illegal immigration

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pages: 196 words: 53,627

Let Them In: The Case for Open Borders by Jason L. Riley

affirmative action, business cycle, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, open borders, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

Human smuggling, document fraud, and corpses in the Arizona desert are other major problems associated with illegal border crossings, and a later chapter will address how U.S. immigration policy might best address those kinds of concerns. Hanson’s paper, however, is narrowly focused on whether our economic welfare is helped or harmed by porous borders. He looks at the fiscal costs and benefits of illegal immigrants and how they compare with those newcomers who use the front door. “This analysis concludes that there is little evidence that legal immigration is economically preferable to illegal immigration,” writes Hanson. “In fact, illegal immigration responds to market forces in ways that legal immigration does not.” How’s that? To begin with, illegal immigrants are more sensitive to the U.S. business cycle. They tend to come when the economy is expanding, and they can more easily migrate to those areas of the country where job growth is fastest because they’re not bound to a single employer.

Medicaid enrollment, by contrast, has since increased—as of 2004, it was up by more than 30 percent since 1994—mainly because states have elected to exercise their option to continue coverage and even expand immigrant eligibility. Some immigration detractors, such as Robert Rector of The Heritage Foundation, claim that even though illegal immigrants themselves don’t qualify for federal welfare benefits, their U.S.-born children, who are citizens, do. Therefore, according to Rector, illegal immigration is indirectly driving welfare caseloads. Sounds plausible, but is it true? Between 1995 and 2004, America’s illegal immigration population is estimated to have doubled to around 12 million. Yet Peter Wehner and Yuval Levin report in the December 2007 issue of Commentary magazine that welfare caseloads over that period are not just down but down dramatically. “Since the high-water mark in 1994, the national welfare caseload has declined by 60 percent.

They’ve gradually moved into other industries, such as construction, hospitality, and health care. Today, just 4 percent of illegal immigrants work in farming, and growers face regular labor shortages. We’re also wasting a lot of money. To appreciate how much, consider this observation from Gordon Hanson, an economist at the University of California at San Diego: For the sake of argument, take literally the estimate that illegal immigration was costing the economy the equivalent of 0.07 percent of GDP annually as of 2002. In that year, the Immigration and Naturalization Service spent $4.2 billion (or 0.04 percent of GDP) on border and interior enforcement, including the detention and removal of illegal aliens, in a year in which half a million net new illegal immigrants entered the country. The $13 billion in proposed border security spending for next year [2008] is already two-and-a half times that figure at 0.10 percent of GDP.


pages: 219 words: 62,816

"They Take Our Jobs!": And 20 Other Myths About Immigration by Aviva Chomsky

affirmative action, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, call centre, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, European colonialism, full employment, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, invisible hand, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mass incarceration, new economy, out of africa, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

Many thanks to Shuya Ohno at MIRA (Massachusetts Immigrant and Refugee Advocacy Coalition) for connecting me to Gayatri Patnaik, who really deserves much of the credit for this book coming into existence at all; she and her colleagues at Beacon Press have all been a pleasure to work with. NOTES A NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY 1. Paul Colford, “‘Illegal Immigrant’ No More,” Associated Press, April 2, 2013, https://blog.ap.org/announcements/illegal-immigrant-no-more; Rui Kaneya, “‘Illegal,’ ‘Undocumented,’ or Something Else? No Clear Consensus Yet,” Columbia Journalism Review, December 23, 2014, http://archives.cjr.org/united_states_project/illegal_immigrant_or_undocumented.php. INTRODUCTION, 2018 1. See Muzaffar Chishti, Sarah Pierce, and Jessica Bolter, “The Obama Record on Deportations: Deporter in Chief or Not?,” Migration Policy Institute, January 26, 2017, http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/obama-record-deportations-deporter-chief-or-not. 2 John Morton, “Memorandum,” June 17, 2011, https://www.ice.gov/doclib/secure-communities/pdf/prosecutorial-discretion-memo.pdf. 3.

Brent Haydamack and Daniel Flaming, “Hopeful Workers, Marginal Jobs: LA’s Off-the-Books Labor Force,” Economic Roundtable, with Pascale Joassart, December 2005, synopsis available at www.economicrt.org/summaries/hopeful_workers_marginal_jobs_synopsis.html. 3. Eduardo Porter, “Illegal Immigrants are Bolstering Social Security with Billions,” New York Times, April 5, 2005. 4. Porter, “Illegal Immigrants are Bolstering Social Security.” MYTH 5: IMMIGRANTS ARE A DRAIN ON THE ECONOMY 1. Steven A. Camarota, “The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal Budget,” Center for Immigration Studies, August 2004, 7, www.cis.org/articles/2004/fiscal.pdf. 2. Camarota, “High Cost of Cheap Labor.” 3. Sarah Beth Coffey, “Undocumented Immigrants in Georgia: Tax Contributions and Fiscal Concerns,” Georgia Budget and Policy Institute, January 2006, www.gbpi.org/pubs/garevenue/20060119.pdf. 4.

MYTH 7 THE RULES APPLY TO EVERYONE, SO NEW IMMIGRANTS NEED TO FOLLOW THEM JUST AS IMMIGRANTS IN THE PAST DID One of the most oft-repeated—and most puzzling—comments regarding the debate on immigration goes something like this: “I’m not against immigration, but I’m against illegal immigration. New immigrants should play by the rules, like our parents and forebears did.” The sentiment reveals a lot about how we’ve been taught to think about U.S. history: we’ve been taught to think of this as a country of white, voluntary immigrants. The history of people who don’t fall into that category is incidental, rather than central, to the story we learn in school. “The rules,” though, were different for Europeans than for Africans, Asians, and Native Americans. For the latter, “the rules” meant enslavement, exclusion, and conquest. What the people (generally of European origin) who point to “the rules” ignore, moreover, is that when their parents and grandparents came to the United States, they in fact did exactly what so-called “illegal” immigrants are doing today.


pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

. ** Figures are for the period January 1, 2008–September 30, 2008. Source: Irish Government—Department of Enterprise, Trade, and Employment, Dublin. In addition to the above and in the period since 1996 a number of additional laws relating to immigration have been passed: the Immigration Act (1999), which sets out the grounds for deportations; the Illegal Immigrants (Trafficking) Act (2000), which creates offences offenses in relation to facilitating illegal immigration; the Immigration Act (2003), which stipulates the sanctions for carriers of illegal immigrants, and introduces an obligation on state departments to share information on nonnationals for the purpose of administering immigration law, the Ireland 213 Table 14-4. Work Permits Issued by Nationality. 1999–2001 Nationality 1999 2000 2001 Total Australia Belarus Bangladesh Brazil Bulgaria Canada China Czech Republic Estonia India Latvia Lithuania Malaysia Moldova New Zealand Pakistan Philippines Poland Romania Russian Fed.

Eight amnesty programs in the United States between 1986 and 2000 allowed over five million unauthorized workers to come out of the shadows, yet these programs are believed to have ‘‘failed’’ as they have not provided a satisfactory solution to the problem. Other nations, such as France and Spain, also write of ‘‘border controls,’’ some suggest methods of deporting/repatriating illegal immigrants (Ireland, Israel, South Africa, United States), and yet others have a means to amnesty and citizenship (Greece and Thailand). Others merely speak of policies that ‘‘regulate’’ illegal immigration (China, Brazil, Spain). Several of these measures are short-term minimal resolutions to the dilemma of this population. France and the UK indicate stringent approaches and punitive policies for the control of illegal immigration and residence. Russia recognizes the presence of a large undocumented population and a shadow economy and is also aware that this group is often protected by criminal organizations as it receives no support from Russian law enforcement.

Until 2007 the ‘‘50:50 balance’’ between the totality of the exUSSR countries and ‘‘old’’ foreign states that might seem surprising was mainly the result of widespread practices of unregistered employment of labor migrants from Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries. Illegality is in fact one of the major characteristics of migration inflows to Russia. Illegal Immigration The dominant type of immigration to Russia, illegal immigration is very diversified. It consists of the following major inflows (Krasinets et al., 2000:80–82): (1) The citizens of the ex-USSR countries who come to Russia in quest of jobs and/or residence. Visa-free regimes based on bilateral and multilateral agreements between most post-Soviet countries allow them to cross the boundaries legally. Russia has signed agreements on visafree entry with all the CIS states except Georgia and Turkmenistan.


pages: 691 words: 203,236

Whiteshift: Populism, Immigration and the Future of White Majorities by Eric Kaufmann

4chan, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, anti-globalists, augmented reality, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, imperial preference, income inequality, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Lyft, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, open borders, phenotype, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steven Pinker, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, twin studies, uber lyft, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, working-age population, World Values Survey, young professional

In 1990, recognizing reality, a new immigration act raised the official immigration cap from 270,000 to 675,000 per year while more than doubling employment-related visas and creating the H-1B programme for high-skilled immigrants.31 The IRCA amnesty may or may not have acted as an incentive for others to try their luck crossing the border. Alternatively, it may be that lofty legislation made little difference to the inflow, since apprehensions of illegal immigrants on the southern border continued at around 1 million per year.32 Against the backdrop of rising illegal immigration and legal admissions, the Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) was founded in 1978. The organization sought to ‘end illegal immigration’ and to ‘set legal immigration at the lowest feasible levels consistent with the demographic, economic, and social realities of the present’. It eschewed ethnic quotas in favour of numerical limits, calling for a temporary moratorium on immigration to facilitate assimilation.

Despite the anti-immigration sentiment which rapid immigration usually produces, the rising liberalism of the Boomers was able to exert a countervailing influence on immigration attitudes. Later in the book, and in the online blog, I consider more rigorous evidence for this claim. IMMIGRATION POLITICS IN THE POST-1965 PERIOD Legal and illegal immigration rose steadily from 300,000 per year in 1965 to 500,000 in the 1970s and 750,000 in the 1980s. This spurred anti-immigration organizing by the 1980s, but produced only a modest public response. In legislative terms, discussion focused only on illegal immigration. Some legislators pushed for employer sanctions to punish those who knowingly hired unauthorized workers. Liberals argued that regularizing the status of the undocumented was necessary for them to become productive citizens but this had not become a partisan issue.

California, on the frontline of undocumented immigration, is one of several states which permits citizens to raise popular initiatives (referendums) when a threshold of signatures is obtained. However, no ballot initiative had ever been held on immigration, which was deemed to be a federal matter. In 1994 FAIR helped coordinate grassroots organizations like Voice of Citizens Together (VCT) and Americans Against Illegal Immigration (AAII) to gather the necessary signatures to support the initiative they dubbed ‘Save Our State’ (SOS). As a state ballot, Proposition 187 was not about border enforcement, a federal matter. Rather, its stated goal was to deny public services to illegal immigrants. In addition to acting as a deterrent, the measure would serve as a powerful symbol of local opposition to undocumented immigration. Despite its security and economic rationale, there was an important streak of white ethno-traditionalism among grassroots 187 activists.


The New Class War: Saving Democracy From the Metropolitan Elite by Michael Lind

affirmative action, anti-communist, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, future of work, global supply chain, guest worker program, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, liberal world order, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Nate Silver, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, union organizing, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor

Denying employers the ability to pit different groups of workers against one another also makes it necessary to enact amnesties for illegal immigrants in countries like the US where large numbers of unauthorized foreign nationals, allowed to settle in the country by corrupt politicians in the interest of economic elites, are de facto citizens. Rewarding foreign nationals for violating immigration laws is an evil. But it is the lesser of two evils, compared to allowing employers to have continuing access to large pools of illegal immigrant workers who can be mistreated and intimidated. Like legal immigrants, amnestied illegal immigrants without criminal records should be made citizens as rapidly as possible to deny employers access to workers who cannot vote. Needless to say, the purpose of an amnesty in denying firms and households access to a split labor market would be thwarted, if future illegal immigration were not adequately deterred, chiefly by reducing the demand for it by means of severe penalties on law-breaking employers.

While denouncing bigotry against immigrants, the commission called for reducing legal immigration, shifting the basis of immigration away from family relationships toward skills, and promoting the integration of immigrants.7 In the words of the chair of the commission, Barbara Jordan, the first African American woman from the South to be elected to Congress, “The commission finds no national interest in continuing to import lesser skilled and unskilled workers to compete in the most vulnerable parts of our labor force.”8 Jordan also rejected efforts to blur the distinction between legal and illegal immigration: “To make sense about the national interest in immigration, it is necessary to make distinctions between those who obey the law, and those who violate it. Therefore, we disagree, also, with those who label our efforts to control illegal immigration as somehow inherently anti-immigrant. Unlawful immigration is unacceptable.”9 A generation later, most of the policies proposed by the Jordan Commission are supported by the populist Republican right and denounced by growing numbers of self-described “progressive” Democrats for whom any enforcement of immigration laws is inherently unjust.

The incompatibility of the welfare state with mass immigration was noted by the libertarian economist Milton Friedman: “If you have a welfare state, if you have a state in which every resident is promised a certain minimum level of income, or a minimum level of subsistence, regardless of whether he works or not, produces it or not. Then [free immigration] really is an impossible thing.” Friedman callously welcomed illegal immigration—but only as long as illegal immigrants were ineligible for welfare: “But it’s only good so long as it’s illegal. . . . Make it legal and it’s no good. Why? Because as long as it’s illegal the people who come in do not qualify for welfare, they don’t qualify for social security, they don’t qualify for the other myriad of benefits.”16 His ideological opposite, the progressive economist Paul Krugman, agrees with Friedman’s political point.


pages: 316 words: 91,969

Gray Lady Down: What the Decline and Fall of the New York Times Means for America by William McGowan

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, corporate governance, David Brooks, different worldview, East Village, friendly fire, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, medical residency, New Journalism, obamacare, payday loans, postnationalism / post nation state, pre–internet, uranium enrichment, yellow journalism, young professional

Then he drove to a more secluded location, where he raped and beat her again, this time trying to kill her by hitting her with tree branches and trying to gouge out her eyes. The victim played dead, and later crawled to a nearby house for help. Despite the heinousness of the crime, the Times chose not to cover it, even though it routinely covers other developments in New Haven, including the controversies over granting identity cards to illegal immigrants, and the immigrant community’s fears over federal raids on illegal immigrants with outstanding arrest warrants. • The Times did a piece on how happy immigrant parents were with ethnically themed public charter schools, dismissing concerns about assimilation by quoting ethnic studies professors saying that these parents were being “as American as apple pie.” Meanwhile, the paper has ignored the workings of a Muslim charter school outside Minneapolis where public monies are being spent to advance an Islamist agenda.

The second driver is an intellectual and journalistic framework that romanticizes “the Other” and shrugs off the question of a Latinization or Islamization of American culture as if it were meaningless. Like other liberal institutions, the Times puts the “human rights” of illegal immigrants ahead of the collective right of ordinary American citizens to decide who should be allowed to immigrate and who should not—thereby essentially voiding one of the most fundamental aspects of any country’s sovereignty. At the Times, pressure has steadily increased to erase the distinction between “legal” and “illegal” immigration. As Randal Archibold wrote in April 2006, there is “the awkward question of who is legal and how much it should matter.” Officially, the paper’s style guide says a distinction should be made, but the newsroom reflects a calculated confusion.

Sometimes headlines will use the word “migrant”; the text of reports may use “undocumented worker,” “undocumented migrant,” or “immigrants who are undocumented.” The Times rarely uses the term “illegal alien.” A 2004 story headlined “160 Migrants Seized at Upscale Arizona Home” was obviously about illegal immigrants being smuggled into the country, but the headline refused to say so. One editorial writer, Lawrence Downes, gave an explanation for the evasive vocabulary when he wrote that “America has a big problem with illegal immigration, but a big part of it stems from the word ‘illegal.’ It pollutes the debate. It blocks solutions. Used dispassionately and technically, there is nothing wrong with it. Used as an irreducible modifier for a large and largely decent group of people, it is badly damaging. And as a code word for racial and ethnic hatred, it is detestable.”


pages: 177 words: 50,167

The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics by John B. Judis

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, Winter of Discontent

Washington needs to get tough and fight for ‘We the People,’ not for the special interests who want cheap labor and a minority voting bloc.” In the 2016 campaign, he not only opposed illegal immigration, but favored deportation. His case against illegal immigration was partly economic—they drove down wages and raised social costs—but also socio-cultural—they were a cause of crime. He proposed that Mexico finance a wall with its trade surplus from the United States to stop illegal immigration. Trump’s views on immigration displayed a special animus toward Mexican Americans. Trump described Mexico as sending America people who bring “crime” and “drugs” and who are “rapists.” He described a judge in a lawsuit brought against Trump University as a “Mexican,” even though he was born in Indiana, and called for him to step down from the case.

Seniors on Medicare, who had paid for their insurance, would also see their benefits reduced in order to cover the cost of the Affordable Care Act. Emily Ekins, who did extensive interviews with Tea Party members, writes that the Tea Partiers “tended to view the ACA as a redistributive transfer program that they would be disproportionately responsible for funding.” Tea Partiers viewed illegal immigration the same way. In their interviews, Skocpol and Williamson report, “the major concern was the illegitimate and costly use of government funds and services by illegal immigrants.” Many of the local Tea Party groups were part of the tradition of American populism and reflected opposition from the right to the neoliberal consensus. They objected to the residual elements of New Deal liberalism that neoliberalism had retained, even those popular among Republicans. If anything, they were a throwback to the Jacksonian proto-populists.

In his campaign book, he wrote: America is experiencing serious social and economic difficulty with illegal immigrants who are flooding across our borders. We simply can’t absorb them. . . . The majority of legal immigrants can often make significant contributions to our society because they have special skills and because they add to our nation’s cultural diversity. . . . But legal immigrants do not and should not enter easily. It’s a long, costly, draining, and often frustrating experience—by design. . . . It comes down to this: We must take care of our own people first. Our policy to people born elsewhere should be clear: Enter by the law, or leave. Trump did not waver from this stance over the next 16 years. In his 2011 book, he wrote, “Illegal immigration is a wrecking ball aimed at U.S. taxpayers. Washington needs to get tough and fight for ‘We the People,’ not for the special interests who want cheap labor and a minority voting bloc.”


pages: 256 words: 75,139

Divided: Why We're Living in an Age of Walls by Tim Marshall

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, end world poverty, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, openstreetmap, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, the built environment, trade route, unpaid internship, urban planning

Part of the problem is that there are still opportunities in the USA – not just for those looking for employment but also for unscrupulous employers willing to exploit their workers, and here we face one aspect of the hypocrisy behind some of the anti-immigrant arguments. Countless American companies, big and small, employ huge numbers of illegal immigrants, pay them little, give them no legal rights, and hide their presence from the authorities. The government could begin to arrest lots of American management teams that knowingly hire illegal immigrants. How popular this move would be with companies that rely on cheap labour for construction contracts and fruit picking is another matter. Ultimately, very few barriers are impenetrable. People are resourceful, and those desperate enough will find a way around, under or over them. Extra barriers simply push would-be illegal immigrants further and further into unguarded, unpopulated areas. These are often in the desert and usually have to be crossed on foot, meaning that thousands of people die from exposure as they attempt to make it to the Promised Land.

However, the BJP has dragged its heels, well aware that, although Muslim immigration is the greater concern for many voters in the border states, there are degrees of hostility to all outsiders. Many supporters of the BJP government take a robust view of what is required and demand policies that might appear harsh to some people. These include criminal proceedings against anyone harbouring an illegal immigrant, and banning illegal immigrants from working if they do not voluntarily register themselves with the authorities. In the 2014 national election campaign Narendra Modi, the BJP leader, repeatedly promised that he would tighten border controls and warned illegal immigrants from Bangladesh that they needed to have their ‘bags packed’. He went on to become prime minister. In 2017 the BJP president, Amit Shah, accused politicians in the opposition Congress Party, who are against deportations, of wanting to make Assam state a part of Bangladesh.

Within a few years, the European nations could have more miles of walls, fences and barriers on their borders than there were at the height of the Cold War. They began by separating Greece and Macedonia, Macedonia and Serbia, and Serbia and Hungary, and, as we became less shocked by each stretch of barbed wire, others followed suit – Slovenia began building on the Croatian border, the Austrians fenced off Slovenia, Sweden put up barriers to prevent illegal immigrants crossing from Denmark, while Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have all started defensive fortifications on their borders with Russia. Europe is certainly not alone: the United Arab Emirates has built a fence along the border with Oman, Kuwait likewise with Iraq. Iraq and Iran maintain a physical divide, as do Iran and Pakistan – all 435 miles of it. In Central Asia Uzbekistan, despite being landlocked, has closed itself off from its five neighbours, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan.


pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, longitudinal study, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Absent the immigrants, the farm jobs would disappear too, along with an array of jobs from the fields to the packing plant. We would import the asparagus and the strawberries instead. Illegal immigrants do affect prices in the United States. One study calculated that the surge in immigration experienced between 1980 and 2000 reduced the average price of services such as housekeeping or gardening by more than 9 percent, mainly by undercutting wages. Still, it had a negligible impact on natives’ wages because poor illegal immigrants compete in the job market with other poor illegal immigrants. Immigration policy has always been determined by who bears its costs and who draws its benefits. Illegal immigrants are tolerated by the political system because their cheap labor is useful for agribusiness and other industries. It provides affordable nannies to middle-class Americans.

To bring his children into the United States through a checkpoint, he would have to work longer to earn the price of passage. But it would lower the risk that his children would perish along the way. The debate among Americans about illegal immigration is itself a discussion about prices. Critics charge that illegal immigrants lower the price of natives’ labor by offering to do the job for less. They argue that immigrants impose a burden on natives when they consume public services, like education for their children and emergency medical care. These arguments are weaker than they seem. Most illegal immigrants work on the books using false IDs, and have taxes withheld from their paychecks like any other worker. They can’t draw benefits from most government programs. And there is scant evidence that immigrants lower the wages of American workers.

This suggests that despite presidential lip service to the need to reform immigration law, nothing much is likely to be done. Creating a legal path for illegal immigrants to work in the United States would be politically risky and could provide a big incentive for more illegal flows. By contrast, cutting illegal immigration entirely would be prohibitively costly. The status quo is too comfortable to bear tinkering like that. The ebb and flow of immigration will continue to be determined by potential immigrants’ measuring the prospect of a minimum-wage job—perhaps a first step up the ladder of prosperity—against the costs imposed by the harsh border. The price may occasionally be too high. As joblessness soared following the financial crisis of 2008, many potential immigrants decided to stay at home. The Department of Homeland Security estimates the illegal immigrant population dropped by 1 million from its peak in 2007 to 10.8 million in 2009.


pages: 350 words: 109,521

Our 50-State Border Crisis: How the Mexican Border Fuels the Drug Epidemic Across America by Howard G. Buffett

airport security, clean water, collective bargaining, defense in depth, Donald Trump, illegal immigration, immigration reform, linked data, low skilled workers, moral panic

., Passel, J. S., and Cohn, D. (2017, April 27). 5 Facts about Illegal Immigration in the U.S. Pew Research. Retrieved October 18, 2017, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/27/5-facts-about-illegal-immigration-in-the-u-s. 3 Yee, V., Davis, K., and Patel, J. (2017, March 6). Here’s the Reality about Illegal Immigrants in the United States. New York Times. Retrieved October 18, 2017, from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/03/06/us/politics/undocumented-illegal-immigrants.html. 4 Gonzalez-Barrera, A., and Krogstad, J. M. (2017, March 2). What We Know about Illegal Immigration from Mexico. Pew Research. Retrieved October 18, 2017, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/03/02/what-we-know-about-illegal-immigration-from-mexico/. 5 Krogstad, J. M., and Passel, J. S. (2014, December 30).

Trump Pardons Joe Arpaio, Who Became Face of Crackdown on Illegal Immigration. New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/25/us/politics/joe-arpaio-trump-pardon-sheriff-arizona.html. 12 Krogstad, J. M., Passel, J. S., and Cohn, D. (2017, April 27). 5 Facts about Illegal Immigration in the U.S. Pew Research Center. Retrieved October 4, 2017, from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/27/5-facts-about-illegal-immigration-in-the-u-s. 13 Mejia, B., Carcamo, C., and Knoll, C. (2017, February 9). L.A., Orange Counties Are Home to 1 Million Immigrants Who Are in the Country Illegally, Analysis Shows. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 13, 2017, from http://www.latimes.com/local/lanow/la-me-illegal-immigration-los-angeles-20170208-story.html. 14 Zamora, L. Sanctuary Cities and Immigration Detainers: A Primer. (2017, April 25).

Wilmot, Yuma County Sheriff, Arizona, before the House Committee on Homeland Security Hearing “Ending the Crisis: America’s Borders and the Path to Security” on February 7, 2017. 9 Yuma County Chamber of Commerce. Agriculture. Retrieved October 5, 2017, from http://www.yumachamber.org/agriculture.html. 10 Partlow, J. (2014, February 10). Under Operation Streamline, Fast-Track Proceedings for Illegal Immigrants. Washington Post. Retrieved October 14, 2017, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/the_americas/under-operation-streamline-fast-track-proceedings-for-illegal-immigrants/2014/02/10/87529d24-919d-11e3-97d3-f7da321f6f33_story.html. Chapter 10. Red Shoes in Honduras 1 Colibri Center. (n.d.). About Us. Retrieved October 16, 2017, from http://www.colibricenter.org/about-us. 2 Beatrice, J. S., and Soler, A. (2016). Skeletal Indicators of Stress: A Component of the Biocultural Profile of Undocumented Migrants in Southern Arizona.


pages: 278 words: 93,540

The Full Catastrophe: Travels Among the New Greek Ruins by James Angelos

bank run, Berlin Wall, centre right, death of newspapers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, income inequality, moral hazard, plutocrats, Plutocrats, urban planning

The law was unpopular, however, with the large number of Greeks who believe that “one is born Greek and does not become Greek,” as it’s commonly put. When he was campaigning for the premiership in the spring of 2012, Antonis Samaras, the leader of New Democracy, vowed to abolish the law, which he called a “magnet for illegal immigrants.” A lot of people seemed to approve of this thinking. At a Samaras campaign rally I attended in Athens, his repeated calls for growth-oriented economic policies were not met with nearly as much enthusiasm as his vow to “remove from this place illegal immigrants, who have now become tyrants of the society.” Samaras, around this time, also called the influx of illegal immigrants an “unarmed invasion” and said his election would mean the end of a state that took care of foreigners and forsook its own citizens. After Samaras’s election, parts of the citizenship law he campaigned against were deemed unconstitutional by the country’s highest administrative court.

Underneath appeared a picture of the Germans entering Athens in 1941, and next to it, a picture of Muslims in the street holding up the Koran. The text urged Greeks to resist the migrants as they had resisted the Nazis: “Hellenes. The invader illegal immigrants are within Athens. Brothers! Keep well inside your souls the spirit of freedom. The invaders entered without resistance with the help of ethnic nihilists of our terrorized city. Hellenes! Your hearts high!” The time had come for a “counterattack,” declared the third edition, calling for “EVERYONE IN THE STREETS to defeat the tyrants of our people.” Underneath another picture of an overcrowded boat of migrants, it said: “They aren’t illegal immigrants. They are the fifth column. Among them are found trained commando-saboteurs that impersonate poor illegal immigrants, and at the right moment, they will take an order from the globalizers for enemy actions against our country.”

At the time of the 2012 elections, Greece was in an acute phase of its debt crisis and teetering on the edge of a euro exit that would have sown sudden and profound economic chaos. It was therefore curious that, with such pressing issues at hand, the citizenship law and illegal immigration played such a prominent role in the election campaigning. This no doubt had to do with the rise of Golden Dawn, which gained a great deal of political traction almost solely due to its anti-immigration rhetoric. Other parties felt the need to compete. The tough talk was not limited to the right wing. In the run-up to the elections, the PASOK minister overseeing the police, Michalis Chrisochoidis, vowed to round up 30,000 illegal immigrants and place them in old military bases. He also announced plans to construct a barbwire fence along several miles of the Evros River Valley border, an idea European officials referred to as “pointless,” arguing that migrants would simply find another way in.


pages: 361 words: 97,787

The Curse of Cash by Kenneth S Rogoff

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, cryptocurrency, debt deflation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial intermediation, financial repression, forward guidance, frictionless, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, moveable type in China, New Economic Geography, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, RFID, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, unconventional monetary instruments, underbanked, unorthodox policies, Y2K, yield curve

Nevertheless, with the huge continuing influx of illegal workers in the United States and other advanced economies, exploitation of migrant workers remains a pressing issue. Illegal immigration is a cash-intensive process, and the existence of cash makes it far harder for countries to control their borders. First, migrants typically pay smugglers in cash to bring them across the border: $1,000–$3,500 per individual to cross from Mexico to the United States, and $3,000–$10,000 to go from Central Asia to Western Europe, according to a 2011 Financial Action Task Force Report.49 Second and far more important, businesses that choose to rely on illegal immigrant workers can pay them in cash to reduce the risk of detection. It is this final demand from employers that ultimately fuels a large part of illegal immigration.50 The extent of illegal immigration varies tremendously across countries; for one thing, it is much more difficult for immigrants to blend into some countries than into others.

These all carry their risks and costs, however, and government policy can be directed toward magnifying these risks and costs. Controlling borders is likely to become an ever-increasing problem in the future, and improved control has to be listed as a major potential benefit of phasing out cash or restricting its use. That said, any plan to fully phase out cash will need to address the problem of providing amnesty to the existing illegal immigrants. Allowing time to deal with illegal immigration is one of many reasons the proposal in chapter 7 leaves smaller notes in circulation for an indefinite period. To be clear, I strongly favor allowing increased legal migration into advanced economies. Any economist who takes income and wealth inequality seriously realizes that, despite the enormous progress of the past three decades, differences across countries simply swamp the within-country inequality that Thomas Piketty and others worry about.

But tackling the idea seriously takes us on a wide-ranging journey across all the ways that paper currency touches our lives, some concrete, some practical, some extraordinarily abstract. Though there are ever so many ways this topic can be sensationalized and politicized, I try to take a balanced tone throughout, highlighting both the advantages and the risks. This is not an easy task, as many topics are highly emotional. For example, what one person sees as illegal immigration, another might see as an escape mechanism for those fleeing from persecution and extreme poverty. Where does one draw the line between the government’s right to enforce tax laws and the public’s right to privacy? Regardless of readers’ initial prejudices, I suspect many will find the facts presented in this book sobering, and many of the arguments for preserving paper currency in its current form more superficial and less compelling than they might seem.


pages: 296 words: 78,112

Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency by Joshua Green

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, coherent worldview, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate raider, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Fractional reserve banking, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, low skilled workers, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, urban planning

.* But as he navigated the fever swamps of the right, Trump quickly became attuned to the roiling grassroots anger over illegal immigration, which was very much coming from the right. “It was intuitive by him,” said Sam Nunberg, the former Trump adviser, “to use immigration as a new wedge issue.” Recognizing that his base of support would never come from genteel, country-club Republicans, Trump felt free to abandon niceties and embrace the same mean-spiritedness for which he had just criticized Romney. “He digests this stuff,” said Nunberg. “He knew who his audience was going to be—it was not going to be people who want to have policy debates. It was going to be older people, people who work with their hands.” The political fault line Trump stumbled across was one that had lurked beneath the surface of Republican politics for a long time. Illegal immigration divided law-and-order conservatives, who wanted to see lawbreaking immigrants deported, from business-minded conservatives, who preferred to maintain a cheap source of labor, held more ecumenical views, and worried about the risks of alienating Latino voters.

He had first been brought into Trump’s orbit years earlier by David Bossie, the veteran Republican operative, to provide informal counsel on a potential presidential bid. At the time, Bannon hadn’t thought much of Trump’s chances and regarded these visits as an adventure and a lark. He doubted that Trump would run. But this hadn’t prevented him from imparting his nationalist worldview—particularly his hostility to illegal immigration—and long before Trump declared his candidacy, the billionaire was reading Breitbart News articles flagged by Bannon and then printed out on paper (Trump’s preferred medium for reading) and delivered to him in a manila folder by his staff. It was no accident that Trump’s formal declaration of his candidacy, on June 16, 2015, took the form of a bitter paean to American nationalism that quickly veered into an attack on Mexican immigrants as criminals and “rapists.”

Although neither of them could have had any inkling of where they would end up, Bannon would provide Trump with two great services in the years ahead—services without which Trump probably wouldn’t be president. First, he supplied Trump with a fully formed, internally coherent worldview that accommodated Trump’s own feelings about trade and foreign threats, what Trump eventually dubbed “America first” nationalism. One aspect in particular that preoccupied Bannon—the menace of illegal immigration—was something Trump would use to galvanize his supporters from the moment he descended the Trump Tower escalator on June 16, 2015, to declare his candidacy. By then, Bannon had left banking and Hollywood to take over the combative right-wing populist website Breitbart News after the death of its founder, Andrew Breitbart, in 2012. Breitbart’s fixation on race, crime, immigration, radical Islam, and the excesses of political correctness—as well as the site’s dark and inflammatory style—did much to shape Trump’s populist inclinations and inform his political vocabulary.


pages: 303 words: 83,564

Exodus: How Migration Is Changing Our World by Paul Collier

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boris Johnson, charter city, Edward Glaeser, experimental economics, first-past-the-post, full employment, game design, George Akerlof, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, mass immigration, moral hazard, open borders, risk/return, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, white flight, zero-sum game

But smugglers who offer such deals must build mechanisms for enforcing the obligation: in effect, illegal immigrants become temporary slaves to their smugglers. Among the limited options for profitable and enforceable slavery, the most obvious is prostitution: illegal immigrants who dreamed of becoming secretaries end up as sex slaves. Once smugglers have such a mechanism of enforcement, why should they stop merely at recovering the notional debt? Slaves are likely to remain slaves until they escape or perish. Once arrived, even if illegal immigrants escape dependence upon people-smugglers, they have few options. To survive they need an income that they cannot legally earn. So illegal immigrants are either driven into the hands of tax-evading employers or must find extralegal self-employment such as crime.

The evidence pointing to such an impossible trinity is sketchy, but be wary of outraged dismissals: social scientists are not immune from systematically biased reasoning. Legalizing Illegal Immigration All controls inevitably induce evasion. Currently, those who successfully evade migration controls become illegal residents, and this illegality gives rise to serious problems such as crime and the black economy. Debates on what to do about illegal immigrants have been as damagingly polarized as the larger migration debate. Social liberals want a one-off granting of full legal status; social conservatives oppose this on the grounds that rewarding evasion would encourage more of it. The result has been deadlock: nothing has been done and meanwhile illegal immigrants have accumulated: in America twelve million of them, in Britain nobody even knows. As I write, the Obama administration is beginning to wrestle with the problem.

The policy package offers an effective and straightforward approach that meets the reasonable concerns of both camps but will presumably outrage the fundamentalists in both. To meet the reasonable concerns of social liberals, it recognizes that evasion is unavoidably a continuing process, so that future flows of illegal immigrants need to be addressed as well as the accumulated stocks. Any granting of rights that claims to be once-and-for-all is a piece of political deception. The package also recognizes that once border controls have been evaded, so that people have succeeded in entering the country illegally, all such migrants must be granted sufficient legal status to be able to work within the official economy. Otherwise, illegal immigrants are a source of further illegality. To meet the reasonable concerns of social conservatives, it involves a penalty for evasion relative to legal entry, does not increase overall migration, and tightens the process for dealing with migrants who choose to remain illegal.


pages: 399 words: 120,226

Dangerous Waters: Modern Piracy and Terror on the High Seas by John S. Burnett

British Empire, cable laying ship, Dava Sobel, defense in depth, Exxon Valdez, Filipino sailors, illegal immigration, Khyber Pass, low earth orbit, Malacca Straits, North Sea oil, South China Sea, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

His wife, Lin Kuo, worked with the INTERPOL office in Taiwan and became the assistant director of the International Chamber of Commerce’s Commercial Crime Bureau. They were a formidable team and became experts in tracing smuggling routes of illegal immigrants aboard phantom ships.43 If not used in cargo fraud, phantom ships are often used to transport human cargo into the U.S., Middle East, Europe, or Australia. “Once in the United States those [immigrants] on board ask for political asylum,” Ellen says. “The crews of the phantom ships, including the captain, are not sent to prison, they are simply sent back home to do it over and over again.” Indeed, smuggling people is as lucrative as smuggling drugs, and safer. There is not the worldwide concern for the transportation of illegal immigrants as there is for shipping narcotics, and in the unlikely event the organizers are caught, the penalties are much lighter.

There is not the worldwide concern for the transportation of illegal immigrants as there is for shipping narcotics, and in the unlikely event the organizers are caught, the penalties are much lighter. She-tou, the Snakeheads, so called because of the creative smuggling routes that snake from country to country before entering the United States, have bases in Hong Kong, Fujian Province on the southern Chinese mainland, Europe, the U.S., and Canada. They have successfully smuggled several hundred thousand illegal immigrants into the United States and Canada over the past ten years, either by air or by sea aboard previously pirated ships. Many of the illegal immigrants pay the Snakehead organizations in Hong Kong and Fujian up to $35,000 for the passage. If a vessel founders or is arrested, it is of little concern to the syndicates; money for the passage already has been collected or pledged by the families who remain back in China. If the would-be immigrants make it to the promised land alive, they are bought or rented by Asian-owned businesses in the U.S. and Canada as indentured labor; they will spend the rest of their lives working in sweatshops like those in Little Fuzhou, on East Broadway, New York City, earning a couple dollars a day for piecework.

Vibro cholerae, the bacterium responsible for cholera, was found in the ballast water of all ships tested after entering the Chesapeake Bay from foreign ports. Chapter 11 34 There are 2 million illegal immigrants in Malaysia of a population of 23 million. Most of these have been spirited across the Malacca Straits from Indonesia during the past ten years. There is no other practical way to get into Malaysia except through Thailand and that is rarely done; Thais are a different people with different religion, language, and appearance. In January 2002 two police boats, pursuing an Indonesian longboat carrying fifty-four illegal immigrants including several women, were bombarded with firebombs. When police attempted to board, they were attacked by the desperate immigrants armed with parangs and axes. 35 These boats exchange cut timber, copra, and palm oil from Indonesia for cartons of soft drinks, live chickens, and kerosene in Malaysia, an age-old tradition of commerce between the two nations. 36 Article 105 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) allows the seizure of a pirate ship or aircraft: On the high seas, or in any other place outside the jurisdiction of any State, every State may seize a pirate ship or aircraft taken by piracy and under the control of pirates and arrest the persons and seize the property on board.


pages: 208 words: 51,277

Chicken: The Dangerous Transformation of America's Favorite Food by Steve Striffler

clean water, collective bargaining, corporate raider, illegal immigration, immigration reform, longitudinal study, market design, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile

No one bothers me. I don’t know, maybe the Getting Here 107 INS will pick me up one day, but I don’t think about it. I have almost ten years [in poultry]. Really, there is nothing in Mexico for me. But still, I would like to return.26 Tighter border control, which began in the mid-s, has done little to stop illegal immigration. Between , when the Immigration Reform and Control Act was enacted, and , INS funding increased eightfold and Border Patrol funding sixfold. Yet, the number of illegal immigrants doubled during the same period and is growing by an estimated , a year. What tighter border control did do was make the passage more expensive and more dangerous for immigrants. As a result, once immigrants finally arrive in the United States they stay longer. Prior to the shift, immigrants stayed an average of two and a half years, often cycling in and out of the United States.

Greg Farrell, “Tyson Recruited Illegals, INS Says,” USA Today, Dec. , . . These figures are notoriously difficult to calculate, in part because fake documents are relatively easy to acquire. Percentages of course vary depending on region and even plant. But somewhere between one-quarter and one-third is considered likely. . Sherri Day,“Jury Clears Tyson Foods in Use of Illegal Immigrants,” New York Times, Mar. , . . Bill Poovey, “Tyson Indictments Leave Some Illegal Immigrants Stranded,” Associated Press (), www.imdiversity.com/villages/hispanic/ Article_ Detail.asp?Article_ID=. . As David Griffith points out, many companies encourage workers (often with financial incentives) to recruit their family and friends. See Griffith, Jones’s Minimal, pp. –. For an informative account of worker recruitment and travel to poultry producing regions, see Jesse Katz, “The Chicken Trail,” Los Angeles Times, Nov. –, . .

By transforming poultry-processing plants and other workplaces, immigrants have also changed much of America’s heartland in the South and Midwest during the past quarter century. The influence of industrial poultry extends into our communities, schools, and churches. Chapter  focuses on a legal case—well covered in the media—in which Tyson Foods was indicted by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) for smuggling illegal immigrants into the country in order to work in its processing plants. This admittedly extreme example is perhaps most significant because it highlights the complexity, and hypocrisy, of the relationship between food and immigration, suggesting that chicken depends on often exploitative sets of social relations. It also demonstrates how much time and resources immigrants spend in order to obtain jobs that most Americans do not want.


pages: 250 words: 83,367

Methland: The Death and Life of an American Small Town by Nick Reding

Alfred Russel Wallace, call centre, crack epidemic, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, trade route, union organizing

Lori Arnold’s description of the reality of many illegal immigrants at the Excel plant—using fake identification, moving from town to town and packing plant to packing plant—sounded a lot like meth’s trajectory around the country as I tried to trace it back in 1999: there, but never quite visible. According to a Pew Hispanic Center report in 2005, there are twelve million illegal immigrants in the United States. Eight hundred and fifty thousand more arrive every year, the report found, along with the fact that 25 percent of all agricultural jobs in the United States are done by illegal immigrants. The link between the agricultural business, meatpacking, and illegal immigration would appear to be self-evident. As University of Missouri sociologist William Heffernan says, “Cracking down on illegal immigration would cripple the [food production] system.”

It’s as simple as that. And when that happens, we’re not only going to lose the six-dollar jobs; we’ll lose the twelve-dollar and the quarter-million-dollar jobs, too. That’s just reality.” When I suggested the often-repeated potential solution of fining companies that employ illegal immigrants while heavily taxing the products of those that move offshore, Souder ignored my suggestion. He instead recited from memory the statistics that had become the pivot points of 2005’s national debate on immigration: three hundred thousand illegal immigrants crossing the Mexican border each year; at least one million undocumented people living in the United States (according to the Pew study, the number is twelve million); rampant identity theft; overburdened hospitals going bankrupt by treating people who can’t pay their medical bills.

Then there was the language barrier. Mexican dealers had a hard time finding customers, despite the fact they employed a strategy of giving away small amounts of highly pure meth in order to create a base of addicts: the same strategy Lori had used on her first night selling crank back in 1984. By 1999, according to both Lori and a former Mexican employee, Ottumwa’s Excel plant had become a clearinghouse for illegal immigrants. That same year, Cargill-Excel placed newspaper advertisements in the poor, industrial border towns of Juárez and Tijuana offering two free months’ rent to workers who could make it to Ottumwa from Mexico. For Cargill and the rest of the packing conglomerates, employing illegals would appear to have been the best of all possible situations, for the simple reason that these employees, lacking legal identification, didn’t technically exist, and therefore had no rights.


Not Working by Blanchflower, David G.

active measures, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clapham omnibus, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, George Akerlof, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, job satisfaction, John Bercow, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, oil shock, open borders, Own Your Own Home, p-value, Panamax, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, quantitative easing, rent control, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, urban planning, working poor, working-age population, yield curve

Brilliant. After all that nonsense, I decided it was time for us to become citizens, so we did. I can only imagine how hard it would be for an illegal immigrant who doesn’t speak the language. Immigration was a huge issue in the Brexit campaign, not least when it was announced just before the vote that net migration had hit a record level of 333,000 in 2015. Prime Minister David Cameron had pledged to get that number down to under 100,000. Feelings are very strong in the United States about immigration and refugees. Donald Trump promised to build a wall along the Mexican border, that Mexico would pay for the deportation of 11 million illegal immigrants, and that he would ban Muslims from entering the United States. Mexicans who came to the United States were rapists, apparently. Immigration was also a major issue in the recent French presidential election.

63 65 52 63 79 87 80 14 According to a Pew Research Center survey conducted just before Election Day on October 25– November 8, about eight in ten Trump supporters who cast ballots or were planning to (79%) said illegal immigration was a “very big” problem in the United States.41 (Twenty percent of Clinton voters responded affirmatively to the same question.) Even more Trump supporters (86%) said the immigration situation in the United States had “gotten worse” since 2008. In the same Pew survey, voters were asked whether they thought particular issues were a “very big problem” in the United States. The chart below lists the percentages of those who responded affirmatively. Illegal immigration Terrorism Job opportunities for working-class Americans Crime Job opportunities for all Americans Conditions of roads, bridges, infrastructure Affordability of a college education Racism Gap between rich and poor Gun violence Climate change Clinton supporters 20 42 45 38 43 46 66 53 72 73 66 Trump supporters 79 74 63 55 58 36 38 21 33 31 14 A CBS News poll taken in March 2018 asked registered voters, “Do you favor or oppose building a wall along the U.S.

Jenna Johnson, “Trump Calls for ‘Total and Complete Shutdown of Muslims Entering the United States,’ ” Washington Post, December 7, 2015. 4. “Full Text: Donald Trump Announces a Presidential Bid,” Washington Post, June 16, 2015. 5. Lewis and Peri 2014. 6. Pew Research Center, “U.S. Unauthorized Immigration Population Estimates,” November 2016. 7. Jens Manuel Kronstad, Jeffrey S. Passel, and D’Vera Cohn, “5 Facts about Illegal Immigration in the US,” November 3, 2016, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/27/5-facts-about-illegal-immigration-in-the-u-s/. 8. Jeffrey S. Passel, D’Vera Cohn, and John Gramlich, “Number of U.S.-Born Babies with Unauthorized Immigrant Parents Has Fallen since 2007,” Pew Research Center, FactTank, November 1, 2018. 9. “CBP Border Security Report: Fiscal Year 2017,” December 5, 2017, U.S. Customs and Border Protection, https://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/assets/documents/2017-Dec/cbp-border-security-report-fy2017.pdf; Miriam Jordan, “U.S.


pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt

anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Peter Calthorpe, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

The commission doesn’t like to disappoint the business community. But if it sticks too close to the Chamber of Commerce line, it risks stoking up resentment against illegal immigrants that continues to exist among white middle-class residents. There are regular protests from activists such as Bob Griggs, publisher of the Gwinnett Gazette, who told his readers in 2009 that “illegal immigration costs cities, counties, and the state government an estimated $1.6 billion annually.” The commissioners can’t be sure at any moment how far they might be from a full-fledged populist revolt. In early 2011, the state of Georgia passed one of the nation’s strictest laws targeting illegal immigrants. It remains to be seen what effect this will have on politics in Gwinnett County. IT WOULD BE a mistake to feel too sorry for Gwinnett County.

The white middle class moved to Gwinnett in large part to be safe from urban violence, and through the 1980s and 1990s it was in fact one of the most crime-free places in America. The countywide incidence of crime is still lower than the national average, but in the past several years, the influx of illegal immigrants has created an underclass that has raised the crime rate and brought the previously unknown presence of loitering day laborers into several of the small cities. Whenever there is even a small amount of construction work to be had, day laborers cluster outside strip malls in Gwinnett just as they do in other parts of the country. In 2008, one Norcross resident wrote an angry letter to the Atlanta Journal-Constitution lamenting what he felt had happened to his town. “Illegal immigrants have already broken several laws to get to my neighborhood,” he said, “and I can attest that their penchant for lawbreaking did not stop at our borders.

There are outposts of the Mexican drug trade in Gwinnett, as well as a growing number of meth labs operating out of private dwellings. Longtime residents tend to associate these developments with illegal immigration. It’s dangerous to place much faith in the anger of one resident or anecdotal citizen fears, but no one really disputes that Gwinnett has acquired a crime problem in the past five years. It has also begun to confront the realities of poverty and homelessness. In 1990, the countywide poverty rate was 4 percent. By mid-2009, it had more than doubled to 9 percent, and 11 percent among children. “We are leading the region in the growth of poverty,” says Ellen Gerstein, of the Gwinnett Coalition for Health and Human Services. The issue of what to do about illegal immigrants poses a huge challenge for the five-member Gwinnett County Commission. This governmental body seems in a way to be an anachronism.


pages: 241 words: 75,417

The Last President of Europe: Emmanuel Macron's Race to Revive France and Save the World by William Drozdiak

Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Boeing 737 MAX, Boris Johnson, centre right, cloud computing, Donald Trump, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, Socratic dialogue, South China Sea, UNCLOS, working poor

Macron argues that such hardheaded pragmatism does not reflect capitulation to the nationalists but rather a political imperative to restore faith in the European Union by tacking to the demands of voters, even if doing so looks like an acceptance of populist themes. Merkel and Macron have demonstrated a new willingness to accelerate the deportation of illegal immigrants and those foreigners whose requests for political asylum have been rejected. In his 2018 New Year’s address to the French people, Macron promised that forced expulsions of illegal immigrants would be increased. Soon the number of deportations from France rose by 10 percent, to more than fifteen thousand. “We can’t take in everybody,” Macron declared. “There must be rules. It’s indispensable that we check the identities of everyone. When someone arrives in our country who is not eligible for asylum and has no chance of getting French citizenship, we can’t accept that they stay for months or years in an irregular situation that is good neither for them nor our country.”17 On his trips to France’s former colonies in Africa, Macron has delivered a similar message to dissuade young Africans from trying to enter France through illicit trafficking networks crossing the Mediterranean Sea.

PART TWO EUROPE CHAPTER 4 THE POPULIST MENACE As the operatic aria “Nessun dorma” (None shall sleep) from Puccini’s Turandot wafted over the heads of ten thousand people gathered in Milan’s cathedral square, Italy’s deputy prime minister Matteo Salvini climbed to the stage on a soggy Saturday in May along with ten other right-wing nationalist leaders from every corner of Europe. Riding high in opinion polls as Italy’s powerful interior minister and its most influential politician, Salvini convened the gathering just days ahead of European Parliament elections to celebrate a populist alliance that he said would “protect European civilization” from being overrun by illegal immigrants and radical Islamists. One by one, xenophobic politicians railed against Emmanuel Macron for defending open borders and the idea of a European superstate. Under Salvini’s orchestration, they endorsed his pan-European coalition behind the slogan “Towards a Common Sense Europe: Peoples Rise Up.” Anti-EU nationalists such as Marine Le Pen of France and Geert Wilders of the Netherlands took turns shrilly denouncing the surrender of national sovereignty to faceless and feckless bureaucrats in Brussels.

Orbán, who calls Salvini “my hero and my comrade in destiny,” claims that all of Europe’s far-right parties are aligned in their singular disdain for Macron and his vision of a liberal, democratic, and more unified Europe. “There are two camps in Europe,” Orbán said after seeing Salvini in Milan for one of their regular strategy sessions. “One is headed by Macron. He is at the head of the political forces supporting immigration. On the other hand, we all want to stop illegal immigration.”3 There had been earlier suggestions that Salvini and his allies would seek to drop out of Europe’s single currency or leave the European Union altogether once they gained power, but they have abandoned these positions in order to broaden the far right’s appeal. The chaos surrounding Britain’s efforts to negotiate its departure from the EU has inoculated much of the continent against following London out of the Union.


pages: 319 words: 75,257

Trumpocalypse: Restoring American Democracy by David Frum

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-globalists, Bernie Sanders, centre right, coronavirus, currency manipulation / currency intervention, decarbonisation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, employer provided health coverage, illegal immigration, immigration reform, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley

Chapter Seven: How to Lose to Trump 1. Barack Obama, The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream (New York: Crown, 2006), 266. 2. Katharine Q. Seelye, “Clinton Now Against Licenses for Illegal Immigrants,” Caucus (blog), New York Times, November 14, 2007, https://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/11/14/clinton-now-against-licenses-for-illegal-immigrants/. 3. Jack Crowe, “Every Dem on Debate Stage Endorses Publicly Funded Health Care for Illegal Immigrants,” National Review Online, June 28, 2019, https://www.nationalreview.com/news/every-dem-on-debate-stage-endorses-publicly-funded-health-care-for-illegal-immigrants/. 4. Donald Trump (@realDonaldTrump), Twitter, June 27, 2019, 9:37 p.m., https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/1144419410729242625. 5. “NPR/PBS NewsHour/Marist Poll Results & Analysis,” Marist Poll, July 23, 2019, http://maristpoll.marist.edu/npr-pbs-newshour-marist-poll-results-analysis-6/. 6.

“And I would bring back a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding.”24 “I’m the most militaristic person there is,” he said in an August 2015 Fox-sponsored candidates’ debate.25 “I would bomb the shit out of them!” he vowed on November 13, 2015. The belligerent talk continued after Trump’s election. He threatened to incinerate North Korea: “Fire and fury like the world has never seen.”26 He growled nuclear menace at Iran too: “If Iran wants to fight, that will be the official end of Iran.”27 He threatened to close the border with Mexico. “If Mexico doesn’t immediately stop ALL illegal immigration coming into the United States through our Southern Border, I will be CLOSING . . . the Border, or large sections of the Border, next week.”28 He vowed to stop all foreign assistance to El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.29 He warned he might reimpose a “full and complete embargo” on Cuba.30 The candidate whom New York Times columnist Maureen Dowd hailed as “Donald the Dove” back in 201631 in 2019 ordered the assassination of Iran’s terror commander, General Qassem Soleimani.

The pipe-bomber Sayoc himself had confessed that he had selected his targets based on Trump’s tweets. Trump accepted no responsibility, however. He instead accused news media who reported on the pro-Trump motive for Sayoc’s bombs of attempting to “score political points against me and the Republican Party.”16 The Pittsburgh synagogue killer fantasized that a global Jewish conspiracy headed by George Soros was masterminding illegal immigration to the United States and Europe. Even after the synagogue shooting, Trump still repeated on November 1, 2018, that “he wouldn’t be surprised” and “a lot of people are saying” that George Soros paid for the caravans.17 Yet Trump and his supporters reserved the right to be affronted and offended if anyone noted the similarity between Trump’s rhetoric and the Pittsburgh shooter’s. Almost any set of ideas, when taken to extremes, can justify authoritarianism and violence.


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The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties by Christopher Caldwell

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, computer age, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, desegregation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, George Gilder, global value chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, libertarian paternalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, new economy, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, pre–internet, profit motive, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

The parts that retarded immigration—the border controls, the employer sanctions—were popular, but they proved impossible to enforce. They were fake. Opponents of mass immigration were inclined to see IRCA as an outright fraud perpetrated on the public. The truth was more complicated. It had to do with a change in the country’s constitutional culture. The changing spirit of civil rights To do away with illegal immigration, Americans would have had to send a strong message, not just in their statutes but in their enforcement practices and their day-to-day behavior, to the effect that illegal immigration, and therefore illegal immigrants, were not welcome. Every poll from the time tells us that Americans intended to convey just such a message. In June 1986, those who wanted less immigration outnumbered those who wanted more of it by 7 to 1 (49 to 7 percent). Historically, whenever social change began to move too fast, this kind of gruff, coarse, reactionary plurality would “come out of the woodwork.”

It legalized and offered American citizenship to illegal immigrants who could prove they had been resident in the United States for even the briefest of stays. A Special Agricultural Worker (SAW) program gave permanent residency to workers who could show they had done 60 days of farm work between May 1985 and May 1986, regardless of whether they knew any English or had any understanding of American civics. A quarter-million were estimated to be eligible for the program, but the documentation and testimonials it required were easily counterfeited: 1.3 million wound up using it. Those admitted came to well over 3 million in total. To keep this easy mass legalization from incentivizing future immigration, the bill proposed shutting down illegal immigration almost entirely. It contained documentation requirements, $123 million in new security funding, and ferocious-looking penalties for businessmen who knowingly hired illegals.

Immigration, inequality, and debt Draw people it did. Collectively, American Baby Boomers cashed out of the economy their forebears had built, shifting the costs of running it not just to different generations but to different parts of the world, through outsourcing and immigration. These, too, are a form of borrowing. Low-wage immigrants subsidize the rich countries they migrate to, and this is especially true of illegal immigrants. They are low-wage precisely because they are outside the legal system. Ultimately, natives pay some kind of “bill” for such labor. Either they invite the laborers into their society, and the costs to natives take the form of overburdened institutions, rapid cultural change, and diluted political power; or they exclude the laborers, and the costs take the form of exploitation, government repression, and bad conscience.


pages: 197 words: 49,240

Melting Pot or Civil War?: A Son of Immigrants Makes the Case Against Open Borders by Reihan Salam

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bonfire of the Vanities, charter city, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ghettoisation, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, job automation, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, megacity, new economy, obamacare, open borders, race to the bottom, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, two tier labour market, upwardly mobile, urban decay, working poor

The Conversation, January 18, 2018. theconversation.com/ahead-of-government-shutdown-congress-sets-its-sights-on-not-so-comprehensive-immigration-reform-89998. 4. Krogstad, Jens Manuel, Jeffrey S. Passel, and D’Vera Cohn. “5 facts about illegal immigration in the U.S.” Pew Research Center, April 27, 2017. www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/27/5-facts-about-illegal-immigration-in-the-u-s/. 5. Cox and Posner. 6. Skerry, Peter. “Splitting the Differences on Illegal Immigration.” National Affairs 35 (Spring 2018). www.nationalaffairs.com/publications/detail/splitting-the-difference-on-illegal-immigration. 7. Martin, David A. “Resolute Enforcement Is Not Just for Restrictionists: Building a Stable and Efficient Immigration Enforcement System.” Journal of Law and Politics 30:411 (2014–2015): 411–64. content.law.virginia.edu/system/files/faculty/hein/2015/Martin30JLPol411.pdf. 8.

Several years ago, the legal scholars Eric Posner and Adam Cox observed that the United States had a de facto “illegal immigration system,” stemming from “the deliberate underenforcement of immigration law plus periodic amnesties.”5 The idea, in essence, is that by mostly turning a blind eye to unauthorized entries and to visa overstays, and allowing unauthorized immigrants to work without much in the way of interference, the United States put out the welcome mat, and it is hardly surprising that millions of people took their chances, especially since the only unauthorized immigrants who were targeted for deportation seemed to be those who had committed serious non-immigration crimes. As Boston College political scientist Peter Skerry, writing in National Affairs in 2013, put it, “just as the circumstances faced by illegal immigrants in our country are simultaneously threatening and encouraging, so the nation’s attitude toward illegals has long been at once hostile and welcoming.”6 It’s no wonder why amnesty advocates find the thought of mass deportation so horrifying, and why they’ve been so vigorously opposed to the Trump administration’s efforts to deport long-resident unauthorized immigrants who’ve led entirely peaceful lives: it strikes them as a profoundly unfair change in the rules of the game.

See also skills-based immigration system high-skill workers, 40, 99–102, 105 labor supply and, 99–102 moving to developing world, 152–53 high-skill worker visas, 40 Hines, Annie Laurie, 178 Hispanic ethnicity, 86–88 home health aides, 119–20, 135–38 Honduras, 133, 138 Hopkins, Daniel J., 172–73 Horton, John, 121 Hoynes, Hilary, 52 Hymowitz, Kay, 34, 35 illegal immigrants. See unauthorized immigrants immigrant children, 31–61 benefits and burdens, 53–56 birthrates, native-born vs. immigrant, 32–33 collective responsibility for well-being, 45–48 intergenerational transmission of poverty, 22–25, 35–36, 43–44, 175–79 King’s “somebody else’s babies” remark, 32, 33–34 model minority illusion, 38–44 NAS study, 53–55, 56 poverty rates, 22–25, 34, 35–36, 43 “public charge” test, 48–51 Qatar solution, 56–61 role of education, 36, 39, 41–43, 56 role of selection, 40–41, 43–44 role of social status, 39–40, 44 separating parent and child, 57 tax policy, 48, 55–56, 177–79 immigrant stereotypes, 4, 65, 67–68, 71, 74–75 immigrant success stories, 38–39 Immigration Act of 1924, 16 immigration advocates, 4–5, 6, 8–9 Backlash Paradox, 88–91 Dreamers and DACA, 9–11, 157–59, 160–61 moral obligation argument, 129–30 Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965, 35, 81–82 Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, 162, 163–64 immigration restrictionists, 16, 50–51, 78, 83, 105, 157, 159–60 “immigration yes, welfare no” agenda, 51–52 India per capita income, 132–33 population growth, 140–41, 142 urbanization, 141, 145 Indian immigrants, 40, 64 Industrial Revolution, 109–10 inequality, 5–6, 26–27 intergenerational transmission of poverty, 22–25, 35–36, 43–44, 175–79 intergenerational wealth transfer, 21–22 intermarriage, 68, 69, 85–88, 87 Islamic extremism, 1–2 New York City attempted bombing of 2017, 2–3, 4, 6–7 Italian Americans, 85–86 janitors, 119 Japan, immigration, 142–43 Jefferson, Thomas, 73 Jiménez, Tomás, 68, 85 Kapur, Devesh, 40 Kharas, Homi, 142 King, Steve, “somebody else’s babies” remark, 32, 33–34, 58 “kinless,” 137 Knaus, Gerald, 144–45 labor market competition, 80–81 labor market dynamism, 125, 144 labor productivity, 28, 80, 96, 156 labor scarcity, 109–13, 120–21 labor supply, 99–102, 100 Laitin, David D., 89–90 land-use regulations, 125–26 Lazear, Edward, 40–41 Levy, Morris, 61, 160–61 Lewis, Ethan, 111–12 Leyden, Peter, 18 Lind, Michael, 17–18, 19, 67 linked migration, 78.


pages: 965 words: 267,053

A History of Zionism by Walter Laqueur

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, business cycle, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, strikebreaker, the market place, éminence grise

Given equal opportunity to go to Palestine or to the States, 50 per cent would join the unfortunate Galut Jews in America.† Illegal immigration had never ceased altogether and Hagana began to organise it after the end of the war on a much bigger scale than before. Refugee ships appeared regularly off the shores of Palestine. A few succeeded in breaking the blockade, but most were apprehended and their passengers detained - first in Palestine, and from summer 1946 on in camps in Cyprus. The story of illegal immigration culminated in the case of the President Garfield, an old 4,000-ton Chesepeake Bay steamer which, acquired by Hagana and renamed Exodus 1947, carried some 4,200 illegal immigrants. To discourage any further exploits London decided to turn the ship back to Port de Bove near Marseilles. After the passengers refused to disembark there, they were forcibly disembarked at Hamburg.

.* Defence Some of the halutzim still stranded in Europe in 1938-9 eventually succeeded in reaching the shores of Palestine. They came as illegal immigrants, owing their lives to the systematic efforts undertaken to save as many as possible in contravention of the stringent immigration laws imposed by the mandatory authorities following the outbreak of the Arab riots. An earlier attempt, the voyage of the Velos in 1934, organised by a member of Degania, ended in failure. But after 1937, with tens of thousands of prospective immigrants impatiently waiting for their entry permits, with the clouds of war gathering on the European horizon, and with no change in sight in the attitude of the mandatory government, illegal immigration was resumed on a massive scale. Small, ancient, unseaworthy ships, hardly bigger than motor launches and designed to carry a few dozen passengers only, arrived with many hundreds on board, in conditions the like of which had not been seen anywhere in modern times.

Some of them successfully ran the blockade, others were detected and apprehended. About 11,000 illegal immigrants came in 1939, and even after the outbreak of war some ships continued to arrive; 3,900 men, women and children in 1940, and 2,135 in 1941. After that date immigration, both legal and illegal, dwindled to a mere trickle. Many of the organisers of this illegal traffic were labour Zionists, usually members of kibbutzim. Most of those who came in these ships were members of the Hehalutz and left-wing youth movements. The whole enterprise is another example of the unorthodox activities of the heirs of Borokhov and Syrkin, well outside the confines of the political and industrial struggle. But illegal immigration was merely one aspect of the activities of the Jewish defence organisation, the Hagana, which was dominated by men and women belonging to the labour movement, even though considerable efforts were made to induce non-Socialist groups to participate at every level of Hagana activities.


pages: 632 words: 171,827

Israel: A Concise History of a Nation Reborn by Daniel Gordis

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, post-oil, Ronald Reagan, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

. © 2014 The Bank of Israel Agnon was later replaced on the 50 nis bill, but by another writer, the poet Saul Tchernichovsky. © 2014 The Bank of Israel Eliezer Ben-Yehuda surrounded by books. Central Zionist Archives Hayim Nachman Bialik at his desk. Central Zionist Archives ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION Illegal immigration—in defiance of British restrictions—was critical in the early years, both to save Jews fleeing Europe as well as to amass a population sufficient for creating a viable state. British soldiers carefully watch a ship approaching with illegal immigrants. Central Zionist Archives Pulling an immigrant boat into shore. Central Zionist Archives Immigrants arrive on boat. Central Zionist Archives This Zionist poster shows a “new” muscular Jew helping European Jewish survivors reach shore. Central Zionist Archives IMAGES OF THE NEW JEW Early Zionism was focused on the creation of a “new Jew” who, unlike the Jews of Europe, could shape his or her own future.

To help those fleeing Europe enter Palestine, in late 1938, the Haganah established an organization, Mossad le-Aliyah Bet (Organization for Immigration B) to aid in this illegal immigration. The Mossad le-Aliyah Bet procured ships and crews, gathered the prospective immigrants, had them sail to Palestine, and arranged for them to be assisted and hidden once they had reached the state-in-waiting. In many ways successful, the project was still bittersweet; Benny Morris, one of Israel’s foremost historians, points out, “During the period 1934–38 about forty thousand Jews had entered Palestine illegally, and another nine thousand by September 1939. But less than sixteen thousand made it during the following six years, when the need for sanctuary was at its most acute.”26 Many of these illegal immigrants—ma’apilim as they were known in Hebrew*—succeeded in making their way into Palestine but were then caught by the British, who placed them in detainee camps.

In protest of the policy, a Jewish military group inspired by Ze’ev Jabotinsky—flaunting its disregard for the Haganah’s continued cooperation with the British—bombed a few government buildings in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv. Subsequently, they attacked strategic elements of the British infrastructure, including electric facilities and radio and phone communication lines. They opposed the Haganah’s restraint, and to make their case to the people, they also established an underground newspaper and radio system. Even the leadership of the Yishuv sensed that it needed to alter its strategy. It began to endorse illegal immigration and exerted more effort in helping Jews to enter Palestine. The Yishuv was now losing any real hope that the British would fulfill the promise they had made in the Balfour Declaration. Twenty-two years earlier, Lord Balfour had called for “a national home for the Jewish people” in Palestine, but without immigration, no Jewish national home was going to be possible. And even with Hitler menacing Jews across Europe, Britain made it clear to the Nazis that the fate of the Jews was not its concern.


pages: 280 words: 83,299

Empty Planet: The Shock of Global Population Decline by Darrell Bricker, John Ibbitson

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global reserve currency, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, off grid, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, working-age population, young professional, zero-sum game

utm_term=.894898e7b074 324 Josef Joffe, “The Canard of Decline,” American Interest, 10 October 2013. http://www.the-american-interest.com/2013/10/10/the-canard-of-decline 325 “Most Say Immigrants Strengthen the Country” (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, 8 December 2016). http://www.people-press.org/2016/12/08/3-political-values-government-regulation-environment-immigration-race-views-of-islam/#most-say-immigrants-strengthen-the-country 326 Jens Manuel Krogstad, Jeffrey S. Passel, and D’Vera Cohn, “Five Facts About Illegal Immigration in the U.S.” (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Institute, 27 April 2017). http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/27/5-facts-about-illegal-immigration-in-the-u-s/ 327 Nan Marie Astone, Steven Martin, and H. Elizabeth Peters, “Millennial Childbearing and the Recession” (Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute, April 2015). http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000203-Millennial-Childbearing-and-the-Recession.pdf 328 Ibid. 329 Jeffrey S.

.: National Center for Education Statistics, May 2017). https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017144.pdf 341 John Gramlich, “Hispanic Dropout Rate Hits New Low, College Enrollment at New High” (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, 27 September 2017). http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/09/29/hispanic-dropout-rate-hits-new-low-college-enrollment-at-new-high/ 342 Anna Gonzalez-Barrera and Jens Manuel Krogstad, “What We Know About Illegal Immigration from Mexico” (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, 20 November 2015). http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/11/20/what-we-know-about-illegal-immigration-from-mexico/ 343 D’Vera Cohn, “Future Immigration Will Change the Face of America by 2065,” (Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center, 6 October 2015). http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/10/05/future-immigration-will-change-the-face-of-america-by-2065 344 Teresa Welsh, “Minority Babies Outnumber Whites Among U.S.

Immigration made the twentieth century the American century, and continued immigration will define the twenty-first as American as well. Unless. The suspicious, nativist, America First groundswell of recent years threatens to choke off the immigration tap that made America great by walling up the border between the United States and everywhere else. Under President Donald Trump, the federal government not only cracked down on illegal immigrants, it reduced legal admissions for skilled workers, a suicidal policy for the U.S. economy. If this change is permanent, if Americans out of senseless fear reject their immigrant tradition, turning their backs on the world, then the United States too will decline, in numbers and power and influence and wealth. This is the choice that every American must make: to support an open, inclusive, welcoming society, or to shut the door and wither in isolation.


pages: 311 words: 130,761

Framing Class: Media Representations of Wealth and Poverty in America by Diana Elizabeth Kendall

Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, David Brooks, declining real wages, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, framing effect, Georg Cantor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, haute couture, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, working poor

This humorous framing downplays the crisis that outsourcing has created for many U.S. workers and their families. It also minimizes the problems faced by people who increasingly must rely on globalized call centers for technology support and to purchase products and services. In media framing of stories about job loss in the United States, illegal immigration is a key culprit, along with downsizing and outsourcing. Articles and news reports about the “Americano Dream” explain how indigenous workers are pitted against illegal immigrants, sometimes referred to more politely as undocumented workers, who are a source of cheap labor in this country. Frequently, media sources employ this terminology when a major corporation is accused of labor violations, as when Walmart, the nation’s largest private employer (with 1.4 million U.S. workers in 2009), was alleged to be using undocumented workers as cleaning personnel in its megastores.

Although earlier media coverage of the chain had praised Walmart’s economic success and applauded the ingenuity of founder Sam Walton and other members of his family, subsequent news reports focused on the corporation’s questionable labor practices, including the use of undocumented workers.116 According to Walmart officials, the company hired subcontractors to do the janitorial work without knowing that they hired illegal immigrants: After federal agents raided 60 Wal-Mart stores in October and found more than 200 illegal immigrants in the cleaning crews, the world’s largest retailer was 9781442202238.print.indb 155 2/10/11 10:46 AM 156 Chapter 5 quick to defend itself from this enormous embarrassment. Wal-Mart’s officers said they had no idea those workers were illegal, insisting they knew next to nothing about the workers from Mexico, Mongolia, Russia and elsewhere because they were employed by contractors.

Wal-Mart’s officers said they had no idea those workers were illegal, insisting they knew next to nothing about the workers from Mexico, Mongolia, Russia and elsewhere because they were employed by contractors. Nor did Wal-Mart know, its spokesmen said, that the contractors were cutting corners by not paying overtime or Social Security taxes or by flouting other labor laws, as the investigators claimed.117 As the media later reported in articles such as “Wal-Mart Settles Illegal Immigration Case for $11M,” the retailer paid up to end the federal probe and escape criminal charges for using illegal immigrants as custodial workers. Twelve businesses that provided contract janitor services to Walmart also agreed to pay $4 million in fines and pled guilty to criminal immigration charges to resolve the matter.118 Walmart officials emphasized that the chain is a good corporate citizen and does not hire undocumented workers. Walmart’s website states that the company provides good wages and benefits for the workers it hires, and these individuals often include college students and retirees who want to earn extra income.119 In framing media stories such as these, reporters bandy around phrases like “cheap labor” to describe immigrant workers—documented or not—as a potential threat to the indigenous working class.


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Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white picket fence, women in the workforce, Y2K

Militant Illegals If there is one group of people in America that has generally kept a low profile, it is the 12 million illegal immigrants in this country—and generally with good reason. As Edward R. Murrow said in his famous 1960 documentary, Harvest of Shame, “migrants . . . have the strength to harvest your fruit and vegetables, [but] they do not have the strength to influence legislation.” They have been quiet and in the shadows. As a result, they have been the truly forgotten in America. Now fast-forward to the spring of 2006. A bill introduced by Republican James Sensenbrenner of Wisconsin, and passed by the U.S. House of Representatives, pushed many illegal immigrants and their families too far. The bill would have made it a felony to be in this country illegally, or to give assistance—like food or medical care—to anyone who was. Deeply wounded, American’s illegal immigrants took to the streets.

It is a profound sign of the times that in today’s America, hundreds of thousands of America’s 12 million illegal immigrants not only felt secure enough to march, but found that they wielded actual political power. For the first time in American history, noncitizens’ needs and passions might actually be the critical element that tips a presidential election. It’s not that immigration itself has become America’s top concern. While large majorities of Americans followed the news about the marches, and immigration climbed somewhat on the list of issues Americans consider most important, it still lags well behind Iraq, the economy, and terrorism. And as of this writing, Congress still hasn’t resolved its differences to produce a new immigration law. But what did happen is that the passion of illegal immigrants touched a deep chord with legal immigrants, who sensed that the animus behind the Sensenbrenner legislation was directed at them, too.

In fact, by the time a trend hits 1 percent, it is ready to spawn a hit movie, best-selling book, or new political movement. The power of individual choice is increasingly influencing politics, religion, entertainment, and even war. In today’s mass societies, it takes only 1 percent of people making a dedicated choice—contrary to the mainstream’s choice—to create a movement that can change the world. Just look at what has happened in the U.S. to illegal immigrants. A few years ago, they were the forgotten Americans, hiding from daylight and the authorities. Today they are holding political rallies, and given where they and their legal, voting relatives live, they may turn out to be the new Soccer Moms. Militant immigrants fed up with a broken immigration system just may be the most important voters in the next presidential election, distributed in the key Southwest states that are becoming the new battleground areas.


pages: 249 words: 79,740

The Next Decade: Where We've Been . . . And Where We're Going by George Friedman

airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

The counterargument—that migrants take jobs from others, or that their claims on social services outweigh whatever economic advantages they provide—is not entirely frivolous, but it has some weaknesses. First, 10 percent unemployment in the United States translates into about 15 million people out of work. The Pew Hispanic Center estimates that there are about 12 million illegal immigrants in the United States. If the replacement theory were correct, then getting rid of illegal immigrants would create 12 million job openings, leaving only 3 million unemployed and an unemployment rate of only about 2 percent. That such a replacement scenario seems intuitively illogical argues to the point that most of the low-cost, unskilled labor that is imported does not compete with the existing workforce. The American economy requires additional workers but doesn’t want to increase the pool of citizens dramatically.

Cargoes are readily replaced with little impact on aggregate revenue. It should be much easier to stop illegal immigrants than drugs, because it is easy to detect immigrants once they are in the country. The simplest means of doing this is to institute a national identity card with special paper and embedded codes that make it extremely difficult to forge. No one could be employed until his or her employer first cleared the card via the sort of system currently used for credit card transactions. Any alien without a card would be deported. Any employer who hired him or her would be arrested and charged with a felony. But this simple method is highly unlikely to be employed, in part because many of the people most opposed to illegal immigration also have a deep mistrust of the federal government. The national identity card could be used to track the movement of money and people—to detect tax fraud and deadbeat dads as well as to monitor political organizations—which could easily lead to government abuse.

Therefore, as with the Mexican government and drugs, the best U.S. strategy is to appear to be doing everything possible to stop the movement of immigrants while making certain that these efforts fail. This has been the American strategy on illegal immigrants for many years, creating a tension between short- and mid-term economic interests and long-term political interests. The long-term problem is the shift in demographics—and in potential loyalties—in the borderland. The president must choose between these options, and his only rational course is to allow the future to tend to itself. Given the forces interested in maintaining the status quo, any president who took the steps needed to stop illegal immigration would rapidly lose power. Therefore the best strategy for the president is to continue the current one: hypocrisy. Similarly, the drug issue has a relatively simple solution that will not be implemented: legalization.


pages: 717 words: 150,288

Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

addicted to oil, airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence

This reconfiguration in the nature of borders is being fuelled by what Allen Feldman calls ‘securocratic wars’11 – open-ended and de-territorialized wars (on drugs, crime, terror, illegal immigration, biological threats) organized around vague, all-encompassing notions of public safety rather than around territorial conquest. Their purpose is to maintain state sovereignty, not through external war combined with internal policing, but through raising the spectre of mobilities and flows deemed to contaminate societies and threaten the social order, both internally and externally. Unknown and unknowable, these dangers –terrorism, demographic infiltration, ‘illegal’ immigration, disease (SARS, bird flu, tuberculosis) – are understood to lurk within the interstices of urban and social life, blending invisibly with it.12 EVENTS AND NORMALITY The virtual border, whether it faces outward or inward to foreignness, is no longer a barrier structure but a shifting net, a flexible spatial pathogenesis that shifts round the globe and can move from the exteriority of the transnational frontier into the core of the securocratic state.13 At their root, open-ended, securocratic wars are an attempt to police both subnational and supranational dichotomies of safe and risky places, both within and beyond the territorial limits of nation-states.14 An important component is the distinction between event and background.

They must be sustained by (often hidden) connections elsewhere; they require multiple mobilities and migrations in order to function. Feldman points out, for example, that many ‘gated edifices … depend on small armies of undocumented migrant labor’.209 When overzealous crackdowns on ‘illegal immigrants’ occur, as happened around Long Island’s gated communities in 2008, the super-rich residents of such enclaves soon find their houses uncleaned, their parks untended, their children lacking day care and, ironically, their borders unpoliced. Paradoxically, then, the collapse of such services reveals how ‘illegal immigration’ works across complex, transnational labour geographies and militarizing borders – invisibly sustaining economies, cities and social norms. Yet such migrants live extremely perilous lives. ‘As long as they stay behind the scenes, their brawn and skills are highly appreciated’,210 write Carlos Decena and Margaret Gray, but when they become visible, especially in suburbs, it frequently sparks controversy, demonization, violence and removal.

Crucially, as the Raytheon example again demonstrates, the same constellations of security companies are often involved in selling, establishing and overseeing the techniques and practices of the new military urbanism in both war-zone and homeland cities. Often, as with the EU’s new Europe-wide security policies, states or supranational blocks are not necessarily bringing in high-tech and militarized means of tracking illegal immigrants because they are the best means to address their security concerns. Rather, many such policies are intended to help build local industrial champions by developing their own defence, security or technology companies so they can compete in booming global markets for security technology. In this lucrative export market, the Israeli experience of locking down cities and turning the Occupied Territories into permanent, urban prison camps is proving especially influential.


pages: 359 words: 97,415

Vanishing Frontiers: The Forces Driving Mexico and the United States Together by Andrew Selee

Berlin Wall, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Donald Trump, energy security, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, job automation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, payday loans, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Wozniak, Y Combinator

Today there are 11.6 million: Gustavo Lopez and Kristen Bialik, “Key Findings About U.S. Immigrants,” Pew Research Center, May 3, 2017, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/05/03/key-findings-about-u-s-immigrants; González Barrera, “More Mexicans Leaving Than Coming to the U.S.” Mexicans, once almost two-thirds: Jens Manuel Krogstad, Jeffrey S. Passel, and D’vera Cohn, “5 Facts About Illegal Immigration in the U.S.,” Pew Research Center, April 27, 2017, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/04/27/5-facts-about-illegal-immigration-in-the-u-s. Many of those who crossed without papers, including Efrain Jimenez and Demetrio Juárez in Hazleton, later legalized their status through work visas sponsored by American employers or, in some cases, marriage to an American citizen or legal resident. As of this writing, roughly 548,000 unauthorized Mexicans had been accepted into the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, giving them legal protection from deportation.

Hazleton once even boasted the nation’s only Tyrolean Catholic Church, which catered to a small population from the Italian and Austrian Alps, as well as the Western Hemisphere’s first Slovak Catholic congregation. “Hazleton is like a miniature Brooklyn, a diverse urban landscape in a semirural, mountainous region,” says Charles McElwee of the Greater Hazleton Historical Society. “In the city, the past remains visible in the present.” Over a decade ago, in 2006, Hazleton found itself at the center of the national debate about illegal immigration and America’s relationship with Mexico. Faced with a new influx of immigrants, many from Mexico, it became the first city to pass local ordinances that banned hiring or renting to unauthorized immigrants. The city became ground zero for protesters against immigration, and national news cameras camped out in the city for weeks to follow the debate. Protesters were fond of shouting “Go back to Mexico” to express their outrage at the growing Spanish-speaking population in town, and Juárez remembers getting angry phone calls at the restaurant telling him to go home.

Sometimes it seems that Mexico has become more an emblem of Americans’ hopes and fears for our own future than a real country that we deal with on its own terms. Today, with Donald Trump as president, political discussions of Mexico have become focused, above all, on his promise to build “a big, beautiful wall” to keep Mexicans from jumping across the border into the United States. It’s sold as a way of stopping illegal immigration and the flow of drugs into American communities, but it’s also a powerful symbol of how he wants to deal with the larger forces shaping American society. For Trump and some of his most ardent supporters, the wall is less about effective policy than about making a statement. Yet the contrast between Trump’s symbolic promise to build a border wall and what’s actually going on between Mexico and the United States is dramatic.


pages: 424 words: 119,679

It's Better Than It Looks: Reasons for Optimism in an Age of Fear by Gregg Easterbrook

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, air freight, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, coronavirus, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, factory automation, failed state, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Home mortgage interest deduction, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Lyft, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, The Chicago School, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, uber lyft, universal basic income, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

This volume declaimed that Anglo-Saxon civilization has entered a final phase, “wintertime,” inevitably to be absorbed by the higher fertility rates and warlike societies of the developing world. The Enlightenment was a promising idea, but doomed: kaput, finis, hasta la vista. Seeking relief from such gloom, I bought tickets to the theater. I saw one of the most-performed plays in American drama: twelve men argued about illegal immigrants ruining the nation as crime turned inner cities hellish. I walked across Broadway to another playhouse to watch the work of a winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. The subject was how illegal immigrants are tearing the United States apart. Perhaps the movies would divert me. I attended a top-grossing film in which a Hollywood star declared, “This used to be a hell of a good country. I can’t understand what’s gone wrong with it.” Perhaps song and dance would lift my spirits. I took a seat for the best-known American musical, which was about how outsiders were pouring in—just pouring in—and ruining everything, even demolishing that most cherished of daydreams, young love.

The United States and Europe are about to join Babylon and Pharaonic Egypt on the scrapheap, Spengler contended; don’t even bother trying to save freedom, whose time has passed. The first play was Twelve Angry Men by Reginald Rose, initially performed in 1954 as a drama, then a famed 1957 movie starring Henry Fonda. Twelve jurors known only by their numbers debate the effect of illegal immigration on the United States and whether what’s now called stop-and-frisk policing is public safety or racism. The second play was Arthur Miller’s A View from the Bridge, which premiered in 1955, just before Miller wed Marilyn Monroe. The illegal immigrants believed by the play’s protagonist to be ruining America are not from Syria or Yemen, rather, from Italy. The movie was Easy Rider, premiering the same month as the Apollo 11 moon landing and starring Jack Nicholson. The musical was West Side Story, which premiered on Broadway in 1957.

White-collar work involves stress and boredom, but no backbreaking manual labor or inhalation of factory fumes. Detailed support for all the above points will be provided in coming chapters. That the US, European, and global situations are better than commonly perceived should not lead to complacency. On the contrary, awareness of progress should inspire greater reform. The challenges of the present day are daunting: inequality, racial tension, climate change, illegal immigration, refugees forced to flee war zones or failed states, never-ending conflagration in the Middle East, tyrants and warlords in parts of Africa, low-achieving public schools, a shallow and corporate-driven culture that makes the task of public schools Sisyphean, public discourse contaminated by rage—and these are just for starters. Plus surely there’s a huge problem barreling down the tracks directly toward us.


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The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing

8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, old age dependency ratio, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional

Something similar is happening in Germany, where in many cities migrants already account for a majority of children. Most Americans appear to support the Arizona law. One national poll produced the following results, showing the percentages in favour of each proposition: ● increasing fines for employers of illegal immigrants 80% ● criminalising employment of illegal immigrants 75% ● requiring police to report illegals to federal government 70% ● National Guard patrols of the Mexican border 68% ● building more border fences 60% ● allowing police to demand proof of migrant status 50% ● excluding illegal immigrant children from school 42% ● requiring churches to report illegal immigrants 37% In South Africa, an even more ugly development typifies what is happening in many parts of the world. Millions of migrants slip across the borders and make their way to the townships, particularly around Johannesburg.

Within months, the political left had been swept from power by the xenophobic Northern League. It promptly instituted a crackdown on the Chinese, launching night-time raids on their factories and ‘sweatshops’, rounding up workers and demonising them, just as the League’s political ally, Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, spoke of his determination to defeat ‘the army of evil’, as he described illegal immigrants. A shaken Chinese ambassador hurried from Rome and said that what was going on reminded him of the Nazis in the 1930s. Bizarrely, the Chinese government seemed reluctant to take the migrants back. THE PRECARIAT 5 The problems were not just caused by intolerant locals. The nature of the enclave contributed. While Prato’s old factories struggled to compete, leaving Italian workers to seek alternative sources of income, the Chinese built up a community within a community.

Some migrants do carry drugs, often forced to do so by people traffickers. Some are ‘criminals’; every population group has its share. But demonisation is pervasive. The growth of the migrant precariat in the United States was matched by official commando-style raids on factories suspected of employing ‘illegals’. Although President Obama ordered an end to such raids, they could easily return. The Arizona law of 2010, which made illegal immigration a state misdemeanour as well as a federal civil violation, intensified the tension between migrants and ‘native citizens’ fearful of joining the precariat. It requires local police, after making ‘lawful contact’, to check the immigration status of those who cause ‘reasonable suspicion’ and to arrest them if they lack documents, opening the door to random stopping of Hispanic-looking drivers on minor pretexts.


pages: 427 words: 114,531

Legacy of Empire by Gardner Thompson

Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, facts on the ground, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, lateral thinking, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, Ronald Reagan, zero-sum game

He appears to have relished lending support to a deserving, oppressed, people (albeit somehow considered, simultaneously and incongruously, a people of intangible global agency). Evidence of Lloyd George’s enduring support for Zionism comes from the House of Commons in 1930 – many years after he lost office – in the wake of severe disturbances in Palestine the previous year. The Passfield White Paper of 1930 drew attention not only to general Arab concerns about levels of authorised Jewish immigration into Palestine, but also to their specific concern that illegal immigration was continuing, unchecked. Lloyd George scoffed. ‘This White Paper is a one-sided document. It is biased. Its whole drift is hostile to the mandate. It breathes distrust and even antagonism of the Jewish activities… You have only got to look at one or two things with which they are dealing. Take immigration. There is criticism of the Jews because some of them went there temporarily and remained, attracted by the country.’31 There were the immediate practical concerns, too: the exigencies of war, and the need for help, in 1917.

First, the regulation of Jewish immigration according to the criterion of ‘economic absorptive capacity’. In the event, however, there was little to be concerned about here. At one level this policy simply made sense. More importantly, no figures were cited; the economy was expected to grow; and there was to be no restriction on land purchases. ‘Absorptive capacity’ proved impossible to calculate; the policy proved unenforceable; and illegal immigration accompanied legal, largely unimpeded. Second, the Legislative Council. Zionists well knew that Arabs would outnumber Jews if elected proportionally. This was not the time or place for democracy. ‘The Jewish population was fearful of representative institutions.’38 But they had nothing in fact to fear: this proposal was doomed, anyway, because the Arabs were determined to boycott any institution that implied their acceptance of the Balfour Declaration (and the mandate terms).

It claimed consistency of immigration policy with its forerunner of 1922, in that the ‘economic capacity’ of Palestine should continue to determine immigration levels; consistency of policy, too, with Article 6 of the mandate insofar as ‘the rights and position of the other sections of the population shall not be prejudiced by Jewish immigration’. It acknowledged that there had been a range of problems: ‘many cases of persons being admitted who … should not have received visas’; around 8,000 arrivals, over three years, who had stayed on ‘without sanction’; and a large number of illegal immigrants who evaded frontier control. In this context, the White Paper went on, the administration would more closely scrutinise the work of the Jewish Agency. The British gamely sought to present a balanced policy. On the one hand, the Arabs had to recognise ‘the facts of the situation’. Jewish leaders, on the other hand, had to recognise the need for ‘some concessions’. It was only in ‘a peaceful and prosperous Palestine’ that the ideals of the Jewish national home could be realised; it was only by ‘cordial cooperation’ between the Jews, the Arabs and the government that prosperity could be secured.


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1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War by Benny Morris

Albert Einstein, British Empire, family office, friendly fire, illegal immigration, mass immigration

As Colonial Secretary Malcolm MacDonald put it, "If there was trouble in Palestine ... there would be repercussions in Transjordania, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt and even echoes of that trouble in India."36 But Churchill did authorize the establish ment of both the Palmah, a guerrilla strike force of Haganah members to be used if the Germans conquered Palestine, and the Jewish Brigade, a large formation composed mainly of volunteers from the Yishuv that fought with the British army in Italy. The veterans of both were to stand the Yishuv in good stead in the 1948 War. In the first months of World War II, Zionist organizations stepped up efforts to save European Jews from the impending massacre-and to strengthen the Yishuv by bringing them to Palestine-through an illegal immigration operation run mainly by the newly created Institute for Illegal Immigration (hamossad le`aliya bilti ligalit), a secret arm of the Haganah. The British countered with a Royal Navy cordon that intercepted the rickety steamers, and many were stopped and their passengers reshipped to detention camps in Mauritius and, later, Cyprus. But by mid-1941 both Zionist and British efforts had become largely irrelevant: the Germans had overrun Europe and closed its ports while changing their policy toward the Jews from one of encouraging emigration to initiating mass murder.

The three armed groups negotiated a formal accord, known as the Hebrew Rebellion Movement (tnu`athameri ha`ivri), and on the night of 9-io October several Palmah squads raided the British detention camp at Atlit and freed 2o8 incarcerated illegal immigrants.''' What followed was even more dramatic: on the night of i November Palmah sappers blew up railway tracks at 153 points around Palestine and, a few days later, destroyed a patrol vessel and two British coast guard stations, at Giv`at Olga and Sayidna Ali. The British reacted byraiding a handful of kibbutzim, which were suspected of housing illegal immigrants, and panicky troops killed nine civilians and wounded sixty-three. Anti-British emotions crested. Bombings of British installations continued through the winter and spring, culminating in the spectacular simultaneous destruction by Palmah sappers, on the night of 17 June 1946, of eleven bridges connecting Palestine to Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt.

Attlee was bowled over: he complained that Truman "did not wait to acquaint [himself] with the reasons" for the plan.82 Meanwhile, the Haganah pressed on with its illegal immigration campaign. On z7 January 1947, the British took one last shot at resolving the crisis. They reconvened the London conference, this time with the AHC represented. But the Zionists continued to boycott the talks, and the United States declined to send an observer. The Arabs continued to refitse anything short of complete, immediate independence, and the Jews, anything less than Jewish statehood in all or part of Palestine. With no acceptable military solution to the Jewish guerrilla-terrorist and illegal immigration campaigns, and with no political solution to the ZionistArab impasse, Britain had reached the end of the road. On i4 February 1947, the British cabinet decided to wash its hands of Palestine and dump the problem in the lap of the United Nations.


pages: 412 words: 96,251

Why We're Polarized by Ezra Klein

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climategate, collapse of Lehman Brothers, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Nate Silver, obamacare, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, source of truth

In 1996, as President Clinton swept to reelection, the Democratic Party platform included a section on immigration that sounds as if it could have been released by the Trump administration today: Today’s Democratic Party also believes we must remain a nation of laws. We cannot tolerate illegal immigration and we must stop it. For years before Bill Clinton became President, Washington talked tough but failed to act. In 1992, our borders might as well not have existed. The border was under-patrolled, and what patrols there were, were under-equipped. Drugs flowed freely. Illegal immigration was rampant. Criminal immigrants, deported after committing crimes in America, returned the very next day to commit crimes again. President Clinton is making our border a place where the law is respected and drugs and illegal immigrants are turned away. We have increased the Border Patrol by over 40 percent; in El Paso, our Border Patrol agents are so close together they can see each other.

“There are also those who claim that our reform effort will insure illegal immigrants,” he said. “This, too, is false—the reforms I’m proposing would not apply to those who are here illegally.” Sitting in the audience, Congressman Joe Wilson, a South Carolina Republican, couldn’t contain himself. “You lie!” he shouted. Obama wasn’t lying. The legislative text barred the undocumented from benefits. But it was Wilson’s breach of decorum, not his more banal abuse of the truth, that stunned even his colleagues. “Totally disrespectful,” said Senator John McCain, just months out from losing the election to Obama. Republican leadership leaned on Wilson to apologize, which he kind of, sort of, did. “I let my emotions get the best of me when listening to the President’s remarks regarding the coverage of illegal immigrants in the health care bill,” he said in a statement.

One group was subjected to a staged microaggression during the study—their US citizenship was doubted by the researcher managing the experiment. The incident sparked a sharp shift toward support of the Democratic Party. II. There’s an interesting debate about whether Trump became a culture warrior out of calculation or authentic fury. After Romney lost in 2012, Trump criticized him for telling undocumented immigrants to “self-deport” and argued for a gentler GOP. “The Democrats didn’t have a policy for dealing with illegal immigrants, but what they did have going for them is they weren’t mean-spirited about it,” he told Newsmax. “They didn’t know what the policy was, but what they were is they were kind.” III. The origination of this quote is unclear, but ironically, given how popular the line has become as a feminist riposte, the earliest antecedent that Quote Investigator could find was from a 1997 Usenet message board missive by Mike Jebbett, which read, “Women like her are suffering from a condition I call ‘Advanced Pedestalism.’


pages: 127 words: 51,083

The Oil Age Is Over: What to Expect as the World Runs Out of Cheap Oil, 2005-2050 by Matt Savinar

Albert Einstein, clean water, energy security, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, invisible hand, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, post-oil, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Rosa Parks, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Y2K

By the year 2050, the US will only have enough arable land to produce food for half its population, and just barely enough water. This is not accounting for the effects of oil depletion, which will severely exacerbate the situation, as will globalization. A. Population Increase The current population in the US is a little under 280 million. The population has been increasing at a rate of 1.1% per year, not including illegal immigration. At this rate, the US 20 The Oil Age is Over population will reach 520 million by the year 2050.20 If illegal immigration continues unabated, that number will increase drastically. B. Arable Land per Person As urbanization and soil erosion continue unabated, the US is projected to only have 290 million acres of arable land by 2050. With a population of 520 million, that means that each person will only have .6 acres of arable land from which they can derive their food.

In light of the energy situation we are facing, why is the Bush administration spending money and cutting services like there's no tomorrow? ................................. 64 63. Why are we going off to the Moon and then to Mars at a time when we should be dealing with these oil shortages? .................................................................................. 65 64. What about Bush's plan to give amnesty to the illegal immigrants from Mexico? Does that have anything to do with Peak Oil?.............................................................. 66 65. Does Peak Oil have anything to do with the war on drugs?......................................... 66 66. I'm a Baby Boomer. What can I expect in the years to come? ..................................... 68 67. I'm a member of Generation X or Generation Y. How will Peak Oil affect me in particular?

Foremost among them are superconducting magnets, plasma control and diagnostics, robotically controlled mining equipment, life-support facilities, rocket-launch vehicles, telecommunications, power electronics, etc. 106 The fact that we are aggressively pursuing such an unviable source of fuel underscores how desperate the situation is getting. D. To send more US jobs offshore Just wanted to see if you were paying attention. 64. What about Bush's plan to give amnesty to the illegal immigrants from Mexico? Does that have anything to do with Peak Oil? Mexico is the third leading oil supplier to the US. According to Dick Cheney's National Energy Report released in May 2001, "Mexico is a leading and reliable source of imported oil. It has a large reserve base, approximately 25% larger than our own proven reserves."107 On May 8, 2003, the US Congressional Committee on International Relations voted to tie reform of US immigration laws with a requirement that Mexico open up its state oil company, Petroleos Mexicanos, to US corporate investors.108 In other words, the US told Mexico, "Give us your oil and we will give you favorable immigration laws." 65.


pages: 750 words: 169,026

A Line in the Sand: Britain, France and the Struggle for the Mastery of the Middle East by James Barr

bank run, British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, illegal immigration, Khartoum Gordon, Scramble for Africa, short selling, éminence grise

Far from sympathising with the British predicament, most of the six Americans on the twelve-man panel believed that the problem would be solved if Britain accepted the hundred thousand, as Truman had requested. The Committee’s British members reluctantly accepted this recommendation; but they managed to persuade their American colleagues to agree to the insertion of a sharp criticism of Ben-Gurion’s half-hearted condemnation of the police station attacks the previous December, and a call on the Jewish Agency to resume cooperation with the British government in stopping terrorism and illegal immigration. The report also recommended that terrorism should be ‘resolutely suppressed’.²⁷ Without conferring with Attlee, Truman immediately endorsed the Committee’s immigration proposals, but pointedly refused to offer any further American assistance to enforce a policy that was bound to lead to Arab uproar. Attlee did not conceal his anger. The truth was, he told the cabinet, that the United States wanted ‘her interests at our expense’ and, to achieve them, had put substantial pressure on the American members of the Committee.²⁸ As the government’s anger with their ally mounted, Bevin later bluntly told a gathering of the Labour Party that the Americans were pressing the British to accept Jewish displaced persons ‘because they do not want too many of them in New York’.²⁹ That comment predictably caused fury in America but, in fact, Bevin was only paraphrasing what he said the American secretary of state, James Byrnes, had told him.³⁰ The report’s only useful aspect, so far as the British were concerned, was its criticism of the Jewish Agency, because the Agency’s malign influence in Palestine had been bothering them for months.

As a result, although British soldiers uncovered a large and ingeniously concealed arms cache in one settlement, their search of the Jewish Agency itself yielded nothing that was truly damning. The British were initially mystified. ‘We failed to get the evidence to connect the Agency with Jewish terrorism. We failed to get the evidence, I’m sure it was there, before we arrived, to connect them with the illegal immigrant traffic,’ complained the CID’s head of political intelligence, Dick Catling. ‘We failed. We got nothing.’⁴⁰ Meanwhile the French savoured the moment when MI5’s officer in Palestine told them, ‘with some astonishment’, that Britain had found nothing compromising them among the paperwork seized from the Agency.⁴¹ The only evidence of the increasingly close links between the French government and the Zionists is a photograph taken on the day of the operation.

Israel now’, Korff hired a pilot and arranged to rendezvous with him at an aerodrome ten miles outside Paris early on 4 September.¹⁷ The pilot, however, tipped off the French Sûreté, and, in an appropriately absurd dénouement, when he and Korff met at the airstrip they were arrested by a squad of twenty policemen disguised as mechanics. The French, though, made no effort whatsoever to try to hinder Zionist efforts to organise mass illegal immigration into Palestine from the south of France. In March that year the French cabinet had decided not to impose stringent checks on people wishing to leave the country, with consequences that became immediately obvious. Before the month was out the British ambassador, Duff Cooper, visited the Quai d’Orsay to register a protest at ‘French slackness in preventing illegal departures of Jews for Palestine’.¹⁸ Bidault, on the surface sympathetic, continued to do nothing to help Cooper.


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The Working Poor: Invisible in America by David K. Shipler

always be closing, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, David Brooks, full employment, illegal immigration, late fees, low skilled workers, payday loans, profit motive, Silicon Valley, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, working poor

The immigration agency is usually content to deport the workers without going after the employers as well. A noted exception came in the form of a federal grand jury indictment of Tyson’s Foods and six employees on charges of arranging to have illegal immigrants smuggled into the country and provided with false documents. The case was thin, however, and despite testimony by several employees who pleaded guilty, a federal jury acquitted the company and the three managers who were brought to trial.8 The only authentic piece of identification illegal immigrants can obtain is a driver’s license, and that has become more difficult since the terrorist attacks of September n, 2001. A license is not a necessity for the newest arrivals who don’t have cars and don’t drive farm equipment, but it’s essential for those who want to step off the migrant train and stay in one place for a while, or move up a rung on the job ladder from field hand to tractor driver.

They show the basic landscape of poverty essentially unchanged, except that the contours of hardship have grown slightly more pronounced. Greater disparities of net worth separate the wealthiest and the poorest families, larger gaps in resources divide affluent school districts from others, more children miss school because of asthma, more Americans go without health insurance, more experience hunger, more are imprisoned, fewer workers are unionized, more illegal immigrants do essential jobs, and more of them die in the desert after crossing the border from Mexico. Congress and many state legislatures have raised minimum wages, but they still leave most single-earner families below the poverty line. Astonishing percentages of adults who have been surveyed remain unable to perform everyday tasks in reading, math, and document comprehension, rendering them uncompetitive in a global marketplace.

“They were told that if they tried to resist or escape, their homes in Thailand would be burned, their families murdered, and they would be beaten,” writes Julie Su, one of their lawyers.3 They were shown pictures of a man who had been badly battered after an escape attempt, and they were threatened with the dreaded Immigration and Naturalization Service if they complained—threats that came true, in a way. In 1995, seven years after the involuntary servitude began, and three years after the INS had received its first report on the problem, federal and state agents finally raided the place, “freeing” seventy-one hapless workers only to imprison them in a federal penitentiary pending deportation. The INS, bound by law to detain and deport illegal immigrants, thereby reinforced the intimidation commonly used by employers to enforce their workers’ silence. The official toughness “could only serve to discourage workers from reporting labor law, civil rights, and human rights abuses, and push operations like El Monte further underground,” Su argues. “The INS, we asserted, ought not conspire with exploitative employers.” It took an entire week of vehement demonstrations by Sweatshop Watch members before the tormented Thai workers were released by the immigration agency.


pages: 420 words: 126,194

The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam by Douglas Murray

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, high net worth, illegal immigration, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, open borders, post-industrial society, white flight

As a stunt in 2013 (under a Conservative majority government) the Home Office organised a number of vans with advertising posters along the sides to drive around six London boroughs where many illegal immigrants lived. The posters read ‘In the UK illegally? Go home or face arrest’, followed by a government helpline number. The posters immediately became politically toxic. The Labour Shadow Home Secretary, Yvette Cooper, described them as ‘divisive’ and ‘disgraceful’. The campaign group Liberty not only branded the vans’ message as ‘racist’ but also ‘illegal’. After some months it was revealed that the pilot scheme had successfully persuaded only 11 illegal immigrants to leave the country voluntarily. The then Home Secretary, Theresa May, admitted the scheme had been a mistake and too ‘blunt’, and it was not repeated. Of course, the scheme had not been intended to genuinely persuade the up to one million illegal migrants in Britain to return home, but to reassure the rest of the population that their government was being tough.

The number of Christians in England and Wales dropped by more than four million, and the number of Christians overall fell from 37 million to 33 million. But while Christianity witnessed this collapse in its followers – a collapse that was only expected to continue precipitately – mass migration assisted a near-doubling in the size of the Muslim population. Between 2001 and 2011 the number of Muslims in England and Wales rose from 1.5 million to 2.7 million. While these were the official figures there was a widespread acceptance that illegal immigrations made all these numbers far higher. At least a million people were recognised to be in the country illegally, and thus unlikely to have filled in census forms, and the two local authorities which had already grown the fastest (over 20 per cent in ten years) were those that already had the highest Muslim populations in the UK (Tower Hamlets and Newham). These were also among the areas of the country with the largest non-response to the census, with around one in five households failing to return the census at all.

Yet all the time the migrant communities of France grew in numbers. Eventually politicians of the mainstream right also tried to make their names by sounding tough on immigration. In 1993, while a minister with responsibility for immigration, Charles Pasqua had announced that France would close its borders and that France would become a ‘zero immigration’ country. In 1993 he boasted of forthcoming crackdowns on illegal immigrants: ‘When we have sent home several planeloads, even boatloads and trainloads, the world will get the message.’ But it is doubtful that he believed this, even at the time. ‘The problems of immigration are ahead of us and not behind us,’ the same Charles Pasqua said a short time later, acknowledging that in the not too distant future the tens of millions of young people in Africa who were ‘without a future’ would be likely to want to head north.3 The French political debate throughout these years was both unique and utterly representative in Europe.


The Revolt by Menachem Begin

British Empire, Defenestration of Prague, illegal immigration, Internet Archive

He added, however, that with the war's end they would be returned to their "homes" in Europe. To teach the "illegal" immigrants a lesson, the military forces carrying out the deportation used "a certain amount of force" before the ships were sent off on their way to Mauritius. The Patria never sailed. Jewish "terrorists" placed a bomb to prevent its departure. The bomb exploded and more than two hundred Jews were killed or drowned. The British authorities noted the fact that this was not an Irgun Zvai Leumi operation; it was the Haganah which had placed the bomb. In this particular case, the echoes of the explosion were such that McMichael showed "clemency" to the survivors and allowed them to enter Eretz Israel. But the statement which accompanied the clemency unambiguously reaffirmed that it would not serve as a precedent and emphasized that "illegal immigration" would not be tolerated.

It only remained to ensure the application of the plan, which was henceforth to be called "the law." The difficulty lay in the unfortunate desire of the Jews to save their lives and run away from Hitler. Soon any dormant belief that the sealed frontiers of Europe would prevent their escape was shattered. The Irgun Zvai Leumi, which in association with the Zionist-Revisionist Party and the Betar youth organisation, had brought many thousands of "illegal" immigrants into the country, never halted its activities. The British authorities exerted themselves to horrify the world by gruesome descriptions of the conditions aboard the refugee ships, the "coffin-ships," which, old and dilapidated, were crowded to the gunwales. The British Consul at Constanza, who visited one of the ships, had reported that no Englishman would be prepared to travel in such unhygienic and insanitary conditions. . . .

This did not prevent some of them from crossing the frontier and joining other Jews from Czechoslovakia, Austria and Rumania in a new effort to get to Eretz Israel. 1 Again news reached the British officials of a large number of Italian ships lying idle at Trieste and the presence in that port of many Jewish "tourists." It was plain not only that the Jews had not given up, but that they were planning a "large-scale invasion" of illegal immigrants. By this time the Haganah 1 , much more wealthy than the Irgun, and backed by the resources of the Jewish Agency, 8 had also become active in the immigration field. I They succeeded. They reached Eretz Israel in the famous Sekariya expedition organized by Mr. Eri Jabotinsky, son of the creator of the Irgun. *The Haganah was an organisation under the control of the Zionist Executive designed primarily to afford something like police protection to the various Jewish colonies in Palestine.


pages: 273 words: 83,802

Hostile Environment: How Immigrants Became Scapegoats by Maya Goodfellow

Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, colonial rule, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, European colonialism, falling living standards, G4S, housing crisis, illegal immigration, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, moral panic, open borders, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, Scientific racism, Winter of Discontent, working poor

The hostile environment was rebranded the ‘compliant environment’ and some of the associated policies were suspended. But most of them remained in place; ministers repeated they were necessary to deal with ‘illegal immigrants’. Months after Windrush made headlines, the government still didn’t know how many people had been deported thanks to their policies, and many of those who had been affected were still living in homelessness hostels, unable to work.5 A year later, a compensation scheme was set up for the people who had been caught up in the whole affair. The government was at pains to emphasise that the Windrush generation were here legally, and that the aim of their hostile environment policies was to tackle ‘illegal’ immigration. But the tag ‘illegal’ obscures more than it tells us. It carries with it an assumption of inherent criminality and immorality; if you are ‘illegal’, you are bad.

When the Conservatives changed the rules on social housing so that people living in properties deemed as having a ‘spare room’ had their benefits cut, they called it the ‘spare room subsidy’. Campaigners renamed it the more appropriate ‘bedroom tax’. But when Theresa May unveiled her flagship immigration package as home secretary, she didn’t even attempt to hide its cruelty. She flaunted it. The aim was to create a ‘really hostile environment for illegal immigrants,’ she boasted.1 The plan was to make their lives unbearable. And, so, the government began to create this hostile environment, stitching immigration checks into every element of people’s lives. Through measures brought in by the 2014 and 2016 Immigration Acts, a whole host of professionals – from landlords and letting agents to doctors and nurses – were turned into border guards.2 Regardless of how removed their profession was from the world of immigration policy, the threat of being fined or sentenced to jail time loomed over them if they failed to carry out checks to ensure people they encountered through their work were in the country legally.

If only we spent the same amount of time scrutinising borders as we do championing their importance, then instead of pandering to the demands of those who complain about people desperate enough to leave their home country to cross them, we might try to dismantle them. Seen as representing strength and protection, they are, if you look at them more closely, violent and discriminatory in all kinds of way. Borders are not only where the lines on the map tell us they are. They are also drawn between people, with the use of words like ‘migrant’ and ‘citizen’. By crossing a border, you can cease to be a human being to the people around you, becoming an (‘illegal’) immigrant or a (‘bogus’) asylum seeker. These words we use to talk about people aren’t just descriptive or neutral categories; how they’re used doesn’t always and only coincide with their legal meaning; they’re laden with other associations.44 Just look at the term ‘migrant’. Twisted to apply to specific groups of people at particular times, there is no hard and fast rule of who is an immigrant and who isn’t.


Antonio-s-Gun-and-Delfino-s-Dream-True-Tales-of-Mexican-Migration by Unknown

Berlin Wall, centre right, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, trade route

They were going back to Mexico someday, so why bother getting involved? Thus while everything was changing in South Gate, much remained The Saga of South Gate / 71 the same, and in this awkward stasis the town spent the s and early s. The jolt came in  with Proposition . The proposition would have denied illegal immigrants education and health care, among other things. Californians passed Proposition  overwhelmingly, but the courts ruled it unconstitutional. Still, the initiative changed America. Millions of illegal immigrants had become legal residents under an amnesty that the U.S. Congress passed in . By law, they had to wait at least seven years after amnesty to apply for citizenship. Just as those seven years expired, Proposition  came along. It terrified immigrants across the United States—even many who’d been legal residents for years.

But to many immigrants, he was at least one of them, and they figured he could do no worse as mayor 40 / CHAPTER TWO than the political elite that for so long had run Jerez—or Mexico, for that matter. What was undeniable was that the life of Andrés Bermúdez could not have prepared him more poorly to resist the narcotic of media attention or navigate the crafty Mexican political maze. He was a simple man without one political instinct. The first vote he cast in his life was for himself. As an illegal immigrant, then a farmer and businessman, he had learned directness and self-reliance. He depended on common sense and hard work. Life had taught him not to balance the interests of competing groups but to make quick decisions, alone, obeying only his gut. He was like his fellow immigrants. His interests were theirs: making money and a future for himself and his family, working out of poverty. What motivated him, as much as the desire to govern a city, was an impulse common to immigrants the world over.

However, the coyote who took him across had noticed something in him—a daring, a boldness, Diez figured, for this is what Diez saw in himself. The coyote offered to take him on as a partner, to help out in future trips. Every few weeks after that, Diez would head down from Phoenix to Sonoyta, a small Mexican border town. There he and his new partner would take north ten Delfino II / 149 or twelve people at a time. This is how Diez, who first went to the United States looking for work, learned to smuggle illegal immigrants when he was not yet sixteen years old, and came to lead much older men through the Arizona desert. Coyote was a term he disliked. He thought it sounded bad. In Mexico the word had sleazy, cowardly associations. Instead, he referred to smuggling humans as “the work.” He didn’t like the work any more than the job title, but he had nothing else. He wasn’t afraid of the Border Patrol, for they hadn’t caught him yet.


pages: 784 words: 229,648

O Jerusalem by Larry Collins, Dominique Lapierre

back-to-the-land, colonial rule, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, lateral thinking, union organizing

The order laid out the principles which would govern the withdrawal of the only effective instrument Cunningham had with which to maintain order in the coming months, the British Army. It contained one deliberate omission. It made no mention of the British Army being responsible henceforth for law and order in Palestine. • From 1946 to February 1948 according to a report submitted to the War Office by Sir Gordon MacMillan. the last commander in chief of British forces in Palestine, the British intercepted forty-seven shiploads of illegal immigrants, interning 65,307 illegal immigrants in their detention camps on the island of Cyprus. Harassed, humiliated, shot at and insulted for the past two years, that army was fed up with maintaining law and order in Palestine. With an end to the mandate now set, its commander, one of Cunningham's fellow Scots, Sir Gordon MacMillan, was determined not to risk the lives of any more of his soldiers in Palestine except in the pursuit of British interests.

A survivor of the first Zionist combat on the soil of Palestine, the battle of Tel Hai, founder of the first illegal immigration network, his most recent exploit had been successfully smuggling fifteen thousand Rumanians and Bulgarians into Palestine. Shaul Avigour in his Geneva headquarters soon began to run up one of the biggest telephone bills in Switzerland, calling New York, Prague, Buenos Aires, Mexico. The telephone was his only means of communication, as the Haganah had felt it imprudent to install in Switzerland one of the secret radio transmitters with which it linked most European cities to Tel Aviv. The network's code name was 'Gideon', for one of the judges of Biblical Israel. It had been established for the illegal immigration programme, and now it provided secure communications for Avigour's arms buyers.

'Wash up and change,* the driver told him. Tm taking you to Jerusalem. The boss wants to see you/ Avriel had displayed no surprise. For ten years the quiet Austrian intellectual had devoted himself to the Zionist cause, achieving some of its most spectacular triumphs. From Vienna, then Istanbul, Athens and finally Paris, Avriel had supervised one of the most extraordinary adventures of the Jewish movement, the illegal immigration of thousands of European Jews into Palestine. In the middle of the war, he had succeeded in smuggling his men into Hitler's death camps. Over one hundred thousand Jews from every country in Europe were personally indebted to Avriel, and his organization for having got them out of the Nazi inferno and onto the shores of the Promised Land. Now, barely two months after his own return to Palestine, he was once again being called away from his family and his kibbutz.


pages: 239 words: 62,005

Don't Burn This Book: Thinking for Yourself in an Age of Unreason by Dave Rubin

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, butterfly effect, centre right, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Donald Trump, failed state, gender pay gap, illegal immigration, immigration reform, job automation, low skilled workers, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, school choice, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, Tim Cook: Apple, unpaid internship, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Hope and Change himself, Barack Obama, sounding an awful lot like evil, racist Republican Donald Trump, wouldn’t you say? Meanwhile, Democrat senator Chuck Schumer of New York once said during a 2009 speech at Georgetown University: “The American people are fundamentally pro-legal immigration and anti-illegal immigration. We will only pass comprehensive reform when we recognize this fundamental concept. “First, illegal immigration is wrong. A primary goal of comprehensive immigration reform must be to dramatically curtail future illegal immigration.” Then, nervous Nancy Pelosi added: “We all agree we need to secure our borders, while honoring our values.” Even Democrat senator Dianne Feinstein of California criticized the flood of migrants coming from Mexico. Speaking during a visit to the border in the early 1990s, she said: “It’s a competition for space.

“But those who enter the country illegally, and those who employ them, disrespect the rule of law, and they are showing disregard for those who are following the law.” He added: “We simply cannot allow people to pour into the United States undetected, undocumented, unchecked, and circumventing the line of people who are waiting patiently, diligently, and lawfully to become immigrants into this country.” A few years later, in a 2013 State of the Union address, Obama promised to put illegal immigrants “to the back of the line.” Real reform means strong border security, and we can build on the progress my administration has already made—putting more boots on the southern border than at any time in our history and reducing illegal crossings to their lowest levels in forty years. Real reform means establishing a responsible pathway to earned citizenship—a path that includes passing a background check, paying taxes and a meaningful penalty, learning English, and going to the back of the line behind the folks trying to come here legally.


pages: 586 words: 184,480

Slow Boats to China by Gavin Young

Ayatollah Khomeini, illegal immigration, Malacca Straits, Pearl River Delta, South China Sea

I was glad to be able to assure him that there were several. * Dick Hughes had mentioned that he believed illegal immigrants from Canton had bound and robbed his wife and himself in the middle of the night. From time to time I had read newspaper stories about how Chinese men and women risked their lives in waters full of sharks in trying to swim to Hong Kong from the coast of the communist mainland. Understandably, the Hong Kong newspapers were obsessed with the problem; five hundred Chinese were said to be infiltrating into the overcrowded little colony every day. ‘Send Back All the I.I.s’, a front-page headline in the Star said on the day I arrived. A Chinese member of the Hong Kong Legislative Council proposed new laws to prevent employers from hiring illegal immigrants, to stop their obtaining identity cards, and to crack down on landlords renting any premises to them.

I pointed to the pimple labelled Macao, the Portuguese smaller Hong Kong a little further down the coast. ‘Oh, Macao,’ the policeman said sadly. ‘Smuggling illegal immigrants from China to Macao to Hong Kong is big money there. The syndicates [the Chinese tongs] actually sell tickets for places in their launches, “snake boats” and speedboats. They are difficult to catch – faster than ours, sometimes.’ Last year the Hong Kong marine police had picked up 451 bodies out of Deep Bay at the mouth of the Pearl river, which runs up to the port of Canton. ‘The Chinese are born gamblers,’ the assistant commissioner said sadly. Forty A few nights later, when I reached the marine police’s illegal immigrant patrol depot, the Chinese crew of the Special Boat Unit (SBU) I had been permitted to accompany were taking their evening meal of pork, fish, rice and beer.

When the shifts changed, the men going off duty went below to the forward cabin, discarded their outer clothing and, in T-shirts and underpants, swung short, white, muscular legs into sleeping bags, zipped up the flaps and fell asleep at once. I imagined the illegal immigrants paddling slowly across the bay, their hearts racing, chilled from head to foot, led on, like men in a dream, by the lights of Hong Kong reflected on the clouds and the hope of a better life. They had whispered their plans to each other night after night for months, waiting for the high tide, the low moon, the favourable horoscope; now they inched towards us where we waited under the flashing beacon and the crews in the Zodiacs raked the water with their night glasses. A few minutes later one of the rubber Zodiacs put-putted up, and by the beacon’s light I could see its crew of three policemen and five illegal immigrants crouching in the bottom of the Zodiac like the wise monkeys, their hands on their heads.


pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason

anti-globalists, back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, do-ocracy, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

For during the neoliberal years the super-rich had spared no effort or expense to create a plebeian backlash against the Federal state. From the platform of Fox News, Rupert Murdoch’s employees had railed against big government and high taxes. Across the Bible Belt, the holy book had been brandished by preachers warning against the combined evils of abortion, gay marriage, ‘positive discrimination’ for black people, illegal immigration, big government and high taxes. By February 2009, the religious right in America had an enemy it had always dreamed of: a black president, committed to liberal social policy, big spending and a bailout of Wall Street at the expense of everyone else. In November 2010 they found the means to humiliate him, when the Republicans won a majority in the House of Representatives, including eighty-seven signed-up members of the Tea Party.

He says the trade deal between the USA and Mexico, together with other bilateral deals, is making poverty south of the border worse: When I was in jail I met guys from El Salvador, Ecuador, Honduras—conditions are really hard—they cannot live there; they got no option but to go to other countries. It’s not that they want to be here, but they just don’t have any other option. SB 1070 won’t stop them coming. Arpaio made videos of prisoners in the chain gang under the sun: people see this, but they still come. Latino migrants work, but for precious little: it is a certainty that the impact of illegal immigration is to reduce wages for people like Maurice and Larry in New Mexico, who are US citizens. Fernando tells me that some of his friends are working a 100-hour week, for below the minimum wage: housekeeping, landscaping, kitchen work. ‘They should be creating jobs instead of jails, building schools instead of jails.’ But as Fernando and I sit there in the sweltering heat of the migrant centre, beneath posters with the slogan ‘We Are Human’ and a grimly humorous bumper sticker saying ‘I’m Mexican, Pull Me Over’—President Obama is getting ready to sign away two trillion dollars’ worth of money for building schools and creating jobs.

I met the party’s second in command, Ilias Panagiotaros, in the back yard of the store he runs: a militaria shop, selling police uniforms to serving officers and Combat 18 t-shirts to football hooligans. In his opinion, ‘Greek society is ready—even though no-one likes this—to have a fight: a new type of civil war. On the one side there will be nationalists like us, and Greeks who want our country to be as it used to be, and on the other side illegal immigrants, anarchists and all those who have destroyed Athens several times. Golden Dawn is at war with the political system and those who represent it, with the domestic and international bankers, we are at war with these invaders—immigrants.’ Panagiotaros, one of eighteen fascist MPs, was clear as to the sequencing of the Greek denouement. It would not be like Weimar: it would begin with a left-wing government, and end with the rule of his own party: ‘If Syriza wins the next election, we will win the one after that.


pages: 463 words: 105,197

Radical Markets: Uprooting Capitalism and Democracy for a Just Society by Eric Posner, E. Weyl

3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, commoditize, Corn Laws, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, endowment effect, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, feminist movement, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, guest worker program, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Lyft, market bubble, market design, market friction, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, negative equity, Network effects, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, Pareto efficiency, passive investing, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Rory Sutherland, Second Machine Age, second-price auction, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, telepresence, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, Zipcar

In Europe, governments encouraged migration for postwar reconstruction; in the United States, the government permitted Mexicans to cross the border to engage in seasonal agricultural labor. But political opposition to these policies ensured that they were temporary and often involved work-arounds and winking at illegal immigration. In Germany, for example, the government allowed Turkish workers to settle in the country but did not grant them citizenship; in the United States, legal immigration programs were replaced by illegal immigration since the border was not controlled. But whether legal or illegal, migration never reached the level that would satisfy demand in the host countries and the supply of people willing and able to migrate.13 In Europe, migration between EU member states was institutionalized. Citizens were permitted to move to any member state for a job.

Consider the goods and services most Americans use: our clothes are made in Vietnam, our mortgages owned by Chinese companies, our luxuries imported from Europe, and our cars made in Latin America. Foreign tourists swarm our cities, and talented foreign workers and immigrants populate our start-ups, banks, and universities. Globalization has increased foreign trade, capital flows, tourism, and the migration of highly skilled workers. Yet, for all the controversies about refugees and (in the United States) illegal immigration, migration of people with ordinary skills proceeds at a trickle. From the standpoint of economic theory, this “migration imbalance,” as we will call it, is puzzling. Economists believe that global wealth increases when all factors of production—goods, services, capital, labor—are allowed to flow across borders to the locations where they can be most efficiently employed. What is special about migration (a term that we will henceforth use to refer to migration of ordinary workers rather than highly skilled workers and tourists)?

It is thus natural that trade and migration should both benefit capitalists in wealthy countries and laborers in poor countries at the expense of laborers in wealthy countries and capitalists in poor countries. While the logic of the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem is widely accepted among economists, the exact extent to which various categories of workers are harmed or benefited by immigration is more complex. There is significant evidence that immigration reduces the wages of native workers whose backgrounds are similar to those of migrants. For example, illegal immigration to the United States from Mexico and Central America tends to hurt native workers with low education and weak language skills.21 However, the effects of migration on the broader labor markets are murkier. Some scholars believe that the native workers are in aggregate harmed, albeit only to a limited extent.22 Others argue that effects are negligible or even that most workers may benefit because migrants buy more goods, which native workers produce, or take the lowest rungs on the employment ladder, pushing some native workers up into better-paying supervisory roles.23 These small and mixed effects are dwarfed by the large benefits migration brings to the migrants themselves and their employers.24 Moreover, the fiscal structure of migration prevents significant sharing of these benefits through government and may even impose costs on domestic workers.


pages: 358 words: 106,729

Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy by Raghuram Rajan

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, diversification, Edward Glaeser, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, implied volatility, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, longitudinal study, market bubble, Martin Wolf, medical malpractice, microcredit, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, price stability, profit motive, Real Time Gross Settlement, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

This may also explain why Americans give generously to charities: they have more control over who the beneficiaries are.20 Politicians who want to derail benefits legislation have often been quick to raise the specter of hard-earned taxpayer money going to the undeserving, irresponsible, and lazy, and such demagoguery is especially potent when the bogeymen look and behave differently from their constituents. In much of the twentieth century, the targets for demagogues were African Americans, but over time Americans have learned to recognize the deeper purpose behind such language. More recently, illegal immigrants have emerged as the new target, and much angst is expended over the possibility that benefits may leak to them. Indeed, a battle has erupted in the most recent round of health care legislation over the access of illegal immigrants to any form of taxpayer-funded programs. In this debate, few legislators have asked how U.S. society can remain healthy and humane with a sick and unprotected immigrant population in its midst. Finally, business interests and money power have always been an important force in the United States.

The reasons for rising inequality are, of course, a matter of much debate, with both the Left and the Right adhering to their own favored explanations. Other factors, such as the widespread deregulation in recent decades and the resulting increases in competition including for resources (such as talent), the changes in tax rates, the decrease in unionization, and the increase in both legal and illegal immigration, have no doubt all played a part.5 Regardless of how the inequality has arisen, it has led to widespread anxiety. Many have lost faith in the narrative of America as the land of unbounded opportunity, which in the past created the public support that made the United States a bastion of economic freedom. Politicians, always sensitive to their constituents, have responded to these worrisome developments with an attempt at a panacea: facilitating the flow of easy credit to those left behind by growth and technological progress.

Inequality feeds on itself. Moreover, it will precipitate a backlash. When people see a dim economic future in a democracy, they work through political channels to obtain redress, and if the political channel does not respond, they resort to other means. The first victims of a political search for scapegoats are those who are visible and easily demonized, but powerless to defend themselves. Illegal immigrants and foreign workers do not vote, but they are essential to the economy—the former because they often do jobs no one else will touch in normal times, and the latter because they are the source of the cheap imports that have raised the standard of living for all, but especially those with low incomes. There has to be a better way than simply finding scapegoats, and I examine possible solutions in subsequent chapters.


pages: 340 words: 81,110

How Democracies Die by Steven Levitsky, Daniel Ziblatt

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Nate Silver, Norman Mailer, old-boy network, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, universal basic income

Trump met this measure when he questioned the legitimacy of the electoral process and made the unprecedented suggestion that he might not accept the results of the 2016 election. Levels of voter fraud in the United States are very low, and because elections are administered by state and local governments, it is effectively impossible to coordinate national-level voting fraud. Yet throughout the 2016 campaign, Trump insisted that millions of illegal immigrants and dead people on the voting rolls would be mobilized to vote for Clinton. For months, his campaign website declared “Help Me Stop Crooked Hillary from Rigging This Election!” In August, Trump told Sean Hannity, “We’d better be careful, because that election is going to be rigged….I hope the Republicans are watching closely, or it’s going to be taken away from us.” In October, he tweeted, “Of course there is large scale voter fraud happening on and before election day.”

Obama began to use executive authority in a way he might not have expected to before coming into office. In 2010, in the face of Congress’s failure to pass a new energy bill, he issued an “executive memorandum” instructing government agencies to raise fuel efficiency standards for all cars. In 2012, in response to Congress’s inability to pass immigration reform, he announced an executive action to cease deportation of illegal immigrants who came to the United States before the age of sixteen and were either in school or were high school graduates or military veterans. In 2015, President Obama responded to Congress’s refusal to pass legislation to combat climate change by issuing an executive order to all federal agencies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and use more renewable energy. Unable to get Senate consent for a nuclear treaty with Iran, the Obama administration negotiated an “executive agreement,” which, because it was not formally a treaty, did not require Senate approval.

A poll taken prior to the 2012 presidential election found that 71 percent of Mexicans believed that fraud could be in play. In the United States, the figures were even more dramatic. In a survey carried out prior to the 2016 election, 84 percent of Republican voters said they believed a “meaningful amount” of fraud occurred in American elections, and nearly 60 percent of Republican voters said they believed illegal immigrants would “vote in meaningful amounts” in November. These doubts persisted after the election. According to a July 2017 Morning Consult/Politico poll, 47 percent of Republicans believed that Trump won the popular vote, compared to 40 percent who believed Hillary Clinton won. In other words, about half of self-identified Republicans said they believe that American elections are massively rigged.


pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

(That law was opposed by the right-wing Popular Party government but passed by Parliament against its will.) Zapatero’s 2005 law was in a way a mopping-up, designed to ensure that all the residents of Spain’s arrival cities would be legal, tax-paying citizens.26 It was followed, in 2007, by an even more ambitious program, engineered in cooperation with the government of Senegal, designed to deter dangerous illegal sea crossings by migrants and end illegal immigration to Spain. While amnesties offering regularization of “illegal” immigrants have been used throughout the Western world in the postwar decades, Spain’s program was part of a new approach designed to make regularization an option in advance, incorporating rural-to-urban transition into the employment system. Under this program, tens of thousands of Africans every year were granted work permits, allowing them to enter the country legally and work for a year; if their employment contracts were extended, they were allowed to bring over their families and so embark on a path toward citizenship—an effort to prevent the fragmented families and underground lives of the European arrival city and to allow Spain to add half a million immigrants to its economy each year without creating a marginalized class on the outskirts.

Walls and policing regimes have done little to reduce the numbers. In most cases, governments come to realize that millions of potential taxpayers are living below the radar, earning incomes but not paying taxes, and creating gray-market families and awkward legal paradoxes as their deracinated children come of age; the result is usually a mass amnesty. The United States has granted post-facto citizenship to millions of illegal immigrants in recent decades (most recently in the early 1990s); similar amnesties, involving hundreds of thousands of undocumented migrants, have been granted in Spain, Italy, France, Britain, and Germany. More such amnesties are almost certain in the future. A typical example is the U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act, or IRCA, which began in 1986 as a congressional effort to stop, once and for all, the movement of Latin American villagers across the southern border.

After a decade and a half, this exposed and unprotected setting had become a social and humanitarian worry, so, in 2005, the Herndon town council, led by Mayor Michael O’Reilly, voted to create an indoor day-labor center, using county funds and staff from a local church non-profit agency. This initiative attracted anti-immigration forces, such as the vigilante group the Minutemen, which opened a chapter in Herndon. They claimed that it was unacceptable to use taxpayer money to assist illegal immigrants. The proposed center then became the focus of an ugly election for Virginia governor in 2005, in which Republican candidate Jerry Kilgore built much of his campaign around his opposition to Herndon’s approach, making the town a conservative emblem of wrongheaded state support for undocumented migrants. (He lost by a narrow margin.) Then, months after the center opened in a former police station on a two-year funding contract, the people of Herndon responded by voting Mayor O’Reilly out of office by a wide margin in a single-issue campaign devoted to the center and replacing him with Stephen J.


pages: 362 words: 95,782

Stephen Fry in America by Stephen Fry

Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Columbine, Donald Trump, illegal immigration, intermodal, jimmy wales, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

but you would be dishonest not to acknowledge also the unconditional generosity, open-mindedness, hard work and charm with which these people live their highly privileged lives. How much easier America would be to understand if it conformed simply to all our snootiest, snobbiest and most sneering expectations. Instead it does conform, but not simply. It conforms with ambiguity, contradiction and surprise. Maybe that is why I love it so. Border Patrol The frontline in America’s war against illegal immigrants is the Mexican border. I come to El Paso, where many of the fiercest frontline battles in that war are daily fought. Mexico has influenced Texas hugely; their respective cultures have combined to form a very particular style of Tex-Mex food, drink, music and architecture. But while Mexican music, beer and quesadillas may be welcome in the United States, its people are less so. There is a class of vigilante volunteer who patrols the southern border off his own bat.

He drives us along the borderline in his pick-up, pointing out places where illegals are known to try and cross. Every now and again we pass a genuine government Border Patrol vehicle. They are on friendly terms, Shannon assures us, for the Federal Agents know the Minutemen are law-abiding and would never tackle an illegal themselves, they would radio the information to the proper authorities. Are there British ‘patriots’ who are so incensed by illegal immigration into the United Kingdom that they would set up their own border patrols in like manner? Shannon strikes me as more sad and lonely than dangerous. He has that slightly obnoxious and overstated pride in his obedience to the law and his respect for proper authorities characteristic of the self-righteous patriot. I ask him whether he has any sympathy for the Mexicans whose lives are so poor and who look out daily across a river to a land of riches and plenty?

He evades the question by referring once more to the law. the Mexican side of the border. Poorer, but better dressed than their gringo neighbours. With Agent Romero on the American side. Scratching out a living. Incidentally, I say that the Mexicans look out over a river, and it may be that you already know that I am referring to the Rio Grande, which for much of its course forms the natural border between America and Mexico. Illegal immigrants are often called ‘wetbacks’ on account of their having had to swim that river. You may imagine my surprise then when Shannon showed me the Rio Grande. Not a river at all, but a drain, a dry ditch. Further along it swells into a small stream, I am told, but here it is no more than a trickle. The following day I join the official United States Border Patrol in the city of El Paso itself. Agent Romero drives me along the fences on the US side of the border and we see, over the dribble that is the Rio Grande, Mexicans in the city of Juarez gazing across at us.


Global Financial Crisis by Noah Berlatsky

accounting loophole / creative accounting, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, centre right, circulation of elites, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate raider, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, George Akerlof, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, moral hazard, new economy, Northern Rock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, working poor

Danny Schechter “Financial Crisis Goes Global, Slams into Europe,” Huffington Post, March 10, 2009. www.huffingtonpost.com. Jay Solomon and Siobhan Gorman “Financial Crisis May Diminish American Sway,” Wall Street Journal, October 17, 2008. Spiegel Online “Ticking Timebomb: The Financial Crisis Reaches Germany’s Economy,” October 15, 2008. www.spiegel.de. Brian Whitley “With Fewer Jobs, Fewer Illegal Immigrants,” Christian Science Monitor, December 30, 2008. www.csmonitor.com. 127 CHAPTER Effects of the Global Financial Crisis on Developing Nations 128 3 1 Viewpoint Worldwide, Migrant Workers Are Threatened by Job Losses and Xenophobia Ron Synovitz Ron Synovitz is a senior correspondent in Radio Free Europe’s central newsroom, where he has worked since 1995. In the following viewpoint, Synovitz reports that enormous numbers of migrant workers are losing their jobs in China, the Persian Gulf, and Europe.

In the following viewpoint, Synovitz reports that enormous numbers of migrant workers are losing their jobs in China, the Persian Gulf, and Europe. In response, governments in Spain, Russia, and elsewhere are putting restrictions on the number of foreign workers allowed into their countries. International organizations and advocacy groups worry that such restrictions on foreigners may cause dangerous large-scale migration, enrich criminal organizations by promoting illegal immigration, and encourage xenophobic attitudes toward foreigners. As you read, consider the following questions: 1. In the Persian Gulf, from where does Ron Synovitz assert the majority of migrant workers come? 2. In Spain, where do the majority of migrant workers come from, according to the author? 3. What is the International Organization for Migration (IOM)? Ron Synovitz, “Global Financial Crisis Costs Many Migrant Workers Their Jobs,” Radio Free Europe, December 18, 2008.

But now, the fall in the price of oil that has accompanied the global recession is causing a sharp downturn in development within the six Gulf Cooperation Council states—Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Oman. Analysts say neither the developers, the investors, nor the migrant workers are prepared for what is next. They predict that as many as half of the region’s 13 million foreign workers could lose their jobs in the months ahead. The migrants will either have to stay in the Gulf countries as illegal immigrants or go back to their own countries to seek employment. 130 Effects of the Global Financial Crisis on Developing Nations European countries also are seeing similar problems as a result of the financial crisis. Millions of foreign workers flocked to Spain for jobs from 1994 to 2007 when that country saw continuous economic growth. Most of the 4.5 million migrant workers now in Spain are from Latin America, North Africa, or Eastern Europe.


pages: 407

Disrupt and Deny: Spies, Special Forces, and the Secret Pursuit of British Foreign Policy by Rory Cormac

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Etonian, illegal immigration, land reform, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, private military company, Ronald Reagan, Stuxnet, trade route, union organizing, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

In doing so, it created a more amenable environment for political, economic, and special operations. In the late 1940s, propaganda, whilst providing its own attack on communism, was used in conjunction with economic operations disrupting Czechoslovakian industry.20 Around the same time, diplomats hoped to use it alongside sabotage to target Italian elections and alongside both sabotage and deception to prevent illegal immigration to Israel. In Iran, propaganda from as early as 1951 worked in conjunction with bribery to play an important role in the eventual coup two years later.21 Similarly, plans for covert action in Syria in the 1950s saw propaganda, bribery, and sabotage working side by side, whilst propaganda provided the backbone of Britain’s anti-Nasser operations too. It formed a constant during longer campaigns in South Arabia and Indonesia in the following decade, as well as in 1970s Northern Ireland, providing the backdrop for disruptive and special military operations in all three theatres.

It showed that, if necessary, the region could also break away—taking its valuable oil reserves with it—and forced the government to take a stronger line against the Tudeh. The Persia crisis formed the first exploratory response to communist pressure and propaganda.30 Palestine served as another testing ground.31 Drawing on existing machinery and personnel, covert action formed a bridge between wartime and peacetime operations, demonstrating that such activity could still be successful. Here, both Attlee and Bevin strongly supported moves to stem ­illegal immigration from Europe which threatened the delicate balance of peoples in the region but also appeared to be feeding a troublesome Zionist insurgency against British rule. Attlee wanted action. Unfortunately for Britain, however, global opinion was hostile to any attempts to prevent the Jewish people, who had suffered such persecution in Nazi Germany, from reaching their homeland. British intervention therefore had to be covert.

Under the cover of a yachting trip, Smiley and his colleagues began motoring around the Mediterranean.33 They placed limpet bombs on ships in Italian ports, badly damaging three. This was not an assassination mission, however; they only targeted empty ships. A simultaneous propaganda and deception offensive complemented the sabotage. This aimed to divert suspicion away from the British by creating a notional organization called the Defenders of Arab Palestine to claim responsibility for the attacks. Propaganda also attempted to implicate Soviet Russia in the illegal immigration. Deemed a success, Operation Embarrass showed observers in Whitehall what peacetime covert action could achieve.34 Attlee and Bevin knew, however, that it was far less risky to conduct such operations in Palestine than Eastern Europe. There was little chance of escalation and SIS could, and did, simply use channels and personnel already in place from the war. OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 06/02/18, SPi 24 Cold Wa r Heating up Meanwhile, Cold War tensions intensified as Soviet propaganda and policies became increasingly aggressive.


pages: 589 words: 167,680

The Red and the Blue: The 1990s and the Birth of Political Tribalism by Steve Kornacki

affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, computer age, David Brooks, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, mass immigration, Ralph Nader, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

Their scoop: Baird and her husband, Yale professor Paul Gewirtz, had been employing two illegal immigrants from Peru, a husband and a wife, as household help for the last few years. The woman was the nanny for their son; the man acted as their chauffeur. It wasn’t something she was trying to hide. Baird had told Clinton’s team about the arrangement and the information had been included in her submissions to the Senate Judiciary Committee, the venue for her confirmation hearings. Technically, this put Baird and her husband in violation of the law, which mandated that all employers verify the eligibility of their employees to live and work in the United States. But as a practical matter, they’d had nothing to worry about. The penalty for knowingly employing an illegal immigrant for domestic work was only a few thousand dollars, and the provision had never actually been enforced in the state of Connecticut, where Baird and Gewirtz lived.

The bailout was a reference to Clinton’s authorization of a loan months earlier to help the Mexican government stave off a currency crisis. The original price tag had been fifty billion dollars, but when members of Congress balked at that, Clinton went around them to impose a package worth twenty billion. To the Perot army, it was a sellout of America’s interests, and Buchanan now stoked the rage. “Illegal drugs are coming across the border, illegal immigration is soaring,” he said. “And what do we get in addition to that? We are required to pay fifty billion dollars to the government of Mexico? For whose benefit was that, my friends? I’ll tell you. That was not for the benefit of the working Americans on Main Street. That was for the benefit of the investment bankers on Wall Street, and we all know it.” The crowd had heard from a few candidates already, and they’d hear from a few more later.

Bush, just a few months into his first term as Texas governor. Already, Bush was making a name as a champion of the undocumented “who’d come to Texas to provide for their families.” Buchanan said he disagreed: unchecked immigration across the southern border was draining America of its resources and stripping it of its identity. “I will build a security fence and we will seal the border of this country cold and we will stop illegal immigration cold in its tracks if I am elected!” They were roaring now. “You have my word on it! I will do it!” When he delivered his closing line, they all rose to their feet. The commotion nearly drowned out the music. In its own way, this speech was also a declaration of a culture war, but of a different sort. Houston in 1992 had been about morality. Dallas in mid-1995 was about nationalism. It was territory Buchanan had all to himself.


pages: 442 words: 135,006

ZeroZeroZero by Roberto Saviano

Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, call centre, credit crunch, double entry bookkeeping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, open borders, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Steve Jobs, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

If he thinks back on how he was able to stand his ground with the Mancuso family: he was just a kid with a small business then, his turnover ridiculously small. Yet he had resisted the Mancusos for years. Then they crushed him for no reason, just for the sake of trying to squeeze him like an orange picked on the Rosarno plain. And now he’s letting himself be squeezed, like the lowliest illegal immigrant. But he’s not a lowly illegal immigrant. This is not who he is. If he wasn’t afraid as a kid, he shouldn’t be afraid now either, now that he has learned that everyone, whether in Calabria or Colombia, has a hand on his head that can crush him at any time, either in punishment, by mistake, of just for the heck of it. Who knows how long he would have harbored such thoughts, brooding over them ad nauseam. The fact is, one day Bruno makes up his mind.

Whoever survived was guaranteed a place with Los Zetas. Whoever succumbed was buried in a mass grave. In spring 2011, such a grave was discovered in San Fernando; it contained 193 corpses, the victims all killed with powerful blows to the head. And this sadistic carnage occurred just a few months after what has become known as the First San Fernando Massacre. More innocent victims, more mass graves: August 24, 2010. More than seventy illegal immigrants from South and Central America were trying to cross the U.S. border at Tamaulipas. We know about them from a man from Ecuador who survived. In San Fernando he and his companions were joined by a group of Mexicans claiming to be Los Zetas. They herded the immigrants onto a farm and started beating them up. One by one. They either hadn’t paid the “toll” for crossing the border into Los Zetas territory or—more likely—they hadn’t accepted the Zetas’ “request” that they work for them.

When the Soviet regime collapsed, imports proliferated, prices dropped, and the drugs of the West—cocaine and ecstasy—finally made their way onto the market. At first cocaine use was limited to those Russians who could afford to spend the equivalent of three months’ average salary. There was an invasion of substances that found fertile ground in part because of the breakup of neighboring states: wars, open borders, and an army of illegal immigrants unable to find work in the legal economy. For many of them—as in the rest of the world—drug dealing was the only way to earn a living. But the decisive step came with the opening toward the Western Hemisphere, first the United States and Canada, then Latin America and the Caribbean. That part of the world had a high demand for arms, and Russia a notable supply of Soviet military weapons. That part of the world had a massive supply of drugs and a need for money laundering, and Russia, a sizable demand for drugs and a significant supply of outlets for dirty capital.


pages: 436 words: 98,538

The Upside of Inequality by Edward Conard

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, bank run, Berlin Wall, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, future of work, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

Despite wishful thinking, America will never build a physical barrier effective enough to keep out illegal low-skilled immigration. There is simply too much trade crossing the border with Mexico to make such barriers effective. Nor will illegal immigrants likely ever be deported. The opposition to deporting illegal immigrants is far too great, and the political costs when their children become eligible to vote are even greater. While legal low-skilled immigration could be dialed back, high-skilled immigration is likely the only viable alternative for rebalancing the mix between high- and low-skilled workers. The latter solution is better for growth, too. And even if illegal immigrants were deported, America is still employing many lower-skilled Mexicans in Mexican factories that supply the American economy. American-owned, Mexican-based manufacturing requires engineering and managerial talent that the American economy could otherwise use to employ and better utilize American workers.

See also accelerating growth equity constraining, 139–42 growth rates, 23, 73–74, 156 Hansen, Alvin, 117, 118, 119 Harlem Children’s Zone, 228–29 Hatzius, Jan, 26 Hawthorne effect, 230 healthcare benefits, 146, 159, 162, 165 healthcare insurance and subsidies, 260 hedge funds, 33, 88, 95, 168 Hertz, Thomas, 178 high school incompletion, and income mobility, 182, 182–83 high-skilled immigration, 15, 244–49, 254 high-wage economies, 2, 3–4, 11, 13, 22, 44, 70, 73, 82, 92, 108, 118, 245, 250 Hispanic workers, 50, 56, 157–58, 159–61, 204, 206, 215–16 hollowing-out myth. See technology-hollows-out-the-middle-class myth homeowners, 49, 53–54, 121–22, 132–34, 168–69, 247 mortgage lending by credit score, 133–34, 134 household income, median. See median household income housing supply and minimum wage, 111–12 humanities degrees, 15, 91, 236–37, 238–39 illegal immigration, 198, 247–49 immigration, 15, 59–61, 198. See also low-skilled immigration empirical studies on slowing wage growth and, 54–59 labor supply and slowing wage growth, 47–52 test scores, 219–20 ultra-high-skilled immigration for accelerating growth, 244–49, 254 incentives among countries, 66–67 CEO pay as motivation for risk-taking, 92–95 for risk taking.


pages: 357 words: 94,852

No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein

Airbnb, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collective bargaining, Corrections Corporation of America, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, financial deregulation, greed is good, high net worth, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, women in the workforce, working poor

Airstrike in Syria,” Politifact, April 7, 2017, http://www.politifact.com/​truth-o-meter/​article/​2017/​apr/​07/​after-syrian-missile-airstrikes-will-trump-change-/. Stocks of two largest private prison companies soared by 43 and 21 percent Heather Long, “Private Prison Stocks Up 100% since Trump’s Win,” CNN.com, February 24, 2017, http://money.cnn.com/​2017/​02/​24/​investing/​private-prison-stocks-soar-trump/. ICE: 34,000 illegal immigrants; 73 percent of whom are held in private facilities Associated Press, “Trump’s Stance on Illegal Immigration May Aid Private Prisons,” Denver Post, November 23, 2016, http://www.denverpost.com/​2016/​11/​23/​donald-trump-illegal-immigration-may-aid-private-prisons/. Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan at Boeing Dominic Gates and Jim Brunner, “Trump Taps Boeing Executive Pat Shanahan for Deputy Secretary of Defense,” Seattle Times, March 16, 2017. Lee Fang: “President Donald Trump has weaponized the revolving door…” Lee Fang, “Donald Trump Is Filling Top Pentagon and Homeland Security Positions with Defense Contractors,” TheIntercept.com, March 21, 2017, https://theintercept.com/​2017/​03/​21/​revolving-door-military/.

In 1989, after five Black and Latino teenagers were accused of raping a white woman in Central Park, he bought full-page ads in several New York daily papers calling for the return of the death penalty. The Central Park Five were later exonerated by DNA evidence, and their sentences were vacated. Trump refused to apologize or retract his claims. No wonder, then, that his Justice Department, under the direction of Attorney General Jeff Sessions, is arguing that social services and infrastructure in cities such as New York and Chicago are “crumbling under the weight of illegal immigration and violent crime”—conveniently moving the subject away from years of neoliberal neglect toward the supposed need to crack down on crime, and to bar these cities from declaring themselves “sanctuaries” for immigrants. Divide and Conquer In truth, nothing has done more to help build our present corporate dystopia than the persistent and systematic pitting of working-class whites against Blacks, citizens against migrants, and men against women.


Western USA by Lonely Planet

airport security, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Donner party, East Village, edge city, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Frank Gehry, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, intermodal, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, Maui Hawaii, off grid, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South of Market, San Francisco, starchitect, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supervolcano, trade route, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Why did it take so long for a territory filled with copper and ranchland to join the Union? Arizonans were seen as troublemakers by the federal government, and for years acquiring their riches wasn’t worth the potential trouble. Cynics might say that Arizonans are still making trouble. In 2010, Arizona’s legislature passed the most restrictive anti-immigration law in the nation, garnering headlines and controversy. How severe was the illegal immigration problem? In 2009, 250,000 illegal immigrants crossed the state’s 350-mile border with Mexico. The legislature wasn’t spurred into action, however, until the mysterious shooting of a popular rancher near the border the following year. Today, the hot-button law, known as SB1070, winds through the court system. The state was shaken in 2011 by the shooting of Democratic Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords during a public appearance.

Courts rule the law unconstitutional, given California’s civil rights protections; appeals are pending. 2010 Arizona passes controversial legislation requiring police officers to ask for identification from anyone they suspect of being in the US illegally. Immigration rights activists call for a boycott of the state. 2012 New Mexico and Arizona, the 47th and 48th states to join the Union, celebrate their Centennials. Top of section The People Who lives in the West? If you believe the headlines, it’s angry Arizonans up-in-arms (literally) about illegal immigration, gay couples rushing to marry in San Francisco, hair-pulling housewives in Orange County and pot-smoking invalids in Colorado. And, if the Twilight novels are to be believed, the damp and foggy state of Washington is a favorite of stylish vampires and shirtless werewolves.

Despite some early fumbles, the actor-turned-Republican-politician ‘Governator’ surprisingly put environmental issues and controversial stem-cell research at the top of his agenda. Budget shortfalls have caused another staggering financial crisis that Sacramento lawmakers and once-again Governor Jerry Brown have yet to resolve. Meanwhile, the need for public education reform builds, prisons overflow, state parks are chronically underfunded and the conundrum of illegal immigration from Mexico, which fills a critical cheap labor shortage (especially in agriculture), continues to vex the state. Local Culture Currently the world’s eighth-largest economy, California is a state of extremes, where grinding poverty shares urban corridors with fabulous wealth. Waves of immigrants keep arriving, and neighborhoods are often miniversions of their homelands. Tolerance for others is the social norm, but so is intolerance, which you’ll encounter if you smoke or dare to drive on the freeway during rush hour.


pages: 290 words: 73,000

Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism by Safiya Umoja Noble

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Airbnb, borderless world, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, new economy, PageRank, performance metric, phenotype, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, Tim Cook: Apple, union organizing, women in the workforce, yellow journalism

Created in 1985 from the mailing lists of its predecessor organization, the CCC, which initially tried to project a “mainstream” image, has evolved into a crudely white supremacist group whose website has run pictures comparing the late pop singer Michael Jackson to an ape and referred to black people as “a retrograde species of humanity.” The group’s newspaper, Citizens Informer, regularly publishes articles condemning “race mixing,” decrying the evils of illegal immigration, and lamenting the decline of white, European civilization. Gordon Baum, the group’s founder, died in March of 2015.3 To verify what might be possible to find in the post–Dylann Roof murders of nine African Americans, I too conducted a search of the term “black on white crimes.” In these search scenarios from August 3 and 5, 2015, in Los Angeles, California, and Madison, Wisconsin, NewNation.org was the first result, followed by a number of conservative, White-nationalist websites that foster hate toward African Americans and Jewish people.

This could lead to significantly greater transparency, rather than continuing to make the neoliberal capitalist project of commercial search opaque. 5 The Future of Knowledge in the Public Student protests on college campuses have led to calls for increased support of students of color, but one particular request became a matter of national policy that led to a threat to the Library of Congress’s budget in the summer of 2016. In February 2014, a coalition of students at Dartmouth College put forward “The Plan for Dartmouth’s Freedom Budget: Items for Transformative Justice at Dartmouth” (the “Freedom Plan”),1 which included a line item to “ban the use of ‘illegal aliens,’ ‘illegal immigrants,’ ‘wetback,’ and any racially charged term on Dartmouth-sanctioned programming materials and locations.” The plan also demanded that “the library search catalog system shall use undocumented instead of ‘illegal’ in reference to immigrants.” Lisa Peet, reporting for Library Journal, noted, The replacement of the subject heading was the culmination of a two-year grassroots process that began when Melissa Padilla, class of 2016, first noticed what she felt were inappropriate search terms while researching a paper on undocumented students at Dartmouth’s Baker-Berry Library in 2013.

Almost as soon as the successful change was approved, House Republicans introduced HR 4926 on April 13, 2016, also known as the “Stopping Partisan Policy at the Library of Congress Act,” sponsored by Rep. Diane Black (R-TN). In essence, the bill threatened the Library’s budget, and Black suggested that the effort to change the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) was a matter of “caving to the whims of left-wing special interests and attempting to mask the grave threat that illegal immigration poses to our economy, our national security, and our sovereignty.”7 The battle over how people are conceptualized and represented is ongoing and extends beyond the boundaries of institutions such as the Library of Congress or corporations such as Alphabet, which owns and manages Google Search. Jonathan Furner, a professor of information studies at UCLA, suggests that information institutions and systems, which I argue extend from state-supported organizations such as the Library of Congress to the Internet, are participating in “legitimizing the ideology of dominant groups” to the detriment of people of color.8 His case study of the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system, for example, underscores the problematic conceptualizations of race and culture and efforts to “deracialize” the library and classification schemes.9 Furner offers several strategies for thinking about how to address these issues, using critical race theory as the guiding theoretical and methodological model.


pages: 753 words: 233,306

Collapse by Jared Diamond

clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Donner party, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, means of production, new economy, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, prisoner's dilemma, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transcontinental railway, unemployed young men

Dominicans and Haitians in the Dominican Republic are divided not only economically but also culturally: they speak different languages, dress differently, eat different foods, and on the average look differently (Haitians tending to be darker-skinned and more African in appearance). As I listened to my Dominican friends describing the situation of Haitians in the Dominican Republic, I became astonished by the close parallels with the situation of illegal immigrants from Mexico and other Latin American countries in the United States. I heard those sentences about "jobs that Dominicans don't want," "low-paying jobs but still better than what's available for them at home," "those Haitians bring AIDS, TB, and malaria," "they speak a different language and look darker-skinned," and "we have no obligation and can't afford to provide medical care, education, and housing to illegal immigrants." In those sentences, all I had to do was to replace the words "Haitians" and "Dominicans" with "Latin American immigrants" and "American citizens," and the result would be a typical expression of American attitudes towards Latin American immigrants.

Every month, one reads of would-be immigrants dying in the desert or being robbed or shot, but that does not deter them. Other illegal immigrants come from as far away as China and Central Asia, in ships that unload them just off the coast. California residents are of two minds about all those Third World immigrants seeking to come here to attain the First World lifestyle. On the one hand, our economy is utterly dependent on them to fill jobs in the service and construction industries and on farms. On the other hand, California residents complain that the immigrants compete with unemployed residents for many jobs, depress wages, and burden our already overcrowded hospitals and public education system. A measure (Proposition 187) on the 1994 state election ballot, overwhelmingly approved by voters but then gutted by the courts on constitutional grounds, would have deprived illegal immigrants of most state-funded benefits.

I picture the scene at Gardar as like that in my home city of Los Angeles in 1992 at the time of the so-called Rodney King riots, when the acquittal of policemen on trial for brutally beating a poor person provoked thousands of outraged people from poor neighborhoods to spread out to loot businesses and rich neighborhoods. The greatly outnumbered police could do nothing more than put up pieces of yellow plastic warning tape across roads entering rich neighborhoods, in a futile gesture aimed at keeping the looters out. We are increasingly seeing a similar phenomenon on a global scale today, as illegal immigrants from poor countries pour into the overcrowded lifeboats represented by rich countries, and as our border controls prove no more able to stop that influx than were Gardar's chiefs and Los Angeles's yellow tape. That parallel gives us another reason not to dismiss the fate of the Greenland Norse as just a problem of a small peripheral society in a fragile environment, irrelevant to our own larger society.


pages: 395 words: 115,753

The Metropolitan Revolution: The Rise of Post-Urban America by Jon C. Teaford

anti-communist, big-box store, conceptual framework, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, East Village, edge city, estate planning, Golden Gate Park, Gunnar Myrdal, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, rent control, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, young professional

Unlike the stereotypical immigrants of the past, they were middle class and college trained. Moreover, America’s refugee policy opened the floodgates to displaced capitalists whose entrepreneurial skills and ambitions clashed with Communist dogma. Vehement anti-Communists, these newcomers posed no threat to the nation’s prevailing ideology but instead reinforced the image of the United States as the world’s chief bulwark of capitalism. The illegal immigrants were for the most part desperately poor, compelled by economic necessity to defy the law. Because of their precarious legal status, they could be readily exploited by American employers, paid less than minimum wage, and forced to work in conditions that no native-born American would tolerate. The new immigrants thus comprised college-educated professionals as well as the poor and unschooled, the ambitious capitalist entrepreneur as well as the exploited proletariat.

Moreover, there was no sign that the latinization of Los Angeles was abating. Between 1990 and 2000, the Mexican population of the Los Angeles area rose 44 percent, as compared with a 13 percent rise in the overall number of inhabitants.21 The long-standing heart of Mexican American settlement was East Los Angeles. Most of the newcomers to this area were poor, coming to the United States to better their economic condition. And many were illegal immigrants. Consequently, the old East Los Angeles barrio spreading eastward from Boyle Heights reflected the poverty of Mexico rather than the affluence that moviegoers associated with southern California. According to one observer from early 1990s, “In the bars and restaurants of Boyle Heights, bedraggled youngsters go from table to table pleading with people to buy novelties like those found in the stalls of Tijuana.

Moreover, the sight of successful, well-heeled “foreigners” cruising the streets in Mercedeses could prove disturbing to native-born residents who had never been able to rise one rung on the economic ladder and feared slipping even lower. Altogether, the strangeness of the newcomers could prove unsettling, and their success raised doubts that the fulfillment of the American dream was reserved only for Americans. FIGURE 6.4 Anti–illegal immigration billboard in Los Angeles. (Michael Edwards, Herald Examiner Collection, Los Angeles Public Library) Among non-Hispanic whites, anti-immigrant sentiment focused on the newcomers’ refusal to give up their native languages. Miami was the scene of one of the earliest English-only battles. In 1973 the Dade County Commission decided to adopt a bilingual policy, publishing official documents in both English and Spanish, hiring Spanish-speaking personnel to serve Hispanics, and posting signs that offered information in both languages.


pages: 406 words: 113,841

The American Way of Poverty: How the Other Half Still Lives by Sasha Abramsky

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, bank run, basic income, big-box store, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, job automation, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

At some subconscious level she realized that the stories of the people she worked with just couldn’t be hermetically sealed off from her own life experiences. The poverty she saw terrified her and stoked up a host of bigotries and stereotypes. But at some level she recognized how intricately her own story was tied up with that of the destitute people of whom she was so scared. Nowhere is the attempt to wall off the poor as having, somehow, separate narratives from the rest of us more overt than in the roiling politics around illegal immigration. Many observers have noted that starving public institutions of cash is a pastime that state electorates sign off on during times in which populaces are in flux. Smaller, more homogenous populations rarely vote to defund social safety nets and educational infrastructure that they see as benefiting mainly people culturally, linguistically, and racially more like themselves. When, by contrast, public goods are seen mainly as benefiting “others,” people who are blacker and browner, who don’t speak English well, and who have a different set of cultural references, then support for the public sector wobbles.

Large pools of undocumented immigrants and transient workers, he says, make it that much harder to generate mass support for institutions seen as somehow illegitimately rewarding these families for their illegal entry into, or stay within the borders of, America. And as with southern Louisiana parishes and the racism of some of their residents, oftentimes the most extreme politics on immigration comes from people who live in close proximity to, and experience the daily presence of, undocumented populations. FIGHTING TALK In a televised debate in 2010, Arizona state senator Russell Pearce, author of the nation’s toughest anti–illegal immigration law, argued that the Constitution “does give the federal government the responsibility to protect the states from invasion. But it’s right also in the Constitution, it says, when there is an invasion the states have a right, even—even to declare war if you will, you know, they have a right to protect. And again, we’re sovereign states, I mean, just like everybody here. We’re not citizens of the United States.

I don’t have a house. I don’t have a bank account. I don’t have any money saved. There’s not enough. I’ll keep working while I can. My life scares me. I look at the people I work for and think about how I have seen some people treat them. I worry, because what will happen to me when I’m old? I want to study; I want to be a nurse. That’s my biggest dream. Dotted through the West and Southwest, illegal immigration encampments have been built up in recent years. Cumulatively, many hundreds of thousands of men, women, and children now live in these communities. The buildings are basic: third-hand trailers; wooden, cardboard, and tin shacks. The amenities are improvised: some are hooked up to the power grid, water delivery systems, and sewage lines after the fact—a de facto acknowledgment by local counties of their existence, even absent zoning permits and ownership titles.


pages: 385 words: 119,859

This Is London: Life and Death in the World City by Ben Judah

British Empire, deindustrialization, eurozone crisis, high net worth, illegal immigration, mass immigration, multicultural london english, out of africa, period drama, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Skype, white flight, young professional

He was going like Mo Farah. The police set the dog squad after him. Then a helicopter with its infrared. He was whimpering, and covered in bruises, when the Policeman finally cuffed him. ‘Me . . . I could understand where he is coming from. Man . . . I felt so bad. He was not gonna get away. He was not gonna get away from the dog unit. We thought it was drugs or maybe an illegal weapon. But he was an illegal immigrant. Which is why he saw police . . . and ran. I empathize with him. I’m human. I know where he is coming from. Y’know, I only hope he empathize with me. ‘He was a Nigerian.’ He noticed little things on his patrol. The crimes that were more daring, with a bit of punching or running, they were mostly done by the black boys. They were plucky, the ones who were born here, and they wanted their mobile phones.

And I thought, The barrier, the gap, between me and them . . . That’s impassable.’ He slipped out into the drizzle. The street lamps were on. Tree skeletons leered over the wet tarmac shimmering with light. The double-deckers glowed out against the night, their upper windows all steamed up with the cold. ‘Bruva, I cannot tell you how much I hate begging.’ There is a whole illegal city in London. This is where 70 per cent of Britain’s illegal immigrants are hiding. This is a city of more than 600,000 people, making it larger than Glasgow or Edinburgh. There are more illegals in London than Indians. Almost 40 per cent of them arrived after 2001. Roughly a third are from Africa. This is the hidden city: hidden from the statistics, hidden from the poverty rates, hidden from the hunger rates. They all discount them: a minimum 5 per cent of the population.

It electrifies your shoulders and your spine, and it pulls you down under its load. But the thing about lying well is knowing this is only the birth of your lie. The longer a lie lives the easier, and the lighter, it becomes. I turn off the motorway and loop round the roundabout into the worn low rise of Barking. The estate I am looking for curls into a winding close. My heart pumps. I am beginning my lie: I am a Russian illegal immigrant. I speak English – very bad. I wear the lie: my clothes are a tatty blue puffa with a fake fur rim, smelling strongly of detergent, a grey hoodie with a chewed sleeve and a hood too tight on my head, black scuffed Puma tracksuit bottoms and water-stained brown shoes. I repeat my lie time and time again in the car: I am here to work; but when they grow suspicious, I will take them into a bigger lie, that I am really a university educated asylum-seeker who is fleeing conscription for the frontlines in Ukraine.


The Next Great Migration by Sonia Shah

Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, open borders, out of africa, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, trade route, urban sprawl

The group called for slashing immigration into the United States by 90 percent. For too long, Tanton wrote in a cover article for The Ecologist magazine, environmentalists had been overly focused on reducing the birth rate, allowing the “role of international migration in perpetuating39 population growth” to escape notice. The growing size of the human population “dwarfs the absorptive capacity of the few countries still willing to receive legal (and certainly illegal) immigrants,” he wrote. The only solution was to do as the bees did: evict the surplus and close the borders. The July 4, 1977, edition of the Washington Post landed with a thud on millions of doorsteps, with an explosive two-thousand-word exposé of India’s population control program40 on its front page. The reporter who’d written it had traveled through small villages across India, reporting on the front lines of the global war on out-of-control population growth.

“What Are the Public Health Benefits of Screening Migrants for Infectious Diseases?” European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam, April 12, 2016. Koerner, Lisbet. Linnaeus: Nature and Nation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999. Lalami, Laila. “Who Is to Blame for the Cologne Sex Attacks?” Nation, March 10, 2016. Lam, Katherine. “Border Patrol Agent Appeared to Be Ambushed by Illegal Immigrants, Bashed with Rocks Before Death.” Fox News, November 21, 2017. Laughlin, H. Hamilton. The Second International Exhibition of Eugenics Held September 22 to October 22, 1921, in Connection with the Second International Congress of Eugenics in the American Museum of Natural History, New York: … Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1923. Lewis, David. We, the Navigators: The Ancient Art of Landfinding in the Pacific.

the economic benefits contributed Julie Hirschfield Davis and Somini Sengupta, “Trump Administration Rejects Study Showing Positive Impact of Refugees,” New York Times, September 18, 2017; “Fact Check: Trump’s First Address to Congress,” New York Times, February 28, 2017. overrepresented in federal crime statistics Salvador Rizzo, “Questions Raised About Study That Links Undocumented Immigrants to Higher Crime,” Washington Post, March 21, 2018; Alex Nowrasteh, “The Fatal Flaw in John R. Lott Jr.’s Study of Illegal Immigrant Crime in Arizona,” Cato Institute, February 5, 2018; John R. Lott, “Undocumented Immigrants, US Citizens, and Convicted Criminals in Arizona,” 2018; Jonathan Hanen, Greater Towson Republican Club, Towson, Md., January 16, 2018. Biographical details from Jonathan Hanen’s public profile are on LinkedIn at https://www.linkedin.com/in/jonathan-hanen-89a93715. infiltrated the cultural conversation Reed, “Fear and Loathing in Homer.”


pages: 288 words: 85,073

Factfulness: Ten Reasons We're Wrong About the World – and Why Things Are Better Than You Think by Hans Rosling, Ola Rosling, Anna Rosling Rönnlund

animal electricity, clean water, colonial rule, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, global pandemic, Hans Rosling, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), jimmy wales, linked data, lone genius, microcredit, purchasing power parity, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steven Pinker, Thomas L Friedman, Walter Mischel

And they can afford a ticket, and the planes are not overbooked. But at the check-in counter, they are stopped by the airline staff from getting onto the plane. Why? Because of a European Council Directive from 2001 that tells member states how to combat illegal immigration. This directive says that every airline or ferry company that brings a person without proper documents into Europe must pay all the costs of returning that person to their country of origin. Of course the directive also says that it doesn’t apply to refugees who want to come to Europe based on their rights to asylum under the Geneva Convention, only to illegal immigrants. But that claim is meaningless. Because how should someone at the check-in desk at an airline be able to work out in 45 seconds whether someone is a refugee or is not a refugee according to the Geneva Convention?

You can read more about its procurement process at UNICEF[5]. Why refugees don’t fly. Sweden did not confiscate the boats of those smuggling refugees from Denmark during the Second World War—see the BBC documentary “How the Danish Jews Escaped the Holocaust.” According to Goldberger (1987), 7,220 Danish Jews were saved by these boats. Today, EU Council[1] Directive 2002/90/EC defines “smuggler” as anyone facilitating illegal immigration, and an EU Council[2] framework decision allows “confiscation of the means of transport used to commit the offence.” While the Geneva Conventions say that many of these refugees have the right to asylum, see UNHCR. See gapm.io/p16 and gapm.io/tpref. CO2 emissions. Researchers are trying to figure out how to adjust emissions quotas for changing population sizes; see Shengmin et al. (2011) and Raupach et al. (2014).


pages: 278 words: 88,711

The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century by George Friedman

American ideology, banking crisis, British Empire, business cycle, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, low earth orbit, mass immigration, megastructure, Monroe Doctrine, pink-collar, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, working poor

Internal pressure, particularly in the south, will divert Russian attention from the west and eventually, without war, it will break. Russia broke in 1917, and again in 1991. And the country's military will collapse once more shortly after 2020. CHAPTER 7 ——————————— AMERICAN POWER AND THE CRISIS OF 2030 Awall is being built along the southern border of the United States. The goal is to keep illegal immigrants out. The United States built its economic might on the backs of immigrants, but since the 1920s there has been a national consensus that the flow of immigrants should be limited so that the economy can absorb them, and to ensure that jobs will not be taken away from citizens. The wall along the Mexican border is the logical conclusion to this policy. In the 1920s, the world was in the midst of an accelerating population explosion.

While NAFTA cut the cost of exports and increased the institutional efficiency of the relationship, the fundamental reality is that Mexico's proximity to the United States has always given it an economic advantage, despite the geopolitical disadvantage that goes with it. Third, there are massive amounts of cash flowing back to Mexico from the United States in the form of remittances from legal and illegal immigrants. Remittances to Mexico have surged and are now its second-largest source of foreign income. In most countries, foreign investment is the primary means for developing the economy. In Mexico, investment by foreigners is being matched by foreign remittances. This remittance system has two effects. It leverages other sources of investment when it is banked. And it serves as a social safety net for the lower classes, to whom most remittances flow.

And across the border, in the neighboring country, an annexation movement can arise. This issue will divide the Mexican-American bloc. Some inhabitants will see themselves as primarily Americans. Others will accept that Americanism but see themselves as having a unique relationship to America and ask for legal recognition of that status. A third group, the smallest, will be secessionist. There will be an equal division within Mexico. One thing to remember is that illegal immigration will have generally disappeared after 2030, when migration to the United States will be encouraged as American national policy. Some on each side of the border will see the problem as solely American and will want to have nothing to do with it lest it interfere with peaceful economic relations with Mexico. Others, though, will see the demographic problems in the United States as a means for redefining Mexico's relations with the United States.


pages: 318 words: 85,824

A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, debt deflation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, labour market flexibility, land tenure, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Pearl River Delta, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Chicago School, transaction costs, union organizing, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

The trouble was that Mexico had earlier taken to issuing dollar-denominated debt (called tesobonos) to encourage foreign investment, and after the devaluation could not mobilize enough dollars to pay them off. The US Congress refused to help, but Clinton exercised executive powers to put together a $47.5 billion rescue package. He feared a loss of jobs in those US industries exporting to Mexico, the prospect of increasing illegal immigration, and, above all, the loss of legitimacy for neoliberalization and the NAFTA agreements. As a convenient side-effect of the devaluation, US capital could then rush in and buy up all manner of assets at fire-sale prices. While only one of the Mexican banks privatized in 1990 was foreign-owned, by 2000 twenty-four out of thirty were in foreign hands. The exaction of tribute from Mexico by foreign capitalist class interests then became unstoppable.

The second prong of attack entails transformations in the spatial and temporal co-ordinates of the labour market. While too much can be made of the ‘race to the bottom’ to find the cheapest and most docile labour supplies, the geographical mobility of capital permits it to dominate a global labour force whose own geographical mobility is constrained. Captive labour forces abound because immigration is restricted. These barriers can be evaded only by illegal immigration (which creates an easily exploitable labour force) or through short-term contracts that permit, for example, Mexican labourers to work in Californian agribusiness only to be shamelessly shipped back to Mexico when they get sick and even die from the pesticides to which they are exposed. Under neoliberalization, the figure of ‘the disposable worker’ emerges as prototypical upon the world stage.19 Accounts of the appalling conditions of labour and the despotic conditions under which labourers work in the sweatshops of the world abound.

Rights cluster around two dominant logics of power—that of the territorial state and that of capital.43 However much we might wish rights to be universal, it is the state that has to enforce them. If political power is not willing, then notions of rights remain empty. Rights are, therefore, derivative of and conditional upon citizenship. The territoriality of jurisdiction then becomes an issue. This cuts both ways. Difficult questions arise because of stateless persons, illegal immigrants, and the like. Who is or is not a ‘citizen’ becomes a serious issue defining principles of inclusion and exclusion within the territorial specification of the state. How the state exercises sovereignty with respect to rights is itself a contested issue, but there are limits placed on that sovereignty (as China is discovering) by the global rules embedded in neoliberal capital accumulation.


pages: 318 words: 82,452

The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Broken windows theory, citizen journalism, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, mandatory minimum, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral panic, Occupy movement, open borders, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, white flight

When he asked under what authority the agent was operating, the agent pointed his weapon at the senator and said, “That’s all the authority I need.”11 The current intensification of border enforcement began in the early 1990s, under the Clinton administration, with the launching of Operation Gatekeeper in California, Operation Hold-the-Line in Texas, and Operation Safeguard in Arizona and the passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA). Within a few years, funding for what was then the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) doubled, as did the number of Border Patrol officers. These operations represented the first real effort to close the southern border.12 It involved several new initiatives, including significantly increasing the amount of fencing, immediately deporting immigrants living in the US for a long list of major and minor criminal infractions, creating immigration courts in border areas to facilitate quicker processing and deportation of captured migrants, and creating a massive system for identifying migrants through biometric data collection.

Reforms While the inauguration of President Donald Trump withered much of the will to reform border policing, there are still efforts to rethink how we manage the need for migrant workers, who have become central to several parts of the American economy. Some argue for a return to a system of foreign worker authorization similar to the Bracero Program. While this program did reduce the flow of unauthorized immigration and created some regularized employment for Mexico’s poorest workers, it did not stem all illegal immigration and did little to improve the living standards of either American or Mexican workers. Part of the problem is that migrant workers are not limited to agricultural work; migrants work in a variety of construction, production, and service industries, including construction, food processing, domestic work, and cleaning. What the Bracero Program did was guarantee a stable low cost and compliant work force for agricultural producers who wanted to keep wages extremely low.

Conner 19, 234n43 Grant, Melissa Gira 246n4 Grant, Oscar 1 Greene, Judith 254n13, 259n2 Greenwald, Glenn 212, 251n59, 258n41 Gurley, Akai 1 Hadden, Sally 237n31 Halstead Act 129, 131 Handschu v City of New York 207 Hari, Johann 132, 229, 248n6 Harm reduction 127–8, 150–2 Harris, David 234n47 Harris, Eric 1 Harris, Jason 1 Harrison, Jason 77 Hayes, Chris 27, 235n58 Herbert, Steve 16, 92–3, 229, 234n41, 243n1, 245n2 Hernandez, Kelly 177, 229, 253n3 Hernandez-Rojas, Anastasio 188 Herrnstein, Richard 6, 232n15 Hill, Anthony 1 Holiday, Billie 132 Homeless courts 101–2 Homestead strike 204 Hoover, J. Edgar 201–2, 205 Housing First 103–4 Howell, Babe 166, 252n17 Hoyt, Edwin Palmer 257n15 Human Rights Watch 212, 250n42, 258n42 Human Trafficking Intervention Court 120–1 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigration Responsibility Act 180, 183–4, 189 Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) 178, 182–5 Immigration and Naturalization Service 180 Immigration Movement International 196, 256n50 Immigration Restriction League 176 Implicit bias 7–8, 24, 68 Independent prosecutors 17–20 International Workers of the World (IWW) 205 Jacobins 36 Jaun Crow 44 Jim Crow 33, 47–8, 225 John schools 118–19 Johnson, Benjamin 236n27 Johnson, Hank 217 Johnson, Lyndon 14 Joint Terrorism Task Forces (JTTF) 208–10 Jones, Reece 194, 230, 256n45 Justice League 55 Justice Reinvestment 224 Justice Strategies 147, 254n13, 259n2 Karp, David 252n27 Katz, Jack 253n20 Katzenbach report 14 Kelling, George 5, 231n12 Kempadoo, Kamala 246n5 Kennedy, David 167, 173, 252n19, 253n29 Kerner Commission 14, 50 Keunang, Charly Leundeu 95 King, Martin Luther 203, 206 King, Rodney 21, 159, 188 Klein, Malcolm 156, 230, 252n3 Klein, Naomi 256n3 Knapp Commission 117 Kohn, Alfi 70 Koval, Mike 87–8 Kraska, Peter 234n55 Ku Klux Klan 48 Kuzmarov, Jeremy 42, 236n22 Lager beer riots 38 Laker, Barbara 230, 248n16 Lambert, Bob 200 Lane, Roger 235n10 Latimer massacre 40 Law Enforcement against Prohibition 140 Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion 85–6 Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit 205 Leahy, Patrick 179 Legalization of alcohol 222; of drugs 152–3, 222; of gambling 222; of sex work 124, 222 Leone, Peter 74–5, 241n58 Levine, Harry 248n5, 250n41 Lewis, Paul 256n11 Lind, Dara 237n17 London Metropolitan Police 34–5, 36, 45, 199–200 Longmire, Sylvia 255n42 Lopez, Derek 66 Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) 93–5, 137, 158–9, 169–70 Luddites 36 Mather, F.


How I Escaped My Certain Fate by Stewart Lee

carbon footprint, Etonian, illegal immigration, negative equity, quantitative easing

And it did. A drunken young man in a suit in the front row kept shouting that he didn’t want to hear about anything I had to say – admittedly voicing the feelings of most of the room – and that I should talk about illegal immigrants. ‘Talk about illegal immigrants,’ he grunted, ‘talk about fucking illegal immigrants.’ I decided to take a bold course of action and get him onstage and hand him the mic, probably having just read a biography of the erratically inspired American comic Andy Kaufman or some other dangerous piece of literature, to see what he came up with on the subject of illegal immigrants, while I watched from his now vacant seat. I knew it would be incoherent and awful, which it was, as he slurred and stammered about asylum-seekers and how they should be sent back, but my plan was to let the room boil in irritation and fade away, before flipping the mood with a perfectly chosen bon mot.


pages: 801 words: 242,104

Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed by Jared Diamond

clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Donner party, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, means of production, new economy, North Sea oil, Piper Alpha, polynesian navigation, profit motive, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Stewart Brand, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transcontinental railway, unemployed young men

Dominicans and Haitians in the Dominican Republic are divided not only economically but also culturally: they speak different languages, dress differently, eat different foods, and on the average look different (Haitians tending to be darker-skinned and more African in appearance). As I listened to my Dominican friends describing the situation of Haitians in the Dominican Republic, I became astonished by the close parallels with the situation of illegal immigrants from Mexico and other Latin American countries in the United States. I heard those sentences about “jobs that Dominicans don’t want,” “low-paying jobs but still better than what’s available for them at home,” “those Haitians bring AIDS, TB, and malaria,” “they speak a different language and look darker-skinned,” and “we have no obligation and can’t afford to provide medical care, education, and housing to illegal immigrants.” In those sentences, all I had to do was to replace the words “Haitians” and “Dominicans” with “Latin American immigrants” and “American citizens,” and the result would be a typical expression of American attitudes towards Latin American immigrants.

Every month, one reads of would-be immigrants dying in the desert or being robbed or shot, but that does not deter them. Other illegal immigrants come from as far away as China and Central Asia, in ships that unload them just off the coast. California residents are of two minds about all those Third World immigrants seeking to come here to attain the First World lifestyle. On the one hand, our economy is utterly dependent on them to fill jobs in the service and construction industries and on farms. On the other hand, California residents complain that the immigrants compete with unemployed residents for many jobs, depress wages, and burden our already overcrowded hospitals and public education system. A measure (Proposition 187) on the 1994 state election ballot, overwhelmingly approved by voters but then gutted by the courts on constitutional grounds, would have deprived illegal immigrants of most state-funded benefits.

I picture the scene at Gardar as like that in my home city of Los Angeles in 1992 at the time of the so-called Rodney King riots, when the acquittal of policemen on trial for brutally beating a poor person provoked thousands of outraged people from poor neighborhoods to spread out to loot businesses and rich neighborhoods. The greatly outnumbered police could do nothing more than put up pieces of yellow plastic warning tape across roads entering rich neighborhoods, in a futile gesture aimed at keeping the looters out. We are increasingly seeing a similar phenomenon on a global scale today, as illegal immigrants from poor countries pour into the overcrowded lifeboats represented by rich countries, and as our border controls prove no more able to stop that influx than were Gardar’s chiefs and Los Angeles’s yellow tape. That parallel gives us another reason not to dismiss the fate of the Greenland Norse as just a problem of a small peripheral society in a fragile environment, irrelevant to our own larger society.


Magical Urbanism: Latinos Reinvent the US City by Mike Davis

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet Archive, invisible hand, job automation, longitudinal study, manufacturing employment, market bubble, mass immigration, new economy, occupational segregation, postnationalism / post nation state, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, white picket fence, women in the workforce, working poor

even seek, or are driven stream, while many two decades greater assimilation in the is most other Latinos in the United States, to include Dominicans, Colombians, Ecuadorians, not limited to Latinos. States (Asian, made up of US main- origin have multiplied tremendously in the last Nicaraguans and Salvadoreans, non Some retain a plural disposition about language, culture and identity like whose points of to, in dis- West among others. But New this phenome- ethnic enclaves in the United Indian, as well as Hispanic and/or Latino), refugees, exiles, legal and illegal immigrants, boat people, rafters and tourists, defy categories that have been ren- dered meaningless by hemispheric migratory pressures. The Latino in the US is, therefore, a particular distraction to the "American melting-pot" concept experience, and the "Cuban exile" modeled on white European ideology of national recon- quest, paradoxically (but perhaps only) kept alive ble split between an aging both myths, caudillo in Cuba and by an intracta- a transplanted ruling class that has thrived economically in the United States.

Perhaps this is are going to get As whites see their lives declining, will they Or will there be an up its their power go quietly into the 219 Such indiscrete ventings of white supremacism temporarily paralyzed anti-Spanish as a mainstream cause. In addition, many Republican strategists were appalled by Pete Wilson's scorched- MAGICAL URBANISM 122 earth tactics in California as he openly recruited the dregs of the Brown Invasion ("They Keep Com- militia fringe to help repel the ing - 2,000,000 Illegal Immigrants" intoned a notorious television ad endorsed by Wilson). was Ron Unz, financed his One of the governor's sharpest a whiz-kid millionaire critics PhD who 1994 when he took with a physics own emergence from obscurity in 30 percent of the Republican primary vote away from Wilson. Intellectually, Palo Alto-based Unz is the love-child of Mickey Kaus and Thomas Sowell, the New Republic and Commentary, not the traditional California right. to see them quickly He assimilated without undue in the marketplace of talent.


pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Ironically, while most of the recent efforts of the digerati have focused on liberating the data from closed databases, the focus of their future efforts may soon shift to squeezing the open data back in or at least finding ways in which to limit the mobility of that data. This is a particularly important problem for various ethnic minorities who suddenly find themselves under threat, as digitized information has publicly identified them in ways they could not anticipate. In Russia a local branch of the Movement Against Illegal Immigration (DPNI), the country’s powerful anti-immigration network, created a series of online mash-ups in which they put census data about various ethnic minorities living in the Russian city of Volgograd onto an online map. This was not done to get a better understanding of urban life in Russia but to encourage DPNI’s supporters to organize pogroms on those minorities. DPNI is an interesting example of an unabashedly racist organization that has deftly adapted to the Internet era.

“Old Suspicions Magnified Mistrust into Ethnic Riots in Urumqi.” Guardian, July 10, 2009. Weiss, L. “Globalization and National Governance: Antinomy or Interdependence?” Review of International Studies 25 (1999): 59-88. ———. “Globalization and the Myth of the Powerless State.” New Left Review, no. 225 (1997): 3-27. ———. The Myth of the Powerless State. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998. Zuev, D. “The Movement Against Illegal Immigration: Analysis of the Central Node in the Russian Extreme-Right Movement.” Nations and Nationalism 16, no. 2 (2010): 261-284. CHAPTER 10 Achterhuis, Hans, ed. American Philosophy of Technology: The Empirical Turn. Translated by Robert P. Crease. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001. Adas, Michael. Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance.

See also Authoritarian governments; individual dictators Dictator’s dilemma Digital Orientalism “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning” (Rittel and Webber) Dismantling Utopia: How Information Ended the Soviet Union (Shane) Dissidents. See also Cyber-dissidents conference Distributed-Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack Djukov, Alexander Dominguez, Ricardo Domino effect The Doors of Perception (Huxley) Doppelt, Gerald Doran, Michael Dörner, Dietrich Douglas, Susan Dow 36,000 (Glassman) DPNI. See Movement Against Illegal Immigration Dreazen, Yochi Dreyfus, Hubert Dunlap, Orrin Eastern Europe Eastern European Revolution Ebadi, Shirin Economics, and technology E-Darshan.org Efficiency Egerstad, Dan Egypt El Ghazzali, Kacem Elections “Elude the cat” episode Email address book Enclave extremism Encryption. See also Security The End of History and The Last Man (Fukuyama) Endangered species Entertainment Eriksen, Thomas Hylland Escapism Esfandiari, Golnaz Ethics European Union Exegy Facebook and activism and censorship and democracy and El Ghazzali and face-recognition and Global Network Initiative and group identity and Iran and Saving the Children of Africa and social network lawlessness and social network surveillance See also Social networks Face.com Face-recognition Falun Gong Fandy, Mamoun FARC movement FBI Federal Communications Commission Feith, David Fifty-Cent Party Financial Times Firewalls Fischer, Claude Flying magazine Forces of Production (Noble) Foreign Affairs Foreign debt Foreign policy France Franzese, Patrick Free Monem Freedom House Freie Deutsche Jugend Friedman, Thomas Friedrich, Carl Fukuyama, Francis Fuller, Buckminster Fund-raising Fung, Archon Galston, William Game propaganda Ganesan, Arvind Gapper, John Gates, Robert GDR.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

David Card, “The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market,” Working Paper (National Bureau of Economic Research, August 1989), http://www.nber.org/papers/w3069. 29. Rachel M. Friedberg, “The Impact of Mass Migration on the Israeli Labor Market,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 116, no. 4 (2001): 1373–1408, doi:10.1162/003355301753265606. 30. Amy Sherman, “Jeb Bush Says Illegal Immigration Is ‘Net Zero,’ ” Miami Herald, September 3, 2012, http://www.miamiherald.com/2012/09/01/2980208/jeb-bush-says-illegal-immigration.html. 31. Gordon F. De Jong et al., “The Geography of Immigrant Skills: Educational Profiles of Metropolitan Areas,” Brookings Institution, June 9, 2011, http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2011/06/immigrants-singer. 32. “State and County QuickFacts,” United States Census Bureau, June 27, 2013, http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/00000.html; Vivek Wadhwa et al., “America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Part I,” SSRN Scholarly Paper, Duke Science, Technology & Innovation Paper No. 23 (Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, January 4, 2007), http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=990152. 33.

Mariel brought over one hundred thousand people to the city in less than a year and increased its labor force by 7 percent, yet Card found “virtually no effect on the wages or unemployment rates of less-skilled workers, even among Cubans who had immigrated earlier.”28 Economist Rachel Friedberg reached virtually the same conclusion about mass migration from Russia and the rest of the former Soviet Union into Israel.29 Despite increasing the country’s population by 12 percent between 1990 and 1994, this immigration had no discernible adverse effect on Israeli workers. Despite this and other evidence, concerns persist in America that large-scale immigration of unskilled workers, particularly from Mexico and other Latin American countries and particularly by illegal means, will harm the economic prospects of the native-born labor force. Since 2007, it appears that net illegal immigration to the United States is approximately zero, or actually negative.30 And a study by the Brookings Institution found that highly educated immigrants now outnumber less educated ones; in 2010, 30 percent had at least a college education, while only 28 percent lacked the equivalent of a high school degree.31 Entrepreneurship in America, particularly in technology-intensive sectors of the economy, is fueled by immigration to an extraordinary degree.


pages: 298 words: 89,287

Who Are We—And Should It Matter in the 21st Century? by Gary Younge

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, David Brooks, equal pay for equal work, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, feminist movement, financial independence, glass ceiling, global village, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Skype, Steven Levy, upwardly mobile, Wolfgang Streeck, World Values Survey

On the day I was there (just a few days before the 2010 mid-term elections), they discussed topics that ranged from judges—one calls for Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan to be removed from the Supreme Court—to the fate of a local park. The discussions are spirited, but it is a warm, convivial, garrulous bunch. For all that, however, one cannot escape a pervasive sense of anger and fear in the room that portends some encroaching, escalating and all-encompassing calamity. The list of sources for this fear seems endless: the media, illegal immigrants, gays, civil rights leadership, the judiciary, Democrats, liberals, establishment Republicans, China, government, schools, the coastal states in general, California in particular. Each place setting comes with a copy of the constitution: a sacred document being violated by the government. When I ask how many believe they are living in tyranny, they all raise their hands. When I ask how many believe President Obama was born in the United States, only one arm goes up.

After several weeks of rejection, I was about to give up when a posh Englishman—the very kind that I had learned so much from and about in Sudan—heard of my plight and, unbeknownst to me, set about finding me digs. I ended up staying with a fantastic journalist in a plum location just by the Panthéon. This was less of a catch than it might have seemed. Few black people could afford to live there so whenever I went out I ran the risk of being stopped, searched and rifled for my papers. The assumption was that I was either an illegal immigrant, a thief or a burglar. Almost every day I would suffer this indignity at the hands of the state, and some days more than once. The humiliations were routine. Color bars in nightclubs meant that I needed white people to vouch for me. Standing in line at a taxi rank, I would wait my turn only for the driver to say he wouldn’t take me anywhere (my trip was from one part of central Paris to another).

“Globalization, being a force without a face, cannot be the object of ethnocide,” argues Appadurai. “But minorities can.” In the US, there have long been spates of violent and sometimes fatal attacks against Latino day laborers who gather at certain locations around suburbs and cities in the early morning waiting for contractors and others to pick them up. “People see day laborers and they see a proxy for illegal immigration,” explains Amy Seymour, a lawyer with the Immigrant and Non-standard Worker Project. “If they have an anxiety about globalization or outsourcing and the precariousness in their working lives, they may look at day laborers and see them as embodying all the things that are making them anxious.” In other words, as the US government opens its borders to goods and services through the North American Free Trade Agreement, some Americans feel threatened in their livelihoods.


Hiding in Plain Sight: The Invention of Donald Trump and the Erosion of America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", 4chan, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, Columbine, corporate raider, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, white flight, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

Then Tell Me Black Death Is Not a Business,” De Correspondent, October 1, 2016, https://thecorrespondent.com/5349/meet-darren-seals-then-tell-me-black-death-is-not-a-business/1512965275833-fe73c5b1. 23.   Bruce Franks Jr., “If I Don’t Make This Move, St. Louis Is Going to Kill Me,” St. Louis American, July 19, 2019, http://www.stlamerican.com/news/columnists/guest_columnists/if-i-don-t-make-this-move-st-louis-is/article_b6dbe594-aa4e-11e9-af76-bf4ee9e9def4.html. 24.   Kim Bell, “Trump Blames Gangs of Illegal Immigrants for Woes in Ferguson, St. Louis,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 25, 2016, https://www.stltoday.com/news/local/govt-and-politics/trump-blames-gangs-of-illegal-immigrants-for-woes-in-ferguson/article_ab07521a-1426-5799-9908-00e3eeb5398b.html. 25.   Jamil Smith, “The Central Park Five Told Us Who Donald Trump Really Is,” MTV News, August 23, 2016, http://www.mtv.com/news/2922644/the-central-park-five-ad-told-us-who-donald-trump-really-is/. 26.   Associated Press, “National Enquirer hid Trump secrets in a safe, removed them before inauguration,” NBC News, August 23, 2018, https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/donald-trump/national-enquirer-hid-trump-secrets-safe-removed-them-inauguration-n903356. 27.   

It’s to make yourself a target in a medium that distorts and devours you until you are no longer recognized as real. * * * At the one-year anniversary of the Ferguson events, reporters began relaying the lies of a new commentator: presidential candidate Donald Trump. Speaking at an Iowa news conference, he proclaimed, “You know a lot of the gangs that you see in Baltimore and in St. Louis and Ferguson and Chicago, do you know they’re illegal immigrants? They’re here illegally,” Trump said. “And they’re rough dudes. Rough people.”24 Trump’s comments were not tethered to reality in any way. Undocumented immigrants make up less than 1 percent of the population of Missouri and the foreign-born population of Ferguson is 1.1 percent. Given that the Ferguson protests were filmed around the clock for months on end, one would think someone would have noticed the presence of roving immigrant gangs.


pages: 307 words: 88,745

War for Eternity: Inside Bannon's Far-Right Circle of Global Power Brokers by Benjamin R. Teitelbaum

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, Boris Johnson, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Etonian, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, liberal world order, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, Saturday Night Live, school choice, side project, Skype, South China Sea, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks

The crowd was raucous, warmed up by a performance from the foulmouthed country-rock singer Ted Nugent and, theoretically, by Trump’s sleepy vice-presidential candidate, Mike Pence. Trump didn’t take long after bursting onto the stage to get to his main campaign messages: “They’re ripping the auto companies apart, they’re taking your jobs, they’re closing your plants, moving them to Mexico . . .” Bring back jobs from abroad—that was one of the three pillars of his pitch, the other two being the reduction of legal and illegal immigration and the cessation of foreign wars. Combined, these themes formed the message that Steve, then Trump’s campaign manager, believed could overcome almost any hurdle, including sensational demonstrations of sexism and racism. But the success of that plan hinged on the campaign’s ability to get their message to the right place and the right people. Michigan was an unusual place for a Republican to choose for a final campaign rally.

The president took the next day to proclaim the entire week, by means of a presidential proclamation, National School Choice Week in recognition of nonpublic and charter schools. He also issued executive order 13767, “Border Security and Immigration Enforcement Improvements,” calling for the immediate construction of a physical wall along the U.S. southern border with Mexico and the acceleration of processing and deportation of illegal immigrants. This was accompanied by a second executive order, 13768, “Enhancing Public Safety in the Interior of the United States,” seeking to block federal funding for U.S. cities that deliberately limited the capability of the government to enforce immigration law (so-called sanctuary cities) and giving officials permission to initiate deportation proceedings against those only suspected of posing a safety risk.

Eventually Steve lays a napkin over them, lifting a corner and peering beneath it on occasion. A coping strategy. That made it easier for him to converse with the other guests, and with me. * * * “IT BECAME SO THIN,” Steve says. “There was no resonance to the debate, it was—it didn’t mean anything. The Republicans never addressed trade, they never addressed jobs, they never addressed mass immigration, illegal immigration as taking away people’s sovereignty and taking away their jobs. They never discussed it. They had this very thin thing on tax cuts. It was, it’s what I call thin, with no human substance, no lifeblood. That’s what Trump provided. Trump provided a non-politically correct vernacular that hit the working class right in their . . .” Gut, chest, heart, I think to myself as I nod—something visceral to tie it all back to the lack of blood in standard Republican political rhetoric he was just talking about.


Termites of the State: Why Complexity Leads to Inequality by Vito Tanzi

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Andrew Keen, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, crony capitalism, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, experimental economics, financial repression, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, libertarian paternalism, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, means of production, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, urban planning, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

At the same time globalization and new technologies are making the world smaller and more open to the movement of goods, services, money, capital, intellectual property, cultural and criminal activities, pollution, and so on, but not to most individuals who would like to move and change their country of residence. Another inevitable question to ask is the following: Is it reasonable to assume that in such a world the national borders of countries can remain closed for illegal immigrants, as some would like them to be? What will happen to the role of the state when or if immigration flows cannot be controlled, as has been happening to a large extent in European countries? As mentioned, to some extent, the control of national borders to protect a country from explicit foreign invasion or from uncontrolled illegal immigration was and remains the most fundamental role of the national state. Should we rethink that role? Ch apter 25 The Quality of the Public Sector and the Legal Framework In recent years some literature has focused on the quality of the public sector, as distinguished from the quantity and scope of the state’s economic actions.

At that time the United States was still a largely rural society, as a visit to Mount Vernon or Monticello makes clear. The country was still settling in a new, immense territory, and few individuals lived in cities or especially in large cities. Therefore, many of the modern needs for the government’s role had not manifested themselves at that time, and those who wrote the Constitution could not have anticipated them. For example, the need to defend the borders from illegal immigrants, even at the cost of building a wall thousands of miles long, could not have been anticipated; neither could that of protecting the country against terrorists. Some conservatives continue to believe that rules that had spontaneously developed in communities in past centuries, for example, the “lex mercatoria,” the set of implicit rules that guided commercial exchanges in centuries past, could play important roles in, or even guide, today’s world in social and economic interactions among individuals.

By and large the literature has been more specific in suggesting what to do about these situations when they are internal to a country and when a national government has the power to act. It has been less specific, or it has been silent, on what to do when the situations concern several countries, or even the whole globe, as in the cases of global warming, the growing resistance of viruses to antibiotics, or illegal immigration. Although some problems of allocation can be dealt with by the use of regulations and taxes, or by free negotiations among market participants, others require public spending. Furthermore, problems connected with the working of public sectors make some of the theoretical solutions now available not always practical to implement. Ch apter 18 The State’s Economic Objectives and Its Institutions After the publication of Musgrave’s The Theory of Public Finance in 1959, a book that provided a useful and often-used framework for addressing issues related to governmental intervention in a market economy, it became natural and usual for public finance scholars to classify the actions of governments into three virtually distinct, or compartmentalized, parts of a theoretical public budget: allocation of resources, redistribution of income, and stabilization of the economy.


pages: 329 words: 102,469

Free World: America, Europe, and the Surprising Future of the West by Timothy Garton Ash

Albert Einstein, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, centre right, clean water, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, postnationalism / post nation state, Project for a New American Century, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

There is a real question how many of those 2.8 billion men, women, and children living in states classed as free are in any meaningful sense themselves, individually, free. The great twentieth-century liberal philosopher Isaiah Berlin always insisted, against the Marxists of his time, that we keep two things distinct: freedom is freedom, poverty is poverty. Everything is what it is and not another thing. But plainly the unemployed Moroccan illegal immigrant I met one sultry evening in the Lavapies neighborhood of Madrid—“I live,” he told me, “like a wolf”—is not free in the sense that I and you, if you have the money, education, and leisure to read this book, are free. “Are the poor free?” is one of the most pressing questions facing us, the free, at the beginning of the twenty-first century. It applies most painfully to the nearly half of humankind living on less than $2 a day.15 The economist Amartya Sen argues compellingly that freedom and development are inextricable.16 Only above a certain level of development can we seriously talk of people being free, but equally, a certain level of political freedom, good government, and the rule of law is indispensable for development.

Would continental Europeans really give us all the benefits of free trade if we were not in the E.U.? Would Americans and Asians continue to invest so heavily here? Could we stand aside as an anti-American Europe clashed with an anti-European America? If Britain was unable to remain indifferent to the balance of power on the European continent in the nineteenth century, or to the continental clashes of fascism and communism in the twentieth, how could it in the twenty-first? And the illegal immigrants, terrorists, and economic shocks coming from an unreformed near East will not stop at the white cliffs of Dover. Yet even if this strategy for an offshore Greater Switzerland were sustainable, a further question would remain: is this who we want to be? It’s one thing—and a fine thing—for the Swiss to be Swiss. It’s quite another for the English to try to be Swiss. The last Archbishop of Canterbury once remarked that Britain is now quite an ordinary little island.

This domestic imperative also dictates the top foreign policy priority for Europe: supporting change for the better in our “near abroad.” I have argued in the first part of this book that unless we bring more prosperity and freedom to young Arabs, even more young Arabs will come to us. This formula applies also to Turkey, the Balkans, the new eastern Europe (Ukraine, Belarus, and Moldova), the Caucasus, and Russia, all of them being, in different degrees, sources of legal and illegal immigration, political radicalism, and organized crime. I’ve suggested that we should pursue the E.U.’s classic “politics of induction” toward Turkey, the Balkans, and the new eastern Europe, in a time frame of twenty years. For the rest of our “near abroad,” stretching 10,000 kilometers along our southern and eastern borders, we need to craft a new kind of partnership which does not involve the promise—or even the flirted ankle—of full membership.


Gaming the Vote: Why Elections Aren't Fair (And What We Can Do About It) by William Poundstone

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, business cycle, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, global village, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, invisible hand, jimmy wales, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, manufacturing employment, Nash equilibrium, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, slashdot, the map is not the territory, Thomas Bayes, transcontinental railway, Unsafe at Any Speed, Y2K

JSM people were already contracted to raise signatures for a conservative ballot initiative, Protect Arizona Now, that would deny public services to illegal immigrants. JSM agreed to collect signatures for Nader in Arizona. The Nader campaign paid two dollars per signature. It appears that the JSM people were sent out with both the Protect Arizona Now and Nader petitions on their clipboards, and theyencouraged people to sign both without worrying overmuch about whether that made any sense. It didn't make any sense. In the June issue of The American Conservative, Nader's former opponent Pat Buchanan asked him point blank whether illegal immigrants should be eligible for welfare. Nader answered that undocumented aliens "should be given all the fair-labor standards and all the rights and benefits of American workers, and if this country doesn't like that, maybe they will do something about the immigration laws."

But, he admitted, "I don't know if they're doing it for me or as a tactic against Bilbray:' The mystery was solved when ads touting Griffith began running on conservative talk radio, saying in part: Think lobbyist Brian Bilbray's a conservative when it comes to immigration? Think again ... Lobbyist Bilbray isn't the candidate to secure our borders. You have a choice. Independent William Griffith is en- 121 GAMING THE VOTE dorsed by the San Diego Minutemen and San Diego Border Alert because he opposes guest worker programs, amnesty, and the hiring of illegal immigrants. Francine Busby supports John McCain's position on immigration-stronger enforcement at the border, better support for border agents, and no amnesty. When it comes to immigration, don't expect lobbyist Brian Bilbray to fix Washington, or fix our borders. I'm Francine Busby, candidate for Congress, and I approve this message. Paid for by Francine Busby for Congress. The Busby/Griffith ads set a new high-water mark for candor.


pages: 391 words: 102,301

Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman

Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, zero-sum game

To his list can be added a further set of perplexing global problems: the threat of new trade wars and the international political tensions they will foster; a rising number of failing states and the cross-border problems they spawn; the struggle between nations to gain control of natural resources, in particular oil and food; the renewed strength of authoritarian regimes and ideologies that threaten to clash with the democratic world; cross-border flows of refugees and illegal immigrants; and the growing power of international organized crime in places such as Mexico and the Balkans. Even if tensions between a wounded West and a rising Asia can be contained, the relative weakening of the United States makes it significantly less likely that the world will be able to find solutions to these festering international problems. In the aftermath of the financial crisis, there was much talk of the need for a “new Bretton Woods”—a reference to the conference in 1944 that laid the foundations for the international architecture of the postwar period.

Enlargement was the great achievement of the European Union in the decade after 1995. But high unemployment and a fear of Muslim immigration have largely persuaded Europe to call a halt. The prospects of Turkey fulfilling its longstanding ambition to “join Europe” seem to be receding year by year as European politicians shrink from the implications of adding a Muslim nation of some 70 million people to their Union. Anger about illegal immigration continues to rise in the United States, which is currently thought to play host to over 12 million illegals. That anger is reflected in the popularity of the antimigrant campaigns of Lou Dobbs, the former television host, in books such as Pat Buchanan’s State of Emergency: The Third World Invasion and Conquest of America, and in controversial new laws, such as Arizona’s statute requiring the police to check the papers of suspected illegal migrants.

But high levels of Muslim immigration have provoked a fierce reaction in Europe, which is only likely to heighten as growth slows and unemployment rises. Anti-immigration parties have made serious headway in several European countries, including France, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Denmark, and, most spectacularly, the once famously liberal Netherlands. European Union leaders have responded to a more fearful public mood by increasingly portraying the outside world in threatening terms: railing against cheap Asian goods and illegal immigrants. Both President Nicolas Sarkozy of France and Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany have called for a “Europe that protects.” A European Union that more than doubled in size between 1995 and 2004 is now much more cautious about further expansion. But while the Europeans may look fearfully at the outside world, the real threat to the vaunted “European model” may lie within. Like the United States, the EU was already facing a daunting fiscal challenge as the baby boomers aged and retired.


pages: 282 words: 28,394

Learn Descriptive Cataloging Second North American Edition by Mary Mortimer

California gold rush, clean water, corporate governance, deskilling, illegal immigration, Norman Mailer

Some of the factors that affect the decision on the fullness of a bibliographic description include • library priorities • importance of an item to the collection • relative value of an item • volume of incoming material • availability and experience of staff to process the material • needs of the user. An example of first level: From welcomed exiles to illegal immigrants. - Rowman & Littlefield, c1996. - xxii, 168 p. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0847681483 An example of second level: From welcomed exiles to illegal immigrants : Cuban migration to the U.S., 1959-1995 / by Felix Roberto Masud-Piloto. - Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield, c1996. - xxii, 168 p. ; 24 cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0847681483 (alk. paper). - ISBN 0847681491 (pbk. : alk. paper) Third level would include all elements in AACR2 that are applicable to the item in hand.


pages: 487 words: 147,891

McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld by Misha Glenny

anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, colonial rule, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, forensic accounting, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, place-making, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, trade liberalization, trade route, Transnistria, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile

In Israel, as in most Western countries, it is the trafficked woman and not the client who is the object of law enforcement procedures. When Ludmila first succeeded in escaping, she was handed back to her pimp by the duty sergeant, who happened to be a client of the brothel. In response, she was beaten senseless by her “owner.” The second time she got away, she handed herself in to a police station in another part of town. As is habitual, she was charged with being an illegal immigrant and thrown in a detention center for several months as her deportation order was processed. When she finally arrived back in Chisinau, destitute and traumatized for life, Ludmila could not return to her home, partly for reasons of shame but above all for fear of being found by her traffickers. Hers is an everyday story of life in Moldova, Ukraine, Russia, Egypt, and Israel. The day after I had spoken to Ludmila, her caseworker called.

When he was sentenced in July 2005 for bribery, the federal police and Queiroz in particular rightly patted themselves on the back for the success of an arduous operation fraught with risks. Lao was the most powerful and successful criminal businessman ever arrested in Brazil. But within a few months of his initial incarceration, Roberto Porto, investigator at the Chinese organized crime unit of the São Paulo police, noticed something happening. “Most of the Chinese working in the markets of São Paulo are illegal immigrants. They are unprotected, and the last thing on their mind is to go to the police—they think as soon as they do, they’ll be deported,” he said. “So Lao Kin Chong gave them protection.” In São Paulo’s Chinese community, Lao was the state and the police. “When Lao was arrested two years ago,” Porto continued, “everyone lost their protection.” And that is when things for the Chinese of São Paulo started to get nasty.

Rather, they are effectively travel agents who include illegal entry to a third country in their service remit. In the United States, the Department of Justice floated an idea of offering an amnesty to illegal Chinese immigrants who would testify against the snakeheads. “When the DOJ came to me with this idea,” explained Professor Ko-lin Chin in New Jersey, “I said, ‘You’ve gotta be crazy!’ These snakeheads are regarded as heroes by the illegal immigrants. They pay the fee quite happily—there is no coercion. The snakeheads are heroes, not villains. The last thing the migrants want to do is turn these people in—they want to thank them!” We will never know what Lin Guohua thought of the snakehead who flew him to Belgrade. The Serbian capital witnessed the fastest growth of any Chinatown in the world during the late 1990s, despite Serbia’s status at the time as an international pariah.


pages: 135 words: 53,708

Top 10 San Diego by Pamela Barrus, Dk Publishing

California gold rush, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, East Village, El Camino Real, G4S, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Silicon Valley, the market place, transcontinental railway, urban renewal

Turn right on Alameda and ride through a typical Coronado neighborhood with Spanish-style houses and bungalows. At 4th, cross the street and walk one block; the Naval Air Station will be on your left. Turn right on 1st. It’s a straight stretch back to the Market Place. Around Town – Southern San Diego As the endangered Western snowy plover seeks a place in which to lay her fragile eggs, the green-and-white vehicles of the US Border Patrol swoop down hillsides, lights blazing, in search of the illegal immigrant. An enormous, rusty, corrugated metal fence, which separates the US and Mexico, slices through the park before plunging into the sea. This southern part of the Tijuana River National Estuarine Research Reserve (see p47) attracts nature lovers who come to hike, ride horses, picnic on the beach, and birdwatch. On the Mexican side of the fence is a lively Mexican community and bullring (see p41).

Driving Without Insurance in Mexico If your car is stolen while over the border, your US car insurance won’t cover it. If you are in any way associated with an accident, your vehicle will be impounded and you will be arrested until liability is sorted out. Protect yourself by buying a policy before driving over the border. Coyotes & Narcotraficantes Coyotes, sometimes called polleros or chicken keepers, smuggle illegal immigrants over the border. A clampdown in San Diego has forced the crossings into the desert, where death by heatstroke is common. Narcotraficantes, or drug smugglers, thrive along the border with the local drug cartel. sewer leaks are common. Especially hardhit beaches are Imperial Beach and Border Field State Park. There are signs indicating safety levels of the water. Streetsmart Left Cars queue up at the Mexico-Tijuana border Right Lifeguard vehicles Smoking Sun Slather on the sunscreen during the day and be sure to take a hat whenever you’re outdoors, especially at SeaWorld and the Zoo.


pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, carried interest, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, telepresence, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

When Farage and his colleagues debated the best name for their party in the 1990s, they rejected the word British since it overlapped with the overtly racist British National Party. Farage refers to the BNP as the ‘Bloody Nasty Party’.32 He pointed out that many of UKIP’s potential voters were old enough to remember the Second World War and had a lifelong allergy to fascism. When Theresa May, then Home Secretary, set up a pilot scheme to round up illegal immigrants, he criticised her methods as ‘nasty’ and ‘not the British way’. UKIP is officially opposed to ‘unlimited mass immigration’. But for the most part, it has focused on stopping Britain from turning into ‘a province of the United European superstate’. Only during the Brexit campaign did the party endorse overt xenophobia with its ‘breaking point’ poster showing hordes of Muslim immigrants streaming across the border.

Depending on the society, most of the West is moving either towards populism or plutocracy. In some cases, such as the US, it is falling into a kind of hybrid pluto-populism that looks increasingly Latin American. Donald Trump’s plans to deregulate Wall Street are a perfect illustration. Having railed against its greed on the campaign trail, he is now loosening the restraints on it in office. In the meantime, he plans to satisfy the populist urge by demonising illegal immigrants and Muslims, and indulging in theatre politics. Trump will operate as a kind of Ku Klux Kardashian, combining hard-right pugilism with the best of postmodern vaudeville. It is as though the French Bourbons have come back to life as twenty-first-century neoliberals. They never learn. No matter what the challenge, cake and cheap diversion is the answer. Trump was supposed to have led a revolt against the elites.


pages: 196 words: 55,862

Riding for Deliveroo: Resistance in the New Economy by Callum Cant

Airbnb, call centre, collective bargaining, deskilling, Elon Musk, future of work, gig economy, housing crisis, illegal immigration, information asymmetry, invention of the steam engine, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, new economy, Pearl River Delta, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, union organizing, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce

Brighton and Hove City Council (2010) Housing costs update Quarter 4 2010. www.brighton-hove.gov.uk/sites/brighton-hove.gov.uk/files/2010%20%284%29%20Housing%20Costs%20%28Oct-Dec%29.pdf; Brighton and Hove City Council (2017) Brighton & Hove housing market report Quarter 4 2017. www.brighton-hove.gov.uk/sites/brighton-hove.gov.uk/files/2017%20%284%29%20Housing%20Market%20Report%20%28Oct-Dec%29.pdf. 3. F. Kooti, M. Grbovic, L. M. Aiello, N. Djuric, V. Radosavljevic, and K. Lerman (2017) Analyzing Uber’s ride-sharing economy, in Proceedings of the 26th International Conference, ACM Press. 4. K. Bryan (2019) Deliveroo and Uber Eats takeaway riders rent jobs to ‘illegal immigrants’. The Times. www.thetimes.co.uk/article/deliveroo-and-uber-eats-takeaway-riders-rent-jobs-to-illegal-immigrants-ml36gvp93. 5. M. Perry (2000) Bread and work: social policy and the experience of unemployment, 1918–39. Pluto Press, p. 103. 6. A. Marotta and L. Hughes (2018) Rebellion at the LSE: a cleaning sector inquiry. Notes from Below. https://notesfrombelow.org/article/rebellion-lse-cleaning-sector-inquiry. 7. R. Cavendish (1982) Women on the line.


pages: 267 words: 106,340

Europe old and new: transnationalism, belonging, xenophobia by Ray Taras

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey

A series of “logistical” problems seemed to make that target date unrealistic. For example, the EU’s border agency Frontex, whose headquarters are in Warsaw—the first EU agency to be based in one of the accession states—had trouble finding suitable job candidates. Lower salary levels in Poland, even for EU employees, made recruitment difficult, thereby threatening to undermine efforts to curb illegal immigration. These problems sparked concerns among some eastern Europeans that they were being treated unequally by their western counterparts and that a two-tier Europe of border controls was coming into existence. To be sure, the need to ensure uniform standards of public security within the Union was brought home by the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, which were planned in Hamburg and other parts of the EU.

The March 2004 bombings on commuter trains around Madrid were largely the work of terrorists of Moroccan background, though 11-M (as the date is cited in Spanish) also involved unprecedented cooperation between Muslim and non-Muslim groups. The Spanish state recognizes Catholicism as the country’s official religion but affords Islam special privileges. These include the teaching of the Qur’an in schools and observation of Muslim religious holidays. Due to its geographical position, Spain has become a primary entry point for African migrants to Europe. In 2006, it was reported that close to 20,000 illegal immigrants had arrived from Africa to the Canary Islands alone. About onethird of all Africans are Muslim, so Spain’s Islamic culture may be becoming less exclusively Moorish. The country with the largest Muslim population in old Europe is France. About 70 percent originate in the north African states of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. The rapid growth of the Islamic population has challenged the strict French practice of separating religion and public life.

Yet the composition of that side was more in keeping with Makine’s ethnic imaginary as well as the Frenchness that National Front leader Jean-Marie Le Pen espoused. But it was not just Le Pen anymore who expressed anti-foreigner sentiments. In the runoff to the 2007 presidential elections, both candidates appealed to the French-French vote. Winner Nicolas Sarkozy proudly pointed to his record as interior minister when he was responsible for expelling tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from France. In 2005, he had attacked the “scum” living in ethnic Arab and Muslim neighborhoods who took part in three weeks of violent protests about living conditions. His electoral promise was to establish a ministry of immigration and national identity that would oversee the propagation of French secular values among all immigrants. Socialist candidate Ségolène Royal also emphasized the need to return to traditional French identity.


Let's Explore Diabetes With Owls by David Sedaris

big-box store, call centre, desegregation, illegal immigration, index card, Maui Hawaii, remote working, stem cell

Someone got my license plate number as I was taking off, and the next thing I know, I’m in jail with one charge of second-degree manslaughter and three charges of first-degree murder! Plus the hit-and-run bit. And all because some high-and-mighty legislators in New York State thought they knew better than the rest of us! Of course, if I was gay they’d probably let me off, so I tried kissing my cell mate, an illegal immigrant named Diego Rodríguez, if you can believe it. And I’m here to tell you that, as long as you keep your eyes shut, it’s really not that bad. Understanding Understanding Owls Does there come a day in every man’s life when he looks around and says to himself, I’ve got to weed out some of these owls? I can’t be alone in this, can I? And, of course, you don’t want to hurt anyone’s feelings.

Both Miles and Todd are familiar with protest marches, mostly from their misguided college days, but as my son said, “Walking is walking, Mom, and whether you’re for torture or against it, you’re going to need to drink lots of water. That’s rule number one: Stay Hydrated! You’ll also need some good, comfortable shoes and a hat that’ll keep the sun off your face.” I got a sombrero and hung tea bags off the brim, but Todd said it sent a mixed message, like I supported illegal immigration—which I don’t! He said it was better to wear this cone-shaped thing, a wimple, he called it, though it looked to me more like a dunce cap. He said, “Mom, please. A little sophistication!” I said, “How will it keep the sun off my face?” So he added a visor to the front of it. As for the writing that runs top to bottom, it might look like ASSHOLE, but it’s actually A.S.S.H.O.L.E., which stands for: Another Savvy Senior Hopes Obama Loses Everything That might sound harsh, but it’s how I feel.


pages: 359 words: 113,847

Siege: Trump Under Fire by Michael Wolff

Bernie Madoff, Boris Johnson, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, forensic accounting, gig economy, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, impulse control, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, oil shale / tar sands, Potemkin village, Saturday Night Live, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, WikiLeaks

As Bannon organized a howling protest from the president’s base, he took stock of the Trump reality: “There simply is not going to be a Wall, ever, if he doesn’t have to pay a political price for there not being a Wall.” If the Wall was not under way by the midterm elections in November, it would show Trump to be false and, worse, weak. The Wall needed to be real. The absence of the Wall in the spending bill was just what it seemed to be: Trump out to lunch. Trump’s most effective message, the forward front of the Trump narrative—maximal aggression toward illegal immigrants—had been muted. And this had happened without him knowing it. * * * The night of the twenty-second, the Fox News lineup—Tucker Carlson, Laura Ingraham, and Sean Hannity—hammered the message: betrayal. The battle was on. The Republican leadership on the Hill, along with the donor class, stood sober and pragmatic in the face of both political realities and the prospect of unlimited billions in government spending—with, certainly, no illusions that Mexico was going to pay for the Wall.

Hannity disdained Murdoch and his sons, not least because he was quite sure they found him contemptible. He figured they would fire him soon enough. But Hannity was sanguine: he believed his future was with Trump, and soon after Trump’s inauguration he began telling people that he was staying at Fox only to “fight for Donald J. Trump.” This was a programming approach—abject fealty to Donald Trump—that, buttressed by obsessive warnings about the evils of illegal immigration, suddenly turned Hannity into cable gold. Carlson, a former magazine writer, had migrated to Fox via CNN and MSNBC, where he had struggled in the role of the young old-fogey conservative in a bow tie. As liberal channels shut down even their token conservative voices, he met a predictable end. At Fox, where Ailes saw Carlson as the kind of conservative that liberals like—that is, useful to the network, but not central to it—he warmed the bench for bigger stars who hard-core conservatives liked, each week shuttling up to New York from Washington to do the lower-rated weekend shows.

We have today informed the countries of Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador that if they allow their citizens, or others, to journey through their borders and up to the United States, with the intention of entering our country illegally, all payments made to them will STOP (END)! Anybody entering the United States illegally will be arrested and detained, prior to being sent back to their country! Bannon had focused Hannity on the caravan story, and now Hannity had focused the president. For Trump and his most dedicated confederates there was only one truly reliable issue: illegal immigration. In Trump’s short political history, the issue had never failed to inspire and activate core voters. The caravan was a Trump-Fox-Bannon play. Every other part of the Republican spectrum was all but writing off the party’s ability to hold the House. But the Trump-Fox-Bannon alliance held a different view, and their October surprise was to double down on their most potent issue. The National Republican Congressional Committee and the Congressional Leadership Fund were continuing to put resources into swing-state moderates like Barbara Comstock, a mainstream party favorite in a tight race in Virginia.


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The Haves and the Have-Nots: A Brief and Idiosyncratic History of Global Inequality by Branko Milanovic

Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, colonial rule, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, full employment, Gini coefficient, high net worth, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, open borders, Pareto efficiency, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, Simon Kuznets, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

The camp exploded into riots, and a fight between the guards and would-be future citizens ensued. A part of the former “Center of Reception and Emergency Aid” was burned down. Lampedusa is only one of those European camps. A similar camp, Hal Far, exists in Malta—a camp where African refugees had to hang a huge banner reading “We are humans!” to attract passersby’s attention to the people living there cordoned off by the barbed wire.3 In Spain, which every year expels around 100,000 illegal immigrants, the government has to deal with an even more macabre problem: what to do with the dead bodies of the harraga when they float to the beaches and in midsummer scare off tourists who have come to forget all their daily worries on the beaches of southern Spain? The Spanish government has recently asked the Algerian government to take more than 170 bodies that have thus far been found. But the Algerians refused: first, for not being able to identify the bodies, and, second, for not being sure that the corpses were indeed Algerian (and not Moroccan or Tunisian).4 But perhaps the Algerian government refused for a more profound reason: not to hear the message that the harraga send about the failure of North African societies to provide these young people with any hope of a normal and decent life.

For Italy, see Banca d’Italia, Relazione annuale sul 2008, May 29, 2009, chap. 11, table 11.4, p. 128, available at http://www.bancaditalia.it/pubblicazioni/relann/rel08/rel08it/. 3 See David Blanchflower and Chris Shadforth, “Fear, Unemployment, and Migration,” Economic Journal (February 2009): table 17, p. F157. 4 U.S. Department of Homeland Security, based on the estimated increase in Mexican illegal immigrants between 2000 and 2005 (1.3 million). 5 The total number of people killed while trying to cross the Berlin Wall was around two hundred during its twenty-seven-year existence. On an annual basis, the number of Mexican deaths is thus fifty times greater. 6 BBC, July 2, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6228236.stm. Vignette 2.5 1 Several hundred Algerian and Tunisian nationals are thought to be imprisoned in Libyan jails. 2 BBC, March 31, 2009; Radio France Inter, March 16, 2009. 3 Ironically, one may recall that in the nineteenth century many Maltese, Sicilians, and Corsicans freely moved over and settled in Tunisia. 4 The Algerian daily El Watan, March 5, 2009. 5 Agence France Presse, March 31, 2009.


pages: 236 words: 67,953

Brave New World of Work by Ulrich Beck

affirmative action, anti-globalists, Asian financial crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, full employment, future of work, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, McJob, means of production, mini-job, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

The fact that this breaks up families, because wives and mothers are also economically active and must display ‘flexibility’, is studiously avoided by those who are apologists for both market and family. Mobility between national states, on the other hand, is regarded as ‘migration’ and subjected to major restrictions. At the border posts, ‘desirable flexibility’ thus turns into ‘undesirable migration’, and people who do what is so much demanded within individual countries find themselves being criminalized. They are ‘economic refugees’, ‘asylum-seekers’ or ‘illegal immigrants’, who put themselves in the hands of ‘human traffickers’ – a task discharged within each country by the official employment exchange. How can citizens who believe in universalist values and rights become, within a transnational dimension, enemies of the very mobility for which they insistently call inside their own country? Globalization, understood as despatialization of the social, opens up a new analytical framework and new strategic options.

By the 1980s, Mexico was once again a country of three nations: the criollo minority of elites and the upper-middle-class, living in style and affluence; the huge, poor mestizo majority; and the utterly destitute minority of what was in colonial times called the Republic of Indians – the indigenous peoples of Chiapas, Oaxaca, Michoacan, Guerrero, Puebla, Chihuaha and Sonora, all known today as el México profundo: deep Mexico.69 And Ludger Pries reports that in Puebla, Mexico's fourth largest city with a population of roughly 2 million, when you ride in a taxi and talk to the driver, you can hear life-stories that sound strange to Western ears. It is not at all untypical that the taxi-driver used to be formerly employed as a lorry driver or had been an illegal immigrant in the United States, or even earned his living on the assembly-line at Volkswagen de México. He will then give this or that reason why he ‘voluntarily’ gave up that work situation, bought himself a second-hand Volkswagen Beetle from his severance pay, and set out to work as a taxi-driver ‘on his own account’. Why does a not badly paid employee at the finance ministry voluntarily leave after fifteen years and open a small electrical workshop?


Once the American Dream: Inner-Ring Suburbs of the Metropolitan United States by Bernadette Hanlon

big-box store, correlation coefficient, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, feminist movement, housing crisis, illegal immigration, informal economy, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, McMansion, New Urbanism, Silicon Valley, statistical model, The Chicago School, transit-oriented development, urban sprawl, white flight, working-age population, zero-sum game

Immigration has been fraught with resistance from a number of suburban communities. In Waukegan, for instance, the local government considered police officer training to initiate deportation for illegal immigrants. This proposal was met with strong protest from the local immigrant community. 68 / Chapter 5 Laws concerning day-labor sites, language, rental housing, and law enforcement have been introduced by local suburban governments across the country. These laws attempt to either curb immigration or to drive immigrants out. In the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area, the suburbs of Prince William County in Virginia were recently caught up in a controversy about illegal immigration. County officials advocated checking the immigration status of anyone using public services, such as schools, libraries, and swimming pools. They pushed to pass a bill requiring police to check the residency status of anyone suspected of breaking the law and to ask people about their immigration statuses during routine traffic stops.


pages: 464 words: 121,983

Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Corrections Corporation of America, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks

Immigration was a key battleground in Greece, and Golden Dawn had harnessed it with cynical precision. There was truth to the claim that the Greek system failed to adequately provide for the surge in asylum seekers living in the community, and this failure had inevitably led to fear and paranoia. “Political asylum is fine—we should help people from Syria and other places that really need our help; but illegal immigrants must be rejected,” Stathis argued. “Illegal invaders must be sent back, and we must sign a new agreement with the EU and Turkey. Areas of Athens are now [violent ghettos] filled with immigrants.” He dreamed of the Greek people giving Golden Dawn a majority at a future election. He knew that one of the ways this could happen was through a party program such as talking to employers, encouraging them to fire immigrants and then hire local Greeks at the same rate of pay.

When challenged on his party’s embracing of Hitler, Panagiotaros was dismissive: “So what if our leader was photographed next to a Nazi swastika forty years ago? If you ask every leader in Europe what they were doing forty years ago you may find some interesting stories, too.” During my time in Greece barely a day passed without new and recent photographs in the media of Golden Dawn members mimicking Nazi iconography. Panagiotaros wanted the EU to operate “a strict immigration policy,” because “illegal immigration is mostly Muslim jihadists who plan to overtake Europe. If Syrians, Libyans, or Iraqis need to go somewhere they should go to the US, the country that caused the wars in their countries. Let the US take these people in.” Panagiotaros claimed to be against rampant privatization, despite the record of his party in parliament backing moves to outsource state services. “Greece has been giving away public assets for years—ports, airports, huge hotels, beaches, islands, roads, bridges.

The reality of privatized detention is one of services cut to the bone, offering the barest minimum of care. Detention Watch Network issued a report in 2013 that examined 250 facilities across the country, many of which were run for profit, and found that none of them could guarantee basic medical care or appropriate protection against sexual and physical abuse. A lack of official oversight exacerbated the problem, along with the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act, which allowed inmates to be punished for minor crimes as if they were serious felonies.40 Punishment, not rehabilitation, remained the corporate and governmental focus, as it was more profitable. CCA refused a simple proposal in 2015 from former prisoner and associate director of the Human Rights Defense Center, Alex Friedmann, for the company to commit an additional 5 percent of its net income to reducing recidivism.41 Public opposition to these companies was growing; the Interfaith Prison Coalition launched a campaign in 2015 to boycott and divest from firms that made profit from prison labor and charged exorbitant prices for prisoner phone calls.


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Extreme Economies: Survival, Failure, Future – Lessons From the World’s Limits by Richard Davies

agricultural Revolution, air freight, Anton Chekhov, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big-box store, cashless society, clean water, complexity theory, deindustrialization, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial innovation, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, James Hargreaves, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, large denomination, Livingstone, I presume, Malacca Straits, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pension reform, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, school choice, school vouchers, Scramble for Africa, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, the payments system, trade route, Travis Kalanick, uranium enrichment, urban planning, wealth creators, white picket fence, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

Official data is hard to get but suggests that in the mid-2000s for every 2.4 million tourist visits Panama received per year, just 700 people visited the Darien National Park. ‘The problem is still the reputation,’ says Hermel, and he is right. This is a beautiful place, but a jungle known to harbour FARC guerrillas is not somewhere you can relax. To make money from outsiders, the locals would need to make Darien accessible and safe. The experiences of Darien’s latest group of adventurers – the illegal immigrants trekking through the jungle – show that goal is a long way off. BUCCANEERS VERSUS PIRATES Illegal immigrants – all of them heading for the US – enter the Darien Gap on its eastern border, at the Colombian town of Capurganá. The little port was previously a no-go area because of fighting between the Colombian Army and FARC rebels, but following the 2016 peace accord adventurous travellers have returned. There are Americans and Parisians in their twenties and thirties with wispy beards and dreadlocks, and small crews of baby-boomer yachtsmen with blotchy tans, the sun damage from weeks at sea.

Abercrombie, Sir Patrick 203 Aceh 2–39, 10, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335 ‘building back better’ 24–5, 29–31, 42 civil war 32–3 education 13, 31 financial system 20–22 history 17–18 Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) 32, 33 tsunami 2–3, 6, 12–14, 15, 16, 18–19, 23 ageing populations 6, 212–49, 331 agglomeration see industrial agglomeration AI see artificial intelligence Akita, Japan 212–49 ageing population/ low birth rate 7, 213–25, 227–49, 331 suicides 225–6 Allende, Salvador 296–8, 301 amoral familism 196, 202 Anglo-Dutch wars 25 Angola: Kongo people 83 Angola (Louisiana penitentiary) 5, 76–104, 331, 335, Angolite, The 80 Argentina 110, 144, 291, 303 Arkwright, Richard 267 Arrol, Sir William 191 artificial intelligence (AI) 245, 268–9, 270, 284, 286, 287, 378 automation: and job losses 253 see also technology Azraq refugee camp 57–67, 71, 72, 144, 334, 340, 348–9 Bajo Chiquito, Panama 106, 108–9, 1112, 133, 136, 139 Banda Aceh 13, 16, 18, 20, 26–7, 34–5 Bandal, Kinshasa 144, 162 Bandudu, Congo 164, 165 banks 97, 99 in Aceh 19, 21, 22 Chilean 296, 297, 302 in Kinshasa/ Congo 151, 158 online 99, 278 Panamanian 131 Barbour, Mary 203, 366 barter economy, prison 89–90 Bevan, Aneurin 201 birth rates, falling 215–16, 226–7, 233, 247 Blockbuster Video 97 blood circulation (William Harvey) 3–4 borders: and conservation of common resources 126–7 Borland, Francis: History of Darien 107 Brazil: ageing population 213, 214 Brazzaville, Congo 174–5 Bruce, Robert 203 Brumberg, Richard 218 buccaneers and Darien 112–14 business start-up rates 54 Calabria, negative social integration 195–6 Calton, Glasgow 179, 190, 191, 192 Cambridge University 26, 182 Cameron, Verney Lovett 141, 143, 149 cannabinoids, synthetic 93–4, 95–6, 352 cartels, Chilean 321–3 Casement, Roger: on Congo Free State 150 cash vs. barter 89–90 Castro, Fidel 298 Castro, Sergio de 301 centenarians, Japanese 215, 216 Chesterton, George Laval 77 Chicago Boys 294–5, 296, 300, 301, 314, 325 El Ladrillo (economic plan) 301–5, 315–16, 317, 323–4, 325–6 protests against 305, 317 Chile Allende period 296–8, 301 education 294, 295, 302, 304–5, 310, 311–12, 312, 313–17, 318, 324, 326, 327 national income 291–3 nationalization 296–7 Pinochet dictatorship 298, 300–1, 305, 322, 383 tsunami 15 see also Chicago Boys ‘Chilean Winter’ 317–18 Clyde shipyards 178–9, 181, 183–4, 185 Cold Bath Fields prison 91 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor 113 Colombian peace accord (2016) 111, 134 common resources and conservation 124–5 depletion paradox 122–39 overgrazed land 122–3 and self-regulation 125, 126–8 Confucian ethics 220 Congo, Democratic Republic of ‘Crisis’ 151–8 GDP per capita 153, 173 independence (1960) 151 unemployment 142–3 see also Kinshasa; Mobutu, Sese Seko; Zaire consumerism as slavery 319 copper mining 143, 151, 156, 296, 323–4 corruption 133 in Kinshasa 143, 145–6, 148, 159–61, 168, 333, 361 credit: and poverty 308–10 Crompton, Samuel 267 crop rotation 279 Cunard Line 185 currencies cacao beans 91 cigarette papers 91 cigarettes/tobacco 92, 95 coffee 77, 96, 100 commodities 90–91 ‘dot’ payment system 97–100 dual-currency system 166–7 ‘EMAK’ (edible mackerel) 92 postage stamps 92 in prisons 91–101 ramen noodles 92 roles played (Jevons) 90 on Rossel Island 91 salt 91 Yoruk people 91 Cut Nyak Dhien 35 Dael, Syria: refugees 42–4 Dagahaley settlement, Kenya 45, 46 Dampier, William 113, 114 Daraa: and Syrian civil war 44 Darien Gap 6, 106, 107–39, 332, 333, 334 borders and common resource conservation 126–7 buccaneers’ accounts 112–14 eco-tourism 132 environmental damage 6, 120–21, 129–31 ethnic rivalry 126–8 externalities 131, 138, 183, 186, 332 illegal immigrants 132–7 market failure 109–10, 122–3, 129, 138 Scottish disaster 114–15, 133, 137–8 Darien National Park 126, 132 deaths lonely 225, 226, 236, 237, 248 premature (‘Glasgow effect’) 192–3 suicide 194, 213, 224, 225–6, 236, 248, 366 see also life expectancy digital divide 254, 281, 377 digital ID 277, 279 digital infrastructure, Estonian 259 drugs in Angola (prison) 81, 82, 88, 93–4, 95–6, 97, 99, 100, 101, 352 in Chile 306, 310, 322 in Darien 110, 111, 128, 134, 135 in Scotland 191–2, 193 in Tallinn 206 Dunlop, John Boyd 150 Durkheim, Emile: La Suicide 194, 196, 206 e-democracy (Estonia) 284, 287 e-Residency (Estonia) 277–8, 279, 283, 287, 379 education in Aceh 13, 31 in Chile/Santiago 295, 302, 304–5, 310, 311–12, 312, 313–17, 326, 327 in Italy 195 in Japan 220, 223, 229 in Louisiana 81 in Zaatari camp 67, 71, 349 see also universities Embera tribe 108, 109, 111, 119, 127, 128, 129, 133, 136, 137, 138–9, 357 entrepreneurs 331 in Aceh 19, 22, 23, 24, 27, 30, 39 in Akita, Japan 236–7, 238 in Angola (prison) 89, 102–3 Chilean 295, 296 in Darien 5, 114 Estonian 270, 275, 278–9, 281 in Glasgow 181, 182 in Kinshasa 162, 171 in Zaatari camp 43, 46, 54, 55–8, 62–3, 71 environmental damage see Darien Gap Estonia 256–7, 259 Ajujaht competition 252, 260, 275, 276, 278, 283–3 companies 281 economic revival 275–87 e-Government services 254–5 as ESSR 257–9, 272–4 labour shortage 280 Russia border 271–2 Russian population 272–4, 281–3 technology 252–6, 259–87 externalities 183, 206 Darien Gap 131, 138, 183, 186, 332 Glasgow 183–4, 186, 189–90, 333 and markets 332 extractive economy 122–39 Fairfield Heritage 349 Fairfield shipyard 178, 186, 189, 200, 206 FARC guerrillas 111, 132, 133, 134–5, 137, 355, 357 Ffrench-Davis, Ricardo 302 Foljambe, Joseph 265–6 Force Publique 150 foreign aid 23, 27–9, 54, 170 foreign exchange traders 166–7 Franklin, Isaac 83 free markets 128, 131, 174, 296, 300–3, 316, 320, 326–7, 331–2, 356 Frente Amplio coalition 318, 384 Friedman, Milton 289, 295, 303, 319, 326, 383, 384 GAM (Gerakan Aceh Merdeka) freedom fighters 18, 32, 346 Gbadolite 159 GDP see Gross Domestic Product Gécamines 155–6 Geddes, Reay: report 189–90 gender roles, Japanese 223–4, 232 Germany 187, 195, 222, 227, 247, 249, 292, 302, 360 Glasgow 6–7, 176, 177–207, 333 culture 180 drug users 191–2 externalities 183–4, 186, 189–90, 333 population density 197 shipbuilding 178–9, 181, 184–6, 187–8, 189, 190–91, 199–200, 206–7, 333, 334 tenement homes and social capital 196, 197–202, 205, 335 unemployment 190 see also Calton; Gorbals; Govan and below Glasgow City Council (GCC) 202–4 Glasgow City Improvement Trust 202–3, 366 ‘Glasgow effect’, isolation 205–6 Glassford, John 181 Glenlee 179 gold in Aceh 17, 20–22, 37, 332, 334 in the Congo 143 in Darien 109, 113, 117, 120, 356 Golden Island 114–15 Good Neighbor Policy (USA) 294, 383 Goodyear, Charles 150 Gorbals, Glasgow 176, 191, 192, 204, 205, 367 Govan, Glasgow 176, 178, 184, 186, 192, 197–8, 201–3, 206, 207 Great Depression 26 Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 26 Aceh 27, 37–8 Chile 316 Congo 153, 173 Estonia 259 Hagadera refugee camp, Kenya 45 Han, Byung-Chul 319 Harberger, Arnold ‘Alito’ 295, 305, 326 Hargreaves, James 266, 267 Harris, Walter 115 Harvey, William 1, 3–4, 5, 6, 329, 330, 336 Heinla, Ahti 263–4, 268, 282, 284, 285 Hinohara, Shigeaki 211 housing 90 Aceh 12–13, 16, 19, 24, 26, 27, 28, 29–30, 26, 38, 39 Akita, Japan 223, 228, 229, 230, 232, 233, 236–7, 239, 248 Azraq and Zaatari camps 44, 45, 48, 54, 55, 59, 61, 63, 70, 71 Chile 296, 297, 300, 302, 204, 306, 207, 308, 326 Darien 118, 139 Glasgow 197–9, 202–6 Kinshasa 142 Louisiana 95, 102 human capital 38–9, 168, 305, 335, 346–7 human rights abuses 300–1 Hyakumoto, Natsue 235 ID cards, personal data 260–61 Ifo refugee camp, Kenya 45 incarceration rates, USA 76–7, 78 industrial agglomeration 182–6, 200, 206, 330–31, 333, 365 inequality 6, 18, 254, 331, 337 in Chile 6, 291–2, 292, 293, 297, 298, 304, 308, 311, 317, 318, 324–7 intergenerational (Japan) 221–3, 238, 248 informal economies 122–5, 214–15, 331, 333–4, 336 Aceh 21–2, 24, 30, 31, 34, 37 Akita 233, 248 Chile 297, 306–7, 310, 323 Darien 122, 128, 129 Estonia 258 and Glasgow 204, 206, 334 Italy 196, 336 Kinshasa 142, 146, 148, 163–6, 167–8, 170, 173–5, 334 in prisons 77, 78–9, 86–7, 91, 93, 96, 99, 100–1, 102 in Zaatari camp 43, 45, 47, 57, 61, 64, 71, 72, 86 Innophys 245 innovation in Chile 315 and currency 97, 99–100 and economies 43, 79, 80, 87, 100, 122, 162, 333, 334 in Estonia 252, 256–7, 258–87 in Glasgow 179, 180, 182, 185, 188, 192, 201 technological 97–8, 183, 187, 252, 256–7, 258–87 intergenerational inequality (Japan) 221–3, 238, 248 International African Association (IAA) 149 International Cooperation Administration (ICA) 294 International Monetary Fund 303 inventions 265–6 in Estonia 252–3, 260, 265, 275–6, 282–3 isolation, ‘Glasgow effect’ 205–6 Italy 195–6, 201, 202, 335–6, 366 ageing population 213, 220, 222, 243, 331 population decline 227, 230, 233, 249 ivory trade 149 Jackie Chan Village 35–7, 39 Jackson, Giorgio 317–20 Jadue, Daniel 322, 332 Japan ageing population 6, 213–25, 227–49, 331 common forest conservation 124, 125 education 220, 223, 229 shipyards innovation/ competition 187–8, 189 tsunamis 15 Japan Football Association (JFA) 212–13 Jendi, Mohammed 54–5, 56, 71 Jevons, William Stanley 75, 89–90, 99, 352 Kabila family 154, 161, 162, 173 Kajiwara, Kenji 238 Kakuma refugee camp, Kenya 45 Kalanick, Travis 57 Kasa-Vubu, Joseph 151 Katanga 143, 151 Katumba refugee camp, Tanzania 45 Kenya: refugee camps 45, 46 Keynes, John Maynard 5, 7 Kinshasa 6, 140, 141–75, corruption 143, 145–6, 148, 159–61, 168, 333, 361 informal economy 142, 146, 148, 163, 166, 167–8, 170, 173, 334 natural wealth 143 pillages 157–8 police 159–61 roads as informal markets 163–6 tax system 145–6, 147–8, 16 Kirkaldy, David 4, 5, 6, 330 Kuala Lumpur 293 Kuna tribe 126, 340 Laar, Mart 258 labour pools, industrial agglomeration 183, 184–5, 200 Ladrillo, El see Chicago Boys Lagos 293 Lampuuk 2–3, 6, 13, 14, 22–3, 26, 32, 33, 35, 37, 345 Lancashire 266, 267 Las Condes 288, 290, 293, 304, 306, 307, 308, 309, 321, 322, 325 Lasnamäe, Tallinn 272, 281 Le Corbusier: Cité radieuse 203 Leontief, Wassily: Machines and Man 251, 377 Leopold II, King of the Belgians 149–50 Lhokgna 10, 12–13, 14, 26, 27–8, 29, 31, 33, 34, 35, 38, 345 life-cycle hypothesis 218–19, 248 life expectancy Glasgow 179, 190, 191–3 Japan 215 Russia 273–4 Swaziland 179 Lima 293 Liverpool 89, 177, 192, 193, 205–6 Livingstone, David 148–9 Lloyd, William Forster 122–3 lonely deaths 225, 226, 236, 237, 248 Louisiana 74, 76, 81 Department of Public Safety and Corrections 83 Prison Enterprises 83–4, 85, 351 State Penitentiary see Angola Lüders, Rolf 293, 295, 304, 305, 325 Lumumba, Patrice 151 machine learning 268–70 Makarova, Marianna 272, 274 Malacca Strait 10, 17,. 18, 35, 39 Malahayati, Admiral Laksamana 34–5 Maluku steel mill, Kinshasa 155, 156–7 Manchester 192, 193, 205–6 market economies Chile 297, 302, 305, 317 prison 78, 79, 87, 89, 100, 101, 103 markets 71, 122, 332–3, 336 Aceh 20–22, 36–7, 38, 144, 331 Azraq camp 62–4, 71, 144 Chile 295, 296, 297, 298–9, 304, 309, 319, 320–23 Darien 122, 126–7, 128, 129, 131, 138 free 128, 131, 174, 296, 300–3, 316, 320, 326–7, 331–2, 356 Glasgow 181, 190 Japan 232, 233, 248, 249 Kinshasa 143, 145, 146–7, 162, 163–6, 167, 173, 174 Zaatari supermarkets 48–53, 64, 348 Marshall, Alfred 182–3, 184, 185, 186, 187, 189, 190, 194, 200, 206, 329, 330, 365 Maslow, Abraham 41, 65–7, 68, 71, 72, 286, 319, 326, 349 Meikle, Andrew 266 Melvin, Jean 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 205 ménage lending system 201, 334 Menger, Carl 90, 99, 352 Michelin brothers 150 military coup, Pinochet’s 298 Mill, John Stuart 11, 38, 335, 346–7 minimum wages 94, 267, 296, 307–8, 310 Mishamo refugee camp, Tanzania 45 Mississippi River 74, 76 Mobutu, Sese Seko (formerly Joseph-Désiré) 141, 151–2, 154–9, 161, 162, 166, 173, 297, 333, 360–61 Modigliani, Franco 218–19, 372 Mojo (synthetic cannabis) 92–4, 95–6, 97 monopolies, facilitated 319 Montgomery, Hugh 3–4 Moore, Gordon 269 Morgan, Henry 112–13 Narva, Estonia 250, 271, 272, 274, 283, 287, 378 National Health Service 201–2 nationalization 187, 296, 301–2, 383 natural disasters: and economic growth 24–5 New Caledonia 114, 356 New Orleans 74, 76, 79, 93, 101, 102, 103 Ninagawa, Yukio 234–5 norms, economics and 196, 200, 201, 323, 334, 336 obesity 81, 309, 326, 351 opportunism: and depletion of common resources 126–38 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 291, 316, 326, 377 Ostrom, Elinor 123–5, 137 Pan-American Highway 106, 110, 111, 115–17, 118–19, 121, 139, 355 Panama 106, 108-9, 110, 111, 113, 117, 118, 121, 130, 131, 356–7 see also Darien Gap; FARC guerrillas Panian refugee camp, Pakistan 45 Paro robot 243–5 Paterson, William: A Proposal to Plant a Colony in Darien 107 pawn shops 200, 334, 367 Penguins’ Revolution 317 pepper: global boom 17, 345 Pepper robot 246–7 personal data 260–61 Petty, William 25–6, 38n, 346 Piñera, Sebastián 309 Pinochet, General Augustine 298, 300–1, 305, 322, 383 pirate economies see informal economies population 122, 125, 330, 347 Aceh 14, 16, 18 Chile/Santiago 291, 324 China 76 Congo/Kinshasa 143, 150 Dael 42 Darien Gap 126, 128 Estonia 255, 256, 265, 272 Glasgow 179, 197 Greece 238 Japan 226–7, 229 Portugal 238 refugee camps 44, 45, 49, 57, 348 Sweden 238 US prisons 76–7 see also ageing populations Portugal 213, 227, 230, 233, 238, 243, 249, 291, 331, 351, 360 poverty Chile 291, 293, 300, 301, 303–4, 305, 208, 311. 15. 326 Congo/Kinshasa 143, 144, 160, 169, 11, 173 Glasgow 192 Italy 195 Japan 220, 226, 233, 248 Louisiana 81, 351 prices 147–8, 302 Pride of York 207 Prisoner’s Dilemma 174 privatization 169, 173, 301–2, 315, 326, 361 Pugnido refugee camp, Ethiopia 45 Putnam, Robert 195–6, 201, 202, 335–6, 366 Rahmatullah mosque, Aceh 14 rainforest destruction 121, 128–31 Rand, Rait 260, 275–6, 283, 284 Red Road Estate, Glasgow 203 refugee camps 45, 46, 55, 173 see also Azraq; Zaatari Reid, Alexander 180 resilience 3, 5, 6, 13, 16, 22, 31, 34, 35–9, 78, 103, 109, 122, 123, 146, 170, 248, 293, 325, 333–7, 384 Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia see FARC Rideau, Wilbert 79–80, 82, 87–8, 100, 351 Rio Chucunaque 117, 119 robotics/ robots and care 243–4, 245–7, 248 delivery robots 262–4 for egalitarian economies 284–5 human overseers/ minders 280 ‘last-mile problem’ 264 machine learning 268–70 Sony AIBO robotic dogs 245 trams, driverless 264 Roosevelt, Franklin D. 294, 356 rosewood trees 120, 128, 138 rubber trade 149–50 Russian-Estonians 272–4, 281–4, 286–7 salarymen, retired 223–4, 228, 248 Samuel, Arthur 269 Santiago 7, 288, 289–327 see also Chile schools/ schooling markets 165, 311–15 Scotland Darien disaster 114–15, 133, 137–8 see also Glasgow self-governance 125–8 shipbuilding 178–9, 181, 184–6, 187–8, 189–91, 199–200 Sikkut, Siim 259, 277, 284 Skype 254, 263, slavery 82–6 smuggling 42, 46–8, 68 social capital 195–6, 199, 200, 202, 323, 325, 335–6, 366 social inequality 142–3, 324–5 Somalia 15 South Korea 213, 214, 220, 227, 233, 247, 319, 373 Spain 115, 137, 213, 222, 227, 243, 331 Spice (synthetic cannabis) 352 Spice Islands 17 Spiers, Alexander 181 Spinning Jenny 267, 269, 274, 378 Sri Lanka 15, 17, 49 Stanley, Henry Morton 148–9 Stanyforth, Disney 266 Starship Technologies 262–4, 269, 280 stateless people 255 store cards, prepaid 97–8 students 81, 168, 218, 221, 223, 236–7, 238, 248, 282, 283, 294–5, 304–5, 311–14, 315–18 suicide 194, 213, 224, 225–6, 236, 248, 366 Sumatra 17-18, see also Aceh supermarkets, Zaatari 48–53, 64, 348 Swing Riots 266, 378 synthetic cannabis see Mojo; Spice Takahashi, Kiyoshi 235, 236 Tallinn 7, 250, 251–87 Russian population 272–4, 281–4, 286–7 start-up paradise 254 Tallinn, Harry 278, 282–3 Tanzania: refugee camps 45 taxation 25, 346 Aceh 32 Chile 295, 302, 307, 315–17, 325 Darien 111, 130 Estonia 256–7, 259, 273, 278, 287 Glasgow 190 Japan 220, 231 Kinshasa 145–6, 147–8, 151, 152, 158, 161–2, 165, 167–8, 169, 173–4 in Zaatari refugee camp 48, 56 Tay Bridge collapse 5 teak trees 116, 130–31, 138, 333, 356, 357 technology and inequality 253–4 innovation 97–8, 183, 187, 256–7, 258–9 spill-overs 183, 189 and unemployment 253, 262, 270, 279, 286, 287, 377, 379 tectonic plates 13–14 tenement buildings, Glaswegian 196, 197–202, 205, 335 Thailand 15, 144, 213 tobacco 77, 85–6, 92, 95, 100, 143, 156, 181, 191, 202, 365 Tomaya, Yoichi 235 Törbel, Switzerland: forest conservation 124 towerblocks 203, 204, 205 trade in prison 97–100 in Zaatari camp 43–57, 67–70 see also markets traditions, economic resilience and 21, 22, 24, 34, 196, 336 trust 148, 150, 174, 196, 199, 201, 206, 248, 261, 295, 321, 323, 325, 335 Tshisekedi, Félix 154 tsunamis 2–3, 12–14, 15, 16, 18–19, 22–3, 25 Tull, Jethrow 266 Turkey 28, 58, 144, 213 Uber 57 Ukegawa, Sachiko 234 underground economies 77–9, 87–101 see also informal economies unemployment 64–5, 142–3, 190, 275 Chile 290, 297, 302, 307, 311 Congo 142, 359 Estonia 270, 273, 275, 279, 283, 379 Glasgow 179, 190, 191 and technology 253, 262, 270, 279, 286, 287, 377, 379 United Kingdom 4, 18, 26, 181, 187, 188, 199, 213, 223, 278, 335 agriculture 265, 267 housing 232 jails 86, 91, 96, 352 National Health Service 201, 203 population 226 and technology 253, 254, 257, 260, 262, 264 see also Glasgow; Scotland United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 44, 46, 48, 54, 57, 72, 348 World Food Programme (WFP), and Zaatari 48, 49–50 universities Aceh 13, 33, 34 Akita, Japan 221, 223 Chile 294, 305, 313, 314, 315, 316–17, 318, 324, 326 Congo/Kinshasa 151, 160, 166, 168 Estonia 275, 282, 283 Upper Clyde Shipbuilders (UCS) 189 urbanization: and agglomeration forces 330–31 United States 26, 54, 76, 83, 93, 213, 223, 253, 262, 279, 292, 294, 297–8 prisons 76–7, 78, 81, 91–2, see also Angola population 226 and technology 260, 262, 264, 267, 269, 276 USAID 28, 29 Valdez, Samuel 121, 128–9, 130 Vallejo, Camila 317–18, 384 Van Gogh, Vincent 180 Vatter, Ott 277, 278 Viik, Linnar 257, 258–60, 261–2 Wafer, Lionel 113–14, 134, 355 Waisbluth, Mario 313 Walpole, Sir Spencer: A History of England 177 Walsh, David: History, Politics and Vulnerability … 177 Watanabe, Hiroshi 234 wealth 4–5, 159, 218–19, 324–5, 329, 334–6 nation’s 25, 38n, 346–7 natural 109, 132, 143 workforce 184–5, 264–8, 275, 297 World Bank 303, 305, 346 World Health Organization (WHO) 63, 215 World Trade Organization 303 Wounan tribe 126, 127 X-Road data system 261, 274–5, 279, 283, 377 Y Combinator 252 Yamamoto, Ryo 236–7 Yaviza, Panama 110, 111, 116–20, 127, 132, 135, 138, 144, 356 Yida refuge camp, South Sudan 45 Zaatari Syrian refugee camp 6, 40, 41–73, 86, 89, 100, 163, 173, 308, 331, 332, 334, 335, 348, 349 declining population 57 education 67, 71, 349 informal economy 43, 45, 47, 57, 61, 64, 71, 72, 86 smuggler children 42, 46–8, 68 supermarkets 48–53, 64, 348 trade development 43–57, 67–70, 71, 72 UNHCR cedes control 44–6 Zaire 152, 154, 155–6, 159, 361 Zorrones 324 TRANSWORLD PUBLISHERS 61–63 Uxbridge Road, London W5 5SA penguin.co.uk Transworld is part of the Penguin Random House group of companies whose addresses can be found at global.penguinrandomhouse.com.


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Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle by Silvia Federici

Community Supported Agriculture, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, fixed income, global village, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, labor-force participation, land tenure, mass incarceration, means of production, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Occupy movement, planetary scale, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, the market place, trade liberalization, UNCLOS, wages for housework, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Compare the sales of the service industry with the sales of household appliances. The increase of services sales (compared with appliance sales) doubled in less than ten years. 1965: 6.3 percent; 1970: 8.7 percent; 1975: 11.8 percent; 1976: 11 percent. 16. The present collapse of the birth rate plays an important role in current discussions of immigration policies (see Michael L. Wachter, “The Labor Market and Illegal Immigration: The Outlook for the 1980s,” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33, no. 3 (April 1980): 342-54. 17. This was the case of five female workers at the Cyanamid Company Wilson Island plant (Pleasant County) in West Virginia, who had themselves sterilized for fear of losing their jobs when the company reduced the number of chemicals to which women could be safely exposed. (Timeline of West Virginia Women’s History, compiled by the West Virginia State Archives).

Government Printing Office, 1975. Villapando, Venny. “The Business of Selling Mail-Order Brides.” In Making Waves: An Anthology of Writings By and About Asian American Women, edited by Asian Women United of California. Boston: Beacon Press, 1989. de Waal, Alex. Famine Crimes: Politics and the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. London: Zed Books, 1997. Wachter, Michael L. “The Labor Market and Illegal Immigration: The Outlook for the 1980s.” Industrial and Labor Relations Review 33, no. 3 (April 1980): 342-54. Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World System. New York: Academic Press, 1974. Walton, John, and David Seddon. Free Markets and Food Riots: The Politics of Global Adjustment. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1994. wan, wind. “A Dialogue with “Small Sister” Organizer Yim Yuelin.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 2, no. 2 (2001): 319-23.


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That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum

addicted to oil, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

Bush made a mighty effort but was blocked largely by members of his own party, who were so outraged by illegal immigration that they could not think straight about the vital importance of legal immigration. “The H-1B visa program—that is the key to making us the innovators of energy and computers,” said Senator Lindsey Graham, the South Carolina Republican, who has been critical of his own party’s obstinacy on this issue. “It has been for most of our life. If you wanted to get really smart and have a degree that would allow you to be a leader in the world, you came to America. Well, it’s hard as hell to get to America now. And once you get here, it’s hard to stay.” Immigration reform that better secures the borders, establishes a legal pathway toward citizenship for the roughly twelve million illegal immigrants who are here, and enables, even recruits, high-skilled immigrants to become citizens is much more urgent than most of us realize.

Department of Homestead Act (1862) H-1B visa program Honeymooners, The (television show) Hong Kong Hood, John Hoover Digest Hope Street Group Hormats, Robert Horse Feathers (movie) House of Representatives, U.S.; Oversight and Government Reform Committee How (Seidman) Howe, Caroline Hu, Peter Danming Huamei Garment Accessory Company Humphrey, Hubert Hungary Hussein, Saddam hydroelectric power I IBM Iceland Idealab IHS Global Insight illegal immigrants Illinois Immelt, Jeffrey immigration; from Asia; government policy on; innovation and; of victims of oppression; workforce needs and Immigration and Nationality Act (1965) IMPACT teacher evaluation system incentives; in energy and climate policy; for innovation; political India; call centers in; cell phones manufactured in; electric cars in; financial services in; immigrants in U.S. from; Internet sales from; Obama in Indiana Indiana University Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) Indian Youth Climate Network (IYCN) Industrial Revolution information technology; see also IT revolution infrastructure; deterioration of; investment in; lobbying for; modernization of; partisan polarization over; public-private partnership and Inglis, Bob Inhofe, James innovation; in China; during Cold War; connectivity and; education and; in energy technology; immigration and; incentives for; in information technology, see IT revolution; military; partisan polarization and; regulation and; workforce and; see also research and development Innovation Award for Energy and the Environment Intel Corporation; Science Talent Search intellectual property International Monetary Fund International Telecommunications Union (ITU) Internet; bandwidths for; customer service via; democratizing power of; globalization and; origins of; political process and; public-private partnership and; values eroded by interstate highway system Investment Answer, The (Murray) Ipsos Public Affairs Iran; Revolutionary Guard Corps Iraq Iraq war; nation-building goal of; partisan politics and; renewable power use in; Special Forces operations in; surge in; wounded veterans of Ireland Irwin, Neil Islamic terrorism Israel IT revolution; challenges of; merger of globalization and Italy iTunes J Jacobins Jakpor, Otana Agape James, LeBron Japan; bullet trains in; earthquake and tsunami in; education in; fascism in; recycling in Jassy, Andy Jazwiec, John Jefferson, Thomas Jerry Maguire (movie) Jews Jharkhand (India) Jiang, Ruoyi Jobs, Steve John Locke Foundation Johnson, Lyndon B.


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Rule Britannia: Brexit and the End of Empire by Danny Dorling, Sally Tomlinson

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, anti-globalists, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, colonial rule, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Etonian, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, housing crisis, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, knowledge economy, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, We are the 99%, wealth creators

Even the Daily Mail reported: ‘Home Office vans telling illegal migrants to go home investigated by advertising watchdog’.53 Of 1,653 enquiries sent to the advice line, over 63 per cent were hoaxes, and apparently the entire exercise resulted in only eleven migrants leaving. GETTING RID OF THE UNWANTED Undeterred, Theresa May at the Home Office produced yet another Immigration Act in 2014 intended to ‘make it easier to remove those with no right to be here, limit the appeals system, prevent illegal immigrants accessing or abusing public services or the labour market, and end the influence of the European Convention of Human Rights on immigration appeals’. This Act included expectations that private landlords, driving instructors and vicars, as well as hospitals and schools, would check on the legal status of people and report if uncertain. Attempts to deny that there were targets for the deportation, removal or voluntary departure of people from the UK became, by 2018, a source of much confusion, resulting eventually in the resignation of the Home Secretary Amber Rudd, who had only been appointed in 2016.

The stories included a woman who had lived in the UK for fifty years and worked as a cook in the House of Commons but was threatened with deportation, and a former NHS driver who had arrived in the UK in 1968 as a fourteen-year-old and spent thirty-five years working and paying taxes, but was left jobless, homeless and living in an industrial unit after being told fifty years later that he was now an illegal immigrant. On 20 April 2018, Gary Younge argued in the The Guardian that Theresa May saw Windrush migrants as an easy target. On 21 April, in the same newspaper, Robert Booth and Nick Hopkins presented detailed evidence that the then Home Secretary Amber Rudd had boasted to the Prime Minister that she would hunt down even more illegal migrants and accelerate Theresa May’s own deportation programme. On 24 April, Suzanne Moore explained that the Windrush scandal was no accident – it was clear and calculated Tory policy.

BBC (2011) ‘Stephen Lawrence friend recalls attack on teenager’, BBC News, 17 November, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-15769370 42 Pells, R. (2017) ‘Parents urged to withhold personal data in latest school census targeting foreign-born children’, The Independent, 16 May, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/government-school-census-parents-with-hold-personal-data-foreign-born-children-passports-nationality-a7738486.html 43 https://twitter.com/ewa_jay/status/864087595659210753 44 Morris, S. (2003) ‘Asylum seekers “were locked in during fire”’, The Guardian, 23 July, https://www.theguardian.com/uk/2003/jul/23/immigration.immigrationandpublic services 45 Sanghani, R. (2016) ‘Home Office refuses to reveal if women in Yarl’s Wood immigration centre have been raped’, Daily Telegraph, 14 June, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/politics/home-office-refuses-to-reveal-if-women-in-yarls-wood-immigration/ 46 Home Office (2002) ‘Secure Borders, Safe Haven: Integration and Diversity in modern Britain’, cm 5387, London: Home Office, Introduction. 47 Campbell, A. (2012) The Burden of Power, London: Arrow Books, p. 161. 48 Morris, N. (2003) ‘Letwin pledges to send asylum seekers “far, far away”’, The Independent, 8 October, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/letwin-pledges-to-send-asylum-seekers-far-far-away-90393.html 49 Staff Reporter (2006) ‘Hanged detainee aimed to save son’, BBC News, 19 September, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/beds/bucks/herts/5361324.stm 50 Peachey, K. and Palumbo, D. (2018) ‘Tenants’ tales – in five charts’, BBC News, 11 May, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-43799202 51 Hattenstone, S. (2018) ‘Why was the scheme behind May’s “Go Home” vans called Operation Vaken?’, The Guardian, 26 April, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2018/apr/26/theresa-may-go-home-vans-operation-vaken-ukip 52 https://www.flickr.com/photos/oddsock/9376736345 53 Chorley, M. (2013) ‘Home office vans telling illegal migrants to go home investigated by advertising watchdog’, Daily Mail, 9 August, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2387728/Home-Office-vans-telling-illegal-immigrants-Go-Home-investigated-advertising-watchdog-60-complaints.html 54 Baker, A. (2017) ‘97 per cent of international students leave UK after studies’, The Pie News, 24 August, https://thepienews.com/news/government/97-international-students-leave-uk-studies/ 55 McInerney, L. (2016) ‘What society lets families fear deportation for sending their children to school?’, The Guardian, 18 October, https://www.theguardian.com/education/2016/oct/18/deportation-boycott-school-census-data-nationality-parents 56 Lewis, E. (2018) ‘Why we’re asking MPs not to act as border guards’, Global Justice Now, 19 June, https://www.globaljustice.org.uk/blog/2018/jun/19/why-were-asking-mps-not-act-border-guards 57 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Theresa_May_in_2007.jpg 58 Hill, A. (2018) ‘At least 1,000 highly skilled migrants wrongly face deportation, experts reveal’, The Guardian, 6 May, https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/may/06/at-least-1000-highly-skilled-migrants-wrongly-face-deportation-experts-reveal 59 Shirbon, E. (2018) ‘May apologises to Caribbean countries for UK treatment of post-war migrants’, Reuters, 17 April, https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-chogm-windrush/may-apologises-to-caribbean-countries-for-uk-treatment-of-post-war-migrants-idUKKBN1HO0OC 60 Gentleman, A. (2018) ‘No clarity, no urgency, for Windrush case cancer patient’, The Guardian, 20 April, https://twitter.com/guardian/status/987090672636383237 61 Shipman, T. (2016) All Out War, op. cit., p. 21. 62 Travis, A. (2017) ‘More than 140,000 told by UK immigration they face removal’, The Guardian, 2 November, https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2017/nov/02/more-than-140000-told-by-uk-immigration-they-face-removal-says-watchdog 63 Clarke, P. (2017) ‘More deportees: Jamaica braces for their arrival from UK’, Jamaican Gleaner, 8 March, http://jamaica-gleaner.com/article/lead-stories/20170308/more-deportees-jamaica-braces-their-arrival-uk-today 64 Samuel, J. (2018) ‘How can a government so callous and chaotic be trusted with Brexit’, Daily Telegraph, 30 April, https://www.pressreader.com/uk/the-daily-telegraph/20180430/281509341802830 65 Grierson, J. (2018) ‘Hostile environment.


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The Inequality Puzzle: European and US Leaders Discuss Rising Income Inequality by Roland Berger, David Grusky, Tobias Raffel, Geoffrey Samuels, Chris Wimer

Branko Milanovic, business cycle, Celtic Tiger, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, fear of failure, financial innovation, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Long Term Capital Management, microcredit, offshore financial centre, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, rent-seeking, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, time value of money, very high income

Already by the end of this year we will have reached a new peak of 24 million unemployed in Europe, a figure which could go up to more than 28 million in the next five years, if the cuts and “austerity 96 P.N. Rasmussen only” approach advocated by the European Commission and Conservative governments is implemented. Unemployment figures in the U.S., according to two American professors, Nobel Prize winners both, are even more concerning than official reports indicate. They told me: “Poul, it’s not around 13%; it’s 20%, if you add to the official figure all the illegal immigrants and the informal sector.” If you ask who’s become unemployed due to the crisis, the answer is certainly that only a very small part of it is coming from Wall Street, and they will survive, one way or another. The economic recession here has shown us the underlying fragility of our advanced service-based economies and societies. As we have seen earlier in our history, when you have recessions and business downturns of this kind, those who are hit first – poor people, vulnerable people, minorities, immigrants, those with the lowest incomes, those without any education – have a weak attachment to the labor market.

The question is how to enable prosperity to penetrate. People often talk about it in terms of creating equality of opportunity. I’m not sure that’s concrete enough. I like the example of a category of infrastructure which if constructed could have a real economic impact. Those roads and that economic development would benefit not merely Mexico, but also of course the United States, because real prosperity in Mexico is the deadly enemy of illegal immigration and narcotics trafficking. What are the reasons behind the increase in inequality over the past twenty years in the United States? The rich got too much richer. They got fat, dumb, and happy. Part of it was the movement of the capital markets toward increasingly convoluted and abstruse mechanisms that created vast pools of wealth and people then tithed them at bonus time, at the end of the year.


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Shortchanged: Life and Debt in the Fringe Economy by Howard Karger

big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, delayed gratification, financial deregulation, fixed income, illegal immigration, labor-force participation, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, microcredit, mortgage debt, negative equity, New Journalism, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, payday loans, predatory finance, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, underbanked, working poor

Not only do immigrants possess fewer educational skills than native workers, but also many of their skills don’t translate into the American workplace.23 Between 2000 and 2002, about 3.3 million illegal immigrants entered in the United States. Mexicans made up 57% of undocumented workers, with another 23% coming from other Latin American countries.24 A significant portion of Hispanic poverty is attributable to these large numbers of illegal workers entering the United States and the low-paying jobs they occupy. Although there is no reliable data about the number of immigrants who use the fringe economy, it is undoubtedly high. The 1996 welfare-reform bill had profound implications for both legal and illegal immigrants. Specifically, the bill disentitled most legal immigrants (including many who had lived in the United States for years but chose not to become citizens) from food stamps, TANF, and Supplemental Security Income (SSI).25 The low wages paid to many immigrants, especially those from Latin America, the Caribbean, and Africa, put them squarely in the ranks of the working poor.


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Mythology of Work: How Capitalism Persists Despite Itself by Peter Fleming

1960s counterculture, anti-work, call centre, clockwatching, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, David Graeber, Etonian, future of work, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, Parkinson's law, post-industrial society, post-work, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Results Only Work Environment, shareholder value, social intelligence, The Chicago School, transaction costs, wealth creators, working poor

Only with free speech will the American public learn about the superior greatness of the Soviet people. In effect, the powerful party has pulled the rug from under its own feet. Now let us return to the equally open intrigue of the neoliberal enterprise and the societies of control. How might this ideological technique be deployed in a corporate setting? A good illustration pertains to the way communication guerrilla groups challenged a number of European airlines involved in deporting ‘illegal immigrants’. Autonome a.f.r.i.k.a. gruppe (2002) report on the symbolic sabotage of Lufthansa by the German anti-racist collective Kein Mensch ist illegal. They understood that a radical critique would need to bypass the cynical neoliberal distancing norms discussed above. Kein Mensch ist illegal therefore prepared overly positive leaflets using the company’s easily recognizable brand. The leaflets explained to customers that the company was very concerned about customer comfort and safety, but simply could not restrain its prisoners with handcuffs and gags to protect its loyal frequent flyers.

capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 General Motors plant (Michigan) ref1 Goffee, R. ref1 Goldman Sachs ref1 The Good Soldier Svejk (Hasek) ref1 Gordon, D. ref1 Gorz, A. ref1, ref2 Graeber, D. ref1 Groundhog Day (Ramis) ref1 Guattari, F. ref1, ref2, ref3 on criticism/criticality ref1 and de-subjectification ref1 language ref1, ref2 Gujarat NRE ref1 Gulf of Mexico oil spill (2010) ref1 Hamper, B. ref1 Hanlon, G. ref1 Hardt, M. ref1 Hart, A. ref1 Harvard Business Review (HBR) ref1 Harvey, D. ref1, ref2 Hayek, F. ref1, ref2, ref3 health and safety ref1, ref2 ‘Help to Buy’ support scheme ref1 Hirschhorn, N. ref1 Hodgkinson, T. ref1 holiday policy ref1 Houellebecq, Michel ref1, ref2, ref3 human capital ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 human relations movement ref1 Human Resource Management (HRM) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 humour ref1 ‘I, Job’ function ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and biopower ref1, ref2 and death drive ref1, ref2 as escape into work ref1 and illness ref1, ref2, ref3 resisting ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 see also escape; totality refusal see also work, as all-encompassing; working hours illegal immigrants, deportations ref1 illness ref1, ref2 collective ref1, ref2 see also Social Patients’ Collective as desirable experience ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 of managers ref1, ref2 and productive power ref1, ref2 as weapon against capitalism ref1 ‘immersion room’ exercise ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 imperceptibility ref1 see also invisibility incentivization ref1 indexation process ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 informality and authoritarianism ref1, ref2 see also deformalization insecurity ref1 Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM) ref1, ref2, ref3 invisibility ref1, ref2 ‘Invisible Committee’ ref1, ref2 Italian autonomist thought ref1, ref2 Jameson, F. ref1 Jones, G. ref1 Junjie, Li ref1 Kamp, A. ref1 Kein Mensch ist illegal ref1 Kellaway, L. ref1 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) ref1 Keynes, J.M. ref1, ref2 Khrushchev, Nikita ref1, ref2 Kim, Jonathan ref1 King, Stephen ref1 ‘Kitchen Debate’ ref1 Kramer, M. ref1, ref2 labour unions ref1 dissolution of ref1, ref2 language, evolution of ref1 Larkin, P. ref1 Latour, B. ref1, ref2 Laval, C. ref1, ref2 Lazzarato, M. ref1, ref2 leaders backgrounds ref1 remuneration and bonuses ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 see also managers Lefebvre, H. ref1 Leidner, R. ref1 Lewin, D. ref1 liberation management ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 life itself, enlisting ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 lines of flight ref1, ref2 Lordon, F. ref1, ref2, ref3 Lucas, R. ref1, ref2 Lukács, G. ref1 Lynch, R. ref1 McChesney, R. ref1 McGregor, D. ref1 management ref1, ref2 and class function ref1, ref2 as co-ordination ref1 and inducement of willing obedience ref1, ref2 information deficit ref1 and power ref1, ref2 self-justification rituals ref1 as transferable skill ref1, ref2 managerialism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and abandonment ideology ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and boundary management ref1 and conflict-seeking behaviour ref1 division between managers and managed ref1, ref2 general principles of ref1 and leadership ref1 profligate management function ref1 refusing ref1 and securitization ref1 as self-referential abstraction ref1 managers as abandonment enablers ref1, ref2 and deformalization ref1 and engagement of workers ref1, ref2 lack of practical experience ref1 overwork ref1, ref2 see also leaders Marcuse, H. ref1 Market Basket supermarket chain ref1 Marx, K. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Maslow, A. ref1 Matten, D. ref1 meat consumption ref1 Meek, J. ref1 Meyerson, D. ref1 Michelli, J. ref1 Miller, W.I. ref1 Mitchell, David ref1 mobile technology ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Modafinil ref1, ref2 Monaghan, A. ref1 money ref1, ref2 see also accumulation Mooney, G. ref1 Moore, A.E. ref1 Moore, Michael ref1, ref2 music industry ref1 Naidoo, Kumi ref1 NASA ref1 Natali, Vincenzo ref1 Negri, A. ref1, ref2 neoliberal capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and bureaucracy ref1 and ideal worker ref1, ref2 and non-work time ref1, ref2 and paranoia ref1, ref2 resisting ref1, ref2 see also post-labour strategy and threat of abandonment ref1, ref2 and truth telling ref1, ref2, ref3 neoliberalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and class relations ref1, ref2, ref3 and disciplinary power ref1 and human-capital theory ref1 and impossibility ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and micro-fascism ref1 and reign of technocrats ref1 role of state ref1 and truth telling ref1, ref2 and worker engagement ref1, ref2, ref3 Nestlé ref1 New Public Management ref1, ref2 New Zealand, and capitalist deregulation ref1 New Zealand Oil and Gas (NZOG) ref1 Newman, Maurice ref1 Nietzsche, Friedrich ref1, ref2 Nixon, Richard ref1, ref2 Nyhan, B. ref1 obsession ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Onionhead program ref1 overcoding ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 The Pain Journal (Flanagan) ref1, ref2, ref3 paranoia ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 overwork/paranoia complex ref1, ref2 Paris Commune ref1, ref2 Parkinson’s Law ref1 Parnet, C. ref1 Parsons, T. ref1 Peep Show (TV comedy) ref1 pensions ref1, ref2 personnel management ref1 see also Human Resource Management Peters, T. ref1 Philip Morris ref1 Pike River Coal mine (New Zealand) ref1 Pollack, Sydney ref1 Pook, L. ref1 Porter, M. ref1, ref2 post-labour strategy, recommendations ref1 postmodernism ref1, ref2, ref3 power ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and truth telling ref1 Prasad, M. ref1 Price, S. ref1 private companies, transferring to public hands ref1 privatization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 profit maximization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 quantitative easing ref1 Rand, Ayn ref1 rationalization ref1, ref2, ref3 Reifler, J. ref1 reserve army of the unemployed ref1 Ressler, C. ref1 results-only work environment (ROWE) ref1, ref2, ref3 Rimbaud, A. ref1 Rio+20 Earth Summit (2012) ref1 ‘riot grrrl’ bands ref1 rituals of truth and reconciliation ref1 Roberts, J. ref1 Roger Award ref1 Roger and Me (Moore) ref1 Rosenblatt, R. ref1 Ross, A. ref1, ref2 Ross, K. ref1 Rudd, Kevin ref1 ruling class fear of work-free world ref1, ref2 and paranoia ref1, ref2 Sade, Marquis de ref1 Sallaz, J. ref1 Saurashtra Fuels ref1 Scarry, E. ref1 Securicor (G4S) ref1 Segarra, Carmen ref1 self-abnegation ref1 self-employment ref1 self-management ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 self-preservation ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 self-sufficiency ref1, ref2, ref3 shareholder capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 shift work ref1, ref2 see also working hours Shragai, N. ref1 sleep and circadian rhythms ref1 as form of resistance ref1 working in ref1, ref2, ref3 smart drugs ref1, ref2 Smith, Roger ref1 smoking and addiction ref1 dangers of ref1, ref2 scientific research ref1 sociability ref1, ref2 ‘the social’ ref1, ref2 social factory ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and structure of work ref1 social media ref1 Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission ref1 Social Patients’ Collective (SPK) ref1, ref2, ref3 social surplus (commons) ref1, ref2, ref3 socialism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Sontag, S. ref1 Spicer, A. ref1 stakeholder management ref1, ref2 Starbucks ref1 state, theory of ref1 subcontracting ref1, ref2, ref3 subsidization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 suicide as act of refusal ref1 Freud’s definition ref1 work-related ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 surplus labour ref1, ref2 surplus living wage ref1 ‘tagged’ employees ref1 ‘tagged’ prisoner ref1 Tally, Richard ref1 taxation ref1, ref2, ref3 Taylor, F.W. ref1 Taylor, S. ref1 Taylorism ref1 technological progress, and emancipation from labour ref1 Thatcher, Margaret ref1 Thatcherism ref1 They Shoot Horses Don’t They?


pages: 333 words: 86,628

The Virtue of Nationalism by Yoram Hazony

Berlin Wall, British Empire, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, invention of the printing press, Mahatma Gandhi, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Steven Pinker, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Torches of Freedom, urban planning, Westphalian system

The complaint may be with respect to the establishment of military bases on its borders or the rapid expansion of its neighbor’s armed forces and arms industries. Or it may be about the neighboring state’s suppression of certain national minorities or religious sects, which have asked repeatedly for outside relief. Or the plaintiff state may see itself as being harmed by the economic practices of its neighbor, or by the encouragement of illegal immigration across its border, or by the rise of drug cartels or terrorist organizations on the other side of the border. Or by the over-utilization or destruction of a joint water supply or other shared resources. Or by interference in its elections or its internal politics. Or by espionage or assassinations or public disturbances that it regards as having been instigated by its neighbor. Or by what it sees as hostile propaganda in its neighbor’s media and schools.

Kant repeatedly compares the moral immaturity of mankind to the immaturity of children, as in “Idea for a Universal History,” 42. 13. Ibid., 42. 14. Ambassador Jesper Var, speaking at the Jerusalem Post Diplomatic Conference, December 11, 2014. Video of his comments available at www.youtube.com/watch?v=AYojm0TRGPg. 15. In one especially striking incident in 2010, the Arizona legislature empowered state law officers to restrict illegal immigration. In response, the Obama administration inserted a legal challenge to the state’s action in a report filed with the United Nations Human Rights Council. Far from defending the freedom of Americans against foreign encroachment, the US government joined forces with an international body in an effort to tar Arizona with the stigma of moral illegitimacy. See “Report of the United States of America Submitted to the U.N.


pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Pearl River Delta, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

By contrast, China’s rapid and widespread upgrading of worker training has meant that since joining the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, it has rapidly outpaced Mexico in manufacturing and textile exports to the United States. Despite Mexico’s geographic advantage, more than three hundred maquiladores have shut down and moved to China, resulting in three hundred thousand Mexican jobs lost, almost directly correlating to a massive spike in illegal immigration into the United States.2 With or without a border fence, Mexico’s problems may become America’s even faster than they already are. Inequality and instability go hand in hand. Outside Mexico City—and certainly within it—is a country of colonial monuments juxtaposed at every turn with ramshackle slums, with public investment in hospitals and schools an afterthought. The former mayor of Mexico City, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, picked up the slack and built his reputation by creating social and food support programs for the elderly across the sprawling metropolis of twenty million people, almost propelling him into the Mexican presidency in 2006—which he lost by a narrow margin and only after the contest was pushed to the electoral court.

This turns border towns like Nuevo Laredo into frightening spectacles of robbery, kidnapping, and gang warfare.4 Mexican immigrants are a double-edged sword for the United States, taking jobs in construction and restaurants Americans don’t want, working harder and for longer hours, but also straining underfunded education and health systems.5 The $16 billion in annual remittances they provide from all fifty American states are a primary source of Mexico’s national income, helping raise its per capita GDP to $9,000, almost double the level at which emigration should begin to decrease. But because the country is so unequal—with up to half the population living in poverty—illegal immigration continues whether America likes it or not. It will require more than laissez-faire NAFTA-nomics to make one country out of Mexico. America’s most magnanimous gesture toward Mexico was bailing out the peso during the 1994 financial crisis, but since then NAFTA has fallen far short of what the EU has done for Turkey. It would be unspeakable in the United States to offer Mexico what it demands the EU grant Turkey: membership, citizenship, members of parliament, open migration, massive subsidies, and language rights within a borderless union.

The influx of low-wage migrant labor has expanded the ranks of the poor, both due to their own numbers and because they reduce the wages of unskilled Americans.24 Almost two decades ago Los Angeles was described as the “capital of the third world” due to its segregated immigrant communities seeking simply to stay afloat with little regard for the broader society.25 Samuel Huntington also recently argued that America’s Anglo-Protestant culture and melting pot creed have been undermined by nonintegrating Hispanic minorities, warning that there cannot be an “Americano dream” to substitute for the American Dream without America becoming a schizophrenic nation.26 But it is hard to speak of a deep “community of values” in America when the primary reason Americans don’t support a welfare state to support the poor is that the poor are disproportionately minorities.27 In a country where recidivist violence seems never more than a few steps away, could white nativism reappear more regularly than it already does? The idea of homeland security seems to have as much to do with illegal immigration coming through the southern border as it does with the threat of terrorism. Americans have shown a fear of the future, one that may only accelerate its arrival. In 2005, Europe, India, the United States, and China were all hit by major storms or flooding. In Germany and Poland, thousands of citizens had their livelihoods wiped away, but through immediate assistance from their governments, people worked together to restore homes and towns as quickly as possible.


pages: 863 words: 159,091

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers by Kate L. Turabian

Bretton Woods, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, illegal immigration, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Steven Pinker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, yellow journalism, Zeno's paradox

You generally need not include them in your bibliography, although you may choose to include a specific item that is critical to your argument or frequently cited. N: 7. Gary Becker, “The New American Dilemma: Illegal Immigration,” The Becker-Posner Blog, entry posted March 6, 2006, http://www.becker-posner-blog.com/archives/2006/03/the_new_america.html (accessed March 28, 2006). To cite a comment posted on a Weblog by someone other than the author of the site, follow the basic pattern for Weblog entries. Identify the material as a comment, and include the date when the comment (not the entry itself) was posted. If the comment author's name is incomplete or a pseudonym, add pseud. in brackets after the posted name. N: 8. Peter Pearson, comment on “The New American Dilemma: Illegal Immigration,” The Becker-Posner Blog, comment posted March 6, 2006, http://www.beckerposner-blog.com/archives/2006/03/the_new_america.html#c080052 (accessed March 28, 2006). 11.

Peter Pearson, comment on “The New American Dilemma: Illegal Immigration,” The Becker-Posner Blog, comment posted March 6, 2006, http://www.beckerposner-blog.com/archives/2006/03/the_new_america.html#c080052 (accessed March 28, 2006). 11. Bill [pseud.], comment on “The New American Dilemma: Illegal Immigration,” The Becker-Posner Blog, comment posted March 10, 2006, http://www.beckerposner-blog.com/archives/2006/03/the_new_america.html#c080149 (accessed March 28, 2006). 17.7.3 Electronic Mailing Lists To cite material from an electronic mailing list, include the name of the author, the name of the list, and the date of the posting. Omit e-mail addresses. If the material is archived, also include the URL and the date you accessed the material. Such items should usually be cited only in a note. You generally need not include them in your bibliography, although you may choose to include a specific item that is critical to your argument or frequently cited. N: 17.


pages: 495 words: 154,046

The Rights of the People by David K. Shipler

affirmative action, airport security, computer age, facts on the ground, fudge factor, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, mandatory minimum, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, RFID, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, working poor, zero-sum game

In effect, the police can find cause to pull over practically any driver they choose, a tactic permitted under a long line of Supreme Court cases allowing traffic stops for ulterior purposes.22 Purely suspicionless stops, however, are allowed only if everyone gets stopped, as at a checkpoint, and only to investigate certain noncriminal matters. The Court has approved police roadblocks to check for drunken drivers,23 for illegal immigrants,24 and for invalid licenses and registrations,25 but not for drugs.26 The exception to these rules comes during “exigent circumstances” after a crime, when police can use checkpoints to capture an escaping car. Then comes the question of what police can do once they make a stop. They can look through the windows, and if they see something illegal “in plain view,” such as a bag of crack or the handle of a gun, they have probable cause to search the vehicle.

Although the D.C. Attorney General’s office might still bring criminal charges in such an instance, the Justice Department stopped doing so after District of Columbia v. Heller. The department also stopped countersigning search warrants for guns in homes unless connected with drugs or owned by classes of people still barred by federal law from possessing firearms, who included convicted felons, illegal immigrants, and the mentally ill.3 Outside the home, though, guns were still prohibited, and police gun squads still operated vigorously. Inside residences, drugs remained a key target of police searches, and this one was finished. Quigley was bending over Wendy and explaining the inventory of items seized (the guns, the ammunition, the money, and photographs to be used to identify her son). A copy was left with her.

Without a chance to see the collected information and what agents conclude from it, neither the Congress nor the courts nor the public can tell whether innocents are being pursued, whether the precious resources of law enforcement are chasing around fruitlessly. After investigating itself, the Department of Homeland Security found its procedures to remove names listed incorrectly to be wholly inadequate. A healthy correction by the judicial branch stopped the executive branch in 2007 from using a severely flawed database to ferret out illegal immigrants. The plan required employers to submit Social Security numbers provided by their employees for verification against a government master file. It seemed straightforward enough. The government would issue “no-match letters” when workers provided phony numbers, and employers would be required to fire them within ninety days or face prosecution. But the database was a mess. Sampling showed that false alerts would have been generated on many legal residents and U.S. citizens, for the 435 million individual records held by the Social Security Administration contained 17.8 million with errors, according to the agency’s own inspector general, including 12.7 million for native-born Americans.


pages: 273 words: 93,419

Let them eat junk: how capitalism creates hunger and obesity by Robert Albritton

Bretton Woods, California gold rush, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, land reform, late capitalism, means of production, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, South Sea Bubble, the built environment, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile

The penalty for breaching this loyalty to pure profit would be ultimately to lose out to the competition and to cease being a capitalist. In terms of food, a “rational” capitalist will produce unhealthy food if it is more profitable than healthy food, and will utilize polluting and toxic chemical inputs as long as profits are increased by doing so. Similarly “rational” capitalist farmers will pay the lowest possible wages to field workers in order to maximize profits, and if this means hiring illegal immigrants, this will be the direction taken as long as they can get away with it. Because most crops are annual and because capitalist farmers develop expertise and buy machinery for a limited range of production, it may be difficult to switch commodities or to switch into or out of farming in response to profit criteria in the short run. For T H E M A NAG E M E N T O F AG R I C U LT U R E A N D F O O D 23 example, while it may be relatively easy to shift from the production of corn to soybeans (although one would have to wait for the next growing season), it is not easy to shift from grain production to vegetable production, or from milk production to tobacco production.

Capitalist agriculture has always had difficulties with the commodification of labour-power that capitalism needs, because of the seasonal requirements for agricultural labour and the backbreaking nature of so much harvesting labour. This is no doubt one of the stronger reasons that the family farm persisted for so long in the United States. Given the typical low pay and sporadic employment in the agricultural sector, capitalist farmers often have had to rely on vulnerable workers (children, women, “guest” workers, illegal immigrants, immigrants and low-status minorities not protected by unions). In the United States today much of the work on capitalist farms is carried out by vulnerable immigrant labourers, who work very hard for little pay.36 Further, there is a long history of forced labour attached to colonial agriculture, which to some degree has lasted to this day.37 Up until the twentieth century, workers spent as much as 75 percent of their income on food.


pages: 398 words: 86,855

Bad Data Handbook by Q. Ethan McCallum

Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, business intelligence, cellular automata, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, commoditize, conceptual framework, database schema, DevOps, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, iterative process, labor-force participation, loose coupling, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, recommendation engine, selection bias, sentiment analysis, statistical model, supply-chain management, survivorship bias, text mining, too big to fail, web application

For example, educational attainment, marital status, and number of children are almost always useful in economic analysis, but are not available in the SSA files I use. In addition, this data does not include earnings that are not reported to SSA (for example, earnings from cash-based employment or acquired “under the table”) or earnings from workers who do not have, or do not report, a valid Social Security number. Unreported earnings may be particularly important for research on, say, immigration policy because many immigrants, especially illegal immigrants, do not have—or have invalid—Social Security numbers.[39] Let’s put these differences in datasets in some context. A few years ago, two co-authors and I were interested in examining year-to-year changes in individual earnings and changes in household incomes—so-called earnings and income “volatility.”[40] The question of whether people’s (or households’) earnings (or incomes) had grown more or less volatile between the 1980s and 2000s was a hot topic at the time (and, to some degree, still is) and with administrative data at our disposal, we were uniquely suited to weigh in on the issue.[41] To track patterns in earnings and income volatility over time, we calculated the percentage change in earnings/income using three variables: Earnings/income from the survey data.

In that case, I inferred emigration rates by following longitudinal earnings patterns over time using administrative data; although that was the strength of the analysis (and, to my knowledge, was the first attempt to use administrative data in that way), the weakness of such an approach is that I clearly missed foreign-born workers who were living and working in the country without authorization (that is, illegal immigrants) and thus may not have filed a W-2.[50] Although determining whether the dataset you are using is riddled with reporting errors (and whether those errors actually matter) is difficult, being aware of such data shortcomings will take your research further and, importantly, make the validity of your conclusions stronger. Thus, the basic strategy is to be aware and ask key questions: Is reporting error in your data likely to not be random?


pages: 340 words: 91,387

Stealth of Nations by Robert Neuwirth

accounting loophole / creative accounting, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, full employment, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Johannes Kepler, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Pepto Bismol, pirate software, profit motive, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, yellow journalism

Indeed, in all three countries, the people who earn money off the books spend their ill-gotten gains in the national economies, so you might argue that these nations are indirectly benefitting from this cash-only work. And, since many of these people would give up their clandestine jobs if their income was taxed, you could argue that “tackling” the black economy in this way could be counterproductive. Yet the complaints continue. Politicians routinely denigrade the street trade as the zone of illegal immigrants and criminals. Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi has argued that street peddlers, many of them undocumented migrants from Africa, are committing crimes and taking jobs away from native-born Italians. His proposed solution: deport many of them back to their home countries. In France, President Nicolas Sarkozy has started a series of pogroms against longtime Gypsy residents, who live and work in System D.

Virginia Law Review, vol. 92 (2006). ———. “The Piracy Paradox Revisited.” Stanford Law Review, vol. 61, no. 5 (2009). Remer, Rosalind. “Preachers, Peddlers, and Publishers.” Journal of the Early Republic (Winter 1994). Report of the Mayor’s Push-Cart Commission, City of New York, 1906. Reuters. “Analysis—Faltering Economy Boosts Spain’s Black Market,” March 3, 2011. Reyneri, Emilio. “Illegal Immigration and the Underground Economy,” National Europe Centre Paper No. 66, February 2003, accessed March 8, 2011. Rimbaud, Arthur. Complete Works. New York: Harper & Row, 1976. Rothbard, Murray N. The Ethics of Liberty. New York: New York University Press, 1998. ———. Man, Economy, and State. Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute, 2009. Roy, Ananya. “Why India Cannot Plan Its Cities.” Planning Theory 8, 76 (2009).


Griftopia: Bubble Machines, Vampire Squids, and the Long Con That Is Breaking America by Matt Taibbi

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, carried interest, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, desegregation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, financial innovation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, interest rate swap, laissez-faire capitalism, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, medical malpractice, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, obamacare, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Sergey Aleynikov, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

It would be a lot easier to listen to what these people have to say if they would just stop whining about how underappreciated they are and insisting that they’re the only people left in America who’ve read the Constitution. In fact, if you listen to them long enough, you almost want to strap them into chairs and make them watch as you redistribute their tax money directly into the arms of illegal immigrant dope addicts. Which is too bad, because when they get past the pathetic self-regard and start to articulate their grievances, they are rooted in genuine anxieties about what’s going on in this country. In the case of these Westchester County revolutionaries, the rallying cry was a lawsuit filed jointly by a liberal nonprofit group in New York City and the Department of Housing and Urban Development against the county.

The Tea Party and its ilk will have found a way to push the national conversation in the desired idiotic direction. Instead of talking about what to do about the fact that, after all the mergers in the crisis, just four banks now account for half of the country’s mortgages and two-thirds of its credit card accounts, we’ll be debating whether or not we should still automatically grant citizenship to the American-born children of illegal immigrants, or should let Arizona institute a pass-law regime, or some such thing. Meanwhile, half a world away, in little-advertised meetings of international bankers in Basel, Switzerland, the financial services industry will be settling on new capital standards for the world’s banks. And here at home, bodies like the CFTC and the Treasury will be slowly, agonizingly making supertechnical decisions on regulatory questions like “Who exactly will be subject to the new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau?”


pages: 327 words: 90,542

The Age of Stagnation: Why Perpetual Growth Is Unattainable and the Global Economy Is in Peril by Satyajit Das

"Robert Solow", 9 dash line, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative economy, colonial exploitation, computer age, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Emanuel Derman, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, margin call, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, open economy, passive income, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, the payments system, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

In 2014, Poland and Sweden unveiled plans to develop Europe's rich deposits of lignite (a highly polluting form of coal) along the German-Polish border, to meet increasing German demand. National interest also makes it difficult for China and India to reduce their reliance on coal-fired electricity generation, despite commitments to reducing carbon emissions. India is building its own Great Wall, a 3,360-kilometer (2,100-mile) border fence surrounding Bangladesh. Designed to prevent illegal immigration, it will also provide protection from future Bangladeshi climate refugees. Economics, according to economist Robert Heilbroner, entails the study of resourcing society. But resource limits require re-evaluating society's consumption of the present at the expense of the future. In 1954, German economist E. F. Schumacher recognized that human beings had begun living off capital: “Mankind has existed for many thousands of years and has always lived off income.

Russia has retaliated, focusing on markets in the Far East for its energy exports, which has implications for current European dependence on Russian gas and oil. Tensions even threaten access to space, due to reliance on Russian launch capabilities following the end of the US Space Shuttle program. The peace dividend from the end of the Cold War may reverse with rising defense spending. The costs of humanitarian relief operations, as well as refugees and illegal immigration driven by instability, are increasing. The risk of armed conflict is ever-present. A 2012 report to US secretary of state Hillary Clinton spoke of China and Japan being one error away from outright war over the Diaoyu, or Senkaku, Islands in the East China Sea. Any conflict over the disputed islands could involve the US, if Japan were to activate treaty commitments. The rise of autarky and nationalism is a dangerous cocktail.


pages: 422 words: 89,770

Death of the Liberal Class by Chris Hedges

1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate governance, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hive mind, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Lao Tzu, Pearl River Delta, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

“The United States is extremely lucky that no honest, charismatic figure has arisen,” Chomsky went on:Every charismatic figure is such an obvious crook that he destroys himself, like [Joseph] McCarthy or [Richard] Nixon or the evangelist preachers. If somebody comes along who is charismatic and honest, this country is in real trouble because of the frustration, disillusionment, the justified anger, and the absence of any coherent response. What are people supposed to think if someone says, “I have got an answer, we have an enemy”? There it was the Jews. Here it will be the illegal immigrants and the blacks. We will be told that white males are a persecuted minority. We will be told we have to defend ourselves and the honor of the nation. Military force will be exalted. People will be beaten up. This could become an overwhelming force. And if it happens it will be more dangerous than Germany. The United States is the world power. Germany was powerful but had more powerful antagonists.

Antonio Maria Costa, executive director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), has said that the drug trade has permitted the Taliban to thrive and expand despite the presence of NATO troops: “The Taliban’s direct involvement in the opium trade allows them to fund a war machine that is becoming technologically more complex and increasingly widespread.”25 The UNODC estimates the Taliban earned $90 million to $160 million a year from taxing the production and smuggling of opium and heroin between 2005 and 2009, as much as double the amount it earned annually while it was in power nearly a decade ago. And Costa described the Afghanistan-Pakistan border as “the world’s largest free-trade zone in anything and everything that is illicit,” an area blighted by drugs, weapons, and illegal immigration. The “perfect storm of drugs and terrorism” may be on the move along drug trafficking routes through Central Asia, he warned. Opium profits are being pumped into militant groups in Central Asia, and “a big part of the region could be engulfed in large-scale terrorism, endangering its massive energy resources.” “Afghanistan, after eight years of occupation, has become a world center for drugs,” Joya told me:The drug lords are the only ones with power.


pages: 294 words: 89,406

Lying for Money: How Fraud Makes the World Go Round by Daniel Davies

bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, collapse of Lehman Brothers, compound rate of return, cryptocurrency, financial deregulation, fixed income, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, illegal immigration, index arbitrage, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, railway mania, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, short selling, social web, South Sea Bubble, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, time value of money, web of trust

He bumped through a series of clerical and menial jobs before fetching up in a Montreal jail, claiming that the banking fraud which had put him there was all a big misunderstanding, probably the fault of one of his love rivals, and that he would one day be avenged. After being encouraged to seek fortune outside the Dominions of Canada, he headed back to the USA in the company of a party of illegal immigrants, which resulted in another short jail sentence. He promoted power and light investment schemes, pretended to be in a secret society in New Orleans, hung around with medical insurance fraudsters in Alabama, got married and ended up back in Boston in 1919. Here, he turned to a seemingly legitimate business, aiming to use his natural gifts for languages and for salesmanship to publish The Trader’s Guide, a compendium of useful addresses, consulates, customs details and similar information.

.), you are not meant to do any transactions where you are not sure of the true identity of the ‘beneficial owner’ (as in, not a lawyer’s office or a front corporation) on both sides. That’s hugely inconvenient, but every year the extent to which the regulators and cops are prepared to accept excuses seems to diminish. * Although sometimes freight companies are held responsible for failing to take precautions against illegal immigration and people-smuggling. * And Michael Levi the criminologist agreed, after looking through conviction data and speaking to police officers. * Although in the typical way of management consultants looking for ‘proprietary’ solutions to sell, there have been all sorts of proposals for Fraud Squares, Double Triangles and all manner of other polygons. By the way, at the time of writing, Other People’s Money could not be ordered to the reading rooms at the British Library, because their copy had been ‘mislaid’.


Israel & the Palestinian Territories Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

active transport: walking or cycling, airport security, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, carbon footprint, centre right, clean water, coronavirus, G4S, game design, illegal immigration, Khartoum Gordon, Louis Pasteur, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, urban planning, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The Muhraqa is 5km south of the centre of Daliyat al-Karmel; bear left at the signposted Y-junction. Atlit %04 1Sights Atlit 'Illegal' Immigrant Detention CampHISTORIC SITE (%04-984 1980; adult/child 32/27NIS; h9am-5pm Sun-Thu, to 1pm or 2pm Fri, last tour departs 3pm or 4pm Sun-Thu, at noon Fri) In 1939, as the situation of the Jews of Europe became increasingly dire, the British government issued a white paper limiting Jewish immigration to Palestine to 10,000 to 15,000 'certificates' a year. If Jewish refugees could not come to Palestine legally, the leaders of the Zionist Movement decided, they would do so illegally. Thousands of Jews fleeing Nazism made it past the British blockade, but many more were captured and interned at the Atlit 'Illegal' Immigrant Detention Camp. On 10 October 1945, the Palmach (the Special Forces unit of the Haganah) broke into the camp and released 200 prisoners.

Bus Haifa has two central bus stations. Haifa-Hof HaCarmel ( GOOGLE MAP ), used by buses heading south along the coast (i.e. towards Tel Aviv), is on the Mediterranean (western) side of Mt Carmel. It's 8km around the base of Mt Carmel from the German Colony, near the Haifa-Hof HaCarmel train station. The quickest way to get to Tel Aviv and other coastal cities is by train. Other destinations: Atlit 'Illegal' Immigrant Detention Camp (bus 221, 25 minutes, every 30 minutes) Jerusalem (Egged bus 940, 44NIS, two hours, every 30 to 90 minutes except Friday evening to sundown Saturday) Zichron Ya'acov (Egged bus 202, 16.80NIS, one hour, every 90 minutes except Friday afternoon to Saturday night) Haifa-Merkazit HaMifratz ( GOOGLE MAP ), on the Haifa Bay side of Mt Carmel, is used by most buses to destinations north and east of Haifa.

Situated 2.5km by road north of ancient Caesarea. ADor – sand, tidal pools and the ruins of Dor, an important port city – successively Canaanite, Israelite, Assyrian, Persian and Hellenistic – mentioned repeatedly in the Old Testament. Situated 10km northwest of Zichron Ya'acov. AAtlit – part of Atlit Beach Nature Reserve and just north of a Crusader castle (closed to the public). Situated 1.5km southwest of the Atlit 'Illegal' Immigrant Detention Camp. ABat Galim – in Haifa's Bat Galim neighbourhood, about 1km northwest of Rambam hospital, terminus of Metronit line 2. AHof HaCarmel – Haifa's best beach. Situated along the coast near the Hof HaCarmel train station and the Haifa-Hof HaCarmel bus station. AArgaman – Akko's municipal beach is 1.5km southeast of the old city. AAkhziv – part of Akhziv National Park, about 4km north of Nahariya.


pages: 328 words: 100,381

Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State by Dana Priest, William M. Arkin

airport security, business intelligence, dark matter, drone strike, friendly fire, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Julian Assange, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks

Everything the NSA did remained so completely classified that it was impossible to guess whether it or its four-hundred-plus top secret contracting companies were following the law, let alone properly spending taxpayer money. Immigration and Customs Enforcement—the federal government’s second-largest law enforcement agency after 9/11—had started operations against suspected terrorists in the United States, too. To that end, it was getting help from the most elite military Special Operations Forces to target and arrest, if need be, suspected terrorists and illegal immigrants. And even as the Obamas headed toward the bulletproof parade reviewing stand, overseas the CIA was starting a new day targeting individuals from afar using its armed Predator drones, a practice criticized by some as assassination, which had been banned decades before. Many people in Pakistan, where most of the hits took place, saw it as an undeclared war, and their resentment against the United States only grew bigger with each new strike.

Those cameras could see through metal, alerting police to someone hiding, say, in the trunk or on the floor of a car. (They could even tell, by the heat signature underneath its chassis, whether the car had just been turned off.) In Arizona, the Maricopa County sheriff’s office purchased the sort of facial recognition equipment prevalent in war zones, using it to record some nine thousand biometric digital mug shots a month, many of them of illegal immigrants. And, just as soldiers in the field did when trying to keep towns free of insurgents, many American police departments purchased equipment allowing them to record images of license plate numbers belonging to every car going through toll booths and tunnels. Such surveillance was especially intense around larger cities, especially those that had felt the direct impact of the 9/11 attacks. Soon, said authorities in the Washington area, everyone who drives into the nation’s capital will have his car tracked and recorded, a high-tech, invisible version of the so-called ring of steel that the British government imposed on London during the Irish Republican Army killings there in the early 1990s and broadened after 9/11.


pages: 344 words: 100,046

The Hidden Family by Charles Stross

correlation does not imply causation, germ theory of disease, illegal immigration, out of africa, Silicon Valley, trade route

Just in case you’d forgotten, Miriam. I’d have to study for another two years before I can sit for the bar exams.” “You signed up for the course like I asked? That’s good.” “Yeah, well.” Paulette put her empty mug down. “Do you want to go through it all again? Just so I know where I stand?” “Not really, but…” Miriam glanced at Brill. “Look, here’s the high points. This young lady is Brilliana d’Ost. She’s kind of an illegal immigrant, no papers, no birth certificate, no background. She needs somewhere to stay while we sort things out back where she comes from. She isn’t self-sufficient here—she met her very first elevator yesterday evening, and her first train this morning.” Paulette raised an eyebrow. “R-i-i-ght,” she drawled. “I think I can see how this might pose some difficulties.” “I can read and write,” Brill volunteered.

And it’s better for us in the families than for ordinary women, better by far. Did you notice that within the Clan you had rights? Or that outside the Clan, in the ordinary aristocracy, you didn’t? We have at least one ability that is as important, more important, than what’s between our legs: another source of status. But those ordinary peasants you feel such guilt for don’t have any such thing. There’s a better life awaiting me as a humble illegal immigrant in this world than there is as a lady-in-waiting to nobility in my own. Do you think I’d ever go back there for any reason except to help you change the world?” Taken aback, Miriam recoiled slightly. “Ouch,” she said. “I didn’t realize all that stuff. No.” She picked up her wine glass again. “It’s post-colonial guilt, I guess,” she added by way of explanation. “We’ve got a lot of history here, and it’s really ugly in parts.


pages: 320 words: 97,509

Doctored: The Disillusionment of an American Physician by Sandeep Jauhar

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, delayed gratification, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, medical malpractice, moral hazard, obamacare, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, source of truth, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yogi Berra

She had no health insurance, though the chart stated that her husband did. I asked him if she had a green card. Immigration status was going to be very relevant in deciding how we were going to manage her. As a cardiology fellow at NYU, I had treated several illegal immigrants with end-stage heart failure. Usually there were hospitals in their native countries that performed heart transplants, but if they went back home, they would not be allowed to return to America, so they almost never wanted to discuss that option. (And none of them could afford transplants in their native lands anyway.) In many cases, the only hope for an illegal immigrant with end-stage heart failure was to raise the quarter of a million dollars for a cardiac transplant herself. Her husband didn’t answer my question about her status. “It is essential that you tell us everything,” I urged.


pages: 317 words: 101,475

Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class by Owen Jones

Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Etonian, facts on the ground, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, pension reform, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, rising living standards, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working-age population

But, with the government refusing to build homes and large numbers of foreign-looking people arriving in certain communities, the BNP's narrative just seems to make sense to a lot of people. The BNP's strategy has been obligingly boosted by the right-wing tabloids. '£Sm benefits for disabled migrants who flew home', screams one Daily Express headline. 'Secret report warns of migration meltdown in Britain', warns the Daily Mail. 'Illegal immigrant mum gets four-bedroom house', gasps the Sun. If you are a working-class person struggling to scrape by, who cannot get an affordable home or at least knows others in that position, then being bombarded with these stories gives credence to the BNP narrative: that there aren't enough resources to go round, and immigrants are gettit~g the lion's share of them. Coupled with this strategy is an audacious attempt by the BNP to encroach on Labour's terrain.

'I mean, I'm quite happy in Barking and Dagenham,' says Leslie, and Mora agrees: 'We were born here. And I would never move out of Dagenham.' They are both deeply scornful of 'the crap that the BNP are coming out with ... At the moment they're frightening people, they're saying old people can get chucked out of their house, and it's given to the "illegals". If they can say where the illegals are, fine. But there are no illegal immigrants inthis borough. There's not. I mean, there's good and bad in everybody. But the BNP are very bad.' 'They're very racist, aren't they?' asks Leslie, drawing a quick response from Mora: 'Very, yery racist, they are.' Although neither had faith in politicians at the national level, they did trust their local Labour councillors. But their impression of the BNP was of total incompetence. 'They have done nothing.


pages: 316 words: 103,743

The Emperor Far Away: Travels at the Edge of China by David Eimer

back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, mass immigration, megacity, offshore financial centre, open borders, South China Sea

Once in the hands of police, Aba explained what had happened to her. ‘The police went to see the family and told them, “You can’t buy people, they’re not animals.” They asked me if I wanted to prosecute the family, but I said, “No.” I just wanted to forget it and go home.’ Aba was treated well by the police, a new development in itself. Until recently, the Chinese authorities regarded all trafficked women as illegal immigrants and imprisoned them until they could be returned to their home countries. Three years after disappearing from her parents’ lives, Aba walked alone across the official border crossing to Muse and returned to her house. ‘My mother and father were very shocked to see me,’ said Aba. ‘They started crying and so did I. I was so happy to see them. They didn’t ask me questions about what had happened.

North Koreans reacted to China turning on them by following the dispersal of the Chinese Koreans across Dongbei and beyond. Many of those who cross the border now leave Yanbian quickly and make for the big cities, where the police are not looking for DPRK refugees and they can blend in by claiming to be Chaoxianzu. Others, like Piao’s wife, try and escape to South Korea. There are two routes used to reach Seoul: either via Mongolia, which deports all North Korean illegal immigrants to South Korea automatically, or across China to Yunnan and then on to Thailand. Both the escape lines are run by the South Korean missionaries in Yanji. They fund them by raising money at home and from the American Korean community. One day, Piao’s wife was spirited south-west to Kunming, then to Laos and Bangkok and finally to Seoul. Piao had seen neither her nor his son for four years.


pages: 308 words: 99,298

Brexit, No Exit: Why in the End Britain Won't Leave Europe by Denis MacShane

3D printing, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Etonian, European colonialism, first-past-the-post, fixed income, Gini coefficient, greed is good, illegal immigration, James Dyson, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mont Pelerin Society, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, new economy, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reshoring, road to serfdom, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Thales and the olive presses, trade liberalization, transaction costs, women in the workforce

And if they fail, will Mrs May put her hand on her heart and say, ‘I tried, I tried. I let the anti-Europeans run the show. Now they haven’t delivered, Britain needs a rethink’? As home secretary, Mrs May authorised schemes in which vans drove around with large signs inviting people to send the authorities information about anyone working illegally. They were quickly dubbed ‘Shop an Immigrant’ vans and were widely derided. They both failed to deliver a single illegal immigrant for deportation and were like an Orwellian echo of demands in totalitarian states that citizens inform on and denounce each other. Recognising her error, Mrs May quickly abandoned the programme and the vans disappeared from public view. In May 2016, a month before the Brexit vote, Mrs May went to talk to Goldman Sachs bankers. In a secret recording of her remarks later leaked to the Guardian she expressed warm enthusiasm for the EU and spelt out the dangers of leaving.

In both countries defence expenditure has gone down despite the threat of Russian aggressive posturing, the continuing neighbourhood crises that Europe faces and the constant urging from the United States that Europe accepts more responsibility for defence. The eastern and southern Mediterranean is a mixture of conflict zone and a region where people-smuggling and - trafficking, the transportation of illegal immigrants, occasionally of jihadists, into Europe, is rife. This is Europe’s most important external frontier but it is without defence, regular patrols or aggressive naval action against criminals. Instead of allocating more of their national budgets to control Europe’s external borders and send messages about readiness to defend European interests, Prague and Rome want someone else to do the job.


pages: 319 words: 95,854

You Are What You Speak: Grammar Grouches, Language Laws, and the Politics of Identity by Robert Lane Greene

anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, discovery of DNA, European colonialism, facts on the ground, haute couture, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Parag Khanna, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

They even come from an American territory, Puerto Rico, where heavy “Americanization” efforts after it was captured from Spain in 1898 failed to turn the island to English. Immigration has increased steadily since the 1920s-era quotas were relaxed in 1965, and with illegal immigration bolstering the legal kind, Hispanics are now the largest minority in the United States. In 2009, Barack Obama nominated Sonia Sotomayor, born in the Bronx, to be the first Hispanic justice on the Supreme Court, in a tacit recognition of Hispanics’ growing political clout. When it came to light that she had once praised the virtues of being a “wise Latina” in a speech, conservatives were apoplectic, many flatly calling her a racist. Mark Krikorian, a professional worrier about illegal immigration, found even the prosody of her name galling, writing in the blog of the conservative National Review magazine: Deferring to people’s own pronunciation of their names should obviously be our first inclination, but there ought to be limits.


pages: 382 words: 100,127

The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics by David Goodhart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, coherent worldview, corporate governance, credit crunch, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market friction, mass immigration, mittelstand, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, obamacare, old-boy network, open borders, Peter Singer: altruism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Skype, Sloane Ranger, stem cell, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

Since then there has been another immigration surge in the US and, as noted, the non-Hispanic white population has fallen to just 62 per cent. Moreover, because of an overwhelming consensus in favour of legal immigration on the establishment centre-left and centre-right there has been almost no debate about this big demographic shift. The immigration debate, prior to Trump, was only about what to do about the estimated 12 million illegal immigrants in the US and even in that debate opponents of ‘paths to citizenship’ measures were rountinely accused of racism. Will Trump’s extraordinary campaign and early immigration curbs leave an even starker racial divide in US politics with a core of disaffected whites, now stirred into political consciousness? It is certainly the case that while in 2012 Barack Obama took 39 per cent of the white vote, Hillary Clinton could not even match that with just 37 per cent.

Of course London needs to be relatively open, and many of the people it attracts help to generate economic activity and create new jobs themselves. But when one third of all graduate jobs in London are taken by people born abroad there is also bound to be some displacement of British citizens, either in London itself or people who would have come to the capital from other parts of the country. At the bottom end the displacement story is even clearer (and that is without even considering illegal immigration in the capital). Around 20 per cent of low-skill jobs are taken by people born abroad, and according to Ian Gordon of the LSE, wages in the bottom 20 per cent may have been depressed by at least 15 per cent in periods of peak inflow.57 Until the big immigration surge starting in the late 1990s there were fewer people in London employed at the very bottom end of the labour market than elsewhere in the country, and they were better paid.


pages: 335 words: 98,847

A Bit of a Stretch: The Diaries of a Prisoner by Chris Atkins

Boris Johnson, butterfly effect, collapse of Lehman Brothers, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, forensic accounting, G4S, housing crisis, illegal immigration, index card, Mark Zuckerberg, Milgram experiment, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans

The news has an item on rising street crime, and Ted starts ranting about Romanians being thieving toerags. Rather than squirming as before, I now find myself nodding along (as a consequence of my time with Romanian Dan) before realising what I’m doing. Another report investigates how illegal immigrants are crossing into the UK in the back of trucks. ‘They should chain the doors shut!’ yells Ted. I can’t let this one slide. ‘When you absconded, you bunked off to Spain in the back of a lorry. Doesn’t this make you an illegal immigrant as well?’ Such challenges usually trigger a pointless half-hour argument, after which Ted always claims victory because ‘we won Brexit’. The banter is mostly good-humoured, but I get annoyed when he slags off our neighbour, ‘China’, a Chinese computer hacker with the most unimaginative nickname in Wandsworth, making a barbed comment about him being stupid and untrustworthy.


pages: 100 words: 31,338

After Europe by Ivan Krastev

affirmative action, bank run, Berlin Wall, central bank independence, clean water, conceptual framework, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, job automation, mass immigration, moral panic, open borders, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, too big to fail, Wolfgang Streeck, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

The Ugly A foreigner visiting Hungary in the summer and autumn of 2016 could not miss a series of government-installed billboards posted throughout the country, all of them colored the same blue as the EU flag and posing the question: “Did you know?” The anti-immigrant gambit of the ruling Fidesz Party issued in a massive PR campaign. Citizens were confronted by thousands of government-sponsored billboards asking: “Did you know that since the beginning of the immigration crisis, more than 300 people have died as a result of terror attacks in Europe?” “Did you know that Brussels wants to settle a whole city’s worth of illegal immigrants in Hungary?” “Did you know that since the beginning of the immigration crisis the harassment of women has risen sharply in Europe?” “Did you know that the Parisian terror attacks were committed by immigrants?” “Did you know that close to one million immigrants want to come to Europe from Libya alone?” The government wanted Hungarian citizens to be aware of these “facts” when on October 2, they were asked to answer the question, “Do you want the European Union to be able to order the mandatory settlement of non-Hungarian citizens in Hungary without parliament’s consent?”


pages: 113 words: 36,039

The Shipwrecked Mind: On Political Reaction by Mark Lilla

Berlin Wall, coherent worldview, creative destruction, George Santayana, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, liberation theology, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, urban planning, women in the workforce

The list of catastrophes and especially betrayals is long: birth control, abandonment of the gold standard, speech codes, the Common Market, no-fault divorce, poststructuralism, denationalizing important industries, abortion, the euro, Muslim and Jewish communitarianism, gender studies, surrendering to American power in NATO, surrendering to German power in the EU, surrendering to Muslim power in the schools, banning smoking in restaurants, abolishing conscription, aggressive antiracism, laws defending illegal immigrants, and the introduction of halal food in schools. The list of traitors is shorter but just as various: feminists, left-wing journalists and professors, neoliberal businessmen, anti-neoliberal activists, cowardly politicians, the educational establishment, European bureaucrats, and even coaches of professional soccer teams who have lost control of their players. Some of the chapters are, as the French say, hallucinants—unhinged.


pages: 350 words: 107,834

Halting State by Charles Stross

augmented reality, Boris Johnson, call centre, forensic accounting, game design, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, lifelogging, Necker cube, Potemkin village, RFID, Schrödinger's Cat, Vernor Vinge, zero day

Meanwhile, in other local footnote news (digested from the dailies by your agents, after they prioritize the important stuff about industry mergers, devkit point releases, and new game announcements): The ongoing squabble between Holyrood and Westminster over who pays for counter-terrorism operations is threatening to turn nasty (because nobody north of the border really believes that Scotland is some kind of terrorism magnet, whatever the bampots in London think). The first minister is making some kind of high-profile announcement about reintroducing free schooling to encourage the birth rate. And a Russian illegal immigrant has been necklaced down in Pilton, the victim of a suspected blacknet gangland slaying. It’s your usual Embra Monday morning rubbish, aside from the Brookmyre special. The bus snakes up the road in due course, flanks rippling with Hollywood explosions advertising Vin Diesel’s latest attempt to revive his ancient and cobwebby career. You climb in and grab the overhead rail, another anonymous traveller among the late flexitime commuters, the young ned females with baby buggies and streaked ponytails, and the buttoned-up Romanian grannies with shapeless wheelie-bags.

Venkmann bends down, picks something up, and leans over the Iron Maiden before releasing it. “Well, there’s a surprise!” “What’s down there?” “It’s a rabbit-hole,” he says slowly, looking around as if at a different landscape. “Where’s it go?” “Looks like Zhongguo shard, going by the map. Which is part of Hentai Animatics’ zone, and we don’t have an admin contract for that. I think you’ve just uncovered an illegal-immigrant tunnel.” SUE: Chop Shop Hackman’s weird outburst has haunted you all through the case team meeting up at the station, despite your hasty cramming on blacknets and anonymizing peer-to-peer crime networks and the people who set them up and skim off the profits; in particular his admonition not to have anything to do with the “bottom-feeding scum.” Bottom-feeding scum are, you might say, something of a professional specialty—and not just when you’re hauling bodies out of the Water of Leith; all you need is to think back to the last open evening at the wee one’s school, and it’s there fair and square in the playground with a squint and a buzz cut to go with the sharpie in its back pocket.


pages: 565 words: 122,605

The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin

autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional

FAHMY, Dalia. (2014, May 27). “25 Years After Communism, Eyesores Spur Landmark Debate,” Bloomberg Business, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2014-05-26/25-years-after-communism-eyesores-spur-landmark-debate. FAINSTEIN, Susan. (1994). The City Builders: Property, Politics and Planning in London and New York, London: Blackwell Publishers. FARAGE, Nigel. (2014, December 18). “Surprise, surprise: tens of thousands of illegal immigrants have dropped off the Home Office’s radar,” The Independent, http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/surprise-surprise-tens-of-thousands-of-illegal-immigrants-have-dropped-off-the-home-offices-radar-9934496.html FARRAR, Lara. (2008, June 21). “Is America’s suburban dream collapsing into a nightmare?,” CNN, http://www.cnn.com/2008/TECH/06/16/suburb.city/index.html. FASHIONUNITED. (2013). “Facts and Figures about the Fashion Industry,” http://www.fashionunited.co.uk/facts-and-figures-in-the-uk-fashion-industry.


pages: 369 words: 105,819

The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump: 27 Psychiatrists and Mental Health Experts Assess a President by Bandy X. Lee

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, declining real wages, delayed gratification, demand response, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, facts on the ground, fear of failure, illegal immigration, impulse control, meta analysis, meta-analysis, national security letter, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School

This, despite the actual spectacular record of President Obama in saving the economy after the crash of 2008, preventing the worst recession from becoming another Great Depression, the extension of health care to the poor and middle class, and the general spreading of enlightened attitudes toward minorities and women. The insistence that grave danger exists in reality because it exists in one’s mind is the hallmark of the dictator. For Hitler, the Jews represented an existential threat; for Trump, it is illegal immigrants and Mexicans in particular. Also, the disregard for facts, the denial that “factualization” is a necessity before making an assertion of danger or insisting on the nefarious intent of a large group (i.e., the Jews for Hitler, the Muslims for Trump) is typical of paranoid characters who need an enemy against whom to focus group hate. Many critics of Trump, particularly journalists but also those in the mental health field, have focused on his so-called narcissism, his need to be constantly approved of, the childlike nature of his character.

Many critics of Trump, particularly journalists but also those in the mental health field, have focused on his so-called narcissism, his need to be constantly approved of, the childlike nature of his character. In this they are minimizing the significance of his paranoid beliefs and, in so doing, are relegating his psychological dysfunction to a much higher level than is actually the case. This is also true of those who believe he is simply using his attack on illegal immigrants and Muslims to feed his base. In doing so, they are suggesting that he himself knows better, that he knows that he is merely using these ideas because they will appeal to the white working-class men who make up the bulk of his voters. Yet, this overlooks and minimizes the more ominous probability: that he actually is paranoid and that there is an overlap of his personal hatreds and those of his followers.


pages: 437 words: 105,934

#Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media by Cass R. Sunstein

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, Donald Trump, drone strike, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, friendly fire, global village, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, prediction markets, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks

Over the last two years, the concerns of Reclaim America have been greatly heightened. Nearly 70 percent of the members carry firearms—some as a result of the group’s conversations. Small but vigorous protests have been planned, organized, and carried out in three state capitals. A march on Washington, DC, is now in the works. Recent discussion has occasionally turned to the need for “self-protection” against illegal immigrants, terrorists, and the state, through civil disobedience and possibly selective “strikes” on certain targets in the public and private sectors. The motivation for this discussion is the widely disseminated view that the “FBI and possibly the CIA” are starting to take steps to “dismember” the group. One member has sent bomb-making instructions to all the other members of Reclaim America. No violence has occurred as yet.

Kelly, 114–15 Gates, Bill, 52–53, 134, 196 general-interest intermediaries: bias and, 148; citizens and, 166; Daily Me and, 20; as default, 25; improving, 230; judgment and, 43; mass media and, 18–19; newspapers and, 13 (see also newspapers); polarization and, 84; power of, 18; republicanism and, 253, 257, 260–61; self-insulation and, 13; shared experiences and, 152; social clarity and, 142–43; spreading information and, 140–43, 148, 151–52, 156; television and, 13 (see also television); as unacknowledged public forums, 41–44, 58 genetically modified organisms (GMOs), 59, 100, 130–32, 217 Gentzkow, Matthew, 115–16, 120–21 Gerken, Heather, 85 Germany, ix, 6, 17, 19, 25, 32, 34, 73, 203, 237 global warming, 68–69, 88, 217 Goodman, Jack, 197–98 Google, 3, 28, 37, 53, 118, 229, 265n2 greenhouse gases, 9, 127, 130–32, 218 group identity, 75–78, 81 Guess, Andrew, 116–17 Habermas, Jürgen, 46–47 Haberstam, Yosh, 120 hacking, 109, 178, 184, 186, 188, 201 Hale, Scott, 105–6, 108 Hamilton, Alexander, 49, 54 Hand, Learned, 249–50 Hardball (TV show), 120 Hardin, Russell, 240 Harvard University, 160 hashtags, 3, 43, 119, 245, 271n23; Congress and, 82; Democrats and, 80–81; entrepreneurs and, 4, 79–82; Internet Relay Chats and, 79; polarization and, 59, 79–82; Republicans and, 80–81; serendipity and, 79–81; Trump and, 83 hate groups, 67–68, 70, 87, 236 HBO, 179 health issues: Affordable Care Act (ACA) and, 81, 129; AIDS/HIV and, 110; bandwagon diseases and, 100; conspiracies and, 125–26; cybercascades and, 99–101; deliberative opinion polls on, 133; democracy and, 23, 29; false information and, 110; famine as metaphor and, 149; GMOs and, 59, 100, 130–32; insurance premiums and, 129; OSHA and, 218–19 Hebrew University, 112 Her (Jonze film), 20–22, 33 heterogeneous society: anti-federalists and, 48; fragmentation and, 51, 135; improving, 216; mass media and, 19; opinion polls and, 134; polarization and, 84, 86, 88–89; public forums and, 38–39, 41, 43; republicanism and, 257, 262; shared experiences and, 140; social problems and, 7; spreading information and, 140, 145, 155; US Constitution and, 48–51 Himelboim, Itai, 118–19 Hitler, Adolf, ix HIV, 110 holidays, 7, 141–42, 242 Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 52–57, 247–48, 250 homogeneous society: Facebook and, 125; polarization and, 69, 86, 92; social media bias and, 135; spreading information and, 151; Twitter and, 119; US Constitution and, 48–51; virtual world and, 13 homophily, 1–2, 5, 117–22 How to Win Friends and Influence People (Carnegie), 160 Huffington Post, 117, 123 Hughes, Chris, 82 human rights, 107 Hurricane Katrina, 19, 139 Hussein, Saddam, 94 Huxley, Aldous, x, 21 ideal speech situation, 47 identity: culture and, 129–35; group, 75–77, 81; judgment and, 129–35; shared, 239 ideologies: cultural cognition and, 129–30; cybercascades and, 115–23, 127, 131; polarization and, 61–62, 65, 81, 94–95; republicanism and, 260; spreading information and, 140; values and, 11, 14–15, 22, 30, 52, 75, 101, 113, 126–32, 142, 145, 163, 165, 169, 227, 232, 235, 253, 258; website choice and, 5, 25 ILOVEYOU virus, 176–78, 186, 191, 207 immigration, 1, 3–4, 11, 19, 39, 66, 129, 159, 235, 246 inert people, ix, 56, 145, 204, 261 information: advertising and, 146, 152–53; algorithms and, 3, 15, 21–22, 28–29, 32, 122–24, 257, 265n2; backfiring corrections and, 93–97, 111; bias and, 151–53 (see also bias); conspiracies and, 124–26; consumer sovereignty and, 52–53 (see also consumer sovereignty); copyright and, 29, 184–85, 195, 200–201, 219; cultural cognition and, 129–30; customized filtering and, 52–53 (see also filtering); cybercascades and, 98–136; Daily Me and, 1–4, 14–15, 19–21, 30–31, 52, 56, 58–59, 114, 153, 253, 255; disclosure policies and, 215, 218–23; easy creation of, 27–28; Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act and, 218; exposure and, 40–41; false, 11, 23, 109–10, 135, 155, 237, 250; fragmentation and, 140–41, 146, 149–55 (see also fragmentation); general-interest intermediaries and, 140–43, 148, 151–52, 156; hashtags and, 3–4, 43, 59, 79–83, 119, 245, 271n23; Internet and, 31, 138, 143–44, 148–54 (see also Internet); must-carry rules and, 215, 226–29; News Feed and, 2, 14–16, 41, 124, 232–33; preferences and, 58; producers and, 145–46; as product, 149; propaganda and, 109, 160, 236–37, 239, 245, 248–50; public forums and, 142, 156 (see also public forums); as public good, 45, 51, 57–58, 147–48, 260; reinforcement and, 63, 72, 78, 81, 114–15, 132, 148, 260–61; rumors and, 103, 108–11, 125, 236–37; self-imposed echo chambers and, 5–13, 17, 20, 50, 57, 59, 68, 71, 81, 90, 93, 114–18, 122–24, 131–32, 153, 163, 244, 262–64; social glue and, 7, 140, 143, 155, 260; social media and, 138–39, 148, 150, 152, 154–55; solidarity goods and, 58, 141–44; sound bites and, 43, 151, 224, 268n19; tipping points and, 102–4, 108–11; trending petitions and, 106; up/down votes and, 112–13; as wildfire, 102–4 innovation, 5, 133, 183, 243 “Inspire” (online terrorist journal), 236 Instagram, 22; cybercascades and, 114; polarization and, 79, 83, 89; public forums and, 36–37; regulation and, 179; spreading information and, 138, 149; terrorism and, 237–38 Internet: access to, 30; advertising and, 28; algorithms and, 3, 15, 21–22, 28–29, 32, 122–24, 257, 265n2; architecture of, 13; baselines and, 23; beginnings of, 181–86; Berners-Lee and, 183; bomb-making instructions and, 192, 235–37; browsing habits and, 5, 21–22, 116, 124; citizens and, 158, 160, 164, 169, 171–74; commercialization of, 183; consumer effect of, 171–74; conveniences of, 31–32; copyright and, 29; cybercascades and, 102, 108–11, 115–16, 123, 133–35; DARPA and, 182–83; death of mass media and, 19; deliberative domains and, 215–17; filtering and, 25–26 (see also filtering); forms of neutrality and, 207–10; free content and, 28; freedom of speech and, 192, 201–10; hashtags and, 3–4, 43, 59, 79–83, 119, 245, 271n23; ideologies and, 5, 25; ILOVEYOU virus and, 176–78, 186, 191, 207; improving, 215–16, 223, 226, 228–29; information available on, 31; isolation index and, 116, 120; legal issues and, 184–88; most popular sites on, 171–72; music and, 3, 21, 31–34, 64, 102, 104–8, 159, 192; online behavior and, 22–23, 65, 83, 98, 116–17, 130, 234–35; overload and, 63–68; Pariser and, 265n2; partyism and, 10; polarization and, 59–60, 64–68, 70, 72, 76–79, 86, 89; politics and, 116–17; potential of, 24; as public forum, 36; public sphere and, 153; regulation and, 178, 182–90; republicanism and, 253–61; self-insulation and, 13; shared experience and, 143; social media and, 22 (see also social media); sovereignty and, 52, 55; spreading information and, 138, 143–44, 148–54; tabloidization and, 223–24; terrorism and, 234–38, 240–43, 245–47; as threat, ix–x; websites and, 3, 6, 13, 22, 27–28, 32–33, 59–60, 62, 65, 67, 106–12, 146, 154, 166, 179, 185–94, 207–8, 212–17, 222–25, 229, 235, 242, 255, 268n18 Internet Relay Chats, 79 Iraq, 18, 42, 64, 93–94, 98, 242 ISIS, 238, 244 Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL), 98, 234, 236, 239, 241–48, 283n22 isolation: filtering and, 27, 38, 64, 98, 115–16, 120–22, 234, 242–43, 254, 265n2; index for, 115–16, 120–21; self-imposed echo chambers and, 5–13, 17, 20, 50, 57, 59, 68, 71, 81, 90, 93, 114–18, 122–24, 131–32, 153, 163, 244, 262–64 Israel, 6, 87, 91, 140–41, 245–46, 284n31 Italy, 6, 124, 203 Jacobs, Jane, 12–13, 260 jarring of parties, 49, 54 Jefferson, Thomas, 51–52 Jews, 96, 185 Jiabao, Wen, 139 jihad, 239, 241–42 John, Peter, 105–6, 108 Jonze, Spike, 20–22, 33 judgment: citizens and, 167, 169–70; cybercascades and, 99, 101–2, 127–35; freedom of speech and, 206; general-interest intermediaries and, 43; identity and, 129–35; insulation and, 51; prediction and, 28; republicanism and, 259, 261; sound bites and, 268n19; strengthening preexisting, 34; terrorism and, 235 Kahan, Dan, 129–31 Kahneman, Daniel, 17–18 Kennedy, Anthony, 36–37 King, Gary, 160–61 Knight, Brian, 120 Koran, 239 Kossinets, Gueorgi, 118 Ku Klux Klan, 109 Lazzaro, Stephanie, 127 legal issues: behavior and, 220–21; Brandeis and, 52–56, 145, 203, 220, 228, 247–48, 250–51; child-support and, 133; commercial speech and, 193, 205, 207; communications and, 220, 227; constitutional doctrine and, 192–201, 204 (see also constitutional doctrine); copyright and, 29, 184–85, 195, 200–201, 219; deliberative democracy and, 25, 34, 44, 48, 55–56, 86, 92, 133–35, 169, 195, 215–17, 220, 222, 228; Dewey and, 252; disclosure policies and, 215, 218–23; educational programming for children and, 170, 181, 197–99, 202, 204–5, 210–11, 221, 226; Facebook’s complicity in terrorism and, 246; First Amendment and, 36, 193, 195–207, 212, 227–28, 231; forms of neutrality and, 207–10; Fourteenth Amendment and, 199; fraud and, 2–6, 74, 109, 200–201, 258; freedom of speech and, 55–56, 191–212; Hand and, 249–50; Holmes and, 52–56, 247–48, 250; interference in communications market and, 177–79; Internet and, 184–88; must-carry rules and, 215, 226–29; national security and, 4, 42, 74, 178, 186, 216, 246; Nuremberg Files and, 191–92, 208; President’s Advisory Committee on the Public Interest Obligations of Digital Television Broadcasters and, 196–98; privacy and, 178, 225, 237, 243; property rights and, 179–90, 194, 258; Second Amendment and, 119, 198, 234; self-protection against illegal immigrants and, 235; sexual harassment and, 101; terrorism and, 246–47; unfreedom and, 163; US Constitution and, 247 (see also US Constitution) Lessig, Lawrence, 184 liberals: blogs and, 231; Colorado experiment and, 68–70, 77; confirmation bias and, 123; cybercascades and, 114–23; differing points of view and, 230; Facebook and, 3, 232; foxnews.com and, 228; fragmentation and, 10; polarization and, 61, 64, 68–70, 74, 84–85, 90, 94–95 liberty, 5, 11, 52, 138, 174, 204 limited argument pool, 72, 76 limited options, 164–67, 174 Littleton, Colorado attack, 236 lone-wolf attacks, 241, 244–45 long tails, 149–51, 171 Lorenz, Jan, 113–14 Los Angeles Times, 19, 152 loss aversion, 59 machine learning, 4–5 Madison, James, 45, 51–52, 203, 261 magazines: bias and, 152; choice of, 18; isolation and, 116; free content and, 229; general-interest intermediaries and, 41–42, 257; points of view and, 18, 66, 230; public forums and, 41–42; regulation and, 179, 181–82, 184, 187, 189; Twitter and, 118 majority rule, 53–54, 169–70 Malik, Tashfeen, 241 manipulation, 17, 28–29, 95, 164 Mao Tse-tung, ix Margetts, Helen, 105–6, 108 Marginal Revolution, 22 Martin, Gregory J., 61 martyrdom, 241 mass media: behavior and, 19; bias and, 151–52; death of, 19; echo chambers and, 116; freedom of speech and, 203; as general-interest intermediaries, 18–19; heterogeneous society and, 19; improving, 222; opposing viewpoints and, 71, 84, 207, 215, 231–33, 255; public forums and, 36–37; public sphere and, 153–54.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador are among the most environmentally degraded and deforested regions in Central America. They cut their forests; we got their kids. It is not only Europe and America that have become the promised land for economic and climate migrants from the World of Disorder. So too has the Promised Land. In recent years, Israel has been flooded with some sixty thousand illegal immigrants, mostly from Eritrea and Sudan. Stroll the blocks around the Central Bus Station in Tel Aviv, where many have found shelter, and you’ll see African men on cell phones on every street. They sailed, walked, or drove to Israel’s borders and either slipped in on their own or were smuggled in by bedouins across Egypt’s Sinai Desert. They were attracted not by Zionism or Judaism, but just by the hope of order and work.

“Emerald City of Giving Does Exist” (New York Times article) emerging markets Emerson, Ralph Waldo empathy; live video and Empire of Wealth, An (Gordon) encryption Energryn energy, technological change and energy efficiency Enestvedt, Harold Enova Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Ericsson Eritrea ethics, innovation in; freedom and; leadership and; sustainable values and Ethiopia Ethiopians, in Minnesota Euphrates River Europe: illegal immigration into; wireless networks in European Union; Britain’s exit from evolution; human manipulation of Evolution and Human Behavior Exploratorium exponential change; see also Moore’s law export systems Express, L’ extreme weather “Eye, The” (song) Facebook Facebook Messenger Fadell, Tony Fairchild Semiconductor family planning FAO Food Price Index Fargo (film) Farook, Syed Rizwan Fast Company Faten (Syrian drought refugee) Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Federal Trade Commission Feldon, Barbara Fendrik, Ármin Ferguson, Mo.

David Time Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) Tipirneni, Ashok Tocqueville, Alexis de topsoil “topsoil of trust” Torvalds, Linus Toynbee, Arnold Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) translation software Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) transparency, in workplace Transparent (TV series) Trestman, Marc tribalism Tropic of Chaos (Parenti) Truman, Harry Trump, Donald trust: community and; financial flows and; as human quality; politics and; sharing economy and; as social capital; social technologies and Trust (Fukuyama) truth, live video and Tunisia TurboTax Turki, Karim Turner, Adair 24/7 Customer Twenty-Fourth Marine Expeditionary Unit Twin Cities Business Twin Cities Metropolitan Council Twitter 2G wireless networks typewriters Uber; surge pricing algorithms of Udacity Uganda, population growth in Ukraine; 2014 uprising in unemployment, political instability and Unesco United Bearing United Nations; Human Development Report Office of; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of; Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of; Population Division of; Refugee Agency (UNHCR) of United Press International (UPI) United States: China’s relations with; global dependence on; illegal immigration into; immigrant entrepreneurs in; Madagascar and; Middle East policy of; population growth in; post–Cold War hegemony of; Russia’s relations with UPS USA Today value sets: of author; community and; cultural identity and; in opinion writing; sustainable vs. situational; see also ethics, innovation in van Agtmael, Antoine Vedantam, Shankar Venezuela Venmo Ventura, Jesse Veritas Genetics Verizon version control systems Vestberg, Hans video, live, empathy and video games Vietnam Vietnam War Visa Vital Signs of the Planet (NASA report) voice prints Volkswagen Beetle Vox.com wage insurance Wakefield Research Walensky, Norm Walker, Robert Wall Street Journal Walmart, online operations of Wanamaker, John Wanstrath, Chris Warburg, Bettina Waryan, Don Washington Post Waters, Colin water scarcity Watson, Thomas Watson (computer) Watson (software): medical applications of weak signals, detection of weak states: in age of accelerations; biodiversity loss in; breakers and; building stability in; civil wars in; climate change and; in Cold War era; contrived borders of; dwindling foreign aid to; global flows and; infrastructure in; Internet and; population growth in; risk to interdependent world of We Are All Khaled Said (Facebook page) Webster University WeChat Weekend Edition (radio show) Weiner, Jeff Weisman, Alan Welby, Justin Wells, Lin Welsh, Tim West Africa; Ebola outbreak in; migration from WhatIs.com WhatsApp “When and Why Nationalism Beats Globalism” (Haidt) White House, 2015 drone crash at White House Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) Whitman, Meg “Why ‘Keep Your Paddle in the Water’ Is Bad Advice for Beginners” (Levesque) “Why What You Learned in Preschool Is Crucial at Work” (Miller) Wieseltier, Leon Wikipedia Williams, Jake Wilson, Dan wind energy Windows Wired wireless networks wisdom, patience and Wolf, Frank women: education of; empowerment of WomenNewsNetwork.net workforce, innovation in; accelerated pace of; blending of technical and interpersonal skills in; computerization and; connectivity and; disruption in; education and; empowerment in; high-wage, middle-skilled jobs in; intelligent assistance in, see intelligent assistance; intelligent assistants and; lifelong learning and; mentors in; middle class and; new social contracts in; on-demand jobs in; retraining in; self-motivation and; self-reinvention and; skill sets and, see skill sets; technological change and; transparency and; see also job seekers World Bank World Cup (2014) World Is Flat, The (Friedman) World of Disorder World of Order World Parks Congress, Sydney “World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision” (U.N.)


pages: 126 words: 37,081

Men Without Work by Nicholas Eberstadt

business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, deindustrialization, financial innovation, full employment, illegal immigration, jobless men, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral hazard, post-work, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

The timing of this fateful shift in work patterns may be significant. The year marked a watershed moment in American social history. It was then President Johnson rolled out his “Great Society” programs, giving birth to the modern welfare state as we know it today. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 initiated a huge new wave of immigration into the United States, substantially increasing legal and illegal immigration, boosting the country’s population, and altering its ethnic composition over the past half century. But 1965 was also an important social milestone for another reason: it was roughly then that a national crime wave began to sweep over the United States. The reaction to the explosion of criminality crystallized in a national consensus that America should suppress crime by arresting, convicting, and incarcerating felons.


Care to Make Love in That Gross Little Space Between Cars?: A Believer Book of Advice by The Believer, Judd Apatow, Patton Oswalt

Albert Einstein, Donald Trump, illegal immigration, Saturday Night Live, side project, telemarketer

How do you decide who gets to be the dominant one and who has to wear the handcuffs and have things done to his or her nipples? Should we flip a coin? Anonymous Chicago, IL Dear Anonymous: Are you sure you’re not my congressman who I saw at that “Eyes Wide Shut Party” about two years ago? Remember? I believe you spilled cider on my harness and kept bragging to me that you had a split dick and your wife was into space docking. Anyway, I really admire your stand on illegal immigration. Rich Merrill Markoe Dear Merrill: Say you’ve discovered you have bedbugs—at what point do you have to tell your roommates? And say those roommates are not actually your roommates, but a girl who just spent the night and is now asking what all the “red marks” are on her arms. What then? Sammy St. Paul, MN Dear Sammy: In a situation this dicey, obviously you should put off any discussion as long as you can.


pages: 374 words: 114,660

The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality by Angus Deaton

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, Columbian Exchange, creative destruction, declining real wages, Downton Abbey, end world poverty, financial innovation, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, John Snow's cholera map, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, new economy, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, structural adjustment programs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trade route, very high income, War on Poverty

Family incomes have kept up only because more women have been participating in the labor force, so that more families now have more than one earner. What then has been keeping wages down? Globalization is a part of the story; the manufacture of many goods that used to be made in the United States by low-skilled workers has moved to poorer countries, and many companies have sent offshore jobs that used to be done domestically, including “back-office” work (like claims processing) and customer call centers. Legal and illegal immigration has also been blamed for downward pressure on low-skill wages, though such claims remain controversial, and some credible studies show that the effect is small. The rising cost of medical care has also been important; most employees receive health insurance as part of their overall compensation, and most research shows that increases in premiums ultimately come out of wages.16 Indeed, average wages have tended to do badly when health-care costs are rising most rapidly and to do better when health-care costs are rising more slowly.17 The share of GDP going to health care, only 5 percent in 1960, was 8 percent in the mid-1970s but had risen to nearly 18 percent by 2009.

The fraction of private-sector workers who were union members declined from 24 percent in 1973 to only 6.6 percent in 2012. Although the unionization of public-sector workers increased in the 1970s, it has been stagnant since 1979; the majority of union members are now in the public sector. The declining political clout of unions is made worse by the fact that there are other groups that can’t vote at all. Illegal immigrants obviously do not vote, but neither do legal immigrants who are not citizens. Between 1972 and 2002, the ratio of noncitizens to the voting-age population rose fourfold at the same time as they became poorer relative to the general population. As immigration policies changed, legal immigrants moved from being relatively well heeled to being relatively poor; their political voice was quieted even as the political power of unions declined.


pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

Failure to comply with an expulsion order could result in imprisonment.55 By 1936, the foreign population of France had declined by over half a million from its peak.56 The economic crisis in Germany was more long-lasting and had been associated with an even sharper restriction on foreign workers. After World War I, relatively few foreigners worked in Germany, with numbers declining to about 100,000 in 1932 after reaching about a million in 1907.57 Foreign laborers were highly regulated through “strict state control of labour recruitment, employment preference for nationals, sanctions against employers of illegal immigrants and unrestricted police power to deport unwanted foreigners.”58 The Weimar Ordinance on Foreign Workers, which centralized a restrictive admission and control policy, was later implemented by the Nazi regime. With the appointment of Adolf Hitler as German Chancellor in 1933, the ideal of racial purity initially precluded the use of foreign labor. Economic interest quickly overrode ideology, however.

Many others try to enter without authorization. The hiring regulations around high-skilled jobs are more consistently enforced than those around low-skilled workers, so undocumented migrants may work undetected for years. Working outside of the law exposes them to exploitation and abuse. The regulation/enforcement gap in low-skilled sectors represents a political compromise for governments that face pressure to be “tough on illegal immigration,” when key sectors of the economy depend heavily on the low-skilled labor that they provide. Undocumented migration is quietly tolerated because such migrants are feeding critical demands in the workforce. The current situation will be increasingly untenable in the coming decades. Developed countries cannot continue to meet the growing gaps in their workforces through growth in undocumented migration.


pages: 434 words: 117,327

Can It Happen Here?: Authoritarianism in America by Cass R. Sunstein

active measures, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, anti-communist, anti-globalists, availability heuristic, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, Nate Silver, Network effects, New Journalism, night-watchman state, obamacare, Potemkin village, random walk, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the scientific method, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey

Consider, for example, the dictator’s strategy of enforcing generally applicable laws more harshly against his political opponents than against ordinary people, who might be left alone completely. Most generally applicable laws are enforced by the states and local police, not by the federal government. Even enforcement of federal laws, which overlap with state laws in many ways, requires cooperation with local authorities. Already some cities have announced that they will not cooperate with Trump’s plan to round up illegal immigrants; they could even actively shield illegal immigrants from federal authorities. The federal government can impose its will on the states in many ways—by, for example, bestowing or withholding funds, or simply enacting new laws and enforcing them with federal agents. But limits on such control are formidable. The large number of states, their historical independence, the important role that state officials play in the party system, and numerous other factors suggest that they will present significant pockets of resistance to any president who seeks to be dictator.


Super Thinking: The Big Book of Mental Models by Gabriel Weinberg, Lauren McCann

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, anti-pattern, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, business process, butterfly effect, Cal Newport, Clayton Christensen, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, discounted cash flows, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Edward Snowden, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, fear of failure, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, framing effect, friendly fire, fundamental attribution error, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hindsight bias, housing crisis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, income inequality, information asymmetry, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, lateral thinking, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, mail merge, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, Milgram experiment, minimum viable product, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, p-value, Parkinson's law, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, placebo effect, Potemkin village, prediction markets, premature optimization, price anchoring, principal–agent problem, publication bias, recommendation engine, remote working, replication crisis, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Schrödinger's Cat, selection bias, Shai Danziger, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, survivorship bias, The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, uber lyft, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

Sometimes I settle for less than I sought, but in most cases I still end up with what I want. More broadly, these mental models are all instances of a more general model, availability bias, which occurs when a bias, or distortion, creeps into your objective view of reality thanks to information recently made available to you. In the U.S., illegal immigration has been a hot topic with conservative pundits and politicians in recent years, leading many people to believe it is at an all-time high. Yet the data suggests that illegal immigration via the southern border is actually at a five-decade low, indicating that the prevalence of the topic is creating an availability bias for many. U.S. Southern Border Apprehensions: at Five-Decade Low Availability bias can easily emerge from high media coverage of a topic. Rightly or wrongly, the media infamously has a mantra of “If it bleeds, it leads.”


pages: 387 words: 120,155

Inside the Nudge Unit: How Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference by David Halpern

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, collaborative consumption, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, different worldview, endowment effect, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, hindsight bias, IKEA effect, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, libertarian paternalism, light touch regulation, longitudinal study, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nudge unit, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, presumed consent, QR code, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, the built environment, theory of mind, traffic fines, twin studies, World Values Survey

But despite a number of conversations with political advisers and senior officials in the relevant department, we made little progress for several years, even with the support of the PM. It probably didn’t help that the political advisers in that department weren’t big fans of Steve Hilton, and perhaps coincidentally the department did eventually warm to the approach after he left, at least around some issues. Other ideas that fell on political grounds in 2010–15 included those around illegal immigration (to break the implicit collusion between rogue employers and illegal employees); healthcare (such as clarifying the wishes of patients approaching end of life); social inequality (encouraging people to bequeath benefits to later generations); and changes to incentives to encourage employers to take on the long-term unemployed (in effect, offering a money-back guarantee to take on a young, unemployed person).

Critics might argue that the increase in confidence would have happened anyway, or be entirely due to other factors. Many such issues continue to pass through government in-trays and Ministerial boxes. Some are driven from inside government itself, and many by public demand. Is there more that can be done about the cost of living, to promote social mobility, or address mental health? What to do about new forms of crime, such as cyber-theft or bullying, illegal immigration, or obesity? Should we introduce taxes on unhealthy foods? Should we legalise certain drugs? Many of these issues are choices for society, as markets, technology and preferences evolve, with strong business and special interest views arrayed around them. The key challenge for behavioural scientists is whether our approaches can identify solutions to these challenges that traditional analysis may have missed.


pages: 372 words: 111,573

10% Human: How Your Body's Microbes Hold the Key to Health and Happiness by Alanna Collen

Asperger Syndrome, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, biofilm, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, David Strachan, discovery of penicillin, Drosophila, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, John Snow's cholera map, Kickstarter, Louis Pasteur, Maui Hawaii, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, placebo effect, the scientific method

But when the microbiota gets out of balance, it acts a bit like a mild version of V. cholerae, irritating the immune system. In response, the immune system tries to defend itself by releasing zonulin to loosen the chains, uncouple the cells of the intestinal walls and flush out the system. The gut lining is no longer an impenetrable wall, keeping out everything but tiny food molecules. Instead, it has grown leaky. Through the gaps between the cells seep all sorts of illegal immigrants, making their way to the promised land of the body. Now, this takes us into controversial territory. The concept of a leaky gut is a favourite of the alternative health industry, which can be as rapacious and truth-distorting as its more mainstream sibling, Big Pharma. Claims that ‘leaky gut syndrome’ is the root of all illness, and many other evils beside, are as old as the industry itself.

But the concept may need a rethink, and a rebrand, in the face of the scepticism it currently incurs. Good-quality scientific work into its importance in the genesis of a number of conditions is currently overshadowed by its sullied past. Obesity, allergies, autoimmune diseases and mental health conditions all show significant rises in the permeability of the intestines, with chronic inflammation ensuing. This inflammation comes in the form of an overactive immune system, reacting to the illegal immigrants crossing the gut’s border into the body: from food molecules such as gluten and lactose to bacterial products such as LPS. Sometimes the body’s own cells get caught in the cross-fire, resulting in autoimmune diseases. A balanced and healthy microbiota seems to act as a gatekeeping force reinforcing the integrity of the gut and protecting the sanctity of the body. Not only are allergens and the body’s own cells in the firing line, but also certain members of the microbiota, as appears to be the case with the most ubiquitous of diseases of civilisation: acne.


pages: 397 words: 114,841

High Steel: The Daring Men Who Built the World's Greatest Skyline by Jim Rasenberger

collective bargaining, Donald Trump, East Village, illegal immigration, MITM: man-in-the-middle, strikebreaker, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, union organizing, urban planning, young professional

By the early 1920s, Mohawks were regularly crossing the border to work on bridges and buildings up and down the Eastern Seaboard, traveling together in tight four-man gangs, communicating on the steel in Mohawk, boarding together wherever they could find inexpensive housing. The practice was nearly halted in 1925 when an ironworker named Paul Diabo (a common surname at Kahnawake) was arrested for illegal immigration while working on the Delaware River Bridge at Philadelphia. Diabo’s case resulted in a landmark decision by a federal court in 1927. Citing the 150-year-old Jay Treaty, the judge ruled that Mohawks, whose land had once overlapped parts of both countries, were entitled to pass freely over the border from Canada into the United States. The ruling removed legal hurdles for the Mohawk itinerants but it didn’t make the commute any shorter.

See also falling ironworkers and Mohawks and helicopter cranes Hell’s Gate Bridge heroes, ironworkers as Hine, Lewis Wickes Hoare, E. A. Hockin, Harry hole Homeguard Home Insurance Building hooker-ons Hoover, J. Edgar Horn, Ky Hot Wrench connectors housesmiths. See also ironworkers Housesmiths’ and Bridgemen’s Society. See also Parks, Sam Housesmiths Mutual Protection Association Iannielli, Edward Icarus high up on Empire State ice idleness illegal immigration injuries. See accidents; falling; fatalities Institute of the Ironworking Industry International Association of Bridge, Structural and Ornamental Ironworkers International Association of Bridge and Structural Ironworkers Irish iron. See also steel ironworkers accident dangers for, (see also accidents) bars and drinking beating the wow bridgemen as early, (see also bridgemen) climbing columns B.


Central America by Carolyn McCarthy, Greg Benchwick, Joshua Samuel Brown, Alex Egerton, Matthew Firestone, Kevin Raub, Tom Spurling, Lucas Vidgen

airport security, Bartolomé de las Casas, California gold rush, call centre, centre right, clean water, cognitive dissonance, currency manipulation / currency intervention, digital map, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Joan Didion, land reform, liberation theology, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

The award-winning La casa de enfrente (2003), directed by Tonatiúh Martínez, delves into such gritty subjects as corruption and prostitution; it’s part of the new wave of Guatemalan filmmaking. Director Paz Fabrega won international awards for 2010’s Agua fría de mar (Cold Sea Water), the Costa Rican story of a young couple and a seven-year-old girl from opposite sides of the social spectrum. Sin nombre (Nameless) was a 2009 Sundance prize winner about gangs and illegal immigration that opens in Honduras. The first Panamanian-made commercial film was 2009’s Chance, a worthy tropical comedy about class shenanigans, told by two maids. Also from Panama, Burwa dii Ebo (The Wind and the Water), an official 2008 Sundance selection, follows an indigenous Kuna teenager who moves to Panama City. Though yet to be commercially distributed, it has also won awards in Toronto and Chile.

Bonampak, famous for its frescoes, is 148km by road from Palenque; the bigger and more important Yaxchilán, with a peerless jungle setting beside the broad and swift Río Usumacinta, is 173km by road, then about 22km by boat. The Carretera Fronteriza is the main thoroughfare connecting a number of excellent ecotourism projects including some in the Lacandón village of Lacanjá Chansayab (see boxed text, opposite page). For information on other ecotourism projects in the area, check out www.laselvadechiapas.com. Dangers & Annoyances Drug trafficking and illegal immigration are facts of life in this border region, and the Carretera Fronteriza more or less encircles the main area of Zapatista rebel activity and support, so expect numerous military checkpoints along the road and from this area to Palenque and Comitán. For your own security, it’s best to be off the Carretera Fronteriza before dusk. Tours The Mesoamerican Ecotourism Alliance (www.travelwithmea.org) organizes all-inclusive trips to the region, including the Lacandón villages of Nahá and Metzabok.

The ongoing test for the new administration will be whether or not it can curb the actions of the Mara Salvatrucha (mara means ‘gang’, trucha means ‘clever trout’). Also known as M-13 and M-18, these gangs of roughly 100,000 across Central America were formed in the US in response to orchestrated attacks by Mexicans. Deported en masse between 2000 and 2004, the maras became heavily involved in drug cartels, guns, the sex trade and illegal immigration. Despite countless arrests, the previous government’s policy of Super Mano Dura failed to have a lasting impact. THE CULTURE The National Psyche Most travelers who have been to El Salvador rate its people as the best part. Straight-talking, strong-minded and hard-working, Salvadorans are also extremely helpful and almost universally friendly (even gang members can rustle up charm when interviewed).


pages: 752 words: 201,334

Like Dreamers: The Story of the Israeli Paratroopers Who Reunited Jerusalem and Divided a Nation by Yossi Klein Halevi

back-to-the-land, Boycotts of Israel, Burning Man, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, mass immigration, New Journalism, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, Transnistria, Yom Kippur War

They passed the rows of flat white stones and came to a stone from which rose a modest pillar and on which was chiseled a single word, Anatole’s Hebrew name, “Elimelech.” Though Avital had only been five years old at the time, he vividly recalled that terrible day in 1946, just before Hanukkah, when Anatole was killed. It began with a rumor. Word reached Ein Shemer that British soldiers were surrounding Kibbutz Givat Haim, searching for “illegal immigrants,” as the British referred to Holocaust survivors trying to reach the land of Israel. Jews from around the area, including forty young men from Ein Shemer, rushed toward the besieged kibbutz. In fact there were no survivors hiding there, and the British were instead searching for members of the Haganah Zionist militia who had destroyed a radar station monitoring the sea for refugee boats.

The eighty reservists of Company A included veterans of the paratroopers’ retaliation raids of the mid-1950s, like Arik’s brother-in-law Yosef Schwartz, known informally as Yoske Balagan (“Yoske the mayhem maker”), who was married to Rina’s sister. The veterans loved to tell Yoske stories, like the time he responded to cancellation of weekend leave by setting fire to a field near the base, forcing the army to send the men home. Yoske’s buddy in Company A was Aryeh Weiner, a neighbor of Arik’s from Netzer Sereni. Weiner, whose family survived the war in Romania, had come to pre-state Israel alone at age twelve on an illegal immigrant boat running the British blockade. He claimed he’d gotten his father’s agreement to leave, thanks to a card game: If I win this hand, his father had said, you have my blessings. His father won, and Weiner set off for the Holy Land. Weiner and Yoske wouldn’t let Arik forget that he wasn’t a veteran like them. Who does he think he is, they demanded, this guy who’s never experienced real combat?

Seven-year-old Yisrael would leave the hold, with its iron bunks from floor to ceiling laid so close together that survivors said it reminded them of the camps, and wander up to the deck, just to watch the kibbutznik sailors and listen to their songs. Then two British speedboats appeared. Loudspeakers demanded the surrender of the crew. In the brief battle, refugees threw iron bars at the British soldiers boarding the ship. When the British took control of the ship, Yisrael stood with the grown-ups and sang “Hatikvah,” the Zionist anthem of hope. The Hasenfratzes were sent to a detention camp on Cyprus for illegal immigrants, and eventually landed in Haifa, where they remained, collapsing into the first embrace of home. Growing up in Haifa in the early 1950s, in a two-room apartment that his family shared with another family of survivors, Yisrael dreamed of becoming a kibbutznik—the ultimate Israeli. As an Orthodox boy and a member of the Bnei Akiva youth movement, he would join one of the handful of religious kibbutzim.


Days of Fire: Bush and Cheney in the White House by Peter Baker

addicted to oil, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bob Geldof, buy low sell high, card file, clean water, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, drone strike, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, South China Sea, stem cell, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, working poor, Yom Kippur War

Bullock proved to be such a close ally that he endorsed the Republican governor for reelection in 1998, even though he was godfather to the son of the Democratic nominee, Garry Mauro. With Newt Gingrich the harsh-edged, shut-the-government face of the Republican Party in Washington, Bush stood out as a different kind of Republican, one trying not only to forge bipartisan alliances but to break out of the old paradigm of a seemingly heartless conservatism. He drew attention for disagreeing with Governor Pete Wilson’s attempts in California to limit public benefits for illegal immigrants, and he implemented policies intended to address social ills but through more conservative means. His willingness to buck party orthodoxy attracted the likes of Mark McKinnon, a Democratic media consultant who switched parties to work for Bush. In February 1998, Bush visited a juvenile detention center in Marlin, Texas, and was surprised when a fifteen-year-old African American boy locked up for petty theft asked, “What do you think about us?”

The federal government must take this threat seriously.” Just as Clinton had sought to shift the Democratic Party away from its liberal, soft-on-crime, weak-on-defense, pro-welfare identity, Bush was now trying to redefine the Republican Party, sanding off the harsher edges of the Gingrich revolution. Instead of what Karen Hughes called “grinchy old Republican” promises to abolish the Department of Education and deport illegal immigrants, Bush advocated more federal intervention in schools to fight the “soft bigotry of low expectations” and more acceptance of the millions of undocumented workers. Hughes was a driving force behind this approach. An army brat born in Paris, she moved with her family to Texas, where she studied journalism at Southern Methodist University and then went into television news. Eventually, she became a political operative and went to work for Bush, bonding over their shared devotion to religion.

Gonzales, facing his own confirmation process for attorney general, grilled Kerik for hours. But in the end, Bush liked Kerik and brushed aside concerns. It was a revealing miscalculation. In the week after the announcement, a torrent of media stories highlighted Kerik’s checkered past, until finally people at Giuliani’s firm scouring Kerik’s finances discovered he had not paid Social Security taxes for a nanny who apparently was an illegal immigrant. Kerik later said the White House knew about everything that became public except the nanny. So the nanny became the excuse given for pushing Kerik to withdraw on December 10. The political damage did not last long, but it should have been an alarm bell inside the White House. With reelection behind them, the danger was the sort of hubris that leads a president to believe that a fundamentally flawed nominee could still be pushed through Senate confirmation.


pages: 143 words: 43,096

Tel Aviv 2015: The Retro Travel Guide by Claudia Stein

illegal immigration, Louis Pasteur, low cost airline, New Urbanism, urban planning

The construction work for this building started in 1990 and its name is reminiscent of the golden times of the Israeli Opera and the square in front, reminiscent of the first year after the foundation of the State of Israel: the Opera Tower at Knesset Square. On 19 of 23 floors, there are luxury flats with a private pool on the rooftop. In the lower part of the building, there is a shopping mall with several movie theaters. 8) London Square Right behind the Orchid Hotel, you will find a little garden with sculptures like ships. This is the memorial for the Aliya Bet (in Israel, “ha-apala”), the “illegal” immigration of Jewish refugees. Historic photos and documentation explain the events. On the eve of the Reichskristallnacht – night of the broken glass – the government of the British Mandate published the 1939 White Paper that also contained the quota of Jewish refugees that were allowed to enter Palestine in the coming years. A subdivision of the HAGANA, Mossad le Aliya Bet, organized the clandestine immigration of Jewish refugees from Europe between 1938 and May, 1948.


pages: 376 words: 121,254

Cocaine Nation: How the White Trade Took Over the World by Thomas Feiling

anti-communist, barriers to entry, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, illegal immigration, informal economy, inventory management, Kickstarter, land reform, Lao Tzu, mandatory minimum, moral panic, offshore financial centre, RAND corporation, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Stanford prison experiment, trade route, upwardly mobile, yellow journalism

Twenty-five years ago, illegal drugs were usually first or second and certainly never lower than fourth in polls of public concerns in the United States. Now the drugs issue trails many others. The country’s political agenda is dominated by the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the measures introduced to manage the recession. The only other domestic issues likely to intrude are healthcare reform and illegal immigration. Scare stories about drugs have passed their sell-by dates. In New York City, the crack scare that so gripped the press in the 1980s came to a swift end once the police had been granted the resources to take back the city’s streets. That done, coverage of drug use and drug markets became onerous and unhelpful. After then Mayor Rudy Giuliani adopted a policy of withholding information about drug-related homicides and counter-drugs operations from the press, drug stories fell off the front pages.

The strongest nation in the world now sees itself as besieged by forces beyond its control.’12 In this intoxicating atmosphere of all-pervading fear, it becomes all the more difficult to persuade Americans that the legalization of drugs would supply more, not less, peace and order. However dramatic the failure to prohibit the use of certain drugs, the lack of a sober appraisal ensures that prohibition is unlikely to be repealed on the grounds of health, ethics or human rights. As countering terrorism, preventing illegal immigration and staving off economic decline come to dominate the political agenda, all three are going to demand greater resources and manpower. The war on drugs will most likely be abandoned for financial reasons, as the United States government is forced to accept that it doesn’t have the resources to prosecute this war to its logical conclusion. It is just a week since the election of Barack Obama to the White House.


pages: 492 words: 118,882

The Blockchain Alternative: Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy and Economic Theory by Kariappa Bheemaiah

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, bank run, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, cellular automata, central bank independence, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, constrained optimization, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, deskilling, Diane Coyle, discrete time, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, interest rate derivative, inventory management, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, large denomination, liquidity trap, London Whale, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, MITM: man-in-the-middle, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, precariat, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, QR code, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Real Time Gross Settlement, rent control, rent-seeking, Satoshi Nakamoto, Satyajit Das, savings glut, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, supply-chain management, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Von Neumann architecture, Washington Consensus

The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) acts as the central identity provider, controlling who has access to the data that they collect and store. To receive a card, individuals submit various documents to a local registrar. If they are unable to provide documentation, an “introducer,” such as an elected representative or a local teacher or doctor, can vouch for the person’s identity. This parallel process decreases the chance of UIDAI storing inaccurate information or providing social services to illegal immigrants or other illicit actors. The UIDAI has a database that holds information such as name, date of birth, and biometrics data that may include a photograph, fingerprint, iris scan, or other information. The Aadhaar program has been very effective in increasing financial inclusion with over one billion people enrolled for accounts; however, there are still some outstanding concerns about information protection and privacy.

A 2014 study done across seven countries (Canada, Australia, Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the United States) by the Federal Reserve of Boston showed that cash is by the most common means of payment vehicle for small size/low-value transactions ($5, $10), but for larger payments it is increasingly insignificant. However, the same cannot be said for the underground economy. The underground economy includes not only illegal activities such as terrorism, drug trade, bribery, human trafficking, and money laundering, but also tax evasion via cash payments and employment of illegal immigrants. Some crimes are more serious than others, but irrespective of the type of crime being committed, it is the size of the underground economy and especially the impact of tax evasion that are truly noteworthy. Studies done by the US Internal Revenue Service (IRS), show that business owners and corporations report less than their income to evade taxes. As of 2015, one study found that this led to a tax gap (difference between taxes paid and taxes due) of $500 billion in federal taxes in 2015 alone (Rogoff, 2016).


pages: 677 words: 121,255

Giving the Devil His Due: Reflections of a Scientific Humanist by Michael Shermer

Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, Chelsea Manning, clean water, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, creative destruction, dark matter, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, gun show loophole, Hans Rosling, hedonic treadmill, helicopter parent, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, Laplace demon, luminiferous ether, McMansion, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, moral hazard, moral panic, More Guns, Less Crime, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, positional goods, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, working poor, Yogi Berra

In his Mars trilogy (Red Mars, Green Mars, Blue Mars), Kim Stanley Robinson plays out the consequences of transnational corporations (“transnats”) gaining enough control and power over Martian citizens, leading to a balance between a global government overseeing relatively autonomous settlements and cities and a blended economic system of capitalism, socialism, and environmental conservationism; this works so well that soon Martians face the problem of illegal immigration – from Earthlings whose planet has suffered from environmental ruin. According to the renowned science fiction author (and physicist) David Brin (The Postman, Kiln People, Uplift War), whom I queried on the matter, “New, cyber technologies do offer a chance for meaningful revisions of democracy that would make it more responsive while retaining some benefits of delegation.”7 He suggests two: (1) Self-sorted constituencies: “Let any 750,000 Americans gather and claim a US Congressional Representative.

“I Have a Dream…” Speech by the Rev. Martin Luther King at the “March on Washington”. US Government Archives. https://bit.ly/2fmjJXA 5. BLM (#blacklivesmater), BDM (Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions of Israel), MSM (Main Stream Media), LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, questioning, intersex), SJW (Social Justice Warriors), #metoo (Harvey Weinstein), #TakeAKnee (NFL national anthem protests), Dreamers (children of illegal immigrants born in the USA), Google Memo (the firing of James Demore), Milo (Yiannopoulos), Charlottesville (neo-Nazis), Evergreen (protests against professor Bret Weinstein), Berkeley (protests against Milo, Ann Coulter, et al.), Yale (protests over Halloween costumes), Middlebury (protests against Charles Murray), Parkland (school shooting), microaggressions (offensive words or phrases), safe spaces (places for students to go after hearing offensive speech), no platforming (disinvitation of speakers), hate speech (v. free speech). 6.


pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

Lately, the American public has begun to worry about these issues, and the immigration question is moving higher up on the national agenda. The overwhelming approval of Proposition 187 in California during the November 1994 elections reflected a rising anti-immigrant feeling—in a nation forged of immigrants. More recently, we have seen television coverage of illegal border crossings and reports on efforts to erect physical barriers to stem the tide of illegal immigration from Mexico; CNN has almost daily news reports under the rubric "broken borders." But on the question of assisting other countries in family-planning campaigns, there is no consensus in the United States. POPULATION AND ENVIRONMENT Even if human population stabilizes some time in the second half of this century, and even if it then commences an overall decline, it will be too late for much of what remains today of forests and wildlife that sustain environments and link us with our past.

The Argentinian press reports that known militants' telephone traffic, fiscal transactions, and travel patterns indicate links not only to Sao Paulo and Lebanon but also to disorderly Guayaquil, one of South America's toughest cities, and to sprawling Maracaibo in Venezuela. Where, beyond these cities, the trails lead is uncertain, but consider this: the United States is flanked to the north by a dependable neighbor and to the east and west by wide oceans, but to the south it is exposed to access in various forms, from illegal immigration overland to stepping-stone entry via islands in the Caribbean. The logical route for terrorists would surely be from the south, and the staging area may very well be the Triple Frontier. In recent years the situation has become still more complicated because Venezuela has taken on the characteristics of a malfunctioning state. While the situation in neighboring Colombia, also malfunctioning and under terrorist threat, has remained a largely domestic matter.


pages: 913 words: 299,770

A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn

active measures, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, American ideology, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, God and Mammon, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, jobless men, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

For perhaps half a million legal immigrants, passing the tests required for becoming a citizen was quite impossible—they could not read English, were sick or disabled, or were just too old to learn. An immigrant from Portugal living in Massachusetts told a reporter, through an interpreter: “Every day we are afraid the letter will come. What will we do if we lose our checks? We will starve. Oh, my God. It will not be worth living.” Illegal immigrants fleeing poverty in Mexico began to face harsher treatment in the early nineties. Thousands of border guards were added. A Reuters dispatch from Mexico City (April 3, 1997) said about the tougher policy: “Any crackdown against illegal immigration automatically angers Mexicans, millions of whom migrate, legally and illegally, across the 2,000-mile border to the United States in search of jobs each year.” Hundreds of thousands of Central Americans who had fled death squads in Guatemala and El Salvador while the United States was giving military aid to those governments now faced deportation because they had never been deemed “political” refugees.

The new conditions of technology, economics, and war, in the atomic age, make it less and less possible for the guards of the system—the intellectuals, the home owners, the taxpayers, the skilled workers, the professionals, the servants of government—to remain immune from the violence (physical and psychic) inflicted on the black, the poor, the criminal, the enemy overseas. The internationalization of the economy, the movement of refugees and illegal immigrants across borders, both make it more difficult for the people of the industrial countries to be oblivious to hunger and disease in the poor countries of the world. All of us have become hostages in the new conditions of doomsday technology, runaway economics, global poisoning, uncontainable war. The atomic weapons, the invisible radiations, the economic anarchy, do not distinguish prisoners from guards, and those in charge will not be scrupulous in making distinctions.

An ex-GI who had been mutilated by an American land mine came to Minneapolis to join the campaign, joined by a young woman who was traveling all over the world to tell people of the children dying on all continents as a result of millions of land mines planted by the United States and other nations. Four nuns, the “McDonald sisters,” who were indeed sisters, participated in the protest, and were arrested. In 1994 in Los Angeles, in opposition to a new California law that took away basic health and educational rights from the children of illegal immigrants, a quarter of a million people took to the streets in protest. When the United States made clear its intention to drop bombs on Iraq, presumably because Iraq was not allowing inspection of what American officials called “weapons of mass destruction,” Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and other officials spoke to a town meeting in Columbus, Ohio, to build up public support for the bombing.


pages: 1,071 words: 295,220

Rise and Kill First: The Secret History of Israel's Targeted Assassinations by Ronen Bergman

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, card file, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, Ronald Reagan, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

After the British discovered that the officer had escaped, they sent out photographs of her taken during her imprisonment—front and side view—to all the military police stations. We went through the refugee camp and identified her. When we addressed her in German, she played the fool and said she only knew Hungarian. That wasn’t a problem. A Hungarian kid went up to her and said: “A ship carrying illegal immigrants from Hungary is about to sail for Palestine. Pack up your belongings quietly and come with us.” She had no choice but to take the bait and went with us in the truck. During this operation, I sat with Zaro [Meir Zorea, later an IDF general] in the back while Karmi drove. The order Karmi gave us was: “When I get some distance to a suitable deserted place, I’ll honk the horn. That will be the sign to get rid of her.”

He took part in many actions, including the sabotage of railroad lines and bridges, attacks on British police stations, and intelligence collecting. He was arrested several times by the CID. After World War II, when the Haganah command learned that Harari spoke a few languages, he was sent to Europe, to help with the transportation of the surviving Jewish refugees to Israel. He was involved in the secret acquisition of ships and the complicated logistics involved in moving these illegal immigrants through the ruins of Europe to the boats, then smuggling them into Palestine under the noses of the British. “That was the period during which I created for myself the criteria and the methods for covert activities abroad, the tools that I used later on in the Mossad.” After the establishment of the state, Isser Harel recruited Harari to the Shin Bet and then the Mossad, where he rose rapidly before being assigned to investigate Caesarea’s operations.

When the Germans were gone, he crawled out of the mass grave, soaked in blood. Later in the war, after Meiri was captured and forced into hard labor at an airstrip, he saved the life of a senior Luftwaffe officer who crashed his Messerschmitt on the runway. Meiri climbed into the burning aircraft and rescued the unconscious pilot, thereby buying himself years of protection. After the war, he immigrated to Palestine on the famous illegal immigrant ship Exodus. He fought in the 1948 War of Independence, was taken prisoner, and once again miraculously survived after a Jordanian soldier began mowing the POWs down. Afterward, he joined the Shin Bet, serving on Ben-Gurion’s bodyguard detail. His colleagues and superiors noted that he was coolheaded and had no moral qualms about killing anyone who harmed Jews. “Nehemia used to get up in the morning with a knife between his teeth,” one of his team members recalled.


pages: 147 words: 45,890

Aftershock: The Next Economy and America's Future by Robert B. Reich

Berlin Wall, business cycle, declining real wages, delayed gratification, Doha Development Round, endowment effect, full employment, George Akerlof, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, job automation, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, mortgage debt, new economy, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, sovereign wealth fund, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, World Values Survey

The newly formed Independence Party pulls enough votes away from both the Republican and Democratic candidates to give its own candidate, Margaret Jones, a plurality of votes, an electoral college victory, and the presidency. A significant number of Independence Party members have also taken seats away from Democrats and Republicans in Congress. The platform of the Independence Party, as well as its message, is clear and uncompromising: zero tolerance of illegal immigrants; a freeze on legal immigration from Latin America, Africa, and Asia; increased tariffs on all imports; a ban on American companies moving their operations to another country or outsourcing abroad; a prohibition on foreign “sovereign wealth funds” investing in the United States. America will withdraw from the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund; end all “involvements” in foreign countries; refuse to pay any more interest on our debt to China, essentially defaulting on it; and stop trading with China unless China freely floats its currency.


pages: 537 words: 135,099

The Rough Guide to Amsterdam by Martin Dunford, Phil Lee, Karoline Thomas

banking crisis, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, low cost airline, Nelson Mandela, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, spice trade, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, young professional

The difficulties this created for the police were legion, so finally, in 1996, a special soliciting zone was established and a couple of years later brothels were legalized in the hope that together these changes would bring a degree of stability to the sex industry. The authorities were particularly keen to get a grip on the use of illegal immigrants as prostitutes and also to alleviate the problem of numbers. This legislation is partly the result of a long and determined campaign by the prostitutes’ trade union, De Rode Draad (“The Red Thread”), which has improved the lot of its members by setting up new health insurance and pension schemes – and generally fighting for regular employment rights for prostitutes. Whether this has happened or not is debatable: the number of “window brothels” is limited, so a significant group of women ply their trade illicitly in bars and hotels. There are still lots of illegal immigrants in the Red Light District, and lots of pimps too. The windows, which are rented out for upwards of €100 a day, are less easy to control than registered brothels, and at least half of the District’s prostitutes hand over some of their earnings to a pimp, who will usually be Dutch and often an ex-boyfriend.


pages: 476 words: 144,288

1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, Kickstarter, land reform, long peace, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip

They were essentially similar to the conclusions he had reached six months earlier – that 100,000 new immigrants should go to Palestine and that an autonomous, but not entirely independent, Jewish state should now be established. The Arabs vehemently opposed the plan from the start; the Jews broadly accepted it as a basis for negotiation. But a week later Attlee rejected the proposals out of hand, and warned that Britain would take firm action against the ‘illegal’ immigration routes Zionists had established to smuggle Jews from the camps in Germany to Palestine. Jewish guerrilla groups pledged to renew fighting to force the British to leave and grant them their homeland – Israel. It was this that escalated a small-scale series of skirmishes into a widespread war on terrorism – and underlined how painful Britain would find it to retreat from empire.10 * The 475,000 Jews already settled in Palestine, the Yishuv, had mixed feelings about the ‘surviving remnant’ of European Jewry in refugee camps.

We consider Jewish immigration into Palestine should be permitted without the present inhibitions . . . this is not a matter for which the British alone should take responsibility . . . it is indispensable that there should be close agreement and co-operation among the British, American and Soviet governments. Steps should be taken in consultation with these two governments to see whether we cannot get that common support for a policy which will give us a happy, free and prosperous Jewish state in Palestine. Elsewhere, Dalton made it clear to Labour colleagues that it was ‘inherent in our . . . [policy] that there should henceforth be no such thing as a Jewish illegal immigrant.’26 But once in office the Labour leadership changed its mind. The blame for Britain’s failure in Palestine has principally been laid on Ernest Bevin, the Foreign Secretary. In 1946, Bevin was sixty-five, a huge bear of a man and one of the great figures in Labour history – ‘a colossus in more ways than one’, Attlee called him. As the founder of the Transport and General Workers’ Union, he was the most powerful trade union leader there has ever been in Britain.


pages: 539 words: 139,378

The Righteous Mind: Why Good People Are Divided by Politics and Religion by Jonathan Haidt

affirmative action, Black Swan, cognitive bias, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, invisible hand, lateral thinking, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Necker cube, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, social web, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, ultimatum game

On the left, concerns about equality and social justice are based in part on the Fairness foundation—wealthy and powerful groups are accused of gaining by exploiting those at the bottom while not paying their “fair share” of the tax burden. This is a major theme of the Occupy Wall Street movement, which I visited in October 2011 (see figure 7.5).17 On the right, the Tea Party movement is also very concerned about fairness. They see Democrats as “socialists” who take money from hardworking Americans and give it to lazy people (including those who receive welfare or unemployment benefits) and to illegal immigrants (in the form of free health care and education).18 FIGURE 7.5. Fairness left and right. Top: Sign at Occupy Wall Street, Zuccotti Park, New York City. Bottom: Sign at Tea Party rally, Washington, DC (photo by Emily Ekins). Everyone believes that taxes should be “fair.” (photo credit 7.2) Everyone cares about fairness, but there are two major kinds. On the left, fairness often implies equality, but on the right it means proportionality—people should be rewarded in proportion to what they contribute, even if that guarantees unequal outcomes. 3.

By the time they reach high school and begin to take an interest in politics, the two siblings have chosen different activities (the sister joins the debate team in part for the opportunity to travel; the brother gets more involved with his family’s church) and amassed different friends (the sister joins the goths; the brother joins the jocks). The sister chooses to go to college in New York City, where she majors in Latin American studies and finds her calling as an advocate for the children of illegal immigrants. Because her social circle is entirely composed of liberals, she is enmeshed in a moral matrix based primarily on the Care/harm foundation. In 2008, she is electrified by Barack Obama’s concern for the poor and his promise of change. The brother, in contrast, has no interest in moving far away to a big, dirty, and threatening city. He chooses to stay close to family and friends by attending the local branch of the state university.


pages: 433 words: 129,636

Dreamland: The True Tale of America's Opiate Epidemic by Sam Quinones

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, British Empire, call centre, centralized clearinghouse, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, feminist movement, illegal immigration, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, obamacare, zero-sum game

One question they addressed concerned the risk of addiction to pain patients when treated with narcotics. “The correct answer was ‘less than one percent,’” Meier wrote. The Man and the Nayarit Northern Nevada By the early 1990s, the Man was doing time at the Northern Nevada Correctional Center, a medium-security prison in Carson City. White inmates ran the yard; blacks were also a force. But the prison’s Mexican population was small and vulnerable. They were mostly illegal immigrants and first-time inmates, wary and quiet, and spoke no English. The Man, bilingual all his life, became their spokesman. Blacks and whites had their own large gardens, watered by underground pipes, where they could grow vegetables, melons, and other food. Mexicans had nothing. He lobbied for a plot where Mexicans could grow their food. Prison officials gave them a piece of land, but it had no water.

“It was an extremely high percentage of sales reps in various states who were making these allegations. This was done in all fifty states. That’s when you rise to corporate culpability.” By the fall of 2006, John Brownlee was prepared to file a case of criminal misbranding against Purdue Pharma, the maker of OxyContin. “Took Over the OxyContin Belt” Columbus, Ohio Forget you have