Frank Gehry

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pages: 342 words: 90,734

Mysteries of the Mall: And Other Essays by Witold Rybczynski

additive manufacturing, airport security, Buckminster Fuller, City Beautiful movement, edge city, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Jane Jacobs, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Silicon Valley, the High Line, urban renewal, young professional

We are obliged to decipher for ourselves the meanings of each new place, and to find our own place in it. As adults, we feel more or less at home more or less everywhere. This is not just a question of habit. I don’t mean that there aren’t locales that appear exotic, but it’s rare that we find ourselves in places that are truly incomprehensible. This is not just because buildings fall into recognizable types (a concert hall designed by Frank Gehry is still a concert hall; the relationship between performers and audience follows a well-understood convention) but also because television and movies have brought us in contact with so many places we would never ordinarily visit: prisons, morgues, missile silos. Last summer, I toured a World War II submarine moored alongside San Francisco’s Fisherman’s Wharf; it was the first time I had ever been aboard such a vessel, but thanks to Lloyd Bridges and Sea Hunt as well as many submarine movies, the confined mechanical interior of the USS Pampanito felt, if not exactly familiar, at least not unfamiliar.

Instead of a single sheltering gable, the roof was broken up into several slopes. This is a favorite device of commercial home builders and is obviously a crowd-pleaser, although the roof has always seemed to me an odd thing to spend your money on. The complexity of the roof was mirrored by the intricacy of the windows: there were half a dozen different shapes and sizes. The modest house was hardly in a league with Frank Gehry or Peter Eisenman, but it was busy. I realized that I had to say something more substantive, but I wasn’t sure where to start. I believe that small, inexpensive houses like Danièle and Luc’s should be as simple as possible. This is partly a question of economics; complexity costs money, after all, and I would rather see a restricted budget devoted to better-quality materials than to architectural bravura.

There is a plain office block that might be of the late nineteenth century, a two-screen cinema—the only building not quite finished—that looks as if it might turn out to be Art Deco, and a bank whose colored horizontal streamlining stripes are straight out of the 1920s. In addition, there are buildings that look quite modern, such as the town hall, the post office, and a visitor center. Michael Eisner is an architecture buff, and in the past he has commissioned world-famous architects to design buildings for Disney: Arata Isozaki, Michael Graves, Frank Gehry, Aldo Rossi. Celebration, too, has a cast of celebrated architects. Graves designed the post office, Philip Johnson the town hall, Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown the bank, Cesar Pelli the cinema, and Charles Moore the visitor center. I dislike the town hall; like so much of Johnson’s work, it tries to be monumental and manages to be merely bombastic. Most of the other signature buildings appear to me to be lackluster rather than inspired, although Graves’s little post office is delightful, Venturi and Scott Brown’s bank manages to look both old and new, and Pelli’s cinema will be appropriately theatrical.

pages: 441 words: 135,176

The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful--And Their Architects--Shape the World by Deyan Sudjic


Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen

It commissioned the fashion photographer Timothy Greenfield-Sanders to take a picture of American architecture’s oldest grand old man, seated in the thick of a dense cloud of his acolytes in the lobby bar of the Four Seasons, the restaurant that he designed at the foot of the Seagram Tower. It is inconceivable that any other architect would have had the same treatment, not even Frank Gehry, who, with Brad Pitt in and out of his office, is certainly no stranger to stardom. The Vanity Fair photograph is a tribute not so much to the significance of Johnson’s contribution to the history of architecture as a reminder of his importance to the cult of fame. Frank Gehry sits on one side of Johnson, alongside Peter Eisenman. Arata Isozaki has flown in from Tokyo, Rem Koolhaas from Rotterdam and Zaha Hadid from London. Their presence seems to suggest not just a tribute to Johnson on their part, but a sense of an acceptance of the old man’s benediction, a laying-on of hands that has certainly helped their careers over the years.

The non-American winners were clearly not an option for such a symbolically charged project, and by all accounts none of the other American recipients – Robert Venturi, Philip Johnson, Richard Meier, even Frank Gehry – managed to hit it off with Clinton. What, the president was in the habit of asking, do you think of that museum in Balboa? And how do you think that titanium will look in twenty years? There was a certain amount of lobbying. Steven Spielberg had recently had a house designed for him in the Hamptons by Charles Gwathmey, and he suggested that he might be just the architect for the job. Disney’s Michael Eisner – who had transformed the Mouse Kingdom with buildings by Michael Graves, Frank Gehry, Robert Stern, Antoine Predock and Arata Isozaki – offered some names. But in the end it was the Clinton’s decorator who suggested that they talk to James Polshek, an architect who had recently completed New York’s Museum of Natural History and who had no known Republican sympathies.

Here is the leader, surrounded by his architectural acolytes. He is a magic figure radiating light, like the Sun King hemmed in by lesser mortals lost in darkness. It is a scene as carefully designed as one of Speer’s party rallies, just as pregnant with meaning and, in theory, as astonishing a tableau as if George W. Bush had decided to tour Baghdad in the company of Jeff Koons, Philip Johnson and Frank Gehry. The dictator is demonstrating his priorities and making his intentions manifestly clear: Hitler, the great architect, is ready to redesign the world. And yet, somehow, we never entirely got the message: he wanted to be seen not as a military leader, or a political figure, but as an artist. For so many leaders, architecture represents simply a means to an end. There is the real possibility that for Hitler, at least, it was always an end in itself.

pages: 162 words: 42,595

Architecture: A Very Short Introduction by Andrew Ballantyne


dematerialisation, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, late capitalism, means of production, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Stewart Brand, the built environment

The steel and titanium pieces were cut into shape away from the site, in factory conditions, where the work can be done with much greater precision. That they could be brought on to the site and assembled is little short of miraculous. It is a world away from the studio conditions in which Gehry invents the building form. He once made an armchair by gluing corrugated cardboard into a large block, and then modelling it with a chainsaw. 24. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain (1997); architect: Frank Gehry (born 1929). Frank Gehry was born in Canada, first moved to California as a student, and then settled and started an architectural practice there, initially making fairly conventional designs. His experimental work, starting with his own house in Santa Monica, has taken him in the direction of designing buildings that have more in common with the traditions of sculptural form than with architecture. The design for the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao is spectacular and eye-catching, and has helped to draw international attention to a provincial Spanish city, establishing it on the cultural map of the world.

Kersting 17 Model of Temple of Juno Sospita, Lanuvium – Etruscan temple, according to Vitruvius (5th century BC) © David Lees/Corbis 18 Seagram Building, Manhattan, New York City (1954–8); architects: Mies van der Rohe (1886–1969) and Philip Johnson (born 1906) © Bettmann/Corbis 19 Opera House, Sydney, Australia (1957–73); architect: Jorn Utson (born 1918) © Eye Ubiquitous/Corbis 20 Chicago Tribune Tower, Chicago, Illinois (1923–5); architects: John Mead Howells (1868–1959) and Raymond Hood (1881–1934) Underwood & Underwood/Corbis 21 Métro entrance surrounds, Paris, France (1899–1905); architect: Hector Guimard (1867–1942) © Philippa Lewis/Edifice 22 Expiatory Church of the Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain (begun 1882); architect: Antoni Gaudí (1852–1926) © A. F. Kersting 23 Mausoleum of the Taj Mahal, Agra, India (1630–53); architect: Ustad ‘Isa (dates unknown) © A. F. Kersting 24 Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain (1997); architect: Frank Gehry (born 1929) Erika Barahona Ede/© FMGB Guggenheim Bilbao 25 Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France (1977); architects: Renzo Piano (born 1937) and Richard Rogers (born 1933) © Eye Ubiquitous/Corbis Introduction I met a traveller from an antique land Who said, ‘Two vast and trunkless legs of stone Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand Half-sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command, Tell that its sculptor well those passions read Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things, The hand that mocked them, and the heart that fed; And on the pedestal these words appear: “My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings, Look on my works, ye mighty, and despair!”

However a less exact usage of the word is in circulation, as a name for the fashion for making use of noticeably historical forms in modern buildings, especially when they were used in ways that undermined their original effect, for example by being made of lightweight materials, being enlarged to gigantic size, or being brightly coloured. Commercial buildings of this type dating from the 1980s are to be seen in many cities around the world (Figure 1). There have been other rallying cries and manifestos in the architecture-world since then, but they have not as yet been given names that have made a lasting impression on a wide public. Frank Gehry’s art museum in Bilbao might conceivably be presented as an example of Deconstructivism (Figure 24), but an explanation of what that term means certainly lies beyond the scope of a very short introduction to architecture. 1. AT&T Building, New York (1978–80); architect: Philip Johnson (born 1906). Philip Johnson had been involved in a hugely successful exhibition ‘The International Style’, that introduced modernist architecture to the USA in 1932.

pages: 349 words: 95,972

Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives by Tim Harford


affirmative action, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, assortative mating, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Basel III, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Erdős number, experimental subject, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Frank Gehry, game design, global supply chain, Googley, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, Inbox Zero, income inequality, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, microbiome, out of africa, Paul Erdős, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Turing test, urban decay, William Langewiesche

It’s tape T1217 in the MIT archives, online at:; a definitive account of the merits of Building 20 is in chapter three of Stewart Brand, How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They’re Built (New York: Viking, 1994). 20. Robert Campbell, “Dizzying Heights in Frank Gehry’s Remarkable New Stata Center at MIT, Crazy Angles Have a Serious Purpose,” The Boston Globe, April 25, 2004. 21. Robin Pogrebin and Katie Zezima, “M.I.T. Sues Frank Gehry, Citing Flaws in Center He Designed,” The New York Times, November 7, 2007. See also Spencer Reiss, “Frank Gehry’s Geek Palace,” Wired (May 2004), 22. Reiss, “Frank Gehry’s Geek Palace.” 23. Steven Levy, In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011), p. 32. 24. Ibid., pp. 34, 125. 25. Ibid., p. 126. 26.

Amid gushing newspaper write-ups about the “workforce of the future,” Jay Chiat announced a radical plan to sweep away cubicles and offices and even desks. Armed with the best mobile technology available—in 1993—Chiat/Day employees would roam free in open spaces, winning sales and creating great ads wherever they wished. What’s more, those spaces would be playful, zany, and stylish. The agency’s new Los Angeles offices, designed by Frank Gehry and Claes Oldenburg, boasted a four-story sculpture of a pair of binoculars, and curvaceous two-seater pods from fairground rides were installed with the hope that people would sit together in them and think creative thoughts. The New York office, designed by Gaetano Pesce, had a mural of a vast red pair of lips, and a luminous multicolored floor with hieroglyphs all over it. Pesce had a boyish sense of humor: the floor in front of the men’s room had an illustration of a man urinating; his chairs had springs instead of feet, and would wobble and tip back so that when a woman sat on them, her colleagues could admire the view up her skirt; his conference tables were made of a silicone resin that would grab and hold important papers during meetings, with hilarious results.

It would be a brave CEO who’d play host to model railway enthusiasts and homeless botanists. When Building 20 was at last demolished in 1998, MIT held what could only be described as a wake. Engineering professor Paul Penfield organized the commemoration “to help each other through the grieving process.” Building 20 was replaced by the ultimate architectural status symbol—a building designed, like the Chiat/Day headquarters, by Frank Gehry. Gehry’s Stata Center, which opened in 2004, is designed as a symbol of creativity. Imagine one of Dr. Seuss’s architectural fantasies bursting fully formed onto the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and you begin to get the picture. The architecture critics loved the center’s messy appearance. In The Boston Globe, Robert Campbell gushed, “The Stata’s appearance is a metaphor for the freedom, daring, and creativity of the research that’s supposed to occur inside it.”20 But being a metaphor for freedom, daring, and creativity is not the same as actually being conducive to it.

pages: 666 words: 131,148

Frommer's Seattle 2010 by Karl Samson


airport security, British Empire, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, place-making, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, white picket fence

Seattle is a city of views, and for many visitors, the must-see vista is the panorama from the top of the Space Needle. With the 21st century in full swing, this 1960s-vintage image of the future may look decidedly 20th-century retro, but still, it’s hard to resist an expensive elevator ride in any city. You can even take a monorail straight out of The Jetsons to get there (and, en route, pass right through the Frank Gehry–designed Experience Music Project). EMP, as the Experience Music Project is known, is yet another of Seattle’s architectural oddities. Its swooping, multicolored, metal-skinned bulk rises at the foot of the Space Needle, proof that real 21st-century architecture looks nothing like the vision of the future people dreamed of when the Space Needle was built for the 1962 World’s Fair. EMP was the brainchild of Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, who built this rock-’n’-roll cathedral to house his vast collection of Northwest rock memorabilia.

Positioning itself as a major metropolis has meant thinking big, and to this end Seattle has stayed busy in the past decade adding (and subtracting) large, sometimes controversial structures to its ever-changing cityscape. In 2000 Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen opened his Experience Music Project, a museum of rock ’n’ roll that started out as a simple memorial to hometown rocker Jimi Hendrix. The museum structure, designed by visionary architect Frank Gehry, is meant to conjure up images of a melted electric guitar and is one of the most bizarre-looking buildings on the planet. In 2004, Allen opened a Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame inside this same building. Also in 2000, Seattle’s venerable and much-disparaged Kingdome came crashing down in a cloud of dust as demolition experts imploded the massive cement structure to make way for a new football stadium for the Seattle Seahawks, the NFL team that happens to be owned by Paul Allen.

Exact change is required; dollar bills are accepted. BY MONORAIL If you are planning a visit to Seattle Center, there is no better way to get there from downtown than on the Seattle Monorail ( 20 6/905-2620;, which leaves from Westlake Center shopping mall (Fifth Ave. and Pine St.). The elevated train covers the 11⁄4 miles in 2 minutes and passes right through the middle of the Experience Music Project, the Frank Gehry–designed rock-music museum. The monorail operates daily from 9am to 11pm. Departures are every 10 minutes. The one-way fare is $2 for adults and $1 for seniors, and 75¢ for children 5 to 12. BY STREETCAR Paul Allen’s rapidly evolving South Lake Union development district, stretching from the north end of downtown Seattle to the south shore of Lake Union, is served by the Seattle Streetcar ( 20 6/553-3000;

Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World by Cal Newport


8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business climate, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey,, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, new economy, Nicholas Carr, popular electronics, remote working, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, statistical model, the medium is the message, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Put another way: Deep work is not the only skill valuable in our economy, and it’s possible to do well without fostering this ability, but the niches where this is advisable are increasingly rare. Unless you have strong evidence that distraction is important for your specific profession, you’re best served, for the reasons argued earlier in this chapter, by giving serious consideration to depth. Chapter Two Deep Work Is Rare In 2012, Facebook unveiled the plans for a new headquarters designed by Frank Gehry. At the center of this new building is what CEO Mark Zuckerberg called “the largest open floor plan in the world”: More than three thousand employees will work on movable furniture spread over a ten-acre expanse. Facebook, of course, is not the only Silicon Valley heavyweight to embrace the open office concept. When Jack Dorsey, whom we met at the end of the last chapter, bought the old San Francisco Chronicle building to house Square, he configured the space so that his developers work in common spaces on long shared desks.

In MIT lore, it’s generally believed that this haphazard combination of different disciplines, thrown together in a large reconfigurable building, led to chance encounters and a spirit of inventiveness that generated breakthroughs at a fast pace, innovating topics as diverse as Chomsky grammars, Loran navigational radars, and video games, all within the same productive postwar decades. When the building was finally demolished to make way for the $300 million Frank Gehry–designed Stata Center (where I spent my time), its loss was mourned. In tribute to the “plywood palace” it replaced, the interior design of the Stata Center includes boards of unfinished plywood and exposed concrete with construction markings left intact. Around the same time that Building 20 was hastily constructed, a more systematic pursuit of serendipitous creativity was under way two hundred miles to the southwest in Murray Hill, New Jersey.

But it’s here that we must embrace more nuance in understanding what really generated innovation in sites such as Building 20 and Bell Labs. To do so, let’s return once again to my own experience at MIT. When I arrived as a new PhD student in the fall of 2004, I was a member of the first incoming class to be housed in the new Stata Center, which, as mentioned, replaced Building 20. Because the center was new, incoming students were given tours that touted its features. Frank Gehry, we learned, arranged the offices around common spaces and introduced open stairwells between adjacent floors, all in an effort to support the type of serendipitous encounters that had defined its predecessor. But what struck me at the time was a feature that hadn’t occurred to Gehry but had been recently added at the faculty’s insistence: special gaskets installed into the office doorjambs to improve soundproofing.

pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen


3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

Silicon Valley is transforming itself into a medieval tableau—a jarring landscape of dreadfully impoverished and high-crime communities like East Palo Alto, littered with unemployed people on food stamps, interspersed with fantastically wealthy and entirely self-reliant tech-cities designed by world-famous architects such as Norman Foster and Frank Gehry. Apple, a company that has been accused of cheating the US government out of $44 billion in tax revenue between 2009 and 2012,82 is building a Norman Foster–designed $5 billion Silicon Valley headquarters that will feature a 2.8-million-square-foot circular, four-story building containing a 1,000-seat auditorium, a 3,000-seat café, and office space for 13,000 employees.83 Before he died, Steve Jobs described Foster’s design for the new building as looking a “little like a spaceship.” Elon Musk should take note. After all, what’s the point of colonizing Mars when Martian architecture is already colonizing the Bay Area? And then there’s “the largest open office space in the world,”84 which Mark Zuckerberg has hired Frank Gehry to build for Facebook’s 3,400 employees.

The country was, as Big Data authors Viktor Mayer-Schönberger and Kenneth Cukier note, “one of the most comprehensive surveillance states ever seen.”5 Like Ted Nelson’s Xanadu project to develop hypertext, Mielke’s East Germany eliminated the concept of deletion. “We had lived like behind glass,” explained the novelist Stefan Heym. Mielke organized his society around the same kind of brightly lit principles that the architect Frank Gehry is now using to build Facebook’s new open-plan office in Silicon Valley. Mark Zuckerberg—who once described Facebook as a “well-lit dorm room” in which “wherever you go online you see your friends”6—describes this multimillion-dollar Gehry creation as “the largest open office space in the world.” Gehry’s “radically transparent” building will be without internal walls, floors, or private offices, even for senior Facebook executives.

pages: 91 words: 26,009

Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy


activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Bretton Woods, corporate governance, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, informal economy, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, megacity, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, reserve currency, special economic zone, spectrum auction, stem cell, The Chicago School, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

Vedanta’s tagline is “Mining Happiness.” The Jindal Group brings out a contemporary art magazine and supports some of India’s major artists (who naturally work with stainless steel). Essar was the principal sponsor of the Tehelka Newsweek Think Fest that promised “high-octane debates” by the foremost thinkers from around the world, which included major writers, activists, and even the architect Frank Gehry.27 (All this in Goa, where activists and journalists were uncovering massive illegal mining scandals, and Essar’s part in the war unfolding in Bastar was emerging.)28 Tata Steel and Rio Tinto (which has a sordid track record of its own) were among the chief sponsors of the Jaipur Literary Festival (Latin name: Darshan Singh Construction Jaipur Literary Festival), which is advertised by the cognoscenti as “The Greatest Literary Show on Earth.”

pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham


1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

‘But what are we getting when we throw away height limits and barriers to development, stop worrying about shadows and views, and let the developers loose? Also importantly, who are we getting?’8 Alter surveys the new housing towers being erected in London, New York and Toronto. He finds that the emerging housing is overwhelmingly dominated by large, multi-million-dollar, super-luxury condos within isolated high-end architectural towers designed by the likes of Frank Gehry and geared to global investors and the super-rich. ‘Buildings are not isolated Frank Gehry sculptures’, Alter retorts. ‘They exist to house people and give them places to work. They are part of a culture and a society [they are] not monuments. They should serve a societal need, not just park money for the very rich.’9 We will come back to the details whereby current elites are taking over the urban skies through housing towers built for the super-rich in various cities later in this chapter.

Far from being a model of sustainability, affordability, and liveabiliy, then, Vancouver, as local architect Bing Thom puts it, has been remodelled into ‘a tourist resort and a place to park money’.54 New York: ‘Inequality Is Literally Blocking Out the Sun’55 In a very different case, the recent rise of a forest of slender, super-tall residential towers into the airy heights above midtown Manhattan presents more powerful evidence that building high does not necessarily enhance environmental sustainability or increase the supply of affordable housing. Designed by star architects like Frank Gehry, Richard Meier, Jacques Herzog, Jean Nouvel, or Robert Stern, these super-tall structures, which reach between 800 and 1,800 feet, now dominate skyscraper construction in New York. The construction of these towers represents the latest phenomenon in a thirty-year process of hyper-gentrification whereby the global super-rich – Malaysian financiers, Indian building moguls, Mexican power brokers, Russian ministers (some of dubious provenance) and the like – have used untraceable shell companies to aggressively assert increasing control in Manhattan.56 In 2016 the US state is so concerned about the role that Manhattan’s elite real estate is playing in the laundering of ‘dirty’ money from around the world that it started requiring real estate agents to track the identities of purchasers.57 Indeed, the towers are only the most visible sign of a much broader shift.

pages: 1,797 words: 390,698

Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn


affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional

As a healing piece of the vision for rebuilding Ground Zero, the cultural program carried deep meaning: LMDC officials and planners wanted it to be a “living memorial,” a way to celebrate life through the arts and “infuse the redevelopment with hope and energy drawn from the human spirit.”1 Everyone agreed on the ideal, even family members of the victims of 9/11. All around the world, culture had taken on importance as a driver of economic transformation. It had become a well-established strategy. Museums were opening in all kinds of places, built as destinations; the celebrated Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, designed by Frank Gehry brought worldwide attention to the phenomenon. Arts and culture were rooted in policymakers’ ideas of what makes a strong and attractive urban district, and cities everywhere were investing heavily in culture. The logic of using arts needed little emphasis in New York. New York City, especially Manhattan, held uncontested primacy among American cultural centers. Culture was a defining element of the city’s global profile and a point of pride among citizens and public officials.

After much sustained effort, the Bloomberg administration secured an institutional victory that finally propelled the LMDC in February 2010 to authorize release of up to $50 million for the Port Authority to construct the underground elements and common infrastructure for the complicated PAC site. This early-action commitment seemed to rule out the public efforts by the LMDC president and its chairman to move the PAC to the site of the former Deutsche Bank Building (site 5), but nothing about culture at Ground Zero was ever assured. The estimate for the structure designed by Frank Gehry was still very high ($540 million).30 On the other side of the economic ledger, the proposed PAC agenda gained significant momentum when the LMDC supported the allocation of an additional $100 million in federal funds later that year. And with the Bloomberg administration’s creation of a six-person board (at the last possible moment in December 2011), the proposed PAC remained eligible for the LMDC’s $155 million funding.

Dunlap, “The New Look at Ground Zero May Be the Oldest,” NYT, December 11, 2003; Justin Davidson, “Primary Plan for Redoing Towers Begins Wobbling,” Newsday, September 11, 2003. 8 Edward Wyatt, “Libeskind to Control Design of Trade Center’s Terminal,” NYT, June 19, 2003. 9 Robin Pogrebin, “The Incredible Shrinking Daniel Libeskind,” NYT, June 20, 2004; Deborah Sontag, “The Hole in the City’s Heart,” NYT, September 11, 2006. 10 Nicolai Ouroussoff interviewed by Charlie Rose, “A Look at the World of Art and Architecture,” The Charlie Rose Show, PBS, transcript, December 28, 2005. 11 Ada Louise Huxtable, “In the Fray: The Death of the Dream for the Ground-Zero Site,” WSJ, April 20, 2005; Ada Louise Huxtable, “The Next Great Center of the City: Daniel Libeskind Envisions Ground Zero,” WSJ, March 19, 2003; Ada Louise Huxtable interviewed by Charlie Rose, “A Conversation With Architects Renzo Piano and Frank Gehry; Discussion with Architecture Critic Ada Louise Huxtable,” The Charlie Rose Show, PBS, transcript, August 5, 2005. 12 Paul Goldberger, “Profiles: Urban Warriors,” New Yorker, September 15, 2003, 72–81, at 74. 13 George Pataki, “Governor’s Remarks at ABNY Lunch,” April 24, 2003; George Pataki, “Remarks Laying of the Cornerstone for Freedom Tower,” July 4, 2004. No one I asked seemed to know where the stone had been put until journalist Douglas Feiden, writing for the Wall Street Journal, reported in August 2014 that it resided “in the grassy front yard of a stone manufacturing plant in an industrial precinct in the Long Island hamlet of Yaphank … on private property with limited public viewing.”

pages: 356 words: 186,629

Frommer's Los Angeles 2010 by Matthew Richard Poole


AltaVista, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Maui Hawaii, Saturday Night Live, sustainable-tourism, upwardly mobile

Walt Disne y C oncert Hall The strikingly beautiful Walt D isney Concer t Hall isn’t just the ne w home of the Los Angeles P hilharmonic; it’s a key element in an urban revitalization effort now underway Downtown. The Walt Disney family insisted on the best and, with an initial gift of $50 million to build a world-class per formance venue, that’s what they got: A masterpiece of design b y world-renowned architect Frank Gehry, and an acoustical quality that equals or surpasses those of the best concer t halls in the world. Similar to Gehry’s most famous architectural masterpiece, the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, the concert hall’s dramatic stainless-steel exterior consists of a series of undulating curved surfaces that partially envelop the entire building, presenting multiple glimmering facades to the surr ounding neighborhood.

The 3 1/2-acre Concert Hall is open to the public for vie wing, but to witness it in its full glory, do whatever it takes to attend a concer t by the world-class Los Angeles Philharmonic (p. 274). Also highly r ecommended are free audio tours, which lead visitors through the Concer t H all’s histor y fr om conception to cr eation. The 45-minute selfguided tour is narrated by actor John Lithgow and includes interviews with Frank Gehry, Los Angeles P hilharmonic music dir ector Gustavo Dudamel, and acoustician Yasuhisa Toyota, among others. O ne big cav eat is that y ou see just about ev erything except the auditorium: There’s almost always a r ehearsal in pr ogress and the acoustics ar e so good that there’s no discreet way to sneak a peek. The audio tours are available on most nonmatinee days fr om 10am to 2pm (be sur e to check their w ebsite for the monthly tour schedule). 111 S.

.), Santa M onica. admission. Tues–Sat 11am–6pm. Free parking. & 310/586-6488. w F ree PASADENA Norton Simon Museum of Art 177 Named for a food-packing king and financier who r eorganized the failing P asadena M useum of M odern Ar t, the N orton Simon displays one of the finest private collections of European, American, and Asian art in the world (and yet another feather in the cap of architect Frank Gehry, who redesigned the interior space). Compr ehensive collections of masterpieces b y Degas, Picasso, Rembrandt, and G oya are augmented b y sculptures by Henry Moore and A uguste Rodin, including The Burghers of Calais, which greets you at the gates. The “Blue Four” collection of works by Kandinsky, Jawlensky, Klee, and Feininger is impressive, as is a superb collection of S outheast Asian sculptur e.

pages: 941 words: 237,152

USA's Best Trips by Sara Benson

Albert Einstein, California gold rush, car-free, carbon footprint, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, if you build it, they will come, indoor plumbing, McMansion, mega-rich, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, the High Line, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration

In summertime, water taxis ply the river and lakefront, too. Energize for the day ahead with a rocket-fuel cup of Intelligentsia Coffee. The local chain roasts its own beans, and the baristas know how to percolate them (staff won the US Barista Championship in 2009). Sip by the window and watch the crowds pass by – they’re likely headed to Millennium Park, one block east. Where to start amid the mod designs? Pritzker Pavilion, Frank Gehry’s swooping silver band shell, on which the park centers? Crown Fountain, Jaume Plensa’s splashy water work, where images of locals spout gargoyle-style? Or “the Bean” (officially Cloud Gate), Anish Kapoor’s 110-ton, silver-drop sculpture? That’s the one. Join the visitors swarming it to see the skyline reflections. The park also offers free guided tours, free yoga classes (Saturday morning, on the Great Lawn) and free classical and world-music concerts – all in summertime, of course, Chicago’s snow-free season

Downtown, long known for a bustling financial district that emptied at night, is in the midst of a massive Renaissance that’s attracting party animals as well as full-time residents. The symbol of the revitalization is the Walt Disney Concert Hall, the landmark that launched a thousand metaphors. Billowing ship? Blooming rose? Silver bow? No matter which comparison you prefer, it’s agreed that this iconic structure – designed by Frank Gehry and completed in 2003 – kick-started Downtown’s rebirth. Cascading escalators whisk visitors from the parking garage directly into the airy lobby, where tours highlight Gehry’s exquisite attention to detail – air-conditioning units are hidden inside smooth Douglas fir columns – throughout the building and gardens. * * * TIME 2 days BEST TIME TO GO Year-round START Walt Disney Concert Hall, LA, CA END Santa Monica State Beach, LA, CA * * * Just across Grand Ave, hard hats construct the Grand Ave Cultural Corridor, a high-end cluster of shops, hotels and restaurants scheduled for a 2011 completion.

Do Amoeba Music Live performances, listening stations and a map are a few of the extras at this vinyl and CD emporium. 323-245-6400;; 6400 W Sunset Blvd; 10:30am-11pm Mon-Sat, 11am-9pm Sun Getty Center A driverless tram whisks visitors to art, architecture, gardens and stellar views. 310-440-7300;; 1200 Getty Center Dr; admission free, parking $10; 10am-5:30pm Tue-Fri & Sun, 10am-9pm Sat; Grauman’s Chinese Theater Stand in the footprints of Gable, Clooney and Schwarzenegger just west of Hollywood & Highland while 200 people jostle you. 323-464-8111;; 6925 Hollywood Blvd; admission free; Hollywood & Highland Shops, restaurants and movie screens are just part of the spectacle at this towering Hollywood complex. 323-467-6412;; 6801 Hollywood Blvd; admission free; 10am-10pm Mon-Sat, to 7pm Sun; Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA) Collection spans 1940s to present. 213-626-6222;; 250 S Grand Ave; adult/under 12yr/student & senior $10/free/5; 11am-5pm Mon & Fri, to 8pm Thu, to 6pm Sat & Sun New Beverly Cinema Indie cinema screens double features and eclectically themed retrospectives. 323-938-4038;; 7165 W Beverly Blvd; general/senior & child/student $7/4/6 Richard Riordan Central Library This 1926 building boasts a grand rotunda, stunning murals, whimsical cascading elevators and 2.1 million books. 213-228-7000;; 630 W 5th St; admission free; 10am-8pm Mon-Thu, 10am-6pm Fri & Sat, 1-5pm Sun; Walt Disney Concert Hall Tours highlight architect Frank Gehry’s attention to detail, but concert tickets are needed to see the acoustically precise auditorium. 323-850-2000 concert tickets, 213-972-4399 tours;; 111 S Grand Ave; tours free; 10am-2pm most days Warner Bros Hop a tram for a two-hour tour in which the secrets of Hollywood are revealed – forced perspective, fancy facades and fake bricks. 818-972-8687;; 3400 Riverside Dr, Burbank; tours $45, min age 8; 7:30am-7pm Mon-Fri, tours 8:20am-4pm EAT & DRINK AOC From goat cheese to blue cheese, fancy fromages fill one full page on the menu and add to the epicurean fun. 323-653-6359;; 8022 W 3rd St; small plates $14-18; 6-11pm Mon-Fri, 5:30-11pm Sat, 5:30-10pm Sun El Coyote Combos are messy and margaritas are strong at this lively Mexican cantina that’s been pulling in locals for years. 323-939-2255;; 7312 Beverly Blvd; mains $5-12; 11am-10pm; Griddle Cafe Items named Banana Nana Pancakes and Peanut Bubba Crunchy French Toast make reading the menu fun. 323-874-0377; 7916 W Sunset Blvd; mains $9-12; 7am-4pm Mon-Fri, 8am-4pm Sat & Sun Lucky Devils From Kobe burgers and veggie burgers to fries and shakes, it’s all good. 323-465-8259;; 6613 Hollywood Blvd; mains $8-16; lunch & dinner; Osteria Mozza Watch chef Nancy Silverton craft mouthwatering morsels from Italian cheese; reserve a month ahead. 323-297-0100;; 6602 Melrose Ave; mains $11-30, Sun-Thu 3-course bar special $35; 5:30pm-midnight Rooftop Bar at the Standard Hotel Citywide views from the roof are worth hipper-than-thou hassles to get there. 213-892-8080;; 550 S Flower St; cover after 7pm Fri & Sat $20; noon-1:30am Skooby’s Be sure to order fries with that chili-smothered dog. 323-468-3647;; 6654 Hollywood Blvd; mains $2.50-4; 11am-midnight; Toast Frothy lattes, hearty scrambles and valet parking at the corner of 3rd St and N Harper Ave. 323-655-5018;; 8221 W 3rd St; mains $8-17; 7:30am-10pm; SLEEP Beverly Laurel Motor Hotel Let the retro times roll at this spare but stylin’ budget option close to Mid-City and Hollywood. 323-651-2441; 8018 Beverly Blvd; r $115, pet fee $25; Figueroa Hotel Spanish touches and Moroccan-style rooms liven up this property, conveniently located next to the Staples Center. 213-627-8971;; 939 S Figueroa St; r $148-184, ste $225-265 Hollywood Roosevelt Who said historic can’t be hip?

pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt


anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

At that time, developers were touting the Financial District as the fastest-growing neighborhood in North America. This is hard to verify, but in percentage terms, it may have been true. At one point, there were sixty residential buildings simultaneously being either built or converted from commercial status. This included the seventy-five-story 8 Spruce Street, formerly Beekman Tower, a short distance from the World Trade Center site, a glass-and-titanium building designed by Frank Gehry that laid claim to being the tallest residential structure in the western hemisphere. It includes, in addition to the residences, a public elementary school with one hundred thousand square feet of space. Then something else happened, the economic wounds from which will take longer to heal than those of 2001. The meltdown that began in earnest with the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers in the fall of 2008, and continued with a parade of financial industry insolvencies and the erosion of credit for new construction or rehabilitation, brought the condo boom of lower Manhattan to a virtually complete halt.

P.S. 234, a K–5 school in the area that consistently records some of the highest test scores of any public school in Manhattan, was operating at 139 percent of capacity in the fall of 2008, and it was difficult even for Wall Street neighborhood kids to find places there. A makeshift overflow kindergarten was established in the old New York County Courthouse at the north end of the district, near City Hall. In addition to the school in the Frank Gehry skyscraper on Spruce Street and one in Battery Park City, a new public high school for girls was being created at 26 Broadway, in the old Standard Oil Building. It remains true that the residential families of the Financial District are wealthy ones, even in hard economic times. But it is a myth that they all send their children to private schools, or wish to. They are about as eager as other parents in the five New York boroughs to use the public schools, as long as they can find decent ones.

pages: 293 words: 97,431

You Are Here: Why We Can Find Our Way to the Moon, but Get Lost in the Mall by Colin Ellard

A Pattern Language, call centre, car-free, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Frank Gehry, global village, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job satisfaction, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, New Urbanism, peak oil, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban sprawl

If she was distracted for even a moment, or if her memory failed her, the missing data would cause her to lose track of her position completely. Many animals, including human beings, have a specialized set of organs that sense movement in exactly the same manner as our observant beer drinker. These structures, called the vestibular system, consist of a series of interconnected chambers and tubes within the middle ear. These wondrously shaped vestibules, looking a bit like a curvy architectural creation by Frank Gehry, are filled with a viscous fluid. Inside each of these tubes is a small chunk of gelatin, studded with tiny crystals of limestone to give it added weight. As our head accelerates and decelerates through space, the blobs of gelatin wobble around just like the beer in the glass. Tiny hairs embedded in the blobs are bent by each wobble, and these bending movements send signals to our brain. The vestibular system works remarkably well for controlling certain types of movement.

Aside from cultural and economic considerations, technological influences have also drawn the attention of designers away from the construction of habitable dwellings. In a recent conversation I had with Robert Jan van Pelt, an architect with a strong interest in the history of ideas, he argued that most designers and architects today focus upon either the very large—airports, museums, and city halls—or the very small—corkscrews, lemon squeezers, and chairs. The large, one-of-a-kind architectural creation like I. M. Pei’s Louvre Pyramid or Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum Balboa can serve as a long-standing physical monument to the ideas of the architect that is talked about, photographed endlessly, and seen by all from afar. The small household object, sometimes crafted with the same exquisite concern for detail as a large building, can be reproduced in vast numbers using modern methods of mass production. This is not only profitable but also serves as a different route by which the ideas of a designer can penetrate deeply, be seen by many, and influence much of our behavior.

pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton


1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

—Peter Watts, “The Things”2 The cybernetics of men. … As you, Socrates, often call politics. —Stafford Beer, “Cybernetic Praxis in Government”3 Introduction 1.  A New Architecture? In an address to the Council on Foreign Relations on the need for a new geopolitical architecture, the outgoing secretary of state, Hillary Clinton, made a rather striking recommendation: “We need a new architecture for this new world, more Frank Gehry than formal Greek.”4 She described the system dominated by the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and several other large organizations as the equivalent of the classical Parthenon in Athens. “By contrast, there's Gehry's Modern architecture [sic]. … Some of his work at first might appear haphazard, but in fact, it's highly intentional and sophisticated,” Clinton continued.

If the campus is a sort of utopian idealization of the Google Cloud Polis itself, this version, unlike some others, at least makes some gestures toward including the outside User in its model. The project is still to be approved, if at all, by Mountain View city council, and so we shall have to wait and see what is actually built to compare the real environmental platform to that proposed.58 By contrast, looking at Frank Gehry's early proposals for a new Facebook headquarters in Menlo Park (nicknamed “Zee Town” after company founder, Mark Zuckerberg) we see a plan for a more traditional corporate campus, designed, it appears, to ensure the managed serendipitous contact between employees in motion. In this encapsulated “company town” winding pathways and strategic lines of sight connecting interior and exterior views are embedded in a multilevel landscape where sub- and superterranean greenery twists and turns onto and under the collection of buildings.59 At their desks, the aggregate social graph of the on-site employee/resident population is framed and displayed to itself as it moves and involves itself within itself in airplane hangar–scale open-plan work space.

See Antonio Negri's essay, “On Rem Koolhaas,” and Martin Van Schaik and Otakar Máčel, Exit Utopia: Architectural Provocations, 1956–76 (Munich: Prestel, 2005). See also Sabrina Van Der Ley and Markus Richter, Megastructure Reloaded: Visionäre Stadtentwürfe Der Sechzigerjahre Reflektiert Von Zeitgenössischen Künstlern = Visionary Architecture and Urban Design of the Sixties Reflected by Contemporary Artists (Ostfildern: Hatje Cantz, 2008). 50.  The Bilbao region in Spain experienced significant economic growth concurrent with the opening of the Frank Gehry designed Guggenheim Bilbao and opening in 1997. The “Bilbao effect” is a termed coined by Peter Eisenman to refer to the misguided hope of second-tier cites that adding some flashy new architectural icons would magically boost their city's brand and regional economy. 51.  Perhaps a future Erich von Daniken will interpret Foster's structures as proof of alien intelligence on Earth's moon. 52. 

pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Ample, easy parking is the hallmark of the dispersed city. It is also a killer of street life. A cruise through Los Angeles illustrates the dynamic. The city’s downtown has been said to contain more parking spaces per acre than any other place on earth, and its streets are some of the most desolate. Back in the late 1990s, civic boosters hoped that the Disney Concert Hall, a stainless steel–clad icon by starchitect Frank Gehry, would pump some life into L.A.’s Bunker Hill district. The city raised $110 million in bonds to build space for more than two thousand cars—six levels of parking right beneath the hall. Aside from creating a huge burden for the building’s tenant, the Los Angeles Philharmonic (which is contractually bound to put on an astounding 128 concerts each winter season in order to pay the debt service on the garage), the structure has utterly failed to revive area streets.

The system makes just about every destination farther away because it eliminates the most direct routes between them. Connectivity counts: more intersections mean more walking, and more disconnected cul-de-sacs mean more driving.* The long-distance story is not unique to Atlanta. In 1940 the average person in Seattle lived less than half a mile from a store. By 1990 the distance had grown to more than three-quarters of a mile, and it has grown since. In 2012, after Facebook and architect Frank Gehry unveiled designs for a new 10-acre base across the Bayfront Expressway from Facebook’s old base in Silicon Valley, Gehry explained that his plan strove for “a kind of ephemeral connectivity” through its single-level, open-concept floor design. But no magical configuration of the office-park geometry could make up for the fact that half of Facebook’s workers actually lived thirty miles away in dense, walkable, networked San Francisco.

pages: 287 words: 9,386

Stuff White People Like: A Definitive Guide to the Unique Taste of Millions by Christian Lander


car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Frank Gehry, Slavoj Žižek

If you promise to hook them up with a special selection from your home country, they will likely pay a high premium. 34 Architecture If you ask white people what they love about cities they don’t live in, they will say “restaurants,” “culture,” and “architecture.” They just can’t get enough of old buildings or ultramodern buildings next to old buildings. If you want to fit in with white people you need to learn about I. M. Pei, Frank Lloyd Wright, Frank Gehry, and a whole swath of others. Also, be prepared to say “Bauhaus” a lot. Once you have the basics down, you should choose a city that people are unlikely to have visited, then make up a name and choose one of the following: (a) opera house, (b) museum, (c) city hall, (d) civic center. Then put it all together into something like this: “Gehry is good, but I’m much more into the work of D. F. Winterhausen.

pages: 258 words: 63,367

Making the Future: The Unipolar Imperial Moment by Noam Chomsky


Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, full employment, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, liberation theology, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, precariat, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor

A hallmark of a Chomsky talk is the question-and-answer period afterward—which tends to continue, freewheeling, until organizers shepherd him to the next stop on the schedule. Chomsky frequently grants interviews to periodicals around the world, and he maintains an exhaustive email correspondence. Meanwhile he reads voraciously: the mainstream press, journals, books and blogs from the United States and around the world. His office at Massachusetts Institute of Technology is in a building designed by Frank Gehry, where walls tilt inward as the horizontal stack of books on Chomsky’s desk climbs ever upward. Chomsky’s habit with newspapers is to read down the articles until he comes to the most revealing material, often submerged toward the end—such as the quote from the unnamed Bush adviser. This collection’s op-eds very much reflect Chomsky’s public exchanges, as at Occupy Boston. Notes for talks and answers to questions, along with his reading, evolve into columns and material for his books, and vice versa.

pages: 247 words: 43,430

Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey


Benoit Mandelbrot, cellular automata, Conway's Game of Life, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discrete time,, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Guggenheim Bilbao, mandelbrot fractal, Occupy movement, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, sorting algorithm, stochastic process, strong AI, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing complete, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto, We are the 99%

Even armies, which are the canonical example of hierarchical structure, are moving toward devolved command and control. Analysis computation In classical engineering, the space of feasible designs is limited by our capability for analysis. For example, designing the Eiffel Tower was possible because Gustave Eiffel developed novel analytic techniques, in particular for dealing with wind load. Now tools for computer-aided design and analysis make it possible to build almost anything that can be imagined. Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is my favorite example. Design search Engineering is sometimes described as a search for solutions in a landscape of possible designs. Increasingly, the search process can be automated. For example, genetic algorithms explore large design spaces and discover solutions human engineers would not imagine (or like). The ultimate genetic algorithm, evolution, notoriously generates designs that violate the rules of human engineering.

pages: 197 words: 60,477

So Good They Can't Ignore You: Why Skills Trump Passion in the Quest for Work You Love by Cal Newport


Apple II, bounce rate, Byte Shop, Cal Newport, capital controls, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, deliberate practice, financial independence, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, information asymmetry, job satisfaction, job-hopping, knowledge worker, Mason jar, medical residency, new economy, passive income, Paul Terrell, popular electronics, renewable energy credits, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Bolles, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web application, winner-take-all economy

This final little step, however, turned out to be a winner, leading directly to his own television show. As I was struggling to make sense of Kirk’s story, I stumbled across a new business book that had been making waves. It was titled Little Bets, and it was written by a former venture capitalist named Peter Sims.2 When Sims studied a variety of successful innovators, from Steve Jobs to Chris Rock to Frank Gehry, as well as innovative companies, such as Amazon and Pixar, he found a strategy common to all. “Rather than believing they have to start with a big idea or plan out a whole project in advance,” he writes, “they make a methodical series of little bets about what might be a good direction, learning critical information from lots of little failures and from small but significant wins” [emphasis mine].

St Pancras Station by Simon Bradley


Corn Laws, Fellow of the Royal Society, food miles, Frank Gehry, means of production, railway mania

It is perfectly possible that all these stories are true; certainly Scott exploited train travel for all it was worth, and the way in which the railway network grew and changed almost monthly must have been disorientating in ways we can now hardly imagine. But in some respects Scott’s practice now seems less phenomenal than it did to his contemporaries, especially in the use of a studio style and in the readiness to work beyond national boundaries, like such contemporary globe-trotting architects as Norman Foster or Frank Gehry – for Scott was as close to a ‘brand’ as the Victorian architectural profession would ever get. Lesser men might have used the hours left over from design work, client meetings and site visits for socialising or relaxation. Scott seems hardly to have relaxed at all, except when laid low by illness, more than once brought on by stress or overwork. Instead, he wrote and illustrated several books, produced sheaves of articles, papers and reports, cofounded an architectural museum and a sketching society, [ 19 ] St Pancras.indb 19 13/9/07 12:12:03 gave professorial lectures at the Royal Academy, and served a two-year term as president of the Royal Institute of British Architects.

Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next Competitive Advantage by Roger L. Martin

asset allocation, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Frank Gehry, global supply chain, high net worth, Innovator's Dilemma, Isaac Newton, mobile money, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, six sigma, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Wall-E, winner-take-all economy

Projects are typically assigned to teams rather than to individuals, although that team may have its own internal, and often temporary, hierarchy—a captain or a quarterback, as well as linemen to handle the blocking and tackling. But the solution is expected to come from the team, not the quarterback. And the team is expected to include the client in the collaborative process. Rather than waiting until the outcome is just right, the client is exposed to a succession of prototypes that grow more right and more elegant with every iteration. Architect Frank Gehry is famous for this iterative style. The first design he presents typically provokes a firestorm of protests for its inadequacies. Gehry’s initial design for the Art Gallery of Ontario (AGO) elicited an apoplectic reaction from one of the gallery’s most important benefactors. Thinking the design slighted the part of the gallery he considered his baby, he resigned from the board, swearing off any further involvement with the institution.

pages: 239 words: 56,531

The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld


Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Designers IOD craft their Webstalker software to give visual form to the sprawl of the network, and Lisa Jevbratt maps out the Web as an interactive color field. Aaron Koblin makes a live-action video for Radiohead’s song “House of Cards” without cameras or lights, using 3-D tracking technologies that create data streams that viewers/users can then remix with new angles and visuals to post to YouTube. The green-on-black datascapes in The Matrix films simultaneously virtualize and realize the Wachowski Brothers’ pop mysticism. Even Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Bilbao and Disney Concert Hall, those most sensuous of twenty-firstcentury signifiers, can be seen as manifestations of the CATIA 3-D software used to design them. Ubiquitous computing and geographic information systems are virtual figuring machines, constantly popping out new data points from previously mute spaces and maps. How are we to describe these products of the culture machine?

pages: 381 words: 78,467

100 Plus: How the Coming Age of Longevity Will Change Everything, From Careers and Relationships to Family And by Sonia Arrison


23andMe, 8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, attribution theory, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, Clayton Christensen, dark matter, East Village,, epigenetics, Frank Gehry, Googley, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, post scarcity, Ray Kurzweil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Singularitarianism, smart grid, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Malthus, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, X Prize

Company staffers recounted the event on their blog, saying, “23andMe managed to lure a few hundred people away from the catwalks Tuesday night to consider the beauty that lies within—DNA. Our Fashion Week spit party was sort of like a Tupperware party, except instead of buying plastic containers the guests were invited to deposit a saliva sample into one. And instead of taking place at a suburban ranch house designed by Richard Neutra, our spit party went down at the spectacular Manhattan headquarters of IAC/InterActive Corporation, designed by architect Frank Gehry.”69 Such hip parties showcasing how biology meets technology are key in spreading the meme of health extension. All the cool kids are doing it. Of course, sometimes examining DNA leads a person to find out things about his genes that cause concern, and that’s where Sergey Brin’s biggest public contribution to the meme comes in. It turns out that he has a mutation on one of his genes that makes it 30 to 75 percent more likely that he will develop Parkinson’s disease, a neurological condition that interferes with movement, speech, and other functions.

pages: 238 words: 77,730

Final Jeopardy: Man vs. Machine and the Quest to Know Everything by Stephen Baker


23andMe, AI winter, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, business process, call centre, clean water, commoditize, computer age, Frank Gehry, information retrieval, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, job automation, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, statistical model, theory of mind, thinkpad, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

He used the most convenient specimen of human cognition at hand, his own mind, to make his case. Tenenbaum, a youthful professor with sandy hair falling across his forehead and an easy smile, has an office in MIT’s imposing headquarters for research on brains, memory, and cognitive science. His window looks across the street at the cascading metallic curves of MIT’s Stata Center, designed by the architect Frank Gehry. Tenenbaum is focusing his research on the computational basis of human learning and trying to replicate it with machines. His goal is to come up with computers whose intelligence reaches far beyond answering questions or finding correlations in masses of data. One day, he hopes, the systems he’s working on will come up with concepts and theories, the way humans do, sometimes basing them on just a handful of observations.

pages: 280 words: 75,820

Rapt: Attention and the Focused Life by Winifred Gallagher


Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Build a better mousetrap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, epigenetics, Frank Gehry, fundamental attribution error, Isaac Newton, knowledge worker, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, music of the spheres, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game

A talented cellist might play a Bach sonata the way an average person can relax his frontalis muscle. The high-level instrumental skill has become so well assimilated that it happens automatically.” Where visual artists are concerned, the Baroque sculptor and architect Bernini and the painter and sculptor Picasso were clearly adept at both experiential and instrumental attending, says Tellegen, as is the modern architect Frank Gehry. Choosing a literary example, he says that F. Scott Fitzgerald once admitted to “wrapping one of his romantic flings in cellophane” for later artistic use and notes that “this kind of heartless but honest professionalism is not uncommon among creative people.” Colorful artistic types are by no means the only people who excel in paying both pragmatic and experiential attention. Turning to politicians, Tellegen points out that when asked how he could focus on his duties during the huge distraction of impeachment, President Bill Clinton described an extremely practical, feet-on-the-ground response to the stressor: “It’s simple.

pages: 281 words: 78,317

But What if We're Wrong? Thinking About the Present as if It Were the Past by Chuck Klosterman


a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, citizen journalism, cosmological constant, dark matter, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, George Santayana, Gerolamo Cardano, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, Isaac Newton, non-fiction novel, obamacare, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Y2K

And there is a deep consensus over who did this best, at least among non-architects: If we walked down the street of any American city and asked people to name the greatest architect of the twentieth century, most would say Frank Lloyd Wright. In fact, if someone provided a different answer, we’d have to assume we’ve stumbled across an actual working architect, an architectural historian, or a personal friend of Frank Gehry. Of course, most individuals in those subsets would cite Wright, too. But in order for someone to argue in favor of any architect except Wright (or even to be in a position to name three other plausible candidates), that person would almost need to be an expert in architecture. Normal humans don’t possess enough information to nominate alternative possibilities. And what emerges from that social condition is an insane kind of logic: Frank Lloyd Wright is indisputably the greatest architect of the twentieth century, and the only people who’d potentially disagree with that assertion are those who legitimately understand the question.

Eastern USA by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, jitney, license plate recognition, Mason jar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, the High Line, the payments system, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The admission price gets you through the doors of both attractions. Massachusetts Institute of Technology COLLEGE CAMPUS (MIT;Click here) Nerds rule ever so proudly at America’s foremost tech campus. Stop at the MIT Information Center ( 617-253-4795;; 77 Massachusetts Ave; free 90min tours 11am & 3pm Mon-Fri) for the scoop on where to see campus art, including Henry Moore bronzes and cutting-edge architecture by the likes of Frank Gehry. MIT Museum MUSEUM (; 265 Massachusetts Ave, adult/child $7.50/3; 10am-5pm) Packed with wow-’em exhibits like the world’s largest holography collection, robots from MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and cool kinetic sculptures. Swing by between 10am and noon on Sundays and admission is free. Central Boston Top Sights Boston CommonB6 Granary Burying GroundD5 Museum of ScienceA2 New England AquariumG5 Old North ChurchF2 Paul Revere HouseF3 Public GardenA6 Sights African Meeting House(see 5) 1Boston Children's MuseumG7 2Boston National Historical Park Visitors CenterE5 3Faneuil HallE4 4Make Way for Ducklings StatueB6 5Museum of Afro-American HistoryC4 6Old South Meeting HouseE5 7Old State HouseE5 8State HouseC5 9Swan BoatsB6 Activities, Courses & Tours Boston by Little Feet(see 3) 10Freedom Trail FoundationC6 11Segway ExperienceB2 12Urban AdventoursF4 Sleeping 13Harborside InnF5 14Omni Parker HouseD5 Eating 15Barking CrabG6 16City Hall Plaza Farmers MarketD4 17Durgin ParkE4 18Flour Bakery & CafeG7 19HaymarketE4 20Legal Sea FoodsF4 21Modern Pastry ShopE3 22MontienC7 23Neptune OysterE3 24New Jumbo SeafoodD7 25ParamountB5 26PomodoroF3 27Quincy MarketE4 28Regina PizzeriaE2 29South Station Farmers MarketE7 30Ye Olde Union Oyster HouseE4 Drinking 31AlibiB4 32Bell in Hand TavernE4 33CheersA5 34Club CaféA8 Entertainment 35BosTixE4 36Hatch Memorial ShellA5 37Opera HouseC6 38TD GardenD2 39Wang TheatreC7 GREATER BOSTON Museum of Science MUSEUM ( 617-723-2500;; Charles River Dam; adult/child $21/18; 9am-5pm Sat-Thu, 9am-9pm Fri, longer hr Jul-Aug; ) At this state-of-the-art museum, a short hop from MIT, hundreds of interactive displays explore the latest tech trends.

For local information, check out the Roanoke Valley Visitor Information Center ( 540-342-6025;; 101 Shenandoah Ave NE; 9am-5pm) in the old Norfolk & Western train station. The striking Taubman Museum of Art (; 110 Salem Ave SE; adult/child $7/4; 10am-5pm Tue-Sat, to 8pm Fri, noon-5pm Sun), opened in 2008, is set in a sculptural steel-and-glass edifice that’s reminiscent of the Guggenheim Bilbao (it’s no coincidence, as architect Randall Stout was a one-time associate of Frank Gehry). Inside, you’ll find a superb collection of artworks spanning 3500 years (particularly strong in 19th- and 20th-century American works). Currently undergoing a massive $27 million renewal project, Center in the Square ( 540-342-5700;; 1 Market Sq; 10am-5pm Tue-Sat, from 1pm Sun) is the city’s cultural heartbeat, with a science museum and planetarium (adult/child $8/6), local history museum (adult/child $3/2) and theater.

THE LOOP The city center and financial district is named for the elevated train tracks that lasso its streets. It’s busy all day, though not much happens at night other than in Millennium Park and the Theater District, near the intersection of N State and W Randolph Sts. Millennium Park PARK (; Welcome Center, 201 E Randolph St; 6am-11pm; ) Rising boldly by the lakefront, Millennium Park is a treasure trove of free and arty sights. Frank Gehry’s 120ft-high swooping silver band shell anchors what is, in essence, an outdoor modern design gallery. It includes Jaume Plensa’s 50ft-high Crown Fountain, which projects video images of locals spitting water, gargoyle style; the Gehry-designed BP Bridge that spans Columbus Dr and offers great skyline views; and the McCormick Tribune Ice Rink that fills with skaters in winter (and alfresco diners in summer).

Lonely Planet France by Lonely Planet Publications


banking crisis, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Murano, Venice glass, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

Ask for un mélange (an assortment) of banknotes; many shops don’t accept €200 and €500 bills. Top of section what's new Our authors have hunted down the fresh, the revamped, the transformed, the hot and the happening. Here are a few of our favourites. For up-to-the-minute reviews and recommendations, see ART IN PARIS 1 The new ‘flying carpet’ Islamic art gallery at the Louvre, the Louis Vuitton arts centre à la Frank Gehry, the Musée Picasso. Oh, what capital openings art lovers are enjoying! ( Click here ; Click here ; Click here ) GOURMET BURGERS 2 The burger trend sweeping Paris is, unsurprisingly, très gourmet ma chère . Hot on the heels of Blend, with its hand-cut meat in brioche buns, comes the achingly cool Beef Club. ( Click here ; Click here ) LOUVRE-LENS 3 Ingenius. France’s latest temple to fine art – aka the Louvre-Lens in northern France – also lets visitors peek into its restoration workshops and store-rooms. ( Click here ) AU 36 4 Never has Champagne dégustation been so chic.

The Bois de Boulogne is home to the Roland Garros (; 2 av Gordon Bennett, Bois de Boulogne; Porte d’Auteuil) stadium, home to the French Open. The world’s most extravagant tennis museum, the Tenniseum-Musée de Roland Garros (; 2 av Gordon Bennett; adult/child €7.50/4, with stadium visit €15/10; 10am-6pm Tue-Sun; Porte d’Auteuil) , traces the sport’s 500-year history through paintings, sculptures and posters. Tours of the stadium take place at 11am and 3pm in English; reservations are required. Designed by Frank Gehry, the fine arts centre Fondation Louis Vuitton pour la Création ( was under construction at the time of writing. LOUVRE & LES HALLES Louis VI created halles (markets) for merchants who converged on the city centre to sell their wares, and for over 800 years they were, in the words of Émile Zola, the ‘belly of Paris’. Although the wholesalers moved out to the suburb of Rungis in 1971 (and were replaced by the soulless subterranean shopping mall Forum des Halles, currently undergoing a much-anticipated makeover), the markets’ spirit lives on here.

Sights & Activities Though he painted 200-odd canvases in Arles, there are no Van Gogh artworks here today, and Van Gogh’s little ‘yellow house’ on place Lamartine, which he painted in 1888, was destroyed during WWII. Nevertheless, there are several ways to pay homage to the master. Mapped out in a brochure (€1 or downloadable for free online) from the tourist office (Click here ), the evocative Van Gogh walking circuit of the city takes in scenes painted by the artist. Arles will soon be graced with a cultural centre designed by world-renowned architect Frank Gehry. The Museon Arlaten Offline map Google map is closed for renovations until 2014. Unless otherwise noted, the last entry to sights is 30 minutes prior to closing. Winter hours are shorter than those listed below; places that close at 7pm in summer usually close at 5pm in winter. Museums are free the first Sunday of the month. Arles Top Sights Fondation Vincent Van GoghC2 Les ArènesD2 Musée RéattuB1 Théâtre Antique C3 Sights 1 Cloître St-Trophime C3 2 Cryptoportiques B2 3Église St-TrophimeC3 4 Espace Van Gogh A4 5 Hôtel de Ville B3 6 Museon Arlaten B3 Place du Forum (see 2) 7 Thermes de Constantin B1 Sleeping 8 Hôtel Arlatan B2 9Hôtel de l'AmphithéâtreC3 10 Hôtel du Musée B1 11 Le Belvédère Hôtel D1 12 L'Hôtel Particulier A3 Eating 13 Au Jardin du Calendal D3 14 Comptoir du Sud B3 15L'AtelierB3 16L'AutrucheA3 17 Le Cilantro D3 18Le GibolinA3 19 L'Entrevue A2 Entertainment 20Ticket OfficeD2 Shopping 21 La Botte Camarguaise A3 22 La Boutique des Passionnés B2 Les Arènes ROMAN SITES Offline map Google map (Amphithéâtre; adult/child incl Théâtre Antique €6.50/free; 9am-7pm) Slaves, criminals and wild animals (including giraffes) met their dramatic demise before a jubilant 20,000-strong crowd during Roman gladiatorial displays at Les Arènes, built around the late 1st or early 2nd century AD.

pages: 798 words: 240,182

The Transhumanist Reader by Max More, Natasha Vita-More


23andMe, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, data acquisition, discovery of DNA, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila,, endogenous growth, experimental subject, Extropian, fault tolerance, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, friendly AI, game design, germ theory of disease, hypertext link, impulse control, index fund, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, P = NP, pattern recognition, phenotype, positional goods, prediction markets, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, silicon-based life, Singularitarianism, stem cell, stochastic process, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, the built environment, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Stock, Gregory (2002) Redesigning Humans: Our Inevitable Genetic Future. New York: Houghton Mifflin. 2 Aesthetics Bringing the Arts & Design into the Discussion of Transhumanism Natasha Vita-More “Transhumans want to elevate and extend life … let us choose to be transhumanist not only in our bodies, but also in our values … toward diversity, multiplicity … toward a more humane transhumanity …”1 Imagine a future designed by Frank Gehry that models elements of a “great logistic game” as conceived by Buckminster Fuller, within a monumental Christo installation, kinetically lit by James Turrell, scored by Philip Glass, and sung by Adele. Introduction The emergent course of technology is at once explicable and baffling. It has precipitated questions about a shifting human paradigm that remain unanswered by postmodernism.

The argument from biocultural capital refutes the rejection of such distinctions on moral grounds, largely because decisions to undertake human enhancements constitute appeals to an aesthetic standard (which Bourdieu describes as “taste”). To elaborate, a suitable comparison might arise in the context of aesthetic appreciation more generally. Thus, the request for a moral justification for human enhancements is rather like asking what value accrues from having heard a Bob Dylan song, or having strolled around a Frank Gehry building. This is not to equate listening to music with invasive biological alterations; clearly there are important differences in terms of the commitment required to experience each. However, to the extent that each conveys a particular form of taste, they are similar. Such occurrences, along with the desire to experience them, cannot be explained via some precise moral framework of general utility.

USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

Massachusetts Institute of Technology COLLEGE CAMPUS Offline map (MIT) Nerds rule ever so proudly at America’s foremost tech campus. Stop at the MIT Information Center Offline map Google map ( 617-253-4795;; 77 Massachusetts Ave; free 90min tours 11am & 3pm Mon-Fri) for the scoop on where to see campus art, including Henry Moore bronzes and cutting-edge architecture by the likes of Frank Gehry. MIT Museum MUSEUM Offline map Google map (; 265 Massachusetts Ave, adult/child $7.50/3; 10am-5pm) Packed with wow-’em exhibits like the world’s largest holography collection, robots from MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and cool kinetic sculptures. Swing by between 10am and noon on Sundays and admission is free. GREATER BOSTON Museum of Science MUSEUM Offline map Google map ( 617-723-2500;; Charles River Dam; adult/child $21/18; 9am-5pm Sat-Thu, 9am-9pm Fri, longer hr Jul-Aug; ) At this state-of-the-art museum, a short hop from MIT, hundreds of interactive displays explore the latest tech trends.

For local information, check out the Roanoke Valley Visitor Information Center ( 540-342-6025;; 101 Shenandoah Ave NE; 9am-5pm) in the old Norfolk & Western train station. The striking Taubman Museum of Art (; 110 Salem Ave SE; adult/child $7/4; 10am-5pm Tue-Sat, to 8pm Fri, noon-5pm Sun) , opened in 2008, is set in a sculptural steel-and-glass edifice that’s reminiscent of the Guggenheim Bilbao (it’s no coincidence, as architect Randall Stout was a one-time associate of Frank Gehry). Inside, you’ll find a superb collection of artworks spanning 3500 years (particularly strong in 19th- and 20th-century American works). Currently undergoing a massive $27 million renewal project, Center in the Square ( 540-342-5700;; 1 Market Sq; 10am-5pm Tue-Sat, from 1pm Sun) is the city’s cultural heartbeat, with a science museum and planetarium (adult/child $8/6), local history museum (adult/child $3/2) and theater.

Downtown Chicago Top Sights Adler Planetarium & Astronomy MuseumF7 Art Institute of Chicago D4 Chicago Architecture Foundation D4 Field Museum of Natural History E7 Millennium Park D4 Navy PierF2 Shedd Aquarium E6 Willis Tower B4 Sights 112th St BeachF7 American Girl Place (see 75) 2 Buckingham Fountain E5 3 Chicago Board of Trade C4 4 Chicago Children's Museum F2 5Chicago Cultural CenterD3 6 Cloud Gate D4 7 Crown Fountain D4 8 Grant Park E5 9 Holy Name Cathedral C1 10 John Hancock Center D1 11 Magnificent Mile D1 12 McCormick Tribune Ice Rink D4 13Millennium Park Welcome CenterD3 14 Monadnock Building C4 15 Monument with Standing Beast C3 16 Museum of Contemporary Art D1 17Museum of Contemporary PhotographyD5 18 Northerly Island F7 19 Pritzker Pavilion D3 20 Rookery C4 21 Route 66 Sign D4 22Shoreline Water Taxi to Museum CampusF2 23 Smith Museum of Stained Glass Windows G2 24Sun, the Moon & One StarC4 25 Tribune Tower D2 26 Trump Tower D2 27 Untitled C3 28 Water Tower D1 29 Wrigley Building D2 Activities, Courses & Tours 31 Bike Chicago D3 30 Bike Chicago F2 32 Bobby's Bike Hike E2 33Chicago Architecture Foundation Boat Tour DockD2 Chicago Greeter(see 5) InstaGreeter (see 5) McCormick Tribune Ice Rink (see 12) 34 Weird Chicago Tours C2 Sleeping 35 Best Western River North C2 36 Central Loop Hotel C4 37 HI-Chicago D5 38 Hotel Burnham C3 39Hotel FelixC1 40 Wit C3 Eating 41 Billy Goat Tavern D2 Cafecito (see 37) Chicago's Downtown Farmstand (see 68) 42Frontera GrillC2 43 Gage D4 44 Gino's East D1 45 Giordano's D1 46 Lou Malnati's C2 47 Lou Mitchell's B4 48 Mr Beef B1 49Pizano's PizzaC1 50 Pizzeria Uno D2 51 Publican A3 52 Purple Pig D2 Topolobampo (see 42) 53XocoC2 Drinking 54 Clark Street Ale House C1 55 Harry Caray's Tavern F2 56 Intelligentsia Coffee D3 Signature Lounge (see 10) Entertainment 57 Andy's C2 58 Auditorium Theater D5 59 Bank of America Theatre C4 60 Buddy Guy's Legends D5 61 Cadillac Palace Theater C3 62 Chicago Shakespeare Theater F2 63 Chicago Theater D3 64 Civic Opera House B4 65Ford Center/Oriental TheaterC3 66 Goodman Theatre C3 Grant Park Orchestra(see 13) 67 Harris Theater for Music and Dance D3 68 Hot Tix D3 69 Hot Tix D1 Hubbard Street Dance Chicago (see 67) 70 Jazz Showcase C6 71 Lookingglass Theatre Company D1 72 Soldier Field E7 73 Symphony Center D4 Shopping 74 Jazz Record Mart D2 75 Water Tower Place D1 THE LOOP The city center and financial district is named for the elevated train tracks that lasso its streets. It’s busy all day, though not much happens at night other than in Millennium Park and the Theater District, near the intersection of N State and W Randolph Sts. Millennium Park PARK Offline map Google map (; Welcome Center, 201 E Randolph St; 6am-11pm; ) Rising boldly by the lakefront, Millennium Park is a treasure trove of free and arty sights. Frank Gehry’s 120ft-high swooping silver band shell anchors what is, in essence, an outdoor modern design gallery. It includes Jaume Plensa’s 50ft-high Crown Fountain Offline map Google map , which projects video images of locals spitting water, gargoyle style; the Gehry-designed BP Bridge that spans Columbus Dr and offers great skyline views; and the McCormick Tribune Ice Rink Offline map Google map that fills with skaters in winter (and alfresco diners in summer).

pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck


A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Most great cities do indeed contain such unique, expressive public buildings, but they are inevitably surrounded by repetitive and undistinguished private buildings. If every building were to croon at once, nothing could be discerned from the cacophony. The second false assumption is that, in the absence of architectural restrictions, what would emerge would be a harmonious landscape of structures that looked as if they had been designed by Richard Meier or Frank Gehry. Somehow, from the perspective of the schools and the magazines, the default setting for unrestricted architecture appears to be modernism. If only this were the case! The default setting for architecture in America is not modernism but vulgarity. To confirm this assertion, the architecture magazines need only look at the advertisements that fill the pages between the masterpieces they display.

pages: 385 words: 99,985

Pattern Recognition by William Gibson


carbon-based life, Frank Gehry, Mars Rover, Maui Hawaii, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, pattern recognition

That gets her turned around and headed back through the door. A cozy, crowded room, highlights of copper and polished wood. Where every table is occupied, it seems, except for one, flanked by two enormous, empty, wingback armchairs, and there, quite clearly, is the fish: a large, freestanding sculpture, its scales cut from one-pound Medaglia d'Oro coffee cans like the ones Wassily Kandmsky used, but assembled in a way that owes more to Frank Gehry. She's moving too fast to get a read on the crowd here, but is aware of a number of glances as she beelines through and seats herself in one of the wingback chairs. A waiter materializes instantly. Young and quite beautiful, white-jacketed, a white cloth folded across his arm, he looks none too happy to see her there. He brusquely says something, in Russian, that clearly isn't a question. "I'm sorry," she says, "I only speak English.

pages: 471 words: 109,267

The Verdict: Did Labour Change Britain? by Polly Toynbee, David Walker


banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, call centre, central bank independence, congestion charging, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Etonian, failed state, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, market bubble, mass immigration, millennium bug, moral panic, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Right to Buy, shareholder value, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, working-age population, Y2K

The lottery paid for much of this building, Labour breaking the covenant that said it would only pay for extras, not substitute for public spending. But look at the new buildings, some planned pre-Labour. The Walsall art gallery, the Lowry Museum, the Salt Mills in Bradford, the Sage Centre and the Baltic in Gateshead, Tate Modern and the International Slavery Museum on Albert Dock in Liverpool – most were triumphs. Run-down cities ached for the ‘Bilbao effect’ – what Frank Gehry’s spectacular Guggenheim Museum had done for that depressed industrial city in Spain. Labour bought heavily into cultural construction as an instrument of regeneration. Which helps explain the Millennium Dome. Blair shared a taste for grandiose display with the project’s Tory instigator, Michael Heseltine, who had once brought an unlikely garden festival to run-down Liverpool. Here was national symbolism and urban regeneration in the same package.

pages: 290 words: 87,084

Branded Beauty by Mark Tungate


augmented reality, Berlin Wall, call centre, corporate social responsibility, double helix, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, haute couture, invention of the printing press, joint-stock company, liberal capitalism, placebo effect, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, stem cell

Beyond their basic utility as generators of cash, they encapsulate and concretize the brand’s values. They also provide memorable experiences that inspire brand loyalty. Imagine if every time you use a tube of Caudalie cream you remember a pampered vacation in the gently sun-warmed Bordeaux countryside, when you felt more relaxed and contented, possibly, than you had in years. The building in Rioja, designed by Frank Gehry, is essentially a giant logo, with its purple-tinted metallic curls reflecting the towering peaks in the distance. Not that Caudalie disparages more conventional marketing methods. Initially, its advertising was minimalistic and star free, focusing on grape and vine imagery. But in 2010 it recruited the Hungarian model Reka Ebergenyi as its ‘face’. ‘Beautiful, natural, feminine,’ says Pauline.

pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

My first Sharp Wizard extended my memory. Television continues to increase my understanding at an explosive rate. Each and every modality allows for the ability of your mind to dream the waking dream in new ways. Louis Kahn designed his buildings using vine charcoal on yellow “trash” paper. This allowed him to draw over and over the same drawing and smudge it out with the ball of his hand. This affected his designs. Frank Gehry dreams in scrawls and crushed paper, and they transform magically into reality. Each modality changes even what you can even think of. The Internet is just one big step along the way to flying through understanding and the invention of patterns. It’s a good one. Tweet Me Nice Ian Gold and Joel Gold Ian Gold: Neuroscientist; Canada Research Chair in Philosophy and Psychiatry, McGill University Joel Gold: Psychiatrist; clinical assistant professor of psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine The social changes the Internet is bringing about have changed the way the two of us think about madness.

pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey


accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

The local chamber of commerce and local trade unions are more likely to collaborate rather than to struggle against each other when it comes to getting local development projects going that will bring in both investment capital and employment opportunities. The selling and branding of place, and the burnishing of the image of a place (including states), becomes integral to how capitalist competition works. The production of geographical difference, building upon those given by history, culture and so-called natural advantages, is internalised within the reproduction of capitalism. Bring a signature architect to town and create something like Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. This helps put that city on the map of attractors for mobile capital. If geographical differences between territories and states did not exist, then they would be created by both differential investment strategies and the quest for spatial monopoly power given by uniqueness of location and of environmental and cultural qualities. The idea that capitalism promotes geographical homogeneity is totally wrong.

pages: 791 words: 85,159

Social Life of Information by John Seely Brown, Paul Duguid


AltaVista, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, cross-subsidies, disintermediation, double entry bookkeeping, Frank Gehry, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, George Gilder, George Santayana, global village, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Productivity paradox, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Y2K

The first story followed the firm into its new offices.18 The second, five years later, watched its retreat to a more conventional way of working.19 The agency is well known for producing Apple advertisements, including the famous 1984 Superbowl ad, which portrayed Apple as champions of individualism, and the later "Think Different" campaign. The new offices of the early nineties (in Los Angeles and New York) suggested that Chiat/Day, too, could both champion individualism and think differently. Page 71 The exterior design of the Los Angeles building (by the architect Frank Gehry) expressed the forward-looking approach directlyit resembled a pair of binoculars. But inside, it was even more unconventional. Arrangements were based on the simple principle that no one should have a room of his or her own. Instead, if they came to the office, employees could check out a laptop and a cellular phone and then look for somewhere to sit. At the end of each day, they had to check these back in againso there were no tools of one's own, either.

pages: 308 words: 84,713

The Glass Cage: Automation and Us by Nicholas Carr


Airbnb, Airbus A320, Andy Kessler, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, Bernard Ziegler, business process, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, computerized trading, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, digital map, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, High speed trading, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, turn-by-turn navigation, US Airways Flight 1549, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Langewiesche

Detailed 3-D computer renderings and animations have also proved invaluable as a means for visualizing the exterior and interior of a building. Clients can be led on virtual walk-throughs and fly-throughs long before construction begins. Beyond the practical benefits, the speed and precision of CAD calculations and visualizations have given architects and engineers the chance to experiment with new forms, shapes, and materials. Buildings that once existed only in the imagination are now being built. Frank Gehry’s Experience Music Project, a Seattle museum that looks like a collection of wax sculptures melting in the sun, would not exist were it not for computers. Although Gehry’s original design took the form of a physical model, fashioned from wood and cardboard, translating the model’s intricate, fluid shapes into construction plans could not be done by hand. It required a powerful CAD system—originally developed by the French firm Dassault to design jet aircraft—that could scan the model digitally and express its whimsy as a set of numbers.

pages: 329 words: 93,655

Moonwalking With Einstein by Joshua Foer


Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Berlin Wall, conceptual framework, deliberate practice, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, lifelogging, mental accounting, patient HM, pattern recognition, Rubik’s Cube, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, zero-sum game

I had constructed five imaginary buildings, one for each of the “tea party” guests. Each was built in a different style, but with a similar floor plan based around a central atrium and satellite rooms. The first palace was a modernist glass cube in the manner of Philip Johnson’s Glass House; the second was a turreted Queen Anne of the type you see all over San Francisco, with lots of frilly scrollwork and ostentatious ornamentation; the third was Frank Gehry-esque, with wavy titanium walls and warped windows; the fourth was based on Thomas Jefferson’s redbrick home, Monticello; and there was nothing special about the fifth except that all the walls were painted bright blue. Each home’s kitchen would serve as the repository of an address. Each home’s den would hold a phone number. The master bedroom was for hobbies, the bathroom was for birthdays, and so on.

pages: 317 words: 107,653

A Place of My Own: The Architecture of Daydreams by Michael Pollan


A Pattern Language, back-to-the-land, Benoit Mandelbrot, dematerialisation, Frank Gehry, interchangeable parts, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Peter Eisenman, place-making, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, urban renewal, zero-sum game

Here was a trio of silver plywood structures on a beach, each resembling a different fish washed up on shore: a carp, a ray, and a sea slug. Called Beached Houses, they were intended as artists’ housing in Jamaica. A prospective Tokyo office building designed by Peter Eisenman looked like a conventional glass-walled tower that had somehow been folded over and over again until it resembled an origami construction—a dizzying collage of multiplying facets and peculiar angles. The California architect Frank Gehry had two winners, both of them actually destined to get built. Another California architect had designed a house and gallery for an art collector in Santa Fe that consisted of two groupings of cubes within cubes within cubes; it looked like the sort of building you might get if you asked M. C. Escher to design your house. But probably the very weirdest house to win a prize wasn’t even one you could look at in a model or drawing.

pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck


A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

We did discuss such things as a facade’s thickness and depth—“sickness and death,” in Moneo’s formidable accent—but these were architectonic qualities, not practical ones. Most architecture schools still promote an intellectual and artistic sensibility that has little patience for such mundane questions as whether a building will sustain pedestrian activity. This issue was the subject of a now famous exchange that took place at the 2009 Aspen Ideas Festival between Frank Gehry and a prominent audience member, Fred Kent. Kent, who runs the Project for Public Spaces, pointedly asked Gehry why so many “iconic” buildings by star architects fail to give life to the streets and sidewalks around them. Gehry, who was once quoted as saying “I don’t do context,”6 claimed to be above this criticism, but Kent didn’t buy it. I wasn’t there, so we’ll let The Atlantic’s James Fallows tell the rest: But the questioner asked one more time, and Gehry did something I found simply incredible and unforgettable.

pages: 379 words: 113,656

Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age by Duncan J. Watts


Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business process, corporate governance, Drosophila, Erdős number, experimental subject, fixed income, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, industrial cluster, invisible hand, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Milgram experiment, Murray Gell-Mann, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Paul Erdős, peer-to-peer, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, Vilfredo Pareto, Y2K

Craig Venter, and the publicly funded consortium, headed by Francis Collins and Erik Lander, declared a tie in their race to sequence the human genome, Venter, Collins, and Lander have been sparring over who deserves credit for the breakthrough. In reality, none of them does: the genome project was a collaboration of hundreds, if not thousands, of hard-working scientists, without whom there would be no credit to disburse. In architecture, the situation is much the same. Frank Lloyd Wright, Eero Saarinen, and Frank Gehry are all revered for their striking designs, but without the teams of talented engineers and legions of construction workers who enable their drawings to actually stand up, none of these architects would have ever “created” a thing. The monumental maybe is too hard to comprehend directly, and so our minds react by representing an entire enterprise or period of history with a single person or part—an icon.

The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler


A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

Home Economics. San Francisco : North Point Press, 1987. . The Unsettling of America. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1977. Blake, Peter. God's Own Junkyard. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964. . Form Follows Fiasco. Boston : Atlantic Monthly Press, 1977. Bletter, Rosmarie Haag, van Bruggen, Coosje; Friedman, Mildred; Giovannini, Joseph; Hines, Thomas, Viladas, Pilar. The Architecture of Frank Gehry. New York: Rizzoli, 1986. Brooks, Paul. The View from Lincoln Hill: Man and the Land in a New England Town. Boston : Houghton Mifflin, 1976. Browne, Ray B . , and Fishwick, Marshall (eds). Icons of America. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green University Press, 1978. Calthorpe, Peter; Kelbaugh, Doug; et al. The Pedestrian Pocket Book. Edited by Doug Kelbaugh. Princeton : The Princeton Architectural Press, 1989. --- --- --- --- B I B L I O G R A P H Y Calthorpe, Peter, and Van der Ryn, Sim.

The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape by Brian Ladd


Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, full employment, New Urbanism, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, urban planning, urban renewal

Perhaps this linguistic confusion hampered the proponents of rebuilding the royal palace in their attempt to gain foreign support. Appended to a brochure they issued in 1992 (Förderverein für die Ausstellung, Die Bedeutung des Berliner Stadtschlosses für die Mitte Berlins--Eine Dokumentation [Berlin: Förderverein, 1992]) are numerous letters of support solicited from prominent German scholars and cultural figures. Also included are three letters in English, all from prominent architects. Two of these--from Frank Gehry and Michael Wilford (partner of the late James Stirling)--oppose rebuilding the old palace. in the third, the American architect Robert Venturi comes out firmly against tearing down the royal palace! 10. Joachim Fest, "Plädoyer für den Wiederaufbau des Stadtschlosses," in Das neue Berlin, ed. Michael Mönninger (Frankfurt: Insel, 1991), 118. 11. Heinrich Moldenschardt, "Marx' und Engels' Schloss-Freiheit," in Akademie der Künste, Zur historischen Mitte Berlins, 25. 12.

pages: 319 words: 90,965

The End of College: Creating the Future of Learning and the University of Everywhere by Kevin Carey


Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, carbon-based life, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, David Heinemeier Hansson, declining real wages, deliberate practice, discrete time, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Downton Abbey, Drosophila, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google X / Alphabet X, informal economy, invention of the printing press, inventory management, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, Network effects, open borders, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, transcontinental railway, Vannevar Bush

And even if I had been willing to pay $5,000, MIT can’t and won’t take my money, partly for reasons of sorting and selectivity and institutional prestige, but also because of pure logistics. There’s only one person who led the Human Genome Project, and the number of people who can form a group around him after class can’t ever be more than ten. — THE NEXT DAY I came back to MIT, took the campus tour, and then grabbed an above-average sushi lunch at a restaurant in the Frank Gehry–designed student center. (After years of boring buildings, the university has lately taken a hard turn toward the great architectural fantasies of the twenty-first century.) While eating, I glanced over at a young woman about twenty feet away, sitting with her elbows in front of her, talking cheerfully with two other young women on the other side of the restaurant table. Except, I realized a moment later, the two women were not in the student center at all.

pages: 313 words: 92,053

Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard

augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

Work by University of Toronto neuroscientist Oshin Vartanian has shown that exposure to curved or jagged contours in architectural interiors can change our patterns of brain activity.8 The presentation of curves produces strong activation in brain areas like the orbitofrontal cortex and cingulate cortex—areas of our brain that are associated with reward and pleasure. Jagged edges can cause increases in activity of the amygdala—an important part of our fear-detecting and response systems. In architectural terms, it may well have been the graceful curves of Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Bilbao that reduced famed fellow architect Philip Johnson to tears when he first laid eyes upon the building. In contrast, the strong reactions elicited by Libeskind’s work in Toronto, notably similar to those brought about by architect I.M. Pei’s design for the new entryway to the Louvre, may have had their origin in patterns of brain responses related to our innate need to recognize fearsome environmental risks.

pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta


23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management, zero-sum game

He always pushes you.” While Brin is more approachable than Page, he, too, can be awkward around strangers. His wife Anne Wojcicki’s company, 23andMe, was feted at a fashionable cocktail party in September 2008 that was cohosted by Diane von Furstenberg and her husband, Barry Diller, Wendi and Rupert Murdoch, and Georgina Chapman and her husband, Harvey Weinstein. The event was held at Diller’s Frank Gehry-designed IAC headquarters in Manhattan. Brin appeared wearing a dark crewneck sweater and gray Crocs. He and Google are investors in her company and he is openly proud of her work. But she had to quietly beseech him to stay. He did, but hid behind his oversized Canon camera, moving about the vast room or retreating to a corner, always snapping pictures. THE YEAR 2000 BEGAN with two bangs.

pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser


affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Expensive efforts to renew cities often do more for well-connected businesses than for the poor people living in those declining areas. Even if building a museum in a depressed neighborhood raises property values and brings in a stream of artsy visitors, that won’t help the renter who doesn’t care for art and now has to pay more for her apartment. The success of Bilbao’s Guggenheim Museum has lent credence to the view that cultural institutions can be successful urban renewal strategies. Frank Gehry’s iconic structure has certainly spurred tourism, which rose from 1.4 million visitors in 1994 to 3.8 million in 2005; the museum alone attracts a million visitors annually. There are certainly Bilbao skeptics, however. One study attributed only about nine hundred new jobs to the museum, a project that cost the Basque treasury $240 million. But the bigger problem with drawing lessons from Bilbao is that its experience is far from standard.

pages: 423 words: 115,336

This Is Only a Test: How Washington D.C. Prepared for Nuclear War by David F. Krugler


Berlin Wall, City Beautiful movement, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Frank Gehry, full employment, glass ceiling, index card, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, urban planning, Victor Gruen, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Loftily named Columbia, the meticulously planned community had villages connected by paths and parkways. Like Reston, Columbia had approximately 50,000 residents by the mid1980s. Rouse actively participated in the planning and development of Columbia, and he insisted that builders and realtors abjure racial discrimination. He proudly located his company’s headquarters in the town center and commissioned architect Frank Gehry to design an exhibition building. Galleria, the shopping mall, had a glass ceiling, trees, and fountains. Columbia soon enticed people looking for a community that blended the best features of urban, suburban, and small town living. Historian Nicholas Dagen Bloom: “by the late 1960s and early 1970s, Columbia was poised as an attractive alternative to surrounding suburbs.”64 Augur and Stein could hardly have wanted more for their own imagined cluster cities.

The Rough Guide to Prague by Humphreys, Rob


active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, clean water, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, land reform, Live Aid, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peace of Westphalia, sexual politics, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile

One exception is the Art Nouveau concert hall, Hlahol (W, at Masarykovo nábřeží 16, built for the Hlahol men’s choir in 1903–06, and designed by the architect of the main train station, Josef Fanta, with a pediment mural by Mucha and statues by Šaloun – check the listings magazines or the posters outside the hall for details of forthcoming concerts. 129 NOV É M Ě S TO | Emauzy to the Botanická zahrada • Ke Karlovu Tančící dům (Dancing House) or “Fred and Ginger”, after the shape of the building’s two towers, which look vaguely like a couple ballroom dancing. Designed by the Canadian-born Frank Gehry and the Yugoslav-born Vlado Milunič, the building was all the more controversial as it stands next door to no. 77, an apartment block built at the turn of the century by Havel’s grandfather, where, until the early 1990s, Havel and his first wife, Olga, lived in the top-floor flat. Further along the embankment, at Palackého náměstí, the buildings retreat for a moment to reveal Stanislav Sucharda’s remarkable Art Nouveau Monument to František Palacký, the great nineteenth-century Czech historian, politician and nationalist.

pages: 481 words: 120,693

Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else by Chrystia Freeland


activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, call centre, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, double helix, energy security, estate planning, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, global village, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, high net worth, income inequality, invention of the steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberation theology, light touch regulation, linear programming, London Whale, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, NetJets, new economy, Occupy movement, open economy, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Solar eclipse in 1919, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, Washington Consensus, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Candy and Candy are an example of how the twin gilded ages—the rise of the plutocrats not just in the West but also in the emerging markets—has expanded the market for the superstars who work for them and thus driven up the prices those at the very top of their professions can command. You can see the power of globalization in the divergent careers of two North American architects born just twenty years apart. Gordon Bunshaft was born in 1909 in Buffalo, New York. Frank Gehry was born in 1929, a hundred miles to the north, in Toronto. Both had Eastern European roots—Bunshaft’s parents were Russian Jews; Gehry’s people were Polish Jews. Both went on to win the Pritzker Prize, architecture’s highest honor. But you have almost certainly heard of Gehry, and you probably haven’t heard of Bunshaft. The difference is the emerging markets and their first gilded age. Bunshaft’s signature construction is Lever House, a clean-lined modernist rectangle that presides over Park Avenue just across the street from the Four Seasons restaurant, the lunchtime canteen of Manhattan’s princes of finance.

pages: 464 words: 116,945

Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism by David Harvey


accounting loophole / creative accounting, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, California gold rush, call centre, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, drone strike, end world poverty, falling living standards, fiat currency, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Food sovereignty, Frank Gehry, future of work, global reserve currency, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, peak oil, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wages for housework, Wall-E, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

Nearly one-sixth of the jobs in the United States are now in advertising or selling, an industry that is dedicated to the production of monopoly rents through the production of image and reputation of particular commodities. There is an interesting geographical version of this same phenomenon. Cities like Barcelona, Istanbul, New York and Melbourne get branded, for example, as tourist destinations or as hubs for business activities by virtue of their unique characteristics and special cultural qualities. If there are no particularly unique features to hand, then hire some famous architect, like Frank Gehry, to build a signature building (like the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao) to fill the gap.6 History, culture, uniqueness and authenticity are everywhere commodified and sold to tourists, prospective entrepreneurs and corporate heads alike, yielding monopoly rents to landed interests, property developers and speculators. The role of the class monopoly rent that is then gained from rising land values and property prices in cities like New York, Hong Kong, Shanghai, London and Barcelona is hugely important for capital in general.

pages: 570 words: 158,139

Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker


airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise

Everything is high-end here: a Ferrari Formula One sports stadium complex with the world’s fastest roller coaster; Arabian stallions at the Abu Dhabi equestrian club; a modern palace of marble and gold, with gardens as large as New York’s Central Park, became the Emirates Palace Hotel and includes an ATM machine that dispenses gold ingots; and, finally, an entire separate tourist island for branch museums of the Louvre and the Guggenheim that contain treasures of the world. Those museums seemed a safe if expensive investment to affirm the elegance and stature of Abu Dhabi and give it a boost in the competition for tourists. It was an art-world twist on the UAE habit of importing whatever they wanted from anywhere in the world to bring in tourists. Eminent architects were hired. Frank Gehry designed the new Guggenheim Museum as an exuberant pastiche of modern shapes. Jean Nouvel designed a sleek spaceship-capped complex for the new Louvre. The two museums will be centerpieces of the new tourist and culture center on Saadiyat Island, along with a national museum named after Sheikh Zayed, the founder of the UAE, that will exhibit traditional Islamic art and calligraphy and showcase the nation’s history.

Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer


affirmative action, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city,, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional

Toronto’s 168 Multicultural Cities CN Tower and Harbourfront, New York’s Empire State Building, Statue of Liberty, and Fifth Avenue, Los Angeles’s Bunker Hill and Bankers’ Tower, and Hollywood’s hill-side sign are some of the symbols that join residents in a common imagery. Regardless of race, ethnicity, or class, a resident takes a visitor to these places to “present” the city. In today’s corporatized world, the image of a city is increasingly being influenced by giant electronic billboards, the sights and sounds of commercial streets, mega malls, and recently by signature architecture. Designed by Frank Gehry, Los Angeles’s Walt Disney Concert Hall, New York’s Beekman Tower, and Toronto’s Art Gallery of Ontario are symbols of the new urban aesthetics. These places are on view for all to see and identify with, even if they are not entered. Similarly, museums, zoos, theatres, cinemas, and music halls are symbolic unifiers of citizens, even if not all benefit from them. They are a form of optional consumption shared by residents of a city.

pages: 416 words: 129,308

The One Device: The Secret History of the iPhone by Brian Merchant

Airbnb, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John Gruber, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Lyft, M-Pesa, more computing power than Apollo, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, pirate software, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, zero day

They’d come up with the blueprint for a new brand of computing, laying the basic foundation with pleasant, even addictive, flourishes. Ording’s design animations, embedded since the earliest days, sharpened by Chaudhri’s sense of style, might be one reason we’re all so hooked on our smartphones. And they did it all on basic Adobe software. “We built the entire UI using Photoshop and Director,” Chaudhri says, laughing. “It was like building a Frank Gehry piece out of aluminum foil. It was the biggest hack of all time.” Years later, they told Adobe—“They were fucking floored.” Glitches By the end of 2003, Apple still hadn’t completed its rebound into a cash-rich megacompany. And some employees were beset by standard-issue workplace woes: low pay and bad office equipment. Inventing the future is less fun with stagnant wages. “Money was pretty tight at that time,” Strickon says.

pages: 496 words: 174,084

Masterminds of Programming: Conversations With the Creators of Major Programming Languages by Federico Biancuzzi, Shane Warden


Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, cloud computing, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, continuous integration, data acquisition, domain-specific language, Douglas Hofstadter, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, Firefox, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, iterative process, John von Neumann, Larry Wall, linear programming, loose coupling, Mars Rover, millennium bug, NP-complete, Paul Graham, performance metric, Perl 6, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Renaissance Technologies, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, Valgrind, Von Neumann architecture, web application

The idea of creative arts—especially writing—does, too. Grady: Speaking of writing, a question I often ask academics is, “How many of you have reading courses in software?” I’ve had two people that have said yes. If you’re an English Lit major, you read the works of the masters. If you want to be an architect in the civil space, then you look at Vitruvius and Frank Lloyd Wright and Christopher Rennin and Frank Gehry and others. We don’t do this in software. We don’t look at the works of the masters. I encourage people to look at the work others have done and learn from them. It would be nice if we had a pattern of body of literature to say, “Here is what a great-looking Pascal program looks like.” Grady: That’s what Andy Oram and Greg Wilson’s Beautiful Code from O’Reilly is attempting to be. There’s a book out by a guy in New Zealand who’s developed a reading list as well, too.

pages: 389 words: 210,632

Frommer's Oregon by Karl Samson


airport security, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration

The symbol of the city, Portlandia is the second-largest hammered bronze statue in the country (the largest is the Statue of Liberty). The massive kneeling figure holds a trident in one hand and reaches toward the street with the other. This classically designed figure perches incongruously above the entrance to architect Michael Graves’ controversial Portland Building, considered to be the first postmodern structure in the United States. Today anyone familiar with the bizarre constructions of Los Angeles architect Frank Gehry would find it difficult to understand how such an innocuous and attractive building could have ever raised such a fuss, but it did just that in the early 1980s. Shopping for produce may not be on your usual vacation itinerary, but the Portland Farmers Market (& 503/241-0032;, which can be found in this neighborhood’s South Park blocks between SW Harrison and SW Montgomery streets, is such a quintessentially Portland experience that you will not be able to say you have gained a sense of what this city is about unless you visit.

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay


3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel,, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Master plans for the airport’s expansion followed in 2005, and the unveiling of Abu Dhabi’s pièce de résistance two years after that. Saadiyat Island—a real one, lying just off the coast—will follow the Dubai model of condo hotels, marinas, golf, and glass boxes headlined by a “cultural district” of museums and edifices undersigned by some of the world’s top architects. The Guggenheim will be here with a supersize riff on Frank Gehry’s ti-tanium whorls, while Jean Nouvel is supervising the first branch of the Louvre outside France, procured for a billion-dollar franchising fee. Perusing the plans at the Emirates Palace (the world’s most expensive hotel), I was surprised that no Arab architects had made the cut. But it struck me that these monuments weren’t meant for Arabs anyway—they were being pitched to a moneyed, global tourist class expecting Guggenheims and Gehry wherever they went, whether New York, Bilbao, or Abu Dhabi.

Atlas Obscura: An Explorer's Guide to the World's Hidden Wonders by Joshua Foer, Dylan Thuras, Ella Morton


anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, centre right, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, cosmic microwave background, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, double helix, East Village, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, horn antenna, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index card, Jacques de Vaucanson, Kowloon Walled City, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, phenotype, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Tunguska event, urban sprawl, Vesna Vulović, white picket fence, wikimedia commons, working poor

Sunken City San Pedro · A 1929 landslide created Sunken City, an oceanside patch of broken house foundations, abandoned streetcar tracks, buckled sidewalks, and empty streets. Dapper Cadaver Sun Valley · This supplier of death-related props leaves no body part unturned, and no nightmare unaccounted for. Velaslavasay Panorama University Park · Unusual visual experiences take place in this theater, which incorporates an immersive 360-degree painted environment. Binoculars Building Venice · A Frank Gehry–designed office building features a giant pair of binoculars on its facade. Watts Towers Watts · Over 33 years from 1921 to 1954, Sabato Rodia built these 17 towers out of steel pipes, mortar, broken bottles, tiles, scrap metal, and seashells. California City CALIFORNIA CITY From the air, this collection of streets resembles a printed circuit board. Its carefully planned cul-de-sacs and concentric curved roads are neat and densely packed.

pages: 797 words: 227,399

Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer


agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, digital map,, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

Attached was a request for “warranty repair.” [EIGHT] WHAT INSPIRES THEM: SCIENCE FICTION’S IMPACT ON SCIENCE REALITY You can never tell when you make up something what will happen with it. You never know whether or not it will come true. —DONNA SHIRLEY The Science Fiction Museum and Hall of Fame appropriately stands in the shadow of Seattle’s futuristic landmark, the Space Needle. Set in a multicolored, globular Frank Gehry-designed building that looks like a cut-up guitar (a “ridiculous . . . monstrosity of postmodern architecture” is another writer’s take), it shares the space with the Experience Music Project, a museum for rock and roll music. The odd juxtaposition of the two museums is actually quite simple: science fiction and Jimi Hendrix’s music were the two boyhood loves of Microsoft cofounder Paul Allen, who is the primary funder of both.

pages: 578 words: 168,350

Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West

Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor

Indeed, many modern architects have explored, struggled, and experimented with many sides of these ongoing tensions, as for example Niemeyer’s testament rejecting the “hard and inflexible” and embracing “free-flowing, sensual curves” versus the actuality of some of his soulless concrete buildings. Think of the organic grace of Eero Saarinen’s TWA terminal building at Kennedy airport in New York City, or Frank Gehry’s whimsical concert hall in Los Angeles and his magical museum in Bilbao, Spain, or Jørn Utzon’s wonderful Sydney Opera House, and even that weird phallic symbol in London, dubbed “the gherkin,” built by the very same Foster who is building a square city in the desert. At the extreme end of this spectrum and in marked opposition to the admonitions of Le Corbusier and his disciples has been a smattering of remarkable architects like Antoni Gaudí in Spain or Bruce Goff in the United States.

pages: 879 words: 309,222

Nobody's Perfect: Writings From the New Yorker by Anthony Lane

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, colonial rule, dark matter, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Index librorum prohibitorum, Mahatma Gandhi, Maui Hawaii, moral hazard, Norman Mailer, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, The Great Good Place, trade route, University of East Anglia, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, urban planning

Time, I am happy to say, soothed this difficult etiquette, and I gradually became one of the few men in America who could order pancakes in her presence and stack ’em high. Quite why I failed to join in the paralyzing awe of Tina that prevailed elsewhere is hard to say; maybe because she offered better value as a friend, but mainly because all my fears were displaced on to the magazine itself. Nowadays The New Yorker perches high in the Condé Nast building on a corner of Times Square, an unenjoyable comb of offices that is redeemed only by Frank Gehry’s infamous pod of a lunchroom, where diners fight to suppress the sensation that they have wandered into an episode of The Jetsons. Along the ovoid barriers of its salad bunker and sandwich barricade we slouch, in varying degrees of disrepair, behind the flawless begetters of Allure and Vogue, the synchronized rise and fall of whose hemlines remains, for those frozen to their iMacs, the one reliable guide to the shifting seasons outside.