Berlin Wall

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pages: 669 words: 150,886

Behind the Berlin Wall: East Germany and the Frontiers of Power by Patrick Major

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, falling living standards, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, open borders, Post-materialism, post-materialism, refrigerator car, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Sinatra Doctrine

The Devil was claiming political asylum.³⁴ These witticisms included a high degree of self-deprecation, yet this willingness to see the irony of the situation did something to defuse East Germans’ anger, and reflected a growing identity as long-suffering easterners, but where the barbs were constantly pointed at the regime. ²⁸ Udo Grashoff, ‘In einem Anfall von Depression . . . ’: Selbsttötungen in der DDR (Berlin: Links, 2006), 218–27. ²⁹ Taylor, Berlin Wall, 186–201. ³⁰ Anna Funder, Stasiland: Stories from behind the Berlin Wall (London: Granta, 2003). ³¹ Weber, DDR, 98. ³² Fulbrook, People’s State, 18. ³³ Rita Kuczynski, Mauerblume: Ein Leben auf der Grenze (Munich: Claassen, 1999), 70. ³⁴ Newman, Behind the Berlin Wall, 76. 160 Behind the Berlin Wall Others have compared the numbing process to that of an amputee, as Berliners developed a ‘phantom pain’ and symptoms of ‘hospitalism’.³⁵ One of the rather obvious healing factors was geographic distance from the Wall. Saxons were assigned border duty because they supposedly did not have the same personal ties as Berliners.

Drafting his speech for the fraternal CPSU Plenary of January 1987, Krenz, Honecker’s designated ‘crown prince’, consciously omitted Gorbachevian phras-es, fearing ‘misinterpretation of real internal processes in the Soviet Union, but also in the GDR, if they are schematically applied to the conditions in our land’. Since perestroika pertained only to developing socialism, the GDR, as a ‘developed socialist society’, saw itself as exempt. Krenz casuistically rejected the ¹⁶ Taylor, Berlin Wall, 392–3. ¹⁷ Jeffrey Gedmin, The Hidden Hand: Gorbachev and the Collapse of East Germany (Washington, DC: AEI Press, 1992), 19. ¹⁸ Wilfried Loth, ‘Die Sowjetunion und das Ende der DDR’, in Jarausch and Sabrow (eds.), Weg, 124. ¹⁹ Hertle, Fall der Mauer, 264. ²⁰ Gedmin, Hidden Hand, 50. ²¹ Taylor, Berlin Wall, 400. 232 Behind the Berlin Wall notion of ‘new thinking’ for implying a ‘community of guilt for the explosive international situation’. It was instead chiefly applicable to the imperialist West. Since the party penetrated all levels of society, so it was reasoned, there was an acceptable degree of openness already.

Self-styled ‘freedom fighters’, such as John Runnings, ⁴¹ Ritter and Lapp, Grenze, 147. ⁴² For a selection see Helmut Schmitz, Spray-Athen: Graffiti in Berlin (Berlin: Rixdorfer, 1982); Harry Lorenz, Mauerkunst: Ein Berliner Zeitdokument (Berlin: Edition StadtBauKunst, 1991). ⁴³ Kurt Ausfelder, Kunst oder Chaos? Graffiti an der Berliner Mauer (Darmstadt: Das Beispiel, 1990), 9 and 37. ⁴⁴ Terry Tillmann, The Writings on the Wall: Peace at the Berlin Wall (Santa Monica, CA: 22/7, 1990), 31. The author was a leader of personal growth seminars, teaching pupils ‘how to remove their personal walls’, 13. ⁴⁵ Ausfelder, Kunst oder Chaos? , 69. ⁴⁶ Leland Rice, Up Against It: Photographs of the Berlin Wall (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1991), 11 and 16. ⁴⁷ Ibid., 8. 272 Behind the Berlin Wall used the Wall as a Cold War political noticeboard, announcing the ‘political declaration of war on military authority’ and the end to ‘kaputt diplomacy’. Others used it simply to publicize their own issues, such as the census boycott in 1986, pasting their blank census forms against the concrete.


pages: 564 words: 182,946

The Berlin Wall: A World Divided, 1961-1989 by Frederick Taylor

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, German hyperinflation, land reform, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, oil shock, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, the market place, young professional, éminence grise

In the previous five years (19826 inclusive), a total of six deaths occurred on the Berlin Wall. The worst year was 1986, when three died, two of them in a single attempt to crash a truck through from East to West. The escapers perished in a hail of bullets when the truck came to a halt in no man’s land. These killings could not be concealed-many had observed them from the Western side. In the case of the two following deaths, however, the East German authorities took successful measures to make the murders ‘deniable’. Michael Bittner, a 25-year-old bricklayer, had been born on 31 August 1961. He was just a few days younger than the Berlin Wall. Bittner had applied several times to leave the GDR, without success. An hour or so after midnight on 24 November 1986 he approached the 394 / THE BERLIN WALL Wall in the suburban area of Glienicke/Nordbahn, where it bordered on the French sector of West Berlin.

Die Berliner Mauer Geschichte eines Politischen Bauwerks Berlin-Brandenburg, 2004. Frank, Mario. Walter Ulbricht: Eine deutsche Biografie. Munich, 2003. Fulbrook, Mary. Anatomy of a Dictatorship, Inside the GDR 19491989. Oxford, 1995. Gaddis, John Lewis. The Cold War, A New History. New York, 2005. Gearson, John, and Kori Schake (eds). The Berlin Wall Crisis: Perspectives on Cold War Alliances. Basingstoke & New York, 2002. 484 / THE BERLIN WALL Gelb, Norman. The Berlin Wall: Kennedy, Khrushchev and a Showdown in the Heart of Europe. New York, 1988. Grimm, Thomas. Das Politbüro Private Ulbricht, Honecker, Mielke & Co. aus der Sicht ihrer Angestellten. Berlin, 2004. Harrison, Hope M. Driving the Soviets up the Wall. Princeton & Oxford, 2003. HELP e. V. Hilfsorganisation fur die Opfer politsicher Gewalt in Europa (Hrsg.)

The number of paramedical teams on the border was to be increased and stretchers kept ready, one for each section of the Wall. Plans were drawn up so that any wounded escaper could be transported to hospital by the quickest and shortest route.26 In Peter Fechter, the Berlin Wall had found, not its first, but perhaps its greatest martyr. This was a shame from which the East German regime never quite recovered, despite its best, most cunning propaganda efforts. If the Springer media empire had indeed become involved in helping with the costs of the 28 June tunnel (as well as providing a safe location 322 / THE BERLIN WALL for its entrance), its role was to be trumped a few months later by the American broadcasting giant NBC. The network agreed to actually finance an entire escape tunnel in exchange for the exclusive film rights. It paid DM 50,000 ($12,500 then or roughly $100,000 in today’s purchasing power) to a group of tunnel builders including yet another colourful, complicated figure of the escape movement, Hasso Herschel.


pages: 323 words: 95,188

The Year That Changed the World: The Untold Story Behind the Fall of the Berlin Wall by Michael Meyer

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Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, BRICs, call centre, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, haute couture, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, union organizing

Bush and, 213, 214 dimensions and consequences of, 20–23, 218–219 end of, 4–5, 7, 9–14, 31, 36, 61, 65–66, 70, 75–79, 213 fall of Berlin Wall and, 5–9, 54, 89 impact of, 20–23, 65 perceived victors of, 204 Reagan’s Berlin Wall speech (1987) and, 2–5, 9–14, 16, 27, 215–216 symbolism of Berlin Wall and, 1, 3, 5–9, 15–16, 89, 171 Cold War, The (Lightbody), 222 Cold War History Project, 223, 226, 230 Cold War International History Project, 225 Cold War Project, The (CNN series), 228 COMECON, 229 Comintern, 21 Committee for Historical Justice (Hungary), 85, 230–231 Common Fate Camp, 97–98 Common Market, 21, 93 communism anticommunists and, 29–31 Berlin Wall and. See Berlin Wall G. W. Bush on, 2, 5 fall of, in Bulgaria, 190–191 fall of, in Czechoslovakia, 28, 114, 128, 135–143, 175–190, 205–206 fall of, in GDR, 163–174, 203–205 fall of, in Hungary, 28, 29–39, 41–42, 46, 61, 66–74, 125, 128, 137, 139–140, 143–145, 206–207, 228–231, 236 fall of, in Poland, 28, 35–36, 43–54, 125, 128–133, 137, 139–140, 205 fall of, in Romania, 105–111, 193–201 fall of, throughout Eastern Europe, 41–42, 48, 54, 62, 173–174, 204 oppression in, 36 Reagan and, 13 as term, 224 See also Politburo Constantinescu, Emil, 201 consumer goods, 171–172, 177, 198–199 containment policy, 5, 61 Cooper, Gary, 79 Cornea, Doina, 197–198 counterculture, 21 Cousteau, Jacques, 95 crash of 2008, 218 cult of personality, 110 Cuthbertson, Ian, 228 Czechoslovakia denouement, 205–206 fall of Berlin Wall and, 8 fall of communism in, 28, 114, 128, 135–143, 175–190, 205–206, 233 Prague Spring (1968), 39, 45 refugees from GDR and, 122–123, 135, 141, 148, 152–153 reopening of border with GDR, 158–159 as totalitarian state, 135–143 Velvet Revolution (Prague; 1989), 170, 173, 175–190, 236 Warsaw Pact invasion of (1968), 105–106, 205 See also Prague Dalai Lama, 135, 206 Danner, Mark, 237 Davis, John, 231 DDR Museum (Berlin), 224 death strip (Berlin Wall), 16–18 democracy in Czechoslovakia, 185, 186, 206 in Eastern Europe, 99 in Hungary, 29–32, 41, 55–58, 110, 230–231 in Poland, 58–61, 79–84, 94, 110, 128–133, 225–226, 229–230 Reagan and, 3 U.S., 29, 30, 41 Democratic Forum, 97–99, 99 détente, 5, 61 Deutsche Bank, 73 Diensthier, Jiri, 233 Diepgen, Eberhard, 13 Dietrich, Marlene, 4 Dinescu, Mircea, 197–198 Dissolution (Maier), 163–164, 230–231, 232, 234, 235 Dresden bank runs in, 165 Freedom Train and, 124, 152–153, 154 refugees from GDR and, 117, 124, 135, 152–153, 160 rise of opposition, 152–153, 158 Dubcek, Alexander, 45, 177, 186–187, 226 Duberstein, Kenneth, 11 Dukakis, Michael, 39–40 East Berlin fall of Berlin Wall, 5–9, 65–76, 88–94, 165–173, 203–204 Jubilee of 1989 and, 115, 147–152 May Day (1989), 65–66, 69–70, 228 refugees from GDR and, 119–120, 160–161 rise of opposition, 158 See also Berlin; German Democratic Republic (GDR) Eastern Europe collapse of communism throughout, 41–42, 48, 54, 62, 173–174, 204 revolutions in, 14, 84, 216 Soviet withdrawal from, 12, 38–39, 91 See also names of specific countries East Germany.

Basic facts about the Wall are drawn from many sources, among them: The Wall, Press and Information, Office of Land Berlin, 2000/2001; Bilanz der Todesopfer, Checkpoint Charlie Museum, 1999; Die Berliner Mauer, Fleming/Koch, 1999; Encyclopedia Britannica, Berlin Wall; a variety of Web sites pertaining to the Berlin Wall. Other useful references include Frederick Taylor’s fine history The Berlin Wall: A World Divided, 1961–1989, 2006; Peter Wyden’s tour de force Wall: The Inside Story of Divided Berlin, 1989, which among other things is the source of the Allensbach data on West German attitudes toward the Wall and reunification; William F. Buckley Jr., The Fall of the Berlin Wall, 2004. One of the best travelogues of this genre ever written is Anthony Bailey’s The Edge of the Forest, a reporter-at-large feature published in the June 27, 1983, New Yorker. For the “butcher’s bill” on the Cold War, great credit is owed to the Brookings Institution and its comprehensive Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S.

-Soviet relations and, 40, 60–61, 225, 227, 231 Balcerowicz, Leszek, 130 Balkan war, 213–214 Behr, Edward, 236 Berecz, Janos, 38 Berlin attitudes toward German reunification, 23–28 Berlin Wall in, 15–16. See also Berlin Wall refugees from GDR and, 113–114, 116, 120–121 See also East Berlin; West Germany Berliner Luft, 25 Berlin Wall Berlin airlift and, 4 border guards, 3, 5–10, 15–17, 27, 97–105 Brandenburg Gate, 3, 15, 170, 204 Checkpoint Charlie, 5–6, 9, 10, 16, 24–25, 88–89, 167–170, 175, 204, 223, 235 construction of, 16–17, 66, 68 death strip, 16–18 described, 17–18 fall of (1989), 5–9, 65–76, 88–94, 165–173, 203–204, 221–223 impact on citizens, 16–19, 24–26 9–14, 16, 27, 215–216, 222 refugees from East Germany and, 8–9, 16–17, 24, 27, 66, 97–105, 113–126, 133–135, 142–143, 159–161 remnants remaining, 16 September 11, 1989 border opening, 113–126 symbolism behind, 1, 3, 5–9, 15–16, 89, 171. See also Iron Curtain Berlin Wall, The (Taylor), 223 Bernstein, Leonard, 204 Beschloss, Michael R., 222 Beyond the Wall (Pond), 227, 234 Bill of Rights, U.S., 30 Bismarck Strasse (Berlin), 15 Black Friday (Czech).


pages: 762 words: 206,865

Berlin 1961: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Most Dangerous Place on Earth by Frederick Kempe

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Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, index card, Kitchen Debate, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, Ronald Reagan, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, zero-sum game

General Watson: “Commandant in Berlin,” New York Times, 08/14/1961. There were also times: Gelb, The Berlin Wall, 165. Early that morning, Watson: Gelb, The Berlin Wall, 165; Cate, The Ides of August, 301–302, 275. Lieutenant Colonel Thomas McCord: Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 229–230, 232. All eyes had then turned: Letter from Colonel Ernest von Pawel to Catudal, August 3, 1977, in Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 234. The deputy chief: Wyden, Wall, 92, from Pawel interview; Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 229–230, 232–235. “The Soviet 19th Motorized”: Gelb, The Berlin Wall, 160. Adam recalled a more innocent: Interview with Adam Kellett-Long, London, October 15–16, 2008. Under four-power agreements: Smyser, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall, 106; Howard Trivers, Three Crises in American Foreign Affairs and a Continuing Revolution.

O’Donnell suggested an easy: Gelb, The Berlin Wall, 118. “There was an ‘Oh, my God!”: Gelb, The Berlin Wall, 118; author’s interview with Karl Mautner. The emphasis on West Berlin: Beschloss, Crisis Years, 264; New York Times, 08/03/1961; Der Tagesspiegel, 08/02/1961; Neues Deutschland, 08/02/1961; JFKL, Bundy–JFK, August 4, 1961; Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 201–203. Fulbright’s interpretation of the treaty: Ann Tusa, The Last Division: A History of Berlin, 1945–1989. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1997, 257; Washington Post, 07/31/1961; New York Times, 08/03/1961. Early in August, Kennedy: JFKL, Walt W. Rostow OH; Rostow, Diffusion of Power, 231; Beschloss, The Crisis Years, 265; Schlesinger, A Thousand Days, 394; Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 201. On a sweltering Moscow morning: Harrison, Driving the Soviets up the Wall, 192–194; SAPMO-BArch, ZPA, DY, 30/3682; Uhl and Wagner, “Another Brick in the Wall,” CWIHP Working Paper, published under “Storming On to Paris,” in Mastny, Holtsmark, and Wenger, War Plans and Plliances in the Cold War, 46–71; Aleksandr Fursenko, “Kak Byla Postroena Berlinskaia Stena,” in Istoricheskie Zapiski, no. 4 (2001), 78–79.

The East German newspaper: Washington Post, 09/18/1961; Taylor, The Berlin Wall: A World Divided, 263–265. At age twenty-one: Interview with Albrecht Peter Roos, Berlin, October 13, 2008. As a result of August 13: Honoré M. Catudal, Steinstücken: A Study in Cold War Politics. New York: Vantage Press, 1971, 15. East German authorities threatened: New York Times, 09/22/1961; 09/23/1961; Washington Post, 09/22/1961; 09/23/1961; Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 139–135; Smyser, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall, 131. Without divulging his plans: Catudal, Steinstücken, 15–16, 106. General Clay spent: Smith, Defense of Berlin, 309–310; Interview with Vern Pike, Washington, D.C., November 17, 2008. By coincidence, European Commander: Catudal, Kennedy and the Berlin Wall Crisis, 133–134. A few days later, U.S. troops: Interview with Vern Pike, Washington, D.C., November 17, 2008.

The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape by Brian Ladd

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, full employment, New Urbanism, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, urban planning, urban renewal

Berlin is divided just like our world, our time, and each of our experiences.2 Wim Wenders, 1987 To put it crudely, the American foot in Europe had a sore blister on it. That was West Berlin. . . . We decided the time had come to lance the blister of West Berlin.3 Nikita Khrushchev, recalling 1961 When flowers bloom on concrete, life has triumphed. Berlin Wall graffiti Greatest artwork of all time. Berlin Wall graffiti What are you staring at? Never seen a wall before? Berlin Wall graffiti < previous page page_6 file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_6.html [24/03/2011 13:47:05] next page > page_7 < previous page page_7 next page > Page 7 One Berlin Walls The Monument In a rarely visited corner of northern Berlin, piles of concrete debris fill a vast lot. This is not an unusual sight in what geographers call the "gray zones" of a city, those tracts of land somehow disqualified from more valued uses.

< previous page page_ix file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_ix.html [24/03/2011 13:46:55] next page > page_v < previous page page_v next page > Page v Contents Illustrations vii Acknowledgments ix Introduction 1 1 Berlin Walls 7 2 Old Berlin 41 3 Metropolis 83 4 Nazi Berlin 127 5 Divided Berlin 175 6 Capital of the New Germany 217 Chronology of Berlin's History 237 Notes 247 Bibliography 257 Index 261 < previous page page_v file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_v.html [24/03/2011 13:46:56] next page > page_vii < previous page page_vii next page > Page vii Illustrations Central Berlin in the 1990s Facing page 1 1 Pieces of Wall, Brehmestrasse, Berlin-Pankow, 1991 8 2 Vendor selling pieces of Berlin Wall 9 3 Berlin's districts 14 4 Berlin Wall being built 17 5 Postcard: "Greetings from Berlin" 20 6 Allied sectors of Berlin 21 7 Crosses at the Wall near the Reichstag 24 8 Memorial to slain border guards, East Berlin 25 9 Berlin Wall, 1983 26 10 Wall graffiti 27 11 East Side Gallery 36 12 Scaffolding and canvas facade on site of royal palace, 1993 42 13 Nikolai Quarter 45 14 Berlin, 1737 49 15 Royal palace 50 16 Marx-Engels-Platz and Palace of the Republic 58 17 Brandenburg Gate, 1898 72 18 Brandenburg Gate, 1959 77 19 Brandenburg Gate, November 1989 78 file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_vii.html (1 of 2) [24/03/2011 13:46:57] page_vii 20 Reichstag, circa 1901 87 21 Reichstag, after 1945 90 22 Wrapped Reichstag, 1995 93 23 Aerial view of central Berlin, 1939 97 24 Eighteenth-century houses in Potsdam 99 < previous page page_vii file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_vii.html (2 of 2) [24/03/2011 13:46:57] next page > page_viii < previous page page_viii next page > Page viii 25 Turn-of-the-century apartment buildings, Nürnberger Platz, Berlin-Wilmersdorf 102 26 Britz Horseshoe Estate 104 27 Wertheim department store on Leipziger Platz 113 28 Potsdamer Platz, circa 1930 117 29 Potsdamer Platz, 1972 121 30 Potsdamer Platz and Columbus Haus, circa 1933 123 31 New Reich chancellery 130 32 Removal of chancellery bunker, 1987 131 33 Site of Hitler's bunker, 1995 134 34 Model of "Germania" 136 35 Model of the Great Hall 137 36 Olympic Stadium 143 37 Reich aviation ministry 147 38 Prinz-Albrecht-Strasse and vicinity, circa 1935 155 39 "Topography of Terror" exhibition 161 40 "Topography of Terror" exhibition 161 41 Ruins in Ifflandstrasse, 1949 176 42 Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church and Europa Center 181 43 Karl-Marx-Allee, the former Stalinallee 184 44 Detail of building on former Stalinallee 184 45 Strausberger Platz and former Stalinallee 185 file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_viii.html (1 of 2) [24/03/2011 13:46:58] page_viii 46 Hansa Quarter 189 47 Marzahn 191 48 Soviet war memorial, Berlin-Treptow 195 49 Lenin monument 196 50 Victory Column 200 51 Ernst Thälmann monument 202 52 Marx-Engels-Forum 205 53 The Neue Wache 219 54 Enlarged version of Käthe Kollwitz's Pietà in the Neue Wache 223 55 Model of Axel Schultes's plan for the Spree Arc government quarter 228 < previous page page_viii file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_viii.html (2 of 2) [24/03/2011 13:46:58] next page > page_x < previous page page_x next page > Page x < previous page page_x file:///Volumes/My%20Book/arg/ladd-Ghosts_Berlin/files/page_x.html [24/03/2011 13:46:58] next page > page_1 < previous page page_1 next page > Page 1 Introduction Berlin is a haunted city.

This ordinary industrial scene turns extraordinary when a closer look at the concrete reveals an unexpected sight: the famous spraypainted graffiti of the Berlin Wall. In 1991, this lot is a graveyard for a few of the one hundred miles of Wall that had enclosed West Berlin two years before. It is indeed located in a "gray zone" of Berlin, one of many fringe areas created by the presence of the Wall that is now reduced to rubble (fig. 1). The Berlin Wall had been one of the city's premier tourist attractions. More than that, it was probably the most famous structure that will ever stand in Berlin. The Pankow lot, and a few others, contained what was left of it (with a few exceptions, as we shall see). Yet such boneyards were not tourist attractions. Indeed, they were scarcely known at all. If a monument can be decommissioned, that is apparently what has happened with the Berlin Wall. Did the concrete lose its aura when it was removed from its original location?


pages: 220 words: 88,994

1989 The Berlin Wall: My Part in Its Downfall by Peter Millar

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anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, urban sprawl, working-age population

The night was November 9th, 1989, and the Berlin Wall was coming down. For the first time in a century it seemed the whole world was empathising with the Germans. But for me, on that street corner in Berlin in the midst of the biggest story of my career, the predominant thing on my mind as a Sunday newspaper reporter on a Thursday night was: ‘Damn, this is all happening twenty-four hours too early.’ But then nobody had known it would happen at all. Least of all the intelligence agencies of the West, caught napping on the eve of their greatest ‘victory’, as they would be again on September 11th, 2001, their greatest embarrassment. Not even the men who gave the orders in East Berlin knew it would happen. Not even as they gave them. They had intended something else. Something else entirely. The fall of the Berlin Wall was the triumphant vindication of the ‘cock-up’ theory of history, of what happens when those seemingly immovable objects of political inertia and the status quo get swept away by two irresistible forces: accident and emotion.

My waitresses, my friends and the whole mad mix-up that led to the fall of the Wall, were reserved for the lengthy colour/analysis piece on the Focus pages inside. But even that was not the whole of the story. The Berlin Wall was not just a concrete manifestation of the Iron Curtain, it was its most potent symbol. Almost its soul. Its fall was to bring in its wake the end of the Cold War, the collapse like dominoes of Moscow’s satellite dictatorships in Eastern Europe and finally the implosion of the Soviet Union itself. The year of miracles, 1989, would give the world a new chance, which surely only fools would throw away. 2 The Street of Shame The long and winding road that led me to Checkpoint Charlie on the night the Berlin Wall came down began improbably enough thirteen years earlier on the outskirts of Paris where I was trying to hitch a lift to the Côte d’Azur.

If I looked down, hundreds of feet below our whirling rotors, I could just make out something I would not otherwise have believed possible: a door in the Berlin Wall. And next to it, what else but a doorbell! It was permanently guarded, the pilot explained to me. If a West Berlin allotment-owner fancied spending Sunday afternoon doing a bit of weeding, he rang the bell and an East German soldier escorted him along a track lined with barbed wire fencing to another door in a concrete wall, behind which lay his vegetable plot. When he wanted to come back, he repeated the procedure. ‘I wouldn’t be surprised,’ the pilot said as we wheeled around and headed back towards sanity, ‘if every now and then they slip one of them a cabbage or two.’ As we headed back to the landing ground he showed me one more of the Berlin Wall’s anomalous ‘exclaves’, as bizarre as the isolated allotments: the hamlet of Steinstücken.


pages: 391 words: 102,301

Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman

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Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular capitalism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, zero-sum game

The most dramatic chapter of the Age of Transformation was about to be written. 6 EUROPE, 1989 THE YEAR OF REVOLUTIONS The single most dramatic event of the Age of Transformation was the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989. The wall had divided Europe. It had separated the communist world from the capitalist world, and the Soviet bloc from the democratic world. The sight of thousands of East Germans streaming through the wall and into West Berlin on that November night was the sign that the cold war was over. A single global economic and political system was being formed—a “new world order,” as President George H. W. Bush called it. The fall of the Berlin Wall was a victory for the Western powers and for individual freedom. It was also a victory for Western consumerism. The symbol of the failure of East Germany swiftly became the Trabant, the small, unglamorous, underpowered national car of East Germany, which looked so pathetic next to the powerful Mercedes and BMWs that flaunted the economic power of West Germany.

That is why the first two sections of this book are devoted to the international and intellectual history of the past thirty years. Starting the narrative in 1978 may not seem obvious to all readers. Americans, in particular, have tended to regard the defining moments of recent history as the end of the cold war and the al-Qaeda attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001. One of the best recent histories of U.S. foreign policy is subtitled “From 11/9 to 9/11”—the two dates in question marking the fall of the Berlin Wall and the terrorist attack on the United States.12 But the collapse of the Soviet system and 9/11 were part of an even bigger story—the creation of a globalized world economic and political system. The two key events framing that story were the opening of China in 1978 and the 2008 crash. I have divided this thirty-year epoch into two distinct periods. The first section of this book deals with the Age of Transformation, which began in 1978, and explains how and why the world’s major powers all embraced globalization—and how this sparked the rise of China and India.

In Latin America, economic reformers were often at pains to distinguish their modest market-based measures from the “neo-liberalism” of Reagan and Thatcher,25 neither of whom were particularly popular figures south of the Rio Grande after the Falklands War and Reagan’s support of the Contra rebels in Nicaragua. By contrast, Reagan and Thatcher were popular heroes in much of Central and Eastern Europe, a fact that caused a certain amount of pain and confusion to their left-wing and liberal opponents back home. The fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union took place after Reagan left office. Yet these events cast a retrospective glow of vindication over his presidency. Reagan was able to argue with some justice in his memoirs, published in 1990, that the previous decade had witnessed a “stunning renaissance of democracy and economic freedom”26 around the world. Reagan’s attitude to democracy was, as with Thatcher, more equivocal than either leader would later care to acknowledge.


pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, call centre, carried interest, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, TaskRabbit, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

On 9 November, the morning after the US presidential election, as I tried to make sense of the dawning new reality I recalled that invitation. By eerie coincidence, it was twenty-seven years to the day since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The worm had turned. America had just elected a president who was a big fan of walls and a big admirer of Vladimir Putin. While Putin was surveying his wrecked world in 1989, and we were racing down the Autobahn, Donald Trump was launching a board game. It was called Trump: The Game. With its fake paper money and property-based rules, it bore an uncanny resemblance to Monopoly – except that the number six on the dice was replaced with the letter T. Unsurprisingly, it was a flop. There is no record that Trump said anything positive or negative about the fall of the Berlin Wall. At any rate, all that seemed a long time ago. America had just elected a man who admired the way politics was done in Russia.

On this, if little else, there is no quarrel between the ancients and the moderns. We called it progress, or rather Progress – belief in which is the closest thing the modern West has to a religion. In 1989 its schism was healed. By unifying its booming western wing with the shrivelled post-Stalinist eastern one, there was no longer any quarrel between the present and the present. Shortly before the Berlin Wall fell, Francis Fukuyama published his famous essay, ‘The End of History?’. ‘What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War . . . but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind’s ideological evolution and the universalisation of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government,’ he wrote.1 Though I did not subscribe to Fukuyama’s view of the ideal society I shared his relief.

I had been invited to attend a conference on the ‘polycentric world order’, which is Russian for ‘post-American world’. The conference was hosted by the Primakov Institute, named after the man who had been Russia’s foreign minister and prime minister during the 1990s. Yevgeny Primakov was displaced as prime minister in 1999 by Vladimir Putin. While my friends and I had danced on the rubble of the Berlin Wall, a brooding Putin had watched his world crumbling from 130 miles away, at his KGB office in Dresden, a city in what was still East Germany. Later he would describe the dissolution of the Soviet Union as the ‘greatest geopolitical tragedy of the twentieth century’. It was Primakov who championed the term multipolarity in what at the time seemed like a vain bid to dampen America’s oceanic post-Cold War triumphalism.


pages: 561 words: 87,892

Losing Control: The Emerging Threats to Western Prosperity by Stephen D. King

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Admiral Zheng, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Naomi Klein, new economy, old age dependency ratio, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, statistical model, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Škoda still benefits from low Eastern European wages, which allow cars to be produced relatively cheaply, but it now also benefits from the technologies, management know-how and cheap international finance available to the Volkswagen Group. Škoda’s experience neatly encapsulates the difficulties in making sense of international trade and investment since the fall of the Berlin Wall. Škoda exports from its Mladá Boleslav assembly plant in the Czech Republic to customers all over the world. It offers competition to other car manufacturers which, in earlier decades, did not have to cope with the cheaper labour available on the eastern side of the Berlin Wall. It provides employment for Czech workers and tax revenues for the Czech government. It also provides employment in its dealerships across the world. Škoda’s profits now go to the shareholders of Volkswagen AG who, in turn, are based in Frankfurt, London, New York and countless other locations.

Changing patterns of trade and investment opportunities around the world provide compelling evidence of this shift. Yet many people are in denial. They still tend to think in the old domestic mindsets. They are slaves to national economic data that, for the most part, include only the most recent domestic economic developments. They are slaves to a world that, in effect, crumbled as Deng Xiaoping opened up China to the global economy at the beginning of the 1980s and as the Berlin Wall collapsed in 1989. During the 1980s, as cumbersome mainframe computers were replaced by PCs, economists began to calibrate statistically the ways in which economies operated. With reams of annual, quarterly, monthly, daily and even intra-day data at their disposal and with significant advances in computing power, they were able to build economic models linked to past reality (and, as the models became more complex, to ‘expected’ future reality).

The resources used per passenger mile are less than 30 per cent of those used in the Comet. This vast improvement in productivity is, of course, good news both for the passengers and the environment. The calculation, however, reflects only technology improvement. In a world of scarce resources, what matters is not so much the improvement in technology but on how many occasions that technology is replicated. Before the arrival of Deng Xiaoping and the collapse of the Berlin Wall, technology replication was limited. Too many countries were shut off from new technologies and, even where they had access, they channelled those technologies into military, rather than civilian, ventures. No longer is this the case. More and more countries are using technology replication to improve the lives of their citizens. It may be that the Airbus A380 is much more fuel-efficient than the Comet, but, with a sevenfold rise in passenger numbers over the last forty years, greater efficiency is still consistent with higher resource utilization.


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The Divided Nation: A History of Germany, 1918-1990 by Mary Fulbrook

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Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, centre right, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, joint-stock company, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, Sinatra Doctrine, union organizing, unorthodox policies

In particular, East Germans, who now no longer needed a visa to travel to Czechoslovakia, also no longer needed a certificate renouncing GDR citizenship to travel to West Germany over the Czech border; so they could, in effect, simply circumvent the Berlin Wall by making a short detour via Czechoslovakia. East Page 332 Germans started pouring out by this route at a rate of about 9000 a day, an average of 375 an hour. It was clear that the Berlin Wall was effectively redundant. On 9 November 1989 seventy-one years to the day since the collapse of Imperial Germany an event of momentous significance occurred, signalling in effect the collapse of the East German communist regime. Towards the end of a late-afternoon press conference, Politburo member and government spokesman Günter Schabowski was asked what the implications of the new freedom to travel were for the status of the Berlin Wall. He responded, wearily, that the Wall would continue to have some sort of function, but of course not the same as before.

Mass dissent had been suppressed; revisionists had been purged from the SED; the building of the Berlin Wall had ended the damaging drain of skilled manpower to the west; and the lack of effective intervention of the western powers, both in 1953 and 1961, indicated that no-one was willing to make an international issue, involving violent confrontation, of the German question. Although not formally recognized as a legitimate separate state by the Federal Republic of Germany whose 'Hallstein doctrine' also meant refusing diplomatic relations with any other country which did recognize the GDR to all intents and purposes East Germany was now an established state. It was moreover one of considerable economic and military importance to the Soviet empire in eastern Europe. And to the people of East Germany, after the building of the Berlin Wall it seemed that they would simply have to make the best of a life to which there was no longer any alternative.

Finally, I would like to thank my husband and three children for suffering and sustaining the research for and writing of this book. Without my husband's unfailing support, and more than equal partnership in parenting, the book could not have been written. Without my children, recounting the fates of those who were born into less fortunate historical circumstances might have been much less meaningful. Page 1 One The Course of German History In those extraordinary months after the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, when discussion of the unification of the two Germanies was for the first time in forty years back on the serious political agenda, many voices were raised giving views on 'the German question'. From a variety of quarters, prejudices were aired which had lain dormant along with the memories, gas masks and other relics of the Second World War over the years when the Cold War and the balance of terror had seemed to ensure a fragile peace in a divided Europe.


pages: 331 words: 60,536

The Sovereign Individual: How to Survive and Thrive During the Collapse of the Welfare State by James Dale Davidson, Rees Mogg

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affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, compound rate of return, creative destruction, Danny Hillis, debt deflation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Kevin Kelly, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, phenotype, price mechanism, profit maximization, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, school vouchers, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, spice trade, statistical model, telepresence, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto

The destruction of the Berlin Wall marks another historical watershed, the passage between the Industrial Age and the new Information Age. Never has there been so great a symbolic triumph of efficiency over power. When the walls of San Giovanni fell, it was a stark demonstration that the economic returns to violence in the world had risen sharply. The fall of the Berlin Wall says something different, namely that returns to violence are now falling. This is something that few have even begun to recognize, but it will have dramatic consequences. For reasons we explore in this chapter, the Berlin Wall may prove to be far more symbolic of the whole era of the industrial nation-state than those in the crowd that night in Berlin or the millions watching from a distance understood. The Berlin Wall was built to a very different purpose than the walls of San Giovanni-to prevent people on the inside from escaping rather than to prevent predators on the outside from entering.

A time much like now. 89 Chapter 5 THE LIFE AND HEALTH OF THE NATION-STATE Democracy and Nationalism as Resource Strategies in the Age of Violence "Most important of all, success in war depends on having enough money to provide whatever the enterprise needs." 1 ROBERT DE BALSAC, 1502 THE RUBBLE OF HISTORY On November 9 and 10, 1989, television broadcast to the world scenes of exuberant East Berliners dismantling the Berlin Wall with sledgehammers. Fledgling entrepreneurs among the crowd picked up pieces of the wall that were later marketed to capitalists far and wide as souvenir paperweights. A brisk business in these relics was done for years thereafter. Even as we write, one can still encounter occasional ads in small magazines offering bits of old East German concrete for sale at prices ordinarily commanded by highgrade silver ore. We believe that those who bought the Berlin Wall paper-weights should be in no rush to sell. They hold mementos of something bigger than the collapse of Communism. We believe that the Berlin Wall became the most important pile of historical rubble since the walls of San Giovanni were blasted to smithereens almost five centuries earlier in February 1495.

This requires that the taxes imposed upon the most productive citizens of the currently rich countries be priced at supermonopoly rates, hundreds or even thousands of times higher than the actual cost of the services that governments provide in return. 92 THE LIFE AND DEATH OF THE NATION-STATE The fall of the Berlin Wall was not just a visible symbol of the death of Communism. It was a defeat for the entire world system of nation-states and a triumph of efficiency and markets. The fulcrum of power underlying history has shifted. We believe that the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 culminates the era of the nation-state, a peculiar two-hundred-year phase in history that began with the French Revolution. States have existed for six thousand years. But before the nineteenth century, they accounted for only a small fraction of the world's sovereignties.


pages: 392 words: 106,532

The Cold War: A New History by John Lewis Gaddis

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, full employment, land reform, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine

KENNAN 1904–2005 PREFACE EVERY MONDAY AND WEDNESDAY afternoon each fall semester I lecture to several hundred Yale undergraduates on the subject of Cold War history. As I do this, I have to keep reminding myself that hardly any of them remember any of the events I’m describing. When I talk about Stalin and Truman, even Reagan and Gorbachev, it could as easily be Napoleon, Caesar, or Alexander the Great. Most members of the Class of 2005, for example, were only five years old when the Berlin Wall came down. They know that the Cold War in various ways shaped their lives, because they’ve been told how it affected their families. Some of them—by no means all—understand that if a few decisions had been made differently at a few critical moments during that conflict, they might not even have had a life. But my students sign up for this course with very little sense of how the Cold War started, what it was about, or why it ended in the way that it did.

There followed, though, a string of setbacks that made Kennedy’s first months in the White House themselves an embarrassment: the failed Bay of Pigs landings against Fidel Castro’s Cuba in April, 1961; the Soviet Union’s success that same month in putting the first man into orbit around the earth; a badly handled summit conference at Vienna in June at which Khrushchev renewed his Berlin ultimatum; and in August East Germany’s unopposed construction of the Berlin Wall. When Khrushchev announced shortly thereafter that the Soviet Union would soon resume nuclear weapons testing with a 100-megaton blast—almost seven times the size of BRAVO—Kennedy had had enough. Drawing on new, copious, and convincing evidence from reconnaissance satellites, he called Khrushchev’s bluff. He let it be known through a spokesman that the Soviet Union’s nuclear and missile capabilities had never come close to surpassing those of the United States: “[W]e have a second strike capability which is at least as extensive as what the Soviets can deliver by striking first.

With West Berlin isolated from East Berlin and East Germany, he had no further need to try to force the western powers out of the city, with all the risks of nuclear war that such an effort would have entailed. He could breathe more easily now, and so too—if truth be told—could western leaders. “It’s not a very nice solution,” Kennedy acknowledged, “but a wall is a hell of a lot better than a war.”54 The president could not resist observing, though, when he himself visited the Berlin Wall in June, 1963, that “we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in, to prevent them from leaving us.” The ugly structure Khrushchev had erected was “the most obvious and vivid demonstration of the failures of the Communist system, for all the world to see.”55 X. AND ON the other side of the wall, capitalism was succeeding. No single event, date, or statistic marks the point at which that became clear: what was significant instead was what had not happened since the end of World War II.


pages: 354 words: 92,470

Grave New World: The End of Globalization, the Return of History by Stephen D. King

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, paradox of thrift, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Skype, South China Sea, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Victorians would be shocked to find that their beloved British Empire – which provided the essential foundations for nineteenth-century globalization – had more or less disappeared by the late 1940s, by which time the UK itself was on the brink of bankruptcy. Those many fans of the Soviet economic system during the 1930s Depression years would doubtless be astonished to discover that the entire edifice began to crumble following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. SOUTHERN SPAIN Even when patterns of globalization endure for many centuries, they can break down remarkably quickly, leading to dramatic changes in fortune. Consider, for example, the history of Andalucía in southern Spain, a story that veered from one seemingly permanent political structure (Islam) to another (Christianity) within just a handful of years. In AD 711, a Muslim Berber force travelled from North Africa across the Mediterranean to reach southern Spain.

The Soviet system provided, through their blinkered eyes, a vision of the future. It was not to be. Soviet living standards rose relative to those in the US in the interwar period – from 20 per cent in 1920 to 35 per cent in 1938 – only to return to 21 per cent in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War. They rose again during the Cold War, reaching a peak of 38 per cent of American incomes in 1975, before falling to 31 per cent as the Berlin Wall came down in 1989. The Soviet version of economic progress – the one that Steffens and Shaw believed in so passionately – just didn’t deliver the goods. HOW THE WEST DIDN’T WIN Still, it would be wrong to suggest that the proponents of communism in its various forms were the only ones unable to see clearly into the future. In 1909, Norman Angell published the first edition of The Great Illusion, in which he argued that, thanks to nineteenth-century globalization and the resulting economic interdependency, war between the major nations of the world would be futile.

London and Paris eventually established a tougher ‘Dual Control’ system – which understandably provoked a nationalist backlash and an army revolt.13 To be fair, it has not all been reverse gear in Europe. For many years, former Soviet satellites appeared to have found a home in the European Union’s welcoming democratic arms. Poland, for example, went from strength to strength economically following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Between 1990 and 2015, Polish per capita incomes more than doubled, thanks in large part to major institutional reforms associated with Poland’s efforts to join the EU, a feat it eventually accomplished in 2004. The contrast with Ukraine – stuck in a no man’s land between the European Union and Russia – is striking. In the early 1990s, Ukraine and Poland had roughly similar living standards but, after two decades of both relative and absolute economic decline, Ukrainian per capita incomes had dropped to less than 40 per cent of those in Poland by 2015.14 Yet even in Poland – one of the most visible beneficiaries of Central Europe’s reorientation – developments following the global financial crisis raise doubts about the European Union’s ‘common values’.


pages: 239 words: 56,531

The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

To delineate the period we are living through, I combine the hopefulness that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall with the fear and rage that followed the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. This period I call 89/11 (pronounced “eightynine eleven”), and this section of the book will both define that era’s characteristics and move past the stasis it engendered via the creation of what I term “bespoke futures.”1 What looked like it would be a facile history in 1989—the victory of one sort of built system over another, the triumph of democracy over totalitarianism, capitalism over a command economy—turned out to be vastly more complex. The post-1989 period contained a multitude of features, but one unifying construct was the belief that after the fall of the Berlin Wall and then the Soviet Union itself, not just Communism, but all the countervailing forces against market capitalism were vanquished, and not just for the moment but literally for all time.

Also present is the appropriation of language that happens when you scour science for concepts like “strange attractors,” or when you create portmanteaus such as “plutopian meliorism” and posit that we can now speak of the “Enlightenment Electrified.” Then there is the final issue of what kind of language differentiation you need to use in the face of a hybridizing hegemony of “unimodern unimedia.” Of special note in this book is the period between 1989 and 2001, in which all three siblings reached something of a tipping point. After the Berlin Wall came down and the sense of nuclear menace diminished, I stopped looking over my shoulder for the first time, expecting clear skies without vapor trails. But the events of 9/11 transformed the H-bomb into the human bomb, and the specific threat of death from the sky transformed itself xvi THREE SIBLINGS into a free-floating anxiety about weapons of mass destruction and terror. At that point, television refined new ways of marketing fear as entertainment in a twenty-four-hour news cycle, and the worst excesses of the blogosphere simulated this model, accelerating it into the viral torrent of RSS feeds to mobile phones and “the new” at the click of the browser’s refresh button.

Though jeered at by professional planners of her day—one dismissed her work as “bitter coffee-house ramblings”—Jacobs has certainly had the last laugh, with The Death and Life of Great American Cities utterly upending town planning for more than fifty years through its articulation of precisely what makes a neighborhood worth inhabiting. We will spend at least another generation working out how Jacob’s fine-grained mixtures should function within digital environments, but mining her work for insights into the culture machine does not stop there. Just after the fall of the Berlin wall and the breakup of the Soviet Union, Jacobs wrote Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics, in which she identifies two complementary and opposing moral syndromes: one based on taking (also known as the guardian syndrome), and the other based on trading (or the commercial syndrome). These two are sometimes mutually reinforcing and sometimes in grave opposition, but 85 CHAPTER 4 both are required for a viable culture.


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The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

The fight against communism has supplied the foreign policy establishment with so many buzzwords and metaphors—the Iron Curtain, the Evil Empire, Star Wars, the Missile Gap—that many of them could be raised from the dead to day—simply by adding the annoying qualifiers like “cyber-,” “digital,” and “2.0.” By the virtue of sharing part of its name with the word “firewall,” the Berlin Wall is by far the most abused term from the vocabulary of the Cold War. Senators are particularly fond of the metaphorical thinking that it inspires. Arlen Specter, a Democrat from Pennsylvania, has urged the American government to “fight fire with fire in finding ways to breach these firewalls, which dictatorships use to control their people and keep themselves in power.” Why? Because “tearing down these walls can match the effect of what happened when the Berlin Wall was torn down.” Speaking in October 2009 Sam Brownback, a Republican senator from Kansas, argued that “as we approach the 20th anniversary of the breaking of the Berlin Wall, we must ... commit ourselves to finding ways to tear down ... the cyber-walls.”

Clinton drew a parallel between the challenges of promoting Internet freedom and the experiences of supporting dissidents during the Cold War. Speaking of her recent visit to Germany to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, Clinton mentioned “the courageous men and women” who “made the case against oppression by circulating small pamphlets called samizdat,” which “helped pierce the concrete and concertina wire of the Iron Curtain.” (Newseum was a very appropriate venue to give in to Cold War nostalgia. It happens to house the largest display of sections of the Berlin Wall outside of Germany). Something very similar is happening today, argued Clinton, adding that “as networks spread to nations around the globe, virtual walls are cropping up in place of visible walls.” And as “a new information curtain is descending across much of the world ... viral videos and blog posts are becoming the samizdat of our day.”

And to dispel any suspicions that such linguistic promiscuity could be a mere coincidence, Eli Lake, a contributing editor for the New Republic, opines that “during the cold war, the dominant metaphor for describing the repression of totalitarian regimes was The Berlin Wall. To update that metaphor, we should talk about The Firewall,” as if the similarity between the two cases was nothing but self-evident. Things get worse once observers begin to develop what they think are informative and insightful parallels that go beyond the mere pairing of the Berlin Wall with the Firewall, attempting to establish a nearly functional identity between some of the activities and phenomena of the Cold War era and those of today’s Internet. This is how blogging becomes samizdat (Columbia University’s Lee Bollinger proclaims that “like the underground samizdat ... the Web has allowed free speech to avoid the reach of the most authoritarian regimes”); bloggers become dissidents (Alec Ross, Hillary Clinton’s senior adviser for innovation, says that “bloggers are a form of 21st century dissident”); and the Internet itself becomes a new and improved platform for Western broadcasting (New York University’s Clay Shirky argues that what the Internet allows in authoritarian states “is way more threatening than Voice of America”).


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Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions by Brian Christian, Tom Griffiths

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4chan, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, constrained optimization, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, diversification, Donald Knuth, double helix, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, first-price auction, Flash crash, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Henri Poincaré, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, Lao Tzu, Leonard Kleinrock, linear programming, martingale, Nash equilibrium, natural language processing, NP-complete, P = NP, packet switching, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert X Cringely, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, sorting algorithm, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, stochastic process, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, traveling salesman, Turing machine, urban planning, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

The Copernican Principle It’s difficult to make predictions, especially about the future. —DANISH PROVERB When J. Richard Gott arrived at the Berlin Wall, he asked himself a very simple question: Where am I? That is to say, where in the total life span of this artifact have I happened to arrive? In a way, he was asking the temporal version of the spatial question that had obsessed the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus four hundred years earlier: Where are we? Where in the universe is the Earth? Copernicus would make the radical paradigm shift of imagining that the Earth was not the bull’s-eye center of the universe—that it was, in fact, nowhere special in particular. Gott decided to take the same step with regard to time. He made the assumption that the moment when he encountered the Berlin Wall wasn’t special—that it was equally likely to be any moment in the wall’s total lifetime.

.* And if we assume that we’re arriving precisely halfway into something’s duration, the best guess we can make for how long it will last into the future becomes obvious: exactly as long as it’s lasted already. Gott saw the Berlin Wall eight years after it was built, so his best guess was that it would stand for eight years more. (It ended up being twenty.) This straightforward reasoning, which Gott named the Copernican Principle, results in a simple algorithm that can be used to make predictions about all sorts of topics. Without any preconceived expectations, we might use it to obtain predictions for the end of not only the Berlin Wall but any number of other short- and long-lived phenomena. The Copernican Principle predicts that the United States of America will last as a nation until approximately the year 2255, that Google will last until roughly 2032, and that the relationship your friend began a month ago will probably last about another month (maybe tell him not to RSVP to that wedding invitation just yet).

If Bayes’s Rule always requires us to specify our prior expectations and beliefs, how could we tell it that we don’t have any? In the case of a raffle, one way to plead ignorance would be to assume what’s called the “uniform prior,” which considers every proportion of winning tickets to be equally likely.* In the case of the Berlin Wall, an uninformative prior means saying that we don’t know anything about the time span we’re trying to predict: the wall could equally well come down in the next five minutes or last for five millennia. Aside from that uninformative prior, the only piece of data we supply to Bayes’s Rule, as we’ve seen, is the fact that we’ve encountered the Berlin Wall when it is eight years old. Any hypothesis that would have predicted a less than eight-year life span for the wall is thereby ruled out immediately, since those hypotheses can’t account for our situation at all. (Similarly, a two-headed coin is ruled out by the first appearance of tails.)


pages: 523 words: 111,615

The Economics of Enough: How to Run the Economy as if the Future Matters by Diane Coyle

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Financial Instability Hypothesis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, low skilled workers, market bubble, market design, market fundamentalism, megacity, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, principal–agent problem, profit motive, purchasing power parity, railway mania, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, The Design of Experiments, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Market for Lemons, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Spirit Level, transaction costs, transfer pricing, tulip mania, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, web application, web of trust, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

The upward trend in the number of natural disasters around the world seems an apt reflection of the financial and economic crisis, and the sense of crisis so many people in many countries feel about their political and business elites.1 We’ve reached the point of Enough. The recent experience of economic growth is that it has destroyed opportunities, either for particular social groups or for future generations. Can it be reshaped in order to continue without incurring such untenable costs? One possible conclusion would be that this point marks the end of the triumphant free market capitalism that has ruled economic policy since the fall of the Berlin Wall and collapse of communism. The financial crisis and subsequent recession have certainly made the role of government more prominent, but mainly as a result of crisis management. Many commentators have argued that the state should reenter economic management in a more deliberate way, given the staggering demonstrations of market failure we’ve experienced.2 I will indeed go on in this part of the book to discuss the many ways in which markets fail, and the policy conclusions to which pervasive market failures point.

But that raises the question of when efficiency and markets should rule, and when by contrast other considerations matter more. There is no definitive answer. It will depend on circumstances. However, the circumstances are changing. The changing structure of the economy is affecting the way markets should be organized. HOW MARKETS FAIL Two decades after the crisis of communism, capitalism seems to be in crisis. Or so it is widely believed. To mark the twentieth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall—and around the first anniversary of the onset of the massive financial crisis—the BBC’s World Service commissioned a survey about capitalism covering more than twenty-nine thousand people in twenty-seven countries. Only in two countries—the United States and Pakistan—did more than a fifth of respondents agree that capitalism is working well. Across all twenty-seven countries, only 11 percent thought the system works well as it stands, while 23 percent said it is fatally flawed—rising to 43 percent in France and 38 percent in Mexico.

The last chapter discussed the need for better information to guide policy, and this chapter has discussed the need for clarity about values if social welfare is to be well served by policymakers. The third leg of the Economy of Enough is a set of institutions that ensure that society is governed well, and this is the subject of the next chapter. How might we respond to a general crisis of governance? EIGHT Institutions The recent anniversary of the November 1989 fall of the Berlin Wall brought back emotional memories for Europeans of my generation. Like many children growing up in the Cold War 1960s, I had nuclear nightmares: grey landscapes of ash and devastation with no one else left alive, and the ticking of Geiger counters counting out the rest of eternity. The postwar division of Europe dominated the cultural landscape too. Literature and the arts were shaped by it, as much as politics and diplomacy.


pages: 351 words: 93,982

Leading From the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-System Economies by Otto Scharmer, Katrin Kaufer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fractional reserve banking, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, peak oil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, working poor, Zipcar

We move from the toppling of tyrants to an exploration of the deeper fault lines that keep generating the disruptive changes of our time. We also look at these disruptive events from the viewpoint of change-makers: In the face of disruption, what determines whether we end up in moments of madness or mindfulness? The Toppling of Tyrants In the fall of 1989, two weeks before the Berlin Wall crumbled, we took an international student group to East Berlin, where we met with civil rights activists in the basement of a church. At one point, the professor who was with us, peace researcher Johan Galtung, put a prediction on the table: “The Berlin Wall will come down before the end of the year.” Everybody doubted that, including the people who were organizing the resistance against the East German regime. And we were all wrong. The Wall came down and the Cold War came to an end just months after that meeting. Nearly two decades later, in the fall of 2008, the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers, a global financial services firm, sent shock waves around the globe and within hours brought the financial systems of the United States and Europe to the brink of collapse.

Minutes after the earthquake struck, a tsunami of 46 feet (14 meters) arrived, easily crossing the seawall and knocking out the plant’s emergency power generators. As a consequence, the radioactive fuel began overheating and put the plant on a path toward catastrophic meltdown. As the year went on, the Arab Spring spread across the globe. Muammar Gaddafi was toppled in Libya. The Occupy Wall Street movement, which took inspiration in part from the Arab Spring, staged actions in more than a thousand cities across the globe.3 The collapse of the Berlin Wall, the demise of the Mubarak and Gaddafi regimes, the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and the near-meltdown of the western financial system all share some features: 1. the end of an inflexible, centralized control structure, one that previously had been considered indestructible 2. the beginning of a spontaneous, decentralized grassroots movement of people letting go of their fear and waking up to another level of awareness and interconnectedness 3. the opening of some small cracks in the old system, followed by its crumbling and eventual collapse 4. the rebound of the old forces as soon as the memory of the collapse began to fade away; the old forces tried to obscure the actual root causes of the breakdown in order to extend their privileged access to power and influence (an example is Wall Street’s financial oligarchy) We believe that these kinds of events will keep coming our way.

Social and economic breakdowns and eruptions are very similar in this regard. They tend to show up along the fault lines that divide the collective social body of our communities and societies. Again, we cannot fully predict when or where a disaster will occur, but understanding the space of possibility allows us to be much more attentive to subtle signals that foreshadow bigger events like the collapse of the Berlin Wall, the meltdown of the financial system, and the toppling of authoritarian regimes. What is the geography of the major fault lines that divide the collective socioeconomic body—the sum total of human relationships—today? We believe that there are three major fault lines, concerning three principal relationships that we engage in as human beings: (1) our relationship with nature and our planet; (2) our relationships with one another; and (3) our relationship with ourselves.


pages: 160 words: 46,449

The Extreme Centre: A Warning by Tariq Ali

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, BRICs, British Empire, centre right, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, full employment, labour market flexibility, land reform, light touch regulation, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, obamacare, offshore financial centre, popular capitalism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Wolfgang Streeck

As to America’s two British-fathered siblings, Canada has adopted the US as its new parent and is adjusting accordingly; Australian politics has been in an advanced state of decay ever since the late Gough Whitlam, the prime minister, was removed via an intelligence coup masterminded in London. The country now specializes in battery-farming provincial politicians of a provincial cast with impressive regularity. In all these locations, citizens deserve better. Twenty-five years ago when the Berlin Wall came down, it was not simply the Soviet Union or the ‘communist idea’ or the efficacy of ‘socialist solutions’ that collapsed. Western European social democracy, too, went down. In the face of the triumphalist capitalist storm that swept the world, it had neither the vision nor the determination to defend elements of its own past social programmes. It decided, instead to commit suicide. This was the founding moment of the extreme centre.

The only man giving voice to those who believe in the Union.’ 3 Euroland in Trouble ‘A map of the world that does not include Utopia is not worth even glancing at,’ Oscar Wilde once wrote, ‘for it leaves out the one country at which humanity is always landing. And when humanity lands there, it looks out, and seeing a better country, sets sail. Progress is the realization of Utopias.’ Wilde’s spirit is very much alive in the collective heart of the young who have come out onto the streets in protest against the forms of capitalism that have dominated the world since the Berlin Wall came down in 1989. They shouted their demands against the 1 per cent in New York, against US-backed dictatorship in Cairo, against the corruptions of the extreme centre in Greece and Spain, and for self-determination in Scotland. The European Union – one of the largest economic entities on the planet, occupying a space greater than that of the Roman Empire 2,000 years ago – is in a mess. All the cover-ups, the attempts to suggest that all is well, that the sticking plaster heavily applied around the EU’s entire body signals a return to normality, are deeply unconvincing.

In practice NATO became a mechanism, controlled by the United States, whereby its European allies were kept under a military umbrella. And yet it is worth noting that throughout the Cold War years, from 1949 to 1990, NATO never fought a single battle. It was neither tried nor tested. Instead, it was a military propaganda organization, designed to control allies rather than punish enemies. Yet things changed following the fall of the Berlin Wall. Where once the purpose was a defensive show of strength, it now became an offensive test of strength, giving rise to operational shifts and corresponding changes in its command structure. This was on public record at the Welsh summit in 2014. There have been two and a half phases in NATO’s development since 1949. The original members comprised the United States, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Canada, France, Denmark, Norway and Iceland.


pages: 414 words: 121,243

What's Left?: How Liberals Lost Their Way by Nick Cohen

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, centre right, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, haute couture, kremlinology, liberal world order, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, profit motive, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, the scientific method, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

They couldn’t tolerate Western democracy, but they couldn’t become the fellow travellers of the communist tyrannies because all the communist regimes and parties accepted the legacy of Stalin, Trotsky’s enemy, to varying degrees. Healy had to look elsewhere and ended up with Saddam Hussein for want of better. The totalitarianism of the Baathist ultra-right was preferable to the real enemy – the liberal version of democracy that permitted him to organize a party and argue his case. His choice anticipated the choices of the twenty-first century. After the collapse of the Berlin Wall, hardly any communist tyrannies survived. When people wanted to go from justifiable democratic opposition into fellow travelling with totalitarianism, what else was there to travel with other than the regimes and movements of the ultra-right? I write this with the benefit of hindsight. In 1985, the collapse of the WRP didn’t seem significant to me or anyone else. It delighted the newspapers, but if the Redgraves had not brought their celebrity to the party, few journalists would have been interested.

‘Iraq was a state whose legitimacy was derived from impossibly intertwined circles of complicity and victimhood,’ he wrote long before the invasion. The post-Baathist future was ‘going to be like walking a tightrope, balancing the legitimate grievances of all those who have suffered against the knowledge that if everyone is held accountable who is in fact guilty, the country will be torn apart’. In the Nineties, however, the ranks of those outside Iraq who wanted to overthrow the Baath Party were thin. The Berlin Wall was down and the terrors of the twentieth century appeared to be over. Consumers dedicated their lives to getting and spending, and the liberal-minded among them relaxed and enjoyed their world music and GM-free organic food. Makiya cut a lonely figure as he toured American universities and think tanks trying to prick consciences. In his speeches he declared that it was foolish to regard Iraq as a sovereign nation whose internal affairs were its own business, and not only because of the crimes against humanity the Baathists had committed.

Marxism never got anywhere in Britain where the Left generally meant a Labour Party that true Marxists despised for its boringly ‘reformist’ attempts to make most people’s lives a little bit better. But given the success of Marxism elsewhere, they could dream that a true revolutionary socialist party would supplant Labour. And forty years on, what was left of his Left? Socialism had vanished in the Eighties. Long before the Berlin Wall came down people had stopped thinking about it or seeing it as a plausible answer to the problems of organizing societies. It wasn’t just that communism was clearly finished. In the free world, trade union membership fell, and all left-wing parties with a chance of winning an election stopped pretending that they could and should nationalize the commanding heights of the economy. All around Anderson, the movements that had given purpose to his life were dying or dead, going or gone.

Rethinking Islamism: The Ideology of the New Terror by Meghnad Desai

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Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, illegal immigration, income per capita, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, means of production, oil shock, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yom Kippur War

฀What฀follows฀is฀ an฀attempt฀to฀explain฀its฀nature,฀understanding฀it฀in฀its฀own฀terms฀ and฀placing฀it฀in฀the฀wider฀context฀of฀the฀politics฀of฀ideologies.  Introduction ‘The฀attack฀must฀have฀all฀the฀shocking฀senselessness฀ of฀gratuitous฀blasphemy.’ (Vladimir฀the฀diplomat,฀in฀฀ Joseph฀Conrad,฀The฀Secret฀Agent) The฀Berlin฀Wall฀and฀the฀Twin฀Towers Two฀dramatic฀events฀of฀the฀last฀twenty฀years฀share฀a฀pair฀of฀iconic฀ numbers.฀On฀/,฀the฀World฀Trade฀Center฀towers฀were฀rammed฀ by฀planes฀hijacked฀by฀terrorists.฀On฀/,฀a฀dozen฀years฀previously,฀ the฀Berlin฀Wall฀faced฀a฀different฀kind฀of฀assault.฀ The฀Berlin฀Wall฀did฀not฀fall;฀it฀was฀destroyed฀physically฀by฀the฀ bare฀ hands฀ of฀ angry฀ people฀ from฀ both฀ sides฀ of฀ divided฀ Germany฀ separated฀ by฀ the฀ ugly฀ structure,฀ using฀ very฀ crude฀ equipment.฀ It฀ signalled฀the฀collapse฀of฀the฀last฀empire฀of฀the฀twentieth฀century฀ –฀the฀Communist฀empire฀centred฀in฀Russia.

.฀ The฀ central฀ terror฀ machine฀ was฀ silenced฀ soon฀ after฀ ฀ when฀ Nikita฀ Khrushchev,฀ who฀ had฀ inherited฀ Stalin’s฀ post฀ as฀ general฀ secretary฀ of฀ the฀ Communist฀ Party,฀ told฀ the฀ world฀ how฀ cruel฀ and฀ arbitrary฀ Stalin’s฀rule฀had฀been฀and฀how฀many฀people฀had฀perished,฀most฀of฀ them฀loyal฀citizens฀of฀the฀Soviet฀Union฀and฀a฀large฀proportion฀of฀ them฀Bolsheviks.฀The฀destruction฀of฀the฀Berlin฀Wall฀signalled฀the฀ end,฀ in฀ Europe฀ at฀ least,฀ of฀ that฀ regime.฀ In฀ ฀ the฀ Communist฀ empire฀in฀Eastern฀Europe,฀and฀in฀฀the฀USSR฀itself,฀collapsed.฀ It฀ did฀ so฀ without฀ a฀ shot฀ being฀ fired฀ by฀ its฀ enemies,฀ without฀ the฀ awesome฀ nuclear฀ arsenal฀ on฀ both฀ sides฀ of฀ the฀ Cold฀ War฀ being฀   ฀  alerted,฀ let฀ alone฀ used.฀ The฀ nightmare฀ scenario฀ of฀ the฀ Cold฀ War฀ –฀the฀Dr฀Strangelove฀fantasy฀–฀did฀not฀realise฀itself.

Index Abbasid฀caliphate฀ Abdullah,฀King฀of฀Jordan฀ Abdullah,฀Shaikh฀ Abu฀Bakr,฀Caliph฀– Abu฀Ghraib฀ Adams,฀Gerry฀ Afghanistan and฀Bin฀Laden฀–,฀– Clinton’s฀bombing฀ mujahideen฀ Soviet฀intervention฀–,฀,฀ – Taliban฀regime฀ Africa Pan-African฀Movement฀ see฀also฀individual฀countries฀by฀ name Ahmad,฀Sir฀Syed฀,฀ al-Qaeda on฀/฀ and฀anarchism฀ background฀– beliefs฀see฀Global฀Islamism and฀Kashmir฀ nature฀of฀terrorism฀– structure฀– tactics฀– typical฀statements฀by฀ view฀of฀the฀conflict฀ worldwide฀terrorist฀activities฀ Alexander฀II,฀Tsar฀of฀Russia฀ Algeria฀ Ali,฀Caliph฀,฀–,฀ Ali,฀Mohammad฀ Ali,฀Shaukat฀ Aligarh฀Muslim฀University฀ Alliance฀for฀Freedom฀for฀Latin฀ America฀ anarchism฀,฀– Anderson,฀Benedict฀ Angola฀ Angry฀Brigade฀ Annan,฀Kofi฀ anti-Semitism฀,฀,฀– Anushilan฀ Arab฀countries Arabia฀as฀imaginary฀nation฀– history฀–   political฀systems฀ reasons฀for฀hostility฀to฀Israel฀ – and฀reform/modernity฀– relations฀with฀Israel฀– relative฀well-being฀– and฀Sykes–Picot฀Agreement฀ ()฀– see฀also฀individual฀countries฀by฀ name Arafat,฀Yasser฀ Army฀of฀the฀Faithful฀see฀Lashkar-eToiba Arnett,฀Peter฀– Asian฀crisis฀()฀ Atatürk,฀Kemal฀,฀ Azad,฀Maulana฀Abul฀Kalam฀ Baader-Meinhof฀Group฀ Ba’ath฀Party:฀origins฀and฀nature฀ Bakunin,฀Mikhael฀ Balfour,฀Arthur฀,฀ Balfour฀Declaration฀()฀–,฀ Balkans background฀to฀Yugoslav฀crisis฀,฀  Bin฀Laden฀on฀Bosnia฀ and฀mujahideen฀ NATO฀intervention฀ pre-First฀World฀War฀nationalism฀ ,฀ Yugoslav฀crisis฀,฀ Bangladesh฀,฀,฀–,฀ Barak,฀Ehud฀ Bates,฀Stephen฀ Begin,฀Menachem฀,฀ Bell,฀Daniel฀ Bergen,฀Peter฀– Berlin฀Wall,฀fall฀of฀()฀ Bhutto,฀Zulfikar฀Ali฀ Bible฀,฀ Bin฀Laden฀see฀Laden,฀Osama฀Bin Black฀Hands฀,฀ Blair,฀Tony฀,฀ Bosnia฀,฀,฀,฀ Bradlaugh,฀Chris฀ Britain attitude฀to฀/฀– Bin฀Laden฀on฀,฀ and฀dismemberment฀of฀Ottoman฀ Empire฀–,฀,฀ end฀of฀empire฀ and฀establishment฀of฀Israel฀ multiculturalism฀ reasons฀for฀Muslim฀hostility฀ religious฀discrimination฀– Suez฀crisis฀()฀ war฀against฀terror฀,฀,฀– Buddhism฀ Burgess,฀Guy฀– Burke,฀Edmund฀ Bush,฀George฀W.฀,฀–,฀ Boutros-Ghali,฀Boutros฀ caliphate decline฀and฀abolition฀– history฀–,฀– power฀and฀importance฀–,฀ – Calvin,฀John฀– Cambodia฀ Camp฀David฀Accords฀()฀ capitalism anti-capitalist฀terrorism฀–,฀ – Communism’s฀challenge฀to฀– Marx฀on฀– Catholicism and฀fundamentalism฀ and฀social฀reform฀– Chechnya฀,฀,฀,฀ Cheney,฀Dick฀ Chiang฀Kai฀Shek฀ China฀,฀,฀,฀  ฀  Christianity fifteenth฀century฀ fundamentalism฀,฀ and฀ideology฀–,฀– Islam’s฀relationship฀to฀– and฀modernity฀ and฀philosophy฀– Reformation฀and฀secularism฀ and฀social฀reform฀– see฀also฀Catholicism;฀Puritanism Churchill,฀Winston฀ CIA฀,฀ Clarke,฀Charles฀ Clinton,฀Bill฀,฀,฀ Cold฀War,฀end฀of฀,฀– colonialism฀,฀,฀– Comintern฀see฀Communist฀ International Communism and฀culture฀– heyday฀– as฀ideology฀–,฀– modern฀appeal฀ West’s฀defeat฀of฀– Communist฀International฀ (Comintern)฀,฀ Crone,฀Patricia฀,฀ Curzon,฀Lord฀ Czechoslovakia:฀Prague฀Spring฀()฀  democracy,฀and฀Islam฀ Denmark:฀cartoons฀of฀Muhammad฀ –,฀ Deobandi฀school฀,฀–,฀ Destutt,฀Antoine฀Louis฀Claude,฀ Comte฀de฀Tracy,฀฀ East฀India฀Company฀ East฀Timor฀ education:฀Muslim฀–,฀ Egypt฀,฀,฀,฀ Encounter฀(magazine)฀ Engels,฀Friedrich฀–,฀,฀– ETA฀ Ferdinand,฀Archduke฀ Feuerbach,฀Ludwig฀ First฀World฀War฀–,฀ Florence:฀Renaissance฀ foreign฀affairs,฀modern฀conduct฀of฀ – France and฀dismemberment฀of฀Ottoman฀ Empire฀–,฀ end฀of฀empire฀ Paris฀Commune฀ student฀rebellion฀()฀ Suez฀crisis฀()฀ fundamentalism฀–,฀– Gandhi,฀Mohandas฀,฀,฀ Garfield,฀James฀Abram฀ Gaza฀,฀ gender฀issues฀,฀,฀– Germany฀,฀– Gibson,฀Mel฀ Global฀Islamism and฀anti-Semitism฀– background฀– defeating฀– definition฀ demands฀– evaluation฀–,฀– as฀ideology฀–,฀– and฀Nazism฀ reasons฀for฀appeal฀– globalisation฀–,฀–,฀,฀–,฀ – Goebbels,฀Joseph฀ Grey,฀Lord฀ Guantánamo฀Bay฀,฀ Guevara,฀Che฀ Gulf฀War฀()฀,฀   Habsburg฀Empire:฀fate฀of฀former฀ members฀– Halliday,฀Fred฀,฀ Hamas฀,฀,฀,฀ Hastings,฀Warren฀ Hegel,฀Georg฀Wilhelm฀Friedrich฀ – Hekmatyar,฀Gulbuddin฀ Herzl,฀Theodore฀ Hezbollah฀,฀ Hijaz฀ Hinds,฀Martin฀,฀ Hitler,฀Adolf฀ Hobbes,฀Thomas฀ Holocaust:฀effects฀ homosexuality:฀Western฀attitude฀ Hume,฀David฀,฀ Huntington,฀Samuel฀–,฀ Husayni,฀Amin฀al-,฀Mufti฀of฀ Jerusalem฀ Hussain,฀Hasib฀– Hussein,฀King฀of฀Jordan฀ Husayn,฀Sharif฀of฀Mecca฀–,฀,฀ –,฀ Ibn฀Taymiyya฀ ideology anarchism฀as฀– Communism฀as฀–,฀– Islamism฀as฀–,฀– nationalism฀as฀,฀– nature฀of฀– original฀use฀and฀meaning฀– and฀philosophy฀– and฀religion฀– IMF฀see฀International฀Monetary฀Fund immigration Muslim฀ and฀racism฀ imperialism end฀of฀European฀empires฀– need฀to฀re-examine฀Western฀ see฀also฀colonialism;฀Habsburg฀ Empire;฀Ottoman฀Empire India under฀East฀India฀Company฀ imperial฀government฀structure฀  and฀Kashmir฀– Khalistan฀movement฀ Khilafat฀agitation฀ Maoist฀groups฀in฀ modern฀successes฀ and฀modernity฀,฀– musical฀tradition฀ Muslims฀in฀,฀,฀–,฀ national฀integrity฀ nationalist฀movement฀ and฀Pakistan฀ Parsees฀ Partition฀–,฀ Indian฀Mutiny฀()฀ Indonesia฀,฀,฀,฀ Inquisition฀– International฀Monetary฀Fund฀(IMF)฀ ,฀ International฀Workingmen’s฀ Association฀,฀,฀,฀ Iqbal,฀Muhammad฀–,฀ Iran฀–,฀,฀ Iran,฀Shah฀of฀,฀–,฀– Iran–Iraq฀War฀(–)฀,฀,฀ Iranian฀Revolution฀()฀,฀,฀ –,฀– Iraq current฀state฀– invasion฀of฀()฀ Kuwait฀invasion฀()฀,฀– republic฀declared฀ and฀Sykes–Picot฀Agreement฀ ()฀ Ireland฀,฀– see฀also฀Northern฀Ireland Irgun฀,฀  ฀  Irish฀Republican฀Army฀(IRA)฀–,฀ ,฀,฀– Islam countries฀with฀a฀Muslim฀majority฀  as฀distinct฀from฀Islamism฀,฀ distinction฀between฀Arabs฀and฀ other฀Muslims฀– effects฀of฀loss฀of฀caliphate฀ history฀–,฀– and฀ideology฀ and฀integration฀ local฀variations฀,฀ and฀militancy฀ and฀national฀liberation฀ need฀for฀greater฀study฀of฀culture฀ – need฀to฀integrate฀history฀into฀ world฀history฀– and฀political฀authority฀– reasons฀for฀Muslim฀decline฀– and฀reform/revival฀– relationship฀to฀Judaism฀and฀ Christianity฀– relative฀well-being฀of฀Muslim฀ countries฀– rules฀about฀portraying฀ Muhammad฀ and฀secularism฀– and฀terrorism฀,฀– umma,฀nature฀of฀,฀– Islamism forms฀of฀– see฀also฀Global฀Islamism Israel –฀war฀ attack฀on฀Qana฀– Bin฀Laden฀on฀– function฀for฀Global฀Islamism฀ internal฀divisions฀ Israel–Palestine฀issue฀– and฀Lebanon฀ origins฀–,฀,฀– reasons฀for฀Arab฀hostility฀– relations฀with฀Arab฀countries฀ – and฀Suez฀crisis฀()฀ Jabotinsky,฀Ze’ev฀ Jesus฀Christ฀–,฀– Jews anti-Semitism฀,฀,฀– fundamentalism฀ Islam’s฀relationship฀to฀Judaism฀ – and฀Jesus฀– nationalist฀movement฀in฀Palestine฀  in฀USA฀ see฀also฀Israel jihad:฀definition฀ Jinnah,฀Mohammad฀Ali฀–,฀ Jordan฀,฀ Juste,฀Carsten฀ Jyllands฀Posten฀(newspaper)฀– Kashmir฀,฀,฀– Kautsky,฀Karl฀ Kennedy,฀John฀F.฀ Kenya฀ Khalidi,฀Hashim฀al-฀ Khalistan฀movement฀,฀ Khilafat฀agitation฀ Khmer฀Rouge฀ Khomeini,฀Ayatollah฀Ruholla฀,฀ – Khrushchev,฀Nikita฀,฀ Koestler,฀Arthur฀ Ku฀Klux฀Klan฀ Kuwait:฀Iraqi฀invasion฀(–)฀,฀ – Laden,฀Osama฀Bin abilities฀and฀tactics฀–,฀   and฀Afghanistan฀– consequences฀of฀ideology฀– demands฀– evaluation฀of฀ideology฀–,฀ – as฀face฀of฀al-Qaeda฀ and฀Global฀Islamism’s฀ideology฀ – as฀global฀Muslim฀leader฀–,฀  negotiation฀offer฀ reasons฀for฀start฀of฀conflict฀– view฀of฀the฀conflict฀ Lashkar-e-Toiba฀(Army฀of฀the฀ Faithful)฀ Latin฀America฀–,฀ Lawrence,฀T.E.


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Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum

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Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Norman Mailer, Parag Khanna, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile

Besides, some of the experts we talked to believed that English, like Latin before it, was already showing signs of breaking up into mutually unintelligible variants. The Story of English might turn out to be a last hurrah. We were, of course, dead wrong. The global power and influence of Anglo-American language and culture in the broadest sense was about to hit another new high. When the Cold War ended, after the Berlin Wall came down and once the internet took off in the 1990s, there was an astonishing new landscape to explore and describe. Sometimes during these years the spread of Anglo-American culture seemed like the fulfilment of the ambition expressed by America’s Founding Fathers to play a role ‘among the Powers of the Earth’ derived, as they put it, from ‘the Laws of Nature’. The world had become a planet composed of some 193 countries, all enjoying a greater or lesser familiarity with English and Englishness.

French and European fury against the ‘Anglo-Saxons’ was only intensified by the realisation that, among the new post-war generation of baby boomers, Anglo-American culture was exceedingly desirable. It was probably a futile protest; today it has been calculated that about one-twentieth of day-to-day French vocabulary is composed of anglicismes. For example, a McDonald’s hamburger is simply a ‘McD’. After the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, the Cold War moved into a more stable phase, while the United States (but not Britain) fought the threat of Communism in South-East Asia. Britain, meanwhile, had divested itself of almost all its colonial possessions, letting the ‘winds of change’ blow through Africa. Within a decade the ‘self-liquidating empire’ had exchanged hard political power for soft cultural influence.

By the late 1970s the Soviet and American stand-off was nearing its final phase, occasionally referred to as the ‘second Cold War’. Now the Anglo-American hegemony-often hotly disputed by anti-American liberals – was wholly underpinned by rampant capitalism, represented by Margaret Thatcher’s premiership in Britain and Ronald Reagan’s two-term presidency in the United States. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 this new global culture would morph into the worldwide cultural revolution that would become Globish. The eerie decade that preceded the crisis of 2001 was the first in a century in which the world was no longer in the shadow of war. Francis Fukuyama declared ‘the End of History’. It was during this unreal and optimistic hiatus that the little term coined by Jean-Paul Nerrière in 1995, ‘Globish’ – simple, inelegant and almost universal-first gained currency.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

“Hysterical prophesies of Soviet domination and the destruction of democracy were common,” noted Katie Hafner and Matthew Lyon in Where Wizards Stay Up Late, their lucid history of the Internet’s origins. “Sputnik was proof of Russia’s ability to launch intercontinental ballistic missiles, said the pessimists, and it was just a matter of time before the Soviets would threaten the United States.”22 The Cold War was at its chilliest in the late fifties and early sixties. In 1960, the Soviets shot down an American U-2 surveillance plane over the Urals. On August 17, 1961, the Berlin Wall, the Cold War’s most graphic image of the division between East and West, was constructed overnight by the German Democratic Republic’s communist regime. In 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis sparked a terrifying contest of nuclear brinksmanship between Kennedy and Khrushchev. Nuclear war, once unthinkable, was being reimagined as a logistical challenge by game theorists at military research institutes like the RAND Corporation, the Santa Monica, California–based think tank set up by the US Air Force in 1964 to “provide intellectual muscle”23 for American nuclear planners.

With the creation of the Web, concludes John Naughton, the Internet achieved “liftoff.”48 Without Berners-Lee’s brilliantly simple innovation there would be no Google, Amazon, Facebook, or the millions of other websites and online businesses that we use on a daily basis. Without the Web, we wouldn’t all be living in Ericsson’s Networked Society. Tim Berners-Lee wrote his initial Web proposal in March 1989 at CERN. Six months later, a few hundred miles to the northeast of Geneva, the Berlin Wall fell and the Cold War came to an end. Back then, with the dramatic destruction of the Wall in November, it was thought that 1989 would be remembered as a watershed year that marked the end of the Cold War and the victory of free-market liberalism. The Stanford University political scientist Francis Fukuyama, assuming that the great debate between capitalists and socialists over the best way to organize industrial society had finally been settled, described the moment that the Wall came down as the “End of History.”

Silicon Valley has become the new Wall Street because Berners-Lee’s invention has become the vehicle for a twenty-first-century networked model of capitalism that offers astounding financial rewards to its winner-take-all entrepreneurs. “We live at a time when almost everything can be bought and sold,” notes the moral philosopher Michael Sandel about an “era of market triumphalism” that began at the end of the Cold War.104 And the Internet, John Doerr’s “largest legal creation of wealth in the history of the planet,” engineered by Cold War scientists and coming of age in the same year that the Berlin Wall fell, has become particularly fertile ground for the triumphalism of free-market ideologues like Tom Perkins. There’s much, of course, for Perkins to be triumphant about. Larry Page and Sergey Brin are now worth $30 billion apiece because they successfully cornered the market in the buying and selling of digital advertising. Jeff Bezos has made his $30 billion from an Everything Store that offers better pricing and more choice than its rivals.


pages: 441 words: 135,176

The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful--And Their Architects--Shape the World by Deyan Sudjic

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen

In fact the graffiti on the rubble beneath the horses is officially sanctioned. It has been carefully transcribed by the artist from the originals in Berlin, as Goodnight’s commentary reassuringly points out: ‘At President Bush’s request, the names of people killed at the Berlin Wall are written on the dove of peace. These names represent over 900 people who were killed trying to escape to the west.’ The source of the figure is not revealed, but it does not match the 82 names recorded as having been killed at the Berlin wall itself during its twenty-eight years of existence. The sheer scale and effort needed to realize the work are presented with more conviction than its content. ‘The life-size horses weigh seven tons between them and took three and a half years to complete,’ she explains, as if to demonstrate that the achievements of the Bush administration are to be measured quantitatively rather than qualitatively.

According to the helpful gloss, there for the benefit of those of us too literal-minded fully to understand the equine allegory, ‘President Bush’s diplomatic skills enabled the hole in the wall to become so large that all of Eastern Europe was set free from communist rule; the Cold War had ended.’ Rival claims are made by the Ronald Reagan Library in California. Both Reagan and Bush have fragments of the authentic Berlin Wall on show to demonstrate their case for claiming that they personally won the Cold War. Over at the Reagan Library, visitors are invited in semi-biblical language to ‘touch a piece of the Berlin wall He sent crashing down, relive the history He made, and look with Him into the limitless future He dared to dream for us’. For all its celebration of the triumph of America over the evil empire, the Bush Library is set in a landscape glittering with paranoia. Highway billboards proclaim the gospel of permanent vigilance in terms Winston Smith would have recognized from 1984, albeit translated to the Internet.

It was still dominated by the smoke-blackened serpentine façade of Erich Mendelsohn’s Columbushaus, a department store and office building from the 1930s that became a base for the Gestapo. The tangle of tramlines and the stone hulks of the buildings whose cliff-like frontages once defined Central Europe’s version of Times Square were still visible. The workers’ riots of 1953 turned the Potsdamer Platz into a battlefield. And finally the building of the Berlin Wall caused the entire area to revert to scrub, inhabited only by wild foxes. What had been the centre of one of Europe’s greatest cities turned into a wasteland at the edge of two provincial backwaters that no longer spoke to each other. The stalemate came to an abrupt end with the reunification of the two Germanys. For Berlin, the destruction of the wall was the urban equivalent of the Big Bang.

The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World (Hardback) - Common by Alan Greenspan

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air freight, airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, equity premium, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, North Sea oil, oil shock, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pets.com, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, reserve currency, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, working-age population, Y2K, zero-sum game

The postwar liberalization of trade helped open up new low-cost sources of supply; coupled with the development of new financial institutions and products (made possible in part by silicon-based technologies), it facilitated the forward thrust toward global market capitalism even during the years of the cold war. In the following quarter century, the embrace of free-market capitalism helped bring inflation to quiescence and interest rates to single digits globally. The defining moment for the world's economies was the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, revealing a state of economic ruin behind the iron curtain far beyond the expectations of the most knowledgeable Western economists. Central planning was exposed as an unredeemable failure; coupled with and supported by the growing disillusionment over the interventionist economic policies of the Western democracies, market capitalism began quietly to displace those policies in much of the world.

"I do not want to see us move so strongly against inflation that we impede growth," he said. Normally such differences would get aired and resolved behind the scenes. I'd been looking toward building the same collaborative relationship with the White House that I'd seen during the Ford administration and that I knew had existed at times between Reagan and Paul Volcker. It was not to be. Great things happened on George Bush's watch: the fall of the Berlin Wall, the end of the cold war, a clear victory in the Persian Gulf, and the negotiation of the NAFTA agreement to free North American trade. But the economy was his Achilles' heel, and as a result we ended up with a terrible relationship. 113 More ebooks visit: http://www.ccebook.cn ccebook-orginal english ebooks This file was collected by ccebook.cn form the internet, the author keeps the copyright.

ABOVE: Courtesy of the Ronald Reagan Library; LEFT: Copyright © 1987 by the New York Times Co. Reprinted with permission. G w f l Gl.-T"tf'.iW-***!* ft*™M C i * - I HNEBSSr* N *i I A ^ ^ ^ ^ _ J ^bA^A ^^U • ^ ^ • • t I - - fc rai m m • - - ^ ^ " E_"^'iTi:". -~ • • = - " More ebooks visit: http://www.ccebook.cn ccebook-orginal english ebooks This file was collected by ccebook.cn form the internet, the author keeps the copyright. History took an astonishing turn when the Berlin Wall fell in November 1989. But even more amazing to me in the following days was the economic ruin exposed by the fall of the wall. By the time Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev made his third visit to the United States during the following spring, the Soviet Union itself had begun to disintegrate. He is shown below with President George H. W. Bush and me in a receiving line at a state dinner in Washington on May 31, 1990.

On Nature and Language by Noam Chomsky

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Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, complexity theory, dark matter, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Murray Gell-Mann, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Turing test

What is important is their overwhelming consistency, a fact that has been extensively documented in dissident literature, where it can easily be ignored, as Orwell pointed out in his unknown essay on voluntary censorship in free societies. Although this course is misleading for the reasons mentioned, I will nevertheless illustrate the general pattern with a few current examples. Given the consistency, contemporary examples are rarely hard to find. We are meeting in November 1999, a month that happens to be the tenth anniversary of several important events. One was the fall of the Berlin Wall, which effectively brought the Soviet system to an end. A second was the final large-scale massacre in El Salvador, carried out by US terrorist forces called “the army of El Salvador” – organized, armed, and trained by the reigning superpower, which has long controlled the region in essentially this manner. The worst atrocities were carried out by elite units fresh from renewed US training, very much like the Indonesian commandos who were responsible for shocking atrocities in East Timor, once again, this year – continuing at this very moment, in fact, in camps in Indonesian West Timor.

There is a great deal more to say about the tenth anniversary of the assassination of the Jesuit intellectuals, and the coming twentieth anniversary of the assassination of the Archbishop, and the slaughter of several hundred thousand people in Central America in the years between, mostly by the same hands, with the responsibility tracing back to the centers of power in the self-anointed “enlightened states.” There is also much more to say about the performance of the secular priesthood throughout these awful years and until today. The record has been reviewed in some detail in print, with the usual fate of “unpopular ideas.” There is perhaps little point in reviewing it again, and time is short, so let me turn to the second anniversary: the fall of the Berlin Wall. This too is a rich topic, one that has received a great deal of attention on the tenth anniversary, unlike the destruction of Central America by US terror. Let us consider some of the consequences of the collapse of the Soviet dungeon that largely escaped attention – in the West, not among the traditional victims. One consequence of the collapse of the USSR was an end to nonalignment. When two superpowers ruled the world – one global, the other regional – there was a certain space for nonalignment.

One element of this freedom is access to secret planning documents. The openness does not matter much: the press, and intellectuals generally, commonly adhere to the 172 The secular priesthood and the perils of democracy “general tacit agreement that ‘it wouldn’t do’ to mention” what they reveal. But the information is there, for those who choose to know. I will mention a few recent examples to give the flavor. Immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall, US global strategy shifted in an instructive way. It is called “deterrence strategy,” because the US only “deters” others, and never attacks. This is an instance of another historical universal, or close to it: in a military conflict, each side is fighting in self-defense, and it is an important task of the secular priesthood, on all sides, to uphold that banner vigorously. At the end of the Cold War, US “deterrence strategy” shifted: from Russia, to the South, the former colonies.


pages: 372 words: 115,094

Reagan at Reykjavik: Forty-Eight Hours That Ended the Cold War by Ken Adelman

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Haight Ashbury, Kitchen Debate, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, Sinatra Doctrine, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

The session was nearly universally condemned, even by those as astute in foreign policy as Richard Nixon, who declared, “No summit since Yalta has threatened Western interests so much as the two days at Reykjavik.” The following year, 1987, Reykjavik received some acclaim when agreements reached over that weekend were signed in the White House as part of a sweeping arms control treaty. Since then—despite the earth-shattering events of the fall of the Berlin Wall, the demise of Communism in Eastern Europe, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and end of the Cold War—Reykjavik has mostly been relegated to a footnote in history, something akin to the Glassboro summit of 1967 between U.S. president Lyndon Johnson and Soviet premier Aleksey Kosygin. Specialists have debated the summit’s significance, particularly at four conferences held on its anniversaries, but their debates have largely remained there—among specialists at conferences.

He told a (rather long) story of how, as commander-in-chief, he thought he could not salute, since he wasn’t in uniform. But after the president got official “permission” to do so, he loved saluting the troops. (Ronald Reagan Library) What Time called “the four most famous words of the Reagan presidency” were almost not spoken, owing to opposition from nearly all of Reagan’s aides. But he spoke them anyway, on June 12, 1987, at the Brandenburg Gate, a short distance from the Berlin Wall. Screens had been set up to protect him against any East German sniper. The president called out, “Mr. Gorbachev,” paused, and then repeated the name for emphasis—“Mr. Gorbachev—tear down this Wall!” It had an electrifying effect that day, and was evoked again when the Wall fell two years later. (Ronald Reagan Library) Raisa Gorbachev and Nancy Reagan were mostly just tolerating each other by the time of the welcoming ceremonies for the Gorbachevs’ arrival at the Washington Summit on December 7, 1987.

Flags fluttered, torches burned high, floodlights crisscrossed the skies, à la Nuremberg 1938. Gorbachev listened as Honecker channeled Leonid Brezhnev when blaming the country’s unrest on “the unbridled defamation campaign that is being internationally coordinated against East Germany.” In his own remarks, Gorbachev responded to Reagan’s speech on the other side of the Wall. Someone, Gorbachev remarked, had previously said, “Let the U.S.S.R. get rid of the Berlin Wall, then we’ll believe in its peaceful intentions,” which was a fair summary of Reagan’s main message. But Gorbachev took exception to that someone since “the postwar reality has insured peace on the continent.” While rebuking Reagan and seeming amorous toward Honecker, Gorbachev also signaled the opposite. He communicated to the grouchy old man—perhaps in words, but certainly in deeds—that he was now on his own, that he could no longer expect Soviet troops to bail him out.


pages: 341 words: 89,986

Bricks & Mortals: Ten Great Buildings and the People They Made by Tom Wilkinson

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Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, experimental subject, false memory syndrome, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, housing crisis, Kitchen Debate, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, megacity, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

A room of one’s own is after all a possession, a commodity, a set of walls that separates us from others. Caryatids from a Venetian edition of Vitruvius, 1511 Brothel in Amsterdam The fetishisation of architecture appears in these stories as a kind of metaphor for the modern condition of reification, but there are cases in which this metaphor is brought to startling life. In 1979 a woman called Eija-Riitta Eklöf Berliner-Mauer married the Berlin Wall, hence her bizarre surname – ‘Berlin Wall’ in German. Mrs Berliner-Mauer is not alone in her tastes, but a vocal member of a group of self-defined ‘Objectum Sexuals’, established by a woman named Erika Eiffel, who is married to . . . well, you can probably guess. The Objectum Sexuals are united by their shared attraction to inorganic objects, especially large architectural structures, although Mrs Berliner-Mauer explains, ‘I also find [that] other manufactured things look good, [such] as bridges, fences, railroad tracks, gates . . .

It is the story of Le Corbusier’s mad passion for the house on the cliff and the resentment of the designer of that house, Eileen Gray. Motionless stone may seem the anaphrodisiac opposite of living flesh, but in this chapter I’ll reveal the secret sex life of buildings, their capacity to enflame and arouse. It’s a story about houses made for lovers, structures that thwart love and people who love buildings themselves. Although some of the characters that populate this story – like the woman who married the Berlin Wall – may seem extreme cases, the fact is that our sex lives mostly take place in architectural surroundings. So what do buildings do to our libidos? Before I try to answer that question, let’s go back to the scene I described above: the sun-drenched beach, the celebrity corpse and, most important of all, the cliff-top villa. Though it was Eileen Gray’s first architectural work, the house at Cap Martin is a superbly accomplished piece of design.

This behaviour, the reductio ad absurdum of fetishism, may seem the province of damaged libidos, but it is merely an extreme consequence of the more general tendency identified by Shakespeare in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. When Pyramus and Thisbe transfer their love to the wall that stands between them, a wall that is for them animated and responsive, they are entering into the Faustian bargain of reification, which animates the world but stills the soul. Mrs Berliner-Mauer is an extreme case, but the Berlin Wall – despite the fact that it cruelly separated many real lovers – had a broader aphrodisiac appeal, as noted by David Bowie in his song ‘“Heroes”’. At first listen it may seem that Bowie is singing about two heroic lovers divided by the Iron Curtain. But listen more closely (and note the quotation marks around the title): he actually describes a pair standing together on one side of the wall, kissing as they imagine the barrier as an eternal, immutable structure, and the possibility of beating the ‘shame’ on the other side, ‘for ever and ever’.

Rogue States by Noam Chomsky

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anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, deskilling, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, oil shock, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, Tobin tax, union organizing, Washington Consensus

So the US and UK are now much more free to use force than they were when there was a deterrent. That was recognized right away. But new pretexts are needed. You can no longer say that everything we do is against the Russians. The Berlin Wall fell in November 1989. That ended the Cold War as far as any sane person was concerned. In October 1989, a month before, the Bush administration had released a secret national security directive, now public, in which it called for support for our great friend Saddam Hussein and other comparable figures in the Middle East in defense against the Russians. That was October 1989. In March 1990—that’s four months after the fall of the Berlin Wall—the White House had to make its annual presentation to Congress calling for a huge military budget, which was the same as in all earlier years, except for the pretexts. Now it wasn’t because the Russians are coming, because obviously the Russians aren’t coming, it was because of what they called the “technological sophistication” of Third World powers.

For those who wish to understand the nature of the Cold War, and a good deal of modern history, there could hardly be a more instructive moment than when the Cold War came to an end. The first question is: What happened to NATO, which was established to protect Europe from the hordes of the slave state, according to doctrine? Answer: with no more Russian hordes, NATO rapidly expanded. After the Berlin Wall fell, Mikhail Gorbachev agreed to allow Germany to be unified and to join NATO, a hostile military alliance and the most powerful in history. An astonishing concession in the light of recent history, when Germany alone had virtually destroyed Russia several times. Gorbachev believed that Washington had promised him that NATO would not expand “one inch to the East,” meaning to East Berlin, let alone East Germany.

Also needed are intervention forces aimed at the Middle East, where in past years, “the threats to our interests” that required military intervention “could not be laid at the Kremlin’s door,” contrary to half a century of propaganda, now quietly shelved. Rather, the threats were “radical nationalism,” meaning intolerable independence. With the clouds lifted, the sun shone through briefly, but has been ignored. With Russian support for Cuba ending, the US stepped up its economic warfare, hoping to move in for the kill. Meanwhile within US domains, matters continued routinely. A week after the fall of the Berlin Wall, ending the Cold War, six leading Latin American intellectuals, Jesuit priests, were murdered by an elite Salvadoran battalion, armed and trained by the US, and fresh from renewed US training, acting on direct orders of the High Command. There was little notice, in accord with the Orwellian principle. They were not honored dissidents, just more unpeople, in Orwellian parlance. A few weeks later the US invaded Panama killing unknown numbers of people in the slums that were heavily bombarded, thousands according to Central American human rights organizations.


pages: 258 words: 63,367

Making the Future: The Unipolar Imperial Moment by Noam Chomsky

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, full employment, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, liberation theology, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, precariat, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor

That year “changed everything,” Garton Ash writes. Mikhail Gorbachev’s reforms within Russia and his “breathtaking renunciation of the use of force” led to the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9—and to the liberation of Eastern Europe from Russian tyranny. The accolades are deserved; the events, memorable. But alternative perspectives may be revealing. German chancellor Angela Merkel provided such a perspective—unintentionally—when she called on all of us to “use this invaluable gift of freedom . . . to overcome the walls of our time.” One way to follow her good advice would be to dismantle the massive wall, dwarfing the Berlin wall in scale and length, now snaking through Palestinian territory in violation of international law. The “annexation wall,” as it should be called, is justified in terms of “security”—the default rationalization for state crimes.

Another perspective on 1989 comes from Thomas Carothers, a scholar who served in “democracy enhancement” programs in the administration of former President Ronald Reagan. After reviewing the record, Carothers concludes that all U.S. leaders have been “schizophrenic”—supporting democracy if it conforms to U.S. strategic and economic objectives, thus in Soviet satellites but not in U.S. client states. This perspective is dramatically confirmed by the recent commemoration of the events of November 1989. The fall of the Berlin wall was rightly celebrated, but there was little notice of what happened one week later: on November 16, in El Salvador, the assassination of six leading Latin American intellectuals, Jesuit priests, along with their housekeeper and her daughter, by the elite, U.S.-armed Atlacatl battalion, fresh from renewed training at the JFK Special Warfare School in Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The battalion and its cohorts had already compiled a bloody record through the grisly decade in El Salvador that began in 1980 with the assassination, by much the same hands, of Archbishop Oscar Romero, known as “the voice of the voiceless.”

S. embassy in, 66, 88, 170, 174 Bahrain, 266 bailouts, 238, 272 Bajaur, Pakistan, 119 Baker, Dean, 115, 196, 287 Baker, Gerald, 271 Baker, Jim, 102 ballistic missile defense (BMD) programs, 39–40, 78–79 Balzar, John, 47 Banco del Sur, 135 Barak, Ehud, 35, 41, 281–282 Al-Barakaat, 48 Barnett, Correlli, 28 Barofsky, Neil, 272 Bartels, Larry M., 109 Battle of Mogadishu, 46–47 Beck, Ulrich, 269 Beinin, Joel, 260 ben-Ami, Shlomo, 104 Benghazi, 267 Benn, Aluf, 127 Bergen, Peter, 52 Berle, A. A., 231–232 Berlin Wall, fall of, 177 Biden, Joe, 113, 173, 201 bin Laden, Osama, 52, 275–279, 291, 293–295 biofuels, 22, 23–24 Blair, Tony, 34 Bolivarian Alternative for Latin America and the Caribbean, 135 Bolivia, 135–138, 167, 247 Boone, Peter, 238 Bouton, Marshall, 58 BP, 87 Branfman, Fred, 256–257 Brazil, 22, 247, 268 Brenner, Robert, 235 Bretton Woods system, 107–108 Britain, 22, 85, 134, 148 Broad, William J., 20 Brookings Institute, 242, 256 The Brothers Karamazov (Dostoyevsky), 180–181 Brown, Scott, 191, 192 Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 102 Buergenthal, Thomas, 243 Burke, Jason, 121, 143–144 Bush, George H.

9-11 by Noam Chomsky

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Berlin Wall, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, War on Poverty

Department of Justice, file A28 851 622, A11 861 810. 30. Graham Allison, “How to Stop Nuclear Terror,” Foreign Affairs, January/February 2004. 31. Robertson, Daily Beast, 2011. 9-11 1. Not Since the War of 1812 Based on an interview with Il Manifesto (Italy), September 19, 2001. Q: The fall of the Berlin Wall didn’t claim any victims, but it did profoundly change the geopolitical scene. Do you think that the attacks of 9-11 could have a similar effect? CHOMSKY: The fall of the Berlin Wall was an event of great importance and did change the geopolitical scene, but not in the ways usually assumed, in my opinion. I’ve tried to explain my reasons elsewhere and won’t go into it now. The horrifying atrocities of September 11 are something quite new in world affairs, not in their scale and character, but in the target.

In the recently published Cambridge University History of the Cold War, Latin American scholar John Coatsworth writes that from that time to “the Soviet collapse in 1990, the numbers of political prisoners, torture victims, and executions of non-violent political dissenters in Latin America vastly exceeded those in the Soviet Union and its East European satellites,”16 including many religious martyrs and mass slaughter as well, always supported or initiated in Washington. The last major violent act was the brutal murder of six leading Latin American intellectuals, Jesuit priests, a few days after the Berlin Wall fell. The perpetrators were an elite Salvadoran battalion, who had already left a shocking trail of blood, fresh from renewed training at the JFK School of Special Warfare, acting on direct orders of the high command of the U.S. client state. That act also framed a decade, which opened with the assassination of Archbishop Romero, the “voice for the voiceless,” by much the same hands, while he was reading mass.


pages: 484 words: 136,735

Capitalism 4.0: The Birth of a New Economy in the Aftermath of Crisis by Anatole Kaletsky

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bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, global rebalancing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, market design, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, statistical model, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Contrary to predictions, however, the system did not collapse, because the next phase of the cycle, again interacting with long-term uptrends that had been forgotten during the period of panic, created the conditions for a rebirth and evolution of capitalism in 2010 and beyond. Because economics is driven by both secular trends and cyclical patterns, we need to start by looking at both sets of forces separately and then consider how they interact. Only in this way can we properly understand why recent events happened and where they may lead. CHAPTER FOUR Annus Mirabilis Why did I free Nelson Mandela in February 1990? Because of the Berlin Wall. Once Communism collapsed in 1989, I felt sure that the ANC would abandon its revolutionary aspirations. This meant we had a chance to negotiate a peaceful end to Apartheid.1 —F.W. de Klerk, president of South Africa, 1989-94 You ask me why India broke out of the Hindu rate of growth in 1991. It is quite simple really. When we saw what happened to the Soviet Union in 1989, we realized that our reliance on central planning had been an historic mistake.

Part III will show how the combination of these cyclical and secular forces interacted with the political ideology of Capitalism 3.3 to trigger a crisis of a kind never seen before. Five vast and irreversible changes transformed the world in the two decades before the crisis, starting in the pivotal year of the late twentieth century—the Annus Mirabilis of 1989. The reason for choosing this starting point will be obvious from the first of these transformations. One, the seventy-year experiment with communism came to an end in November 1989, when the Berlin Wall was demolished. Even more important than the physical break-up of the Soviet bloc was the ideological collapse of Marxism as a political doctrine and of central planning as an idea for organizing economic activity without markets. From 1989 onward, all nations, regardless of their political institutions, their stage of development, or their local traditions, were forced to acknowledge private property, the profit motive, and the voluntary exchange of goods and services through competitive markets as the only plausible basis for economic life.

The World Wars of the first half of the twentieth century had consumed or directly destroyed much of the physical wealth created by three successive generations. As a result, each of these generations was forced to save a large share of its income to invest in the reconstruction of houses, factories, and physical infrastructure that their parents had destroyed. The postwar baby boom generation suffered no such depredations—and the dismantling of the Berlin Wall implied that no such disaster was going to occur in the near future. Even localized wars became far less likely after the end of proxy conflicts in Africa and southeast Asia between the United States and Soviet Union. Meanwhile, the declining value of natural resources and farmland, especially in comparison with the products of technology and intellectual property, reduced the economic incentives for territorial expansion.


pages: 570 words: 158,139

Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker

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airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise

The answer came in two parts—first from geopolitics, then from the industry itself. It took nothing less than the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Soviet Empire to open up minds and horizons. The Berlin Wall was the most famous of the barbed-wire barriers erected by eastern and central European puppet governments to cut off their people from their continental neighbors during the Cold War that had pitted the Communist countries against those in the democratic market system of capitalism. Since the end of World War II, the two sides had fought hot wars through proxies in Asia and South America and aimed nuclear weapons at each other in the ultimate standoff for supremacy. The Soviet side lost and the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, marking the beginning of the end of the Cold War. In 1991, the Soviet Union disintegrated.

Rogue gangs and organized crime got footholds in many industries, including tourism and prostitution, when governments were at their weakest. The money was eye-popping and bribes helped the trade dig deep roots. In Eastern Europe underground syndicates took over prostitution in the former Czechoslovakia along the “Highway of Shame” originally patronized by German truck drivers. “Before the dust from the Berlin Wall had even settled, gangsters and chancers were laying the cables of a huge network of trafficking in women,” wrote Misha Glenny in McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld. Estimates from individual countries suggest that these criminal syndicates earn in the hundreds of billions every year. Sex tourism provides anywhere between 2 and 14 percent of the gross domestic products of Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines, according to the U.S.

That could have put a severe dent in Dubai’s plans for tourism, so the sheikh made the wildly risky decision to create an airline just for Dubai that he named Emirates. With $10 million and the help of two British expatriate airline experts, he put his son Sheikh Mohammed, the current ruler, in charge of starting up Emirates and turning it into the region’s star carrier. That was 1986—an auspicious moment in tourism and all the stars aligned in Dubai’s favor. Just as Emirates was getting off the ground, the world opened up after the fall of the Berlin Wall. By the 1990s previously closed economies were jumping into the world markets, especially in Asia: China, India, and Southeast Asia. Emirates saw an opening and got landing rights to fly into these newly developing countries, especially the second- and third-tier cities that had only known puddle-jumper airlines, what the industry called “under-served areas,” which became lucrative markets when the middle classes started flying, on Emirates Airlines.


pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

Scientists alive today outnumber all scientists who ever lived up to 1980, and—in part thanks to them—average life expectancy has risen more in the past 50 years than in the previous 1,000. In the short term, too, history is being made. The Internet, effectively non-existent 20 years ago, linked 1 billion people by 2005, 2 billion people by 2010 and 3 billion people by 2015. Now, over half of humanity is online.3 China has erupted from autarky to become the world’s biggest exporter and economy. India is close behind. The Berlin Wall is gone, and the clash of economic ideologies that defined the second half of the twentieth century is gone with it. All this feels like old news when set against the headlines since the turn of the new millennium: 9/11; devastating tsunamis and hurricanes; a global financial crisis that struck dumb the world’s highest-paid brains; a nuclear meltdown in hyper-safe Japan; suicide bombings in the heart of Paris, City of Love; riots over inequality—and happier events like the explosion of mobile and social media, cracking the human genome, the advent of 3D printing, the breaking of long-standing taboos such as gay marriage, the detection of gravitational waves and the discovery of Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars.

Part I lays out the big, hard facts of the age, and rebuts the loose and often irresponsible rhetoric that pervades today’s public discourse. We step back and make clear the connective and developmental forces that defined the Renaissance of five hundred years ago and which, over the past quarter-century, have completely remade the world we live in now. Columbus’s voyages of discovery, the fall of the Berlin Wall—both events highlighted the breakdown of long-standing barriers of ignorance and myth, and the opening of fresh, planet-wide systems of political and economic exchange. The Gutenberg press, the Internet—both shifted the whole of human communication to a new normal: information abundance, cheap distribution, radical variety and wide participation. Developmental forces—gains in health, wealth and education—also underlay human progress then, and lift us now.

At about the same time: England and France ended their Hundred Years War, a violent disruption to daily life that had dragged on since 1337; Constantinople, the ancient Roman capital that had guarded Europe’s eastern frontier for over 1,100 years, finally fell to the new gunpowder cannons of the Ottoman Empire; and the warring Italian powers—Milan, Venice, Florence, Naples and the Papal States—signed into being the Italic League, a mutual nonaggression pact that allowed the whole peninsula to demobilize and invest its energies into peacetime pursuits.12 For similar reasons, we mark 1990 as the approximate start date for the New Renaissance. In the span of just a few years: the Cold War ended, the Berlin Wall fell, China rejoined the world economy and the commercial Internet lit up. Suddenly, the world felt quite different. As we will see in Part I, the hard data shows that this period was different. We loosely bookend the last Renaissance at about 1550. We must follow the evolution of ideas and events for however long it takes to clarify their meaning in the big picture. But in practice, one century gives a healthy perspective on many changes.


pages: 464 words: 139,088

The End of Alchemy: Money, Banking and the Future of the Global Economy by Mervyn King

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, distributed generation, Doha Development Round, Edmond Halley, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, the payments system, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, yield curve, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Disequilibrium is the absence of a state of balance between the forces acting on a system. As applied to economics, a disequilibrium is a position that is unsustainable, meaning that at some point a large change in the pattern of spending and production will take place as the economy moves to a new equilibrium. The word accurately describes the evolution of the world economy since the fall of the Berlin Wall, which I discuss in Chapter 1. Radical uncertainty refers to uncertainty so profound that it is impossible to represent the future in terms of a knowable and exhaustive list of outcomes to which we can attach probabilities. Economists conventionally assume that ‘rational’ people can construct such probabilities. But when businesses invest, they are not rolling dice with known and finite outcomes on the faces; rather they face a future in which the possibilities are both limitless and impossible to imagine.

The story of the crisis By the start of the twenty-first century it seemed that economic prosperity and democracy went hand in hand. Modern capitalism spawned growing prosperity based on growing trade, free markets and competition, and global banks. In 2008 the system collapsed. To understand why the crisis was so big, and came as such a surprise, we should start at the key turning point – the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. At the time it was thought to represent the end of communism, indeed the end of the appeal of socialism and central planning. For some it was the end of history.16 For most, it represented a victory for free market economics. Contrary to the prediction of Marx, capitalism had displaced communism. Yet who would have believed that the fall of the Wall was not just the end of communism but the beginning of the biggest crisis in capitalism since the Great Depression?

In recent years, short-term real interest rates have actually been negative because official interest rates have been less than the rate of inflation. And the savings glut pushed down long-term real interest rates to unprecedentedly low levels.21 In the nineteenth century and most of the twentieth, real rates were positive and moved within a range of 3 to 5 per cent. My estimate is that the average ten-year world real interest rate fell steadily from 4 per cent or so around the fall of the Berlin Wall to 1.5 per cent when the crisis hit, and has since fallen further to around zero.22 As the Asian economies grew and grew, the volume of saving placed in the world capital market by their savers, including the Chinese government, rose and rose. So not only did those countries add millions of people to the pool of labour producing goods to be sold around the world, depressing real wages in other countries, they added billions of dollars to the pool of saving seeking an outlet, depressing real rates of interest in the global capital market.


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The Atlantic and Its Enemies: A History of the Cold War by Norman Stone

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, central bank independence, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, illegal immigration, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, long peace, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, V2 rocket, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, éminence grise

The Party rewrote its statutes, modifying earlier remarks as to class war and imperialism. Even Xan Smiley, astutest of the foreign correspondents, and the Economist did not notice that something decisive had happened - a forgivable mistake (this writer has reason to hope), given the needle-in-haystack nature of truth in that system. But what was really meant was that Moscow was giving up the Berlin Wall. Within months, Solidarność was discussing a new Poland, and within a few more months the Berlin Wall had indeed gone, and so, thereafter, did everything else go, including, by 1991, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics itself. There was a romantic theory that this had been achieved by ‘We, the People’, a theory that could only elicit a chuckle from the grave of Andropov. The people were Mussorgsky extras, in an operetta where Polish pretenders made trouble for Old Believers.

Georgy Malenkov about to watch Arsenal play Manchester United during a visit to London, March 1956; Nikita Khrushchev and Władysław Gomułka at the United Nations, September 1960; John F. Kennedy and Dwight D. Eisenhower leave the White House for the former’s inauguration, January 1960 25. and 26. The non-Atlantic in the ascendant. Two symbols of Communist glamour: Yuri Gagarin and Fidel Castro; the Berlin Wall at Potsdamer-Platz, August 1962 27. and 28. The Atlantic in trouble. Some of the hundreds of thousands of white settlers fleeing Algeria, May 1962; captured American airmen being paraded through the streets of Hanoi, July 1966 29. and 30. The new Europe. Ludwig Erhard and Charles de Gaulle at a dinner hosted by Konrad Adenauer, September 1962; Willi Stoph and Willy Brandt, May 1970 31. and 32.

The problem became so serious that a French commentator, Pierre Chaunu, reckoned in 1980 that within fifty years there would be no more Germans: it was ‘Mandeville’s bees gone mad’, individualism to the point at which there would be no individuals left. West Germany was saved from herself by East Germany. Here was a warning as to what might happen if the Atlantic link were ever really sundered. Brezhnev might visit Bonn (1978) and talk of our ‘common European home’, but, as Margaret Thatcher later remarked, homes are built with walls, and the Berlin Wall was one too many. The ‘German Democratic Republic’ was an embarrassment. It remained a place where the inhabitants had to be contained by a wall, and a very ugly one at that, complete with minefields and yapping hounds on dog-runs, in case they all decided to move out, as they had done before 1961, when the wall was built. You just needed to travel one or two stops in the underground system, the U-Bahn, and you were in a different world: a brilliant and funny writer (East Germans were much funnier than West Germans), Stefan Wolle, describes ‘the specific smell of the DDR, the composition of which will never properly be analysed’ and ‘the unmistakable harsh, lecturing tone of voice of salesgirls, waiters and People’s Policemen’, the grey plastic telephones, ‘Sibylle’ wall cupboards, the Metallkombinat Zeulenrode, flowered carpets, sagging net curtains.


pages: 306 words: 92,704

After the Berlin Wall by Christopher Hilton

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce

AFTER THE BERLIN WALL AFTER THE BERLIN WALL PUTTING TWO GERMANYS BACK TOGETHER AGAIN CHRISTOPHER HILTON First published 2009 The History Press The Mill, Brimscombe Port Stroud, Gloucestershire, GL5 2QG www.thehistorypress.co.uk This ebook edition first published in 2011 All rights reserved © Christopher Hilton, 2009, 2011 The right of Christopher Hilton, to be identified as the Author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyrights, Designs and Patents Act 1988. This ebook is copyright material and must not be copied, reproduced, transferred, distributed, leased, licensed or publicly performed or used in any way except as specifically permitted in writing by the publishers, as allowed under the terms and conditions under which it was purchased or as strictly permitted by applicable copyright law.

TIMELINE 1945 7 May Germany surrenders 3 July Allied troops take over their four sectors in Berlin 16 July Potsdam Conference begins 2 August Potsdam Conference ends 1946 21 April Communist Party and Social Democrats form the SED (Socialist Unity Party) to rule East Germany 1947 5 June Marshall Plan launched 1948 21 June Deutsche Mark introduced in the West 24 June Berlin blockade and airlift begins 24 July East German Mark introduced 1949 4 April NATO formed 11 May Berlin blockade and airlift ends 24 May FRG (Federal Republic of Germany) founded in the West, merging the American, British and French Zones 7 October GDR (German Democratic Republic) founded in the East from the Soviet Zone, with East Berlin as its capital 1953 16 June GDR workers uprising over increasing work norms 1955 9 May FRG accepted into NATO 14 May Communist states, including the GDR, sign the Warsaw Pact 1958 27 October Walter Ulbricht, GDR leader, threatens West Berlin 10 November Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev says it is time to cancel Berlin’s four-power status 1961 4 June At a summit in Vienna, Khruschev tries to pressure US President John Kennedy to demilitarise Berlin 1–12 August 21,828 refugees arrive in West Berlin 13 August Berlin Wall built 1963 26 June Kennedy visits Berlin and makes his ‘Ich Bin Ein Berliner’ speech 1968 21 August Warsaw Pact countries crush Prague Spring 1970 19 March Willy Brandt visits GDR city Erfurt as part of his Ostpolitik policy 1971 3 May Ulbricht forced to resign, succeeded by Erich Honecker 1972 October Traffic Agreement signed, giving FRG citizens access to the GDR 21 December Basic Treaty signed, the FRG in effect recognising the GDR 1973 18 September The GDR and the FRG admitted to the United Nations 1985 11 March Mikhail Gorbachev elected General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party 1987 12 June Ronald Reagan speaks at the Brandenburg Gate: ‘Mr Gorbachev, tear down this wall.’ 7–11 September Honecker visits FRG 1989 2 May Hungary opens its border with Austria, allowing GDR holidaymakers to cross 7 May GDR elections with 98.85 per cent for the government and widespread allegations of fraud 4 September Leipzig demonstrations begin 30 September GDR citizens in FRG Prague Embassy told they can travel to the West 6 October GDR fortieth anniversary 18 October Honecker forced to resign, succeeded by Egon Krenz 4 November A million people demonstrate in East Berlin 9 November The Wall opens 29 November Chancellor Helmut Kohl issues plan for a ‘confederation leading to a federation in Germany’ 7 December Krenz resigns.

A weekly magazine there gave her visit two pages, two pages on the election campaign of Hilary Clinton and three pages about the work and lectures of Hagen Koch. They asked the question: you complain about human rights in China but what are you doing to Hagen Koch in Germany? So the Federal Press Office came here and they were upset because she had two pages and I had three … Since Koch is guardian of The Wall, what does he think of the twin row of cobblestones? Now they are incorporating little metal plates beside the cobblestones, BERLIN WALL 1961–1989, but they are positioned to be read from the West ... The cobblestones mark the outer Wall, but the real wall for the GDR was the inner Wall, because to the East that was The Wall: if you went to it you were arrested and if you got over it you would be shot. If The Wall had only been where the line of cobblestones is, Walter Ulbricht would have been finally right because he claimed he’d built a wall against evil capitalism – the anti-fascist protection wall – and it directly faced the West.


pages: 313 words: 100,317

Berlin Now: The City After the Wall by Peter Schneider, Sophie Schlondorff

Berlin Wall, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, young professional

Christian Boros and his family belong to another generation. And, as such, they enjoy what the former German chancellor Helmut Kohl once referred to as “the blessing of a late birth.” WHAT HAPPENED TO THE WALL ANYWAY? While it stood, the Berlin Wall was the city’s most famous and infamous structure. Yet just a year after November 9, 1989, it had already largely disappeared—pulverized or sold off around the world. At best, tourists near Checkpoint Charlie today might encounter a few street vendors selling coins, medals, gas masks, and uniform jackets from the vanished system. A national Berlin Wall Memorial opened on Bernauer Straße twenty years after the fall of the Wall. The location was a point of contention for years. This was where more than three hundred (mostly failed) attempts to flee had been made; this was where—because of the especially solid ground—several escape tunnels had been built.

With what images and headlines would the international media have met such an attempt? Something along the lines of: EAST GERMAN BORDER TROOPS GIVE UP—WALL NOW GUARDED BY WEST BERLIN POLICE! By now, Berlin’s tourism managers have realized that monuments commemorating crimes are not the least of the city’s attractions. Year after year, the Holocaust Memorial registers well over a million visitors; in 2011, 650,000 people gaped at the newly completed Berlin Wall Memorial on Bernauer Straße; that same year, 340,000 tourists chose to visit the Berlin-Hohenschönhausen Memorial (the special prison complex of the East German secret service), where they listened to former inmates describe what they had been forced to endure in Stasi prison cells and interrogations. Today, half of Berlin’s tourists come from abroad, and their numbers continue to grow every year.

Yet the authorities in West Berlin were no better; with their postwar dreams of creating a “car-friendly city,” they had razed the ruins of the Vox-Haus, Prince Albrecht Palace, Museum of Ethnology, and Anhalter train station. As a result, Potsdamer Platz had become a building cemetery of sorts, without tombstones. Only older Berliners could still conjure up the ghosts of these former buildings in their minds’ eyes. Until the early 1990s, the square was dominated by the one structure that had replaced the vanished buildings: the Berlin Wall. On the western side of the almost five-hundred-yard-wide desert at the center of the city, a platform surrounded by snack bars and souvenir stands had been put up, from which curious bystanders could observe the Wall. There they stood, looking directly into the binoculars of the border police at their guard posts, who in turn stared straight back into the tourists’ own. Only one building had survived the demolition mania: Weinhaus Huth, a “wine house” built in the early twentieth century by the wine dealer Willy Huth on a lot purchased by his grandfather.


pages: 322 words: 77,341

I.O.U.: Why Everyone Owes Everyone and No One Can Pay by John Lanchester

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asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black-Scholes formula, Celtic Tiger, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, George Akerlof, greed is good, hindsight bias, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, intangible asset, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Meriwether, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Martin Wolf, money market fund, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, negative equity, new economy, Nick Leeson, Norman Mailer, Northern Rock, Own Your Own Home, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Right to Buy, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, The Great Moderation, the payments system, too big to fail, tulip mania, value at risk

How did we get from an economy in which banks and credit function the way they are supposed to, to this place we’re in now, the Reykjavíkization of the world economy? The crisis was based on a problem, a mistake, a failure, and a culture; but before it was any of those things, it arose from a climate—and the climate was that which followed the capitalist world’s victory over communism and the fall of the Berlin Wall. This was especially apparent to me because I grew up in Hong Kong at the time when it was the most unbridled free-market economy in the world. Hong Kong was the economic Wild West. There were no rules, no income taxes (well, eventually there was a top tax of 15 percent), no welfare state, no guarantee of health care or schooling. Shanty-towns sprawled halfway up the hillsides of Hong Kong island; the inhabitants of those shanties had no electricity or running water or medicine or education for their children.

A more modern view would be that free-market capitalism has an inherent propensity for inequality and for cycles of boom and bust—there’s an extensive body of work studying these cycles. We can note that, in the current case, the practice fit the theory. The biggest boom in seventy years turned straight into the biggest bust. The rest of this book tells the story of how that happened, but there was one essential precursor to all the subsequent events, without which the explosion and implosion would not have occurred in the form they did: and that was the fall of the Berlin wall, the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the end of the Cold War. Explicit arguments about the conflict between the West and the Communist bloc were never especially profitable. The camps were too entrenched; the larger philosophical issues tended to be boiled off until nothing but the residue of party politics remained. On the right, it was so obvious that the Communist regimes were mass-murdering prison states that there was nothing further of profit to be discussed.

David Kynaston points out that under communism, children from primary school upward were taught the principles and practice of the system and were thoroughly drilled in how it was supposed to work. There is nothing comparable to that in the capitalist world. The City is, in terms of its basic functioning, a far-off country of which we know little. This climate of thinking informed all subsequent events. With the fall of the Berlin Wall, capitalism began a victory party that ran for almost two decades. Capitalism is not inherently fair: it does not, in and of itself, distribute the rewards of economic growth equitably. Instead it runs on the bases of winner take all and to them that hath shall be given. For several decades after the Second World War, the Western liberal democracies devoted themselves to the question of how to harness capitalism’s potential for economic growth to the political imperative to provide better lives for ordinary people.


pages: 270 words: 73,485

Hubris: Why Economists Failed to Predict the Crisis and How to Avoid the Next One by Meghnad Desai

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3D printing, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gunnar Myrdal, Home mortgage interest deduction, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, negative equity, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, women in the workforce

Could it be that what we had for three-quarters of a century – guaranteed prosperity and rising living standards – are about to disappear and become the experience of these countries who have been stuck in misery for the same long period? As they emerge, are we submerging? Is this the consequence of what is called globalization? Globalization became a buzzword in the 1990s sometime after the fall of the Berlin Wall. It opened up an era of freer capital movements and freer trade across the world. It is hard to remember now that between 1992 and 2007 the developed and emerging economies enjoyed an unprecedentedly long period of growth with low inflation. These good things were attributed to globalization just as much as it is being blamed for the present slump. This was the period economists call the Great Moderation as quarrels among them about how the economy worked ceased after 30 years of debate (of course, they have resumed now).

The prospect was of perpetual high employment and low inflation with sustained income growth. Mervyn (now Lord) King, while he was Governor of the Bank of England, described the future as one of non-inflationary continuous expansion (NICE). The Long Boom The background to these happy thoughts had been the benevolent economic climate in the developed countries for the previous decade or so.1 Once again, political events shaped the economic context. In 1989, the Berlin Wall was smashed by demonstrators. Soon after, the Soviet Union disintegrated and the Eastern European nations abandoned Soviet-style rule and became open democratic economies able to pursue free market policies. The success was not only an ideological one. It had profound economic implications. At a stroke, several markets were added to global trade, leading to expanded profit-making opportunities for businessmen and financial traders alike.

They rely on a combination of longer run forces such as demographic trends and cycles, or bursts of innovation, such as the discovery of gold and silver (relevant for the Gold Standard during the nineteenth century) or innovations in credit creation, as happened in the late twentieth century, or oil/shale discoveries, and also political events which may change the geography of the markets, as the fall of the Berlin Wall did. Kondratieff did, however, cover data going back to the Industrial Revolution. The first Kondratieff cycle has an upswing from the 1780s to 1810/17 and a downward phase from 1810/17 to 1844/51.The next long cycle peaked somewhere between 1870 and 1875 and then entered a downward phase which ended in the 1890s. It is not difficult to bring these projections up to date as I did in Chapter 2 on cycles.

Year 501 by Noam Chomsky

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anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, land reform, land tenure, long peace, mass incarceration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor

It would not be easy to invent a clearer demonstration of the fraudulence of the Cold War pretext; being doctrinally unacceptable, the conclusions remain invisible (see chapter 6). US opposition to Haitian independence for two centuries also continued, quite independently of the Cold War. Events of the 1980s, notably after the fall of the Berlin wall, also illustrate with much clarity traditional US distaste for democracy and indifference to human rights. We return to details (chapter 8). Another instructive example is Saddam Hussein, a favored friend and trading partner of the West right through his worst atrocities. As the Berlin wall was tottering in October 1989, the White House intervened directly, in a highly secret meeting, to ensure that Iraq would receive another $1 billion in loan guarantees, overcoming Treasury and Commerce department objections that Iraq was not creditworthy.

In a 1988 end-of-year analysis of the Cold War in the New York Times, Dimitri Simes wrote that the impending disappearance of the Soviet enemy offers the US three advantages: first, we can shift NATO costs to European competitors; second, we can end “the manipulation of America by third world nations,” “resist unwarranted third world demands for assistance,” and strike a harder bargain with “defiant third world debtors”; and third, military power can be used more freely “as a United States foreign policy instrument...against those who contemplate challenging important American interests,” with no fear of “triggering counterintervention,” the deterrent having been removed. In brief, the US can regain some power within the rich men’s club, tighten the screws on the Third World, and resort more freely to violence against defenseless victims. The senior associate of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace was right on target.30 The fall of the Berlin wall in November 1989 can be taken as the symbolic end of the Cold War. After that, it took real dedication to conjure up the Soviet threat, though habits die slowly. Thus, in early 1990, much excitement was generated by a document published anonymously by University of California Sovietologist Martin Malia, railing about how Brezhnev had “intervened at will throughout the Third World” and “Russia bestrode the world” while “the liberal-to-radical mainstream of Anglo-American Sovietology” regarded Stalinism as having “a democratic cast,” indulging in “blatant fantasies...about democratic Stalinism” and “puerile fetishization of Lenin,” along with a host of similar insights apparently picked up in some Paris café.

Thus, in early 1990, much excitement was generated by a document published anonymously by University of California Sovietologist Martin Malia, railing about how Brezhnev had “intervened at will throughout the Third World” and “Russia bestrode the world” while “the liberal-to-radical mainstream of Anglo-American Sovietology” regarded Stalinism as having “a democratic cast,” indulging in “blatant fantasies...about democratic Stalinism” and “puerile fetishization of Lenin,” along with a host of similar insights apparently picked up in some Paris café. But in the 1990s, only the most disciplined minds can handle this kind of fare with appropriate gravity.31 Much can be learned about the Cold War era by observing what happened after the Berlin wall fell. The case of Cuba is instructive. For 170 years, the US has sought to prevent Cuban independence. From 1959, the pretext for invasion, terror, and economic warfare was the security threat posed by this outpost of the Kremlin. With the threat gone, the reaction was uniform: we must step up the attack. The banner is now democracy and human rights, upheld by political leaders and moralists who have demonstrated their commitment to these values with such integrity over the years, for example, during the murderous US crusade against the Church and others who dared organize the undeserving public in Central America through the 1980s.


pages: 437 words: 115,594

The Great Surge: The Ascent of the Developing World by Steven Radelet

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, colonial rule, creative destruction, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, off grid, oil shock, out of africa, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, women in the workforce, working poor

His resignation marked a key political change: It effectively ended the tradition of Chinese leaders ruling like emperors until death.2 It also shifted power from a single supreme leader to the group leadership of the party and effectively marked the beginning of de facto term limits. Imperial strongman rule in China was over. Meanwhile, that very afternoon, five thousand miles away in Berlin, the government of East Germany capitulated to overwhelming upheaval and threw open the country’s western borders for the first time in twenty-eight years. The Berlin Wall was coming down. Political relationships and systems around the world were about to undergo seismic changes—most obviously in Eastern Europe, but also in Namibia and in developing countries around the world. Dictators supported by the United States and the Soviet Union would fall. Proxy wars and conflict that had wreaked havoc in developing countries would decline. Communism as both an economic and political system would lose its last shreds of credibility.

In Kenya, Presbyterian minister Timothy Njoya created an uproar with a 1990 New Year’s Day sermon that criticized the corrupt government of Daniel Arap Moi and called on African governments to follow Eastern Europe and embrace democracy. Archbishop Desmond Tutu called for justice in South Africa and beyond. Citizens in developing countries were not just angry. They were now emboldened. The push to democracy was on. THE SPREAD OF DEMOCRACY Changes began to unfurl around the world. Namibia gained its independence from South Africa and held its first elections for a new assembly the same day that the Berlin Wall fell. In February 1990—just twelve weeks later—South Africa released Nelson Mandela from jail. The apartheid government, propped up for so long by anticommunist fervor, followed its arch-nemesis the Soviet Union into the dustbin of history. Democracy spread across Africa: to Benin, Mali, Zambia, Lesotho, and Malawi. Czechoslovakia launched its Velvet Revolution against the ruling Communist Party just a week after the Wall fell, and just eleven days later, the government announced it would relinquish power and dismantle the single-party state.

Deng Xiaoping led China for only about fourteen years (1979 through about 1992, although his influence continued for many years thereafter), and while he was never officially head of state, he was indisputably China’s paramount leader, and the first such leader to step down voluntarily from power rather than rule for life. He resigned the last of his formal positions—as chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party—on the morning of the same day that the Berlin Wall fell: November 9, 1989. Since Mao’s death, the average tenure of the chairman of the Communist Party has been just seven years. In just a few decades, China has moved from de facto imperial rule to a form of term limits. At the same time, Chinese citizens have more freedoms than they once had, especially on the economic side, although personal freedoms remain highly restricted. To be sure, full power rests with the party, and there are few checks and balances.

Hopes and Prospects by Noam Chomsky

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Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate personhood, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, invisible hand, liberation theology, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, nuremberg principles, one-state solution, open borders, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

PART I Latin America ONE Year 514: Globalization for Whom? Human affairs proceed in their intricate, endlessly varied, and unpredictable paths, but occasionally events occur that are taken to be sharp turning points in history. There have been several in recent years. It is a near platitude in the West that after September 11, 2001, nothing will be the same. The fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 was another event accorded this high status. There is a great deal to say about these two cases, both the myth and the reality. But in referring to the 514th year I of course have something different in mind: the year 1492, which did, undoubtedly, direct world history on a radically new course, with awesome and lasting consequences. As we know, the voyages of Columbus opened the way to the European conquest of the Western hemisphere, with hideous consequences for the indigenous population, and soon for Africans brought here in one of the vilest episodes of history.

TWELVE 1989 and Beyond The month of November 2009 was marked by the joyous twentieth-anniversary celebration of what British historian Timothy Garton Ash calls “the biggest year in world history since 1945.” That remarkable year “changed everything,” thanks primarily to Mikhail Gorbachev’s reforms within Russia and his “breathtaking renunciation of the use of force…a luminous example of the importance of the individual in history,” leading to the partially open Russian elections of March 1989 and culminating in the fall of the Berlin wall on November 9, which opened the way to liberation of Eastern Europe from Russian tyranny. The general mood was captured well by barrister Matthew Ryder, speaking for the “niners,” the generation that is now providing global leadership, with Barack Obama in the lead, their conception of history having been “shaped by a world changed without guns” in 1989, events that gave them confidence in the power of dedication to nonviolence and justice.1 The accolades for November 9 are deserved, and the events are indeed memorable.

The principles apply in the familiar way to the events of November 1989, and the memories that remain twenty years later. Some alternative perspectives may be instructive. One was provided, unintentionally, by German chancellor Angela Merkel, who called on all of us to “use this invaluable gift of freedom…to overcome the walls of our time.”2 Excellent advice, and we can easily follow it. One good start would be to dismantle the massive wall, dwarfing the Berlin wall in scale and length, which is snaking its way through Palestinian territory in gross violation of international law. Like virtually every state action, the “annexation wall,” as it should be termed, is justified in terms of security. But as is commonly the case, the claim lacks any credibility. If security were the concern, it would be built along the border, and could be made impregnable. The purpose of this illegal monstrosity, constructed with decisive U.S. support and European complicity, is to allow Israel to take over valuable Palestinian land and the main water resources of the region, one part of a much broader annexation project, recognized from the start to be in direct violation of international law, an understanding since confirmed by the World Court.


pages: 239 words: 45,926

As the Future Catches You: How Genomics & Other Forces Are Changing Your Work, Health & Wealth by Juan Enriquez

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, borderless world, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, creative destruction, double helix, global village, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Howard Rheingold, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, personalized medicine, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, spice trade, stem cell, the new new thing

Technology accelerates trends … Be these positive … Or negative. A scary world when … The long term … Is no longer measured … In centuries … Or decades … But in years … And sometimes … In months. It took the telephone 35 years to get into one-quarter of U.S. homes … TV took 26 … Radio 22span> … PCs 16 … The Internet 7.19 (And not just businesses are vulnerable … It took about nine days for the Berlin Wall to fall and for East Germany to effectively disappear … even though East Germany had the strongest economy behind the Iron Curtain … and some of the best scientists … but no freedom to create and build.)20 XI TECHNOLOGY IS NOT KIND … IT DOES NOT SAY “PLEASE” In the last decade of the twentieth century, the global economy bred … Mergers and start-ups on an unprecedented scale … $908,000,000,000 in mergers during 1997 alone … A 47 percent increase over the previous year.

AS THIS BOOK ENDS … YOU SHOULD REMEMBER THE CONCLUSIONS REACHED BY THE AUTHOR … OF A MODESTLY TITLED BOOK CALLED HISTORY OF THE WORLD …16 AFTER ALMOST ONE THOUSAND PAGES … HE CONCLUDES TWO THINGS … HISTORY CHANGES FASTER THAN ONE MIGHT EXPECT … AND HISTORY CHANGES SLOWER THAN ONE MIGHT EXPECT. In the 1960s, many expected flying cars, floating cities, large space stations … by 2001. They did not see the impact of pervasive instant, global, almost free networking … Of a massive proliferation of mostly nonviable states. In 1900 … or before the Berlin Wall fell in 1989 … It was hardly obvious that the United States would become the world’s sole hegemon. (One of the best-selling books in the 1980s? … Ezra Vogel’s Japan as Number One: Lessons for America.) Nor is it obvious where Japan, China, Russia, Brazil, Singapore, the United Kingdom, or the United States will be at the end of the twenty-first century … (The current U.S. mantra: “U.S. as Number One: Lessons for the World” … may sound a little old in 100 years.)

Barrington Brown/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers 7.1 Craig Venter Photograph by Bill Geiger/Courtesy of Craig Venter 7.2 Dr. Leder Courtesy of Phillip Leder, M.D., Harvard Medical School, Department of Genetics 7.3 Cloned pigs Reuters NewMedia Inc./CORBIS 8.1 Kasparov Najlah Feanny/Stock Boston/Picturequest 9.1 Buck Fuller Hans Namuth/Photo Researchers 10.1 Factory workers Annie Griffiths Belt/CORBIS 10.2 Berlin Wall AFP/CORBIS 11.1 Bonobos John Giustina/BRUCE COLEMAN INC. ABOUT THE AUTHOR JUAN ENRIQUEZ is the director of the Life Sciences Project at Harvard Business School, where he is building an interdisciplinary center focusing on how business will change as a result of the life sciences revolution. His article in Harvard Business Review, “Transforming Life, Transforming Business,” received a McKinsey Award, which recognizes the best articles published each year in HBR.


pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

Fierce Dancing filled in the blanks, it told the stories of the alternative cultures – pagans, new age travellers, punks and drop-outs – that had coalesced around this scene and contributed to its vibrancy. It told tales of women who gardened vegetable plots in no knickers, tepee valleys in the depths of Wales, and how to make poppy tea. It was, in that most adolescent sense, a revelation. And to an adolescent growing up in the consumerist nineties, seven years after the fall of the Berlin Wall and seventeen years into the rule of Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative party where alternative ideas about how to live seemed only to exist to sell ice cream and health drinks, it was also an escape. I’d often wondered what had happened to all the hippies. My favourite film at that time was Easy Rider. The legacy of the counterculture was celebrated in books and on TV, but, outside of the odd rave, the world around me seemed to contain little of the freedom, the rebellion and the exuberance that the sixties had supposedly promised.

Watching over us, across the snowy moonscape of eastern Berlin, is the Alexanderplatz television tower. A flying saucer spiked on a giant needle, it is the perfect vision of Soviet futurism. Twenty yards from the door at which it looks like my journey will end prematurely, a flock of municipal exhibition stands have come to rest on Alexanderplatz, commemorating the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall. Black and white photos of GDR rebels – crouched over printing presses pumping out samizdat, or else in small groups, smoking – look nonchalantly into the lens of posterity. Who took these photos? Which of their fellow freedom fighters knew we would want to look back on this congregation of young minds which changed the course of history? The photos are captioned in French, English and German, interspersed with grainy pictures of officials from the regime, the tortuous surveillance equipment of the Stasi, or the bright, art-punk graphics of the underground magazines that spread the rebels’ message of freedom.

The right to freedom of association is fine, but why shouldnt the cops be allowed to mine your social network to figure out if youre hanging out with gangbangers and terrorists?…Would you rather have privacy or terrorists? The dialogue reflects a shift in Cory’s own thinking, but in the opposite direction. As he’s grown up he’s had to confront some of his youthful beliefs about the power of technology to make the world more free. The year the Berlin Wall came down Cory was 17 and, as he writes in the prologue to Little Brother, “communications tools were being used to bring information – and revolution – to the farthest-flung corners of the largest authoritarian state the Earth had ever seen.” But for the 17-year-olds of today, computers are no longer benign. “The seductive little boxes on their desks and in their pockets watch their every move, corral them in, systematically depriving them of those new freedoms I had enjoyed and made such good use of in my young adulthood.”


pages: 221 words: 55,901

The Globalization of Inequality by François Bourguignon

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Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, minimum wage unemployment, offshore financial centre, open economy, Pareto efficiency, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Robert Gordon, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, very high income, Washington Consensus

In fact, once we stop normalizing and use the original household survey data, estimates of global distribution show a slightly slower reversal in inequality trends. The acceleration then takes place in the 2000s rather than the mid-­ 1990s.16 Since this represents a more recent phenomenon, maybe it has not registered for everyone yet. See table 2 in the appendix to this chapter. Using a different database, Christoph Lakner and Branko Milanovic (“Global Income Distribution: From the Fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession,” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 6719, Washington, DC, 2013) found the same drop in inequality in the 2000s, although less pronounced than in table 2. Two recent draft papers reach the same conclusion. The first one, by Miguel Niño-­Zarazay, Laurence Roopez, and Finn Tarp, “Global Interpersonal Inequality: Trends and Measurement” (WIDER Working Paper 2014/004) based on GDP per capita normalized data finds that the drop in global inequality may have started around 1980.

The defining institutional change in the last quarter of the twentieth century was undoubtedly the deregulation of markets and the process of economic liberalization, launched at the end of the 1970s in the United States by the Reagan administration and in the United Kingdom by the Thatcher government. This would later spread to the rest of the world, with a significant acceleration after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. These reforms sought to relax what were seen as the overly strict regulations that states had placed on markets in the aftermath of the finan- 92 Chapter 3 cial crisis of the 1930s and the Second World War, and to liberate individual initiative from what were seen as stifling levels of taxation and regulation. The economic climate— national economies were adapting to a changing world economy, which had just undergone its first major postwar shock with the oil price crises of the 1970s—made the implementation of these reforms politically feasible.

Index 9/11 attacks, 139 Abacha, 151 Abu Dhabi, 127 Africa: Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and, 156; evolution of inequality and, 46t, 54–55; fairer globalization and, 147, 151, 154–56, 179, 183; global inequality and, 16, 21, 23, 30–31, 34, 36; globalization and, 122–23, 126–27; population growth and, 183; rise in inequality and, 90, 109, 111–12, 185 African Growth Opportunity Act (AGOA), 155 agriculture, 12, 82, 84, 122–23, 127–28, 155 AIDS, 156 Alesina, Alberto, 134 Anand, Sudhir, 13n4 Argentina, 46t, 110, 172 artists, 86–87 Asian dragons, 34, 82 Bangladesh, 30, 46t, 54 Belgium, 46t, 53, 101–2, 169 Berlin Wall, 91 Big Bang, 95 Bolivia, 16, 24 Bolsa Familia, 166 bonuses, 87, 174 Bottom Billion, The (Collier), 23 Brazil, 110, 186; evolution of inequality and, 46t, 55, 59, 70; fairer globalization and, 150, 154, 166–68, 173; Gini coeffi- cient of, 22; global inequality and, 21–23; globalization and, 127, 133 Buffett, Warren, 5–6, 159–60 Cameroon, 46t, 54 Canada, 46t, 51f capital: developed/developing countries and, 5; evolution of inequality and, 55–58, 60, 73; fairer globalization and, 158–62, 167, 171, 175, 182; GDP measurement and, 13–15, 20–21, 23, 26, 27f, 29–30, 39, 41–45, 56–57, 94, 123, 127, 165–66, 176; globalization and, 117, 125–26, 132, 137; human, 74, 167, 175; labor and, 3–4, 55– 58, 60, 158, 161n7, 185; liberalization and, 96; mobility of, 3, 73–74, 93, 98–99, 115, 160, 162, 182, 185; rise in inequality and, 74, 76–80, 84–85, 89, 93, 95–99, 103, 109, 114–15; taxes and, 187, 189 (see also taxes) Card, David, 105–6 Caruso, Enrico, 86 Checchi, Daniele, 107 China: evolution of inequality and, 47, 53, 57–60; fairer globalization and, 150, 154, 165–66, 172, 178; geographical disequilibria and, 83; global inequality and, 16; globalization and, 120– 22, 128; Huajian and, 155; Human Development Report and, 25; international trade and, 75; Kuznets hypothesis and, 192 China (cont.) 113; protectionism and, 178; Revolution of, 26; rise in inequality and, 2, 11n2, 17, 25, 30, 36, 38, 46t, 75, 82–83, 112–13; standard of living and, 16, 120– 22; taxes and, 165 Cold War, 149, 153 Collier, Paul, 23 Colombia, 133 commodity prices, 147, 182 competition: Asian dragons and, 34, 82; deindustrialization and, 75–82; effect of new players and, 75–76; emerging economies and, 178, 187–88; fairer globalization and, 155, 169, 173, 176–79, 182; globalization and, 117–18, 130; markets and, 76– 77, 79–82, 84, 86, 94–98, 102, 104, 115–18, 130, 155, 169, 173, 176–79, 182, 186–88; offshoring and, 81–82; rents and, 102; rise in inequality and, 76– 77, 79–82, 84, 86, 94–96, 98, 102, 104, 115–16; Southern perspective on, 82–85; United Kingdom and, 78–79; United States and, 78–79; wage ladder effects and, 78–79 conditional cash transfers, 165–66 consumers: fairer globalization and, 177–78; spending of, 10, 12–13, 61; subsidies and, 109–10 consumption: evolution of inequality and, 42t, 44t; expenditure per capita and, 13, 15, 42t, 44t; fairer globalization and, 159, 177; globalization and, 137–39; growth and, 13–15, 42t, 44t, 80, 137–39, 159, 177; protection- Index ism and, 7, 147, 154, 157, 176– 79; rise in inequality and, 80 convergence: evolution of inequality and, 65, 69; fairer globalization and, 146–47, 157; globalization and, 120–22, 125; growth and, 16; income and, 16; poverty reduction and, 147–48; standard of living and, 7, 147–48 credit: default swaps and, 139; evolution of inequality and, 61; fairer globalization and, 164–65, 172, 180; globalization and, 131–32, 137–40; rise in inequality and, 96; taxes and, 164 credit cards, 165 criminal activity, 133–34, 152 crises: evolution of inequality and, 48, 50, 54, 57, 73–74; fairer globalization and, 163, 176; Glass-­ Steagall Act and, 174n15; global inequality and, 20, 38–41; globalization and, 119–22, 125, 135–39, 142; recent, 48, 110, 135, 142, 163, 188; rise in inequality and, 92, 94, 96, 99, 109–11; “too big to fail” concept and, 174–75 Current Population Survey, 21 debit cards, 165 deindustrialization, 1, 102, 188; effects on developed countries, 75–82; exports and, 76, 82; globalization and, 120; international trade and, 75–76, 78–79; manufacturing and, 75–82, 84, 123; North vs.


pages: 225 words: 189

The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War by Robert D. Kaplan

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Berlin Wall, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Honoré de Balzac, mass immigration, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unemployed young men, Yom Kippur War

Random House website address: www.atrandom.com Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 24689753 First Edition Book design by Barbara M. Bachman To EDIT BORNSTEIN, AVNER RICHARD GOREN, LOBELL, R I C H A R D AND V A R D A N O W I T Z , AND H A R R Y W A L L B E F O R E T H E N A M E S OF J U S T A N D CAN HAVE PLACE, THERE MUST BE SOME COERCIVE —Thomas Hobbes, UNJUST POWER. LEVIATHAN PREFACE The years that follow an epochal military and political victory such as the fall of the Berlin Wall are lonely times for realists. The victors naturally assume that their struggle carries deep significance, of a kind that cannot fail to redeem the world. In­ deed, the harder and longer the struggle, the greater its mean­ ing in the mind of the winning side, and the greater the benefits it sees for humanity. Victory in World War I saw a burst of such idealism under the banner of "Wilsonianism," a notion that took little account of the real goals of America's European allies and even less account of the realities in the Balkans and the Near East, where democracy and freedom meant height­ ened ethnic awareness.

When I had left New York for Abidjan, all the businesspeople were boarding planes for Seoul and Tokyo, which departed from gates near Air Afrique's. The only non-Africans off to West Africa had been relief workers in T-shirts and khakis. Although the borders within West Africa are increasingly unreal, those separating West Africa from the outside world are in various ways becom­ ing more impenetrable. But Afrocentrists are right in one respect: we ignore this dying region at our own risk. When the Berlin Wall was falling, in November 1989,1 happened to be in Kosovo, covering a riot between Serbs and Albanians. The future was in Kosovo, I told myself that night, not in Berlin. The same day that Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat clasped hands on the White House lawn, my Air Afrique plane was approaching Bamako, Mali, re­ vealing corrugated-zinc shacks at the edge of an expanding desert. The real news wasn't at the White House, I realized.

A Theory of International Relations, 177,178 Atatiirk, Kemal, 38 Athens, ancient, 60-61, 73, 76, 94-96 Atlanta, Olympic Games in, 84-85 Atlantic Monthly, The, 3, 59,105, 111, 119,127 Aung San Suu Kyi, 78-79 Aurelian, 113 Austria, 131, 138,141 authoritarianism, 60-61, 64, 70, 72-79, 80 in China, 64-65, 71 new, 72-79 Roman, 111-17 Azerbaijan, 28, 67 Azeri Turks, 28, 50 B Baghdad, 102 Baker, James, 127 balance of power, 103 Balkans, 18, 29,43,47, 65,124, 138-41,178 U.S. intervention in, 139-40 war, 29-30, 99-103,139 Ball, George, 144 Bangladesh, 20, 24, 53 Barnevik, Percy, 82 BBC, 6 Begin, Menachem, 152 Beijing, 27 Beirut, 62,151-52 Bellow, Saul, 54,172 Benin, 14,16 Berlin, Isaiah, 72-73 Berlin Wall, fall of, 57 Bhutto, Benazir, 52, 74 birth rates, 51, 69,123; see also population growth Bismarck, Otto von, 70 Bombay, 27 borders, 18 and cultural conflict, 26-30 erosion, 7-8,40,130 and mapmaking, 37-43 in West Africa, 12-16,40, 42, 57 Bosnia, 22, 29, 44, 47, 79, 80,105,107, 180 democracy in, 63 mass murder in, 99-103 U.S. intervention in, 139-40 Brandeis, Louis, 83 Brazil, 19, 21, 83,179 democracy in, 64 Buchanan, Pat, 119 Bulgaria, 182 Burke, Edmund, 116,135-36 Burma, 78-79,107 Burton, Sir Richard Francis, 16,17, 108 Burundi, 123 Buttimer, Anne, Geography and the Human Spirit, 50 C Cairo, 36, 53 Calcutta, 27, 36 Cambodia, 79, 80, 96,134 mass murder in, 99-101 Nixon/Kissinger policy in, 144, 145-52 Cameroon, 14 Canada, 56, 77,107 Caracalla, Emperor, 114 Carlucci, Frank, 139 Carnegie, Andrew, 88 Carr, E.

State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century by Francis Fukuyama

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Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, centre right, corporate governance, demand response, Doha Development Round, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Hernando de Soto, information asymmetry, liberal world order, Live Aid, Nick Leeson, Pareto efficiency, Potemkin village, price stability, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, structural adjustment programs, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system

One stream of development lead to what Friedrich and Brzezinski (1965) labeled the “totalitarian” state, which tried to abolish the whole of civil society and subordinate the remaining atomized individuals to its own political ends. The right-wing version of this experiment ended in 1945 with the defeat of Nazi Germany, while the left-wing version crumbled under the weight of its own contradictions when the Berlin Wall fell in 1989. The size, functions, and scope of the state increased in nontotalitarian countries as well, including virtually all democracies during the first three-quarters of the twentieth century. While state sectors at the beginning of the century consumed little more than 10 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 4 state-building most Western European countries and the United States, they consumed nearly 50 percent (70 percent in the case of social democratic Sweden) by the 1980s.

Weak or failing states commit human rights abuses, provoke humanitarian disasters, drive 92 weak states and international legitimacy 93 massive waves of immigration, and attack their neighbors. Since September 11, it also has been clear that they shelter international terrorists who can do significant damage to the United States and other developed countries. During the period from the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 to September 11, 2001, the vast majority of international crises centered around weak or failing states. These included Somalia, Haiti, Cambodia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Congo, and East Timor. The international community in various guises stepped into each of these conflicts—often too late and with too few resources—and in several cases ended up literally taking over the governance function from local actors.

., 54 Akerlof, George, 47, 62, 81 Alchian, Armen, 47, 60, 83 American Center for International Labor Solidarity, 89 n6 American exceptionalism, 113 anti-Americanism, 105 Argentina, 9, 15, 19, 36, 57 fiscal federalism in, 25 Aristotle, 72 Army, U.S., 54 Asia, growth rates in, 19 Asian economic crisis, 18 authoritarian countries, problems of legitimacy in, 28 authoritarian transition, 27 133 Baird, Zoë, 74 Barings, 71 Barnard, Chester, 78, 80–81 Berle, Adolf, 48 Berlin Wall, 3 Bosnia, x, 93, 103, 116 Brazil, 12, 15, 28, 30 fiscal federalism in, 25 Britain, 3, 33, 38 Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 3 Buchanan, James, 49 Bush, George W., 95, 108–109 Cambodia, x, 93 Center for International Private Enterprise, 89 n6 charisma, 67 charter schools, 59 Chile, 35 China, 1, 2 civil society, 30, 60 Clinton, William J., 74 Coase, Ronald, 45–47, 68 Cohen, Michael, 52, 79–81 Cohen, Theodore, 86 134 index colonialism, 2 Common Agricultural Policy (EU), 107 Congo, 93 Corruption Perception Index, 10 Cuba, 39 Cyert, Richard, 52, 79–80 Dayton Accord, 103 de Soto, Hernando, 21 decentralization, 25, 72 democracy, 26–29 Demsetz, Harold, 47, 60 Denmark, 22, 42 Doha Round, 107 Dominican Republic, 39 Douglas, Roger, 13 Douglas, Stephen, 114–115 East Timor, x, 93 Easterly, William, 36 education, public, 58 Egypt, 9, 35, 94 European Union, 106–107, 111, 116 attitudes toward sovereignty, 112 Common Agricultural Policy, 107 defense spending in, 111 failed state problem, 92–93, 97, 100 Fama, Eugene, 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations, 73 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 64 Federal Food Agency (U.S.), 64 federalism, 25, 44, 70 Federalist Papers, 72 Finance Ministry (Japan), 75 Forest Service (U.S.), 64 France, 12, 34, 105 Freedom House, 10 Friedman, Milton, 19 Friedrich, Carl J., 3 Functions of the Executive (Barnard), 78 game theory, 33 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 106 Germany, 12, 31, 35 Nazi, 3 patriotism in, 112 postwar occupation of, 38–39 Glorious Revolution, 33 Greif, Avner, 34 Guantánamo Bay, prisoners at, 105 Haiti, x, 39, 93 Hatch Act, 85 Hayek, Friedrich A., 4, 68, 82 hidden action, 60, 62, 64 Hirschman, Albert O., 59 Hobbes, Thomas, 1 Hong Kong, 19, 38 Hoover, Blaine, 86–87 Hoover, J.


pages: 446 words: 578

The end of history and the last man by Francis Fukuyama

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, centre right, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, labour mobility, land reform, long peace, Mikhail Gorbachev, nuclear winter, open economy, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game

Criti­ cism took every conceivable f o r m , s o m e of it based o n simple m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of my original intent, a n d o t h e r s p e n e t r a t i n g m o r e perceptively to t h e core of my a r g u m e n t . M a n y p e o p l e were confused in t h e first instance by my use of t h e w o r d "his­ tory." U n d e r s t a n d i n g history in a conventional sense as t h e oc­ c u r r e n c e of events, p e o p l e p o i n t e d to t h e fall of t h e Berlin Wall, 2 xi xii BY WAY OF AN INTRODUCTION t h e C h i n e s e c o m m u n i s t c r a c k d o w n in T i a n a n m e n Square, a n d t h e Iraqi invasion of Kuwait as evidence that "history was con­ t i n u i n g , " a n d t h a t I was ipso facto p r o v e n w r o n g . A n d yet w h a t I suggested h a d c o m e to an e n d was not the o c c u r r e n c e of events, even large a n d grave events, b u t History: that is, history u n d e r s t o o d as a single, c o h e r e n t , evolutionary p r o ­ cess, w h e n taking into a c c o u n t t h e e x p e r i e n c e of all peoples in all times.

If the early twentieth century's major political innovation was the inven­ tion of the strong states of totalitarian G e r m a n y o r Russia, then the past few decades have revealed a tremendous weakness at their core. A n d this weakness, so massive and unexpected, sug­ gests that the pessimistic lessons about history that o u r century supposedly taught us need to be r e t h o u g h t f r o m the beginning. 23 2 The Weakness of Strong States I T h e c u r r e n t crisis of authoritarianism did not begin with G o r bachev's perestroïka o r the fall of the Berlin Wall. It started o v e r one and a half decades earlier, with the fall of a series of rightwing authoritarian governments in S o u t h e r n Europe. In 1 9 7 4 the Caetano regime in Portugal was ousted in an a r m y coup. A f t e r a period of instability verging on civil war, the socialist Mario Soares was elected prime minister in A p r i l 1 9 7 6 , and the c o u n t r y has seen peaceful democratic rule e v e r since.

In A p r i l 1 9 8 9 , a r o u n d table agreement led to a power-sharing agreement between the The Weakness of Strong States II 27 Polish W o r k e r s party and the Solidarity trade union. A s a result of elections—which the Polish communists also tried unsuccessfully to rig—a Solidarity g o v e r n m e n t came to power in J u l y . • In J u l y and August 1 9 8 9 , tens and then h u n d r e d s o f thousands of East G e r m a n s began fleeing into West Germany, leading to a crisis that rapidly led to the tearing down of the Berlin Wall and the collapse o f the East G e r m a n state. • T h e East G e r m a n collapse then triggered the fall of communist governments in Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, and Romania. By early 1 9 9 1 , all f o r m e r l y communist states in Eastern Europe, including Albania and the major republics o f Yugoslavia, had held reasonably free, multiparty elections. Communists w e r e initially t u r n e d out of office e v e r y w h e r e except in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Albania, while in Bulgaria, the elected Communist g o v e r n m e n t was soon forced to step d o w n .


pages: 719 words: 209,224

The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy by David Hoffman

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active measures, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, failed state, joint-stock company, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Stanislav Petrov, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, zero-sum game

Hastily, new rules for travel were drafted by the government, and the plan was to announce them November 10, but inadvertently the decision was read aloud at a government press conference at the end of the day November 9. 13 News reports vaguely suggested that East Germans could get visas to leave the country immediately through border crossings, touching off a frenzy of excitement. Rumors spread that all travel restrictions were being lifted. Thousands of people gathered at the Berlin Wall in the evening. The guards, who had no instructions, just opened the gates, and the Berlin Wall was breached twenty-eight years after it was first erected. The long division of Europe was over. In Washington, reporters were summoned to the Oval Office at 3:34 P.M. Bush was nervously twisting a pen in his hands. He later recalled feeling awkward and uncomfortable. Ever cautious, he was worried that any comments he made could trigger a Soviet crackdown.

Lesley Stahl of CBS News remarked that "this is a sort of great victory for our side in the big East-West battle, but you don't seem elated. I'm wondering if you're thinking of the problems." "I am not an emotional kind of guy," Bush said.14 In Moscow, Chernyaev wrote in his diary the next day, November 10, "The Berlin Wall has collapsed. This entire era in the history of the socialist system is over." After the fall of the wall, even more threatening storms were on the horizon for Gorbachev. The Soviet economy plummeted in 1989; there were acute shortages of goods, along with a grain crisis and declining oil production. Perestroika had not produced better living standards. At a Politburo meeting on the day the Berlin Wall fell, Gorbachev was preoccupied not with Eastern Europe, but the possibility that the Soviet Union would disintegrate, as internal republics began to consider breaking away. The leaders of Estonia and Latvia, two tiny Baltic republics, had told Gorbachev in recent days "they have a feeling that there is no other way than to leave the USSR," Gorbachev told the Politburo. 15 After Bush had waited almost a year to engage Gorbachev, he was now confronted by a confluence of serious troubles: the future of Germany, and indeed Europe, was up for grabs; Gorbachev was in deeper and deeper trouble at home; and arms control negotiations were going nowhere.

Soviet scientists experimented with genetic engineering to create pathogens that could cause unstoppable diseases. If the orders came, Soviet factory directors were ready to produce bacteria by the ton that could sicken and kill millions of people. The book explores the origins and expansion of this illicit, sprawling endeavor, for which Russia has yet to give a full accounting. Much of the writing about the end of the Cold War stops at the moment the Berlin Wall fell in November 1989, or when the Soviet flag was lowered on the Kremlin in December 1991. This book attempts to go further. It begins with the peak of tensions in the early 1980s, leads us through the remarkable events of the Reagan and Gorbachev years and then shows how the Soviet collapse gave way to a race against time, an urgent search for the nuclear and biological hazards that were left behind.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

An adventurous publisher had commissioned a Chinese translation of The File, my book about reading my Stasi file and tracking down those who had spied on me for the East German secret police behind the Berlin Wall. (Ancient European history, you understand. Nothing at all to do with today’s China.) The book had not yet appeared, but the publisher encouraged me to give some pre-publication interviews, including a live ‘micro interview’ on the then vibrant Sina Weibo microblogging site. The online interview was announced in advance and netizens could post questions on a dedicated page. One was: ‘The Berlin Wall has already fallen. Is it possible that the Great Firewall of China will fall as well? If so, under what circumstances?’ By the time we got to the appointed chat time, that post had disappeared, presumably deleted by Sina’s in-house censors.

This book lays out an argument for, and invites a conversation about, free speech in our new cosmopolis. I start from the history of dramatic transformations—technological, commercial, cultural and political—that have occurred since the mid-twentieth century, and with particular intensity since 1989. That year saw no less than four developments that would prove seminal for free speech in the twenty-first century: the fall of the Berlin Wall, the invention of the World Wide Web, the Ayatollah Khomeini’s fatwa on Salman Rushdie and the strange survival of Communist Party rule in China. History’s horse has not stopped galloping since, and I am always conscious of Walter Raleigh’s injunction that ‘who-so-euer in writing a modern Historie, shall follow truth too neare the heeles, it may happily strike out his teeth’.4 Nonetheless, I maintain that the basic character of the challenges we face in this world of neighbours is now clear.

Lee Bollinger, a First Amendment scholar and longtime president of Columbia University, makes this explicit, arguing that ‘we need to do on a global stage what was done on the US national stage over the 20th century’.81 In a speech delivered in 2010 at the Newseum, a museum of journalism in Washington, US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton drew a straight line from the First Amendment to what she called ‘internet freedom’. Citing Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1941 speech enumerating four freedoms—of expression and of worship, from want and from fear—she effectively added a fifth, the freedom to connect. ‘We stand’, she said, ‘for a single internet where all of humanity has equal access to knowledge and ideas’. Internet blocking firewalls should come down, as the Berlin Wall came down in 1989.82 The United States has long used respect for freedom of expression and worship as key criteria in rating other states. In 2012, a State Department spokesperson admonished India, the world’s largest democracy, for blocking websites and social media platforms which the Indian government argued were helping to foment intercommunal violence.83 The US government also developed a small programme to fund technologies that would help circumvent internet-blocking firewalls built by authoritarian regimes such as Iran and China.


pages: 371 words: 101,792

Skygods: The Fall of Pan Am by Robert Gandt

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Airbus A320, airline deregulation, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Maui Hawaii, RAND corporation, Tenerife airport disaster, yield management, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

Air France and British European Airways also flew the corridors to West Germany, while the Russian and East German airlines operated from Schoenefeld Airport in the Eastern Zone. Since the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, Berlin had been a divided city, living under the guns of the Red Army. For the pilots, Berlin had the camaraderie of a fighter squadron, a men’s social club, a fraternity house. It was an airline within an airline. The pilots flew together and skied together and drank together. They lent each other money and rotated girlfriends. Their cohesiveness was due, in part, to the shared uniqueness of their outpost, Berlin. They were settlers in a strange land. And they knew that what they did had a purpose. Every day they saw the reasons for their presence—the Berlin Wall that split the city, MiG fighters skulking in the corridors, Red Army tanks maneuvering in the countryside.

It wasn’t a simple transfer of assets, since the authority to service Heathrow required the approval of both the United States Department of Transportation and the British government, which had little interest in allowing a competitor the size of United Airlines into the same arena with their home team, British Airways. Pan Am wobbled closer than ever to Tango Uniform. Without an infusion of cash, the airline wouldn’t last long enough for the Heathrow sale to be consummated. Something else had to go. Quickly. So Tom Plaskett reached up on the shelf and seized another Pan Am property. For this one, history had already supplied a buyer. In the autumn of 1989 the Berlin Wall tumbled. The following year, to the astonishment of the world, the reunification of Germany proceeded at the speed of a Blitzkrieg. It was because of the partition of Germany that Pan Am’s Internal German Service had begun after World War II. For forty years the isolated city had been connected to the free world, via the three air corridors, by Pan American airplanes. Now, unbelievably, Berlin was no longer isolated.

The trouble was, there was nobody—really—to be mad at. They wanted to argue that, damnit, Pan Am shouldn’t be selling out to Lufthansa. They wanted to believe that Pan Am, by God’s will and Allied decree and manifest destiny, had a right to be in Berlin forever. But they knew better. History had dealt them a joker. Every day they flew over the meandering scar in the earth that used to be the Berlin Wall. They had seen the throat-rasping, eye-wetting zeal of Germans reuniting with Germans. The Cold War was indisputably over. Like it or not, it was time for the Ausländer to pack up their flight kits and go home. By the time the party broke up, it was past three in the morning. Everyone was properly soused, and anyway, the Kindl was gone. The Lufthansa ground staff had already come in. They were taking down the Pan Am signs and schedules.

Powers and Prospects by Noam Chomsky

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, Jacques de Vaucanson, John von Neumann, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, old-boy network, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, theory of mind, Tobin tax, Turing test

Nor are they likely to be subjected to the results of a 1994 Gallup poll, considered to be the first independent and scientific survey, published in the Miami Spanish-language press but apparently not elsewhere: that 88 per cent said they were ‘proud of being Cuban’ and 58 per cent that ‘the revolution’s successes outstrip its failures’, 69 per cent identified themselves as ‘revolutionaries’ (but only 21 per cent as ‘Communist’ or ‘socialist’), 76 per cent said they were ‘satisfied with their personal life’, and 3 per cent said that ‘political problems’ were the key problems facing the country. If such Communist atrocities were to be known, it might be aecessary to nuke Havana instead of simply trying to kill as many people as possible from starvation and disease to bring ‘democracy’. That became the new pretext for strangling Cuba after the fall of the Berlin wall, the ideological institutions not missing a beat as they shifted gears. No longer was Cuba an agent of the Kremlin, bent on taking over Latin America and conquering the United States, trembling in terror. The lies of 30 years can be quietly shelved: terror and economic warfare have always been an attempt to bring democracy, in the revised standard version. Therefore we must tighten the embargo that ‘has contributed to an increase in hunger, illness, death and to one of the world’s largest neurological epidemics in the past century’, according to health experts writing in US medical journals in October 1994.

Many times, in fact, though the US has sometimes been able to mobilise El Salvador, Romania, and a few others to the cause of justice and freedom; and in the Security Council, Britain is fairly reliable, taking second place in vetoes (France a distant third) since the 1960s, when Moscow’s dominance became intolerable to true democrats.4 As Kennedy’s ‘monolithic and ruthless conspiracy’ engaged in world conquest faded from the scene in the 1980s, the search was on for new aggressors threatening our borders and our lives. Libya, disliked and defenceless, served as a particularly useful punching bag for courageous Reaganites. Other candidates include crazed Arabs generally, international terrorists, or whoever else can be conjured up. When George Bush celebrated the fall of the Berlin Wall by invading Panama, it was not in defence against Communism; rather, the demon Noriega, captured, tried, and condemned for his crimes, almost all committed while he was on the CIA payroll. At this moment, half of US military aid goes to Colombia, the hemisphere’s leading human rights violator, with a shocking record of atrocities. The pattern is typical, but the pretext is not; this time, it is defence against narcotraffickers.

A minor one is Russia; though now an ally it remains a potential threat to US ‘preponderance’, the currently fashionable term for global rule. But the primary threat is ‘Third World weapons proliferation’, Air Force Director of Science and Technology General Richard Paul informed Jane’s. We must maintain military spending and strengthen the ‘defense industrial base’ because of ‘the growing technological sophistication of Third World conflicts’, the Bush Administration had explained to Congress while watching the Berlin Wall collapse, taking with it the most efficient pretext for ‘subsidy’. No one who has kept their eyes on the ‘security system’ will be surprised to learn that both threats are to be enhanced. Some of the funding for the emergency Pentagon supplement is to be drawn from programs to help dismantle and safeguard the nuclear arsenals of the former USSR. To protect ourselves from the resulting threat, we will have to ‘increase the Defense Department’s budget’, Florida Democratic Representative Pete Peterson commented.

Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

Twenty years earlier, he was the criminal leader of one of the world’s “more notorious terrorist groups,” according to a Pentagon report.12 That is why President Reagan had to support the apartheid regime, increasing trade with South Africa in violation of congressional sanctions and supporting South Africa’s depredations in neighboring countries, which led, according to a UN study, to 1.5 million deaths.13 That was only one episode in the war on terrorism that Reagan declared to combat “the plague of the modern age,” or, as Secretary of State George Shultz had it, “a return to barbarism in the modern age.”14 We may add hundreds of thousands of corpses in Central America and tens of thousands more in the Middle East, among other achievements. Small wonder that the Great Communicator is worshipped by Hoover Institution scholars as a colossus whose “spirit seems to stride the country, watching us like a warm and friendly ghost.”15 The Latin American case is revealing. Those who called for freedom and justice in Latin America are not admitted to the pantheon of honored dissidents. For example, a week after the fall of the Berlin Wall, six leading Latin American intellectuals, all Jesuit priests, had their heads blown off on the direct orders of the Salvadoran high command. The perpetrators were from an elite battalion armed and trained by Washington that had already left a gruesome trail of blood and terror. The murdered priests are not commemorated as honored dissidents, nor are others like them throughout the hemisphere.

The plague of repression then spread through the hemisphere, encompassing the 1973 coup that installed the Pinochet dictatorship in Chile and later the most vicious of all, the Argentine dictatorship—Ronald Reagan’s favorite Latin American regime. Central America’s turn—not for the first time—came in the 1980s under the leadership of the “warm and friendly ghost” of the Hoover Institution scholars, who is now revered for his achievements. The murder of the Jesuit intellectuals as the Berlin Wall fell was a final blow in defeating the heresy of liberation theology, the culmination of a decade of horror in El Salvador that opened with the assassination, by much the same hands, of Archbishop Óscar Romero, the “voice for the voiceless.” The victors in the war against the Church declared their responsibility with pride. The School of the Americas (since renamed), famous for its training of Latin American killers, announced as one of its “talking points” that the liberation theology initiated at Vatican II was “defeated with the assistance of the US army.”20 Actually, the November 1989 assassinations were almost a final blow; more effort was yet needed.

Contrary to fifty years of deceit, it was quietly conceded that the main concern in this region was not the Russians, but rather what is called “radical nationalism,” meaning independent nationalism not under U.S. control.3 All of this has evident bearing on the received standard version, but it passed unnoticed—or, perhaps, therefore it passed unnoticed. Other important events took place immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall, ending the Cold War. One was in El Salvador, the leading recipient of U.S. military aid—apart from Israel and Egypt, a separate category—and with one of the worst human rights records anywhere. That is a familiar and very close correlation. The Salvadoran high command ordered the Atlacatl Battalion to invade the Jesuit university and murder six leading Latin American intellectuals, all Jesuit priests, including the rector, Fr.


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Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

Many events that first appear to be sudden and external – what mainstream economists often describe as ‘exogenous shocks’ – are far better understood as arising from endogenous change. In the words of the political economist Orit Gal, ‘complexity theory teaches us that major events are the manifestation of maturing and converging underlying trends: they reflect change that has already occurred within the system’.11 From this perspective, the 1989 fall of the Berlin Wall, the 2008 collapse of Lehman Brothers and the imminent collapse of the Greenland ice sheet have much in common. All three are reported in the news as sudden events but are actually visible tipping points that result from slowly accumulated pressure in the system – be it the gradual build-up of political protest in Eastern Europe, the build-up of sub-prime mortgages in a bank’s asset portfolio, or the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

v=MIIzogiUHFY 83. Pearce, J. (2015) ‘Quantifying the value of open source hardware development’, Modern Economy, 6, pp. 1–11. 84. Bauwens, M. (2012) Blueprint for P2P Society: The Partner State and Ethical Society, http://www.shareable.net/blog/blueprint-for-p2p-society-the-partner-state-ethical-economy 85. Lakner, C. and Milanovic, B. (2015) ‘Global income distribution: from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession’, The World Bank Economic Review, pp. 1–30. 86. OECD (2014) Detailed Final 2013 Aid Figures Released by OECD/DAC. http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/final2013oda.htm 87. OECD (2015) ‘Non-ODA flows to developing countries: remittances’, available at: http://www.oecd.org/dac/stats/beyond-oda-remittances.htm 88. Financial Inclusion Insights (2015) Kenya: Country Context. http://finclusion.org/country-pages/kenya-country-page/ 89.

(2010) Inequality, Leverage and Crises. IMF Working Paper, WP/10/268, Washington, DC: IMF. Kuznets, S. (1955) ‘Economic growth and income inequality’, American Economic Review, 45: 1, pp. 1–28. Lacy, P. and Rutqvist, J. (2015) Waste to Wealth: the circular economy advantage. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Lakner, C. and Milanovic, B. (2015) ‘Global income distribution: from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the Great Recession’, World Bank Economic Review, 1–30. Lakoff, G. (2014) The All New Don’t Think of an Elephant. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing. Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M. (1980) Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Leach, M., Raworth, K. and Rockström, J. (2013) Between Social and Planetary Boundaries: Navigating Pathways in the Safe and Just Space for Humanity, World Social Science Report.

The Global Citizen: A Guide to Creating an International Life and Career by Elizabeth Kruempelmann

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Berlin Wall, business climate, corporate governance, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, global village, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, money market fund, young professional

To help you work through and reflect on your life abroad, it can be rewarding to share your experiences, pictures, and memories with other global citizens who also have exciting C U LT U R E P R E P : A M I N I - C O U R S E FOR THE C U LT U R A L L Y C H A L L E N G E D 55 Reverse Culture Shock by Elizabeth Kruempelmann (ekruempe@hotmail.com) I experienced reverse culture shock when I returned to the States after a year studying abroad in Denmark and Germany. My senses were overloaded the whole time I was abroad. In addition to my business studies and field trips, I traveled to fifteen countries, experienced the fall of the Berlin Wall, learned two languages, and lived with a Danish family, Danish students, and a German family. My senses were stimulated almost every minute. When I returned home, there was simply nothing that stimulated my senses anymore. My mind had been programmed to speak foreign languages every day. Suddenly I had no outlet for all the words I was used to using regularly. My body had been accustomed to soaking up different sights and sounds, and suddenly I had to readjust to life on Maple Street.

It’s one thing to learn about European business at an American university taught by American professors, and it is quite another thing to study it in a European capital, where you are taught by prominent experts who can arrange company visits and field studies in other European and Eastern European cities. Sharing your cultural perspective will no doubt lead to lively and enriching intellectual exchanges. When the Berlin Wall came down in 1989 and Eastern Europe opened its doors to the West, it was a historical turning point for Europe. During my study-abroad exchange in Denmark, my professors—many of whom experienced firsthand World War II, the building of the Wall, and the subsequent division of Europe into East and West—gave us their personal perspectives. My professors also explained how the downfall of communism would affect individual European countries from a more global economic, social, and political point of view.

Access to professors may also be different than what you are used to at your home university. My Danish professors occasionally joined the students after class at the local pub, and one professor even invited the entire class to his house for tea. Being able to chat with the professors in a casual manner about topics both related and unrelated to our course was so educational. We discussed a variety of topics affecting Europe at the time, from the fall of the Berlin Wall to the economic and political issues facing the European Union. The learning opportunities that exist outside the classroom can sometimes be even more rewarding than those in the classroom. A P P R E C I AT E D I F F E R E N T C U LT U R E S During a learning-abroad program you will interact on a daily basis with your host family, other students, teachers, and a local community that may deal with daily matters much differently than you.


pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

TWO Ignoring Our Problems It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change. —Evolutionary theory We are going to do a terrible thing to you. We are going to deprive you of an enemy. —Georgi Arbatov, Soviet expert on the United States, speaking at the end of the Cold War It all seems so obvious now, but on the historic day when the Berlin Wall was cracked open—November 11, 1989—no one would have guessed that America was about to make the most dangerous mistake a country can make: We were about to misread our environment. We should have remembered Oscar Wilde’s admonition: “In this world there are only two tragedies. One is not getting what one wants, and the other is getting it.” America was about to experience the second tragedy. We had achieved a long-sought goal: the end of the Cold War on Western terms.

All four—globalization, the IT revolution, out-of-control deficits and debt, and rising energy demand and climate change—are occurring incrementally. Some of their most troubling features are difficult to detect, at least until they have reached crisis proportions. Save for the occasional category-5 hurricane or major oil spill, these challenges offer up no Hitler or Pearl Harbor to shock the nation into action. They provide no Berlin Wall to symbolize the threat to America and the world, no Sputnik circling the Earth proclaiming with every cricket-like chirp of its orbiting signal that we are falling behind in a crucial arena of geopolitical competition. We don’t see the rushing river of dollars we send abroad every month—about $28 billion—to sustain our oil addiction. The carbon dioxide that mankind has been pumping into the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution, and at rising rates over the past two decades, is a gas that cannot be seen, touched, or smelled.

Hard to believe, but 1979 was just getting started. The energy world would be substantially affected by two other political events of that year. Margaret Thatcher was elected prime minister of Great Britain on May 4, 1979. She and Ronald Reagan, who took office as president of the United States in 1981, implemented free-market-friendly economic policies that helped to pave the way for the expansion of globalization after the fall of the Berlin Wall. This increased economic activity the world over, massively increasing the number of people who could afford cars, motor scooters, electric appliances, and international travel. Less noticed but just as important, in 1979, three years after Mao Tse-tung’s death, China’s communist government permitted small farmers to raise their own crops on individual plots and to sell the surplus for their own profit.


pages: 487 words: 147,891

McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld by Misha Glenny

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anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, colonial rule, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, forensic accounting, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, place-making, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, trade liberalization, trade route, Transnistria, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile

After the revolution of 1989, Bulgaria’s social security system collapsed, leaving a trail of poverty and destitution in its wake. The country had been hit hard as it emerged from the cave-dwelling existence of socialist economics into the blinding sun of free market capitalism. Under Communism, factories had survived, thanks to massive state subsidies, while the Soviet trading bloc ensured their shoddy products a guaranteed sale on East European markets. When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, Bulgaria’s markets crumbled with it. With industry in near terminal crisis, agriculture, the economy’s traditional mainstay, assumed ever-greater importance, but this sector too ran into trouble. The European Union was unwilling to increase its minuscule imports of Bulgarian agricultural produce, as this would undermine its protectionist racket masquerading grandly as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP).

Invariably young and frightened, deprived of their passports, unable to speak the local language, and ostracized in any event as prostitutes, the women were entirely dependent on their tormentors. The Belchev case was a rarity because he was actually busted, the racket broken up, and the women freed (astonishingly, Belchev continued to manage three brothels from his prison cell using a mobile phone his lawyer smuggled in to him). But elsewhere before the dust from the Berlin Wall had even settled, gangsters and chancers were laying the cables of a huge network of trafficking in women that reached into every corner of Europe. Bulgarian gangs quickly assumed a pivotal role in this industry due to their country’s strategic position. Every border offered a lucrative trade. South to Greece represented the quickest route into the European Union—once across that border, the women could be transported anywhere in the EU (excepting Britain and Ireland) without having to pass a single police control.

In the second half of the 1990s, there was much debate about whether the affluent countries of Western Europe could maintain their expensive welfare systems in the face of a rapidly aging population and a fatal antipathy toward labor migration into the EU. The appearance of dynamic young economies in Eastern Europe put this problem in a yet starker perspective as Poles, Czechs, Hungarians, and others proved willing to put in longer hours for less money as they sought to make up for half a century of consumer misery under Communism. Growth rates in Eastern Europe began shooting up after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Germany was busy outsourcing its industrial base throughout Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary, while the European Union accession program meant that huge sums in regional development funds were fighting poverty and assisting in the development of democratic institutions in Eastern Europe. Ordinary people still moaned about how difficult life was economically under capitalism, but after an initial dip, living standards began to pick up.


pages: 449 words: 127,440

Moscow, December 25th, 1991 by Conor O'Clery

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Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, central bank independence, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, haute couture, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Sinatra Doctrine, The Chicago School

Koppel and Kaplan are laughing at a misunderstanding that has just occurred in an exchange with a friendly Kremlin functionary. The official approached the Americans and wished them a Happy Christmas. With a straight face Kaplan, who is Jewish, replied, “To me you will have to say ”Happy Hanukkah.”“Why would I have to say ‘Happy Honecker’?” asked the official, puzzled. The Americans burst out laughing at the official’s assumption that Kaplan is referring to Erich Honecker, who fled to Moscow after the fall of the Berlin Wall two years earlier. The mistake is understandable. The disgraced East German leader is in the news again this morning. The seventy-nine-year-old communist hard-liner was given compassionate asylum in Moscow by Gorbachev, who privately regards him as an “asshole” but who felt he should protect an old comrade. Fearing that after Gorbachev is no longer in power, Yeltsin will send him back to Berlin, Honecker has claimed political asylum in the embassy of Chile.

He made it clear that the doctrinaire communist regimes there could no longer count on Soviet tanks to prop them up. At a Foreign Ministry briefing Gerasimov called this the Frank Sinatra doctrine—they could do it their way. It led to a series of counterrevolutions throughout 1989, in which one communist regime after another in Eastern Europe was ousted. They began in Poland and spread to Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and Romania. The Berlin Wall fell in November, leading to German reunification a year later. Aware that if Yeltsin won a contested seat in the new Congress of People’s Deputies, he would have a popular mandate, the Soviet leader set a trap for his most strident critic. He fixed the rules so that government ministers could only stand for election if they resigned their posts. If his tormentor did run, and if he were defeated, he would be out of a job.

Gorbachev has worked hard to get the tone and content of the letters right. The warm relationship with his counterparts abroad is most important to the Soviet president. It is a measure of his international standing, a recognition of what he has achieved in reforming the Soviet Union, and an assurance of global approval for lessening world tensions, reversing the nuclear arms race, allowing the Berlin Wall to fall, and letting Eastern European countries have their freedom. Chernyaev knocks on the door of the resting room. It takes Gorbachev five minutes to compose himself and come out. He looks fresh and fit, but his eyes are teary. Grachev notes a slight redness, caused either by lack of sleep or perhaps the shedding of a few tears provoked by the tension of the final days. The president settles into his high-backed leather chair and carefully reads the letters one by one before signing each with a felt pen.

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

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additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intangible asset, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

And this decoupling invites a disquieting thought: if the future of power lies in disruption and interference, not management and consolidation, can we expect ever to know stability again? SO WHAT HAS CHANGED? It’s hard to identify the moment when the dispersal and decay of power, and the decline of the Weberian bureaucratic ideal, began—much less to do so in the precise way with which, say, the poet Philip Larkin pinpointed the advent of the sexual revolution: “Between the end of the Chatterley ban” and the Beatles’ first album.2 Still, November 9, 1989—the date the Berlin Wall fell—is not a bad place to start. Loosening half a continent from tyranny’s grip, unlocking borders, and opening new markets, the end of the Cold War and its animating ideological and existential struggle undermined the rationale for a vast national security state and the commitment of economic, political, and cultural resources that supported it. Whole populations forced to march more or less in lockstep were freed to find their own drummers, an upending of the existing order that found visceral expression in events such as the Christmas 1989 execution of the Ceausescus in Romania and the January 1990 storming of East Germany’s Stasi headquarters—the secretservice organization that represented one of the darker pinnacles of postwar bureaucratic achievement.

As General William Odom, Ronald Reagan’s National Security Agency director, observed: “By creating a security umbrella over Europe and Asia, Americans lowered the business transaction costs in all these regions: North America, Western Europe and Northeast Asia all got richer as a result.” 3 Now those lower transaction costs could be extended, and with them also the promise of greater economic freedom. Slightly more than a year after thousands of Germans took sledgehammers to the Berlin Wall, in December 1990, Tim Berners-Lee, a British computer scientist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research on the Franco-Swiss border, sent the first successful communication between a Hypertext Transfer Protocol and a server via the Internet, thereby creating the World Wide Web. That invention, in turn, sparked a global communications revolution that has left no part of our lives untouched.

In almost every year until the early 1980s, at least one new country in Africa, the Caribbean, or Pacific achieved independence. The colonial empires were gone but the Soviet empire—both the formal structure of the Soviet Union, and the de facto empire of the Eastern Bloc—remained. That would soon change, too, thanks to another “tryst with destiny.” November 9, 1989, saw the collapse of the 76 Berlin Wall and launched the breakup of the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia. In just four years, between 1990 and 1994, the United Nations added twenty-five members. Since then the flow has slowed but not completely stopped. East Timor joined the United Nations in 2002; Montenegro, in 2006. On July 9, 2011, South Sudan became the world’s newest sovereign state. FIGURE 5.1. THE NUMBER OF SOVEREIGN NATIONS HAS QUADRUPLED SINCE 1945 SOURCE: Adapted from “Growth in United Nations Membership, 1945–Present,” http://www.un.org/en/members/growth.shtml.


pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

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4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Hirsch, Todd. “Taxi Trouble: Disruptive Technology Claims Another Victim.” The Globe and Mail, November 21, 2014. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/economy/economic-insight/taxi-trouble-disruptive-technology-claims-another-unadapting-victim/article21675184/. Hornig, Frank. “Darth Vader vs. Death Strip: Berlin Wall Sinks into Cold War Disneyland.” Spiegel Online, August 8, 2011, sec. International. http://www .spiegel.de/international/spiegel/darth-vader-vs-death-strip-berlin-wall-sinks-into-cold-war-disneyland-a-778941.html. Huet, Ellen. “Apps Let Users Hire House Cleaners, Handymen without Talking.” SFGate, February 11, 2014. http://www.sfgate.com/technology/article/Apps-let-users-hire-house-cleaners-handymen-5219729.php. ———. “Contractor or Employee? Silicon Valley’s Branding Dilemma,” November 18, 2014. http://www.forbes.com/sites/ellenhuet/2014/11/18/contractor-or-employee-silicon-valleys-branding-dilemma/. ———.

“The Turkish population, many of whom are now Berlin-born, have suffered many indignities, and have largely been forced out from the city center. Their contribution to Berlin as a city is ignored.” Another source of dispute was “the collection of international modernist architects brought in by the multinationals (largely in opposition to local architects) to dominate the Potsdamer Platz.” Berliners were caught between the frying pan of a globalized aesthetic (the “Disneyfication of the Berlin Wall” 45) and the fire of a “parochial nationalism,” with the potential for “a virulent rejection of foreigners and immigrants.” 46 Capital “must wade into the culture wars” if it is to pursue its desire for the monopoly rents that are at stake “through interventions in the field of culture, history, heritage, aesthetics, and meanings.” 47 Open Data is a digital commons that is being distorted. The Omidyar Network is deeply involved in the Open Government Partnership at the international level, in Code for America in the USA, and is the first major investor in the UK Open Data Institute.


pages: 306 words: 79,537

Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World by Tim Marshall

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9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, zero-sum game

In 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed by an association of European and North American states, for the defense of Europe and the North Atlantic against the danger of Soviet aggression. In response, most of the Communist states of Europe—under Russian leadership—formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955, a treaty for military defense and mutual aid. The pact was supposed to be made of iron, but with hindsight, by the early 1980s it was rusting, and after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 it crumbled to dust. President Putin is no fan of the last Soviet president, Mikhail Gorbachev. He blames him for undermining Russian security and has referred to the breakup of the former Soviet Union during the 1990s as a “major geopolitical disaster of the century.” Since then the Russians have watched anxiously as NATO has crept steadily closer, incorporating countries that Russia claims it was promised would not be joining: the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland in 1999; Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, and Slovakia in 2004; and Albania in 2009.

None of these will be enough to prevent it from being pulled apart if the forces of separatism grow stronger. In effect, Pakistan has been in a state of civil war for more than a decade, following periodic and ill-judged wars with its giant neighbor, India. The first was in 1947, shortly after partition, and was fought over Kashmir, which in 1948 ended up divided along the Line of Control (also known as Asia’s Berlin Wall); however, both India and Pakistan continue to claim sovereignty. Nearly twenty years later, Pakistan miscalculated the strength of the Indian military because of India’s poor performance in the 1962 India-China war. Tensions between India and China had risen due to the Chinese invasion of Tibet, which in turn had led India to give refuge to the Dalai Lama. During this brief conflict the Chinese military showed their superiority and pushed forward almost into the state of Assam near the Indian heartland.

See also names of specific countries artificial borders in, 6, 109, 115–20, 136 and China, 60–61, 84, 119, 122, 125, 126–31 civil wars and ethnic conflicts, 116–20, 123–29 climate and terrain, 110–14, 115, 120–22, 129, 131–32 colonial period, 115–20, 123, 125 and Cuba, 125–26 energy resources, 60, 121, 122–23, 125–27, 131–32 Homo sapiens origins, 110, 112, 118 independence movement, 116 Islamists, 117, 121, 123–25, 128–29 isolation of, 6, 110–11, 114–15 languages, 113–14, 118, 131–32 natural resources, 60, 114, 118–23, 125–29, 131–32 rivers, 109, 113–14, 115, 120–22, 131–32 and Russia, 34, 125–26 size, 111–13 and the United States, 84 aircraft carrier battle groups, 7, 38–39 Aksai Chin, 36–37, 46 Alaska, 8–9, 16–17, 72, 174, 240–41, 243, 246 Alawites, 144–45, 160 Albania, 3–4, 14, 20–21, 86–87, 91, 98 albedo effect, 247 Aldrin, Buzz, 262 Alexander the Great, 5, 139 Algeria, 136 Ali (son of Muhammad), 137, 138, 144 Alps, 86–87, 89, 91 al-Qaeda, 4–5, 146–47, 151, 182, 183, 185, 188 Amazon rainforest, 118, 215, 231 Amazon River, 215, 218, 231–32 American Revolutionary War (1775–83), 66–67 Amman, 133, 141, 142, 153, 156 Amundsen, Roald, 244–45 Anatolian Plain, 161 Andaman Sea, 168–69 Andes Mountains, 215, 218–19 Angola, 60, 109, 112, 116, 118, 119–20, 125–28, 130 Antarctic, 238–39 Appalachian Mountains, 62–63, 65, 66–68 Aqaba, 153 Arabian Desert, 135 Arabian Sea, 133, 168–69, 171, 176, 179, 181 Arab Spring, 43, 164–67 Arctic/Arctic Circle, 8–9, 240–41, 242–57 climate and terrain, 243 energy resources, 6–7, 34, 72, 242, 248–49, 251, 254, 255–57 expeditions, 243–45 global warming effects, 242, 245–48, 246, 255, 261 icebreakers, 253–54 New Great Game, 255–57 and Russia, 6, 15, 16, 19, 243, 249, 250–57 sovereignty disputes, 250–57 and the United States, 243, 249, 253–54 Arctic Council, 249, 255–56 Arctic Ocean, 240–41, 243, 250, 254 Arctic Sea, 8–9, 15 Argentina, 215, 217, 220, 221, 229, 232, 233–34, 235–38 Arizona, 62–63, 71, 222 Armenia, 8–9, 20, 29, 31, 86–87, 133, 141, 158 Armitage, Richard, 183 Arunachal Pradesh, 46, 189–90 Assad, Bashar al-, 145 Assad, Hafez al-, 145 Assam, 176, 178, 190 Atacama Desert, 215 Atatürk, 162, 164 Atlantic Ocean, 62–63, 86–87, 109, 110–11, 114, 215, 246 Australia, 5, 76, 79 Austria, 32, 86–87, 91 Azerbaijan, 8–9, 18, 20, 29, 133, 141 Baffin Island, 240–41 Baghdad, 150 Bahamas, 62–63 Bahrain, 7, 78, 82–83, 133 Balboa, Vasco Núñez de, 226 Balkan states, 3–4, 97–98 Baltic Sea, 8–9, 12, 23, 28, 32, 86–87, 96, 107 Baltic States, 8–9, 14, 16, 18, 20–21, 27–29, 31, 86–87, 200 Baluchistan, 168–69, 171, 175, 176, 177, 187 Bangladesh, 36–37, 60, 168–69, 171–74, 176, 260–61 Banks Island, 240–41 Barents Sea, 8–9, 240–41, 246, 250–51 Bashir, Omar al-, 128 Basra, 139, 141 Bay of Bengal, 36–37, 60, 168–69, 171–72, 176, 192, 260 Bedouins, 142 Beijing, 36–37 Belarus, 8–9, 20, 32, 86–87 Belearic Islands, 86–87 Belgium, 86–87, 118 Belize, 221, 223, 226 Benghazi, 116–17 Bering Sea, 8–9, 11–12, 245, 254 Bering Strait, 8–9, 16–17, 219, 240–41, 244 Berlin Wall, 14 Bert, Melissa, 252 Bessarabia, 30 Bhutan, 36–37, 168–69, 171, 176, 190 Bhutto, Benazir, 183 bin Laden, Osama, 185, 188 Bismarck, Otto von, 85, 97–98 Bjarnason, Björn, 253 Black Sea, 8–9, 15, 16, 23, 30, 32, 86–87, 90, 91, 133, 163 Boko Haram/Wilayat al Sudan al Gharbi, 123–25 Bolivar, Simón, 220 Bolivia, 215, 220–21 Borneo, 55 Bosnia-Herzegovina, 3, 86–87, 91 Bosporus, 22, 23, 163–64 Botswana, 109, 130 Brahmaputra River, 172 Brasilia, 232 Brazil, 83, 215, 217, 218, 220, 229, 231–35, 236 Brazilian Shield, 232–33 BRICS (Brazil, Russia, China, and South Africa), 235 Brunei, 55, 58 Buenos Aires, 233, 236 Bulgaria, 14, 20–21, 29, 32, 86–87, 90, 91, 98, 133 Burma, 36–37, 42, 46, 60, 78, 168–69, 171, 172, 176, 190, 191, 209 Burundi, 109, 119, 120, 131 Bush, George W., 4, 187 Byrnes, James, 199 California, 62–63, 67, 69, 70–72, 222 Cambodia, 55 Cameroon, 109, 124, 125 Canada and Arctic/Arctic Circle, 240–41, 243, 246, 251, 254–55 and the United States, 62–63, 65, 66 Canadian Shield, 65 Canute, King, 260–61 Cape Horn, 215, 218 Cape of Good Hope, 109, 111, 130 Caribbean Sea, 59–60, 72–73, 83, 215, 226 Carpathian Mountains, 8–9, 12, 16, 29, 30, 86–87, 91, 96, 107 Carter, Ash, 58–59 Caspian Sea, 8–9, 15, 16, 133, 141, 158, 177 Catherine the Great, 15–16, 25–26 Caucasus, 15, 16, 29, 31 Celebes Sea, 55 Central African Republic, 109, 112, 119 Central America, 215, 218, 221–22, 226, 226–31.

The Haves and the Have-Nots by Branko Milanovic

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Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, colonial rule, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, full employment, Gini coefficient, high net worth, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, open borders, Pareto efficiency, Plutocrats, plutocrats, purchasing power parity, Simon Kuznets, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Whether it is under the pressure of domestic labor or out of fear of cultural heterogeneity, the rich world has begun a process of walling itself in, creating de facto gated communities at the world level. The most infamous of them is the U.S.-Mexican border fence that is supposed to run for seven hundred miles. It is, at times, a twenty-foot cement wall, reinforced by barbed-wire obstacles and equipped with numerous cameras and sensors. The Mexican Wall should, when fully constructed, be seven times as long as the Berlin Wall and twice as high. Nevertheless, it is estimated that more than 200,000 Mexicans enter the United States illegally every year,4 and that at least 400-500 die trying to cross the border.5 The European Union cannot erect a fence across the Mediterranean but is using hundreds of speedboats to interdict access to its shores by desperate Africans and Maghrebis. A couple hundred thousand are estimated to risk their lives annually, taking rickety boats mostly overnight to avoid detection.

It could be that our interpretation is too harsh, or that Rawls, faced with the facts of global inequality that were not widely known or appreciated when he wrote The Law of Peoples, might have reconsidered his position. But his writings do not allow us to make this conclusion. Vignette 3.9 Geopolitics in Light of (or Enlightened by) Economics Between the end of the Second World War and the fall of the Berlin Wall, a rather comfortable intellectual division of the world held sway. There were, as we all knew, three worlds on this planet. There was the first world of rich capitalist economies. Not all of them were at the time democracies, but gradually became so (e.g., with political liberalizations in Greece, Spain, Portugal); not all of them were Western: Japan seemed a permanent big exception. There was a second world, although, strangely enough, the term was not frequently used.

For Italy, see Banca d’Italia, Relazione annuale sul 2008, May 29, 2009, chap. 11, table 11.4, p. 128, available at http://www.bancaditalia.it/pubblicazioni/relann/rel08/rel08it/. 3 See David Blanchflower and Chris Shadforth, “Fear, Unemployment, and Migration,” Economic Journal (February 2009): table 17, p. F157. 4 U.S. Department of Homeland Security, based on the estimated increase in Mexican illegal immigrants between 2000 and 2005 (1.3 million). 5 The total number of people killed while trying to cross the Berlin Wall was around two hundred during its twenty-seven-year existence. On an annual basis, the number of Mexican deaths is thus fifty times greater. 6 BBC, July 2, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6228236.stm. Vignette 2.5 1 Several hundred Algerian and Tunisian nationals are thought to be imprisoned in Libyan jails. 2 BBC, March 31, 2009; Radio France Inter, March 16, 2009. 3 Ironically, one may recall that in the nineteenth century many Maltese, Sicilians, and Corsicans freely moved over and settled in Tunisia. 4 The Algerian daily El Watan, March 5, 2009. 5 Agence France Presse, March 31, 2009.


pages: 546 words: 176,169

The Cold War by Robert Cowley

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doomsday Clock, friendly fire, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, transcontinental railway

I knew much more than most people, because while the crisis was on, I happened to bump into a friend from the American embassy staff on a busy street. He told me. Still, I knew too little to be scared that I might be killed by an American nuclear bomb at any moment.” The precarious two weeks of the Cuban Missile Crisis came close to overshadowing the emergency in Europe of a year earlier, the erection of the Berlin Wall. But the Wall never caused the same amount of trepidation, certainly not among ordinary people, nor in Washington or Moscow. The confrontation at Checkpoint Charlie was one of those dicey moments when overly aggressive subordinate commanders got out of control, as they did, with potentially more dangerous consequences, in Cuba. Although the U.S. publicly fumed and blustered and made calming promises of support to West Germany and the beleaguered citizens of West Berlin, Washington was privately relieved.

Staring from a high floor of a building set against the Wall—I was lunching in the headquarters of a prominent West German newsmagazine—I could see nothing but the shabby buildings and empty streets of East Berlin (propaganda, propaganda). An occasional scurrying figure seemed all but swallowed by the voracious chill of Socialist space. Below, against a backdrop of blocked windows, Dobermans strutted with fierce nervous intensity, ready to maul anyone rash enough to cross the intervening space—if, indeed, a fleeing human could get that far. I might as well have been regarding the yard of a huge open-air prison. The Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis occupy central places in the history of the Cold War. Thereafter, with one notable exception, the war scare of 1983 (recalled here by John Prados), the long face-off between the U.S.S.R. and the West “took on,” in the words of the historian John Lewis Gaddis, a certain stability, even predictability, after 1962. Neither side would ever again initiate direct challenges to the other's sphere of influence.

As many feared in 1949, there would be more Berlin crises down the line to test the ties between West Berlin and its Allied protectors. In 1958, Moscow threatened once again to drive the Western Powers out of Berlin and to integrate the entire city into the Soviet-dominated East German state. The fact of the matter, of course, was that the tender testicles of the West had become the loose sphincter of the East—an opening through which thousands of East Germans were fleeing every year. The Berlin Wall that went up in 1961 to stanch the flow was in many ways as cruel as the Berlin Blockade, but it also turned out to be just as double-edged, since it purchased “security” at the price of continued economic stagnation and political oppression. In 1951, Mayor Reuter of West Berlin, which was now a separate political entity and part of the West German state, dedicated a monument in front of Tempelhof Airport to commemorate the airlift of 1948–49.


pages: 934 words: 232,651

Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1945-1956 by Anne Applebaum

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active measures, affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, language of flowers, means of production, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Slavoj Žižek, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning

The cult of Stalin, whose very name was venerated in the USSR as a “symbol of the coming victory of communism,” was observed across the region, along with very similar cults of local party leaders.19 Millions of people took part in state-orchestrated parades and celebrations of communist power. At the time, the phrase “Iron Curtain” seemed much more than a metaphor: walls, fences, and barbed wire literally separated Eastern Europe from the West. By 1961, the year in which the Berlin Wall was built, it seemed as if these barriers could last forever. The speed with which this transformation took place was, in retrospect, nothing short of astonishing. In the Soviet Union itself, the evolution of a totalitarian state had taken two decades, and it had proceeded in fits and starts. The Bolsheviks did not begin with a blueprint. In the wake of the Russian Revolution, they pursued a zigzag course, sometimes harsher and sometimes more liberal, as one policy after another failed to deliver promised economic gains.

If anything, both became even more alluring after the first, sensational recording of “Rock Around the Clock” reached the East in 1956, heralding the arrival of rock and roll. But by that time, the communist regimes had stopped fighting pop music. Jazz would become legal after the death of Stalin, at least in some places. Rules on leisure clothing would relax, and eventually Eastern Europe would have its own rock bands too. As one historian notes, the battle against Western pop music was “fought and lost” in East Germany even before the Berlin Wall was built—and it had been “fought and lost” everywhere else too.22 For adults who had to hold down jobs and maintain families in the era of High Stalinism, flamboyant clothing was never a practical form of protest, though a few professions did allow it. Marta Stebnicka, an actress who spent much of her career in Kraków, put a great deal of effort into designing interesting hats for herself in the 1950s.23 Leopold Tyrmand, the Polish jazz critic with the narrow ties and the colored socks, was an adult style icon too.

They received places in refugee camps and help in finding housing and work. In accordance with these changes, the Soviet authorities also began to enforce stricter controls, sending Red Army troops to patrol their border and build ditches, fences, and barriers. Berlin remained the exception. Although the city lay inside the Soviet zone, it was not easy to set up an enforceable “border” within it (though the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 would eventually prove that it was possible). More importantly, the USSR did not at first want the city’s division to become official. The Soviet authorities preferred Berlin to remain unified, albeit anchored securely in the East. This anomaly quickly created another odd dynamic, as East Germans began flocking to East Berlin in order to cross the border into West Berlin, and to make their way from there to West Germany by train or air.


pages: 741 words: 179,454

Extreme Money: Masters of the Universe and the Cult of Risk by Satyajit Das

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Andy Kessler, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, Celtic Tiger, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discrete time, diversification, diversified portfolio, Doomsday Clock, Edward Thorp, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, full employment, global reserve currency, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, index fund, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, load shedding, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Nixon shock, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Satyajit Das, savings glut, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the market place, the medium is the message, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Yogi Berra, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

The ideas of influential economists, like John Maynard Keynes and Milton Friedman, were subsumed into political agendas to shape the money economy. 7. Los Cee-Ca-Go Boys For a quarter of a century, the Berlin Wall symbolized the difference between the free markets of the West and the socialist economies of the East. On June 12, 1987, speaking at the Brandenburg Gate to commemorate the 750th anniversary of Berlin, U.S. President Ronald Reagan issued a challenge to Mikhail Gorbachev, the general secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union: “Tear down this wall!” On November 9, 1989, the Berlin Wall came down. At the fall of the Wall, when asked “Who won?”, Western political scientists cited the triumph of capitalism over socialism. The economists’ response was “Chicago.” The University of Chicago radically changed how the world thought about economics, politics, and business, with a system based on: “belief in the efficacy of the free market as a means for organizing resources...skepticism about government intervention into economic affairs and...emphasis on the quantity theory of money as a key factor in producing inflation.”1 In the early part of the twentieth century, work in theoretical physics was centered around the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge, England), Göttingen (Germany), and the Institute of Theoretical Physics (Copenhagen, Denmark).

In 1929, the New York Daily Mirror wrote: “The prevailing bull market is just America’s bet that she won’t stop expanding.”6 In 1936, Wilhelm Röpke looked back at the roaring 1920s: “with production and trade increasing month by month throughout the world, the moment actually seemed in sight when social problems would be solved by prosperity for all.”7 At the time, the 1920s were also regarded as a period of remarkable social progress. Historically, increasing population, new markets, productivity increases, and industrial innovation drove growth. As the world grew older, growth slowed but “when the monster stops growing, it dies. It can’t stay one size.”8 After the Berlin Wall fell, the reintegration of Eastern Europe, China, and India into global trade provided low-cost labor supplying cheap goods and services and creating new markets for products. But demand for improved living standards needed even greater growth. Chinese novelist Ma Jian saw this in his native country: “As society changes, new words and terms keep popping up such as sauna, private car ownership, property developer, mortgage, and personal installment loan...no one talks about the Tiananmen protests...or...official corruption.”9 Financial engineering replaced real engineering as the engine for growth.

Frank, 26 Bauman, Zegmunt, 44, 312 Beach Boys, The, 157 Bean, Charles, 50 Bear Stearns, 162, 191, 204, 249, 316, 318, 326, 338 Asset Management, 191 Beasley, Jane, 62 Beat the Market, 121 Beatles, The, 157, 166 Beatrice, 141 Beckham, David, 339 Beerbohm, Max, 253 beggar-thy-neighbor policies, 349 behavioral economists, 125-126 bell-shaped normal distribution curves, 117 Beller, Ron, 321 benchmarking exercises, 315 benefits, employee, 47 Benna, Ted, 48 Berdymukhamedov, Gurbanguly, 299 Bergdorf Goodman, 330 Bergerac, Michel, 147 Berkshares program, 36 Berkshire Hathaway, 261, 322. See also Warren Buffet Berle, Adolf, 54 Berlin Wall, fall of, 101, 295 Bernanke, Ben, 170, 182, 203, 303, 338, 366 debt, 267 Great Moderation, 277 on 60 Minutes, 343 September, 2008, 342 Bernstein, Peter, 26, 129, 208 Besley, Tim, 278 Best, George, 88 beta (market returns), 241 Beveridge Report, 47 Beveridge, Sir William, 47 Beyond Belief, 338 Bhagavad Gita, 339 Bhide, Amar, 312 BHP Billiton, 59 bias, 243 Bieber, Matthew, 198 Bierce, Ambrose, 326 Big Short, The, 198 Biggs, Barton, 99 Bild, 358 Billboard Top 100 Chart, 124 Billings, Josh, 233 billionaire drivel, 327 bills of exchange, 32 bimetallism, 26 bio-fuels, 334 Bird, John, 91, 320 Black Swan, The, 95, 126 Black Wednesday, 240 Black, Fischer, 121, 127 black-box trading, 242 Black-Scholes models, 120-122, 277 Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) option, 121 Blackrock, 170 Blackstone, 167, 325 Blackstone Group, The, 154, 318 Blair, Tony, 81 Blankfein, Lloyd, 239, 364 Blinder, Alan, 129 Blomkvist, Mikhael, 360 Bloomberg TV, 92 Bloomberg, Michael, 164 Bloomsbury group, 29 Blue Force, 264 Blumberg, Alex, 185 Boao Forum, 324 boards of directors, knowledge of business operations, 292-293 BOAT (Best of All Time), 228 Boesky, Ivan, 147, 244 Bogle, Jack, 123 Bohr, Niels, 101, 257 Boiler Room, 185 Bonanza, 31 Bond, James, 26 Bonderman, David, 154, 164, 318 bonds, 169 adjustable rate, 213 failure of securitization, 204-205 high opportunity, 143 insurance, 176 junk, 143, 145-146 Milken’s mobsters, 146-147 municipal, 211-214 PAC (planned amortization class), 178 ratings, 143, 282-285 securitization, 173 TAC (target amortization class), 178 TOBs (tender option bonds), 222 U.S.


pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

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agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

The Appalachian Mountains bear eroded witness to that pre-Pangaean time. Over the long term, therefore, think of our planet's surface as ever changing, of continents moving and the crust shaking, of oceans and seas opening and closing, of land lost by subduction and gained by eruption. And this is only one dimension of the ceaseless transformation of Earth that began 4.6 billion years ago. OCEANS PAST AND FUTURE The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 led to much introspection—not only political, but also philosophical and scientific—and gave rise to a spate of books signaling the onset of a new era. Their titles were often misleading, such as The End of History by Francis Fukuyama, but none more so than one by John Horgan (1996) called The End of Science, which argued that all the great questions of science had been answered and that what remained, essentially, was a filling of the gaps.

A final stage in the establishment of boundaries is sometimes deemed necessary for purposes of immigration control, security, or other perceived needs of the state. This involves marking the boundary on the ground in some way, to ensure that it is observable, to control movement, or even to defend the national territory. This process, the demarcation of the boundary, affects a small percentage of the global framework, but it is usually contentious where it does. Extreme examples of demarcated boundaries past and present include the Berlin Wall, the DMZ between North and South Korea, the fence along stretches of the United States-Mexican border, and the "Security Wall" between Israel and the West Bank. More often, demarcation is accomplished by concrete markers, posts, or other signals that alert travelers that they are crossing an international boundary (the informal rule is that any such marker must be visible on the ground from both of its neighbors, so that any transgressor cannot claim to have wandered across the border inadvertently).

See Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania Bangladesh, India Islam in, 161, 162, 164, 168 population, 99, 103 Barcelona, Spain, 220 bar-graph scale, 26 Basayev, Shamil, 242, 247 Bashir, Abu Bakar, 177 Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) of Spain, 161 Basques in Spain as devolutionary force, 218, 220 Islam compared to, 152 Israeli/Palestinian conflict compared to, 163 origins, 198 terrorism, 207, 222 Basu, Asish, 61 Beijing (formerly Peking), China, 37, 135, 138-39 Belarus borders and boundaries, 120-21 and European Union, 218, 225, 226, 230 and Russia, 205, 231, 234, 253, 254 Belgium colonialism, 162-63, 262, 263, 265 devolutionary pressure, 206 289 and European Economic Community, 210 government, 110 social divisions, 220 Belize, 180 Benelux countries. See Belgium; Luxembourg; Netherlands Benin, 185 Berlin Conference, 111, 263 Berlin Wall, 57, 120 Beslan school terrorist attack (2004), 160, 248, 250, 256 bin Laden, Usama in Afghanistan, 157 al-Qaeda leadership, 159, 160, 161-62, 188 {see also al-Qaeda network) background, 155-56 in Pakistan, 177 religious and political motives, 163 and United States, 196 biodiversity, 63, 65, 102-3 biogeography, 11, 52, 64 birds, 62 Black Sea, 75, 76, 201, 204, 236 Bokassa, Jean-Bedel, 112, 266, 268 Bolivia, 180 Bolsheviks, 241 Bonaparte, Napoleon, 80-81, 125 borders and boundaries, 108-24.


pages: 428 words: 117,419

Cyclopedia by William Fotheringham

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Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, Fall of the Berlin Wall, intermodal, Northern Rock, éminence grise

If, after reading it, you want to try something new, go to a race, or buy a book or DVD that you might not have known about, it will have served its purpose. Enjoy the ride. William Fotheringham, July 2010 A ABDUZHAPAROV, Djamolidin (b. Uzbekistan, 1964) Squat, tree-trunk thighed sprinter from Uzbekistan who was one of the biggest stars to emerge from the Eastern bloc after the fall of the Berlin Wall. Abdu’ first came to prominence in the British MILK RACE, winning three stages in 1986, but it was in the 1991 TOUR DE FRANCE where his unique style grabbed world headlines: he put his head down low over the front wheel—a style later adopted to great effect by MARK CAVENDISH—and zigzagged up the finish straight, terrifying opponents and onlookers. He took two stages in the 1991 Tour but came to grief in dramatic style as a third win beckoned on the Champs-Elysées: after colliding with an oversized cardboard Coke can standing against the barriers he somersaulted over the bars and rolled down the road.

There were official guidelines, but coaches had a fair degree of flexibility in setting their own criteria; riders’ Stasi files would be checked—to see whether a potential athlete had West German connections, for example—but coaches might push better athletes with undesirable backgrounds higher up selection lists to ensure they got in the team anyway. The screening systems were later adapted for use by the cycling teams of Australia and GREAT BRITAIN. The sudden collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 left the sports centers across Eastern Europe short of money, and a vast number of talented amateurs came on the market: they flooded into cycling. The sprinter DJAMOLIDIN ABDUZHAPAROV made the biggest impact alongside Olaf Ludwig, Andrei Tchmil, and Zenon Jaskuta, who in 1993 was the first Pole to make it to the Tour podium. Jan Ullrich was the first product of the Eastern system to win the Tour in 1997.

The golden era of French cycling can be accurately dated: it began when Henri Desgrange brought national teams into the Tour in 1930, opening the way for riders like André Leducq, Antonin Magne, and Jean Robic, and it closed with BERNARD HINAULT’s fifth win in 1986. What ended it? The Tour grew quickly in the 1980s and 1990s, and French cyclists couldn’t keep up. With the talent of the entire cycling world eligible to ride the race after the arrival of Australians and Americans and the collapse of the Berlin Wall, there was less room for the home riders. Hence the fact that there has been no young star to succeed Hinault or LAURENT FIGNON, both men of the 1980s. French Cycle Racing at a Glance = Biggest race: Tour de France Legendary racing hills: l’Alpe d’Huez, Mont Ventoux, Le Puy-de-Dôme, Col du Galibier Biggest star: Raymond Poulidor, closely followed by Bernard Hinault First Tour stage win: MAURICE GARIN, Lyon, 1903 Tour overall wins since 1985: none France has given cycling: the Professor (Laurent Fignon), stage racing, the hour record, PARIS–ROUBAIX, the sportive concept, Richard Virenque, Peugeot, Festina, the Bastille Day paradox French cycling was traumatized by the Festina DRUG scandal of 1998 that centered on the nation’s leading team and its national hero, Richard Virenque, but also hit other teams including Casino and Française des Jeux; a more stringent attitude to doping gained ground and the Tour came under greater scrutiny from newspapers such as Le Monde.


pages: 460 words: 130,053

Red Notice: A True Story of High Finance, Murder, and One Man's Fight for Justice by Bill Browder

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Berlin Wall, British Empire, corporate governance, El Camino Real, Gordon Gekko, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, index card, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, transfer pricing, union organizing

I moved to London in August 1989 and rented a small house in Chelsea with two of my Stanford classmates who were also starting new jobs in London. On the first Monday in September, I hopped on the Piccadilly Line with butterflies in my stomach, ready to take on Eastern Europe at BCG. Only, as John had explained, there wasn’t any work in Eastern Europe—not yet, anyway. But then, in November of that year, as I sat in my tiny living room watching television with my Stanford buddies, the world shifted beneath my feet. The Berlin Wall had just come down. East and West Germans emerged with sledgehammers and chisels and began breaking it down chunk by chunk. We watched as history unfolded before our eyes. Within weeks, the Velvet Revolution took hold of Czechoslovakia, and the communist government there fell as well. The dominoes were falling; soon all of Eastern Europe would be free. My grandfather had been the biggest communist in America, and as I watched these events unfold, I decided that I wanted to become the biggest capitalist in Eastern Europe.

I couldn’t believe it. I had put all those impressive people in the proposal, and the Poles were getting only me? A first-year associate who knew absolutely nothing about buses, or business for that matter? I was appalled, but I kept my misgivings to myself. This was my dream assignment. I was just going to have to bite my tongue and make it work. In late October 1990, nearly a year after the Berlin Wall came down, John, Wolfgang, two other first-year associates, and I boarded a LOT1 Airlines flight bound for Warsaw. There, we were met by four men from the World Bank and two employees from Autosan, the troubled bus company we were supposed to help save from bankruptcy. After retrieving our luggage, we boarded one of Autosan’s buses and made our way to its headquarters in Sanok. It was a long ride.

Abdallah, Ken, 80, 81, 82 Abu Ghraib, 359 adoption ban law, 357–62 Aeroflot, 1, 56, 368 Afghanistan, 356 Air France, 152 al-Assad, Bashar, 357 Alexeyeva, Lyudmila, 376 Alisov, Igor, 365, 369–70 Alitalia, 243 American Chamber of Commerce, Moscow, 144, 145 American Communist Party, 12–14, 26 American Express, 59 Amnesty International, 292 Amsterdam, 371 Anichin, Alexei, 314 Animal House (film), 18 Anselmini, Jean-Pierre, 41 AP, 182 “The Armed Forces of Corporate Governance Abuse,” 144–45 Armenia, 7, 260 Arthur Andersen, 51 Asea Brown Boveri, 92 Ashcroft, John, 306–7 Asian economic crisis (1997), 131–32 asset freezes and visa sanctions, 291, 293–94, 297, 298, 299–309, 327–29, 368, 373, 377 asset stripping, 144, 158–60, 165 Austria, 14, 312 Autosan, 30–39, 57 Azerbaijan, 7 Bahamas, 70 Bain & Company, 19–20, 24 Bangkok, 211 Bannister, Clive, 170 Barnevik, Percy, 92 Baucus, Max, 336 BBC, 50 Beck, Steven, 221, 274, 317, 364 beef importers, 334, 336 Beijing, 211 Belarus, 279 Belton, Catherine, 188, 203 Berezovsky, Boris, 91 Berlin Wall, fall of, 27, 29–30 billionaire psychology, 83 Blair, Tony, 186–89 Blokhin, Vasili Mikhailovich, 279–80 Bloomberg, 126, 187, 194 Boeing, 334, 336 bonds, 132 1998 financial crisis and aftermath, 131–38 Russian market, 132–38 bonuses, 47–48 Borschev, Valery, 287, 376 Boston Consulting Group, 19, 24–25, 41, 155 Browder and, 26–41, 155 Eastern European operations, 26–41 in London, 25, 26–27 Bouzada, Ariel, 121 Bowers, Chris, 5–6, 7, 9 Bowring, Bill, 170, 173 Brandeis University, 14 Brazil, 191 Brenton, Tony, 172–73, 174, 176, 178 Brezhnev, Leonid, 117 British Airways, 56, 180, 270 British Petroleum, 112, 113, 116, 125, 154 Brose, Chris, 307–9 Browder, Bill anti-corruption campaigns against oligarchs, 115–30, 144–48, 154–69, 181, 192–93 banned from Russia, 11–13, 169, 170–89, 193 begins Hermitage Fund, 76, 77–86, 88, 95–103 birth of, 15 bodyguards of, 127 at Boston Consulting Group, 26–41, 155 British citizenship of, 10 Cardin List and, 298–309 childhood of, 15–17 communist background of, 12–14, 26, 27 congressional testimony on Magnitsky case, 302–5 at Davos, 88–93 death of Magnitsky and, 276–78, 280–88, 327, 372–73, 376 detained at Sheremetyevo Airport, 2–11, 169–70 Elena and, 3–11, 145–54, 161–64, 170, 174–75, 187, 192–96, 209, 225, 269–70, 276–77, 282, 299, 341, 350–51, 355, 367 as a father, 1, 3, 8, 114, 174–75, 206–9, 272, 299, 316, 341–42, 344, 374 Gazprom theft and investigation, 154–62, 192–93 Hermitage lawyers as targets, 237–53, 254–68, 360 Interpol Red Notice for, 367–70, 374 investigation into stolen companies, 201–35, 252–53, 271–72 Karpov’s libel suit against, 344–45, 374 loses Russian visa, 170–89, 193–96 Magnitsky Act and, 305–9, 327–39, 340–50 Magnitsky case, see Magnitsky case at Maxwell Communications Corporation, 41–51 1998 financial crisis and aftermath, 131–46 in Poland, 27–39 police raids on Hermitage offices, 196–200, 203, 208–10, 216, 228, 230 Potanin vs., 115–30, 134–35 Putin and, 166–69, 175–77, 183–89, 236, 360–70, 375 Russian criminal cases against, 189, 190–200, 201–35, 236–53, 270–72, 323, 343–45, 360, 364–70 Russian raider attack, 213–27 Sabrina and, 84–86, 94–95, 102, 114, 117, 123, 134–37, 139–41, 174 at Salomon Brothers, 52–76, 77 Edmond Safra and, 72–76, 77–88, 93, 94, 98, 100–102, 112, 119–32, 138–39, 142 Sidanco and, 104–30, 134–35 tax-rebate fraud and, 231–37, 252–53, 257, 264, 271–72, 288, 301, 316–26, 328 threats against, 273–74, 314, 351–54, 363–70, 375 trial on tax evasion in abstentia, 364–70 at University of Chicago, 19 at Whiteman School, 15–17 Browder, David, 1, 3, 8, 114, 117, 135–41, 174, 175, 208, 209, 272, 273, 299, 316, 344 Browder, Earl, 12–13, 23–24 as head of American Communist Party, 12–14, 26, 27 Browder, Elena, 3–11, 145–54, 161–64, 170, 174–75, 187, 192–96, 206–9, 225, 269–70, 276–77, 282, 299, 341, 350–51, 355, 367 Browder, Eva, 14–15, 16–17, 135 Browder, Felix, 12, 13–15 Browder, Jessica, 175, 176, 207, 208, 209, 341–42 Browder, Raisa, 12, 13 Browder, Sabrina, 84–86, 94–95, 102, 114, 117, 123, 134–37, 139–41, 174 Browder, Thomas, 15 Browder, Veronica, 207, 209 Browder List, The (Russian TV special), 365 Bruder, Jason, 332–33 Brussels, 376–80 Bryanskih, Victor, 159 Budapest, 53, 88 Bukovsky, Vladimir, 350 Burkle, Ron, 80–81 and n, 82–84 BusinessWeek, 131, 160 Butyrka, 265–68, 276–78, 280 Canada, 340, 357 Cape Town, South Africa, 114–15, 117 Capital Constellation Tower, 312 capitalism, 12, 27, 62, 269 Russian transition to, 59–60, 87 Cardin, Ben, 263, 297, 335 and n, 338 Magnitsky case and, 298–309, 327–29, 341, 346, 353–55 Cardin List, 298–309 Caspian Sea, 226 Catholic Church, 364–65 cell phones, 48 Chaika, Yuri, 262 Chechnya, 288 Cheney, Dick, 306 Cherkasov, Ivan, 183–84, 196, 198, 201–27, 230–35, 252–53, 298 criminal case against, 201–27 Chicago, 9, 15, 17, 19, 24, 70 Chicago Tribune, 343 China, 2–3, 190 Chinese wall, 64 Chirikova, Evgenia, 329 Chubais, Anatoly, 91 Churchill, Winston, 228 CIA, 295, 359 Citibank, 209 Citigroup, 356 Clinton, Bill, 14 Clinton, Hillary, 297, 298, 333 Magnitsky case, 298–301, 304 Cold War, 356 Colorado, 15–17, 18 Committee to Protect Journalists, 303 communism, 26, 92, 96, 97, 269 American, 12–14, 26, 27 fall of, 2–3, 27, 29–30, 40, 59, 158, 291 Congress, US, 290, 302–9, 327–29 Magnitsky Act, 305–9, 327–39, 340–50 Magnitsky case and, 302–5, 327–55 Council of Europe, 261–62 Creditanstalt-Grant, 99 Credit Suisse, 208, 209, 319–26 C-SPAN, 348 Cullison, Alan, 148–49 Cyprus, 312, 320 Czechoslovakia, 27, 40 Velvet Revolution, 27 Daily Mirror, 42 Daily Telegraph, 44, 182, 369 databases, 158–59, 311–12 Davenport, Michael, 256–57 Davos, 88–93, 192–95 Delovoi Vtornik, 252 Department K, 203–5, 207, 227, 257, 258, 322 Depression, 12 derivatives, 66 Detroit, 28 Deutsche Bank, 199 DHL, 237–38 dilutive shares, 115–30, 144–45 Domodedovo Airport, 247–48 Dow Jones, 182 Drexel Burnham Lambert, 21, 52 Dubai, 196, 312, 321, 324 Dudukina, Irina, 283, 327–28 Duncan, Terry, 197 Dvorkovich, Arkady, 177, 180, 195 Eastern Europe, 24, 26, 27, 41 BCG operations in, 26–41 fall of communism, 2–3, 27, 29–30, 40 MCC operations in, 45–46 privatizations, 36–37, 41, 53–54 Salomon operations in, 52–54 See also specific countries Echo Moscow, 236 Economist, 69 electricity, 69, 165 Elista, 226 Elle magazine, 307 embezzlement, 144 Ernst & Young, 59 Estemirova, Natalia, 303 European Commission, 376 European Parliament, 377–80 Magnitsky resolution, 378–80 European Union (EU), 301 ExxonMobil, 154 fatalism, Russian, 298 Federal Border Service, 194, 195, 242 Federal Securities and Exchange Commission (FSEC), 127–29 Federation Council, 340–44 Financial Times, 2, 124–26, 129, 131, 138, 160, 181, 182, 203 Finn, Peter, 180–81 Firestone, Jamison, 197–200, 201, 213, 220, 222, 314, 315, 316–20 Firestone Duncan, 197–200, 202, 233, 237, 254, 258 Fleming, Robert, 78 Flemings, 78–79 Forbes, 2, 6, 80, 182, 340, 358 Foreign Affairs, 147, 148 Formosus, Pope, 365 France, 73, 74, 131, 151–53, 187, 201, 208, 209, 312, 377 Freeland, Chrystia, 124–26, 363–64 front-running, 183–84 FSB, 175, 178, 194, 195, 204–5, 223, 260, 274, 279n, 317, 321–23, 341, 369 Department K, 203–5, 207, 227, 257, 258, 322 Fulton, Philip, 274 Fyodorov, Boris, 90–91 Ganapolsky, Matvei, 236 Gasanov, Oktai, 248–49 Gazprom, 154–62, 165, 181, 192–93 oligarch theft and investigation, 154–62, 192–93 stealing analysis, 155–60 G8 Summit (2006), 186, 187, 188, 203 General Electric, 92 Geneva, 70, 83, 93, 218 Germany, 14 fall of Berlin Wall, 27, 29–30 Nazi, 14, 135, 280, 369 World War II, 280, 369 Ghost Writer, The (movie), 299 Glover, Juleanna, 306–7, 332, 334–36, 353, 354 Goldman Sachs, 19, 42 Golodets, Olga, 358 Great Britain, 1, 11, 52, 312, 314 Border Force, 368 Foreign and Commonwealth Office, 171–72 government, 170–73, 186–89, 261 Magnitsky case and, 261 Greece, 139–40, 312 Greenacres, 80–82 Greene, Sylvia, 42 Gref, German, 175–78 Gregorian calendar, 117 Gremina, Elena, 347 Guantánamo, 359 GUM department store, 67 and n Gusinsky, Vladimir, 91 Harvard Business School, 354 Harvard University, 20 endowment, 122 Heathrow Airport, 1, 95, 126, 238, 251, 252 hedge funds, 69, 70n.


pages: 512 words: 162,977

New Market Wizards: Conversations With America's Top Traders by Jack D. Schwager

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backtesting, beat the dealer, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black-Scholes formula, butterfly effect, commodity trading advisor, computerized trading, Edward Thorp, Elliott wave, fixed income, full employment, implied volatility, interest rate swap, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market clearing, market fundamentalism, money market fund, paper trading, pattern recognition, placebo effect, prediction markets, Ralph Nelson Elliott, random walk, risk tolerance, risk/return, Saturday Night Live, Sharpe ratio, the map is not the territory, transaction costs, War on Poverty

I never had more conviction about any trade than I did about the long side of the Deutsche mark when the Berlin Wall came down. One of the reasons I was so bullish on the Deutsche mark was a radical currency theory proposed by George Soros in his book, The Alchemy of Finance. His theory was that if a huge deficit were accompanied by an expansionary fiscal policy and tight monetary policy, the country’s currency would actually rise. The dollar provided a perfect test case in the 1981-84 period. At the time, the general consensus was that the dollar would decline because of the huge budget deficit. However, because money was attracted into the country by a tight monetary policy, the dollar actually went sharply higher. When the Berlin Wall came down, it was one of those situations that I could see as clear as day. West Germany was about to run up a huge budget deficit to finance the rebuilding of East Germany.

These traders would end up calling a clerk on the Merc floor [the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, which trades futures on currencies—an active but still far smaller market than the interbank market] and would say, “So, how does the Swissy look?” What is a clerk going to know about what is actually driving the international currency market? I would be talking to bankers throughout the day and night—in Tokyo, London, Frankfurt, and New York. Were you trading off of this information flow? That’s what foreign exchange trading is all about. Can you give me a recent example of how information flow helps in trading? At the time the Berlin Wall came down, the general market sentiment was that everyone would want to get money into East Germany on the ground floor. The basic assumption was that large capital flows into Eastern Europe would most directly benefit the Deutsche mark. After a Bill Lipschutz / 31 while, the realization set in that it was going to take a lot longer to absorb East Germany into a unified Germany. How does that shift in attitude come about?

As incredible as it may seem, we ended up having an up January after going into the month with a $3 billion short position in equities worldwide, a $3 billion short position in the dollar versus the Deutsche mark, and a large short position in U.S. and Japanese bonds—all of which proved to be the exact wrong positions to hold. Why did you have such a large short position in the dollar versus the Deutsche mark? This was the same position we had held on and off for over a year since the Berlin Wall had come down. The basic premise of the trade was that the Germans would adhere to a combined expansionary fiscal policy and tight monetary policy—a bullish combination for their currency. What caused you to abandon that position? 206 / The New Market Wizard There were two factors. First, the dollar had been supported by safe-haven buying during the U.S. war with Iraq. One morning, there was a news story that Hussein was going to capitulate before the start of the ground war.


pages: 386 words: 122,595

Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science (Fully Revised and Updated) by Charles Wheelan

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Malacca Straits, market bubble, microcredit, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, open economy, presumed consent, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game

But it’s also true that the discipline can come alive in the hands of the right person, and I was fortunate to work and study with many of them: Gary Becker, Bob Willis, Ken Rogoff, Robert Willig, Christina Paxson, Duncan Snidal, Alan Krueger, Paul Portney, Sam Peltzman, Don Coursey, Paul Volcker. My hope is that this book will help to transmit their knowledge and enthusiasm to many new readers and students. naked economics CHAPTER 1 The Power of Markets: Who feeds Paris? In 1989, as the Berlin Wall was toppling, Douglas Ivester, head of Coca-Cola Europe (and later CEO), made a snap decision. He sent his sales force to Berlin and told them to start passing out Coke. Free. In some cases, the Coca-Cola representatives were literally passing bottles of soda through holes in the Wall. He recalls walking around Alexanderplatz in East Berlin at the time of the upheaval, trying to gauge whether there was any recognition of the Coke brand.

It was a money-losing proposition in the short run; the East German currency was still worthless—scraps of paper to the rest of the world. But it was a brilliant business decision made faster than any government body could ever hope to act. By 1995, per capita consumption of Coca-Cola in the former East Germany had risen to the level in West Germany, which was already a strong market. In a sense, it was Adam Smith’s invisible hand passing Coca-Cola through the Berlin Wall. Coke representatives weren’t undertaking any great humanitarian gesture as they passed beverages to the newly liberated East Germans. Nor were they making a bold statement about the future of communism. They were looking after business—expanding their global market, boosting profits, and making shareholders happy. And that is the punch line of capitalism: The market aligns incentives in such a way that individuals working for their own best interest—passing out Coca-Cola, spending years in graduate school, planting a field of soybeans, designing a radio that will work in the shower—leads to a thriving and ever-improving standard of living for most (though not all) members of society.

The old slogan “From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs” made a wonderful folk song; as an economic system, it has led to everything from inefficiency to mass starvation. In any system that does not rely on markets, personal incentives are usually divorced from productivity. Firms and workers are not rewarded for innovation and hard work, nor are they punished for sloth and inefficiency. How bad can it get? Economists reckon that by the time the Berlin Wall crumbled, some East German car factories were actually destroying value. Because the manufacturing process was so inefficient and the end product was so shoddy, the plants were producing cars worth less than the inputs used to make them. Basically, they took perfectly good steel and ruined it! These kinds of inefficiencies can also exist in nominally capitalist countries where large sectors of the economy are owned and operated by the state, such as India.


pages: 385 words: 128,358

Inside the House of Money: Top Hedge Fund Traders on Profiting in a Global Market by Steven Drobny

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Albert Einstein, asset allocation, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, buy low sell high, capital controls, central bank independence, Chance favours the prepared mind, commoditize, commodity trading advisor, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, diversification, diversified portfolio, family office, fixed income, glass ceiling, high batting average, implied volatility, index fund, inflation targeting, interest rate derivative, inventory management, John Meriwether, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, Maui Hawaii, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, new economy, Nick Leeson, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, out of africa, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, price anchoring, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, rolodex, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, transaction costs, value at risk, yield curve, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

I also learned early on that talk is cheap in markets. Everybody runs around with a view, but what leads to success is not having a view but coming up with a direct trade idea. And so I discovered through trading and research how you want to unlock really good trade ideas by having a fundamental view of the process and then comparing that to the perception in the market. That’s how you find a good trade. That year the Berlin Wall fell and the deutsche mark started rallying. It jumped up against all currencies, including the Swiss franc. It was up a lot and everybody was bullish, including Leitner.Then I saw the Swiss authorities respond with pretty aggressive rate hikes and the market didn’t really pay attention. The trend was their friend, so to speak. So I saw rates increasing in Switzerland and the market long the deutsche mark.

When the high yielders were at the bottom of the range and rates went up, it seemed a no-brainer to go and buy them. It was a great trade, because the low yielding countries had low inflation and low interest rates and the high yielding countries had high inflation and high interest rates. The policy regime was designed to squeeze inflation out of the high yielders. So there was significant carry and the governments had the policy. But German inflation accelerated after the Berlin Wall fell, and German interest rates started going up a lot. Suddenly, the low interest rate countries like Germany started becoming high yield countries. At the same time, global deflation was building, the U.S. economy was weak, the Japanese bubble was bursting, and the property boom that had occurred in the United Kingdom and in several other countries was giving under the weight of high interest rates.There was pressure for lower rates in the high yielders and higher rates in the low yielders and the carry was being whittled away.

It’s one of those things where you have to be careful what you wish for—it may just come true.The hedge fund/Commodity Trading Advisor (CTA) game is getting to the point where it’s starting to turn in on itself. 204 INSIDE THE HOUSE OF MONEY In the currency markets, at least you have central banks, corporates, banks, and other anonymous, distant entities to trade against. But the other markets are just full of speculators beating each other up. It’s no wonder returns have come down. What do you mean when you say “the old psyche”? When somebody said to “take a few weeks” to execute a trade, you didn’t have to be so attuned to the market all the time. Now, you have to be on top of it all the time and there’s so much more to watch. Before the Berlin Wall came down, there were only a few places large sums of capital could go. Now, a multitude of places like Brazil, Mexico, Russia,Turkey can absorb serious money. Money used to flow via bank loans, which is an insignificant game now. If there has been a real major change it’s that hedge funds have taken over the role of global financing.Where banks are methodical and slow, hedge funds are fast. Hedge funds don’t get themselves invested with clients by doing weeks of credit work, committee meetings, crossselling, and so on.


pages: 442 words: 135,006

ZeroZeroZero by Roberto Saviano

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Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, call centre, credit crunch, double entry bookkeeping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, open borders, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Steve Jobs, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

What we experience today, the economy that regulates our lives, is determined more by what Félix Gallardo, El Padrino, and Pablo Escobar, El Magico, decided and did in the eighties than by anything Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev decided or did. Or at least that’s how I see it. Various testimonies relate that in 1989 El Padrino convened all the most powerful Mexican drug lords in a resort in Acapulco. While the world was preparing for the fall of the Berlin Wall, while the past of the cold war, iron curtains, and insuperable borders was being buried, the future of the planet was silently being planned in this city in southwestern Mexico. El Padrino decided to subdivide his activity and assign various segments to traffickers the DEA hadn’t fixed their eyes on yet. He divided his territory into zones, or plazas, each entrusted to men with exclusive rights to manage his assigned plaza.

Our brainy Don needs to find a woman with real class, irresistibly gorgeous, wave her under Širokov’s nose like a jewel too precious to pass off to clients, and then wait for the right moment. At the end of 1993 Mogilevic strikes. Širokov is eliminated in Budapest, along with two of his bodyguards. End of competition in the capital city on the Danube. Mogilevic doesn’t enjoy using such brutal means, however, and is always quite happy to leave the job to one of the groups he’s associated with. The Brainy Don prefers to speculate. As soon as the Berlin Wall shows signs of crumbling, he starts changing rubles into hard currency, into German marks. In 1994 Mogilevic manages to infiltrate Inkombank, a Russian banking colossus with a network of accounts in the biggest banks in the world (Bank of New York, Bank of China, UBS, and Deutsche Bank), and to take control of it: This allows him to have direct access to the world financial system and to recycle proceeds from his illegal businesses easily.

From an FBI report it appears that one of his lieutenants, who is stationed in Los Angeles, met with two New York Russians linked to the Genovese crime family to develop a plan for shipping toxic American medical waste to Ukraine, to the area of Chernobyl, probably with kickbacks to local decontamination authorities. The Don’s imagination knows no limits. It’s 1997, and Mogilevic has several tons of enriched uranium on hand, apparently one of many gifts from the fall of the Berlin Wall. Warehouses are full of weapons; he just has to figure out how to be the first to claim them. The Brainy Don arranges a meeting at the Karlovy Vary spa; he loves that place. The buyers are seated across the table from him, distinguished Middle Eastern men. Everything seems to be going smoothly, but the Czech authorities blow the deal. In 1998 an FBI report identifies money laundering as Don Semën’s principal activity in the United States, and reveals both his and Solncevo’s interest in YBM Magnex International, a Pennsylvania-based company with branches in Hungary and Great Britain, which officially produces industrial magnets.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

The thriving business between India and Pakistan and many other pairs of antagonists is a reminder that borders are rarely the solid lines we see on maps but rather porous filters for exchange. In these and dozens of other cases, we increasingly work around our borders—and build straight across them—more than we bow to them.7 Ultimately, from the Great Wall of China and Hadrian’s Wall to the Berlin Wall—and eventually the Cypriot Green Line and the Korean demilitarized zone—forces far more powerful than these barriers prevail. As Alexandra Novosseloff has written, “A wall ends its life as a tourist attraction.”8 In today’s world, territorial boundaries don’t even really capture the geography of borders: Airports may be far inland but contain borders within them, while cyber-security forces patrol technology infrastructures that stretch far across borders.

They expand, contract, shift, multiply, and diversify as a result of our collective human activity. You can disrupt supply chains, but they will quickly find alternative pathways to fulfill their missions. It is as if they have a life of their own. Does this sound familiar? It should: The Internet is just the newest kind of infrastructure upon which more supply chains are built. The World Wide Web was born in 1989, the same year the Berlin Wall fell, which feels like an appropriate turning point to mark the shift from the Westphalian world to the supply chain world.*8 The seventeenth-century Thirty Years’ War represented a transition from the fragmented medieval disorder to the modern system of nation-states in which European monarchs agreed to respect each other’s territorial sovereignty. Today we remember the 1648 Peace of Westphalia not so much for who won (basically no one!)

All that was required was for Obama to waive sanctions. Once he did, Coke’s supply chain came to life. At the Hmawbi Township bottling plant, twenty-five hundred people were immediately employed, with twenty-two thousand more being employed in distribution to over 100,000 vendors across the vast and rugged country. The company’s CEO, Muhtar Kent, compares Coke’s return to Myanmar after sixty years to the fall of the Berlin Wall.*2 A world of competitive connectivity makes a mockery of sanctions only genuinely backed by one power. Recent experience in Iran and North Korea demonstrates how difficult it will be to isolate countries: Even when the American sanctions noose was at its tightest, dozens of countries and companies from oil traders to banks continued to do large business with these so-called rogue states. For example, China used Kunlun Bank of Shenzhen, a China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) subsidiary, to make payments for Iranian oil that went to finance the Quds force.

Making Globalization Work by Joseph E. Stiglitz

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, capital controls, central bank independence, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, invisible hand, John Markoff, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, microcredit, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil rush, open borders, open economy, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, statistical model, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Even if its GDP increases, the growth may not be sustainable, or sustained. And even if growth is sustained, most of its people may find themselves worse off. The debate about economic globalization is mixed with debates about economic theory and values. A quarter century ago, three major schools of economic thought competed with each other—free market capitalism, communism, and the managed market economy. With the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, however, the three were reduced to two, The Promise of Development and the argument today is largely between those who push free market ideology and those who see an important role for both government and the private sector. Of course, these positions overlap. Even free market advocates recognize that one of the problems in Africa is the lack of government. And even critics of unfettered capitalism respect the importance of the market.

Countries in transition fiom communism Just as the successes of East Asia are far greater than even the impressive GDP statistics suggest, the failures of Russia and most of the other countries making the transition from communism to capitalism were far deeper than GDP statistics alone show. Decreases in life expectancy—in Russia it fell by a stunning four years between 1990 and 2000—confirmed the impression of increasing destitution. 12 (Elsewhere in the world, life expectancy was rising.) Crime and lawlessness were rampant. After the Berlin Wall fell, there was hope of democracy and economic prosperity throughout the former Soviet Union and its satellite states. Advisers from the West rushed to Eastern Europe to guide those countries through their transitions. Many believed, mistakenly, that "shock therapy" was needed—that the transition to Western-style capitalism should take place overnight through rapid privatization and liberalization.

(China, in spite of its progress toward a market economy, is still treated as a nonmarket economy.)" In the case of nonmarket economies, the costs used to calculate whether goods are being dumped are not the actual costs, but what the costs would be in some surrogate country. Those seeking to make a dumping charge stick look for a country where costs will be high, so that high dumping duties can be levied. In one classic case, in the days before the fall of the Berlin Wall, the United States levied dumping duties against Polish golf carts, using Canada as the surrogate country. Costs in Canada were so high that Canada did not produce golf carts, so dumping duties were levied on the basis of a calculation of what it would have cost Canada to produce golf carts, if Canada were to have produced them. In many places, including the EU, the surrogate country can even be the country bringing the charge—in which case, almost by definition, costs are greater, otherwise there would be no trouble competing.

Poisoned Wells: The Dirty Politics of African Oil by Nicholas Shaxson

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Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, business climate, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hernando de Soto, income per capita, inflation targeting, Martin Wolf, mobile money, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Near the Presidential Area, a man told me to hand over my film after I had photographed a cathedral in central Malabo; afterward my minder’s hands were shaking, and he warned me that this man could “make your eye pop out.” The name he whispered, Armengol, turned out to be President Obiang’s brother. Yet it still felt safe for me: police states like this have low crime rates because the criminals are afraid, too. I was able to walk unmolested after midnight through Malabo’s silent backstreets, listening to my cassette Walkman. But it was quite eerie. The Berlin Wall had fallen less than four years earlier, and it was a time of sweeping political change in Africa, as old certainties provided by three rival power systems were shifting. The first of the three, promoted by the 29 P o i s o n e d We l l s Soviet Union, gained prominence in large parts of the continent primarily because its revolutionary nature was useful to anticolonial struggles. But it was doubly unsuited to Africa: first, as a way of organizing the world that failed to take greed and human nature into account, and second, as a concept forged in Europe and put into practice in the Soviet Union, and thus an alien import.

You can often spot Corsicans because their names, while French, sound Italian: Marchiani, Tarallo, Tomi, Leandri, Guélfi, Feliciaggi. “These mandarin . . . strands of power had become tightly intertwined in a network that has been dubbed ‘France Inc.,’” wrote Ignatius. “The ruling clans needed each other—and they protected each other.”14 Normally Bidermann’s case would have been quietly dropped. But Joly was an outsider, and French politics was in flux after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The French left and right, as well as the foreign and domestic secret services, were engaged in giant, tentacular struggles, which were generating press leaks and anonymous tip-offs for the magistrates. Elf was being privatized then, too, and the new head of the company lodged a formal complaint with the magistrates against his predecessor, hoping to mark a clean break with Elf ’s dirty past.15 French president Jacques Chirac, who took power in 1995, also wanted to tarnish the image of his predecessor, François Mitterrand, and his people were adding to the leaks.

Milongo rose to greet me just inside the entrance. Though nearly 70, he was handsome and sprightly, and wore a collarless brown suit and a thick, loose, chain bracelet. After the pleasantries, he began his story, a Shakespearean tragedy with many human actors, and one huge, shadowy non-human lurking offstage, influencing everyone. “Oil? Yes,” he said. “It is behind all these problems.” His tale began with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. “Marxism was a pretext—a religion,” he said. “They ruled Congo with it, but not always in the people’s interests. It failed in the Soviet Union, and failed here, too.” By 1990 political pressure was rising from the streets like heat haze, and president Dénis Sassou Nguesso, a Freemason who had been in power since 1979, was forced to accept big changes. He remained president but lost most of his powers to Milongo, who was popular partly because he had 105 P o i s o n e d We l l s been out of Congo for ten years, and was consequently not so tainted with the incestuous world of Françafrique.


pages: 489 words: 132,734

A History of Future Cities by Daniel Brook

Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, joint-stock company, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pearl River Delta, Potemkin village, profit motive, rent control, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

While Putin’s precise Leningrad assignment has never been conclusively confirmed, he most certainly served as one of the many anonymous henchmen who kept Russia’s historic window to the West firmly shut in the pre-Gorbachev era, either monitoring foreigners, domestic dissidents, or both. An excellent student of German, Putin was sent to Dresden in 1985 to work in the KGB branch office across the street from the local headquarters of the Stasi, East Germany’s infamous secret police. When the Berlin Wall came down in 1989 and crowds ransacked the Dresden Stasi building, the young Putin dutifully burned documents across the street. When protestors turned on the KGB office, the compact, steely-eyed Putin pulled a gun on them. The crowd backed down. With the collapse of Russia’s East Bloc empire, Putin returned to Leningrad and remained on the KGB payroll even as he landed an administrative job at his alma mater, Leningrad State University.

But the fast-forward timescale of Pudong is the same one on which Chinese Communism has reinvented itself—a reinvention written into the cityscape itself. At one end of Century Avenue stands the last Soviet building: the Shanghai Oriental Pearl Radio and Broadcasting Tower, which is anchored by a plodding concrete tripod and punctuated by a series of bulbous pink spheres (the “pearls”). Conceived in 1988, a year before the Tiananmen Square protests and the fall of the Berlin Wall, the tower, which opened in 1995, was built to broadcast television and radio programs. Symbolizing the state’s power to control the masses through propaganda, such towers were staples of East Bloc cities, and they dominated Communist-era skylines everywhere from Leningrad to East Berlin. That it took China’s leading city until 1995 to erect its TV tower bears witness to how stunted China was, even by East Bloc standards.

As the information age dawned, India levied tariffs on imported computer software that topped 100 percent and employed an army of 250,000 bureaucrats to oversee its mere 2.5 million telephones. Even so, for decades the nation’s economic problems had been partially masked by a favorable barter trade with a friendly Soviet Union that sought to project its influence into South Asia. But with the erstwhile superpower teetering after the fall of the Berlin Wall, India was nearly broke and the bankers who had sustained the country on credit were growing nervous. The Washington-based International Monetary Fund, spawned in the wake of World War II to oversee the financial system of the non-Communist world, agreed to provide a bailout—but only in return for major structural changes to the Indian economy. Washington decreed that India would have to shift from a variant of the planning-based Soviet model to a variant of the market-driven American system.


pages: 268 words: 112,708

Culture works: the political economy of culture by Richard Maxwell

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1960s counterculture, AltaVista, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business process, commoditize, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, intermodal, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, talking drums, telemarketer, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce

Even after Abstract Expressionism had been superseded by later movements such as pop and op art, the avant-garde and the discourse that surrounded it continued to be useful to government, corporate, and art-world institutions interested in promoting any number of freedoms, including freedom from totalitarianism, individual freedom, artistic freedom, freedom of expression, freedom of speech, freedom to consume, freedom from government regulation—even international free trade. 30 Art Corporate Patronage in the 1960s and the 11 Pop Artists Portfolios Far from subsiding, Cold War tensions escalated after the 1950s, with the need for cultural symbols of American freedom and superiority continuing to be a priority well into the 1960s and beyond. The Cuban Revolution in 1959 was soon followed by the Bay of Pigs fiasco, the construction of the Berlin Wall, the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, the 1964 detonation of an atom bomb in China, and the Tonkin Gulf Resolution. Along with these developments came growing anxieties within government and corporate communities about the spread of communism and about the potential loss of U.S. foreign markets and capital investments. Indeed, it is the pervasiveness of corporate ideology in the discourse of arts patronage and cultural policy during the 1960s that is so striking.

These included the requirement that artists receiving NEA funding sign a written pledge that they would not make anything that could be considered “obscene,” ratification of an antiobscenity law regarding the use of NEA funds, increased congressional oversight of the Endowment’s activities, autocratic power for the presidentially appointed NEA chairman to overrule the recommendations of the peer panels, and the unprecedented application of that power in chairman Frohnmeyer’s repeated refusal to fund artists and projects recommended by those peer panels (including two by well-established artists Karen Finley and Mike Kelly) on the basis that their work was simply “too political.” It could be sheer coincidence that government support for freedom of expression in the arts was withdrawn for the first time in 1989, the year the Cold War was declared to be officially over. Although it would be hard to draw a direct line of causality between the fall of the Berlin Wall and court cases regarding U.S. obscenity laws taking place in Cleveland and Washington, D.C., it certainly seems that the 1989 triumph of liberal democracy over communism raised unforeseen problems for freedom of expression in the 46 Art United States; for without the mandate to pose as an international model of freedom, the most repressive forces of U.S. society—suppressed since the McCarthy era—could once again surface.

See also Time Warner Argentina, 64, 184 Arledge, Roone, 152 ARL–Super League merger, 145 ARPANET, 200–201 Artistic Free Enterprise, 29 Art-market crash, 48 Arts patronage, 16, 23, 31 Association of National Advertisers (ANA), 88 Association of National Advertising Managers, 88 AT&T, 42, 207–9 Atlantic and Pacific Tea company (A & P), 168 Audience as commodity, 12, 60, 75, 100, 137–41, 204–14, 230–33, 245 Authorship: contradictory foundations of, 238–43; liberal paradigm, 17 Avant-garde, 3, 16, 22–32, 34–35, 40–44, 46, 48, 50 Axé music, 111, 129 Bahia, 17, 110–12 Banks, 42–44, 48, 64 Barr, Alfred, 29, 48 Barthes, Roland, 75 Bay of Pigs, 31 Berger, Arthur Asa, 74–75 Berlin, 31, 46, 48, 50 Berlin Wall, 31, 46 Biddle, Livingston: NEA Chairman under Carter, 42–43 Black Dance, 17, 107–9, 123–28 Black Panthers, 239 Black Power, 109, 128 Blocos Afros, 109, 110, 111 Bodies, 2, 6, 9, 13–14, 18, 29, 37, 40, 42, 63, 108–27, 133, 214 Borsook, Paulina, 243 Boyle, James, 237, 245 Braden, Thomas W., 28 Brands and branding, 11, 64, 68, 86–91, 112–13, 135, 139, 141, 145, 150, 173–76, 182–83, 233, 245; sport events as brands, 150 Braverman, Harry, 133 Brazil, 17, 64, 109–12, 114, 184, 203 Break dancing, 119 Brewers Association of America, 63 Brown, James, 113, 120 BSkyB, 141, 144, 146 Buffy the Vampire Slayer, 231 Bulworth, 245 Busch Agricultural Resources, 63 Bush, George H., 46 Business Committee for the Arts: founder David Rockefeller, 32, 34, 40 Business Week, 101, 135 Cablevision, 140, 145 Caldas, Luis, 111 Calloway, Cab, 113 Campbell, Colin, 237 Canada, 64, 184, 203 253 Index Capital, 5, 7, 11, 31, 48, 65, 85, 98, 109, 126–34, 140, 171–75, 190, 197–99, 206–18 Capitalism, 4, 5, 36, 63, 69, 90, 132–34, 139–40, 147, 163, 166, 168, 236–37, 243 Caracas, 35 Caribbean, 3, 119 Carlson, Walter, 37 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 27, 28, 35, 39, 52 Chanel No. 5, 87 Child care, 11, 243 Chile, 64 China, 31, 45, 65, 175–76 Christian Right, 51 Cisco Systems, 208–9 Civic Progress, 66–68, 77, 79 Cleveland, 46 Clinton, Bill, 47 CNN, 148, 233 Coca-Cola, 76, 100 Cockcroft, Eva, 22, 27, 29, 30, 52 Cohen, Lizabeth, 171–72, 191 Cold War, 1, 16, 19, 24–31, 41–46, 49–51, 52 Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS), 32, 42, 136–39, 141–43, 225 Columbia University, 32, 91 Commercialization, 7, 18, 19, 80, 133, 190.


pages: 300 words: 84,762

Vaccinated: One Man's Quest to Defeat the World's Deadliest Diseases by Paul A. Offit

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1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, discovery of penicillin, en.wikipedia.org, germ theory of disease, Isaac Newton, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Ronald Reagan

Wilma Mankiller, chief of the Cherokee Nation, submitted the eighty-five-letter Cherokee alphabet, hoping that her language would still be spoken a hundred years from now. Hans Liepmann, a mathematician and scientist, submitted the first transistor—developed by Bell Telephone Laboratories—to mark the beginning of the electronic age. Historian David McCullough submitted a borrower’s card from the Boston Public Library, the first public library to let readers take books home. President Ronald Reagan submitted a piece of the Berlin Wall to represent one country’s choice of democracy over communism. Filmmaker Ken Burns submitted an original recording of Louis Armstrong’s “West End Blues.” Ernest Green, an African-American student caught on September 2, 1957, in a confrontation between Arkansas governor Orval Faubus and armed national guardsmen about his admission to an all-white public school, submitted his diploma from Little Rock Central High School.

President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Clinton spoke at the event, and ten thousand people lined the streets near the National Mall to watch. “It was, after all, the transistor that launched the Information Age and enabled man to walk on the moon,” said Mrs. Clinton. “It was Satchmo’s trumpet that heralded the rise of jazz and of American music all over the world. And it was a broken block of concrete covered in graffiti from the Berlin Wall that announced the triumph of democracy over dictatorship.” Bill Clinton expressed his hopes for the future. “There is not a better moment to reflect on our hopes and dreams, and the gifts we want to leave to our children,” he said. Another man was on the platform that day: Maurice Hilleman. Few in attendance recognized him. Eighty years old, bent slightly forward, Hilleman slowly, cautiously padded over to the microphone, said a few words, and reached down to place his artifact into the capsule: a block of clear plastic six inches long, two inches high, and two inches deep.

Sabin Lifetime Achievement Award Alexander, Jennifer Altman, Lawrence American Academy of Pediatrics American Medical Association American Nurses’ Association American Philosophical Society American Public Health Association And the Band Played On Andrewes, Christopher animal cells, in vaccine manufacture See also specific animals animalcules anthrax antibiotics antibodies antitoxin, diphtheria antivaccine activism Aries Rising Press Armed Forces Epidemiological Board Armstrong, Louis Asian flu Atomic Energy Commission Australia antigen Austrian, Charles Robert Austrian, Robert autism controversy bacteria, distinguished from viruses bacterial infection See also specific infection Baker, John Barr, Richard Barry, Anita Beijerinck, Martinus Bell Telephone Laboratories Bell, Joe Benoit strain Berlin Wall bioethical issues. See fetal tissue bird flu. See influenza birth defects Blair, Mrs. William McCormick Blair, Tony blood in AIDS in vaccine development Blumberg, Baruch Bookchin, Debbie Boston Children’s Hospital Boston Lying-In Hospital Boston Public Library Boyer, Herbert Bradley, Ed Bristol Award Brown, Harold Buchenwald Buchta, Richard Burmeister, Ben Burnet, Macfarlane Burns, Ken Burton, Dan Buynak, Eugene Calment, Jeanne cancer cervical in chickens genetic studies in hepatitis B and immortality of cells vaccine for viruses and Cantwell, Art Jr.


pages: 397 words: 112,034

What's Next?: Unconventional Wisdom on the Future of the World Economy by David Hale, Lyric Hughes Hale

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversification, energy security, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global village, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, payday loans, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tobin tax, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, women in the workforce, yield curve

It seemed as if the country was economically unviable and politically ungovernable. Salinas, who took office in December 1988, was surprisingly able to transform expectations and reality in the first two years of his sexenio. In 1989, he consolidated his power by successively jailing Joaquín Hernández Galicia (“La Quina”), the leader of the oil workers’ union, and Eduardo Legorreta, one of the most prominent brokers in Mexico. In January 1990, following the collapse of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, Salinas realized at the World Economic Forum’s annual Davos meeting that he would have to compete with the newly liberated countries of Eastern Europe. Salinas ordered the beginning of negotiations toward a North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the reprivatization of the banking system. The banks were privatized between June 1991 and June 1992, and NAFTA was negotiated at a breakneck pace and approved by the US Congress in November 1993, with implementation of the agreement beginning on January 1, 1994.

It may therefore be only a matter of time before some combination of greater debt and higher inflation precipitates a crash in the JGB and yen markets. 8 JAPAN: THE INTERREGNUM GOES ON Richard B. Katz No Political Stability without Economic Prosperity; No Prosperity without Structural Reform The long political interregnum that began in 1989—with the peak of the 1980s financial bubble and the fall of the Berlin Wall—seems destined to continue for at least several more years. In 2009, hopes were raised that the smashing victory of the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) in the Lower House elections would usher in at least a few years of political stability and some substantial progress on economic reform. Not only did the DPJ throw out the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), which had ruled virtually uninterrupted for nearly six decades (making the 2009 election the first time voters had ever affected a change in government in postwar Japan), but it did so in an unprecedented landslide.

All of this begs the question, If one-party democracy is maladaptive for modern economies, how did the LDP and its precursor parties manage to rule in all but two of the sixty-five years following the end of World War II? The answer is that, for a long time, the LDP served Japan very well. For one thing, it kept Japan in the Western camp during the Cold War. Recall that until the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union, the primary opposition parties were the Socialists and Communists who, unlike the pro-Western Social Democrats of Western Europe, oriented toward Moscow, Beijing, and even Pyongyang. As long as the Socialists and Communists remained the voice of the opposition, the LDP was safe. Not until the LDP split in 1993, when a nonsocialist opposition emerged, was there a genuine alternative to LDP rule that was acceptable to the typical Japanese voter.


pages: 357 words: 110,072

Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts About Alternative Medicine by Edzard Ernst, Simon Singh

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Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, correlation does not imply causation, false memory syndrome, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, germ theory of disease, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, profit motive, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Simon Singh, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method

If anything, homeopathy is even more absurd than snake oil, as demonstrated by a homeopath who wrote a letter outlining a particularly bizarre homeopathic remedy: ‘This patient continues to have multiple symptoms of lumps on scalp and has had a flu-like illness. Overall her mood has improved, however, I have given her a dose of Carcinosin Nosode 30C over the day followed by Berlin Wall 30C one a day in the morning…’ A response in the Medical Monitor emphasized the ridiculous nature of Berlin Wall as a homeopathic remedy: ‘What therapeutic advantages does Berlin Wall have over ordinary garden wall or Spaghetti Junction concrete? And do Scottish homeopaths use microdoses of that historic nostrum, Hadrian’s Wall? I think we should be told.’ So how did we get into a position whereby each year we are spending £40 billion globally on alternative therapies, most of which are as senseless as homeopathy, and many of which are a good deal more dangerous?


pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, digital map, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

The social forces behind rival empires and breakaway republics—each seeking to build or restore its own competing network of power—were a constant threat. And it is safe to say that the Pax Americana is over. Historians have used this label to refer to the dominance of the United States in international affairs since the end of World War II. In important ways this period of stability (more than peace) occurred because the United States managed to dominate global industry, finance, and culture. Some would say that the collapse of the Berlin Wall marked the peak of the Pax Americana, and that the internet is just an extension of America’s ability to wire up economic, political, and cultural life in other countries for its own benefit. Device networks now provide more of that structure than cultural exports. Today, governments and the technology industry have been closely collaborating on foreign policy. Indeed, in important ways, technology policy has become foreign policy.

This is not true for many people, or for most people in rich countries. Since the end of the Cold War, pundits and policy makers have thrown around a variety of terms to help frame current events. Do we live in a unipolar world, where the United States gets to be dominant? Or is it better to think of our political world as a multi-polar one, with many different kinds of political actors busy projecting different kinds of power? The collapses of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the Soviet Union in 1991 are two events that clearly mark a transition point in global politics. But a transition to what? Lots of people have tried to describe the new world order. Many have argued that with the fall of the Soviet Union, the new world order became one in which major political and security crises would be over economic issues rather than ideological differences. Anne-Marie Slaughter said our new world order was new because networks of public officials were connecting across international borders to more effectively solve problems.7 Henry Kissinger said the United States would still be the most important part of the new world order.

We can’t test its negation—an Arab Spring that never happened, or an Arab Spring minus one key factor that resulted in a different outcome. We don’t have enough large datasets about Arab Spring–like events to run statistical models. That doesn’t mean we shouldn’t try to learn from the real events that happened. In fact, for many in the social sciences, tracing how real events unfolded is the best way to understand political change. The richest explanations of the fall of the Berlin Wall, for example, as sociologist Steve Pfaff crafts them, come from such process tracing.2 We do, however, know enough to make some educated guesses about what will happen next. And, indeed, our experiences during the internet interregnum reveal five premises for how the internet of things will have an impact on global politics. I opened the chapter with basic statements of how device networks have had an impact on political life.


pages: 345 words: 92,849

Equal Is Unfair: America's Misguided Fight Against Income Inequality by Don Watkins, Yaron Brook

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Uber for X, urban renewal, War on Poverty, wealth creators, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

They may have less inequality than the United States, but there are nonetheless huge gaps between what the majority of citizens make and what the most successful earn. Trying to eliminate those inequalities would wipe out economic progress. If we want a laboratory experiment to test that claim, we can do no better than the contrast between East Germany and West Germany. From the end of World War II until the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989, East and West Germany were separated not only by bricks and mortar shells but by economic doctrines. People who shared a history, a language, and an environment took radically different approaches toward human freedom—and achieved radically different results. While retaining various forms of wealth redistribution and economic interventionism, West Germany’s economy was relatively free after the war.

Prices are about four or five times as high as in West Germany, and many families help make ends meet by selling such scarce items as coffee ($10 per lb.) at a markup to people who do not have the time to wait in line for hours.43 The differences were so stark that mere statistics can’t fully capture the East’s impoverishment. In the West, for instance, 41 percent of Germans owned cars in 1983; in the East, fewer than 20 percent did.44 But the only car available to most East Germans was the Trabant, a vehicle so pitiful that Germans used to joke you could double its value by filling up the gas tank. In 1989, the Berlin Wall fell, and the world learned that even the pathetic productivity claimed by the East Germans had been wildly exaggerated. When, in the early days of reunification, a desperate East Germany offered a free factory to one Italian company in hopes of attracting investment, it was turned down. “The restructuring costs were so great,” said the chairman of the Italian company, “it did not make sense for us to take over the East German operation, even though it was being offered to us free.”

Quoted in Morris, The Tycoons, p. 56. 39. Jonathan Hughes, The Vital Few (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), p. 560. 40. Alan B. Krueger and Jorn-Steffen Pischke, “A Comparative Analysis of East and West German Labor Markets: Before and after Unification,” NBER Working Paper No. 4154, August 1992, http://www.nber.org/papers/w4154 (accessed May 4, 2015). 41. Ibid. 42. Norman Gelb, The Berlin Wall (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988) pp. 51, 53. 43. “East Germany: They Have Given Up Hope,” Time, December 6, 1963, http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,898090,00.html (accessed April 21, 2015). 44. Julian L. Simon, The Ultimate Resource 2 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996), p. 498. 45. Ferdinand Protzman, “East Germany’s Economy Far Sicker Than Expected,” New York Times, September 20, 1990, http://www.nytimes.com/1990/09/20/business/east-germany-s-economy-far-sicker-than-expected.html (accessed April 21, 2015). 46.

When the Money Runs Out: The End of Western Affluence by Stephen D. King

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, congestion charging, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, endowment effect, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market clearing, mass immigration, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population

The resulting increase in consumer demand encouraged industry to deliver substantial economies of scale, with mass production becoming ever more commonplace. Social security systems designed to prevent a repeat of the terrible impoverishment of the 1930s became increasingly widespread, reducing the need for households to stuff cash under the mattress for unforeseen emergencies: they could thus spend more freely. With the reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping at the end of the 1970s and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, countries that had been trapped in the economic equivalent of a deep-­freeze were able to come in from the cold, creating new opportunities for trade and investment: trade between China and the US, for example, expanded massively. Women, sorely underrepresented in the workforce through lack of opportunity and lack of pay, suddenly found themselves in gainful employment thanks to sex discrimination legislation.

Westerners instead began to rely on washing machines, tumble driers, dishwashers, takeaways and heat-­up meals, freeing up time for more productive endeavours and, for many, greater investment in health and fitness. 12 4099.indd 12 29/03/13 2:23 PM Taking Progress for Granted DON’T CRY FOR ME . . . The second half of the twentieth century was, thus, an unusual period replete with economic bounty. Many of the factors behind this persistent increase in Western living standards appear, however, to have been one-­offs: we can only have one reopening of world trade, one substantial increase in consumer credit, one fall in the Berlin Wall. Yet we don’t like to think in those terms. Our belief in ever rising prosperity is sacrosanct. It may also, unfortunately, be seriously misguided. We take for granted our future prosperity, counting our economic chickens long before they’ve hatched. We expect our pensions to be paid in full, even though we save very little. We expect easy access to medical care, no matter how expensive it might prove to be.

In the event of subsequent setback, the ancien régime gets the blame. De Tocqueville’s view thus allows for the role of expectations and the impact on the political system if those expectations are not met. De Tocqueville’s view of expectations and their impact on political stability captures many of the upheavals seen in the non-­democratic world since the end of the 1980s, including the fall of the Berlin Wall, the subsequent collapse of the Soviet empire and the Arab Spring. But de Tocqueville also has something useful to say about the problems now facing Western economies. Economic stagnation need not make anyone worse off but it certainly has left expectations unmet. Reductions in public spending plans, rises in education costs, increased retirement age, bigger pension contributions and lower stock-­market returns are all part of the same story: stagnation 152 4099.indd 152 29/03/13 2:23 PM Three Schisms prevents us from delivering on the promises we have made to ourselves.

Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower by William Blum

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, collective bargaining, Columbine, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

It was the cleverest protection racket since men convinced women that they needed men to protect them—if all the men vanished overnight, how many women would be afraid to walk the streets? And if the people of any foreign land were benighted enough to not realize that they needed to be saved, if they failed to appreciate the underlying nobility of American motives, they were warned that they would burn in Communist Hell. Or a CIA facsimile thereof. And they would be saved nonetheless. A decade after the fall of the Berlin Wall, America is still saving countries and peoples from one danger or another. The scorecard reads as follows: From 1945 to the end of the century, the United States attempted to overthrow more than 40 foreign governments, and to crush more than 30 populist-nationalist movements struggling against intolerable regimes. In the process, the US caused the end of life for several million people, and condemned many millions more to a life of agony and despair.

Eastern Europe, 1948-56 Allen Dulles, Director of the CIA, in a remarkable chess game, instigated a high Polish security official, Jozef Swiatlo, to use a controversial American, Noel Field, to spread paranoia amongst the security establishments of Eastern Europe, leading to countless purge trials, hundreds of thousands of imprisonments and at least hundreds of deaths.7 Germany, 1950s The CIA orchestrated a wide-ranging campaign of sabotage, terror-ism, dirty tricks and psychological warfare against East Germany. This was one of the factors which led to the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961. The United States also created a secret civilian army in Germany, which drew up a list of 200 leading Social Democrats, 15 Communists and various others who were to be "put out of the way" if the Soviet Union invaded. This secret army had its counterparts all over Western Europe as part of "Operation Gladio", developed by the CIA and other intelligence services, and not answerable for its actions under the laws of any state.

When the Fiji coup took place, Rabuka and his supporters pointed to the Libyan "threat" as justifying the coup.51 There are more of such "coincidences" in this drama, including appearances in Fiji before the coup of the National Endowment for Democracy (q.v.) and its funding, some of the CIAs labor mafia, and units of the US military in the Pacific.52 The day after the coup, a Pentagon source, while denying US involvement, declared: "We're kinda delighted.. .All of a sudden our ships couldn't go to Fiji, and now all of a sudden they can."53 Panama, 1989 Less than two weeks after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the United States showed its joy that a new era of world peace was now possible by invading Panama, as Washington's mad bombers struck again. On December 20, 1989, a large tenement barrio in Panama City was wiped out; 15,000 people were left homeless. Counting several days of ground fighting between US and Panamanian forces, 500-something natives dead was the official body count—i.e., what the United States and the new US-installed Panamanian government admitted to.


pages: 173 words: 14,313

Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion: Rhetoric in the Peer-To-Peer Debates by John Logie

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, book scanning, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hacker Ethic, Isaac Newton, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, publication bias, Richard Stallman, search inside the book, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog

Historians typically date the Cold War as stretching from roughly 1947 to 1989. Most accounts point to the Cold War commencing during a brutal winter in Europe, which ratcheted up a contest between the U.S. and the Soviet Union over which country could provide more aid to the affected nations (most of which were already reeling from the after-effects of World War II). There is near-universal agreement that the Cold War ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989. While various labels are applied to the intervening periods, there is general agreement that the U.S. and the Soviet Union engaged in a pitched conflict with the very real possibility of nuclear confrontation after reaching a point of schism in the late 1940s. This nuclear threat persisted until the inauguration of a mutually acknowledged period of détente in 1968. For years, no one was certain how close the two superpowers had come to what was then referred to as a “tactical nuclear exchange.”

Pa r l orPr e s s wwwww. p a r l or p r e s s . c om Index AAUP (American Association of University Presses), 146 Abelson, Hal, 128 Adar, Eytan, 99 Adobe eBook Reader, 142–43 Albini, Steve: “The Problem with Music,” 118 Alpert, Herb, and the Tijuana Brass, 3–4 Altnet, 119 Amazon.com, 18, 59, 72, 142 American Revolution, 110 anaphora, 108 Apple Computer, Inc., 61–6; iTunes Music Store, 65, 86, 122–23, 135 Archerd, Army, 73–74 Aristotle, 7, 38; arête, 39; eunoia, 39; phronesis, 39 Army of Mice (parody of the MPAA), 123–25 ARPANET, 128 Athens, 140 Audio Home Recording Act of 1991, 57–58, 89, 95, 135 authorship, 130–32 bandwidth, 13, 98, 143–44, 146, 148 Barry, Hank, 34, 106, 109–10 Basic Books v. Kinko’s, 16 Beastie Boys, 102–3 Bennett, Jay, 103 Berlin Wall, 115 Berlin, James: Rhetoric and Reality, 132 Berne Convention, 74–75 “Betamax Case,” See Universal Studios v. Sony Billboard, 102 BitTorrent, 6, 123 Black, Edwin, 20 Blackmun, Harry, 56 Blockbuster, 106 BMG Music et al. v. Gonzalez, 91–92. 97 Bond, James, 119 Borges, Jorge Luis: “The Library of Babel,” 19, 147 Bowie, David, 77 Brewster, Sir David, 69 Breyer, Stephen, 138 broadband, 14, 86, 99, 105–6, 141–42, 144–46 Bronfman, Edgar, 108–9, 122–23 Burk, Dan, 20, 120 Burke, Kenneth: identification, 40–41 C/NET, 56, 65 Cake (band), 86–87 cassette tape, 28–29, 63–64, 91, 117 Chaucer, Geoffrey, 70 Chicago Reader, 91 Churchill, Winston, 108 client-server, 128 Cold War, 25, 106–7, 112–19, 126 159 Pa r l orPr e s s 160 College Composition and Communication, 132 compact discs, 3, 10–13, 53, 59, 61, 63–65, 68, 72, 74–75, 77, 81, 91–95, 102–3, 110, 112, 117–18 composition pedagogy, 131–32 Computers and Composition, 130 content industries, 6, 12, 52, 66, 68, 76–77, 82–83, 105, 108, 116, 121–26, 136, 146 copyright: Napster users’ perceptions of, 3–5 U.S.


pages: 237 words: 50,758

Obliquity: Why Our Goals Are Best Achieved Indirectly by John Kay

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Andrew Wiles, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, British Empire, business process, Cass Sunstein, computer age, corporate raider, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, discounted cash flows, discovery of penicillin, diversification, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, market fundamentalism, Myron Scholes, Nash equilibrium, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, shareholder value, Simon Singh, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, urban planning, value at risk

Not long ago, even people who experienced it did not believe it. Like the bewildered Russians, they found it self-evident that things would work better if someone was in charge. In the 1960s, as the Whiz Kids rose to power in business and politics, there was genuine fear that Russian technological superiority would overtake the West.2 Only in the 1980s did it become evident how misplaced these fears had been, and only after the fall of the Berlin Wall was it clear just how dismal was the economic performance of the planned economies. Many people who seek to build ever more centralized business organizations, or to institute a global financial architecture, still do not really take the implications of this evidence on board. The economist Friedrich von Hayek gave a prescient explanation of planning’s failures. The evolved complexity that Darwin had observed in nature was also true of economic and social systems.

Igor anthologies, literary anthropomorphization anti-inflammatory drugs Apple Apprentice, The arbitrage Archimedes architecture Aristotle Arrow, Kenneth art Art of the Deal, The (Trump) art experts artificial intelligence Asian financial crisis (1997) aspirin assets authority Autobiography (Mill) aviation industry Balboa, Vasco de Bankers Trust banking industry Barnevik, Percy Basel agreements (1987) basic goals Bear Stearns Beckham, David Bell, Alexander Graham bell curve Bengal Bentonville, Ark. Berlin, Isaiah Berlin Wall beta-blockers Black, James “blind watchmaker” Boeing Boeing 737 airliner Boeing 747 airliner Boeing 777 airliner Boesky, Ivan bonuses Borges, Jorge Luis Borodino, Battle of Boston Consulting Group brain damage brain teasers Brando, Marlon Brasília Brave New World (Huxley) Brin, Sergey British empire brokerage firms Bruck, Connie Brunelleschi, Filippo Buffett, Warren Built to Last (Collins and Porras) Burke, Edmund Burns, Robert Bush, George W.


pages: 845 words: 197,050

The Gun by C. J. Chivers

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air freight, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, South China Sea, trade route, Transnistria

For those in Eastern Europe under communist rule and Soviet occupation, the desire for independence—suppressed by violence several times since World War II—was rekindled. In early 1989, the formerly banned trade union, Solidarność, exacted a commitment from Poland’s communist government to hold elections, which it won overwhelmingly in June, creating an irreparable crack. Events accelerated. Czechoslovakia held its Velvet Revolution in November 1989; the Berlin Wall fell the same month. Romanians revolted in December. Hungary held free elections in spring 1990, and Bulgaria in June. Ukraine declared its independence that July, followed by Azerbaijan and Armenia. Georgia and the Central Asian republics announced their independence the next year. Albania voted its communists from office in 1992. Violence marred communism’s last hours. Deposed President Nicolae Ceauşescu of Romania was executed with his wife after a hasty victor’s trial; they were shot, husband and wife standing side by side with hands tied behind their backs, by soldiers firing Kalashnikovs on Christmas Day.

In 1991, Georgia attacked separatist South Ossetia, and Chechnya declared its independence from Russia, setting a course for a larger and more costly war that would see human-rights abuses by Russia and its proxy forces on a grand scale, and the separatists’ adoption of the tactics of terror. Yugoslavia was fracturing, heading into a series of ethnic wars. Civil war erupted in Tajikistan in 1992, the year fighting broke out in Transnistria, and between Georgia and the Abkhaz. During these years, an arms-pilferage drama unfolded across the Warsaw Pact. The events in the German Democratic Republic provided one example. The Berlin Wall fell in November 1989, pitching the country on a new course. During more than forty years of communist rule, East Germany had become an armed police state and well-stocked military front. The arsenals were large and varied, augmented by the secret production in the Wiesa rifle plant. The Nationale Volksarmee, or National People’s Army, was the most heavily armed organization. But the police, the secret police, and the border guards had arms stores as well, and as many as four hundred thousand military weapons had been cached in factories, positioned to arm workers’ militias ahead of national uprising or war.

Mike O’Connor, “Albanian Village Finds Boom in Gun-Running,” New York Times, April 24, 1997. The factory manager is quoted as saying production reached twenty-four thousand AK-47s a month. 8. Descriptions, and a limited selection of photographs from within the Artemovsk cache, were provided by several people who have been inside the caves. The author was denied entry. 9. Kalashnikov, From a Stranger’s Doorstep, pp. 302–3. 10 The account of Fechter’s killing at the Berlin Wall was assembled from German newspaper and academic accounts, as well as from records in the archive of the Stasi, the West Berlin police, and the Ministry of State Security. Von Schnitzler’s quotation is from the transcript of the program he hosted, Schwarze Kanal (Black Channel), on GDR-TV, August 27, 1962. Research conducted by Stefan Pauly. 11. From “Meeting Notes taken by Chief of the Hungarian People’s Army General Staff Károly Csémi On Talks with Soviet Generals to Discuss Preparations for ‘Operation Danube,’” July 24, 1968, in The Prague Spring ’68: A National Security Archive Documents Reader” (Central European University Press, 1998), p. 277. 12.


pages: 807 words: 225,326

Werner Herzog - a Guide for the Perplexed: Conversations With Paul Cronin by Paul Cronin

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Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, land reform, out of africa

The division of the country never affected me personally because I had no relatives behind the Iron Curtain, but for those who did the situation was catastrophic. I was at a train station in East Berlin about ten years after the Berlin Wall had gone up. East Germany had allowed West Berliners to cross the border on certain days, but they had to return home before midnight. There were at least five thousand people, maybe a quarter of whom were going back to West Berlin, saying goodbye to their mothers and fathers, their sisters and brothers. Every once in a while we are witness to a truly unforgettable drama, a catastrophic tragedy. At that moment, watching all these people who didn’t know if they would ever see each other again, a great chasm opened up between Brandt and me. I vividly remember the deep feeling of joy and jubilation when the Berlin Wall came down. My hope was that in an explosion of freedom everyone in East Germany would crawl out of their holes and display to the world their creative energies, though after only a week almost everyone had lapsed into a climate of complaint and self-pity.

This went further than just production; I’m talking about creating our own festivals and distribution systems, and establishing relations with television stations willing to fund our work. I consider Alexander Kluge to be the spiritual and ideological force behind West German cinema of the period, including the film-subsidy laws that created an environment within which many of us were able to work, and the Oberhausen Manifesto, issued in 1962, the year after the Berlin Wall went up, declaring the arrival of a new generation of West German filmmakers. Kluge and Edgar Reitz – both ten years older than me – saw some of my early films and asked if I wanted to work through their company and the film school in Ulm they had founded [Institut für Filmgestaltung]. When I told them I was going to be my own producer, they offered me the use of their equipment, and I spent time on their machinery transferring various recordings I had made.

Kinski was standing next to the camera, and only when it pans slightly to the right do we see his true shadow on the wall, then Kinski himself. It was a complex moment to orchestrate, done without technical tricks. I worked with Schmidt-Reitwein on Fata Morgana, Land of Silence and Darkness, The Enigma of Kaspar Hauser and Heart of Glass. He has a strong feeling for darkness and contrast, threatening shadows and gloom, I suspect in part because he experienced prison and darkened dungeons himself. Just after the Berlin Wall went up he was caught smuggling his girlfriend out of the East and placed in solitary confinement for several months. At the time the East German regime insisted that the wall had been built as a protective barrier against the fascist intruders, though trading was still going on between the two countries. The East Germans sometimes took hostages under a petty pretext and would imprison people for years, waiting until some kind of exchange could take place.


pages: 83 words: 7,274

Buyology by Martin Lindstrom

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anti-work, Berlin Wall, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Mikhail Gorbachev, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker

“Thanks a lot,” you’re thinking. But what if I proceed to tell you that this isn’t just any rock you’re holding, but a one-of-a-kind rock, a historical symbol, a fragment of the Berlin Wall that was smuggled out of the country days after the wall’s destruction in 1989, when East and West Berliners began snatching up chips and chunks of the fallen barrier as keepsakes. You now have in your possession a talisman symbolizing the end of the cold war. “Thanks a lot,” you say, this time meaning it. “Anytime,” I answer. “Here’s to turning forty.” A moment goes by. Then I tell you I was just kidding. The rock doesn’t come from the Berlin Wall—it’s even more exceptional than that. The rock you have in 08/08/2009 10:45 74 of 83 file:///D:/000004/Buy__ology.html your hand is an authentic moon rock, a chunk of the roughly six ounces of lunar detritus that Neil Armstrong and his fellow astronauts brought back home with them during their 1969 Apollo 11 mission.


pages: 275 words: 77,955

Capitalism and Freedom by Milton Friedman

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affirmative action, Berlin Wall, central bank independence, Corn Laws, Deng Xiaoping, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, liquidity trap, market friction, minimum wage unemployment, price discrimination, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing

Non-defense spending fluctuated around a roughly constant level: 31 percent in 1982, 30 percent in 2000. The climate of opinion received a further boost in the same direction when the Berlin wall fell in 1989 and the Soviet Union collapsed in 1992. That brought to a dramatic end an experiment of some seventy years between two alternative ways of organizing an economy: top-down versus bottom-up; central planning and control versus private markets; more colloquially, socialism versus capitalism. The result of that experiment had been foreshadowed by a number of similar experiments on a smaller scale: Hong Kong and Taiwan versus mainland China; West Germany versus East Germany; South Korea versus North Korea. But it took the drama of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union to make it part of conventional wisdom, so that it is now taken for granted that central planning is indeed The Road to Serfdom, as Friedrich A.


pages: 369 words: 80,355

Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren't the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room by David Weinberger

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airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, Debian, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of journalism, Galaxy Zoo, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, linked data, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pluto: dwarf planet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, slashdot, social graph, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

Some of those institutions are highly reluctant to give up the goods because their economic well-being has been based on them. The New York Times has been struggling with this question. Caught between the social responsibility it’s given itself as “the paper of record” and its economic responsibilities as a commercial enterprise, it has struck a cumbersome compromise based on the date of publication. So (at least as I write this), you can read the article announcing the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, online and for free.13 If, however, you want to read E. J. Dionne’s article about the presidential campaign from exactly three years before that, the Times shows you the first paragraph and offers to sell you access to the rest for $3.95.14 If you are looking for an article published between 1923 and 1980—perhaps about the twentieth birthday of the “mental hygiene movement” in 192915—the Times won’t show you even a paragraph, but will sell it to you for $3.95.

See also danah boyd’s talk, “The Not-So-Hidden Politics of Class Online,” at Personal Democracy Forum, New York City, June 30, 2009, http://www.danah.org/papers/talks/PDF2009.html. 13 Serge Schemann, “Clamor in the East; East Germany Opens Frontier to the East for Migration or Travel; Thousands Cross,” November 10, 1989, http://www.nytimes.com/1989/11/10/world/clamor-east-east-germany-opens-frontier-west-for-migration-travel-thousands.html?scp=4&sq=berlin+wall&st=nyt. 14 E. J. Dionne, “The Political Campaign: From Politics Barely a Pause: Candidates Already Living ’88,” New York Times, Nov. 10, 1986, http://www.nytimes.com/1986/11/10/us/the-political-campaign-from-politics-barely-a-pause-candidates-already-living-88.html?scp=1&sq=&st=nyt. 15 From the abstract on the New York Times site: http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F5061EFA3454127A93C2A8178AD95F4D8285F9&scp=7&sq=&st=p. 16 See the Open Courseware Consortium site: http://www.ocwconsortium.org/. 17 E.


pages: 234 words: 63,149

Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World by Ian Bremmer

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airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, labour mobility, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, Parag Khanna, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

Two weeks later, on June 4, the army broke through human blockades and entered the square, killing an unknown number of people, injuring many more, and setting back the process of reform for several years. Later that year, China’s leaders watched as Hungary’s embattled communist government opened the country’s border with West Germany. Huge numbers of East Germans crossed into Hungary and then to the West, rendering the Berlin Wall obsolete in a matter of hours. Peaceful uprisings swept the Warsaw Pact governments into history. Two years later, the Soviet Union imploded. China’s conservatives feared for the future, but the country’s reformers looked to learn from the failures of European communism to deliver on promises of a better life for ordinary citizens. Deng’s reforms were delayed, but their early success and Deng’s persistence ensured they would not die.

Abbassian, Abdolreza, 103 Abdullah, king of Saudi Arabia, 114, 139 Academy of Social Sciences, 145 adapters, 126–27, 160 Afghanistan, 14, 15, 30, 32, 64, 111, 113, 187, 202n Africa, 40, 59, 71–72, 85, 130, 134–35, 152, 174 China’s trade and investment with, 80, 102, 118–19 foreign purchase of land in, 102 as pivot continent, 117–20 urbanization in, 99 water security in, 105 agflation, 98–104 Algeria, 48, 176 Alstom, 127 alternative energy, 147 America’s Coming War with China (Carpenter), 172 Amodei, Mark, 162 Angola, 120 Annan, Kofi, 104 Anonymous, cyberattacks by, 75 Arab League, 192 Arab world, 62, 77 Arctic, 96–97, 127 Arctic Council, 96–97 Argentina, 37, 101, 102 Armenia, 54 Asia, 85, 152, 174, exports of, 3 as potential hotspot, 69–72, 114–15, 177–78, 191, 193 security of, 71 water security in, 105 Asian Tigers, 51 Asia Water Project, 129 Assange, Julian, 75 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 70, 124, 193–94 Australia, 71, 101 Austria, 167 authoritarian governments, 135 Internet and, 90, 93, 94 Azerbaijan, 54 Bahrain, 69, 71, 112, 113, 114, 135 Bangladesh, water security in, 105 banking standards, 33 banks, 16, 38, 78, 79, 125, 127 beef, 103, 105 Beijing Olympics, 2008, 62, 119 Beijing Power and Desalination Plant, 129, 140 Belarus, 54, 137, 141 Belgium, separatist movements in, 181 Benghazi, Libya, 192 Bergsten, C. Fred, 157–58 Berlin Wall, 53, 54 Best Buy, 75 bin Laden, Osama, 14 biofuels, 99–101 biogenetics, 147 BlackBerry, 33 Boeing, 129 Bolivia, 177 Bombardier, 127 Border Gateway Protocols (BGPs), 89–90 Botswana, 120 Brazil, 3, 10, 21, 25, 26, 28, 55, 71, 76, 79, 84, 125–26, 128, 155, 161, 167–68, 177, 183, 187 biofuel production in, 100 borrowing by, 37 demand for grain in, 99 economic growth in, 99, 148, 166 energy exported by, 30, 116 government intervention in economy in, 78 Latin American leadership of, 175 as pivot state, 115–17 trade by, 116–17, 118 Bretton Woods Monetary Agreement, 39, 41, 42–43, 49–50, 151, 170, 174, 185 BRICS, 28, 30, 120 British Petroleum, 127 Brown, Gordon, 9 Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 158–59 Buffett, Warren, 17 Burundi, 106 Bush, George H.


pages: 330 words: 77,729

Big Three in Economics: Adam Smith, Karl Marx, and John Maynard Keynes by Mark Skousen

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Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, delayed gratification, experimental economics, financial independence, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, liberation theology, liquidity trap, means of production, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, open economy, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, price stability, pushing on a string, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school choice, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, unorthodox policies, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game

By the fifth edition of his Economics textbook, Samuelson began including a graph indicating that the gap between the United States and the USSR was narrowing and possibly even disappearing (1961, 830). In the twelfth edition, the graph was replaced with a table declaring that, between 1928 and 1983, the Soviet Union had grown at a remarkable 4.9 percent annual growth rate, higher than that of the United States, the United Kingdom, or even Germany and Japan (Samuelson and Nordhaus 1985, 776). Ironically, right before the Berlin Wall was torn down, Samuelson and Nordhaus confidently declared, "The Soviet economy is proof that, contrary to what many skeptics had earlier believed [a reference to Mises and Hayek], a socialist command economy can function and even thrive" (1989, 837). Even conservative Yale economist Henry C. Wallich, a former member of the Federal Reserve Board, was so convinced by CIA statistics that he wrote a whole book arguing that freedom leads to lower economic growth, greater inequality, and less competition.

A prominent example is Robert Heilbroner, a socialist who toyed with Marxism in his early years. He would later write The Worldly Philosophers (1999 [1953]), a popular history of economics. Under the influence of Schumpeter and Adolph Lowe, among others, Heilbroner joined the rest of the profession and concluded that Mises was wrong and socialism could work. He maintained that position for decades. In the late 1980s, shortly before the collapse of the Berlin Wall, Heilbroner began to reconsider his views. In a stunning article in the New Yorker entitled "The Triumph of Capitalism," Heilbroner wrote that the longstanding debate between capitalism and socialism was over and capitalism had won. He went on to say, "The Soviet Union, China, and Eastern Europe have given us the clearest possible proof that capitalism organizes the material affairs of humankind more satis-factorily than socialism: that however inequitably or irresponsibly the marketplace may distribute goods, it does so better than the queues of the planned economy; however mindless the culture of commercialism, it is more attractive than state moralism; and however deceptive the ideology of a business civilization, it is more believable than that of a socialist one" (Heilbroner 1989, 98).


pages: 231 words: 72,656

A History of the World in 6 Glasses by Tom Standage

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Berlin Wall, British Empire, Colonization of Mars, Copley Medal, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, Lao Tzu, multiplanetary species, out of africa, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

It looked as though Coca-Cola had a foot in the door in 1980, with an agreement that it would be the official soft drink of the Olympics, to be held that year in Moscow. But President Jimmy Carter then announced an American boycott of the games in response to the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan, so Coca-Cola was rebuffed once again. Ultimately, however, Coca-Cola's failure to establish itself in the Soviet-bloc countries proved to be an advantage. The Berlin Wall fell in 1989, presaging the collapse of communist regimes across eastern Europe and the dissolurion of the Soviet Union in 1991. As East Germans streamed through the cracks in the Berlin Wall, they were greeted with Coca-Cola. "We found ourselves welcoming the new arrivals with bananas, Coca-Cola, flowers, and anything else that smacked of Western consumerism," recalled one eyewitness. East Germans queued up to buy the drink by crate directly from the Coca-Cola bottling plant in West Berlin.


pages: 236 words: 67,953

Brave New World of Work by Ulrich Beck

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, full employment, future of work, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, McJob, means of production, mini-job, postnationalism / post nation state, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

As to Italians and Austrians, 80 per cent said they thought the state should balance out the injustice of poverty caused by the free market.83 In the perception and evaluation of freedom and equality, there is still today (for all the Americanization) a ‘clash of cultures’ between the United States and Europe. The central task of the state in Europe – the closing of inequalities due to the unfettered market – represents a principle exactly opposed to Isaiah Berlin's classical definition of the American concept of liberty: ‘freedom from state interference’ and ‘freedom to do our own thing’. The universal mission of the free market as America's belief in itself With the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and of the Soviet empire shortly afterwards, the free-market utopia became the global mission of the United States, which no longer encounters any evenly matched opponent. ‘Today's project of a single global market is America's universal mission co-opted by its neo-conservative ascendancy. Market utopianism has succeeded in appropriating the American faith that it is a unique country, the model for a universal civilization which all societies are fated to emulate.’84 This conviction that the world can revive itself through the free market has become the unofficial creed of America's civil religion.

., p. 164. 91 Gray, p. 129. 92 Fresh confirmation of this has been provided by the Red-Green victory in the German elections of autumn 1998. 8 Vision of the Future I The Europe of Civil Labour The great opportunity that arose with the collapse of the bipolar world order in 1989 lies in the fact that no one can lock themselves away any more from other cultures, religions and ideas; that all now share a space in which the old territorial identities and cultures, as well as the old frontiers and identities controlled by national states, suddenly encounter one another without protection. This helps us understand the globalization shock that has continued to affect the countries of Central Europe, and especially Germany since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The other side of our living in a more open world is the fact that there is no longer a single model of capitalism or a single model of modernity. There are many capitalisms, many modernities, which do, however, need to be brought into relationship with one another. Multiple modernities and the mirror of one's own future The self-transformation of the Western model, and of its claim to a monopoly on modernity, has made people in the West more open to the history and present situation of divergent modernities in all regions of the world.

Blindside: How to Anticipate Forcing Events and Wild Cards in Global Politics by Francis Fukuyama

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Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive bias, cuban missile crisis, energy security, flex fuel, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John von Neumann, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Norbert Wiener, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Yom Kippur War

Admiral Kimmel’s code-breakers had deciphered the Japanese “winds” code, but he, the principal consumer of that intelligence, nonetheless failed to anticipate that the actual blow would land on the Pacific Fleet headquarters. The day that would live in ignominy well described the resting place of Admiral Kimmel’s reputation for all time. By contrast, no one in the U.S. intelligence community was cashiered for failing to predict that the Berlin Wall would come down in November 1989, though fail to predict it they did. This asymmetry in incentives leads the vast majority of those who work on national security issues to resort routinely to worst-case analysis as a means of covering themselves in case bad things happen on or just beyond their watch. Investment bankers and corporations, in contrast, have much more balanced incentives to think about the future.

See also Asteroid strikes Atom bomb, development of, 58, 61, 122 Australia: lack of surprises in, 143; U.S. alliance with, 144–45 Automobiles: alternative fuels for, 78–81; innovations in, 24–28; oil used by, 26–27, 76–78; in traffic accidents, 135, 147–48 Avian flu. See Bird flu Balance of payments, 44, 45, 49–50 Bangladesh, climate change in, 105 Banking, in East Asian economic crisis, 44–45, 46, 52 Bank of Thailand, 45 Barbarian societies, 131 Baron, Jon, 110–11 Bataille, Georges, 161 Believability: of asteroid strike scenario, 3, 98; of strategic surprises, 93–94, 98, 103–05 Bellah, Robert, 103 Berlin Wall, fall of, 2 Bernanke, Ben, 148 Berners-Lee, Tim, 123 index Bias(es): denial as form of, 103; against optimism, in intelligence community, 2–3; toward optimism, in policymaking, 111 Binary mathematics, in digital computers, 123–24 Bin Laden, Osama, 72 Bioengineering, 163 Biofuels, 78–80 Biological weapons: affordability of, 8; infectious disease as, 83; optimism vs. pessimism about prospect of, 136; political barriers to preparing for, 10; probability of attack with, 10; technological innovation in, 163 Biotechnology, 163 Bird flu: H5N1 strain of, 82, 83, 84, 85; H7N7 strain of, 86; optimism vs. pessimism about prospect of, 136 Blair, Tony, 105 Bletchley Park (Britain), 122 “Blue” states, 141 BNP.


pages: 262 words: 66,800

Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future by Johan Norberg

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agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, availability heuristic, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, clean water, continuation of politics by other means, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Island, Hans Rosling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, moveable type in China, Naomi Klein, open economy, place-making, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, very high income, working poor, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

The imprisoned population protested in ever larger numbers. Every Monday in Leipzig, thousands demonstrated against the dictatorship. The communist leader Erich Honecker ordered the military to shoot protesters, but they refused to open fire on their fellow citizens, and soon the protests attracted hundreds of thousands. Honecker was deposed and in November the regime said it would allow East Germans to travel directly to West Germany through the Berlin Wall. Hundreds of thousands of people gathered by the wall immediately and overwhelmed border guards stood down. They could only watch in surprise as East Germans began to tear down the wall that symbolized their oppression on 9 November 1989. A year later the two Germanys were re-united. Facing protests, the Czechoslovakian government also gave up in November. After this ‘Velvet Revolution’, the old dissident Václav Havel became president.

Index abolitionism 146–7 abortion 176–7 acid rain 111 adultery 171–2, 176 Afghanistan 83, 101, 102, 136, 156 Africa 25, 52, 154 and child labour 193, 195 and education 133–4 and HIV/AIDS 59, 60 and homosexuality 187 and malnutrition 21, 23–4 and poverty 79–80, 81 and slavery 140, 142, 143–4, 145 and water 38–40 and women 179 African Americans 162, 163, 167–9 agriculture 13, 14–16, 17–19, 20, 21, 89 and children 190–1 and China 27–9 and land use 22–3, 112 and water 38 Albert, Prince Consort 32 alcohol 31 algae 15 Algerian War of Independence 94 Amazon rainforest 112 American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) 182–3, 185 American Revolution 149 ammonia 14, 15 An Lushan Revolt 95 Ancient Greece 31–2, 44, 84, 140–1, 183 Angell, Norman 103 Angola 21, 83 anti-Semitism 162 antibiotics 2, 50 apartheid 153 Arab Spring 155, 156 Argentina 133 artificial fertilizers 14–15, 18, 22–3, 108 Asal, Victor 170 Asia 67–70, 133, 187, 195 Auld, Hugh 137, 138 Australia 114 Ausubel, Jesse 112 authoritarianism 156 Bacon, Francis 217 bad news 207–12 Bailey, Ronald 205 Bales, Kevin 148–9 Bangladesh 37, 81, 117 Barbary States 143–4 Basu, Kaushik 135 bathing 34, 47 Beccaria, Cesare 93 Bentham, Jeremy 172, 184 Berg, Lasse 68–9, 129, 130, 202–3, 214–15 Berlin Wall 152 Bible, the 84–5, 86, 140, 183 bigotry 188 bio-fuels 125 birth weight 11 Black Death 42 Blackstone, William 184 bloodletting 44, 47 Boko Haram 148 Bolling, Anders 211 Borlaug, Norman 17–19, 23–4 Bosch, Carl 14 Boschwitz, Rudy 23 Bosnia 102 Botswana 27 Brandt, Willy 151 Braudel, Fernand 9, 10, 63 Brazil 153 Britain, see Great Britain Buggery Act (1533) 184 Bure, Anders 132 bureaucracy 216 Burger, Oskar 45 Bush, George W. 187 Caesar, Julius 141 calories 12, 16, 19–20 Cambodia 38 Cameroon 21 Canada 105 cancer 58, 115 cannibalism 8, 10 capital punishment 93–4, 185, 197–8 capitalism 66–7 carbon dioxide 119, 120, 123–4, 127 cardiovascular disease 58 Carter, Jimmy 24 caste system 72–3 Ceauşescu, Nicolae 153 censorship 157 Chad 83 Charlemagne 216 Charta 77: 151 chemical warfare 15 childbirth 4, 48, 49, 53–4, 197 children 11, 12 and education 133–4 and labour 189–96 and malnutrition 22 and mortality 32, 39–40, 45–6, 51, 53, 56 Chile 132, 153 China 27–9, 112, 200, 216–17 and child labour 193 and governance 153, 158 and homosexuality 187 and pollution 117, 119 and poverty 67–8, 69–71, 81 and slavery 148 and war 95, 104 and women 171, 177 chlorine 36–7 cholera 32, 35–6, 45, 55, 197 Churchill, Winston 163 civil rights movement 167–9 civilians 100–1 Clean Air Act (1956) 114 climate change 108, 119–21 Club of Rome 110, 115, 116 codes of honour 91–2 Cold War 99, 182 colonialism 103, 163 combine harvesters 16 communism 25, 26, 28, 102, 151–3, 182 Condorcet, Marquis de 172 Congress of Vienna (1815) 145 contraception 176, 177 crime 93, 207–8, 211 Cronin, Audrey 103 crop failure 7–8, 18 Cuba 132 Czechoslovakia 151, 152 dalits 72–3, 129 Darwin, Charles 45 De Gaulle, Gen Charles 161 ‘dead zones’ 15 death penalty 93–4, 185 Deaton, Angus 12, 52, 61 Declaration of Independence 144–5 Defoe, Daniel 192 deforestation 111–12 dehydration 54–5 democracy 26–7, 104–5, 150–7 Democratic Republic of Congo 26, 81 Dempsey, Gen Martin 2 Denmark 105 diarrhoea 32, 37–8, 54–5 Dickens, Charles 173 dictatorships 150–1, 153, 154, 155, 158 Diderot, Denis 143 discrimination 167–70, 173 Disraeli, Benjamin 36 Divine Comedy (Dante) 183–4 divorce 176 domestic violence 179 Douglass, Frederick 137–8, 139–40, 174 Dublin, Louis 60 dysentery 40 East Germany 152 Ebola 53, 209–10 Economic Freedom of the World 157–8 economics 67–9, 79, 165–6 education 17, 38–9, 135–7, 173, 197; see also literacy Egypt 133, 155, 156 Eisenhower, Dwight D. 168, 182 Eisner, Manuel 90 Ekman, Freddie 208 Elizabeth I, Queen 33, 34 energy 123–8 Engels, Friedrich 165–6 Enlightenment, the 4, 13, 66, 93, 184 and slavery 142–3 and women 172 environment, the 23–4, 108–12, 113–17 and climate 119–20 and energy 123–8 and poverty 117–19, 120–3 equality 143, 178–9, 188; see also inequality Equatorial Guinea 37 Ethiopia 24 ethnic minorities 161–71 Europe 216, 217–18 extinctions 112–13 extreme poverty 75–8, 79, 80–1 Factory Acts 193 famine 7–10, 13, 14, 17, 25–7, 46, 197 farming, see agriculture fascism 102 female genital mutilation 179 feminism 173 fertility rates 16–17, 24–5, 56 First World War 14, 15, 99, 104 fish stocks 112 Fitzhugh, George 147 Fleming, Alexander 50 flying toilets 39–40 Flynn Effect 164–5 food 2, 10–14, 13, 16, 17, 19; see also famine Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) 20–1 forests 111–12 fossil fuels 108 France 9–10, 11–2, 42–3, 63–4, 161–2, 184 Francis, Pope 2 Frederick II, Emperor 32 Free the Slaves 148 freedom 138, 157–9 Friedan, Betty 183 Friedman, Benjamin 166 Friedman, Milton 158–9 Gandhi, Mahatma 168 Garrison, William Lloyd 146 Gates Foundation 52, 125 Gay Pride 185–6 gay rights 181–8 GDP (gross domestic product) 22, 56–7, 64, 67, 74–5 gender gap 178–9 genetically modified crops 23 genocide 101–2 George V, King 104 germ theory 48–9 Germany 114, 152, 183 Gini coefficient 82 globalization 4, 5, 45, 57, 74–5, 82, 218 Glorious Revolution 149 Golden Bull 149 Gorbachev, Mikhail 151 governance 90–1, 92; see also democracy graphene 126 Gray, John 2 Great Ascent 67 Great Britain 12, 114, 145, 192–4 and homosexuality 184, 185, 186 Great Powers 98–9 Great Smog 107–8, 114 ‘Great Stink, The’ 36 Green Revolution 17–20, 22, 23, 24 greenhouse gases 119 Guan Youjiang 29 Guangdong 70–1 H1N1 virus 59 Haber, Fritz 14, 15 Hagerup, Ulrik 208 Haiti 38, 57, 81, 114 Hans Island 105 happiness 199 Harrington, Sir John 33 Harrison, Dick 140 hate crimes 170 Havel, Václav 151, 152 height 16, 21–2 Helvétius, Claude Adrien 172 Hesiod 213–14 Hilleman, Maurice 54 Hitler, Adolf 94, 95 HIV/AIDS 52–3, 59, 60 Hobbes, Thomas 213 Holocaust, the 102, 170 homicide 85, 89, 90 homosexuality 181–8 Honecker, Erich 152 Hong Kong 67, 70 hookworm 40 human rights 142 human sacrifice 88–9 humanitarianism 93 Hungary 149, 151–2 hunter-gatherers 88 Hutcheson, Francis 143 hygiene 48, 49 India 10, 18–19, 27, 37, 38, 67–9 and child labour 193, 195 and governance 151, 154 and literacy 129–30, 133, 135 and pollution 117, 119 and poverty 71–3, 81 and slavery 145 and war 104 individualism 92 Industrial Revolution 2, 4, 66, 82 inequality 81–2, 178–9 influenza 58–9 Inglehart, Ronald 166–7 inoculation 47–8 intelligence 164–5 International Labour Organization (ILO) 195–6 International Union for the Conservation of Nature 112–13 Iraq 83, 102 irrigation 18, 22, 38 IS 148 Islamists 216 Italy 184, 193 Jang Jin-sung 25–6 Japan 21, 68, 180–1 Japanese Americans 163 Jefferson, Thomas 144, 145, 147 Jenner, Edward 48 Jews 162 Jim Crow laws 162 John, King 149 Johnson, Lyndon B. 169 Kant, Immanuel 201 Karlsson, Stig 68–9, 129, 202–3, 214–15 Kenny, Charles 134 Kenya 39–40 Kibera 39–40 King, Martin Luther, Jr. 168, 181 Klein, Naomi 2 knights 88 knowledge 200–2, 216–18 Korean War 94, 98 Ku Klux Klan 163, 169 land use 22 Las Casas, Bartolomé de 142–3 Latin America 150, 177, 187 law, the 90–1, 92 Lecky, William E.


pages: 249 words: 79,740

The Next Decade: Where We've Been . . . And Where We're Going by George Friedman

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airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

Certainly the Americans and the British had supported these NGOs, and the consultants who were now managing the campaigns of some of the pro-Western candidates in Ukraine had formerly managed elections in the United States. Western money from multiple sources clearly was going into the country, but from the American point of view, there was nothing covert or menacing in any of this. The United States was simply doing what it had done since the fall of the Berlin Wall: working with democratic groups to build democracies. This is where the United States and Russia profoundly parted company. Ukraine was divided between pro-Russian and anti-Russian factions, but the Americans merely saw themselves as supporting democrats. That the factions seen as democratic by the Americans were also the ones that were anti-Russian was, for the Americans, incidental. For the Russians, it was not incidental.

Its antecedents reach back to the early 1950s and the European Steel and Coal Community, a narrowly focused entity whose leaders spoke of it even then as the foundation for a European federation. It is coincidental but extremely important that while the EU idea originated during the Cold War, it emerged as a response to the Cold War’s end. In the west, the overwhelming presence of NATO and its controls over defense and foreign policy loosened dramatically. In the east, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the Soviet Union found sovereign nations coming out of the shadows. It was at this point that Europe regained the sovereignty it had lost but that it is now struggling to define. The EU was envisioned to serve two purposes. The first was the integration of western Europe into a limited federation, solving the problem of Germany by binding it together with France, thereby limiting the threat of war.


pages: 274 words: 73,344

Found in Translation: How Language Shapes Our Lives and Transforms the World by Nataly Kelly, Jost Zetzsche

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airport security, Berlin Wall, Celtic Tiger, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, glass ceiling, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Skype, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, the market place

He also accidentally interpreted “your desires for the future” as “your lusts for the future,” a sexually laden and particularly uncharacteristic expression for a president who was known for his deeply held religious convictions. The Polish press had a field day with the comments, and once the U.S. media got wind of it, so did they. (President Carter took the incident in stride, and Seymour went on to have a distinguished career as a translator—in Russian, not Polish.) The Kennedy Mistranslation Myth In 1963, U.S. President John F. Kennedy gave a speech after the Berlin Wall was erected to express solidarity with the citizens of Berlin. His few words of German—“Ich bin ein Berliner,” which means “I am a Berliner”—made an immediate impact on his audience. But rumors soon began to spread that Kennedy had botched the grammar and mistakenly called himself a jelly donut also known as a Berliner. In fact, his sentence was grammatically correct, and his German-speaking listeners knew that he was not referring to the pastry.

., 93 Auschwitz concentration camp, 34 Australia, 41, 163 auto manufacturers, 70 automated translation, 77, 203–4, 218–19, 226, 227–28, 229, 231 automatic teller machines (ATMs), 75–76 Aymara, 75 back-translation, 136 Baio, Andrew, 71 Baird, Jessie Little Doe, 28, 29 Bangkok International Hospital, 138 Barabé, Donald, 30 baseball, 186–88 Bashir, Omar al-, 43 basketball, 184–86 Basque, 75 Bayulgens, Okan, 200, 201 BBC, 42, 104 beauty pageants (international), 147–50 Behbd, Muhammad Bqir, 118 Beijing, China, 195, 196, 197 bejuco daydreams, 103–6 Belgian, 151 Bellagio Hotel, Las Vegas, 85–87 Bellugi, Ursula, 168 Bengali, 205 Bengal Tiger at the Baghdad Zoo (Rajiv), 37–38 Benkala, North Bali, 171 Berlin Wall, 57 Berlusconi, Silvio, 59 Berne Convention, 97 beverage and food industry, 150–53 Bhutan, 50, 51 Bibles, 28, 112–13, 120, 220 Bing, 206 bin Laden, Osama, 199 bird flu, 9–10, 11 Bislama, 208 Björk, 78 Bohemian, 135 Book of Laughter and Forgetting (Kundera), 98 Bosnian, 131 Boutros-Ghali, Boutros, 54 Bo Xilai, 60–61 boxing, 193–95 Bradley, Nathan, 38 “brainiac charisma,” 207 branding and minimizing text, 63–65 Brandt, Willy, 58 Braniff International Airways, 78 Brazil, 85, 151, 163, 177, 188–89, 190 Britain, 19, 151, 161, 220–21 British Medical Journal, 104 broadcasting global politics, 60–61 Buber, Martin, 114 Buddhist text translation, 109, 115–16 Bulgarian, 48, 58, 96, 153, 161, 171 Burton, Sir Richard Francis (Captain), 130 Bush, George H.

Rethinking Money: How New Currencies Turn Scarcity Into Prosperity by Bernard Lietaer, Jacqui Dunne

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3D printing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, business climate, business process, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, conceptual framework, credit crunch, discounted cash flows, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, liberation theology, Marshall McLuhan, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, Occupy movement, price stability, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban decay, War on Poverty, working poor

Those who succeed are free to take their share of the profits after taxes, and those who suffer losses have to bear consequences such as humiliation, bankruptcy, and possible litigation. This has brought about unmatched attainment of wealth, facilitated through competitive markets and driven by a competitive financial system, which, in turn, has spurred on even greater striving for more innovation, ingenuity, and originality. This is the underpinning of the great American dream, which has been triumphantly exported to the rest of the world after the fall of the Berlin Wall and rise of the Iron Curtain. Today, for instance, China, India, Brazil, and Poland, with their meteoric growth and the rise of their own meritocracies, are prime examples. That dream, however, has turned into a nightmare. We now have scientific proof that the monoculture of a single type of currency is a root cause of the repeated monetary and financial instabilities that have manifested throughout modern history.

Minorities were used as scapegoats by ethnic leaders to redirect anger away from themselves and toward a common enemy, providing the sociopolitical context for extreme nationalist leaders to gain power in the process. Within days of the 1998 monetary crisis in Indonesia, mobs were incited to violence against Chinese and other minorities. Similarly, in Russia, discrimination against minorities was aggravated by the financial collapse of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of Soviet communism, it could be argued that the identified archenemy of the United States has now been supplanted with a new foe, immigrants and the poor. Today in the United States, there are some 1,018 identified hate groups compared to only 602 in 2000.18 Another important lesson, and an expensive one in terms of human misery with regard to cooperative currencies, is revealed by the more recent economic crisis in Argentina.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

Consider four other recent world-changing events: the assassination of John F. Kennedy, Watergate, the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the tragic events of September 11. In each of these previous events, professional journalists working in the mainstream media played a crucial and even iconic role in delivering and distributing the news to a mass audience. In the case of President Kennedy’s assassination, Walter Cronkite’s broadcasts on CBS News came to stand as a shared cultural experience for millions of Americans. Who was not moved watching the great journalist choke up while announcing the president’s death? The names of two respected newspaper journalists—Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein—likewise became indelibly linked to the Watergate scandal. Network television footage of crowds at the Berlin Wall in the darkness of November 9, 1989, provided unforgettable, collective images of the end of the Cold War, echoing President Reagan’s powerful rhetoric a few years earlier: “Mr.

Unhappy Union by The Economist, La Guardia, Anton, Peet, John

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bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fixed income, Flash crash, illegal immigration, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Northern Rock, oil shock, open economy, pension reform, price stability, quantitative easing, special drawing rights, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, transaction costs, éminence grise

Chapter 2 shows how the idea of European integration was born from the political necessities of the early 1950s, with Europe emerging from the ruins of the second world war and then having to confront the challenge of the cold war. The euro was launched as a result of the failure of repeated attempts to fix exchange rates between European economies, and the desire to anchor a unified Germany more firmly within Europe after the collapse of the Berlin Wall. The system that was created through successive treaties was a complex hybrid with elements of federalism and intergovernmentalism, a pantomime horse that was part United States and part United Nations. Chapter 3 explains the functioning of the EU, and the flawed structure of the euro, to help make clear how Europeans managed, and mismanaged, the crisis. Chapter 4 shows how the launch of the euro was at first met with scepticism by outsiders, then treated with hubris by insiders.

The treaty was formally signed only in February 1992. Maastricht laid the foundations for a new ECB and a single European currency, to be brought in either in 1997 or (at the latest) 1999. It also promised to make progress towards the parallel objective of political union; and it symbolically renamed the European Community the European Union. The new treaty reflected above all the changed political situation in Europe after the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 and the subsequent collapse of the Soviet empire. Mitterrand, in particular, was minded to accept German unification after the fall of the wall only if France could secure some control of the Deutschmark, which he feared would otherwise become Europe’s de facto currency. In effect, he had no wish to replace the dominance of the dollar with the dominance of the Deutschmark. Hence the underlying Franco-German deal at Maastricht.


pages: 237 words: 77,224

The Fracture Zone: My Return to the Balkans by Simon Winchester

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, borderless world, invention of movable type, Khyber Pass, mass immigration

“Look at what we did in Jerusalem in 1979,” he said: 230 people—the Israeli population is 5.3 million—performed yogic flying on the eve of the Camp David talks, and a peace agreement was signed. Then again, and most ambitiously, seven thousand people met and performed the rituals in a gymnasium outside Washington, D.C., and, their power being harnessed to improve the lot of the then 4.9 million people of the planet, the Cold War ended, the Berlin Wall fell, and the atomic stalemate, which had dogged the global population for half a century, was ended. His conversation then veered into areas I could not possible understand—the nature of the five sub-atomic particles, the coincidence of the five levels of Vedic-inspired consciousness, the overlapping circles of energy, the works of Niels Bohr and Erwin Schrödinger and Albert Einstein, the role of the mantra in stimulating internal vibration.

.), and effectively ruled as a separate semiautonomous province, distinct from the Bosnian-Croat Federation that rules the remainder of the country. Stari Most The exquisite Turkish-built bridge (1566) over the Neretva river in Mostar (which derives its name from the Turkish word for bridge), destroyed by Croatian artillery in November 1993—ironically on the anniversary of the tearing down of the Berlin Wall. Its four centuries of existence stood as a symbol of the ethnic cohesion of Bosnia; its destruction showed that same cohesion’s vulnerability and fragility. Stari Planina The Bulgarian name for the Balkan Mountains, which have given their name—the word Balkan means simply “mountains”—to the entire region. Stepinac, Alojzije 1898–1960. The Roman Catholic archbishop of Zagreb reputed in some quarters to have given tacit ecclesiastical support to Ante Pavelic (q.v.) and his notorious Ustashi fighters during World War II; imprisoned for alleged war crimes.


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The Myth of Meritocracy: Why Working-Class Kids Still Get Working-Class Jobs (Provocations Series) by James Bloodworth

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Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, cognitive dissonance, Downton Abbey, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, income inequality, light touch regulation, precariat, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, zero-sum game

For New Labour’s architects, a rebranding of the party was seen as critical if Labour was to climb back into government after nearly two decades in the electoral wilderness. As the late political consultant Philip Gould wrote in his influential New Labour text The Unfinished Revolution, a central aim of Labour’s modernisers was to make the party less hostile to the sorts of people who ‘want to do better for themselves and their families’.21 Broader historical trends also played a part in Labour’s ideological transmutation. When the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, a blow was struck not only against the totalitarian delusions of communists, but also against the faint hopes of some on the left that economic planning could be made to work if only the right people were put in charge. Remove the ugly trappings of communist dictatorship but maintain the dominant role of the state in economic life and, so some maintained, socialism would flourish as surely as night follows day.


pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

On 9 November 1989 a bemused East Berlin press corps were informed that ‘the decision [had been] taken to make it possible for all citizens to leave the country through the official border crossing points … to take effect at once’, news that prompted a flood of East Berliners to the border checkpoints. Unprepared, guards opted not to resist. By midnight all the checkpoints had been forced to open and one of the greatest parties of the century was under way, closely followed by one of its biggest shopping sprees. With the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Cold War was essentially over, though it was not until the failed Moscow coup of August 1991 and the subsequent dissolution of the Soviet Union that the Baltic states, Ukraine and Belarus, along with the three big Caucasian republics and the five ‘stans’ of Central Asia, became independent states. Few had seen it coming.* For some it was ‘the end of history’, the definitive victory of the liberal capitalist model.108 For others it was the ‘triumph of the West’, the political achievement of three charismatic leaders: Ronald Reagan, Pope John Paul II and Margaret Thatcher.109 A third view gave the credit to nationalism.

Brian 300–301 Archimedes 63 Argentina 124 Aristotle 51 De anima 62 Arkwright, Richard 70, 200, 204 Armstrong, Louis 18 art/painting 60, 232 see also individual artists Asia, East 307–8 civilization(s) 3–5, 7, 11, 20 economic growth/output 239–40 science/technology 4, 11 see also individual countries astrology 68–9, 70 astronomy 64, 65, 66 Islamic 68–9 Atahualpa (Inca leader) 100, 101 Atatürk, Kemal (Kemal Mustafa) 90–93, 228 atomic weapons 235 Augustine, St: City of God 60 Austerlitz, battle of (1805) 156, 156n Austria 83, 215 see also Habsburg empire Austrian colonies 144 Aztec empire 99 Bach, Johann Sebastian 18, 80 Bacon, Roger 60 on Islamic science/technology 52 Bakunin, Mikhail 162, 162n ballistics 83–5, 156 banking system 230–31 Beethoven, Ludwig van 18, 159 Behring, Emil von 175 Belgian colonies 144, 176, 191 Belgium 16, 213 Bentham, Jeremy 199n von Berenhorst, Georg Heinrich 81–2 Bergson, Henri 196n Berlin Wall 249, 251 Bernanke, Ben 308 Bernoulli, Daniel 66 Berry, Chuck 18 Best, Werner 194 Das Beste (German magazine) 252n the Bible 62, 263, 278–9 Book of Revelations 293–4 Bingham, Hiram 101 Birmingham Lunar Society 201 von Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold 214 Black, Joseph 66 Black Death/plague 4, 23, 25, 54, 169, 175 Blake, William 206 Boehn, General Hans von 185 Bolingbroke, Viscount Henry St John 296–7 Bolívar, Simón 13, 119–24, 128 on American Constitution 123–4 British support for 121–2, 125 Cartagena Manifesto (1812) 123, 124 Decree of War to the Death 120 as a dictator 124 on political systems 123, 124 Bolivia 122 Bonaparte, Jérôme 159 Bonaparte, Napoleon see Napoleon Bonaparte Bonneval, comte Claude Alexandre de 87 Boss, Hugo 233 Boswell, James 201 Böttcher, Viktor 189–90 Boulton, Matthew 201, 202, 206n Boves, José Tomás 120 Boxer Rebellion, China (1900) 282–3 Boyacá, battle of (1819) 122 Boyce, Sir Rupert William 169 Boyle, Robert 66 Boyle’s Law 66, 83 Bozeman, Adda 3 Brabenec, Vratislav 248 Brahe, Tycho 65 Brahms, Johannes xxiii Braudel, Fernand, on civilization(s) xxv–xxvi, 3 Brazil 17, 127, 130, 139 slavery in 130–32, 133 Brazzaville Conference (1944) 195 Britain 12, 14, 161, 201, 202 Simón Bolívar, support for 121–2, 125 Christianity, decline of 267–70 financial system 161, 219 France and 140, 160, 161, 173 Industrial Revolution 10, 13, 21, 28–9, 70, 199–200, 203–5 legal system 202–3 living standards 210–11 London see London political system 202–3 in Second World War 234 see also England; Scotland British army 233–4 British East India Company 38, 83, 161, 201, 278 British empire 142, 164, 263–4 in Africa 148, 168, 173, 176 in America see America, North, British colonies decline of 163, 303 extent of 142 in India 144, 169–70, 264 Jamaica 148 property rights 125 Bruckner, Anton xxiii Bruegel, Pieter (the Elder): The Triumph of Death (painting) 25–6 Brunelleschi, Filippo 60 Burke, Edmund on American Revolution 149 on French Revolution 149, 150–52, 152n, 155, 156 Burnett, Leo 241 Burns, Robert xxiii–xxiv Busbecq, Ogier Ghiselin de 9, 53 Bush, George W. xvi, xvii Butterfield, Herbert xxi Byron, Lord George 74, 121 Byzantine empire 3, 4, 17, 52 Cajamarca, battle of (1532) 100, 101 Callot, Jacques: Miseries of War (engravings) 12 Canada 116, 119, 125 see also America, North, British colonies Cápac, Manco 100 capitalism 7, 11, 14, 15–16, 205, 207–8, 210–11, 219, 246, 262–3, 288 development of 263; in China 17, 252–3, 277, 304, 306–8 in Great Depression 229–31 Carabobo, battle of (1821) 122, 123 Caribbean area 10, 97, 119, 120, 123, 148 slavery in 131 Carlyle, Thomas, on the cash nexus 206 Cartwright, Edmund 200 Castellani, Aldo 170 Catholicism 17, 61, 259, 260, 263, 266, 269, 278 in Spanish American colonies 113–14, 120, 120n, 131 Cavour, conte Camillo Benso de 214 Caxton, William 61 Celsus: De re medica 62–3 Chancellor, Richard 36 Chanoine, Julien 166 Charles I, King of England 194, 106, 107, 152 Charmes, Gabriel 165 Chávez, Hugo 128 Chesterton, G.

H. 103–4 empires see imperialism; individual empires Encümen-i Daniş (Assembly of Knowledge), Ottoman empire 89 Engels, Friedrich 207, 209, 210–11, 228 England 4, 18, 37 China and 47–9 exploration, voyages of 36 France and 23, 24, 39 Industrial Revolution 10, 13, 21, 28–9, 70 Ireland and 24, 105, 203n London see London slavery (chattel slavery) in 130, 132 see also Britain; British empire English Civil Wars 104, 105, 106, 107, 115, 150, 152 the Enlightenment 76–9, 81 environmental issues 17, 293–4, 299 Epp, Franz Xavier Ritter von 188–9 Erasmus, Desiderius xxiii Erdely, Eugene 190 Eugene of Savoy, Prince 56 eugenics 176–7 in Germany 176–81, 189–90, 191; in German Namibia 176–81; genocide in 179–80, 188 Euler, Leonard 84 Euphrates river/valley 17 Europe competition between states 36–42 geography 36–7 Islamic envoys to 86–7 US and 16 see also individual countries European integration 14–15, 239 Everett, Edward 137 exploration, voyages of 9, 23, 38 Chinese 28–33, 48 English 36 marine chronometers for 70 as missionary endeavours 39 Portuguese 33–5, 39, 53, 130 Spanish 35–6 Faidherbe, Louis, governor of Senegal 164, 165, 166 fashion/clothing 197–8, 219–20, 225, 237, 246, 255 communist attitude to 249–50 in Japan 220–21, 222, 223, 225 jeans 240–44, 246–9, 250 machine made 217–18, 237 for men 216, 220–21, 230 military uniforms 215–16, 229, 233, 234, 237 for women 216, 220, 246; Islamic 253–5, 253n see also consumerism Fashoda incident, Sudan (1898) 173 Feng Youlan: History of Chinese Philosophy 27 Feraios, Rigas 213 Fermat, Pierre de 66 Ferrier, Thomas 121, 122 Ferry, Jules, Prime Minister of France 172 Fertile Crescent concept 17 film industry 230, 231 Filmer, Sir Robert: Patriarcha 108 financial systems 7, 14, 139 in Asia 7, 252–3, 277–8 banking 230–31 capitalism see capitalism cash nexus concept 206–7 consumer credit 238 in Europe 106–7, 161 markets/market economy 205–6, 276–7 money supply 38 monopolies 38 taxation 38, 44, 106, 107, 117, 210–11, 288 see also economic …; Great Depression First World War (1914–18) 16, 92, 148–9, 181, 182, 227 African colonial troops in 181–9; French 183–7; German 182 casualty figures 181, 183, 186, 187 Dardanelles 85 Gallipoli 91, 182 Rudyard Kipling on 187–8 Fischer, Eugen 180–81, 189 Human Heredity … 189 food see diet food supplies 22, 200–201 famine 44, 46 see also agriculture foreign aid, to Africa 145–6 France 4, 16, 36, 37, 83, 85 American Revolution and 117 Britain and 140, 160, 161, 173 economic crises 149–50, 161 England and 23, 24, 39 the Enlightenment 77–8 in First World War 182–3, 185–7 Huguenots 39, 41, 76 Italy and 159 literacy rates 77 living standards 24–5 the Marseillaise 156, 156n under Napoleon Bonaparte 119, 142, 156–61 Paris 5, 77, 215 property rights 152 Russia and 160 Spain and 119 student unrest 245 see also French … Frauenfeld, Alfred 193 Frederick the Great of Prussia 73–4 The Anti-Machiavel 75, 79–80 as an intellectual 79–80 Political Testaments 73, 80 as a scientific patron 71, 79–80, 84 French army, in First World War 182–3, 185–7 mutiny in 186–7 French empire 148, 159, 160, 195 in Africa 163–75, 176, 188, 190–91; segregation in 174–5 colonial armies 164; in First World War 183–7 Ecole Coloniale 165, 166–7, 172 extent of 144 institutional structure 172–3 legal system 165–6 male suffrage in 163 in North America (Louisiana Purchase) 163, 160–61 slavery, abolition of 163–4 unrest in 163, 175 French Revolution 119, 142, 149–57, 161–2 Edmund Burke on 149, 150–52, 152n, 155, 156 causes of 149–50, 153 Declaration of the Rights of Man 150, 151 executions during 152–3 political system during 152–3 as a religious conflict 151, 152, 153, 154 Rousseau and 151–2 the Terror 153, 155–6 Alexis de Tocqueville on 153–4 see also France … French West Africa 170–71, 174, 191 Freud, Sigmund 16 on civilization 272–3 on religion 270–71, 272 Frisch, Otto 235 Galileo Galilei 65, 66, 83, 84 Galton, Francis 176–7 Kantsaywhere 177n Gandhi, Mahatma 217 on Western civilization 141, 144, 171, 195 on Western medicine 146, 149 Garibaldi, Giuseppe 229 Le Gazetier Cuirassé 79 genocide 179–80, 188, 193, 194, 234 see also eugenics German army, in First World War 182–3, 185–7 colonial troops 182 German empire 144 in Africa 176–81, 188–90, 191; legal system 177, racial issues 176, 177–81; rebellion in 178–9 Nazi, in Eastern Europe 189–90, 191–5 German nationalism 213, 214 Germany 11, 16, 38, 159 division of, post-1945 243; Berlin Wall 249, 251 economic growth/output 231, 232–3 eugenics in 176–81 living standards 232–3 Nazi regime 189–90, 191–5, 231–4; see also Hitler, Adolf as a printing centre 61 Reformation 38 Russia and 192, 194, 231–2 as a scientific centre 175–6 Gibbon, Edward 78 The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 257–9, 291–2 Gide, André 174 Gilbert, William 65 Ginsburg, Allen 247 globalization 239 gold, from South America 99, 101–2, 130 golf 28 Goltz, Colmar Freiherr von de (Goltz Pasha) 91 Gorbachev, Mikhail 250 Göring, Heinrich (father of Hermann Göring) 176, 189 Göring, Hermann 176, 189, 193 Graham, Billy 273–4 Great Britain see Britain Great Depression 229–31 Greece 15, 17, 21 Greek nationalism 213, 228 Greer, Germaine 246 Gregory VII, Pope 60 Grijns, Gerrit 170 Grimm, Hans: People without Space 189 Grosseteste, Robert 60 Guettard, Jean-Etienne 66 Guizot, François xxvii Gutenberg, Johann 60–61 Habsburg empire 8–9, 53, 144 Ottoman empire’s invasion of (1683) 52, 54–7 Vienna, siege of (1683) 52, 53, 55, 57 see also Austria Haiti 120, 128, 160 Hamakari, battle of (1904) 179 Hammond, Mac 275 Hardy, Georges 166 Hargreaves, James 200 Harrison, John 70 Harvey, William 66 Haussmann, Baron Georges 215 Havel, Václav 248–9 Hawaii 144 Hayek, Friedrich von 301 Road to Serfdom 237 health issues 7, 12, 14, 44, 68, 175–6 antibiotics 148 Black Death/plague 4, 23, 25, 54, 169, 175 death 25–6 definition 13 diet and 170 eugenics see eugenics European diseases, spread of 99, 101 hospitals: Islamic 51 medical schools 53 native medicine/healers 171–2 public health 147, 148, 171–2, 177, 205 sanitation 23, 147, 179 tropical diseases 148, 168–70, 173; mortality rate from 168; research on 169–70, 174 vaccination 14, 147, 148, 170, 173, 175 Western medicine, benefits of 146–8, 168–75, 191 witch doctors 171, 172 health transition concept 147–8 Heck, Walter 233 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 159, 207, 212 Helvétius, Adrien 78 Hempel, Carl xx Hendel, Ann Katrin 250 Henry V, King of England 23, 24, 39 Henry VIII, King of England 72, 103–4 Henry the Navigator, King of Portugal 39 Himmler, Heinrich 190, 192, 193–4 Hirohito, Crown Prince of Japan 220, 225–6 Hispaniola (island) 101–2 history teaching of xviii–xx limitations of xx–xxii Hitler, Adolf 189–90, 194, 231 Hossbach memorandum 233 see also Germany, Nazi regime Ho Chi Minh 167 Hobbes, Thomas 24, 73 on liberty 107–8 Hoffmann, Erich 175–6 Hogg, James xxvi Holbach, baron Paul-Henri Thiry d’ 79 homicide rates 24, 25, 105 Hong Kong 105, 169 Hong Xiuquan 279–80 Hooke, Thomas 67, 70 Micrographia 64 How, Millicent (English migrant to South Carolina) 103, 106, 111–12 Hu Jintao 287–8 Huguenots 39, 41, 76 human rights 8 Hume, David 77, 78 Hungary 251 Huntington, Samuel, on Western civilization 15, 16, 312–13 Hus, Jan 61 Hussein, Saddam xvi Hutton, James 66 Ibrahim, Muktar Said 288–9 illiteracy see literacy rates imperialism 8–10, 13, 14, 15, 142–95, 302–3 in Africa 14, 139, 145, 146, 148, 163–75; see also individual countries in America see America … colonial armies/troops 164, 181–9 communications, difficulty of 170–71, 181–2 as conquest 99–102 European diseases spread by 99, 101 growth/decline of 3, 4, 5, 13, 38, 142, 144–5 impact of 8, 45, 46, 144–6, 173–4, 190–95 institutional structures and 103–5 Lenin on 144 as a term of abuse 144, 145 Mark Twain on 144 Western 14, 15, 96–140, 142–95 Western medicine, benefits of to overseas colonies 146–8, 168–75, 191 see also individual empires Inca empire, Spanish conquest of 98, 99–102 income levels see living standards; wages India 5, 9, 17, 36 as British colony 144, 264 China and 29, 32 as independent state 224–5 Portugal and 34, 35, 39 science/technology 11 textile industry 2245 Indian Medical Service 169–70 Indian Ocean 29, 32, 33 Indo-China, as a French colony 167, 191 Indonesia 240 Industrial Revolution 13, 21, 28–9, 70, 198–205 in Britain 10, 13, 21, 28–9, 70, 199–200, 203–5 consumerism, increase caused by 201–2 definition 198–9 spread of 204–5, 225, 264 industrialization 10, 14, 216–18 in China 225, 284, 285 inequality see living standards infant mortality see life expectancy Inoue Kaoru 226 institutional structures 11–14 cultural 77 financial/economic see financial systems imperialism and 103–5, 112, 172–3, 287 of Islamic fundamentalism 288, 289, 290n Islamic 289, 290, 290n Iran 94–5, 255 Ireland 11, 227, 203n England and 24, 105 iron/steel industry 200–201 Islam 3, 8, 9, 16, 60 calligraphy, importance of 68 Europe, envoys sent to 86–7 health issues: hospitals 51; medical schools 53 the Koran 63 population figures 290 printing, attitude to 68, 86 religious conflict 71 in Turkey 253–5 the West and 39, 50–57, 63, 85–90, 255 women’s clothing 253–5, 254n see also Ottoman empire; religious issues Islamic education 51 Islamic fundamentalism 93–5, 93n, 255, 258, 288–91 institutional structure 288, 289, 290n Islamic migration 290, 290n Islamic science/technology 51–7, 264 astronomy 68–9 attitudes to 67–9 Roger Bacon on 52 modernization of 88–9, 92, 94–5 optics 51–2 Israel 92–5, 246–7 Jerusalem 93, 93n, 94 science/technology in 93–4 see also Jews Italian city-states/Italy 4, 25, 28, 159, 182 France and 159 Under Mussolini 228 Naples 26, 159 as a printing centre 63 Rome 17; March on (1922) 228–9 in Second World War 233–4 Venice 38–9 see also Roman empire Italian colonies 144 Italian unification 212–13, 214–15, 228 Iwakura Tomomi 221 Jamaica 120, 123 as a British colony 148 Jansen, Zacharias 65 Japan 5, 9, 42 China and 226, 233, 234 fashion/clothing 220–21, 222, 223, 225 living standards 45–6 modernization of 90, 218, 221–5, 226, 239, 257; internal opposition to 222 Russia and 226 textile industry 223–4 US and 221; in Second World War 233–5 Western influence on 5, 7, 15, 221–5 women in 222 Japanese armed forces 226, 234 Java 170 jeans, as a symbol of consumerism 240–49, 250 Jefferson, Thomas 134 Jerusalem 93, 93n, 94 Jews 3, 76 as entrepreneurs 216–17, 217n, 262n as intellectuals 235, 235n in Palestine 92–3 persecution of 38–9; in Germany 92, 214, 234, 235 Max Weber on 262 see also Israel Jiang Zemin 287 Jiao Yu and Liu Ji: Huolongjing 28 Jirous, Ivan 248 John Paul II, Pope 252 Johnson, Blind Willie 18 Johnson, Samuel 2, 10 Kahn, Albert 196, 196n Kamen, Dean 145n Kant, Immanuel 76, 79, 80–81 Critique of Pure Reason 76 Kara Mustafa Köprülü (‘the black’), Grand Vizier 52, 54–5, 56, 71, 86 Karaca, Nihal Bengisu 254 Kaufman, Henry xvi Kemal, Mustafa see Atatürk, Kemal Kennedy, Paul: The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers 298 Keynes, John Maynard 7, 230, 231, 237 Khan, Dr A.


pages: 621 words: 157,263

How to Change the World: Reflections on Marx and Marxism by Eric Hobsbawm

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anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, Simon Kuznets, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game

The Russian Revolution had given reformism a second foundation: fear of communism and the USSR. The advance of both during and after the Second World War seemed, at least in Europe, to require from governments and employers alike a counter-policy of full employment and systematic social security. 412 Marx and Labour: the Long Century But the USSR no longer exists, and with the fall of the Berlin Wall capitalism could forget how to be frightened, and therefore lost interest in people unlikely to own shares. In any case, even the spells of mass unemployment in the 1980s and 1990s seemed to have lost the old power of radicalising their victims. However, it was not only politics but also the economy that proved to require reformism and especially full employment after 1945 – as both Keynes and the Swedish economists of Scandinavian social democracy had predicted.

The state and other public authorities remain the only institutions capable of distributing the social product among its people, in human terms, and to meet human needs that cannot be satisfied by the market. Politics therefore has remained and remains a necessary dimension of the struggle for social improvement. Indeed, the great economic crisis that began in 2008 as a sort of right-wing equivalent to the fall of the Berlin Wall brought an immediate realisation that the state was essential to an economy in trouble, as it had been essential to the triumph of neo-liberalism when governments had laid its foundations by systematic privatisation and deregulation. However, the effect of the period 1973–2008 on social democracy was that it abandoned Bernstein. In Britain its leaders felt 414 Marx and Labour: the Long Century they had no option but to rely on such benefits as the economic growth of the global free market generated automatically, plus a social safety net provided from above.

., 279 Alexander, Tsar, 33 Australia, 220–2 Althusser, Louis, 125, 334, 337, 339, Austria, 269, 278, 409, 415 366–7, 371–2 and Austro-Marxism, 227 Amendola, Giorgio, 279 and greater Germany, 228–9 American Civil War, 68, 79 and Jews, 228–30 American Revolution, 268, 403 and Marxism, 213, 227–32 Americas, discovery of, 146 Austro-Hungary, 81–2 Amsterdam, 216, 227, 250, 259–60 Austro-Marxists, 123, 230, 239, 373, Anabaptists, 17 375 anarchism, 105, 217–18, 222, 225, 251, Aveling, Edward, 181 359, 416 Aztecs, 173 anarchists, 45, 47, 61, 84, 119, 201, 218 and the arts, 251–3, 256 Babeuf, François-Noël, 22 anarcho-syndicalism, 190, 417 Bagehot, Walter, 243 Andersen Nexö, Martin, 266 Bahr, Hermann, 252 Anderson, Perry, 321 Bakunin, Mikhail, 46, 218, 251, 394 Anderson, Sherwood, 276 Balkans, 81, 235, 278 Anti-Dühring, 27, 39, 49, 53–4, 163, 165, banking, medieval, 139 178–9, 193, 380 Baran, Paul, 363, 371 antisemitism, 228–30, 397 Barbusse, Henri, 266 appeasement, 269 Barcelona, 250 Aragon, Louis, 282 Barmen, 89 architecture, 249–50, 259 Baroja, Pío, 223 Argentina, 124, 195, 271, 403, 411, 415 Barone, Enrico, 9, 240 456 Index Bastiat and Carey, 123 Braudel, Fernand, 374, 391–2 Bauer, Otto, 230, 289, 338, 371 Bray, John Francis, 35 Bauer, Stefan, 230 Brazil, 270, 368, 396, 411 Bazard, Amand, 28 Brecht, Bertolt, 257, 265, 360 Bebel, August, 50, 66, 71, 103, 114, Brentano, Lujo, 240 181, 188 Brissot, Jacques Pierre, 22 Belgian Labour Party, 225–6, 249, 251 Britain (England) Belgium, 114, 223, 225–6, 232, 241, appeasement and pacifism, 269, 248–9, 251, 258, 407, 409 274 Benét, Stephen Vincent, 276 bourgeois-aristocratic coexistence, Bengal, 214, 272, 278 71 Benjamin, Walter, 337, 371 and early socialism, 16, 35–6, 42–3, Bennett, Arnold, 223 46 Bentham, Jeremy, 21 economic crisis, 96–7 Berdyayev, Nikolai Aleksandrovich, Georgian, 345 213 labour movement, 44, 55, 59, Berlage, H.P., 250, 259 212–13, 220, 400, 402, 410 Berlin, 89, 103, 127, 407 market monopoly, 78–80, 95 Berlin Wall, fall of, 413–14 and markets, 145–6 Berlinguer, Enrico, 336 and Marx–Engels corpus, 192–4, Bernal, J.D., 275, 293, 295 384 Bernanos, Georges, 282 and Marxism, 220–1, 223–4, 237, Bernier, François, 138 259, 266, 276 Bernstein, Eduard, 9, 13, 54, 75, 81, and political refugees, 262–3 183, 188, 190, 370 and revolution, 63, 75–6, 80, 95–6 and Fabianism, 217–18, 406 scientists, 290–1, 381 and twentieth-century reformism, Victorian critics of Marx, 199–210 389, 401–2, 408, 411, 414 and war, 77–9 Bismarck, Otto von, 71–2, 79 working class, 14, 24, 63, 66, 90–1, Björnson, Bjørnstjerne Martinius, 248 97–100, 113–14, 116–17, 361–2, Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart, 275 378 Blanc, Louis, 26, 46 British Communist Party, 106, 262, Blanqui, Louis Auguste, 22–3, 46, 56 266–7, 291, 410 Bloch, Joseph, 135 British Museum, 3, 109 Bloch, Marc, 390 Brooke, Rupert, 221 Blum, Léon, 267 Brouckère, Henri de, 226 Blum theses, 299 Browderism, 302, 311 Blunt, Anthony, 279 Bruckner, Anton, 252 Bogdanov, Aleksandr, 257, 287 Brussels, 226, 250 Böhm-Bawerk, Eugen von, 213, 229, Bryce, James, 243 239 Bucharest, 77 Bolivia, 271 Buchez, Philippe, 46 Bolsheviks, 10, 104, 114, 183, 285, 306, Budapest, 228 312, 329, 386, 405, 410 Bukharin, Nikolai, 287, 371 Bonapartism, 52, 69–71 Bulgaria, 235–6 Bonar, J., 201, 205 Bund, 234 Bonger, W., 227 Buonarroti, Philippe, 22 Bosanquet, B., 204 Buret, Eugène, 42, 91 Bose, Subhas, 272 Burgess, Guy, 279 Bossuet, Jacques-Bénigne, 19 Burke, Peter, 342 Bradford, 98 Burns, Mary, 98 Branting, Hjalmar, 223 Buttigeig, Joseph, 338 457 How to Change the World Cabet, Etienne, 17, 19, 24, 27 civil society, 51, 320, 323, 338 Cafiero, Carlo, 181 Civil War in France, The, 103, 178–9, Calcutta, 339 189, 192–3 Calvin, John, 345 Class Struggles in France, 67, 87, 178–9, 193 Cambridge Apostles, 221 class-consciousness, 92, 95, 368, 401–2, Cambridge Scientists’ Anti-War Group, 408, 411–12 275, 291 classical antiquity, 137, 142, 146 Cambridge University, 206–8, 266, 291 Clausewitz, Carl von, 77 Cammett, John M., 340 Cohen, G.A., 372 Campanella, Tommaso, 17, 21 Cold War, 97, 106, 297, 302, 372, 393, Capital, 3, 13, 36, 83, 109, 156, 219, 397–8 367, 380, 394 Cole, G.D.H., 218–19, 226 and Grundrisse, 121–2, 125–8, 136, Colette, 282 187 Colletti, Lucio, 371 and history, 138–9, 141–2 Colman, Henry, 99 and primitive communalism, 162–3 colonial countries, 74, 81, 270–1, 352, publication, 178–81, 185–6, 189, 356–7, 406 193–5, 235 communism and Victorian critics, 202–4, 207–8 ascetic, 22 capitalism, 5–8, 12, 14 babouvist and neo-babouvist, 23, and Communist Manifesto, 110–18 46 and economic crises, 65, 79, 94, 96, Christian, 17–18 117, 414–16 primitive, 19–20 and nations, 73–4 proletarian character of, 23–4 and world market, 354–5 Communist International, see Third Carey, F.S., 207 International, Seventh World Carlyle, Thomas, 28 Congress Carpenter, Edward, 246 Communist League, 22, 50, 60, 64, Cassidy, John, 385 101–3, 109 Castro, Fidel, 356 Communist Manifesto, 5, 22, 36–8, 40, 55, Caudwell, Christopher, 292–3 59, 61, 101–20, 146, 352 Cavour, Count, 71, 318 and communist parties, 108–9 Chamson, André, 282 and interdependence of nations, 73–4 Chaplin, Charlie, 266 and labour movements, 399, 403–4 Charlemagne, 166 language and vocabulary, 107–8 Chartism and Chartists, 42, 78, 95, prefaces, 103–4 97–8, 108 publication, 103–6, 178–9, 185, Chayanov, Alexander, 358 192, 194 Chervenkov, Vulko, 310 and revolutions of 1848, 102–3, 107 Chile, 270, 327 rhetorical style, 110 China, 4, 125, 138, 173, 332, 344, 370, communist parties, 4, 191, 261–2, 386, 411 307–8, 329, 361, 366 Cultural Revolution, 351, 357 American, 106, 410 Japanese invasion, 269, 271 British, 106, 262, 266–7, 291, 410 and Marx–Engels corpus, 191, French, 218, 282–3, 288, 290, 308, 193–4 371, 388, 410 split with USSR, 191, 350, 356 inter-war and post-war, 407, 411 Christianity, 352, 377 Italian, 193, 279, 308, 314–15, 317, Churchill, Winston, 272, 280, 311, 401 326, 335–7, 384, 388, 410, 415 cities, medieval, 145, 147, 149, 153, Soviet, 106, 335, 350 155, 157, 165, 169 Spanish, 383 City College, New York, 280 Third World, 355 458 Index communist regimes, 8, 345–6, 350–2, democracy, 31, 43, 51–2, 72, 84–5, 119, 357–8, 386 345, 406 collapse of, 386, 393, 397 ‘new’ or ‘people’s’, 304, 306, 309–11 Comte, Auguste, 208, 241, 243, 245, Denis, Hector, 226 390 Denmark, 409 concentration camps, 268 Descartes, René, 205 Condition of the Working Class in England, de-Stalinisation, 174, 315, 348, 350 The, 89–100, 177–9 Destrée, Jules, 226, 251 Condorcet, Marquis de, 20 Deutsche Londoner Zeitung, 102 Confucius, 19 Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher, 177 Congresses of Cultural Freedom, 393 Deville, Gabriel, 181 Considérant, Victor, 46 Dézamy, Théodore, 23 Constantinople, 77 Di Vittorio, Giuseppe, 317 cooperative movements, 46, 83–4 Dialectics of Nature, 187, 238, 291, 294 Coutinho, Carlos Nelson, 334 Die Neue Zeit, 105, 123, 127, 182, 239, Crane, Walter, 246, 250 244, 248, 255 ‘creative destruction’, 14 Dietzgen, Joseph, 221 credit reform, 36 Dimitrov, Georgi, 284, 310 Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Law, 194 Dirac, Paul, 294 Critique of Political Economy, 48, 127, Disraeli, Benjamin, 228 141–2, 178 dissidents, 351–2 preface (introduction), 123, 128–9, Dobb, Maurice H., 158, 353–4 135–6, 147, 150, 168, 182, 319 Dos Passos, John, 265, 276 Critique of the Gotha Programme, 8, 47, 58, Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, 248, 252 179, 193 Dreiser, Theodore, 266, 276 Croatia, 235 Dreyfus affair, 224, 300 Croce, Benedetto, 213, 232, 316 Ducpétiaux, Edouard, 42, 91 Cromwell, Oliver, 412 Dühring, Eugen, 202 Crosland, Anthony, 10 Durkheim, Emile, 11, 228, 242, 390 Crusades, 205, 297 Dutch Republic, 345 Cuba, 270, 351, 356–7 Cubists, 256 East Berlin, 123, 185, 190 Cunningham, Archdeacon, 203, 205 Eastern Question, 82 Curie, Marie, 238 Eckstein, Gustav, 230 Czechoslovakia, 125, 269, 328, 359, Economic Doctrines of Karl Marx, 181 407 Economic-Philosophical Manuscripts of Czechs, 75, 82, 228 1844, 127, 186 economics Darwin, Charles, 5, 212, 219, 347 Austrian school, 229 Darwinism, 211–12, 238, 284, 293, Chicago school, 413 352 and Marxism, 237, 239–41, 372–5, Das Kapital, see Capital 380, 384, 389 Dashnaks, 235 Wisconsin school, 240 Dawson, W.H., 202 Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro, 209 Day-Lewis, Cecil, 279 education, 12, 33, 222, 228, 277–8, De Amicis, Edmondo, 231 281, 286, 349, 360–1, 363–7, Deborin, Abram, 288 373, 390 Debray, Régis, 395 Eekhoud, Georges, 251 Debreczen, 77 Egypt, ancient, 137, 170 Declaration of the Rights of Man, 102 Ehrenberg, R., 243 decolonisation, 352, 357 18th Br umaire of Louis Bonaparte, The, 70, Della Volpe, Galvano, 366 178–9, 316, 326, 341 459 How to Change the World Einstein, Albert, 5, 238, 291, 294 feudalism, 55, 138–40, 143–4, 146–52, Eisenstein, Sergei, 265 155–60, 164–9, 171–3, 204 electrical industry, 9 and the Third World, 353–6 Elementarbücher des Kommunismus, 106 Feuerbach, Ludwig, 34, 40 Ellis, Havelock, 246 Finland, 407, 409 Ely, Richard, 202, 220, 240 Fiori, G., 315, 337 Enfantin, Barthélémy Prosper, 28 First International, 3–4, 50, 73, 80, Engels, Frederick 103, 178 biography, 287 Flanders, 145 his communism, 97 Flint, Robert, 205–6, 208 and Communist Manifesto, 101–20 folk music, 281 and Condition of the Working Class, Formen, see under Grundrisse 89–100 Forster, E.M., 221 corpus of works, 176–96, 385 Foster, Rev.


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The Wrecking Crew: How Conservatives Rule by Thomas Frank

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affirmative action, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, edge city, financial deregulation, full employment, George Gilder, guest worker program, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, P = NP, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, War on Poverty

All the setbacks that befall the capitalist system and the United States generally are said to be the work of a hidden hand—meaning, in the eighties, a network of traitors supposedly guided by the infinitely evil, infinitely clever men in the Kremlin. Here, too, the sons of Reagan showed a special fervor. Almost every American detested the Soviet Union in those days, but the Reagan youth always had to detest it more than everyone else, as though only they were aware of the danger. The CRs, for example, were constantly organizing anti-Soviet demonstrations: They built and demolished a model of the Berlin Wall, they demanded that the Soviets allow more emigration, and one day they got up real early to protest the Soviets’ destruction of a civilian airliner. I remember being mystified by all of this as I watched the Abramoff-era College Republicans shout their anti-Soviet slogans. After all, I thought, who in the world supported the destruction of civilian airliners? There was obviously nothing daring or confrontational about being loudly against the Soviet Union here in the cities of its sworn enemy.

Walker (today the chairman of the Wexler & Walker lobby shop) and Vin Weber (today the CEO of lobby powerhouse Clark & Weinstock). *Funderburk first surfaces in the Abramoff files in 1989, when he published an unfortunate essay in the IFF’s magazine arguing that glasnost was a trick, that the “brilliant elitists at State” were “appeasing” the Communists, and that the Soviets would never permit the Eastern bloc countries to break away. The Berlin Wall had the bad manners to fall while the issue was still on the newsstands. But Funderburk would not be deterred. He extended his streak two years later with a book called Betrayal of America: Bush’s Appeasement of Communist Dictators Betrays American Principles (Dunn, N.C.: Larry McDonald Foundation), in which he elaborated on his theory that glasnost was a ploy by “the old Bolsheviks [who] finally found the ideal front man to win over the West while they continue to carry out their objectives” (p. 50).

See also freedom fighters anti-Semitism anti-Soviet demonstrations apartheid Arlington Forest Army-McCarthy hearings Associated Press Auerbach, Carl auto industry Babbitt, Bruce baby-formula industry “bad apple” thesis Badolato, Ed Baez, Joan Baghdad stock exchange U.S. Embassy in Bahrain Baker, Bobby Baldwin, Steve Bandow, Doug banks Bantustans Barnes, Fred Barone, Michael Bechtel beef industry Bell, Daniel Beltway Boys, The (TV show) Bennett, William Berlin Wall “bestiality clubs” Betrayal of America (Funderburk) “Biblical law” Biggs, Andrew Bilbray, Brian Birnbaum, Jeffrey BKSH firm Black Panthers Blackwater Blackwell, Morton Blumenthal, Sidney Blunt, Roy Boeing Bolton, John bond market “Boring from Within” (Norris) Bosner, Leo Boston University Bowe, John Brandeis, Louis Brazil Bremer, Paul Brezhnev, Leonid bribery broadcast spectrum Broder, David Brown, Michael “Brownie” Buchanan, Pat Buffett, Jimmy bullying and pugnacity Bureau of Labor Statistics Bureau of Land Management Burnham, James Burson-Marsteller firm Bush, George H.W.


pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

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3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, peer-to-peer rental, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

Income per person in Switzerland, still the richest country in Europe, was similar to that in South Korea today.527 Britons were more than twice as rich as they were in 1934, but were still poorer than Hungarians are today. Cars and foreign holidays were no longer the preserve of the rich. While television was now in colour, nobody had a computer at home. By 1994, Europe had made another huge leap forward, but also a step back. The Berlin Wall had fallen and the Cold War was over: both Germany and Europe were reunited. Communist dictatorships had given way to democracies; Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were freed from the Soviet empire. Only Belarus remained frozen in old-style totalitarianism. Mercifully, the Soviet Union broke up peacefully; tragically, Yugoslavia descended into war and ethnic cleansing. What was now the European Union may have made war unthinkable among its members – which now included Greece (1981), Spain and Portugal (1986) and were soon to include Austria, Finland and Sweden (1995) – but it did not prevent war on its doorstep.

John Maynard Keynes, The Great Slump of 1930, 1930542 The curious task of economics is to demonstrate to men how little they really know about what they imagine they can design. Friedrich von Hayek, The Fatal Conceit, 1988543 Change happens all the time. Some of it is reasonably predictable: higher demand for ice cream in summer. Some of it isn’t: out of nowhere, Gangnam Style became a global hit. Big changes often happen unexpectedly. The Berlin Wall falls. The Fukushima earthquake knocks out a big chunk of the Japanese economy and with it crucial links in global supply chains. Hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) leads to a shale-gas boom that transforms America’s energy landscape – and Europe’s – within a few years. Apple was left for dead at the turn of the century, then vaulted to being the world’s most valuable listed company. American house prices never fell – and then they did.

This aims to improve healthcare and reduce extreme poverty around the world and expand educational opportunities and access to information technology in America. Warren Buffett, a billionaire investor, has selflessly decided to throw in his billions to a foundation that doesn’t even carry his name. George Soros, another financier turned philanthropist, has pledged billions to advance human rights and open societies, notably in central and eastern Europe. After the Berlin Wall fell, he personally gave more aid to eastern Europe than the British government did. British examples include the Wellcome Trust, which funds medical and scientific research, the Barrow Cadbury Trust, which helps the vulnerable and marginalised, and the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, which funds work on poverty. Other European ones include the Robert Bosch Stiftung in Germany and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation in Sweden.


pages: 476 words: 144,288

1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, land reform, long peace, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip

The King David Hotel in Jerusalem after it was blown up by the Irgun (© The LIFE Picture Collection / Getty Images) 29. Some rare good news in gloom-laden Britain, mid-1946 (© The LIFE Picture Collection / Getty Images) 30. A postcard to mark the first anniversary of the liberation of Dachau concentration camp (© Interfoto / Friedrich / Mary Evans) Maps Introduction As a journalist, I have covered events ranging from the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the former Soviet Union to the cycle of violence and counter-violence in the Middle East over the existence of Israel and Palestine. Throughout, America has dominated as the world’s superpower. During many visits to India I have seen a desperately poor country, stuck in the past, transform itself into a vibrant society, looking to the future. China moved from permanent revolution to a form of rampant capitalism run by people calling themselves communists.

In the Soviet-controlled sector of Germany, hunger abounded, but there was almost no starvation – a point which Russian officials made sure to highlight to Germans living under American and British Occupation. But there was a heavy price to pay for this largesse. Nobody knows for certain how many German women were raped by Soviet troops in the immediate euphoria of victory. It was seldom mentioned in Germany until decades afterwards; certainly not in Eastern Germany, where the subject was completely taboo until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. In the spring of 1946 between 150,000 and 200,000 ‘Russian babies’ were born in the Soviet zone, the vast majority of whom were brought up as orphans. Of all children born in Berlin between January and April, it is estimated that one in six were fathered by Russians. The number aborted was far higher – according to some medical opinion, between five and eight times higher. Besides the ordeal of rape itself, ‘venereal disease as a result of rape by a Russian was part of a woman’s lot in that period.

Few Germans were left with any illusions about the intentions of the Soviet Union towards their country. In the Berlin municipal elections five months later, the SDP campaigned separately from the SED. The Social Democrats obtained 43 per cent of the vote in the city and won 63 of the 130 seats. The new ‘unified’ Party was humiliated, winning only 19 per cent of the vote and 26 seats. It would be the last free election in Eastern Germany until after the Berlin Wall came down in 1989 and the Soviet empire collapsed. Stalin, the supreme cynic, now had another merger in mind. This shocked even Ulbricht and other senior German communists. The Soviet leader wanted to co-opt Nazis and ‘collaborators with the Hitler regime to support the communists and to operate within the same bloc as the SED’. He told Ulbricht: ‘There were eight million members of the Nazi Party and they all had family and friends . . . this is a very big number.


pages: 572 words: 134,335

The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class by Kees Van der Pijl

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anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, deskilling, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, imperial preference, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, North Sea oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit maximization, RAND corporation, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty

Van Buren Cleveland when he wrote that ‘the MLF made sense in terms of American interests precisely because it was not a step toward the sharing of nuclear control, but rather a way of channelling Europe’s — and especially Germany’s — nuclear interests and energies away from the development of independent nuclear forces.’86 The American aim was to reconstruct a world configuration of forces in which the United States again commanded a central, mediating position and as far as the attitude towards a military role for Germany was concerned, there was even the hint of a reemergence of the wartime coalition between the Soviet Union and the United States, spurred on by German nuclear ambitions. In an Izvestia interview, Kennedy declared his opposition to a West German nuclear capability, and his refusal to allow a military reaction to the construction of the Berlin Wall likewise reflected a determination not to activate German militarism. Comparing the new American attitude with the policies of the previous period still adhered to by men like Adenauer, Kennedy’s National Security Assistant, McGeorge Bundy, claimed that ‘among the allies …, we are the moderates’.87 The first partner the United States turned to in the new Atlantic offensive was Great Britain.

Significantly, Kennedy traced the rise of the Brandt tendency in the SPD to more fundamental changes in European society, warning that ‘in all of Europe a new generation is coming to power, and it is dangerous to become alienated from them’.13 These changes also affected Atlantic trade-union relations. From 1960 on, when the SPD overtly attuned its policy to the NATO line, there was a marked improvement of relations between the AFL-CIO and the SPD which extended to relations with the DGB. This amelioration of the Atlantic climate at the labour level was further enhanced by the erection of the Berlin Wall in August 1961.14 In 1961, however, Brandt, then Mayor of West Berlin and SPD candidate for the Chancellorship, made clear that his Atlantic allegiance went beyond military-strategic dependence; Atlantic integration for him represented a potential for developing the productive forces and the long-term stability of a humanized capitalist order. ‘A Western weakness is revealed in the fact that the highest degree of integration achieved by a large number of nations is in the field of defense’ (Brandt wrote).

Polls held immediately afterward showed that Strauss’s fall was strongly approved of by Left and Liberal voters, but CDU/CSU voters, and notably the Catholics among them, were still divided and confused. Der Spiegel’s role in the reaffirmation of the Atlantic alliance and liberal democracy, moreover, cost it the advertising accounts of the traditionally continentalist Hoechst chemical concern and of the Bosch electrical engineering company.54 In the course of 1963, Kennedy’s appearance at the Berlin Wall, which underlined the American guarantee, reinforced the Atlanticists’ position. In October, Erhard succeeded Adenauer as Chancellor. Although Adenauer as chairman of the CDU continued to attack the liberal Atlantic turn, and Schroder in particular (whom he reproached for spoiling the relation with France by dropping the demand for a reorganization of NATO);55 the trend towards renewed acceptance of Atlantic integration was not reversed.


pages: 515 words: 142,354

The Euro: How a Common Currency Threatens the Future of Europe by Joseph E. Stiglitz, Alex Hyde-White

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bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency peg, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, housing crisis, income inequality, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, light touch regulation, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market friction, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, open economy, paradox of thrift, pension reform, pensions crisis, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, working-age population

In 1957, this vision came closer to being a reality with the signing of the Rome Treaty, which established the European Economic Community (EEC), comprising Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany. In the following decades, dominated by the Cold War, various other Western European countries joined the EEC. Step by step, restrictions were eased on work, travel, and trade between the expanding list of EEC countries. But it was not until the end of the Cold War that European integration really gained steam. The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 showed that the time for much closer, stronger European bonds had grown near. The hopes for a peaceful and prosperous future were higher than ever, among both leaders and citizens. This led to the signing, in 1992, of the Maastricht Treaty, which formally established the European Union and created much of its economic structure and institutions—including setting in motion the process of adopting a common currency, which would come to be known as the euro.

Then, through heavy investments in education, it grew to the point that by 2007 its per capita income was $42,300, or 93 percent of that of the United States. But then a series of problems befell the country: in the fast-changing world of hi-tech, its leading company, Nokia, lost out to competitors. Finland had close ties with Estonia, which was badly hit by the 2008 crisis. And after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Finland had profited by strong trade with Russia. But sanctions with that country hurt Finland as well as Russia, which also suffered from the decline in oil and gas prices. Finland’s GDP shrank by 8.3 percent in 2009, and in 2015 it was still some 5.5 percent below its 2008 peak. In the absence of the euro, Finland’s exchange rate would have fallen, and the decrease in imports and increase in exports would have stimulated the economy.

Africa, 10, 95, 381 globalization and, 51 aggregate demand, 98, 107, 111, 118–19, 189, 367 deflation and, 290 lowered by inequality, 212 surpluses and, 187, 253 tech bubble slump in, 250 as weakened by imports, 111 aggregate supply, 99, 104, 189 agricultural subsidies, 45, 197 agriculture, 89, 224, 346 airlines, 259 Akerlof, George, 132 American Express, 287 Apple, 81, 376 Argentina, 18, 100, 110, 117, 371 bailout of, 113 debt restructuring by, 205–6, 266, 267 Arrow-Debreu competitive equilibrium theory, 303 Asia, globalization and, 51 asset price bubbles, 172 Athens airport, 191, 367–68 austerity, xvi–xvii, 9, 18–19, 20, 21, 28–29, 54, 69–70, 95, 96, 98, 97, 103, 106, 140, 150, 178, 185–88, 206, 211, 235, 316–17 academics for, 208–13 debt restructuring and, 203–6 design of programs of, 188–90 Germany’s push for, 186, 232 government investment curtailed by, 217 opposition to, 59–62, 69–70, 207–8, 315, 332, 392 private, 126–27, 241–42 reform of, 263–65 Austria, 331, 343 automatic destabilizers, see built-in destabilizers automatic stabilizers, 142, 244, 247–48, 357 flexible exchange rate as, 248 bail-ins, 113 bailouts, 91–92, 111, 112–13, 201–3, 354, 362–63, 370 of banks, 127–28, 196, 279, 362–63 of East Asia, 202 of Latin America, 202 of Mexico, 202 of Portugal, 178–79 of Spanish banks, 179, 199–200, 206 see also programs balanced-budget multiplier, 188–90, 265 Balkans, 320 bank capital, 284–85 banking system, in US, 91 banking union, 129–30, 241–42, 248, 263 and common regulations, 241 and deposit insurance, 241, 242, 246 Bank of England, 359 inflation target of, 157 Bank of Italy, 158 bankruptcies, 77, 94, 102, 104, 346, 390 super–chapter 11 for, 259–60 banks, 198–201 bailouts of, 127–28, 196, 279, 362–63 capital requirements of, 152, 249 closing of, 378 credit creation by, 280–82 development, 137–38 evolution of, 386–87 forbearance of regulations on, 130–31 Greek, 200–201, 228–29, 231, 270, 276, 367, 368 lending contracted by, 126–27, 246, 282–84 money supply increased by, 277 restructuring of, 113 small, 171 in Spain, 23, 186, 199, 200, 242, 270, 354 too-big-to-fail, 360 bank transfers, 49 Barclays, 131 behavioral economics, 335 Belgium, 6, 331, 343 belief systems, 53 Berlin Wall, 6 Bernanke, Ben, 251, 351, 363, 381 bilateral investment agreement, 369 Bill of Rights, 319 bimetallic standard, 275, 277 Blanchard, Olivier, 211 bonds, 4, 114, 150, 363 confidence in, 127, 145 Draghi’s promise to support, 127, 200, 201 GDP-indexed, 267 inflation and, 161 long-term, 94 restructuring of, 159 bonds, corporate, ECB’s purchase of, 141 borrowing, excessive, 243 Brazil, 138, 370 bailout of, 113 bread, 218, 230 Bretton Woods monetary system, 32, 325 Brunnermeier, Markus K., 361 Bryan, William Jennings, xii bubbles, 249, 381 credit, 122–123 real estate, see real estate bubble stability threatened by, 264 stock market, 200–201 tech, 250 tools for controlling, 250 budget, capital, 245 Buffett, Warren, 287, 290 built-in destabilizers, 96, 142, 188, 244, 248, 357–58 common regulatory framework as, 241 Bulgaria, 46, 331 Bundesbank, 42 Bush, George W., 266 Camdessus, Michel, 314 campaign contributions, 195, 355 Canada, 96 early 1990s expansion of, 209 in NAFTA, xiv railroad privatization in, 55 tax system in, 191 US’s free trade with, 45–46, 47 capital, 76–77 bank, 284–85 human, 78, 137 return to, 388 societal vs. physical, 77–78 tax on, 356 unemployment increased by, 264 capital adequacy standards, 152 capital budget, 245 capital controls, 389–90 capital flight, 126–34, 217, 354, 359 austerity and, 140 and labor flows, 135 capital flows, 14, 15, 25, 26, 27–28, 40, 116, 125, 128, 131, 351 economic volatility exacerbated by, 28, 274 and foreign ownership, 195 and technology, 139 capital inflows, 110–11 capitalism: crises in, xviii, 148–49 inclusive, 317 capital requirements, 152, 249, 378 Caprio, Gerry, 387 capture, 158–60 carbon price, 230, 260, 265, 368 cash, 39 cash flow, 194 Catalonia, xi CDU party, 314 central banks, 59, 354, 387–88 balance sheets of, 386 capture of, 158–59 credit auctions by, 282–84 credit creation by, 277–78 expertise of, 363 independence of, 157–63 inequality created by, 154 inflation and, 153, 166–67 as lender of last resort, 85, 362 as political institutions, 160–62 regulations and, 153 stability and, 8 unemployment and, 8, 94, 97, 106, 147, 153 CEO compensation, 383 Chapter 11, 259–60, 291 childhood poverty, 72 Chile, 55, 152–53 China, 81, 98, 164, 319, 352 exchange-rate policy of, 251, 254, 350–51 global integration of, 49–50 low prices of, 251 rise of, 75 savings in, 257 trade surplus of, 118, 121, 350–52 wages controlled in, 254 as world’s largest economy, 318, 327 chits, 287–88, 290, 299–300, 387, 388–389 Citigroup, 355 climate change, 229–30, 251, 282, 319 Clinton, Bill, xiv, xv, 187 closing hours, 220 cloves, 230 cognitive capture, 159 Cohesion Fund, 243 Cold War, 6 collateral, 364 collective action, 41–44, 51–52 and inequality, 338 and stabilization, 246 collective bargaining, 221 collective goods, 40 Common Agricultural Policy, 338 common regulatory framework, 241 communism, 10 Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), 360, 382 comparative advantage, 12, 171 competition, 12 competitive devaluation, 104–6, 254 compromise, 22–23 confidence, 95, 200–201, 384 in banks, 127 in bonds, 145 and structural reforms, 232 and 2008 crisis, 280 confirmation bias, 309, 335 Congress, US, 319, 355 connected lending, 280 connectedness, 68–69 Connecticut, GDP of, 92 Constitutional Court, Greek, 198 consumption, 94, 278 consumption tax, 193–94 contract enforcement, 24 convergence, 13, 92–93, 124, 125, 139, 254, 300–301 convergence criteria, 15, 87, 89, 96–97, 99, 123, 244 copper mines, 55 corporate income tax, 189–90, 227 corporate taxes, 189–90, 227, 251 corporations, 323 regulations opposed by, xvi and shutdown of Greek banks, 229 corruption, 74, 112 privatization and, 194–95 Costa, António, 332 Council of Economic Advisers, 358 Council of State, Greek, 198 countercyclical fiscal policy, 244 counterfactuals, 80 Countrywide Financial, 91 credit, 276–85 “divorce”’s effect on, 278–79 excessive, 250, 274 credit auctions, 282–84 credit bubbles, 122–123 credit cards, 39, 49, 153 credit creation, 248–50, 277–78, 386 by banks, 280–82 domestic control over, 279–82 regulation of, 277–78 credit default swaps (CDSs), 159–60 crisis policy reforms, 262–67 austerity to growth, 263–65 debt restructuring and, 265–67 Croatia, 46, 331, 338 currency crises, 349 currency pegs, xii current account, 333–34 current account deficits, 19, 88, 108, 110, 120–121, 221, 294 and exit from euro, 273, 285–89 see also trade deficit Cyprus, 16, 30, 140, 177, 331, 386 capital controls in, 390 debt-to-GDP ratio of, 231 “haircut” of, 350, 367 Czech Republic, 46, 331 debit cards, 39, 49 debtors’ prison, 204 debt restructuring, 201, 203–6, 265–67, 290–92, 372, 390 of private debt, 291 debts, xx, 15, 93, 96, 183 corporate, 93–94 crisis in, 110–18 in deflation, xii and exit from eurozone, 273 with foreign currency, 115–18 household, 93–94 increase in, 18 inherited, 134 limits of, 42, 87, 122, 141, 346, 367 monetization of, 42 mutualization of, 242–43, 263 place-based, 134, 242 reprofiling of, 32 restructuring of, 259 debt-to-GDP ratio, 202, 210–11, 231, 266, 324 Declaration of Independence, 319 defaults, 102, 241, 338, 348 and debt mutualization, 243 deficit fetishism, 96 deficits, fiscal, xx, 15, 20, 93, 96, 106, 107–8, 122, 182, 384 and balanced-budget multiplier, 188–90, 265 constitutional amendment on, 339 and exit from euro, 273, 289–90 in Greece, 16, 186, 215, 233, 285–86, 289 limit of, 42, 87, 94–95, 122, 138, 141, 186, 243, 244, 265, 346, 367 primary, 188 problems financing, 110–12 structural, 245 deficits, trade, see trade deficits deflation, xii, 147, 148, 151, 166, 169, 277, 290 Delors, Jacques, 7, 332 democracy, lack of faith in, 312–14 Democracy in America (Tocqueville), xiii democratic deficit, 26–27, 35, 57–62, 145 democratic participation, xix Denmark, 45, 307, 313, 331 euro referendum of, 58 deposit insurance, 31, 44, 129, 199, 301, 354–55, 386–87 common in eurozone, 241, 242, 246, 248 derivatives, 131, 355 Deutsche Bank, 283, 355 devaluation, 98, 104–6, 254, 344 see also internal devaluation developing countries, and Washington Consensus, xvi discretion, 262–63 discriminatory lending practices, 283 disintermediation, 258 divergence, 15, 123, 124–44, 255–56, 300, 321 in absence of crisis, 128–31 capital flight and, 126–34 crisis policies’ exacerbation of, 140–43 free mobility of labor and, 134–36, 142–44, 242 in public investment, 136–38 reforms to prevent, 243 single-market principle and, 125–26 in technology, 138–39 in wealth, 139–40 see also capital flows; labor movement diversification, of production, 47 Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, 355 dollar peg, 50 downsizing, 133 Draghi, Mario, 127, 145, 156, 158, 165, 269, 363 bond market supported by, 127, 200, 201 Drago, Luis María, 371 drug prices, 219 Duisenberg, Willem Frederik “Wim,” 251 Dynamic Stochastic Equilibrium model, 331 East Asia, 18, 25, 95, 102–3, 112, 123, 202, 364, 381 convergence in, 138 Eastern Europe, 10 Economic Adjustment Programme, 178 economic distortions, 191 economic growth, xii, 34 confidence and, 232 in Europe, 63–64, 69, 73–74, 74, 75, 163 lowered by inequality, 212–13 reform of, 263–65 and structural reforms, 232–35 economic integration, xiv–xx, 23, 39–50 euro and, 46–47 political integration vs., 51–57 single currency and, 45–46 economic rents, 226, 280 economics, politics and, 308–18 economic security, 68 economies of scale, 12, 39, 55, 138 economists, poor forecasting by, 307 education, 20, 76, 344 investment in, 40, 69, 137, 186, 211, 217, 251, 255, 300 electricity, 217 electronic currency, 298–99, 389 electronics payment mechanism, 274–76, 283–84 emigration, 4, 68–69 see also migration employment: central banks and, 8, 94, 97 structural reforms and, 257–60 see also unemployment Employment Act (1946), 148 energy subsidies, 197 Enlightenment, 3, 318–19 environment, 41, 257, 260, 323 equality, 225–26 equilibrium, xviii–xix Erasmus program, 45 Estonia, 90, 331, 346 euro, xiv, 325 adjustments impeded by, 13–14 case for, 35–39 creation of, xii, 5–6, 7, 10, 333 creation of institutions required by, 10–11 divergence and, see divergence divorce of, 272–95, 307 economic integration and, 46–47, 268 as entailing fixed exchange rate, 8, 42–43, 46–47, 86–87, 92, 93, 94, 102, 105, 143, 193, 215–16, 240, 244, 249, 252, 254, 286, 297 as entailing single interest rate, 8, 85–88, 92, 93, 94, 105, 129, 152, 240, 244, 249 and European identification, 38–39 financial instability caused by, 131–32 growth promised by, 235 growth slowed by, 73 hopes for, 34 inequality increased by, xviii interest rates lowered by, 235 internal devaluation of, see internal devaluation literature on, 327–28 as means to end, xix peace and, 38 proponents of, 13 referenda on, 58, 339–40 reforms needed for, xii–xiii, 28–31 risk of, 49–50 weakness of, 224 see also flexible euro Eurobond, 356 euro crisis, xiii, 3, 4, 9 catastrophic consequences of, 11–12 euro-euphoria, 116–17 Europe, 151 free trade area in, 44–45 growth rates in, 63–64, 69, 73–74, 74, 75, 163 military conflicts in, 196 social models of, 21 European Central Bank (ECB), 7, 17, 80, 112–13, 117, 144, 145–73, 274, 313, 362, 368, 380 capture of, 158–59 confidence in, 200–201 corporate bonds bought by, 141 creation of, 8, 85 democratic deficit and, 26, 27 excessive expansion controlled by, 250 flexibility of, 269 funds to Greece cut off by, 59 German challenges to, 117, 164 governance and, 157–63 inequality created by, 154–55 inflation controlled by, 8, 25, 97, 106, 115, 145, 146–50, 151, 163, 165, 169–70, 172, 250, 256, 266 interest rates set by, 85–86, 152, 249, 302, 348 Ireland forced to socialize losses by, 134, 156, 165 new mandate needed by, 256 as political institution, 160–62 political nature of, 153–56 quantitative easing opposed by, 151 quantitative easing undertaken by, 164, 165–66, 170, 171 regulations by, 249, 250 unemployment and, 163 as unrepresentative, 163 European Commission, 17, 58, 161, 313, 332 European Court of Human Rights, 45 European Economic Community (EEC), 6 European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), 30, 335 European Exchange Rate Mechanism II (ERM II), 336 European Free Trade Association, 44 European Free Trade Association Court, 44 European Investment Bank (EIB), 137, 247, 255, 301 European Regional Development Fund, 243 European Stability Mechanism, 23, 246, 357 European Union: budget of, 8, 45, 91 creation of, 4 debt and deficit limits in, 87–88 democratic deficit in, 26–27 economic growth in, 215 GDP of, xiii and lower rates of war, 196 migration in, 90 proposed exit of UK from, 4 stereotypes in, 12 subsidiarity in, 8, 41–42, 263 taxes in, 8, 261 Euro Summit Statement, 373 eurozone: austerity in, see austerity banking union in, see banking union counterfactual in, 235–36 double-dip recessions in, 234–35 Draghi’s speech and, 145 economic integration and, xiv–xx, 23, 39–50, 51–57 as flawed at birth, 7–9 framework for stability of, 244–52 German departure from, 32, 292–93 Greece’s possible exit from, 124 hours worked in, 71–72 lack of fiscal policy in, 152 and move to political integration, xvi, 34, 35, 51–57 Mundell’s work on dangers of, 87 policies of, 15–17 possible breakup of, 29–30 privatization avoided in, 194 saving, 323–26 stagnant GDP in, 12, 65–68, 66, 67 structure of, 8–9 surpluses in, 120–22 theory of, 95–97 unemployment in, 71, 135, 163, 177–78, 181, 331 working-age population of, 70 eurozone, proposed structural reforms for, 239–71 common financial system, see banking union excessive fiscal responsibility, 163 exchange-rate risks, 13, 47, 48, 49–50, 125, 235 exchange rates, 80, 85, 288, 300, 338, 382, 389 of China, 251, 254, 350–51 and competitive devaluation, 105–6 after departure of northern countries, 292–93 of euro, 8, 42–43, 46–47, 86–87, 92, 93, 94, 102, 105, 215–16, 240, 244, 249, 252, 254, 286, 297 flexible, 50, 248, 349 and full employment, 94 of Germany, 254–55, 351 gold and, 344–45 imports and, 86 interest rates and, 86 quantitative easing’s lowering of, 151 real, 105–6 and single currencies, 8, 42–43, 46–47, 86–87, 92, 93, 94, 97–98 stabilizing, 299–301 and trade deficits, 107, 118 expansionary contractions, 95–96, 208–9 exports, 86, 88, 97–99, 98 disappointing performance of, 103–5 external imbalances, 97–98, 101, 109 externalities, 42–43, 121, 153, 301–2 surpluses as, 253 extremism, xx, 4 Fannie Mae, 91 farmers, US, in deflation, xii Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), 91 Federal Reserve, US, 349 alleged independence of, 157 interest rates lowered by, 150 mandate of, 8, 147, 172 money pumped into economy by, 278 quantitative easing used by, 151, 170 reform of, 146 fiat currency, 148, 275 and taxes, 284 financial markets: lobbyists from, 132 reform of, 214, 228–29 short-sighted, 112–13 financial systems: necessity of, xix real economy of, 149 reform of, 257–58 regulations needed by, xix financial transaction system, 275–76 Finland, 16, 81, 122, 126, 292, 296, 331, 343 growth in, 296–97 growth rate of, 75, 76, 234–35 fire departments, 41 firms, 138, 186–87, 245, 248 fiscal balance: and cutting spending, 196–98 tax revenue and, 190–96 Fiscal Compact, 141, 357 fiscal consolidation, 310 fiscal deficits, see deficits, fiscal fiscal policy, 148, 245, 264 in center of macro-stabilization, 251 countercyclical, 244 in EU, 8 expansionary, 254–55 stabilization of, 250–52 fiscal prudence, 15 fiscal responsibility, 163 flexibility, 262–63, 269 flexible euro, 30–31, 272, 296–305, 307 cooperation needed for, 304–5 food prices, 169 forbearance, 130–31 forecasts, 307 foreclosure proposal, 180 foreign ownership, privatization and, 195 forestry, 81 France, 6, 14, 16, 114, 120, 141, 181–82, 331, 339–40, 343 banks of, 202, 203, 231, 373 corporate income tax in, 189–90 euro creation regretted in, 340 European Constitution referendum of, 58 extreme right in, xi growth in, 247 Freddie Mac, 91 Freefall (Stiglitz), 264, 335 free mobility of labor, xiv, 26, 40, 125, 134–36, 142–44, 242 Friedman, Milton, 151, 152–53, 167, 339 full employment, 94–97, 379 G-20, 121 gas: import of, 230 from Russia, 37, 81, 93 Gates Foundation, 276 GDP-indexed bonds, 267 German bonds, 114, 323 German Council of Economic Experts, 179, 365 Germany, xxi, 14, 30, 65, 108, 114, 141, 181–82, 207, 220, 286, 307, 331, 343, 346, 374 austerity pushed by, 186, 232 banks of, 202, 203, 231–32, 373 costs to taxpayers of, 184 as creditor, 140, 187, 267 debt collection by, 117 debt in, 105 and debt restructuring, 205, 311 in departure from eurozone, 32, 292–93 as dependent on Russian gas, 37 desire to leave eurozone, 314 ECB criticized by, 164 EU economic practices controlled by, 17 euro creation regretted in, 340 exchange rate of, 254–55, 351 failure of, 13, 78–79 flexible exchange of, 304 GDP of, xviii, 92 in Great Depression, 187 growing poverty in, 79 growth of, 78, 106, 247 hours worked per worker in, 72 inequality in, 79, 333 inflation in, 42, 338, 358 internal solidarity of, 334 lack of alternative to euro seen by, 11 migrants to, 320–21, 334–35, 393 minimum wage in, 42, 120, 254 neoliberalism in, 10 and place-based debt, 136 productivity in, 71 programs designed by, 53, 60, 61, 202, 336, 338 reparations paid by, 187 reunification of, 6 rules as important to, 57, 241–42, 262 share of global employment in, 224 shrinking working-age population of, 70, 78–79 and Stability and Growth Pact, 245 and structural reforms, 19–20 “there is no alternative” and, 306, 311–12 trade surplus of, 117, 118–19, 120, 139, 253, 293, 299, 350–52, 381–82, 391 “transfer union” rejected by, 22 US loans to, 187 victims blamed by, 9, 15–17, 177–78, 309 wages constrained by, 41, 42–43 wages lowered in, 105, 333 global financial crisis, xi, xiii–xiv, 3, 12, 17, 24, 67, 73, 75, 114, 124, 146, 148, 274, 364, 387 and central bank independence, 157–58 and confidence, 280 and cost of failure of financial institutions, 131 lessons of, 249 monetary policy in, 151 and need for structural reform, 214 originating in US, 65, 68, 79–80, 112, 128, 296, 302 globalization, 51, 321–23 and diminishing share of employment in advanced countries, 224 economic vs. political, xvii failures of, xvii Globalization and Its Discontents (Stig-litz), 234, 335, 369 global savings glut, 257 global secular stagnation, 120 global warming, 229–30, 251, 282, 319 gold, 257, 275, 277, 345 Goldman Sachs, 158, 366 gold standard, 148, 291, 347, 358 in Great Depression, xii, 100 goods: free movement of, 40, 143, 260–61 nontraded, 102, 103, 169, 213, 217, 359 traded, 102, 103, 216 Gordon, Robert, 251 governance, 157–63, 258–59 government spending, trade deficits and, 107–8 gravity principle, 124, 127–28 Great Depression, 42, 67, 105, 148, 149, 168, 313 Friedman on causes of, 151 gold standard in, xii, 100 Great Malaise, 264 Greece, 14, 30, 41, 64, 81, 100, 117, 123, 142, 160, 177, 265–66, 278, 307, 331, 343, 366, 367–68, 374–75, 386 austerity opposed by, 59, 60–62, 69–70, 207–8, 392 balance of payments, 219 banks in, 200–201, 228–29, 231, 270, 276, 367, 368 blaming of, 16, 17 bread in, 218, 230 capital controls in, 390 consumption tax and, 193–94 counterfactual scenario of, 80 current account surplus of, 287–88 and debt restructuring, 205–7 debt-to-GDP ratio of, 231 debt write-offs in, 291 decline in labor costs in, 56, 103 ECB’s cutting of funds to, 59 economic growth in, 215, 247 emigration from, 68–69 fiscal deficits in, 16, 186, 215, 233, 285–86, 289 GDP of, xviii, 183, 309 hours worked per worker in, 72 inequality in, 72 inherited debt in, 134 lack of faith in democracy in, 312–13 living standards in, 216 loans in, 127 loans to, 310 migrants and, 320–21 milk in, 218, 223, 230 new currency in, 291, 300 oligarchs in, 16, 227 output per working-age person in, 70–71 past downturns in, 235–36 pensions in, 16, 78, 188, 197–98, 226 pharmacies in, 218–20 population decline in, 69, 89 possible exit from eurozone of, 124, 197, 273, 274, 275 poverty in, 226, 261, 376 primary surplus of, 187–88, 312 privatization in, 55, 195–96 productivity in, 71, 342 programs imposed on, xv, 21, 27, 60–62, 140, 155–56, 179–80, 181, 182–83, 184–85, 187–88, 190–93, 195–96, 197–98, 202–3, 205, 206, 214–16, 218–23, 225–28, 229, 230, 231, 233–34, 273, 278, 308, 309–11, 312, 315–16, 336, 338 renewable energy in, 193, 229 social capital destroyed in, 78 sovereign spread of, 200 spread in, 332 and structural reforms, 20, 70, 188, 191 tax revenue in, 16, 142, 192, 227, 367–368 tools lacking for recovery of, 246 tourism in, 192, 286 trade deficits in, 81, 194, 216–17, 222, 285–86 unemployment in, xi, 71, 236, 267, 332, 338, 342 urgency in, 214–15 victim-blaming of, 309–11 wages in, 216–17 youth unemployment in, xi, 332 Greek bonds, 116, 126 interest rates on, 4, 114, 181–82, 201–2, 323 restructuring of, 206–7 green investments, 260 Greenspan, Alan, 251, 359, 363 Grexit, see Greece, possible exit from eurozone of grocery stores, 219 gross domestic product (GDP), xvii decline in, 3 measurement of, 341 Growth and Stability Pact, 87 hedge funds, 282, 363 highways, 41 Hitler, Adolf, 338, 358 Hochtief, 367–68 Hoover, Herbert, 18, 95 human capital, 78, 137 human rights, 44–45, 319 Hungary, 46, 331, 338 hysteresis, 270 Iceland, 44, 111, 307, 354–55 banks in, 91 capital controls in, 390 ideology, 308–9, 315–18 imports, 86, 88, 97–99, 98, 107 incentives, 158–59 inclusive capitalism, 317 income, unemployment and, 77 income tax, 45 Independent Commission for the Reform of International Corporate Taxation, 376–377 Indonesia, 113, 230–31, 314, 350, 364, 378 industrial policies, 138–39, 301 and restructuring, 217, 221, 223–25 Industrial Revolution, 3, 224 industry, 89 inequality, 45, 72–73, 333 aggregate demand lowered by, 212 created by central banks, 154 ECB’s creation of, 154–55 economic performance affected by, xvii euro’s increasing of, xviii growth’s lowering of, 212 hurt by collective action, 338 increased by neoliberalism, xviii increase in, 64, 154–55 inequality in, 72, 212 as moral issue, xviii in Spain, 72, 212, 225–26 and tax harmonization, 260–61 and tax system, 191 inflation, 277, 290, 314, 388 in aftermath of tech bubble, 251 bonds and, 161 central banks and, 153, 166–67 consequences of fixation on, 149–50, 151 costs of, 270 and debt monetization, 42 ECB and, 8, 25, 97, 106, 115, 145, 146–50, 151, 163, 165, 169–70, 172, 255, 256, 266 and food prices, 169 in Germany, 42, 338, 358 interest rates and, 43–44 in late 1970s, 168 and natural rate hypothesis, 172–73 political decisions and, 146 inflation targeting, 157, 168–70, 364 inf