HyperCard

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pages: 398 words: 86,023

The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih

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Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Marshall McLuhan, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K

Since the Web was not tied to one computer company or encumbered by patents, HTML could be generated and displayed by anyone who had the interest and skill to write a program to translate the codes to the computer screen. Most everything in HyperCard mapped quite well to HTML—text, italics, bold, images, and sounds. And while Ward Cunningham was finding HyperCard easy to use and to derive a prototype from, someone else was also discovering that HyperCard was useful. Viola Shipping HyperCard for free on Macs inspired a whole generation of programmers with the power of hypermedia, even if it didn’t generate any significant revenue for Apple. In 1989, University of California at Berkeley student Pei-Yan Wei played around with HyperCard and was impressed with Apple’s giveaway tool. “HyperCard was very compelling back then, you know graphically, this hyperlink thing, it was just not very global and it only worked on Mac . . . and I didn’t even have a Mac.”

He Wiki_Origins_55 contacted Berners-Lee about writing a Web browser himself and got a positive response. Four days later, Wei emerged and announced to the World Wide Web community that he had made ViolaWWW.17 HyperCard was a product ahead of its time. And even though Apple stopped development and support for it, HyperCard’s influence would be much more profound. Its visual interface and hyperlinking were the inspiration for the first popular Web browser, and even twenty years later, after a dot-com boom and bust, people are still trying to replicate the simplicity and power of HyperCard. HyperCard Revisited In September 1987, HyperCard intrigued Cunningham, but his work at Tektronix would lead him to study how people design software, and he started to write about something called “pattern languages.” Until then, developing software was still considered a complicated and cumbersome task—lots of complexities and intricacies that relied on a guru programmer to work out.

It’s amusing to think of today’s Internet activity happening through sheets of microfilm, but Bush was well ahead of his time on the implications of linking together information seamlessly. As a tool to accomplish this memex function of linking and organizing data, HyperCard had a cult following, as it was easy to use, yet powerful. People could create an interlinked series of documents at the touch of a mouse. This was many years before the first Web browser was even conceived. Fortunately, Cunningham had early access to HyperCard through a former Tektronix employee named Kent Beck, with whom he had worked. Beck had left to work for Apple Computer and happened to be in Oregon on a visit, and gave his old friend Ward something to see. “Kent Beck showed me HyperCard, which he first got his hands on after joining Apple. It was called WildCard then. I was blown away.”14 In HyperCard, Cunningham saw a tool that could help him with his knowledge-sharing project. “I wanted something kind of irregular, something that 48_The_Wikipedia_Revolution didn’t fit in rows and columns.”


pages: 222 words: 53,317

Overcomplicated: Technology at the Limits of Comprehension by Samuel Arbesman

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Anton Chekhov, Apple II, Benoit Mandelbrot, citation needed, combinatorial explosion, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, digital map, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, HyperCard, Inbox Zero, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mandelbrot fractal, Minecraft, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Parkinson's law, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, software studies, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Therac-25, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

We see this trend continuing even today with the iPad, so slick and pristine that I don’t even know how files in it are stored. However, I had HyperCard for our Mac. HyperCard was this strange combination of programming language and exploratory environment. You could create virtual cards, stitch them together, and add buttons and icons that had specific functionality. You could make fun animations and cool sounds and even connect to other cards. If you’ve ever played the classic game Myst, it was originally developed using HyperCard. HyperCard was like a prototypical series of web pages that all lived on your own computer, but it could also do pretty much anything else you wanted. For a kid who was beginning to explore computers, this visual authoring space was the perfect gateway to the machine. One program I built with HyperCard was a rudimentary password generator: it could make a random string you could use as a password, but it also had options to make the random passwords more pronounceable, and hence more memorable over the long term.

One program I built with HyperCard was a rudimentary password generator: it could make a random string you could use as a password, but it also had options to make the random passwords more pronounceable, and hence more memorable over the long term. It was simple, but definitely ahead of its time, in my unstudied opinion. The computer game designer Chaim Gingold calls gateways like HyperCard “magic crayons.” Like the crayon in the children’s book Harold and the Purple Crayon that allows the young hero to draw objects that immediately take on reality, magic crayons are tools that, in Gingold’s words, “allow non-programmers to engage the procedural qualities of the digital medium and build dynamic things.” Even in the Apple world, commonly viewed as sterilized of messy code and computational innards, HyperCard allowed access to the complex powerhouse of the digital domain. HyperCard provided me with the comfort to enter this world, giving me a hint of the possibilities of working under the hood. All complex systems that we interact with have different levels that we can examine, created in technology by the deliberate abstractions we construct and in nature by the abstracting powers of scale and evolution.

., 153 hapax legomena, 54–55, 128, 206 Harold and the Purple Crayon (Johnson), 162 Harvard, John, 90 Heartbleed vulnerability, 97–98 Heaven, Douglas, 82 heavy-tailed distributions, 55–56, 133, 206 hierarchies, 27, 50–51 highly optimized tolerance, 99, 120 Hild (Griffith), 145–46 Hillis, Danny, 23 Hölzle, Urs, 217 Holzmann, Gerard, 21–22 Homer, 129–30 Homer-Dixon, Thomas, 2, 12, 70 Horner, Jack, 79–80, 97 Howard, Luke, 148 Howard, Philip K., 22, 46 HTML, 32 humility: as response to limits of human comprehension, 155–56 as response to technological complexity, 155–56, 158, 165, 167, 170, 174, 176 Huxley, Thomas Henry, 113, 114 HyperCard, 162–63 IBM, 84, 169 IBM 3083 computer, 37 ideas, interconnectivity of, 142 if-then statements, 80–81 Iliad (Homer), 129–30 infield fly rule, 172 infrastructure, 66 accretion in, 42, 100–101 complexity of, 100–101 interconnection of, 2 interconnection of natural world and, 3–4 of Internet, 101–2 replacement of, 46 Ingenuity Gap, The (Homer-Dixon), 2 interaction, 65 in cancer, 126 in catastrophes, 126 in complex systems, 36, 43–51, 62, 65, 146 in financial sector, 126 in legal system, 45–46 of modules, 64 in software, 44–45 interconnectivity, 2, 14–15, 45–46, 103, 128, 135, 146 in financial sector, 24–26, 62, 64 ideas and, 142 and limits of human comprehension, 78–79 modules in, 63–65, 208 in technological complexity, 2, 47–48 unexpected behavior of, see unexpected behavior Internal Revenue Service, 37–38 Internet, 47, 66 evolving function of, 31–32 physical infrastructure of, 101–2 interoperability, 47–48 optimal vs. maximum, 62–63, 64–65 interpreters, of complex systems, 166–67, 229 Ionia, 138–39 iPad, 162 Jeopardy!


pages: 193 words: 19,478

Memory Machines: The Evolution of Hypertext by Belinda Barnet

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augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Duvall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, game design, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, John Markoff, linked data, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, publish or perish, Robert Metcalfe, semantic web, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons

I could have included several others from that period – most obviously NoteCards, Office Workstations Limited’s Guide, KMS, Microcosm, or Apple’s very popular HyperCard program released in 1987. The latter systems were all commercialized in some form, but HyperCard was the most successful, largely because it was bundled free with every Macintosh sold after 1987 (Nielsen 1995). HyperCard is the elephant in the pre-Web hypertext room; it popularized hypermedia before the Web and introduced the concept of linking to the general public. In some media accounts, one could be forgiven for thinking there was no hypertext before HyperCard (as New Scientist’s Helen Knight implies in her piece on pre-Web hypertext, ‘The Missing Link’ (2012, 45)). Actually computer-based hypertext had been around for twenty years before HyperCard, and the systems we will explore in this book were all built (or imagined) well before its release in 1987.

It was an exciting time, recalls John Smith; it was the first large international conference devoted to hypertext, and ‘the hypertext community discovered that it was bigger than anyone realized’ (Smith 2011). Joyce and Bolter were there, at their ‘famous, but not mythological rickety table, where we sat outside the plenary sessions’ (Joyce 2011a), and Smith was there with his Textlab colleagues presenting the Writing Environment (Smith actually co-chaired the conference with Frank Halasz). Andy van Dam gave his legendary keynote presentation, as we saw in the chapter on HES. Apple presented HyperCard with much pomp and ceremony, but it was met with an undertone of disdain (as Joyce recalls it); the feeling was ‘we all knew systems that had a good deal more functionality, like FRESS, and we sort of resented being told, “here’s hypertext”’ (Joyce 2011a). Ted Nelson also presented a paper on Xanadu (‘All for One and One for All’) and Janet Walker presented a paper on the Document Examiner. ‘It was fabulous,’ recalls Joyce, ‘the whole hypertext world discovered one another’ (Joyce 2011a).

Pascal is obviously still in use, but is no longer the primary development language for Apple machines. 17 ‘When we called it TALETELLER 2, we were already working on Mac by that time’ (Bolter 2011). 18 Although he also mentions numerous cultural and literary influences – the novels of Sterne and Joyce, Cortazar’s Hopscotch, even jazz music. 19 Stuart Moulthrop, in a prepublication review of this chapter. 20 Joyce and Bolter later confirmed this suspicion. 21 Developed 1985–7 with funding from Cornell University and Apple. 22 Joyce wrote in an email to the author: ‘the “strongly influenced” makes me think I mixed up the names of Nancy’s program which I knew about but hadn’t used, and John’s, which Jay indeed felt we had to acknowledge given his work with John’s group’. 23 We do not have space to go into more detail about WE here, but it was an important system in the history of expository or ‘professional’ writing systems; it was presented at Hypertext ’87 alongside Intermedia, HyperCard, Storyspace and NLS. 24 Joyce now believes it wasn’t a meeting but a conference; ‘If I wrote that in the Markle Report, it is incorrect. We didn’t have a meeting with Hooper but rather I attended a conference where I heard her speak about, and demo, the Aspen Movie Project’ (2012). 25 Letter to Barton Thurber from Riverrun, 2 February 1990, Joyce Archives. 26 Bernstein’s paper ‘Patterns of Hypertext’ (1998) is widely cited in the field. 27 For example, Ensslin seeks to redefine ‘producer-defined, commercially ideologized’ terminology that has come into widespread us as a result of ‘specified hypertext software, mostly traded by Eastgate Systems’ (Ensslin 2007, 7). 28 Bernstein and Kirschenbaum had a falling-out over the Electronic Literature Organization, and Bernstein resigned.


Simple and Usable Web, Mobile, and Interaction Design by Giles Colborne

call centre, Firefox, HyperCard, Menlo Park, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy

Take a look at websites and magazines like Wired or the Guardian online and you’ll see they’re really designed around a regular, asymmetric grid. rganize Download from WoweBook.com Before After Download from WoweBook.com Size and location When you’re laying out items on your grid, here are some tips for size and positioning. Make important things big, even if that means making them out of scale. The illustration opposite is similar to one featured in one of the first books on interface design I read—Apple’s HyperCard Stack Design Guidelines. If you’re designing a sports news website, then making the golf ball as large as the soccer ball may not be accurate, but the alternative would be to make it look as though the Masters was less important than MLS. Sports fans can debate that, but sports editors would prefer to give them equal prominence. Less important items should be smaller. Emphasize the difference in importance as much as you can, otherwise the user will get distracted.

., Image 918432 Page 79, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Mark Wragg, Image 13558859 Page 81, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © tolgakolcak, Image 7265127 Page 83, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Peter Garbet, Image 5742149 Page 87, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Conrad Lottenbach, Image 3131848 Page 101, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © mphotoi, Image 3431237 Page 103, Photo thanks to DDB UK; Illustrator: Pete Mould Page 105, Photo: Ray Yuen Page 109, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © malerapaso, Image 12566021 (picture frame) Page 109, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © wsfurlan, Image 8528913 (mobile phone) Part 5 Organize Page 115, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © PLAINVIEW, Image 13334346 Page 123, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Luis Santana, Image 2329511 Page 125, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Thomas Arbour, Image 12878280 Page 129, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Anna Yu, Image 8162485 (basketball) Page 129, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Matteo Rinaldi, Image 12117545 (golf ball) Page 129, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Tomasz Pietryszek, Image 12133382 (tennis ball) Page 129, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Chris Scredon, Image 7337356 (soccer ball) Page 131, Photo: Copyright Transport for London Page 133, Photo: Copyright Adam Wilson Page 135, Photo thanks to Andrew Skudder Part 6 Hide Page 149, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © James Pauls, Image 3098674 Page 155, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Steve Harmon, Image 1035401 Page 157, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Alina555, Image 4716967 redits Download from WoweBook.com Part 7 Displace Page 165, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Matt Jeacock, Image 9316437 Page 169, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Neustockimages, Image 7418248 Page 171, Photo courtesy Honda PR Page 173, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Matt Jeacock, Image 13726223 Page 177, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © René Mansi, Image 184532 Part 8 Before we go Page 181, Photo © Ricky Leong Page 185, Photo courtesy iStockphoto, © Matt Jeacock, Image 12394740 P H OTO C R E D I T S • 189 Download from WoweBook.com This page intentionally left blank Download from WoweBook.com Index A C Adaptive Path, 14 Caddick, Richard, 84 Adobe Illustrator, 152–153 camcorders, Flip, 40 Amazon online checkout page, 94 shopping flexibility, 170 Apple autofocus feature, 180 focus capturing moments, 184 on most used features, 112 Apple Store, Tokyo, 104–105 recording and sharing, 36 data detectors, 175 simplicity of design, 4–5 HyperCard Stack Design Guidelines, 128 user experience description, 38 cameras, SLR digital cameras, 24 iPhone Cavalcanti, Mariana, 106 description, 46 character of simple products, 10 focusing camera, 180 Colville, Alan, 52, 68 original features, 64 Comic Life app, 154 RunKeeper app, 162–163, 176 complexity Things app, 32–34 conservation of, 180 iPod, 26, 180 versus effectiveness, 12–13 iTunes, 122 intranets, managers versus salespeople, 8 Macintosh, 154, 180 Safari web browser, 88–89 website’s Tech Specs, 152 versus simplicity, installing printers, 2–3 unsustainability, 6 B Basecamp (37signals), 64 usage instructions, 12 BBC, 144 constraints of simple product design, 18 Best Buy’s online checkout page, 94 control issues, 34 Bing versus Google searches, 10 The Co-operative Bank, 84–85 BlackBerry features, 64 Cultured Code, 50, 74 Blogger, 64 Braunstein, Ariel, 4 INDEX • 191 Download from WoweBook.com D most frequently used, 112–113 Dattilo, Fran, 106 searching versus browsing, 122–123 DDB’s Volkswagen advertisement, 102–103 size, 128–129 design features, 56–59.

., 78 hiding design features, 60–61, 138–139 focusing on necessities, 64–65, 108 core controls versus precision controls, 146–147 prioritizing features, 82 criteria for hiding, 156 cues and clues, 152–153 E customizing Elise (Lotus), 64 automatically, 144–145 emotional needs, 32–34 hiding infrequently used features, 142–143 expert users, 24 core controls versus precision controls, 146–147 versus mainstream users, 30 versus other users, 26–27 F Facebook, 142, 180 fake simplicity, 12–13 disclosure progressive, 146–147 staged, 148–149 ease of finding, 154–155 infrequently used but necessary, 140–141 revealing when needed, 150–151 Hilton, Paris, 38, 40 Flip camcorders, 40 INDEX • 193 Download from WoweBook.com The Human Interface, 154 versus expert users, 30 HyperCard Stack Design Guidelines, 128 versus other users, 28–29 setting options and preferences, 93 I iGoogle, 142 Marriott website’s home page, 106–107 Illustrator (Adobe), 152–153 Merholz, Peter, 14 Insanely Great: The Life and Times of Macintosh, the Computer that Changed Everything, 50 Microsoft iPhone (Apple) focusing camera, 180 original features, 64 RunKeeper app, 162–163, 176 iPod (Apple), 26, 180 iTunes (Apple), 122 Iyengar, Dr.


pages: 223 words: 52,808

Intertwingled: The Work and Influence of Ted Nelson (History of Computing) by Douglas R. Dechow

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3D printing, Apple II, Bill Duvall, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, game design, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, pre–internet, RAND corporation, semantic web, Silicon Valley, software studies, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog

Some of the conference attendees were actually around when that book was published, and they have unpacked its importance for personal computing. I just want to talk about hypertext. One of the main things I want to emphasise is that for many years it was up to Nelson to promote the idea of a world-wide hypertext publishing system. It may be self-evident, even pedestrian today, but it certainly wasn’t in the 1960s and 1970s—right into the 1980s people were still building workstation-based hypertext systems. HyperCard, the elephant in the pre-Web hypertext room that introduced the concept of linking to the general public, was a stand-alone system. NoteCards, Guide, etc., none of these were globe-spanning open publishing systems. Even in the 1980s, it seemed wacky. In a 1988 paper given at Oxford that Nelson provided to the participants of this conference (I hadn’t seen it before) called “Hypertext: the Manifest Destiny of Literature” Nelson writes, hopeful as ever:The key problem is…to create a universal literary medium, an unbounded storage and delivery system as simple in concept as the book and library, unrestricted as to what screens you may see it on, unrestricted in its organization, unimpeachable in its authenticity, and as quickly available as a phone call.

I began to hear about Ted and Doug Engelbart, both of whom equally inspired me: Ted talking about everything being deeply intertwingled, and Doug, talking about augmenting the human intellect. Again, I don’t need to tell this audience about these two men. When I give talks to a non-expert audience I always include reference to them because it was their ideas—I hadn’t met them at this point—that inspired me. The year of 1987 was a key one for hypertext. It was the year of the first ACM Hypertext conference, and the year Apple released HyperCard. It was also the year that the archive of the Earl Mountbatten of Burma arrived at the University of Southampton. Mountbatten was a cousin of the Queen, and very famous in the UK for his various military leadership roles during and after the Second World War and as the last Viceroy of India. What does this have to do with my research story? The Mountbatten family estate is just outside Southampton, and after he died in the 1970s, the University of Southampton took over custodianship of his archive, which consisted of about 250,000 papers, 50,000 photos, audio recordings of his speeches and various film and video recordings.


pages: 259 words: 67,456

The Mythical Man-Month by Brooks, Jr. Frederick P.

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finite state, HyperCard, Menlo Park, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, Turing machine

An especially promising trend is the use of mass-market packages as the platforms on which richer and more customized products are built. A truck-tracking system is built on a shrink-wrapped database and communications package; so is a student information system. The want ads in computer magazines offer hundreds of HyperCard stacks and customized templates for Excel, dozens of special functions in Pascal for MiniCad or functions in AutoLisp for AutoCad. Metaprogramming. Building HyperCard stacks, Excel templates, or MiniCad functions is sometimes called metaprogramming, the construction of a new layer that customizes function for a subset of a package's users. The metaprogramming concept is not new, only resurgent and renamed. In the early 1960s, computer vendors and many big management information systems (MIS) shops had small groups of specialists who crafted whole application programming languages out of macros in assembly language.


pages: 481 words: 121,669

The Invisible Web: Uncovering Information Sources Search Engines Can't See by Gary Price, Chris Sherman, Danny Sullivan

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AltaVista, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, business intelligence, dark matter, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, full text search, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, joint-stock company, knowledge worker, natural language processing, pre–internet, profit motive, publish or perish, search engine result page, side project, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Ted Nelson, Vannevar Bush, web application

Another twenty years would pass before Xerox implemented the first mainstream hypertext program, called NoteCards, in 1985. A year later, Owl Ltd. created a program called Guide, which functioned in many respects like a contemporary Web browser, but lacked Internet connectivity. Bill Atkinson, an Apple Computer programmer best known for creating MacPaint, the first bitmap painting program, created the first truly popular hypertext program in 1987. His HyperCard program was specifically for the Macintosh, and it also lacked Net connectivity. Nonetheless, the program proved popular, and the basic functionality and concepts of hypertext were assimilated by Microsoft, appearing first in standard help systems for Windows software. Weaving the Web The foundations and pieces necessary to build a system like the World Wide Web were in place well before Tim Berners-Lee began his tinkering.

.), 249 HotBot, 57–58, 112 hotel and properties database, 180 Hotel-Motel Master List, 340 hotelguide.Com, 340 Hotlinks, 113 House Floor Proceedings, Current, 313 Housing And Urban Development Environmental Maps (E-Maps), 357 Houston Real-Time Traffic Map, 316 How Far Is It?, 337 How Much Is That?, 174 HSTAT (Health Care Decisionmaking), 250 HTML (HyperText Markup Language) communications and, 18 creation of, 11 direct vs. indirect URLs, 79–81 forms, 64–65 HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol), 11 HUD Homes for Sale, 193 HUDOC, 275 Human Resources Canada, 174–175 human resources, O*Net, 186–187 humanities, Cambridge University, 39 HyperCard, 10 hypertext definition, 2 directory use of, 22 search engines and, 62–63 Xanadu and, 10 Xerox implementation, 10 HyperText Markup Language (HTML), 11, 62 hypertext query languages, 132 HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP), 11 I IBM, 29, 72, 132, 202 IDEA (Electronic Directory of European Institutions), 233 420 The Invisible Web Idealab, 15 Idealist, 191 IFLA (Directory of National Union Catalogs), 160–161 IIE (Institute of International Education) passports, 211 images.

Congress, 237–238 Lobbyist Search Canada, 237–238 Lobbyists Lists (Florida), 308 Lobbyists Public Registry (Ontario), 308 Lobbyists Spending on Georgia Lawmakers, 307–308 Local Harvest, 328 logical operators, Boolean, 6 London Stock Exchange Listed Company Directory, 185 London Theatre Guide, 224 London Times, 89 London Transport System, 340 LookSmart, 22–26 lookup services, 187–188 Los Angeles Times, 89–90, 287 lotteries (U.K.), 236 Lotus Knowledge Base, 201 Lycos, 15, 112 Lycos Company Online, 165 M Macintosh HyperCard, 10 magazines, full text, 105 Mailbox and Packing Store Database, 334 mailing lists, 7 Major League Baseball Player Search, 339 Major Malls (DMM), Directory of, 193 Making of America (MOA) Project, 264–265 Makulowich, John, 12 malls, directory of, 193 mammography, certified centers, 252 Man and the Biosphere Species Database, 346–347 Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience Database (MAUDE), 254 MapBlast, 97, 337 Maporama, 337 Mapquest, 97 maps, 40, 97, 316, 335–337, 357 Maptech Map Server, 337 Marcus Garvey and UNIA Papers, 265 Marin Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems, 243 Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey Database, 172 Marine Safety Information System (MSIS), U.S.C.G., 386 Marines Body Fat Calculator, U.S., 256 424 The Invisible Web maritime information resources, 386–387 marketing information resources, 188–189 Mark’s Online Domain Names Search, 203 MARNA (Maritime Nautical) Database, 269 Marriage and Divorce Verification (Colorado), 308 Marriage Inquiry System (Clark County, NV/Las Vegas), 308 Martindale-Hubbel Lawyer Locator, 272–273 Martindale’s Calculators Online Center, 323 MasterCard/Maestro/Cirrus ATM Locator, 335 Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), 355–356 mathematics information resources, 208, 362.


pages: 1,201 words: 233,519

Coders at Work by Peter Seibel

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Ada Lovelace, bioinformatics, cloud computing, Conway's Game of Life, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fault tolerance, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, Larry Wall, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Perl 6, premature optimization, publish or perish, random walk, revision control, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, side project, slashdot, speech recognition, the scientific method, Therac-25, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, type inference, Valgrind, web application

But if you take that about two levels more, you're into stuff that's actually educational—you could build simple dynamic models that you could interact with. It's a lot like Flash but it's simpler and more integrated with programming. From there, I just think of it as being possibly a nice environment for embedding lots of little dynamic, educational examples. A decade or two ago there was HyperCard and lots of teachers were able to understand that and do useful things in it. It's really strange that that whole experience didn't naturally go right into the Web. I think there's still a role to be filled there with tools as simple as HyperCard and as immediate as the Web. It would be cool if it went that way. Seibel: You've famously been involved in five or seven or however many generations of Smalltalk implementations. Let's start with the first Smalltalk that you did in BASIC. You had a couple pages of notes from Alan Kay that you had to make real.

But that Stockholm syndrome aside, and Microsoft stagnating the Web aside, language design can do well to take a kernel idea or two and push them hard. Seibel: Were you aware of NewtonScript at all? Eich: Only after the fact did someone point it out to me and I realized, “Hey, they've got something like our scope chain in their parent link and our single prototype.” I think it was convergent evolution based on Self. And the DOM event handlers—part of the influence there was HyperTalk and Atkinson's HyperCard. So I was looking not only at Self and Scheme, but there were these onFoo event handlers in HyperTalk, and that is what I did for the DOM onClick and so on. One more positive influence, and this is kind of embarrassing, was awk. I mean, I was an old Unix hacker and Perl was out, but I was still using awk for various chores. And I could've called these first-class functions anything, but I called them “function” mainly because of awk.

Peter, 373, 387 development teams, 37, 38 Dias, John, 265 Dijkstra, 124, 565, 567, 582, 584, 590, 600 Doctor, 537, 540, 541 DOCTOR, 519 documentation, 7, 179, 181, 196, 230, 231, 232, 461 documenting, 461, 464 dynamic languages, 139 E E, 95, 96 ECMAScript, 325, 351 ECMAScript 3, 142 ECMAScript 4, 91, 96, 134, 142 ECMAScript 4 (ES4), 91 Eich, Brendan, 99 Eiffel, 121 EISCAT scientific association, 206, 209 Electric Communities, 91, 95, 96, 112 ELIZA, 519, 540, 541 Elkind, Jerry, 430 Emacs, 9, 13, 35, 36, 39, 85, 266, 325, 335, 344, 345, 346, 347, 354, 419, 440, 541, 556 Emacs Lisp, 12 Encina, 167 Energize, 9, 30 Energize team, 13 ENIAC, 504, 506, 511 Ericsson, 205, 206, 220, 221 Erlang, 205, 206, 211, 212, 214, 218, 219, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 232, 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 263 ES3, 91, 96, 100, 146, 351 ES4, 91, 92, 99, 100, 143, 146, 157, 351 ES5, 92 ethical responsibilities, 88 eToys, 382, 392 Expert Technologies (ETI), 4, 5 explicit memory management versus garbage collection, 64 F Fahlman, Scott, 3, 4 FastGCI, 58 feature convergence, 102 Firefox, 133, 138 Fitzpatrick, Brad, 48 Fortran, 2, 91, 92, 93, 104, 105, 134, 168, 170, 172, 206, 210, 224, 226, 325, 326, 327, 328, 330, 352, 353, 358, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 396, 398, 399, 451, 455, 456, 485, 487, 488, 490, 491, 495, 502, 521, 534, 560, 577, 583, 596, 600, 601 Fortress, 325, 339, 347, 350, 356, 357, 358, 365 forward references, 109 Free Software Foundation (FSF), 10 FreeVote, 54 Fröberg, Magnus, 230 functional programming, 241, 242, 250, 251, 254, 255, 257, 260, 266, 275, 276, 278, 280 FX, 438 G Gabriel, Dick, 353 Gabriel, Richard, 462 Gaim, 70 Gates, Bill, 236 GCC, 13, 63, 80 GDB, 8, 9, 13, 30, 589 generics, 191, 192, 193, 194 GHC, 241, 261, 262, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 278, 279, 280, 284, 285 GHCI, 267 Ghostscript, 413, 414, 418, 420, 427, 432, 433, 444, 445 Gilder, George, 137 Glasgow Haskell Compiler (GHC), 241 GNAL, 325, 353 Goetz, Brian, 172, 186 Goldin, Don, 312 Google, 55, 62, 63, 64, 65, 68, 71, 72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 82, 84, 85, 86, 163, 167, 184, 185, 186, 287, 296, 298, 301, 303, 304, 305, 307, 308, 311, 320, 322, 473, 474, 475, 476, 480 Gosper, Bill, 522 goto statements, 565, 595 Greenblatt, Richard, 522 Grover, George, 492 Guibas, Leo, 421 GWT, 100 H Habitat, 95, 112 Hacker's Dictionary, The, 325 Harris, Tim, 275 Harvard, 325, 329, 330, 331, 333, 374, 413, 425 Haskell, 241, 251, 254, 259, 261, 266, 267, 268, 270, 275, 276, 278, 280, 283, 296, 325, 354, 357, 358, 359, 365, 436, 437 Heart, Frank, 530, 535, 538 Herlihy, Maurice, 275 Herman, Dave, 144 history, 568, 577, 578, 598, 599 Hoare, Tony, 196, 585, 590 Horwat, Waldemar, 143 Houck, Chris, 16 Hughes, John, 257, 258, 263 HyperCard, 382 I IBM, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 332, 340, 353, 362, 370, 485, 486, 487, 490, 493, 495, 499, 500, 506, 508, 510, 512, 514, 515, 516 IBM Research, 185 Iborra, Pepe, 268 IMLAC, 561 IMP, 520, 530, 532, 534, 536, 537, 538, 558 IMPs, 519, 529, 549 Interface Message Processors (IMPs), 519 Interlisp, 413, 414, 418, 441 invariants, 79, 406, 468, 469 J Jacobson, Van, 153 Java, 11, 21, 49, 52, 62, 63, 65, 66, 81, 85, 134, 136, 141, 143, 145, 146, 147, 149, 161, 162, 164, 167, 168, 170, 172, 173, 174, 176, 177, 179, 183, 184, 185, 186, 191, 192, 193, 195, 196, 197, 198, 325, 334, 339, 343, 349, 350, 351, 352, 354, 355, 356, 358, 377, 378, 379, 389, 468, 471, 476, 502, 503, 559, 560, 582, 596 Java Collections Framework, 167 Java Community Process, 349, 350 Javadoc, 356 JavaScript, 91, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 105, 106, 108, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 125, 128, 129, 130, 133, 134, 136, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 155, 159, 160, 165, 166, 373, 379, 380, 381, 392, 401, 405, 408 John Reiser C preprocessor, 135 Joule, 95 Joy, Bill, 325 JSLint, 114, 118, 120 JSON, 91, 125 JsUnit, 122 K K&R style, 107, 108 Kay, Alan, 94, 373, 376, 378, 383, 389, 391, 404 Knuth, Donald, 114, 115, 116, 117, 124 KWIC index, 328 L Lambda Papers, The, 325 Lanett, Mark, 16 lazy evaluation, 241, 257, 258, 259, 260, 262 leaf nodes, 37 Learson, T.


pages: 184 words: 53,625

Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson

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Airbus A320, airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Donald Davies, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, mega-rich, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche, working poor, X Prize, your tax dollars at work

We need to be reminded of what life was like before the Web. I made my monthly pilgrimages to College Hill because I was interested in the Mac, which was, it should be said, a niche interest in 1987, though not that much of a niche. Apple was one of the world’s largest creators of personal computers, and by far the most innovative. But if you wanted to find out news about the Mac—new machines from Apple, the latest word on the upcoming System 7 or HyperCard, or any new releases from the thousands of software developers or peripheral manufacturers—if you wanted to keep up with any of this, there was just about one channel available to you, as a college student in Providence, Rhode Island. You read Macworld. Even then, even if you staked out the College Hill Bookstore, waiting for issues hot off the press, you were still getting the news a month or two late, given the long lead times of a print magazine back then.


pages: 666 words: 181,495

In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy

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23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, one-China policy, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, selection bias, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, turn-by-turn navigation, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

The timeline continued to the work of Douglas Engelbart, whose team at the Stanford Research Institute devised a linked document system that lived behind a dazzling interface that introduced the metaphors of windows and files to the digital desktop. Then came a detour to the brilliant but erratic work of an autodidact named Ted Nelson, whose ambitious Xanadu Project (though never completed) was a vision of disparate information linked by “hypertext” connections. Nelson’s work inspired Bill Atkinson, a software engineer who had been part of the original Macintosh team; in 1987 he came up with a link-based system called HyperCard, which he sold to Apple for $100,000 on the condition that the company give it away to all its users. But to really fulfill Vannevar Bush’s vision, you needed a huge system where people could freely post and link their documents. By the time Berners-Lee had his epiphany, that system was in place: the Internet. While the earliest websites were just ways to distribute academic papers more efficiently, soon people began writing sites with information of all sorts, and others created sites just for fun.

., 366–67 EarthLink, 95 eBay, 15, 113, 318 Edison, Thomas, 13 Edwards, Doug, 140 eGroups, 30 Elbaz, Gil, 103 Electronic Frontier Foundation, 337, 339 email, 161, 167–81 and ads, 102, 170–73, 177, 179, 180 and cloud computing, 180–81 Gmail, see Gmail and privacy, 170–78, 211, 378 and revenues, 170–73 and storage, 168–69, 172, 179–80 Emerald Sea, 382–83 employees: and austerity period, 256–57, 258–59 contract workers, 257, 269 first, 34, 36, 37 as Googley, 4, 36, 138–40, 158, 159, 162, 270, 309 numbers of, 5, 134, 158, 164, 373, 386 pampered, 58, 133–38, 259 promotions of, 260 recruitment/hiring of, 35–41, 72, 138–43, 258–59, 266, 386 and security issues, 269–70 70–20–10 balance, 162, 323 teamwork, 162 and 20 percent rule, 124 wealth of, 155–57, 259 Engelbart, Douglas, 15 Epstein, Scott, 76–77 Eustace, Alan, 145–46, 215, 271, 281, 289, 301, 303, 308 Ewing, Jessica, 174 Excite, 20, 27, 28–30, 136, 268 Facebook, 309, 322, 369–71, 373, 375–77, 379–80, 382–83 face recognition, 232 Farrell, Carrie, 139 Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 222, 223 Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 331–34, 379 Feiken, Jennifer, 242–43, 244–45 fiber optics, ownership of, 187–88, 198, 199, 261 Figueroa, Liz, 176–78 Filo, David, 28, 344 Fino, Audrey, 49–50, 52, 60 Fischer, David, 98 Fisher, Darin, 204 Flake, Gary, 98 Fleischer, Peter, 338–39 forecasting, 119–20 Foursquare, 374 Fred (video channel), 263–64 FriendFeed, 259, 370 Friendster, 371 Gaia password system, 308–9 Garcia-Molina, Hector, 14, 16, 17, 18, 23, 33 Gates, Bill, 14, 179, 204, 219, 278, 282, 283, 344, 381 GDrive, 205, 211 Gelernter, David, Mirror Worlds, 59–60 Genachowski, Julius, 322, 326 Ghemawat, Sanjay, 42, 43, 47, 100, 184, 197, 198–200 Gibson, William, 7 Gilbert, Judy, 257, 258, 259, 260 Gilbert, Roy, 272 GIMP, 31 Girouard, Dave, 180 Glazer, David, 375, 376 Gmail, 171–81, 322 and applications, 219, 227, 233, 236 as Caribou, 169–71 and cloud computing, 180–81 launch of, 161, 171–72, 206 and privacy, 170–78, 211 and security breach, 267–68 and social networking, 375, 377 and speed, 185 Goetz, Thomas, 254 Gomes, Ben, 40, 54, 58, 67–68, 100 Gonzalez, Steven, 283 Goodger, Ben, 204 Google: and access to all the world’s information, 6, 10, 58, 59, 63, 67, 75, 130, 146, 173, 198, 215, 219, 275, 335, 340, 342–43, 356, 363 ads of, see advertising and antitrust issues, 330, 331–34, 343–47, 364 APM program, 1–2, 3–5, 161–62, 259 and applications, 200–212, 239 austerity time of, 83, 86, 252–53, 255–57, 258–59, 265–66, 272, 376 BackRub renamed as, 30–31 business plan for, 72, 75, 77–78, 95, 115, 138, 152, 201 changing the world, 6, 34, 39, 52, 97, 120, 125, 126, 146, 316, 319, 329, 349, 365, 367, 369 cheap equipment bought for, 33, 129, 183–84, 189 Code Yellow in, 186 conference rooms of, 136–37 culture (Googley) of, 3, 36, 121–28, 129–42, 159, 186–87, 364, 365, 370, 385 design guidelines for, 129–30, 132, 206–7 development of, 32–34, 35–37, 45–57, 58 “Don’t be evil” motto of, 6, 11, 143, 144–46, 150, 170, 238, 276, 285, 286, 366–67, 384–85 employees, see employees engineers as top dogs in, 129, 130, 158, 160, 161, 323 failure and redundancy built into, 183–84, 189, 198, 211, 255, 372 filing for incorporation, 34 funding of, 32, 33–34, 72–75, 79, 129, 182 global scope of, 196–97, 270–72; see also China growth of, 3, 5, 6, 11, 43, 99, 127–28, 130, 131–32, 143, 164, 183, 198, 238–42, 253, 259, 271 headquarters of, 34, 36, 43, 125–26, 127–28, 130 home page of, 31, 184–85 IPO of, 2, 70, 94, 108, 134, 146–57 lawsuits against, 9–11, 56, 98, 150–51, 244, 328–29, 353, 358–67 as learning machine, 45, 47, 48, 65–68, 173, 216, 239, 383, 385 management structure, 74, 75–77, 79–82, 110, 143, 147, 157–66, 235, 254–55, 273, 373–74, 386–87 mission and vision of, 3, 6, 75, 97, 117, 124–25, 132, 169, 175, 215, 238, 363, 365 moral purity of, 6, 97, 268, 356, 360, 367 name of, 30–31, 180 no customer support from, 230–31, 376 1-800-GOOG-411 directory assistance, 219, 229 and politics, 317–19, 329–30 profitability of, 3, 69–71, 72, 77–78, 79, 99, 130, 256, 383, 386 public image of, 57, 74–75, 76, 77, 126, 144, 153–54, 173, 176, 237, 328–29, 337, 343, 364, 366, 383–84 secrecy in, 49, 52, 56–57, 69–70, 72–73, 83, 93, 106–7, 108, 146, 164–65, 191, 198, 218, 260, 261, 354, 357 security issues in, 267–70, 308–10, 313–14 shares in, 147–49, 155–57, 252 speed as focus of, 31, 37, 42, 52, 184–87, 206, 207, 208–9, 272, 372–73 TGIF meetings, 130–31, 166 20 percent rule, 124 user data amassed by, 45–48, 59, 84, 144, 173–74, 185, 333–36 user focus of, 5, 77, 241–42 values of, 6, 143–46, 147, 198, 256–58, 275–76, 300, 307, 310, 321, 323, 336, 343, 354, 364, 370, 384–85 war rooms of, 42–43, 45, 176, 186, 206, 309–10, 379, 380–81 and Yahoo, 44–45, 57, 151 and YouTube, 199, 242–52, 260–65 Google Analytics, 114–15, 205, 233, 234 Google Answers, 102 Google Book Search, 11, 347–67 Google Book Settlement, 362–67 Google Calendar, 233, 236 Google cars, 385, 386 Google Catalogs, 348 Google Checkout, 229, 242 Google China, see China Google Chrome, 208–12, 220, 221, 228, 319, 321, 354 “Google dance,” 56 Google Desktop, 205 Google Docs, 203, 210, 211 Google Earth, 239–40, 299, 340 Google Elections Team, 318, 321 Google Fellows, 49 Google Fiber for Communities, 327 Google File System, 184 Google Flu Trends, 258 Google Goes to the Movies, 265 Google Goggles, 232 Google Grants, 98 Google Help Forums, 231 Google Image Search, 382 Google Instant, 68 Google Latitude, 338–40, 374 Google Libraries, 357–58, 359 Google Maps, 219, 227, 240, 298–99, 318, 338, 340, 383 Google News, 58, 124, 239 Google.org, 241, 257 Google Pack, 205 Google Print, 356–57, 359 Google Product Client Group, 204 Google Product Strategy (GPS) meetings, 6, 135, 171 Google Quick Search Box, 78 Google Scholar, 58 Google Security Team, 267–70 Google settlement, 9–11 Google Street View, 340–43, 383, 384, 385 Google Suggest, 306–7 Google Talk, 233, 322, 375 Google Toolbar, 204–5, 233, 234 Google University, 136 Google Video, 242–47, 249, 261, 263, 429–30 Google Voice, 234, 236 Google Wave, 376–77, 379 Google Website Optimizer, 320 Google Zeitgeist, 46, 249, 253 googolplex, 31, 43 Gordon, Cathy, 195–96, 356, 359 Gore, Al, 177, 218, 237, 278, 352 GoTo, 87–89, 99, 102 Gphone, 218, 222, 226 GPS device, 229, 232, 338 Graham, Bill, 353 GrandCentral, 233–34, 236 Griffin, Denise, 130, 173–75, 231 Gross, Bill, 87–89, 95, 98, 102–3 Grove, Andy, 80, 163, 325 Gu, Xuemei, 290–92, 308, 312 Gundotra, Vic, 219–20, 232, 337, 377, 382–83 Gutenberg, Johannes, 347 Hackborn, Dianne, 217 Haiti, earthquake in, 325–26 Hamoui, Omar, 227 Hanke, John, 239 Harding, Matt, 243 Harik, Georges, 100–102, 105, 127, 139 Harvard University, 357, 358 Hassan, Scott, 17–18, 22, 28, 29, 30, 32 Haugen, Frances, 351 Heath, Taliver, 323 Heilemann, John, 356 Hendrix, Jimi, 76 Hertzfeld, Andy, 206 Hewlett-Packard, 37, 124, 181 Hölzle, Urs, 76, 100, 125, 162, 182, 257, 379 and cloud computing, 180 and data centers, 188–90, 194, 198 hired by Google, 36–37, 38 on speed, 185–87 Urs-Quake of, 381–82 Horowitz, Bradley, 211, 376–78, 379, 382 Horvath, Jane, 335, 338 HTC, 214, 226, 228, 230, 237 HTML 5, 212 Huber, Jeff, 116 Huffman, Scott, 61 Hulu, 260–61 Hurley, Chad, 243–44, 247–51, 260, 264 HyperCard, 15 hypertext connections, 15, 27 IBM, 24, 25–26, 63, 286 Idealab, 87–88, 99 indexing, 20, 21–22, 26, 41–43 checkpointing in, 43 comprehensiveness in, 52–53 in-RAM system, 43–44, 47–48 mirror worlds in, 60 updating, 45, 56 information retrieval (IR), 20, 22, 110, 239 Inktomi, 36, 44, 88, 290 innovator’s dilemma, 98–99 Intel, 163, 167, 218 intellectual property (IP), 88–89, 176, 221 Internet: bottom-up management of, 158 in China, 273, 279, 284, 285, 305, 308, 311, 313, 324 and cloud computing, 180–81 and copyright issues, 355, 367 disruptive platform of, 275 and Haiti earthquake, 325–26 net neutrality, 222, 383–84 and news, 239 open spectrum on, 15, 222–25, 329–30, 333, 334, 383–84 profitability of, 69–71 redefining commerce, 117 and social networking, 369–83 and user data, 334–36 values of, 322, 367 video, 242–52, 265 wireless service, 223 Internet Archive, 362 Ivester, Devin, 135, 141 Java, 17–18 JavaScript, 53, 105, 168, 169, 208, 209 Jen, Mark, 164–65 Jobs, Steve, 75, 80, 143, 209–10, 218–22, 237–38 Jones, Mike, 328, 340–42 JotSpot, 201 Joy, Bill, 28 Justice Department, U.S., 236, 331, 344–47, 364, 365–66 Kahle, Brewster, 362, 365 Kamangar, Salar, 71–72, 74, 233, 235 and advertising, 86, 89, 91–92, 109, 113 and business plan, 72, 75, 201 and Google motto, 143–44 and YouTube, 248, 260–65 Karen, Alana, 97–98 Karim, Jawed, 243, 247, 250 Kay, Erik, 207 Keyhole, 239–40, 340 Keyword Pricing Index, 118 Khosla, Vinod, 28, 29 Kim, Jini, 166 Klau, Rick, 312, 318 Kleinberg, Jon, 24–26, 34, 38, 292 Knol, 240 Knuth, Donald, 14 Kohl, Herb, 332 Koogle, Timothy, 44 Kordestani, Omid, 75–76, 78, 81, 96, 97, 130, 155, 242 Krane, David, 69–70, 143, 144–45, 150, 156 Kraus, Joe, 28, 136, 201, 374–75 Kundra, Vivek, 322, 326 Kurzweil, Raymond, 66 language, translations, 55, 62–65 Lantos, Tom, 285–87 Larson, Mark, 208 Leach, Jim, 286 Lee, Kai-Fu: and China office, 4, 281–83, 289–90, 291, 292, 293, 294, 296, 298, 302, 303, 305, 307–8, 313 departure of, 307–8, 312 Lee, Steve, 338–39 Lenat, Douglas, 47 Leonard, Herman, 117 Lessig, Lawrence, 359, 360, 363 Levick, Jeff, 96, 110–11, 112–13 Levinson, Arthur, 218, 237 Li, Mark, 293, 298–99 Li, Robin (Yanhong), 26–27, 278, 292, 293, 298 Library of Congress, 352, 361 Liebman, Jason, 103–5 LinkAds, 102–3 Linux, 78, 182, 210 Litvack, Sanford “Sandy,” 345, 347 Liu, John, 296 Liu, Jun, 294, 303–4 long-tail businesses, 85, 105, 107, 118, 243, 334 Lu, Qi, 380 Lucovsky, Mark, 283 Luk, Ben, 290, 302 Maarek, Yoelle, 272 MacDonald, Brian, 380 Macgillivray, Alex “AMac,” 353–55 machine learning, 64–66, 100–101, 385 Malone, Kim (Scott), 107–8, 135 Manber, Udi, 44, 45, 57–58, 68, 240, 355, 380 MapReduce, 199–200 Marconi International Fellowship Award, 278 Markoff, John, 193 Matias, Yossi, 272 Mayer, Marissa, 36, 41, 381 and advertising, 78–79 and APM program, 1, 4, 5, 161–62, 259 and books, 348–50, 358, 365 and Gmail, 170–71 and Google culture, 121, 122, 126–27, 141, 142, 163, 164, 365 and Google motto, 143–44 and Google’s look, 206–7 and management structure, 160, 235 and social networking, 371–73, 375 and stock price, 155, 156–57 McCaffrey, Cindy, 3, 76, 77, 145, 150, 153, 164 McCarthy, John, 127 McLaughlin, Andrew: and China, 276–79, 283–84, 303, 304 and Obama administration, 316, 321, 322–23, 325–26, 327 and privacy, 176–78, 379 memex, 15, 44 Merrill, Douglas, 183 Mi, James, 276 Microsoft: and antitrust issues, 331–32, 344–45 and aQuantive, 331 Bing search engine, 186, 380–81 and books, 361, 363 and browser wars, 206, 283 and China, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 304 and competition, 70, 191, 197, 200–212, 218, 220, 266, 282–83, 331, 344–47, 363, 380–81 and Danger, 214 data centers of, 190 and disclosure, 108 and email, 168, 169, 179–80 Excel, 200 and Facebook, 370 Hotmail, 30, 168, 172, 180, 209 IE 7, 209 Internet Explorer, 204–7 and mapping, 342 monopolies of, 200, 331–32, 364 Office, 200, 202, 203 Outlook, 169 PowerPoint, 200, 203 and user data, 335 and values, 144 WebTV, 217 Windows, 200, 210, 212, 219, 331 Windows Mobile, 220 Word, 200 and Yahoo, 343–44, 346, 380 of yesterday, 369 MIDAS (Mining Data at Stanford), 16 Milgrom, Paul, 90 Miner, Rich, 215, 216 Mobile Accord, 325 mobile phones, 214–17, 219–22, 251 Moderator, 323–24 Mohan, Neal, 332, 336 Monier, Louis, 19, 20, 37 Montessori, Maria, 121, 124, 166 Montessori schools, 121–25, 129, 138, 149 Moonves, Leslie, 246 Moore’s Law, 169, 180, 261 Morgan Stanley, 149, 157 Moritz, Mike, 32, 73–74, 80, 147, 247–48, 249 Morozov, Evgeny, 379 Morris, Doug, 261 Mossberg, Walt, 94 Mowani, Rajeev, 38 Mozilla Firefox, 204, 206, 207–8, 209 Murdoch, Rupert, 249, 370 MySpace, 243, 375 name detection system, 50–52 Napier’s constant, 149 National Federation of the Blind, 365–66 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 65 National Science Digital Library, 347 National Security Agency (NSA), 310 Native Client, 212 navigation, 229, 232, 338 Nelson, Ted, 15 net neutrality, 222, 326–27, 330, 383–84 Netscape, 30, 75, 78, 147, 204, 206 Nevill-Manning, Craig, 129 Newsweek, 2, 3, 20, 179 New York Public Library, 354, 357 Nexus One, 230, 231–32 95th Percentile Rule, 187 Nokia, 341, 374 Norman, Donald, 12, 106 Norvig, Peter, 47, 62, 63, 138, 142, 316 Novell, 70 Obama, Barack, 315–21, 322, 323–24, 329, 346 Obama administration, 320–28 Ocean, 350–55 Och, Franz, 63–65 Oh, Sunny, 283, 297, 298 OKR (Objectives and Key Results), 163–64, 165, 186, 209, 325 Open Book Alliance, 362 Open Handset Alliance, 221–22 OpenSocial, 375–76 operating systems, 210–12 optical character recognition (OCR), 53, 349–50 Oracle, 220 Orkut, 371–73, 375 Otellini, Paul, 218 Overture, 89, 90, 91, 95, 96, 98–99, 103, 150 Oxford University Press, 354, 357 Page, Larry, 3, 5 achievements of, 53, 383 and advertising, 84, 86–87, 90, 92, 94, 95–97, 114, 334, 336–37 ambition of, 12, 39, 73, 127–28, 139, 198, 215, 238, 362, 386–87 and applications, 205, 206, 207, 208, 210, 240–42, 340 and artificial intelligence, 62, 100, 246, 385–86 and BackRub/PageRank, 17, 18, 21–24, 26 and birth of Google, 31–34 and Book Search, 11, 347–52, 355, 357, 359, 361, 362, 364 on capturing all the web, 22–24, 52, 58, 63 on changing the world, 6, 13, 33, 39, 97, 120, 125, 146, 173, 232, 279, 316, 327, 361, 384–85 childhood and early years of, 11–13 and China, 267, 276, 277–78, 279–80, 283, 284, 305, 311 and data centers, 182–83 and eco-activism, 241 and email, 169–72, 174, 179 and Excite, 28–29 and funding, 32, 33–34, 73–75 and hiring practices, 139–40, 142, 182, 271, 386 imagination of, 14, 271 and IPO, 146–47, 149–54, 157 and machine learning, 66, 67 and management, 74, 75–77, 79–82, 110, 143, 158–60, 162–66, 228, 231, 235, 252–53, 254, 255, 260, 272, 273, 386–87 marriage of, 254 as Montessori kid, 121–25, 127–28, 149, 331, 387 and Obama, 315–16 and philanthropy, 257–58 and privacy, 174, 176–77, 337 and robots, 246, 385 and secrecy, 31–32, 70, 72–73, 106, 218 and smart phones, 214–16, 224, 225, 226–30, 234 and social networking, 372 and speed, 184–85, 207 and Stanford, 12–13, 14, 16–17, 28, 29, 34 and trust, 221, 237 values of, 127–28, 130, 132, 135, 139–40, 146, 196, 361, 364 and wealth, 157 and web links, 51 and YouTube, 248 PageRank, 3, 17, 18, 21–24, 27, 34, 38, 48–49, 53, 55, 56, 294 Palm, 216, 221 Park, Lori, 235, 258 Pashupathy, Kannan, 270–72, 277, 282 Passion Device, 230 Patel, Amit, 45–46, 82 and Google motto, 143–44, 146 patents, 27, 39, 89, 102, 221, 235, 237, 350 PayPal, 242, 243 peer-to-peer protocols, 234–35 Peters, Marybeth, 352 Phil, 99–103 Philip, Prince, 122 Picasa, 185–86, 187, 239 Pichai, Sundar, 205–6, 207–8, 209–12 Pichette, Patrick, 120, 150, 254–56 Pike, Rob, 241 Pittman, R.


pages: 224 words: 12,941

From Gutenberg to Google: electronic representations of literary texts by Peter L. Shillingsburg

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British Empire, computer age, double helix, HyperCard, hypertext link, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, means of production, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Saturday Night Live, Socratic dialogue

A prototype edition of Marcus Clark’s His Natural Life using jitm, though still under construction, provides a sense of how this form of presentation gives flexibility to users.29 jitm is not without faults: the tools associated with jitm are in developmental stages, and are neither user friendly nor elegant. A users’ manual and help files were not yet ready in 2004. Interface design is inelegant and ‘‘clunky.’’ But jitm has the potential to address all these problems. More importantly, it currently functions on a MacIntosh (Apple) computer, and it operates within the HyperCard Software environment. This means that jitm is fully functional as a tool only in the Mac world though to viewers it is available with any browser on the Internet. Furthermore, perspectives generated by jitm are savable, portable, and browse-able html, sgml, or xml files. They can be displayed on any web-browser. As an unexpected benefit of its divided-file structure, jitm provides a preliminary way to deal with conflicting overlapping structural systems, a currently fatal weakness in the sgml-xml implementations.


pages: 345 words: 105,722

The Hacker Crackdown by Bruce Sterling

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Apple II, back-to-the-land, game design, ghettoisation, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, index card, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, pirate software, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Silicon Valley, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review

In 1991, the Well's list of conferences looked like this: CONFERENCES ON THE WELL WELL "Screenzine" Digest (g zine) Best of the WELL - vintage material - (g best) Index listing of new topics in all conferences - (g newtops) Business - Education ---------------------- Apple Library Users Group(g alug) Agriculture (g agri) Brainstorming (g brain) Classifieds (g cla) Computer Journalism (g cj) Consultants (g consult) Consumers (g cons) Design (g design) Desktop Publishing (g desk) Disability (g disability) Education (g ed) Energy (g energy91) Entrepreneurs (g entre) Homeowners (g home) Indexing (g indexing) Investments (g invest) Kids91 (g kids) Legal (g legal) One Person Business (g one) Periodical/newsletter (g per) Telecomm Law (g tcl) The Future (g fut) Translators (g trans) Travel (g tra) Work (g work) Electronic Frontier Foundation (g eff) Computers, Freedom & Privacy (g cfp) Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (g cpsr) Social - Political - Humanities --------------------------------- Aging (g gray) AIDS (g aids) Amnesty International (g amnesty) Archives (g arc) Berkeley (g berk) Buddhist (g wonderland) Christian (g cross) Couples (g couples) Current Events (g curr) Dreams (g dream) Drugs (g dru) East Coast (g east) Emotional Health@@@@ (g private) Erotica (g eros) Environment (g env) Firearms (g firearms) First Amendment (g first) Fringes of Reason (g fringes) Gay (g gay) Gay (Private)# (g gaypriv) Geography (g geo) German (g german) Gulf War (g gulf) Hawaii (g aloha) Health (g heal) History (g hist) Holistic (g holi) Interview (g inter) Italian (g ital) Jewish (g jew) Liberty (g liberty) Mind (g mind) Miscellaneous (g misc) Men on the WELL@@ (g mow) Network Integration (g origin) Nonprofits (g non) North Bay (g north) Northwest (g nw) Pacific Rim (g pacrim) Parenting (g par) Peace (g pea) Peninsula (g pen) Poetry (g poetry) Philosophy (g phi) Politics (g pol) Psychology (g psy) Psychotherapy (g therapy) Recovery## (g recovery) San Francisco (g sanfran) Scams (g scam) Sexuality (g sex) Singles (g singles) Southern (g south) Spanish (g spanish) Spirituality (g spirit) Tibet (g tibet) Transportation (g transport) True Confessions (g tru) Unclear (g unclear) WELL Writer's Workshop@@@(g www) Whole Earth (g we) Women on the WELL@(g wow) Words (g words) Writers (g wri) @@@@Private Conference - mail wooly for entry @@@Private conference - mail sonia for entry @@Private conference - mail flash for entry @ Private conference - mail reva for entry # Private Conference - mail hudu for entry ## Private Conference - mail dhawk for entry Arts - Recreation - Entertainment ----------------------------------- ArtCom Electronic Net (g acen) Audio-Videophilia (g aud) Bicycles (g bike) Bay Area Tonight@@(g bat) Boating (g wet) Books (g books) CD's (g cd) Comics (g comics) Cooking (g cook) Flying (g flying) Fun (g fun) Games (g games) Gardening (g gard) Kids (g kids) Nightowls@ (g owl) Jokes (g jokes) MIDI (g midi) Movies (g movies) Motorcycling (g ride) Motoring (g car) Music (g mus) On Stage (g onstage) Pets (g pets) Radio (g rad) Restaurant (g rest) Science Fiction (g sf) Sports (g spo) Star Trek (g trek) Television (g tv) Theater (g theater) Weird (g weird) Zines/Factsheet Five(g f5) @Open from midnight to 6am @@Updated daily Grateful Dead ------------- Grateful Dead (g gd) Deadplan@ (g dp) Deadlit (g deadlit) Feedback (g feedback) GD Hour (g gdh) Tapes (g tapes) Tickets (g tix) Tours (g tours) @Private conference - mail tnf for entry Computers ----------- AI/Forth/Realtime (g realtime) Amiga (g amiga) Apple (g app) Computer Books (g cbook) Art & Graphics (g gra) Hacking (g hack) HyperCard (g hype) IBM PC (g ibm) LANs (g lan) Laptop (g lap) Macintosh (g mac) Mactech (g mactech) Microtimes (g microx) Muchomedia (g mucho) NeXt (g next) OS/2 (g os2) Printers (g print) Programmer's Net (g net) Siggraph (g siggraph) Software Design (g sdc) Software/Programming (g software) Software Support (g ssc) Unix (g unix) Windows (g windows) Word Processing (g word) Technical - Communications ---------------------------- Bioinfo (g bioinfo) Info (g boing) Media (g media) NAPLPS (g naplps) Netweaver (g netweaver) Networld (g networld) Packet Radio (g packet) Photography (g pho) Radio (g rad) Science (g science) Technical Writers (g tec) Telecommunications(g tele) Usenet (g usenet) Video (g vid) Virtual Reality (g vr) The WELL Itself --------------- Deeper (g deeper) Entry (g ent) General (g gentech) Help (g help) Hosts (g hosts) Policy (g policy) System News (g news) Test (g test) The list itself is dazzling, bringing to the untutored eye a dizzying impression of a bizarre milieu of mountain-climbing Hawaiian holistic photographers trading true-life confessions with bisexual word-processing Tibetans.


pages: 366 words: 107,145

Fuller Memorandum by Stross, Charles

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Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Beeching cuts, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, congestion charging, dumpster diving, finite state, Firefox, HyperCard, invisible hand, land reform, linear programming, peak oil, security theater, sensible shoes, side project, Sloane Ranger, telemarketer, Turing machine

It's an important piece of the history of computing, leaked to the public as a think-piece commissioned by the Atlantic Weekly in 1945; most of the readers thought it was a gosh-wow-by-damn good idea, but were unlikely to realize that a number of the things had actually been built, using a slush fund earmarked for the Manhattan Project. The product of electromechanical engineering at its finest, not to mention its most horrendously complex, each Memex cost as much as a B-29 bomber--and contained six times as many moving parts, most of them assembled by watchmakers. It wasn't until HyperCard showed up on the Apple Mac in 1987 that anything like it reached the general public. I believe Angleton's Memex is the only one that is still working, much less in day-to-day use, and to say it takes black magic to keep it running would be no exaggeration. I approach the seat with considerable caution, and not just because I'm absolutely certain he will have taken steps to ensure that anyone who sits in it without his approval and pushes the big red on button will never push another button in their (admittedly short) life; he knows how to use the thing, but if I crash it or break the cylinder head gasket or something and he comes back, the only shoes I'd be safe in would be a pair of NASA-issue moon boots (and maybe not even then).


pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

A cluster of innovations emerges, all experimenting with different variations on a single theme, until one specific solution arises that reaches critical mass and kills off its rivals. Think of the ecosystem of computer networks in the early 1990s: proprietary services like AOL and CompuServe; file-sharing protocols like Fetch or Gopher; private bulletin-board communities like The WELL or ECHO; hypertext experiments like Storyspace or HyperCard. Behind all these marginal new platforms, a shared consensus was visible: people were going to start consuming and sharing news, documents, personal information, and other media through hypertextual networks. But it was unclear whether a single platform would unite all these disparate activities, until the World Wide Web became the de facto standard in the mid-1990s. The process happened faster than it did in the days of West End illusion, but the underlying pattern was the same: early experiments, followed by explosive diversity, followed by radical consolidation.


pages: 494 words: 142,285

The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World by Lawrence Lessig

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AltaVista, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, business process, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Erik Brynjolfsson, George Gilder, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, invention of hypertext, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Larry Wall, Leonard Kleinrock, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, smart grid, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, transaction costs, zero-sum game

The computers simply could not communicate with each other.49 Berners-Lee thus began to think about a system to enable linking among documents—through a process called “hypertext”—and to build this linking on top of the protocols of the Internet. His ideal was a space where any document in principle could be linked to any other and where any document published was available to anyone. The components of this vision were nothing new. Hypertext—links from one document to another—had been born with Vannevar Bush,50 and made famous by Bill Atkinson's HyperCard on the Apple Macintosh. The world where documents could all link to each other was the vision of Robert Fano in an early article in the Proceedings of the IEEE. 51 But Berners-Lee put these ideas together using the underlying protocol of the Internet. Hyperlinked documents would thus be available to anyone with access to the Internet, and any document published according to the protocols of the World Wide Web would be available to all.


pages: 496 words: 174,084

Masterminds of Programming: Conversations With the Creators of Major Programming Languages by Federico Biancuzzi, Shane Warden

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Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, cloud computing, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, continuous integration, data acquisition, domain-specific language, Douglas Hofstadter, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, Firefox, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, iterative process, John von Neumann, Larry Wall, linear programming, loose coupling, Mars Rover, millennium bug, NP-complete, Paul Graham, performance metric, Perl 6, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Renaissance Technologies, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, Valgrind, Von Neumann architecture, web application

That’s the beauty of PostScript. You can run at that higher level in terms of how you describe what you want to produce and only bind it at the last moment to a specific device. Interfaces to Longevity How can a designer think about longevity for a general programming language? Are there specific steps to take? John: A lot of languages go after a specific problem. Remember the one Atkinson did, HyperCard. He made what I would believe is the most common mistake that people make and that’s not to make it a full programming language. You have to have control, you have to have branching, you have to have looping, you have to have all the mathematics and everything that makes up a full programming language or else you’ll hit a brick wall at some point in the future. People would look at us and say, “Why are you putting in all the trig functions?


pages: 468 words: 233,091

Founders at Work: Stories of Startups' Early Days by Jessica Livingston

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8-hour work day, affirmative action, AltaVista, Apple II, Brewster Kahle, business process, Byte Shop, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, don't be evil, fear of failure, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, game design, Googley, HyperCard, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Justin.tv, Larry Wall, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, nuclear winter, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, software patent, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web application, Y Combinator

I didn’t know any better. Why wouldn’t somebody take us seriously? Livingston: Was there a cold call that you made that turned out to be pivotal? Kraus: No, the pivotal things were all unintentional. Like the way we got turned on to the Web: it was about ’94 and we were deciding between two technologies for the interface. How do you present search technology to the user if it’s not a command line? One was HyperCard and the other was this Web thing. And Graham, wisely, chose the Web. I believe it was because of that particular chance moment that we ended up being web-oriented and got known as a web search thing. The intentional things were rarely pivotal in those early days, but the being persistent, following-your-nose thing made a big difference. The chain of events that led to our funding had no connection.