert Bork, short selling, Silicon Valley, the new new thing, too big to fail, value at risk, Vanguard fund, zero-sum game

Charlie was so taken aback, he called to ask them what it meant. "I was like, 'So you're going to go shoot...guns?'" That Sunday afternoon of January 28, at The Gun Store in Las Vegas, it wasn't hard to spot the Bear Stearns CDO salesmen. They came dressed in khakis and polo shirts and were surrounded by burly men in tight black t-shirts who appeared to be taking the day off from hunting illegal immigrants with the local militia. Behind the cash register, the most sensational array of pistols and shotguns and automatic weapons lined the wall. To the right were the targets: a photograph of Osama bin Laden, a painting of Osama bin Laden as a zombie, various hooded al Qaeda terrorists, a young black kid attacking a pretty white woman, an Asian hoodlum waving a pistol. "They put down the Bear Stearns credit card and started buying rounds of ammunition," said Charlie.

pages: 391 words: 106,394

Misspent Youth by Peter F. Hamilton

double helix, forensic accounting, illegal immigration, informal economy, new economy, Ronald Reagan

We must reform our institutions so that business and communities are no longer burdened with excessive regulation and tax; we must modernize the civil service and yes, even the European Parliament, so that elected officials can regain the trust of those who elect us.” Rob Lacey fell silent for a moment. Bedlam erupted among the reporters as they all shouted their questions at him. Was he resigning as prime minister to run his presidential campaign? Did he favor referendums for countries to withdraw from the EU? Would he order the EuroArmy into the Indian-Pakistan security zone to enforce the peace? How was he going to tackle the Russian illegal immigration problem? Were the last whites in South Africa to be evacuated to Europe? Would there be more rejuvenations? What did his wife think about him standing? How would he tackle the radiation leakage from the Ukrainian reactors? Would he ask Stephanie and Sir Mitch to endorse him? What was his economic policy? Rob Lacey held up both hands, still smiling benevolently. “My campaign pledges will be published online at one o’clock this afternoon.

USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Why did it take so long for a territory filled with copper and ranchland to join the Union? Arizonans were seen as troublemakers by the federal government, and for years acquiring their riches wasn’t worth the potential trouble. Cynics might say that Arizonans are still making trouble. In 2010, Arizona’s legislature passed the most restrictive anti-immigration law in the nation, garnering headlines and controversy. How severe was the illegal immigration problem? In 2009, 250,000 illegal immigrants crossed the state’s 350-mile border with Mexico. The legislature wasn’t spurred into action, however, until the mysterious shooting of a popular rancher near the border the following year. Today, the hot-button law, known as SB1070, winds through the court system. The state was shaken in 2011 by the shooting of Democratic Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords during a public appearance.

‘Immigration reform’ has been a Washington buzzword for more than a decade. Some people believe the nation’s current system deals with illegal immigrants too leniently – that walls should be built on the border, immigrants who are here unlawfully should be deported and employers who hire them should be fined. Other Americans think those rules are too harsh – that immigrants who have been here for years working, contributing to society and abiding by the law deserve amnesty. Perhaps they could pay a fine and fill out the paperwork to become citizens while continuing to live here with their families. Despite several attempts, Congress has not been able to pass a comprehensive package addressing illegal immigration, though it has put through various measures to beef up enforcement. Age has a lot to do with Americans’ multicultural tolerance.

Capitalizing on the development, the Santa Fe Railroad lured an ocean of tourists to the West. Modern settlement is closely linked to water use. Following the Reclamation Act of 1902, huge federally funded dams were built to control rivers, irrigate the desert and encourage development. Rancorous debates and disagreements over water rights are ongoing, especially with the phenomenal boom in residential development. Other big issues today are illegal immigration and fiscal solvency. Local Culture The Southwest is one of the most multicultural regions of the country, encompassing a rich mix of Native American, Hispanic and Anglo populations. These groups have all influenced the area’s cuisine, architecture and arts, but the Southwest’s vast Native American reservations offer exceptional opportunities to learn about Native American culture and history.

pages: 1,145 words: 310,655

1967: Israel, the War, and the Year That Transformed the Middle East by Tom Segev


affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, distributed generation, friendly fire, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, invisible hand, mass immigration, open borders, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War, young professional

But Roosevelt’s man arranged for Feinberg to be invited to a small party with Truman, and the two struck up an acquaintance. A few months after this meeting, Roosevelt died and was replaced by Truman. Feinberg had the beginnings of a friendship with the man in the White House. Feinberg now became involved in the efforts to bring Holocaust survivors to Palestine, which was still under British rule. He financed and even personally accompanied ships full of illegal immigrants. He helped purchase arms for protection and once got mixed up in an espionage episode that led to his arrest. In Palestine, Feinberg was asked by the Hagana to deliver a report to Ben-Gurion, who was at the time in Paris. The report had come from Damascus from the journalist-spy Eliyahu Sasson, later the Israeli minister of police. The British, suspicious of the Hagana, arrested Feinberg but released him thanks to his ties with the White House, and he was able to carry out the mission.

Prime Minister Ben-Gurion demanded that Etzel hand over the arms to the newly formed IDF. Negotiations were conducted by Menachem Begin and Levi Eshkol, among others. When talks failed, Ben-Gurion saw the affair as a test of the state’s sovereignty and ordered that the ship be bombarded. †Weisgal also benefited from the matchmaking: a few years later he helped Otto Preminger film the story of the Exodus, the ship of illegal immigrants. The movie starred Paul Newman, with Weisgal himself in the role of Ben-Gurion. It was perhaps the greatest achievement of the Zionist movement’s propaganda efforts, greater even than the actual sailing of the Exodus. United Artists, owned by Krim, distributed the movie and promised the Weizmann Institute a share in the profits of approximately $1 million.165 *He once asked Krim to tell Abe Feinberg that he had decided to support the candidacy of Feinberg’s brother for a judgeship, not neglecting to mention that he was thereby angering other influential Jews in New York.

pages: 523 words: 149,772

Legacy by Greg Bear


illegal immigration, life extension, place-making

At least, I realized with considerably relief, I had not arrived before the human intruders. That would have meant I was truly trapped here, with no chance of returning until they arrived … Or someone came from the Hexamon to get me. I pocketed the scrap. I still could not be sure how much time had passed since the arrival of Lenk and his followers. Four thousand one hundred and fourteen illegal immigrants; as much as three decades between my arrival and theirs. What could they have done to Lamarckia in that time? I pushed through a tangle of purple helixed blades. My feet sank into a grainy, boggy humus littered with pink shells and pebbles. No landing visible; no lights, no sign of river traffic. For a moment, I knelt and dug my fingers into the soil. It felt gritty and resilient at once — grains of sand and spongy corklike cubes half a centimeter on a side, suspended in inky fluid that globbed immiscibly amid drops of clear water.

pages: 473 words: 154,182