air freight

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pages: 264 words: 71,821

How Bad Are Bananas?: The Carbon Footprint of Everything by Mike Berners-Lee


air freight, carbon footprint,, energy security, food miles, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Skype, sustainable-tourism, University of East Anglia

Video conferencing may never fully replace human contact, but it is a lot cheaper and easier once you are fully conversant with the technology. What is worth more, one face-to-face visit or ten video link-ups? It is difficult to see a place in the low-carbon world for much air-freighted food (see Asparagus), let alone durable goods such as clothing. Some garments are air-freighted simply to reduce lead times and cut the cost of stock that is tied up in transit at sea. Air-freight labels are one piece of consumer information that would surely be simple and helpful. Currently these are found on some supermarket fresh produce but nowhere else. I’m sometimes asked about air freight from developing countries: “Surely it’s good to keep supporting that country by carrying on the trade!” In broad terms, I don’t think so. The argument is a bit like saying that you should keep the arms trade booming so that people can keep their jobs.

A bunch of asparagus 125 g CO2e a 250 g pack, local and seasonal 1.9 kg (4.2 lbs.) CO2e the same pack, air-freighted from Peru to the New York in January 3.5 kg (7.7 lbs.) CO2e the same pack, air-freighted from Peru to the U.K. in January > If you live in New York and your entire diet were as carbon intensive as long-haul asparagus, your food footprint alone would be more than the entire footprint of the average North American. If a Londoner did the same, the footprint of his or her food alone would be more than three times the average U.K. citizen’s total footprint. The numbers here are based on data from Booths supermarkets, which to their credit took steps to increase their local sourcing when they saw the impact of the Peruvian product and are now emphasizing the benefits of seasonal food more strongly than ever. Air-freighted from Peru to New York, asparagus comes in at 8 kg CO2e per kilo (3.6 kg CO2e per pound) or, to put it another way, about 40 g of carbon per calorie.

When produce is being moved, a mile by air has more than 100 times the climate impact of a mile by sea. This is because it takes a lot of energy to keep a plane in the air—and also because engine emissions tend to do more damage at high altitude than they do at ground level (see Flying from Los Angeles to Barcelona). For this reason it is difficult to see how there can be any place at all for air-freighted food in a sustainable world. Examples of other foods that are very likely, when out of season, to have been air-freighted or (just as bad) grown in an artificially heated greenhouse include baby corn, baby carrots, snap peas, small green beans,7 fine beans, okra, shelled peas, lettuces, blueberries, raspberries, and strawberries. At the other end of the scale is asparagus grown in season in your own country. This cuts out a staggering 97 percent of the footprint.

pages: 407 words: 121,458

Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce


additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Kibera, mass immigration, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

And, if the vegetables were being flown, then just 6 extra kilometres in the air neutralized the gains. It is perhaps not surprising that, at the time of writing, the Soil Association is considering stripping its prized organic label from air-freighted food. But before we ban foreign food, consider this. Many of the biggest energy inputs come not from transport, but from growing and processing crops. And often British production methods are more energy-intensive. We import three-quarters of our tomatoes, mostly from Spain. In season, buying British is clearly the low-energy option. But for the rest of the year, even air-freighting tomatoes from the polytunnels of southern Spain uses less energy than heating a British greenhouse to grow those tomatoes. Likewise, imported New Zealand lamb has only a quarter the carbon footprint of British lamb, even after the meat has made its journey across the planet.

Should such calculations, include the electricity used to heat or air-condition the restaurant, or even the petrol to drive the farm labourers to work? And does it matter how the energy is produced? If a wind farm is generating the power to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse, does that make it OK? Many people instinctively feel that air-freighting of food to Britain should be shut down. Buy local, they say. We need ‘food patriotism’ says Conservative leader David Cameron. And several UK supermarkets are sticking labels on air-freighted produce, so that customers can choose whether to buy or not. Fair enough. I am all in favour of informed choice. But my own view is that all this maths raises as many questions as it answers. And for me, just as important as any precise measure of carbon dioxide emissions is the human question. Who gains and who loses in the transactions that bring your food to your plate?

Just look at the air miles.’ Well, OK. This is a serious issue. If British customers decide they don’t want to buy the green beans with the label saying they flew to the supermarket, then Homegrown’s business is doomed. On the face of it, the statistics don’t look good. Emissions from air-freighting beans are 200 times greater than if they had come by ship. But the food-miles issue isn’t that straightforward. In summer there are green beans available grown outdoors in Britain, and eating them is the low-energy option. But the energy needed to air-freight vegetables from Kenya to Britain in winter, when British demand is highest, is actually only about 15 per cent more than the energy needed to heat a greenhouse to grow those vegetables here. But I think the real ethical issue is different. Can it really be right to try to make a tiny reduction in our own emissions by depriving Kenyan farmers of their livelihoods?

pages: 329 words: 85,471

The Locavore's Dilemma by Pierre Desrochers, Hiroko Shimizu


air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, edge city, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, intermodal, invention of agriculture, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, land tenure, megacity, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, profit motive, refrigerator car, Steven Pinker, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl

Because of their light weight, high value, and perishable nature, 91% of the fresh fruits and vegetables exported from Kenya to the U.K. were air freighted,44 adding, for example, an additional 2–18 pence to the cost of each pack of organic Kenyan green beans.45 Intercontinental air freight adds to the atmosphere 8 kilograms of carbon dioxide per kilogram transported—about 200 times more emissions and 12 times more energy than sea transport.46 However, a much larger volume of carbon dioxide emissions is released by U.K. passenger flights each year. In fact, passenger flights amount to 90% of all emissions from airlines, with cargo amounting to about 5%. Furthermore, air freighted imports of fresh fruits and vegetables account for less than 0.1% of the total U.K. emissions of carbon dioxide. Interestingly, 60 to 80% of Kenyan fresh agricultural products are transported in the cargo hold of passenger flights.47 When the passenger-related emissions are factored in, carbon dioxide emission levels for air freighted exports are actually much lower.

Overall, Kenyan rose production is said to be much more efficient and environmentally friendly compared to Dutch production, reflecting, among other things, the fact that 99% of Dutch emissions were caused by heating and lighting intensive production systems, whereas Kenyan flower production relies mostly on sunshine. In contrast, 91% of Kenyan emissions were attributed to the 4,000-mile air-freight transport from Kenya to the U.K. When the food miles controversy over African perishable products reached its peak in early 2007, supporters of Kenyan exporters were quick to point out that greenhouse gas emissions associated with air-freighted produce were miniscule in comparison with the impact of tourist air travel by citizens of importing nations. They further argued that Kenyan agriculture typically relied on manual labor and organic fertilizers because they couldn’t afford sophisticated farm machines and chemical pesticides and fertilizers.

.), the “concept of food miles is unhelpful and stupid. It doesn’t inform about anything except the distance travelled.”39 A much more constructive approach to further minimize the environmental impact of agriculture would instead focus on further reducing production and postharvest losses as well as educating consumers on their food handling behaviors. Blame It on the Poor People40 In recent years, about 40% of the U.K.’s air-freighted fresh fruit and vegetable imports have originated in sub-Saharan countries such as South Africa, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Kenya. These goods drew the ire of uncompetitive European producers and activists who claimed that they were the epitome of unsustainable consumption and therefore deserving of retaliatory measures. In the words of Patrick Holden, Director of the U.K. Soil Association (the main U.K. organic certification organization and lobbyist), Britain should aim “to produce most of its organic food domestically and import as little as possible” because there “is a strong demand” for this “from the public and many of our licensees.”41 Yet, as the basic facts surrounding Kenyan products convincingly illustrate, in order to truly do what is best for the environment, one should avoid decisions based on emotional reactions and poorly disguised protectionist rhetoric and embrace instead price signals.

pages: 459 words: 109,490

Merchant of Death: Money, Guns, Planes, and the Man Who Makes War Possible by Stephen Braun, Douglas Farah


air freight, airport security, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Donald Trump,, failed state, Mikhail Gorbachev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company

The ruler, Sheikh Sultan bin Mohammed al Qassimi, had tried to distinguish the emirate as a center of Muslim learning by building Islamic universities. But by the 1990s, impatient Sharjah officials turned to their sleepy airport as an economic engine. A one-runway field that opened in 1977, Sharjah International Airport could not hope to catch up to rival Dubai as a hub for passenger airlines. But officials began wangling financial incentives to lure foreign-owned air freight firms in the hope of turning the airport into a major cargo center. By the time Bout arrived in Sharjah in 1993, airport officials were touting plans to open a major free-trade zone similar to Dubai’s seaport, eliminating taxes and import and export duties for companies that relocated there. As work crews broke ground in 1995 at an abandoned military base near the airfield, Sharjah officials hired a Syrian-born former U.S.

Although many of his aircraft were already operating out of Sharjah in the UAE, Bout began using Pietersburg Airport, 180 miles northeast of Johannesburg, as a hub from which he could ply his assorted trades. Bout was already flying gladiolas and other flower species out of Africa to the UAE, at a considerable profit. He began flying beef and poultry from South Africa to other African nations. On a continent with little transportation infrastructure, air freight was the only way to move perishable goods any distance, and Bout’s companies soon grew from the original three to several dozen. Aircraft that Bout could acquire for $30,000 would pay for themselves after just two or three flights. If they fell from the sky, cheap replacements were easy to find. If crews became disgruntled, there were always more pilots waiting to be hired. It was a growth industry for the foreseeable future.

Air Cess, Bout’s original company, used Norse Air, Ward’s company, to apply for its own foreign operator’s license in South Africa.4 According to Richard Chichakli, Bout paid for his stake with $2 million in cash.5 Bout’s South African air fleet soon numbered about thirty, capable of handling as much as 150 tons of cargo, and he hired several dozen employees. Within six months, Air Pass flight operations extended to Angola, the DRC, Malawi, Zambia, Mozambique, Kenya, Somalia, and Liberia.6 Bout also imported millions of dollars’ worth of spare parts for a maintenance facility for Russian aircraft that he planned to open in Pietersburg.7 In addition to the air freight business, Bout invested in a cold storage unit, at one point carrying $4 million of stock in a hangar at the airport. Bout mulled bigger plans. One was to open a South African version of Sharjah’s free-trade zone with the help of Chichakli. Bout also wanted to start a garment business and a clothing factory. To help with his finances, he brought down another financial handler, Olivier Piret, a banker friend of his from Switzerland.

pages: 534 words: 15,752

The Sushi Economy: Globalization and the Making of a Modern Delicacy by Sasha Issenberg


air freight, Akira Okazaki, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, call centre, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, global supply chain, haute cuisine, means of production, Nixon shock, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, telemarketer, trade route, urban renewal

Most did not lend themselves as readily to transport by air: Fruits and vegetables are typically a low-margin product with enough shelf life to survive an ocean voyage in a reefer boat. Many countries have restrictive laws about the importation of meat—for both health reasons and the desire to protect domestic agriculture—that do not make it always a good candidate for air freight, either. But when it came to seafood, Okazaki determined, the value and sensitivity to decay perfectly matched the economics of air freight. Okazaki and his colleagues knew nothing about fish. “We did not know why canned tuna was white, and raw tuna meat was red,” he recalled. But there was one place every Tokyoite would instinctively go to learn more. So one morning at 5:00, Okazaki headed to the Tsukiji Market in downtown Tokyo for an education. He knew vaguely what he was looking for: high-value items, whose prices could justify air-cargo costs, for which there seemed to be a competitive demand.

His target list included products such as business equipment, chemicals, aircraft parts—nonperishable goods that the industry calls “hard cargo”—that would find willing buyers in booming Japan. The Teletype arrived in late summer from JAL’s headquarters in Tokyo. It was written by Akira Okazaki, whom MacAlpine had never met but knew was the man responsible for uncovering new markets for cargo worldwide. The message had a simple request: What could MacAlpine find out about tunafishing along Canada’s eastern coast? The inquiry confused MacAlpine, who had entered the air-freight business thinking that the one-way problem would be sorted out in a factory, not on a pier. MacAlpine put his other work aside and began making phone calls to local governments in the maritime province. “I was a young guy and here was a request from head office to get information on something going on in my region,” he recalled. A few days later, MacAlpine drafted a Teletype to Okazaki. He reported that anglers from around the world came each fall to the North Atlantic to pursue the local bluefin tuna.

They prep most things halfway—like cutting tuna down to fillets but not to actual sashimi-size slices, leaving skin on the sea bass—to save time during busy dinner ser vice. They don’t cut things down all the way because flesh that is exposed to air oxidizes, and that is the greatest threat to freshness. Leaving a fully cut serving of tuna or red snapper out to breathe all afternoon would moot much of the point of rushing it from Tokyo or Cape Cod by air-freight. But once a fish has been cut down to be used for dinner, it is committed; if unused, it will not be able to endure another twenty-four hours idling in a glass display case. And if the restaurant sells out of a certain fish during dinner, there will not be time to claim an untreated piece from the walk-in freezer and prepare it to be served. So to run out of everything at the end of each night requires the remarkable ability to prepare exactly the amount of each fish an unpredictable number of customers will order.

pages: 670 words: 194,502

The Intelligent Investor (Collins Business Essentials) by Benjamin Graham, Jason Zweig


3Com Palm IPO, accounting loophole / creative accounting, air freight, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, corporate governance, corporate raider, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversified portfolio, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, George Santayana, hiring and firing, index fund, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, merger arbitrage, money market fund, new economy, passive investing, price stability, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, the market place, the rule of 72, transaction costs, tulip mania, VA Linux, Vanguard fund, Y2K, Yogi Berra

Three solid books full of timely and specific examples are Martin Fridson and Fernando Alvarez’s Financial Statement Analysis, Charles Mulford and Eugene Comiskey’s The Financial Numbers Game, and Howard Schilit’s Financial Shenanigans. 8 Chapter 13 A Comparison of Four Listed Companies In this chapter we should like to present a sample of security analysis in operation. We have selected, more or less at random, four companies which are found successively on the New York Stock Exchange list. These are ELTRA Corp. (a merger of Electric Autolite and Mergenthaler Linotype enterprises), Emerson Electric Co. (a manufacturer of electric and electronic products), Emery Air Freight (a domestic forwarder of air freight), and Emhart Corp. (originally a maker of bottling machinery only, but now also in builders’ hardware).* There are some broad resemblances between the three manufacturing firms, but the differences will seem more significant. There should be sufficient variety in the financial and operating data to make the examination of interest. In Table 13-1 we present a summary of what the four companies were selling for in the market at the end of 1970, and a few figures on their 1970 operations.

The two low-multiplier companies show quite satisfactory growth rates, in both cases doing better than the Dow Jones group. The ELTRA figures are especially impressive when set against its low price/earnings ratio. The growth is of course more impressive for the high-multiplier pair. 4. Financial Position. The three manufacturing companies are in sound financial condition, having better than the standard ratio of $2 of current assets for $1 of current liabilities. Emery Air Freight has a lower ratio; but it falls in a different category, and with its fine record it would have no problem raising needed cash. All the companies have relatively low long-term debt. “Dilution” note: Emerson Electric had $163 million of market value of low-dividend convertible preferred shares outstanding at the end of 1970. In our analysis we have made allowance for the dilution factor in the usual way by treating the preferred as if converted into common.

The reader should be impressed by the percentage advance shown in the price of all four of these issues, as measured from the lowest to the highest points during the past 34 years. (In all cases the low price has been adjusted for subsequent stock splits.) Note that for the DJIA the range from low to high was on the order of 11 to 1; for our companies the spread has varied from “only” 17 to 1 for Emhart to no less than 528 to 1 for Emery Air Freight.* These manifold price advances are characteristic of most of our older common-stock issues, and they proclaim the great opportunities of profit that have existed in the stock markets of the past. (But they may indicate also how overdone were the declines in the bear markets before 1950 when the low prices were registered.) Both ELTRA and Emhart sustained price shrinkages of more than 50% in the 1969–70 price break.

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay


3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel,, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

The Shape of Things to Come There is no question that the fruits of globalization—literally, the mangosteens, lychees, and passion fruit on your grocer’s shelves that weren’t there a decade ago—are delivered through the air. In the thirty years between 1975 and 2005, global GDP rose 154 percent, while world trade grew 355 percent. Meanwhile, the value of air cargo climbed an astonishing 1,395 percent. More than a third of all the goods traded in the world, some $3 trillion worth—but barely 1 percent of its weight!—travels via air freight. Air passengers and cargo had recovered their recessionary losses by the summer of 2010 and were accelerating ahead of the global economy. More and more pieces of the latter are living aloft and landing in some pretty strange places. Planes carry the products of the Instant Age—what we want, right now, and typically our most ingenious creations. Wanting the world right this instant has created incalculable wealth, completely reconfigured how many companies and even industries operate, and is now willing entire cities into being.

The home islands were already overfished by then, and pollution was taking a toll on the seabed. Okazaki hit upon the idea of adapting the cool chain to tuna, converting a nuisance in Nova Scotia into a delicacy in Osaka. On the morning of August 14, 1972—commemorated as “the day of the flying fish”—Okazaki brought five Canadian bluefin to Tsukiji, the fish market in the center of Tokyo. The air-freighted fish were four days old, commanding a respectable (and profitable) $4 per pound at auction. The price would rise 10,000 percent over the next twenty years, as the promise of a worldwide supply raised sushi from street food to a national craze. In a 1980s reprise of tulipomania, tuna prices soared in tandem with Japan’s real estate bubble, and it’s still not uncommon for a four-hundred-pound fish to fetch $175,000 at Tsukiji.

It was admirable of Leahy even to ask, but the farmers could guess what the answer would be. “This announcement from Tesco is devastating,” said the head of Kenya’s Fresh Produce Exporters Association. Flowers, fruits, and vegetables bound for the U.K. make up a third of the nation’s exports, and as much as a fifth of its economy. “I think if things continue in this one-sided sensationalist way, purely targeting air freight, labeling our produce with aeroplanes and not looking at other aspects of production, it will cripple Kenya. It will cripple the economy.” Tesco was torn between their fears and ours. Greenhouse-gas emissions are higher than at any point in human history, and rising faster than even the worst-case scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. While America dithered and China willfully ignored environmental devastation, Britain led a charge to the barricades.

pages: 400 words: 129,320

The Way We Eat: Why Our Food Choices Matter by Peter Singer, Jim Mason


agricultural Revolution, air freight, clean water, collective bargaining, dumpster diving, food miles, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, means of production, rent control, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review

A Swedish study gave similar results to the British study for tomatoes, but showed that energy was saved when Swedes bought domestically-produced carrots rather than Italian ones, because even in Sweden, carrots don't need artificial heat. FLYING HIGH, SHIPPING LOW The increasing amount of food being sent by air is a major problem, because air freight uses almost twice as much energy per ton/mile as road freight. Currently, about half of the freight sent by air travels in the hold of passenger flights when they have spare capacity, which is more efficient than sending it on freight-only aircraft, but the use of air freight is growing more rapidly than passenger travel, and so more freight-only aircraft are flying. It has been predicted that aviation will account for 15 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Although most of that will still be from personal travel, air freight will account for an increasing proportion of that very significant total, and by 2050 could make up nearly a third of the total commercial aviation fleet.

Eggs are much lighter, on a calorie-to-weight basis, than tomatoes, but even so, it takes the energy equivalent of almost a gallon of diesel fuel to fly three dozen large eggs (weighing about 4 pounds, including the cartons), from Auckland to Los Angeles. Is it justifiable to use that amount of energy to give hens a better life? If no other humanely produced eggs are available, maybe we shouldn't be eating eggs at all. If air freight is the most energy-extravagant way of moving food, sending it by sea or rail are the most economical ways. Rice is grown in California, under irrigation, but it takes a lot of energy to grow it thereabout 15 to 25 times as much energy as it takes to grow rice by lowenergy input methods in Bangladesh.32 The energy used in shipping a ton of rice from Bangladesh to San Francisco is less than the difference between the amount of energy it takes to grow it in California and in Bangladesh, so if you live in San Francisco, you would save energy by buying rice that has traveled thousands of miles by sea, rather than locally-grown rice.

pages: 538 words: 138,544

The Story of Stuff: The Impact of Overconsumption on the Planet, Our Communities, and Our Health-And How We Can Make It Better by Annie Leonard


air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, dematerialisation, employer provided health coverage, energy security, European colonialism, Firefox, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, global supply chain, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, liberation theology, McMansion, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, supply-chain management, the built environment, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Wall-E, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

The Air Resources Board in California estimated the costs to public health (including treatment of asthma and lung diseases) from freight trucks at $20 billion annually36; in New Jersey, environmental groups say it’s $5 billion per year.37 Old brakes and tires and frequent overloading increase the likelihood that these vehicles will have accidents, creating further costs in highway patrol and emergency services, traffic delays, etc. Finally, there’s air freight: this is the royal treatment in terms of consumer goods and is reserved for high-value and/or time-sensitive cargo, like designer clothes and some electronics. Although it doesn’t carry much of the total weight, 35 percent of the value of goods traded internationally travels by air, according to Giovanni Bisignani, the CEO of the International Air Transport Association.38 And that’s not all that’s disproportionate about air freight. A study in Europe showed that while planes carried just 3 percent of all European cargo’s weight, they contributed a whopping 80 percent of the total CO2 emissions from freight.39 With the recent spikes in oil prices and looming regulations and/or taxes on CO2, some businesses and governments have already begun to address the energy use and greenhouse gas production from shipping.

Of course, as a result, the ranks of local, independently owned bookstores have been entirely decimated, which is a terrible loss. However, there’s still lively, ongoing debate among environmentalists about whether online shopping has a lighter footprint than traditional retail. Retail stores consume resources in their building, lighting, cooling, heating, etc., and consumers usually have to climb into their cars to reach them. However, e-commerce uses more packaging and is more likely to rely on air freight for at least part of the product’s journey. An in-depth study done specifically on book sales compared the two forms of distribution. In the traditional model, books are trucked from the printer to a national warehouse, then to a regional warehouse, and from there to the retail outlets. The customer travels to the store to buy the book and brings it home. In the online model, the book is trucked from the printer to a central warehouse.

The jacket was printed with vegetable-based inks and was printed on 100 percent post-consumer waste stock. Of the materials used in the creation of this book, including the printing plates and paper waste, 90 percent were recycled. Any unused inventory or returned books will be recycled. INDEX Abacha, Sani, 31 Abu Dhabi, 66 Acetone, 60 Advertising, 160, 163–168, 251, 256 Advisory committees, 99–100 Afghanistan, 243, 244 Agent Orange, 54, 213 Air freight, 115, 119 al-Qaeda, 26 Alameda County Waste Management Authority, 211 Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA), 258 Allan, John, 17 Alloys, 44 Aluminum, 21, 59 Aluminum cans, 64–68, 196 Amazon, 116, 118–121 Amazon River, 66 American Chemistry Council, 93, 99 American Cyanamid, 222 Ammonia, 60, 61 Amnesty International, 28, 32 Anderson, Ray, 19, 185, 187–189 Anderson, Warren, 92 Anheuser-Busch, 196 Antibacterial products, 79 Antimony, 59 Appalachia, 35, 36 Apple Computer, 57, 59, 108, 109, 203, 206 Aral Sea, 46 Arsenic, 13, 15, 35, 59, 73, 203 Autoclaving, 201 Automobile industry, 159–160, 164 Bangladesh, 12–14, 49, 184, 193, 219–221 Barber, Benjamin, 169, 172 Basel Action Network (BAN), 205, 227, 228 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, 227, 258 Batker, Dave, 246 Batteries, 203, 204 Bauxite, 21, 64–65 Beavan, Colin, 147, 239, 245 Bechtel, 140 Bee, Rashida, 91 Benin, 45 Benyus, Janine, 105 Benzene, 30, 48 Beryllium, 203 Beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, 79 Beverage containers, 64–68, 194–195 Bezos, Jeff, 118 Bhopal disaster, India, 90–93, 98 Big-Box Swindle (Mitchell), 121, 125 Big Coal (Goodell), 36 Bingham Canyon copper mine, Utah, 21 Biological oxygen demand (BOD), 10–11 Biomimicry, 104–105 Bioplastics, 230–231 BioRegional, 40 Birol, Fatih, 29–30 Birth defects, 60, 74, 76, 91 Bisignani, Giovanni, 115 Bisimwa, Bertrand, 28 Bisphenol A (BPA), 78, 99–100 Bleach, 15, 48, 56 Blood Diamond (movie), 26, 28 Body burden testing, 78–80 Bolivia, 140 Books, 51–56, 118–120 Borden Chemical, 222 Borneo, 3 Boron, 59 Boston Tea Party, 127 Bottle Recycling Climate Protection Act of 2, 195 Bottled water, 16 Bowling Alone (Putnam), 149, 238–239 Bräutigam, Deborah, 37 Brazil, 8, 66, 67 Breast milk, 81, 82–83, 91, 171 Bridge at the End of the World, The (Speth), 167 Brockovich, Erin, 30 Bromines, 48 Bruno, Kenny, 225 Burkina Faso, 45 Burundi, 27 Bush, George H.

pages: 376 words: 118,542

Free to Choose: A Personal Statement by Milton Friedman, Rose D. Friedman


affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, bank run, banking crisis, Corn Laws, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, invisible hand, labour mobility, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, school vouchers, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Every study shows that the elimination of ICC regulation of trucking would drastically reduce costs to shippers—Moore estimates by perhaps as much as three-quarters. A trucking company in Ohio, Dayton Air Freight, offers a specific example. It has an ICC license that gives it exclusive permission to carry freight from Dayton to Detroit. To serve other routes it has had to buy rights from ICC license holders, including one who doesn't own a single truck. It has paid as much as $100,000 a year for the privilege. The owners of the firm have been trying to get their license extended to cover more routes, so far without success. As one of their customers, Malcolm Richards, put it, "Quite frankly I don't know why the ICC is sitting on its hands doing nothing. This is the third time to my knowledge that we have supported the application of Dayton Air Freight to help us save money, help free enterprise, help the country save energy....

This is the third time to my knowledge that we have supported the application of Dayton Air Freight to help us save money, help free enterprise, help the country save energy.... It all comes down to the consumer's ultimately going to pay for all this." One of the owners of Dayton Air Freight, Ted Hacker, adds: "As far as I'm concerned, there is no free enterprise in interstate commerce. It no longer exists in this country. You have to pay the price and you have to pay the price very dearly. And that not only means that we have to pay the price, it means the consumer is paying the price." But this comment has to be taken with a real grain of salt in light of a comment by another owner, Herschel Wimmer: "I have no argument with the people who already have ICC permits excepting for the fact this is a big country and since the inception of the ICC in 1936, there have been few entrants into the business. They do not allow new entrants to come into the business and compete with those who are already in."

pages: 378 words: 94,468

Drugs 2.0: The Web Revolution That's Changing How the World Gets High by Mike Power


air freight, Alexander Shulgin, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, frictionless, Haight Ashbury, John Bercow, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Network effects, nuclear paranoia, packet switching, pattern recognition, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, pre–internet, QR code, RAND corporation, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, Zimmermann PGP

The United States has a different method of legislating around designer drugs, one which bans compounds on the loosely defined basis of their effects and similarity to banned drugs, which is discussed in full in the next chapter. But subtle or not, all of these laws were written in an era before mass communications – before most homes even had a telephone line or a colour television, when news came a few times a day on screens and twice a day on paper. They were drafted in an age when air freight costs were prohibitively high for individuals, in an age when communication with distant, communist China was so slow as to be impossible. When they were created, computers were room-sized, and were owned in the main by governments. They were first written, that is to say, almost half a century before the web was born. These laws were made five decades before the creation of an entirely new drug whose effect on users would be different from that of LSD, but equally profound.

Mephedrone is chemically related to khat, or Catha edulis, a plant used for thousands of years in Arabic cultures, especially in Yemen and Somalia, as a social lubricant enjoyed for its stimulating qualities when chewed in a quid held in the cheek. Many shops in east London, home to immigrants from khatusing countries, sell the plant, which is legal and imported by established firms. It is brought in daily by air freight as it loses potency when less than perfectly fresh. The active ingredient, cathinone, is, if isolated and sold as a pure compound, a banned substance in most of Europe and is a Class C drug in the UK. Khat is banned in the US and some European countries, such as Holland, and its legality in the UK seems anomalous. It is perhaps overlooked because the number of people using it here is so small – around one-third of the UK’s 100,000-strong Somalian community.

pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams


3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

As a 2005 report by the UK’s Department of Agriculture and Food found, while the environmental impacts of transporting food were indeed considerable, a single indicator based on total food miles was inadequate as a measure of sustainability.79 Most notably, the food-miles metric emphasises an aspect of food production that contributes a relatively small amount to overall carbon outputs. When it is simply assumed that ‘small is beautiful’, we can all too easily ignore the fact that the energy costs associated with producing food locally may well exceed the total costs of transporting it from a more suitable climate.80 Even for the purpose of assessing the contribution of food transportation, food miles are a poor metric. Air freight, for example, makes up a relatively small portion of total food miles, but it makes up a disproportionately large slice of total food-related CO2 emissions.81 The energy consumption involved in putting food on our plates is important, but it cannot be captured in anything as simple as food miles, or in the idea that ‘local is best’. Indeed, highly inefficient local food production techniques may be more costly than efficiently grown globally sourced foodstuffs.

Contexts 13: 3 (2014). 77.Miriam Glucksmann and Jane Nolan, ‘New Technologies and the Transformations of Women’s Labour at Home and Work’, Equal Opportunities International 26: 2 (20 February 2007). 78.Will Boisvert, ‘An Environmentalist on the Lie of Locavorism’, New York Observer, 16 April 2013. 79.Alison Smith, Paul Watkiss, Geoff Tweddle, Alan McKinnon, Mike Browne, Alistair Hunt, Colin Treleven, Chris Nash and Sam Cross, The Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development: Final Report (London: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, 2005). 80.Caroline Saunders, Andrew Barber and Greg Taylor, Food Miles: Comparative Energy/Emissions Performance of New Zealand’s Agriculture Industry, Agribusiness and Economics Research Unit, Lincoln University, Canterbury, NZ, July 2006, pdf available at 81.In the UK in 2005, air freight made up just 1 per cent of food tonne miles travelled, but 11 per cent of food-related emissions. Smith et al., Validity of Food Miles, p. 3. 82.Doug Henwood, ‘Moving Money (Revisited)’, LBO News, 2010, at 83.Stephen Gandel, ‘By Every Measure, the Big Banks Are Bigger’, Fortune, 13 September 2013, at 84.Victoria McGrane and Tan Gillian, ‘Lenders Are Warned on Risk’, Wall Street Journal, 25 June 2014. 85.OTC Derivatives Statistics at End-June 2014, Basel: Bank for International Settlements, 2014, p. 2, at 86.David Boyle, A Local Banking System: The Urgent Need to Reinvigorate UK High Street Banking (London: New Economics Foundation, 2011), p. 8. 87.Ibid., pp. 8–9. 88.Giles Tremlett, ‘Spain’s Savings Banks’ Culture of Greed, Cronyism, and Political Meddling’, Guardian, 8 June 2012. 89.Boyle, Local Banking System, p. 10. 90.Andrew Bibby, ‘Co-op Bank Crisis: What Next for the Co-operative Sector?’

pages: 795 words: 212,447

Dead or Alive by Tom Clancy, Grant (CON) Blackwood


active measures, affirmative action, air freight, airport security, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Benoit Mandelbrot, defense in depth, failed state, friendly fire, Google Earth, Panamax, post-Panamax, Skype, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl

“Allah be praised,” Adnan murmured. 57 THE INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT outside Archangel mainly handled domestic flights, and few enough of those, except in the summer. More took the train south, which was cheaper and more accessible to the local citizens. Aeroflot hadn’t quite shaken its long-held reputation for substandard flight safety. But there was a rather more active air-freight terminal, used largely for fish that needed swift transport to various international restaurants. And so the package was loaded into the forward cargo hatch of a forty-year-old DC-8 belonging to Asin Air Freight. It would fly to Stockholm, and from there, with a new crew, it would fly farther south, stopping at Athens before its final leg to Dubai International Airport in the United Arab Emirates. “What’s this?” a customs officer asked, looking at the recently painted “battery” casing. “Scientific gear, X-ray equipment, something like that,” his partner replied.

To their relief, and his indifference. A gas-powered forklift hoisted the package—it weighed about seven hundred kilos—and drove it to the platform sitting outside the cargo hatch. There it was manhandled aboard and tied down firmly to the aluminum deck. The pilot and copilot were preflighting the aircraft, walking around, checking for fluid leaks, visually inspecting the airframe for anything amiss. The air-freight business was not known for the quality of its maintenance procedures, and the flyers, whose lives rode on the flight deck, did their best to make up for that troubling fact. The left outboard main-gear tire needed replacement in ten or so cycles. Aside from that, the airplane looked as though it would fly for the next eight hours. They walked back inside to the crew lounge to try some of the (miserable) local coffee and (pretty decent) bread.

pages: 477 words: 135,607

The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger by Marc Levinson


air freight, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, global supply chain, intermodal, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, oil shock, Panamax, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, Productivity paradox, refrigerator car, South China Sea, trade route, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The MH-5 committee undertook a futile effort to make containers compatible with airplanes as well as with ships, trucks, and trains. The requirements were not easy to reconcile: air containers needed to be stronger than maritime containers, and they required smooth bottoms to travel on conveyor belts rather than corner fittings for lifting by cranes. After months of studies, it dawned on the engineers that shippers paying a premium for the speed of air freight would be unlikely to want their cargo carried in ships, and a separate standard was developed for air containers. Railroads raised a more serious problem, contending that containers needed heavier end walls. End walls bore no great loads when the containers were on ships, but the braking of a train could cause the end of a container to bump up against the end of the flatcar. Railroads in North America demanded end walls twice as strong as those needed by ship lines, to reduce the potential for damage claims.

By one estimate, each day seaborne goods spend under way raises the exporter’s costs by 0.8 percent, which means that a typical 13-day voyage from China to the United States has the same effect as a 10 percent tariff. The time savings represent a huge competitive advantage to shippers located near a major port. Those served by smaller ports may have to endure longer wait times between ships or shuttle links to a larger port, adding time, and hence costs, to every shipment. Air freight all but eliminates the costs of time, but it is too expensive for most goods that are made in poor countries precisely because little value is added in their production.10 “Any change in technology,” the economist Joel Mokyr observed, “leads almost inevitably to an improvement in the welfare of some and to a deterioration in that of others.” That was as true of the container as of other technologies, but on an international scale.

pages: 310 words: 34,482

Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time by Steven Osborn


3D printing, A Pattern Language, additive manufacturing, air freight, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics,, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving,, Firefox, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mason jar, means of production, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, Oculus Rift, patent troll, popular electronics, QR code, Rodney Brooks, Shenzhen was a fishing village, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software as a service, special economic zone, speech recognition, subscription business, telerobotics, urban planning, web application, Y Combinator

And that’s not just premade things, like the pick-and-place machines from China, but people who are developing homemade laser cutters. The 3D printer movement is awesome, but I still don’t see 3D printers—you know, a homemade 3D printer still isn’t practical when I need to make twelve hundred cases for Digisparks that I’ve sold. So the laser cutter still wins there. I have two laser cutters, and one of them is a big, giant one that we air-freighted from China. It’s a beast. It’s a great machine, but I’ve seen a lot of these homemade laser systems—on BuildLog and other sites—coming up, and I think that’s really cool. Osborn: I bought a Full Spectrum 40-watt hobby laser recently. Haven’t made anything exciting with it just yet. Kettenburg: I have that one. Do you have the fifth gen or the fourth gen? Osborn: I have the fourth gen. Kettenburg: Okay.

I don’t manufacture my own projects, so I don’t have a lot of familiarity with manufacturing tools, but I thought knowing the tools and knowing how they work would make me a better designer. There are shippers at what I call “shipper row” or “shipper alley,” just garages of people with boxes and tape. You can take your stuff, and they’ll put it in a box, tape it up and send it anywhere in the world, by FedEx or air freight or boat. I went down there, I compared prices, and I found somebody who would FedEx a twenty-kilo box to Europe, airfreight, in three days or four days. It was like $3 US a kilo, at twenty kilos. So I bought reflow ovens, I bought hot plates, I bought a pick-and-place machine, I bought all the tools of the trade, and took them down to shipper row. They stuffed them in boxes for me, they taped them all up.

Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America by Peter Dale Scott, Jonathan Marshall


active measures, air freight, anti-communist, cuban missile crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, trade route, union organizing

Robinette saw Terrell as a possible “ serious threat to us based on the foregoing.” 10 Robinette’s July 17 memo corroborates Terrell’s own story that Robinette tried to silence Terrell by offering funds for a proposed helicopter service business in Costa Rica. It recommends that Robinette’s “interest” in this project be increased: “The ‘investors’ would require that he reduce or stop his ‘political talking’ as it would ‘affect our investment.’ ” The memo concludes that by this means “ the chopper or air freight service in Costa Rica” could be “connected to some future non-commercial work” ; and that “we would have him [Terrell] in hand and somewhat in our control.” 11 On the basis o f Robinette’s second memo, North prepared a memo for Admiral Poindexter, calling Terrell a “terrorist threat” and focusing at the outset on Terrell’s role in the Christie Institute suit, in media stories on Contra drug running, and in providing information to Senator Kerry’s staff.

Fernandez, Joseph (“Tomas Castillo” ): CIA station chief in Costa Rica Frigorificos de Puntarenas: A shrimp company in Costa Rica allegedly created as a cover for the laundering o f drug money; it was involved in North’s Contra support operations and used by the State Department to deliver humanitarian Contra aid Garcia Meza, Luis: Bolivian general who organized and came to power through 1980 Cocaine Coup; CAL conference participant the same year Gonzalez, Sebastian “ Guachan” : ARDE Contra official who fled Costa Rica in 1984 after indictment for drug trafficking Harari, Michael: Former Israeli Mossad agent who trained Manuel Noriega’s bodyguards and arranged arms shipments in the region Hondu Carib: A small air freight company, suspected o f drug smuggling, which flew supplies to the Contras Hull, John: American rancher in Costa Rica who backed Contras in conjunction with the local CIA station and whose airfield received Contra supply flights and allegedly drug shipments Kalish, Steven: American marijuana trafficker close to Noriega in Panama Kattan Kassin, Isaac: Major Colombian money launderer for Cali cartel Kiszynski, George: Veteran Miami counterterrorism agent for the FBI who investigated Corvo case with Kevin Currier and forwarded copies o f his cables to Washington for Oliver North Latchinian, Gerard: International arms dealer, former business partner o f Felix Rodriguez and Mossad agent Pesakh Ben-Or, convicted for his part in 1984 Bueso Rosa cocaine plot Lehder, Carlos: Colombian drug trafficker and admirer o f Hitler, extradited to United States and convicted Names and Organizations / 261 MAS (Muerte a Secuestradores): “ Death to Kidnappers,” Colombian antiguerrilla death squad organization founded in December 1981 by members o f Medellin cartel, Cali cartel, and Colombia military Matta Ballesteros, Juan Ramon: Honduran drug trafficker with important drug connections in Mexico, Cali, and the Honduran army Morales, George (Jorge): Convicted Colombian drug smuggler; testified to shipping arms to Contras for drugs in return for alleged promises o f official protection NHAO (Nicaraguan Humanitarian Assistance Organization): State Department office established to deliver humanitarian aid to the Contras NNBIS (National Narcotics Border Interdiction System): Coordinated U.S. interagency antidrug effort launched in 1983 under Vice President George Bush Nazar Haro, Miguel: Head o f Mexican DFS (Direccion Federal de Seguridad), important CIA asset and known protector o f Mexican drug traffickers Noriega, Manuel: Panamanian general and dictator indicted for protecting drug shipments and laundering money; involved with Floyd Carlton, Oliver North, the Contras, and the CIA Nunez, Moises Dagoberto: Officer o f Frigorificos de Puntarenas who worked with Joe Fernandez and Robert Owen on anti-Sandinista operation for North OSG-TIWG (Operations Sub-Group/Terrorist International Working Group): Secret counterterrorist working group cochaired by Oliver North in the National Security Council and used by him against drug witness Jack Terrell Ocampo Zuluaga, Santiago: Associate o f Cali cartel kingpin Gilberto Rodriguez Orejuela; president o f MAS; indicted in 1980 Ochoa Vasquez, Jorge Luis: Leader o f Medellin cartel, indicted in United States in 1984 and 1986; arrested in Spain in 1984 and extradited to Colombia, freed on $10,500 bail Owen, Robert: Intermediary between Oliver North, the Contras, and their supporters in Latin America, like John Hull Pastora, Eden: Contra leader in Costa Rica opposed by John Hull and FDN PIP (Peruvian Investigative Police): Peru’s elite, and corrupt, police agency assigned to combat drug trafficking but penetrated by drug traffickers; responsible for atrocities against peasants and human rights workers Parry, Robert: Associated Press journalist who helped break the Contra drug story Posey, Tom: American mercenary who collaborated briefly with John Hull, Robert Owen, and Jack Terrell on Contra support operations 262 / Names and Organizations Revell, Oliver: Executive Assistant Director o f the FBI with responsibility for counterterrorism matters; regularly attended OSG-TIWG meetings Robinette, Glenn: Ex-CIA private investigator engaged by Richard Sccord and paid with proceeds from Iran-Contra arms sales to investigate Christie Institute witnesses such as Jack Terrell; worked with Moises Nunez and Robert Owen Rodriguez, Cesar: Panamanian arms and drugs trafficker under Omar Torrijos and Manuel Noriega; killed in Colombia in 1986 Rodriguez, Felix: Ex-CIA agent and former business partner o f Gerard Latchinian; given Contra support role at Ilopango Air Force base in El Salvador after intervention by former CIA colleague Donald Gregg o f Vice President Bush’s office Rodriguez, Luis: Owner o f Frigorificos de Puntarenas, indicted on drug charges that were later dropped Rodriguez Gacha, Gonzalo: Drug trafficker in Medellin cartel; killed in 1990 Rodriguez Orejuela, Gilberto: Kingpin o f Colombian Cali cartel; arrested with Jorge Ochoa in Spain in 1984 and extradited to Colombia, where he was later freed SETCO (Servicios Turisticos): Airline established by Honduran cocaine trafficker Juan Matta Ballesteros and used by the FDN and State Department to deliver supplies to the Contras Sanchez, Aristides: Contra leader whose relatives supplied cocaine in the San Francisco Frogman case Seal, Adler Berriman (“ Barry”): Convicted drug smuggler who took photographs allegedly showing Sandinista official Federico Vaughan and Colombian kingpin Pablo Escobar loading cocaine onto Seal’s plane Sicilia Falcon, Alberto: Miami Cuban, allegedly trained as a U.S. government agent, who in 1972 emerged as a trafficker o f drugs through Mexico Singlaub, John: Ex-OSS and CIA officer, later a U.S. army general, who became head o f the U.S. chapter o f WACL and a supplier to the Contras Spadafora, Hugo: Panamanian enemy o f Noriega who was murdered in 1985 after talking to U.S. officials about drug trafficking in Costa Rica Suarez Gomez, Roberto: Bolivian cocaine trafficker until arrested in 1988 after falling out with Colombian cartels Suarez Mason, Carlos Guillermo: Argentine general and P2 member who oversaw Argentine death squads and drug-financed activities that were coordinated through CAL Tambs, Lewis: U.S.

pages: 483 words: 134,377

The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor by William Easterly


air freight, Andrei Shleifer, battle of ideas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, Edward Glaeser,, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, M-Pesa, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, risk/return, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey, young professional

So shipping the coffee by motor vehicle to the nearest oceanic port was not the best path to profits. The Rwandan coffee innovators chose to use another engine-powered vehicle that bypassed surrounding countries: an airplane. Air-freight companies charge more per ton than ocean freight. This helps explain why Rwandan coffee exporters chose to shift to the high end of the coffee-quality ladder. High-end coffee has a high value-to-weight ratio (Rwandan coffee goes for as much as $24 per pound), meaning that costly air shipping does not destroy profits. The flexibility of specialization sometimes allows occasional compensation for some areas that are still technologically backward. Other export successes by air freight in Africa are cut flowers (and of course coffee) from Kenya and Ethiopia, and fresh fish shipped frozen from Uganda and Tanzania.45 CONCLUSION Technology is another spontaneous order, like markets, and these two spontaneous orders interact with each other.

pages: 201 words: 64,545

Let My People Go Surfing by Yvon Chouinard


air freight, business process, clean water, Donald Trump, Doomsday Book, Mahatma Gandhi, pushing on a string, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rubik’s Cube, urban sprawl

Locate the item in one of our dealers’ shops, and let the dealer make the sale, thereby making two customers happy. * * * THE ENVIRONMENTAL COST OF TRANSPORTATION Our environmental assessment program showed us that the single greatest use of energy in the life span of a product is transportation. For example, a Patagonia shirt requires roughly 110,000 BTUs of energy to manufacture, from acquiring raw materials to making the fabric to sewing a finished shirt. Shipping that item air freight from Ventura to Boston, in a package with eighteen other shirts, takes another 50,000 BTUs per shirt. In other words, it takes half again as much fossil fuel energy to move it once than it did to make it. This brings up several considerations. One, we should be producing locally whenever possible. Two, consumers should not be ordering items to be shipped by airfreight simply because it’s convenient, especially if it’s a box of lobsters from Maine or a fresh salad from California.

pages: 222 words: 75,561

The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It by Paul Collier


air freight, Asian financial crisis, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Doha Development Round, failed state, falling living standards, income inequality, mass immigration, out of africa, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, trade liberalization, zero-sum game

In other words, a condition might be that the country should adhere to the international charters on democracy and budget transparency that I proposed in Chapter 9. Our trade policy does not have that much traction for the development of the landlocked because of the natural barrier of transport costs. However, especially for the countries of the Sahel, which, though landlocked, are close to Europe, air freight offers a potential lifeline into European markets. The key export products are likely to be high-value horticulture, and so European trade policy does matter. Breaking the Reform Impasse in Failing States Countries with bad governance and policies do sometimes turn themselves around, but too often it is like waiting for Godot. Reform in these countries has to come from within, and it takes courage.

pages: 573 words: 163,302

Year's Best SF 15 by David G. Hartwell; Kathryn Cramer


air freight, Black Swan, experimental subject, Georg Cantor, gravity well, job automation, Kuiper Belt, phenotype, semantic web

I don’t know what hunger feels like, but I’m absolutely sure that it isn’t as bad as lying empty in a dark garage, not knowing where your next load’s coming from, or when. Artificial photosynthesis has guaranteed the fuel supply forever, which is far more important than putting an end to global warming, although you wouldn’t know it from the way politicians go on.” “So you’re not worried about the renaissance of air freight?” Tom had asked. “Air freight!” Silas echoed, with a baritone growl that sounded not unlike his weary engine. “Silly frippery. As long as there’s goods to be shifted, there’ll be roads on which to shift them. Roads are the essence of civilization—and the essence of law and morality is the Highway Code. There’s no need to be afraid of air traffic, youngster. Now that Fuel Crises are behind us for good, there’s only one thing that you and I need fear, and I certainly won’t mention that.”

pages: 598 words: 183,531

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution - 25th Anniversary Edition by Steven Levy


air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, Donald Knuth, El Camino Real, game design, Hacker Ethic, hacker house, Haight Ashbury, John Conway, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, non-fiction novel, Norman Mailer, Paul Graham, popular electronics, RAND corporation, reversible computing, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, software patent, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Without truth, the computer won’t work. You can’t bullshit a computer, God damn it, the bit is there or the bit ain’t there.” He knew of the act of creation that is a natural outgrowth of working with the computer with a hacker’s obsessive passion. “It’s where every man can be a god,” Les Solomon would say. So he was eager to see Ed Roberts’ machine. Ed Roberts sent him the only prototype via air freight, and it got lost in transit. The only prototype. So Solomon had to look at the schematics, taking Roberts’ word that the thing worked. He believed. One night, he flippantly asked his daughter what might be a good name for this machine, and she mentioned that on the TV show Star Trek that evening, the good ship Enterprise was rocketing off to the star called Altair. So it was that Ed Roberts’ computer was named Altair.

The two Ph.D.s had first heard about the Altair when Melen, a tall, heavy man whose wittiness was only slightly impeded by a recurrent stutter, was visiting Les Solomon in late 1974 at the New York office of Popular Electronics. Melen and Garland had done articles outlining hobbyist projects for the magazine in their spare time, and were just putting to bed an article telling how to build a TV camera control device. Melen noticed a strange box on Solomon’s desk and asked what it was. Solomon informed him that the box, the prototype Altair that Ed Roberts had sent to replace the one lost in air freight, was an 8080 microcomputer that sold for under four hundred dollars. Roger Melen did not think that such a thing was possible, and Les Solomon told him that if he doubted it, he should call Ed Roberts in Albuquerque. Melen did this without hesitation, and arranged to make a stopover on his way back West. He wanted to buy two of those computers. Also, Ed Roberts had previously licensed a project that Melen and Garland had written about in Popular Electronics and had never gotten around to paying them royalties.

The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World (Hardback) - Common by Alan Greenspan


air freight, airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, equity premium, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, North Sea oil, oil shock, open economy, Pearl River Delta,, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, reserve currency, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, working-age population, Y2K, zero-sum game

We knew the shipping of fresh vegetables from the West Coast to the East Coast would be disrupted by the suspension of air freight, but we were somewhat surprised by how quickly many other businesses were hit. For example, the flow of auto parts from Windsor, Ontario, to Detroit's plants slowed to a crawl at the river crossings that join the two cities—a factor in the decision by Ford Motor to shut down temporarily five of its factories. Years earlier, many manufactures More ebooks visit: ccebook-orginal english ebooks This file was collected by form the internet, the author keeps the copyright. T H E AGE OF T U R B U L E N C E ers had shifted to "just-in-time" production—instead of stockpiling parts and supplies at the plant, they relied on air freight to deliver critical components as they were needed. The shutdown of the airspace and the tightening of borders led to shortages, bottlenecks, and canceled shifts.

pages: 258 words: 83,303

Why Your World Is About to Get a Whole Lot Smaller: Oil and the End of Globalization by Jeff Rubin


air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, BRICs, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, energy security, food miles, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Just-in-time delivery, market clearing, megacity, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, profit maximization, reserve currency, South Sea Bubble, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, zero-sum game

Business travel will be pared back in just the same way, in part because businesses will be much less global in scope and in part because cost control is going to take on new urgency in an economic environment of spiraling energy prices. That colleague or client on the other side of the ocean whom you see regularly for meetings or sales calls is going to become a bit more of a stranger as teleconferencing and email replace face-to-face contact. We will be farther and farther away from parts of the planet that today seem right around the corner. Put less vacation travel, less business travel and less air freight together, and all those newly built airports, like the new terminal in Toronto or the planned third runway and sixth terminal at London’s Heathrow, will soon become gleaming mausoleums to a past age of cheap and abundant energy. The tourism and recreation industry’s ability to weather soaring fuel costs will come down to one factor. As in real estate, location will determine the survival of the fittest in a world where people travel much less than they used to.

pages: 314 words: 83,631

Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet by Andrew Blum


air freight, cable laying ship, call centre, Donald Davies, global village, Hibernia Atlantic: Project Express, if you build it, they will come, inflight wifi, invisible hand, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mercator projection, Network effects, New Urbanism, packet switching, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

At UCLA that afternoon, the moment of the Internet’s physical birth came vividly into focus, rooted in a very specific place. On the quiet Saturday afternoon of the Labor Day weekend in 1969, a small crowd of computer science graduate students had gathered in the courtyard of Boelter Hall with a bottle of champagne. Standing in the same spot, I conjured the scene. The occasion was the arrival of their grand and expensive new gadget, coming that day from Boston by air freight: a modified and military-hardened version of a Honeywell DDP-516 minicomputer—“mini,” at the time, meaning a machine that weighed nine hundred pounds and cost $80,000, the equivalent of nearly $500,000 today. It was traveling from the Cambridge, Massachusetts, engineering firm of Bolt, Beranek and Newman, possessor of a $1 million Department of Defense contract to build an experimental computer network, known as the ARPANET.

pages: 402 words: 98,760

Deep Sea and Foreign Going by Rose George


Admiral Zheng, air freight, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, bank run, cable laying ship, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Costa Concordia, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, global supply chain, Google Earth, intermodal, London Whale, Malacca Straits, Panamax, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Skype, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, William Langewiesche

There is a term for this, and it is not ‘backwards’. ‘Slow steaming’ is now common practice. Travelling more slowly through water reduces drag and friction and cuts down on fuel. So it saves money. It could also help to heal the planet. * Compared with planes and trucks, ships are the greenest form of mass transport. Shipping contributes 11 grams of CO2 per ton per mile, a tenth of what trucks produce. Air freight flies way ahead, emitting 1193 grams per ton-mile. Sending a container from Shanghai to Le Havre emits fewer greenhouse gases than the truck that takes the container to Lyon. The Natural Resources Defence Council calculated the emissions involved in the journey of a typical T-shirt from a Chinese factory to an American back. This imaginary TEU was packed with 16 tons of cotton in Urumqi, Xinjiang, and sent to Denver, Colorado.

pages: 391 words: 99,963

The Weather of the Future by Heidi Cullen


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, availability heuristic, back-to-the-land, bank run, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, mass immigration, megacity, millennium bug, out of africa, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, urban planning, Y2K

Much of the healthier food is more reasonably priced because it’s subsidized. But soda pop, for example, is not subsidized. “A can of pop can be $5,” Gearheard says, “especially when you get into summer and supplies are dwindling. The supply ship only comes once a year.” As a result, Gearheard and her husband, along with many families in Clyde River and throughout the Arctic, have come to rely on a commercial air freight service called Food Mail that is based in Quebec.7 “They basically do your shopping for you. You send a list by e-mail or fax and they shop it all up and get it together and package it,” Gearheard says. Food Mail has a contract with the Canadian government, which subsidizes the service. “So you send in your list on Monday and it comes on Thursday,” explains Gearheard. “You can get all kinds of fresh vegetables, essentially everything you can get down south.”

CultureShock! Egypt: A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette (4th Edition) by Susan L. Wilson


air freight, anti-communist, call centre, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, land reform, RAND corporation, telemarketer, trade route

If you insist on bringing your own small appliances, such as toaster ovens, toasters, coffee grinders, coffee pots, microwave oven, mixer, food processor, blender, etc., from the US, remember to bring 140 CultureShock! Egypt power strips. If you do this, then you will only need to buy a voltage transformer. You can buy one in Cairo. Some people prefer to purchase everything in Egypt; use your judgement based on your budget and length of stay. Remember, if you import appliances under temporary admission in your air freight, you are supposed to take them out of Egypt at the end of your stay even if they no longer work. So don’t throw away those broken appliances if you import them this way. Bring lots and lots of plastic storage bags, ties and sandwich bags. Ziplock bags are not available in many places. Measuring spoons and cups are not in cups or ounces, so if you cannot make the transition to metric, you should definitely bring these.

pages: 352 words: 96,532

Where Wizards Stay Up Late: The Origins of the Internet by Katie Hafner, Matthew Lyon


air freight, Bill Duvall, computer age, conceptual framework, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, fault tolerance, Hush-A-Phone, information retrieval, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, natural language processing, packet switching, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy

In Cambridge, Frank Heart was preoccupied with the question of how best to ship the IMP to UCLA. After debating for a couple of days, Heart decreed that it should go by air, and that Ben Barker should go with it. A commercial flight was out of the question. The modified Honeywell 516—now officially BBN Interface Message Processor Number One—was just too big for the cargo bay of a passenger plane. It had to go out by air freight. Had Heart been able to, he would have put Barker straight into the cargo plane’s hold with his wrist handcuffed to the IMP. Never mind that he had chosen the machine precisely because it was battle-hardened; the rigors of combat were nothing compared to the punishment airline freight handlers could dish out. “He wanted somebody to be there, yelling at the cargo people to make sure they weren’t careless with it,” Barker recalled.

pages: 309 words: 95,495

Foolproof: Why Safety Can Be Dangerous and How Danger Makes Us Safe by Greg Ip


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Air France Flight 447, air freight, airport security, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, break the buck, Bretton Woods, capital controls, central bank independence, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversified portfolio, double helix, endowment effect, Exxon Valdez, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, global supply chain, hindsight bias, Hyman Minsky, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, money market fund, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift,, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, transaction costs, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, value at risk, William Langewiesche, zero-sum game

Taking the ICAO’s decade-old advice to heart, regulators in more than twenty countries closed three hundred airports and canceled one hundred thousand flights; ten million passengers were grounded. The costs of the biggest disruption to European aviation since the Second World War were staggering. Tourists and business travelers canceled, altered, or postponed travel. BMW and Nissan temporarily suspended auto production at plants in Germany, Japan, and the United States because of a shortage of air-freighted parts. Three-quarters of Europe’s imports of fresh-cut flowers come by air; the shutdown cost thousands of flower growers in Latin America and Africa jobs or wages. Stranded passengers spent an aggregate eight thousand years away from home and work. All told, a study commissioned by Airbus put the total cost to the global economy at $4.7 billion. The shutdown achieved its goal: no plane crashed and no one died.

pages: 339 words: 99,674

Pay Any Price: Greed, Power, and Endless War by James Risen


air freight, airport security, banking crisis, clean water, drone strike, Edward Snowden, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, large denomination, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Stuxnet, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

Special Operations Command at MacDill Air Force Base. According to sources who were involved with the company, Alarbus received a secret, multimillion-dollar annual contract to conduct intelligence operations for Special Operations Command. They then set up another company, Jerash Air Cargo (JACO), based in Amman, Jordan, as a front company through which they could conduct intelligence operations. On the surface, Jerash was an Amman-based air freight company, and Nazem Houchaimi was the head of the firm. But the business was really an intelligence front, and Houchaimi was working for Asimos, Alarbus, and U.S. Special Operations Command. To help set up JACO, Asimos directed that $300,000 be transferred from Alarbus to Houchaimi in May 2008, according to an e-mail from Asimos. Alarbus account ledgers also show that an additional $300,000 was wired to Houchaimi for the same purpose the following September.

pages: 383 words: 108,266

Predictably Irrational, Revised and Expanded Edition: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions by Dan Ariely


air freight, Al Roth, Bernie Madoff, Burning Man, butterfly effect, Cass Sunstein, collateralized debt obligation, computer vision, corporate governance, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, endowment effect, financial innovation, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, housing crisis, invisible hand, lake wobegon effect, late fees, loss aversion, market bubble, Murray Gell-Mann, payday loans, placebo effect, price anchoring, Richard Thaler, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, Skype, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Upton Sinclair

They did have pearls, though—many thousands of them. Before long, Assael had taught his son how to barter Swiss watches for Japanese pearls. The business blossomed, and shortly thereafter, the son, Salvador Assael, became known as the “pearl king.” The pearl king had moored his yacht at Saint-Tropez one day in 1973, when a dashing young Frenchman, Jean-Claude Brouillet, came aboard from an adjacent yacht. Brouillet had just sold his air-freight business and with the proceeds had purchased an atoll in French Polynesia—a blue-lagooned paradise for himself and his young Tahitian wife. Brouillet explained that its turquoise waters abounded with black-lipped oysters, Pinctada margaritifera. And from the black lips of those oysters came something of note: black pearls. At the time there was no market for Tahitian black pearls, and little demand.

pages: 606 words: 87,358

The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization by Richard Baldwin


3D printing, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, buy low sell high, call centre, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, Commodity Super-Cycle, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, domestication of the camel, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial intermediation, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Henri Poincaré, imperial preference, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invention of the telegraph, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Dyson, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, New Economic Geography, out of africa, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus

While the steam revolution took decades to transform globalization, the ICT revolution took years. Figure 24 displays several ICT indicators, showing that there was an inflection point in the growth of Internet hosts in 1985 and in telephone subscribers in 1995. The ICT revolution, however, was not the only big change in this time frame. The development of air cargo both stimulated and was stimulated by the development of international production networks. Air Cargo Air freight first became commercially viable due to the surplus of planes available after World War II, but it did not really get going until the mid-1980s with the rise of Federal Express, DHL, and UPS. Indeed the development of reliable air cargo services mirrors the rise of global value chains for rather obvious reasons. Air cargo allowed manufacturers to know that intermediate goods could flow among distant factories almost as surely as they flow among factories within a nation.

pages: 249 words: 87,445

Dispatches by Michael Herr

air freight, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

By the time they had finished cutting the lz there was no cover left from the sun, and we were all anxious for the scouting platoon to reach the top so that we could get together with Dana Stone, put a little pressure on for a helicopter and get out. The trip back to the press center in Danang could take two hours or two days, depending on what was flying, but it was certain to go faster with Stone along because he had friends at every airfield and chopper pad in I Corps. Danang was Soul City for many of us, it had showers and drinks, flash-frozen air-freighted steaks, air-conditioned rooms and China Beach and, for Stone, a real home—a wife, a dog, a small house full of familiar possessions. Mutter’s Ridge had sickening heat, a rapidly vanishing water supply and boredom, so there really wasn’t any choice. Judging by the weathered, blackened bits of ammunition casing (theirs and ours) that littered the ground around us, the ridge also had a history, and Dana had told us something about it.

pages: 398 words: 109,479

Redrobe by Jon Courtenay Grimwood

air freight, Burning Man, clean water, cognitive dissonance, music of the spheres

So Sammi the wacky Moslem rich kid with the lovingly-restored Mercedes 612 in the Bangladeshi version of FirstTime was the HondaGRZ-driving teen software millionaire Ryuchi in the Japanese version, was Leo the spoilt New York… But over and above that, CySat had always provided political muscle. Drop a frag hag like Passion with her little flying camera into a war zone and three hours later a significant slice of the world were vid-mailing congress or parliament with demands that whatever Passion’s Passion was complaining about be stopped, immediately… Courtesy of CySat nV starving kids to death and blaming famine or refusing to let HelpFirst air freight them medicine and calling it sanctions had become vote losers. Samsara solved that problem. It also got the Dalai Lama out of Beijing’s hair and gave Indonesia, Texas and the Ukraine somewhere to ship those dissidents too high-profile to kill. It was small wonder the UN vote was near unanimous. As solutions went, it was right out of this world. ‘What are you thinking?’ Kate asked suddenly. She’d stopped to let Axl go ahead and was looking down at where he stood on a broad ledge, one hand gripping a bush.

pages: 354 words: 92,470

Grave New World: The End of Globalization, the Return of History by Stephen D. King

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, paradox of thrift, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Skype, South China Sea, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Admittedly, train travel is not without its complications: most obviously, the various national railways do not share a common gauge, and so containers have to be transferred from one train to another at border crossings (although sophisticated versions of this seemingly cumbersome process can complete the task in less than an hour). Other complications have, however, largely been removed: a combination of cross-border customs agreements and bonded containers means that the whole journey should be completed without a customs hitch (or bribe). Relative to air freight, the train is cheap. Relative to ocean freight, the train is quick. It can take around 60 days to shift goods from inland Chinese cities to the coast and then take them by ship to European markets. For high-street fashion and consumer electronics, that simply isn’t fast enough. The train takes a quarter of the time. And, rather than Europeans paying for their Chinese goods with opium – as the British did in the nineteenth century – it is more likely that, on the return leg to Chongqing, the train is full of Spanish ham, German beer, French wine and a variety of upmarket European automobiles.

pages: 384 words: 122,874

Swindled: the dark history of food fraud, from poisoned candy to counterfeit coffee by Bee Wilson


air freight, Corn Laws, food miles, James Watt: steam engine, Louis Pasteur, new economy, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair

Food writer Nina Planck, the leading advocate of farmer’s markets, has complained that the U.S. rules on organic produce do not place enough emphasis on putting animals out to pasture: “it’s quite possible that the organic bacon or turkey burgers in your refrigerator came from animals that never left the barn.”71 There are fears that the organic sector is becoming a victim of its own success. Now that the big food companies have got in on the organic act—wanting a slice of the more than twelve-billion-dollar market—they have pushed to dilute the standards, lobbying to include some synthetic chemicals under the permitted definition of organic. Rising demand for organic food in Britain means that more and more if it is air-freighted in from abroad, lengthening the chain between consumer and producer and giving the lie to the ideal of organic food as wholesome and environmentally sound. Given these “food miles,” many food campaigners now believe it is better to buy local food—even if not technically “organic”—than it is to buy “organic” vegetables from halfway across the world. Closer to home, certain products—notably organic farmed salmon—have, in the view of many old-school organic farmers, made a mockery of what the organic standard was supposed to stand for.

pages: 744 words: 142,748

Exploding the Phone: The Untold Story of the Teenagers and Outlaws Who Hacked Ma Bell by Phil Lapsley


air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, card file, Chance favours the prepared mind, cuban missile crisis, dumpster diving, Hush-A-Phone, index card, Jason Scott:, John Markoff, Menlo Park, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, urban renewal, wikimedia commons

Over the course of three days agents arrested fourteen people in eight cities, including Minneapolis, Dallas, Houston, and Memphis, charging them with manufacturing, selling, and using blue boxes. But here was the interesting thing: they weren’t phone phreaks, or even bookies or hippies. This time the people arrested were all upstanding members of society, including real estate agents, stock brokers, two executives with a vending company, and the president of an air freight firm. A subsequent news release from AT&T described it as follows: “Cheat Ma Bell! Rip-off the phone company! Beat the system! Popular phrases like these were quite fashionable not so very long ago. Just about everyone attributed them to well-known anti-establishment types, to the New Left, and to the self-styled phone phreaks.” It went on to note, “The 14 persons [arrested] were not those type-cast as the rip-off set.

pages: 462 words: 150,129

The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves by Matt Ridley


23andMe, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser,, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, food miles, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, packet switching, patent troll, Pax Mongolica, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, working poor, working-age population, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

After all, fruit and vegetables account for more than 20 per cent of all exports from poor countries, whereas most laptops come from rich countries, so singling out food imports for special discrimination means singling out poor countries for sanctions. Two economists recently concluded, after studying the issue, that the entire concept of food miles is ‘a profoundly flawed sustainability indicator’. Getting food from the farmer to the shop causes just 4 per cent of all its lifetime emissions. Ten times as much carbon is emitted in refrigerating British food as in air-freighting it from abroad, and fifty times as much is emitted by the customer travelling to the shops. A New Zealand lamb, shipped to England, requires one-quarter as much carbon to get on to a London plate as a Welsh lamb; a Dutch rose, grown in a heated greenhouse and sold in London, has six times the carbon footprint of a Kenyan rose grown under the sun using water recycled through a fish farm, using geothermal electricity and providing employment to Kenyan women.

pages: 523 words: 144,971

The Windup Girl by Paolo Bacigalupi


air freight, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, oil rush, South China Sea

They speak of harvests in the north, and discuss the problem of the Mekong now that the Chinese have placed more dams at its source. They talk about new clipper ship designs that Mishimoto is preparing for production. "Forty knots with favorable winds!" Carlyle pounds the table gleefully. "A hydrofoil package and fifteen hundred tons of cargo. I'm going to buy a fleet of them!" Akkarat laughs. "I thought air freight was the future. Heavy-lift dirigibles." "With those clippers? I'm willing to hedge my bets. During the old Expansion there was a mix of transit options. Air and sea. I don't see why it won't be the same this time." "The new Expansion is on everyone's minds these days." Akkarat's smile fades. He glances at the Somdet Chaopraya, who gives a barely discernable nod. The Trade Minister goes on, speaking directly to Anderson.

pages: 421 words: 125,417

Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet by Jeffrey Sachs


agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, energy security, failed state, Gini coefficient, Haber-Bosch Process, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, low skilled workers, mass immigration, microcredit, oil shale / tar sands, old age dependency ratio, peak oil, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

In today’s Internet-empowered world, a major noncoastal city such as Bangalore, India, can export knowledge-based services to the world’s markets via the Internet without having to worry about access to shipping routes. In other words, changes in technology shift the particular advantages of geography (from coal to oil, for example) and also eliminate certain geographical barriers altogether (think of air freight or the Internet). When correctly understood, a geographical analysis helps to frame a country’s development strategy by identifying areas of priority public investment and by suggesting how a country’s underlying production costs are likely to shape the industrial structure. Geography will shape the balance between light and heavy industry, between industry and services, between types of agricultural crops, and between alternative locations for urbanization and trade.

pages: 524 words: 143,993

The Shifts and the Shocks: What We've Learned--And Have Still to Learn--From the Financial Crisis by Martin Wolf


air freight, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, break the buck, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, double entry bookkeeping,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, light touch regulation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandatory minimum, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market fragmentation, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Real Time Gross Settlement, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, very high income, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

The World Trade Organization replaced the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in January 1995. Subsequently, China joined the WTO in 2001. This was a resurgence of global capitalism. The second source of the underlying transformation was technological. Changes in transportation technologies during this era were not dramatic, though developments and improvements in container ships and high-volume air freight were significant. Improvements in information and communications technology, notably the personal computer, the internet, mobile telephony and the mobile internet were of far greater significance. These revolutionary developments permitted the organization of production and distribution across the world on a more systematic and timely basis than ever before. That in turn provided the opportunity for the accelerated development of export-oriented manufacturing, notably from China, and export-oriented information technology services, notably from India.

pages: 528 words: 146,459

Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin Campbell-Kelly, William Aspray, Nathan L. Ensmenger, Jeffrey R. Yost


Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, Byte Shop, card file, cashless society, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer age, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, garden city movement, Grace Hopper, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the wheel, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, light touch regulation, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pirate software, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the market place, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, young professional

In place of the simple inventory of seats sold and available as provided by the original Reservisor, there was now a constantly updated and instantly accessible passenger-name record containing information about the passenger, including telephone contacts, special meal requirements, and hotel and automobile reservations. The system quickly took over not just reservations but the airline’s total operation: flight planning, maintenance reporting, crew scheduling, fuel management, air freight, and most other aspects of its day-to-day operations. The system was fully operational in 1964, and by the following year it was stated to be amply recouping its investment through improved load factors and customer service. The project had taken ten years to implement. The development may have seemed leisurely from an external perspective, but an orderly, evolutionary approach was imperative when replacing the information system of such a massive business.

pages: 436 words: 125,809

The Way of the Gun: A Bloody Journey Into the World of Firearms by Iain Overton


air freight, airport security, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, clean water, Columbine, David Attenborough, Etonian, Ferguson, Missouri, gender pay gap, gun show loophole, illegal immigration, interchangeable parts, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, More Guns, Less Crime, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

As Andrew Feinstein wrote in his book The Shadow World, ‘So explosive were the [commission’s] findings that the investigation was suddenly closed down, seventeen volumes of its work vanished and its members were cowed into silence.’9 Behind this massive theft was a new breed of men – the so-called ‘Merchants of Death’.10 When the Cold War thawed, arms smugglers with names like Victor Bout and Leonid Minin swooped. Huge stocks of Ukrainian weaponry were bought up and sold to groups like the Revolutionary United Front in Sierra Leone and FARC forces in Colombia.11 Men like Minin became major brokers of arms to Charles Taylor in Liberia, a country under an arms embargo. Minin did things like send 9 million rounds of ammunition and 13,500 AKM rifles to the capital Monrovia in two air-freight deliveries, listing them as headed for Burkino Faso.12 Today, though, things have changed. Experts have confided in me, in a way where even things that were not secret were phrased as being such, that the age of the Merchants of Death has ended. Instead, they said, new realities have created a different type of smuggler – often even more explicitly sanctioned by governments. One arms dealer said, ‘I don’t know if there could be another Viktor.

pages: 456 words: 123,534

The Dawn of Innovation: The First American Industrial Revolution by Charles R. Morris


air freight, British Empire, business process, California gold rush, clean water, colonial exploitation, computer age, Dava Sobel,, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, if you build it, they will come, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, lone genius, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, refrigerator car, Robert Gordon, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman

Julius Rosenwald, a true retailing genius, took operational command of a struggling Sears and Roebuck in 1895 and, through Goldman’s, launched the first-ever public stock offering in a retail company. The purpose of the offering was to finance a mechanized rail-and roller-based goods assembly and distribution system, not unlike those pioneered by Alexander Holley for the steel industry. By the turn of the century, virtually every consumer was within reach of a Sears or Montgomery, Ward catalog. Delivery times almost anywhere in the country were thirty days or less, which prevailed until air-freight deliveries became widespread three-quarters of a century later. In order of magnitude, the gains in distributional efficiency were probably greater than those from the Internet in our own day. And with consumers as the driving force behind growth, the American economy was roaring ahead at a rate faster than any country had ever sustained over so long a period. Leaving Britain Behind American industrial output steadily closed the gap with Great Britain throughout the nineteenth century and then exploded to the top rank.

The Future of Technology by Tom Standage


air freight, barriers to entry, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, creative destruction, disintermediation, distributed generation, double helix, experimental economics, full employment, hydrogen economy, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, job satisfaction, labour market flexibility, Marc Andreessen, market design, Menlo Park, millennium bug, moral hazard, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, railway mania, rent-seeking, RFID, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, software as a service, spectrum auction, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Ballmer, technology bubble, telemarketer, transcontinental railway, Y2K

They have then grown internationally by producing overseas, for new customers, the same goods they produce and sell to their customers at home: 87% of foreign direct investment is made in search of local markets, according to McKinsey, a consultancy. Products and brands have become global, but production has not. Conversely, white-collar work continues to be produced in the same way that Ford produced the Model t: at home and in-house. Bruce 113 THE FUTURE OF TECHNOLOGY 4.1 2.1 Distance no object Transport costs Telecom costs Revenue per ton mile, cents* $’000 per year† for two Mbps fibre leased line, half circuit‡ 8 India Air freight 80 Rail Philippines 60 6 4 1,000 100 10 Barge 500 40 (inland waterways) 20 2 United States 0 0 1980 85 Source: McKinsey Global Institute 90 95 99 750 1996 97 98 250 Ireland 99 2000 0 01 *Revenue used as a proxy for prices; adjusted for inflation †January figures ‡International leased line for India; long-distance domestic leased line in the US Harreld, the head of strategy at ibm, reckons that the world’s companies between them spend about $19 trillion each year on sales, general and administrative expenses.

pages: 631 words: 171,391

One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War by Michael Dobbs


air freight, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doomsday Clock, global village, Google Earth, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, stakhanovite, yellow journalism

To be more precise, hundreds of thousands of cans of DIA film have been warehoused at an Archives facility in Kansas. There is just one catch: most of the finding aids remain "classified." I could detect little rhyme or reason to the numbering of the cans, making the research process roughly equivalent to finding needles in a haystack. I was permitted to request twenty cans of film at a time, which were then air-freighted overnight from Kansas to Washington. After reeling through more than a hundred cans of film, and tens of thousands of images, I feel enormously fortunate to have found some previously unpublished photographs of the Bejucal facility taken by U.S. reconnaissance planes in October 1962. Several frames included shots of the special vans used to transport nuclear warheads around Cuba, proof that I had found the right place.

pages: 845 words: 197,050

The Gun by C. J. Chivers


air freight, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, South China Sea, trade route, Transnistria

By one example, Romanian surplus was initially sold at $93 to $98 each for a fixed-stock rifle, or $115 for a rifle with a folding stock.69 These prices were roughly comparable to the price of an M-16 rifle—in 1966.70 The brokers then flipped the rifles at higher prices to the American companies awarded the Pentagon contracts, which in turn charged the Pentagon more—in the range of $150 to $165 a rifle, including air-freight delivery costs to Baghdad or Kabul. The rifles had typically been manufactured during the Warsaw Pact years and had sat unused in the decades since; they were considered new. Some vendors passed off used rifles to the Pentagon by reconditioning them with new finishes and lacquers. Newly manufactured rifles would cost significantly more, because of the increased costs of labor, energy, and commodities required to make them.

pages: 924 words: 198,159

Blackwater: The Rise of the World's Most Powerful Mercenary Army by Jeremy Scahill


air freight, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, business climate, business intelligence, centralized clearinghouse, collective bargaining, Columbine, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Naomi Klein, private military company, Project for a New American Century, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, stem cell, urban planning, zero-sum game

“Air America, an airline secretly owned by the CIA, was a vital component in the Agency’s operations in Laos,” according to a paper on the CIA Web site written by University of Georgia history professor William M. Leary. “By the summer of 1970, the airline had some two dozen twin-engine transports, another two dozen short-takeoff-and-landing (STOL) aircraft, and some 30 helicopters dedicated to operations in Laos. There were more than 300 pilots, copilots, flight mechanics, and air-freight specialists flying out of Laos and Thailand. . . . Air America crews transported tens of thousands of troops and refugees, flew emergency medevac missions and rescued downed airmen throughout Laos, inserted and extracted road-watch teams, flew nighttime airdrop missions over the Ho Chi Minh Trail, monitored sensors along infiltration routes, conducted a highly successful photoreconnaissance program, and engaged in numerous clandestine missions using night-vision glasses and state-of-the-art electronic equipment.

pages: 416 words: 204,183

The Rough Guide to Florence & the Best of Tuscany by Tim Jepson, Jonathan Buckley, Rough Guides


air freight, Bonfire of the Vanities, car-free, housing crisis, land reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning

For centuries, cooking across much of Italy was based on peasant traditions – the so-called cucina povera (“cooking of the poor”) and Tuscany was no exception. Tomatoes, olives, pasta, pulses, cheese, fruit and vegetables were the region’s staples. Today, affluence has brought a few changes – more meat in particular, notably the famous bifstecca all fiorentina (a vast, grilled T-bone steak) but for the most part tradition and a preference for simplicity prevail. Better still, in this age of air-freighted, year-round availability, most Tuscan food remains resolutely seasonal: fruits mature, appear for a few weeks in shops and on tables, and then disappear for another year. French gifts Traditional bottega selling artisanal foods Not all Tuscan food has humble roots. Florentines, for example, claim they invented many of the classic dishes of French cuisine, pointing to the marriage in 1534 of Caterina de’ Medici to Henri of Valois, the future King Henri II.

Rainbow Six by Tom Clancy


active measures, air freight, airport security, centre right, clean water, computer age, Exxon Valdez, Live Aid, old-boy network, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rolodex, urban sprawl

That would be a worthy use of his abilities, he thought, as he made another upward adjustment in F4's morphine drip just enough to yes, make her stuporous. He could show her the mercy he would have liked to have shown rhesus monkeys. Would they do animal experimentation in Kansas? There would be practical difficulties. Getting the animals to the labs would be very difficult in the absence of international air-freight service, and then there was the aesthetic issue. Many of the project members would not approve, and they had a point. But, damn it, it was hard to develop drugs and treatment modalities without some animal testing. Yes, Killgore thought, leaving one treatment room for another, it was tough on the conscience, but scientific progress had a price, and they were saving literally millions Of animals, weren't they?

pages: 1,117 words: 305,620

Dirty Wars: The World Is a Battlefield by Jeremy Scahill


active measures, air freight, anti-communist, blood diamonds, business climate, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, drone strike, failed state, friendly fire, Google Hangouts, indoor plumbing, Islamic Golden Age, land reform, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, private military company, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, WikiLeaks

AQAP labeled September 3, “The day a tree fell into a forest that no one heard.” As for the attempted bombings in October, AQAP’s “Head of Foreign Operations” wrote in Inspire that bringing down the planes would have been a bonus but that the “objective was not to cause maximum casualties but to cause maximum losses to the American economy. That is also the reason why we singled out the two U.S. air freight companies: FedEx and UPS for our dual operation.” Noting that the US and other governments would likely spend substantial amounts of money reviewing and changing airport screening procedures, he wrote, “You either spend billions of dollars to inspect each and every package in the world or you do nothing and we keep trying again.” He said they had selected addresses in Chicago because it was “Obama’s city.”

pages: 2,020 words: 267,411

Lonely Planet Morocco (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Paul Clammer, Paula Hardy


air freight, Airbnb, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, illegal immigration, Norman Mailer, place-making, Skype, spice trade, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Sending Parcels » The parcel office, indicated by the sign ‘colis postaux’, is generally in a separate part of the post-office building. » A 1kg package costs around Dh140 to send via airmail to the UK, Dh140 to the USA and Dh240 to Australia. » Parcels should not be wider, longer or higher than 2m; weight limit varies according to the destination, but it’s typically 30kg. » To ship goods home, buy a box and a shipping form at the post office and take them to the shop where you purchased your wares. » The shopkeeper knows the product and can wrap and pack the pieces well with newspaper and cardboard. » If you’ve purchased carpets, the vendor should have rolled and bound them in plastic sacks; if not, return and ask them to do so. » Label the outside of the package in several places with a waterproof pen. » Be very clear about the destination country; marking it in French as well as English helps. » Indicate the value of the contents if you like, but you may be charged taxes at the receiving end. » Don’t seal the box! Customs officers at the post office need to view the contents. » Your packages will be weighed and you will be charged Par Avion (air) freight rates unless you specify that you prefer the items shipped by land. » The overland service is considerably less expensive but can take three months. » Valuable speciality items such as large furniture may involve customs clearance. » Shopkeepers should be able to arrange clearance and shipping for you, but make sure you keep copies of all documentation in case the goods never arrive. Express Mail & Couriers » There is usually an Express Mail Service (EMS), also known as Poste Rapide, in the same office as parcel post. » In Morocco the service is run by Chronopost International Maroc ( . » A 500g package costs from Dh320 to send to the UK or Europe, and Dh330 to North America or Australia. » Private courier companies, with offices in the major cities, are faster and more expensive.

pages: 898 words: 266,274

The Irrational Bundle by Dan Ariely


accounting loophole / creative accounting, air freight, Albert Einstein, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, business process, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, end world poverty, endowment effect, Exxon Valdez, first-price auction, Frederick Winslow Taylor, fudge factor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lake wobegon effect, late fees, loss aversion, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, Peter Singer: altruism, placebo effect, price anchoring, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, Schrödinger's Cat, second-price auction, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, ultimatum game, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, young professional

They did have pearls, though—many thousands of them. Before long, Assael had taught his son how to barter Swiss watches for Japanese pearls. The business blossomed, and shortly thereafter, the son, Salvador Assael, became known as the “pearl king.” The pearl king had moored his yacht at Saint-Tropez one day in 1973, when a dashing young Frenchman, Jean-Claude Brouillet, came aboard from an adjacent yacht. Brouillet had just sold his air-freight business and with the proceeds had purchased an atoll in French Polynesia—a blue-lagooned paradise for himself and his young Tahitian wife. Brouillet explained that its turquoise waters abounded with black-lipped oysters, Pinctada margaritifera. And from the black lips of those oysters came something of note: black pearls. At the time there was no market for Tahitian black pearls, and little demand.

pages: 892 words: 91,000

Valuation: Measuring and Managing the Value of Companies by Tim Koller, McKinsey, Company Inc., Marc Goedhart, David Wessels, Barbara Schwimmer, Franziska Manoury


activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, air freight, barriers to entry, Basel III, BRICs, business climate, business process, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, commoditize, compound rate of return, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, discounted cash flows, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, energy security, equity premium, fixed income, index fund, intangible asset, iterative process, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market friction, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Myron Scholes, negative equity, new economy, p-value, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, six sigma, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, survivorship bias, technology bubble, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, value at risk, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

A common approach to identifying peers is to use the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes or the newer Global Industry Classification Standard (GICS) system developed by Standard & Poor’s and Morgan Stanley.11 11 Beginning in 1997, SIC codes were replaced by a major revision called the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). The NAICS six-digit code not only provides for newer industries but 366 USING MULTIPLES These may be a good starting point, but they are usually too broad for a good valuation analysis. For example, UPS is included in the air freight and logistics GICS code, which includes 64 companies, most of which do not compete with UPS in its core business of delivering small parcels. Another approach is to use peers provided by the company being valued. However, companies often provide aspirational peers rather than companies that truly compete head-tohead. It is better to have a smaller number of peers of companies that truly compete in the same markets with similar products and services.

The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal by M. Mitchell Waldrop


Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Wiener process, zero-sum game

And I figured that first some Honeywell people would install the hardware. . . and then BBN people would come in a few days later to shake down the software. An easy couple of weeks of grace." Not quite. On Saturday, August 30, Crocker learned to his horror that the IMP was already sitting on the loading dock. Against all odds, it developed, the BBN crew had gotten their problems fixed ahead of time and had immediately trundled the first IMP onto an airplane for shipment out to California via air freight. And they had sent along Ben Barker, the junior hardware guy, to ride shotgun. Together with Truett Thach, a technician at BBN's Los Angeles office, he was waiting now to get the IMP set up. "Panic time at UCLA," Crocker noted. Kleinrock was in a sweat, too. Everybody gathered in the computer room to watch the hookup, he remembers: "My staff, the computer-science chairman, the School of Engineering administration, somebody from the chancellor's of- fice, somebody from AT&T long lines, local telephone-company people, Hon- eywell, the ARPA guys, the BBN guys-and everybody was ready to point the accusing finger!"

pages: 1,318 words: 403,894

Reamde: A Novel by Neal Stephenson


air freight, airport security, crowdsourcing, digital map, drone strike, Google Earth, industrial robot, informal economy, large denomination, megacity, new economy, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, ransomware, side project, Skype, slashdot, South China Sea, the built environment, the scientific method, young professional

The same went for Jahandar, an Afghan whom Zula had last seen perched on the top of the RV with a sniper rifle and a pair of binoculars. Zula herself had to make a modest effort to hide her own astonishment, for if ever there was a man cut out for a long trek down the length of a mountain range in hostile territory, it was Jahandar. To the point where Zula had some difficulty in imagining how they had smuggled him this deep into a Western democracy. They must have drugged him, packed him into a crate, shipped him over by air freight direct from Tora Bora, and kept him pent up on a mountaintop until now. Everything about his appearance—the hat, the beard, the glare, the battle scars—should have got him arrested on sight in any municipality west of the Caspian Sea. Anyway, never mind how they’d managed it, Jahandar was here, and he was pissed. And this encouraged the normally taciturn Ershut to voice objections of his own to Jones’s plan.

pages: 1,157 words: 379,558

Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris by Richard Kluger


air freight, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, corporate raider, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, family office, feminist movement, full employment, ghettoisation, Indoor air pollution, medical malpractice, Mikhail Gorbachev, Plutocrats, plutocrats, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transaction costs, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty

The randy animal, presented to Shropshire before a houseful of admiring subordinates, proved a bit of a problem later that evening on being penned up in the rear yard. It shredded fencing with its horns, lured a cloud of flies with its stench, and, all in all, created an unmanageable uproar. “You son of a bitch!” Shropshire snarled on the telephone the next day to the departed Murphy, who, though innocent of the ruse, soon found the company’s spotless headquarters in Lausanne the beneficiary of a very messy caged pig, air-freighted via Lagos and generating instantaneous chaos until the Great Philip Morris Animal War was called to a halt. For years the Nigerian operation made no money but at least kept the Philip Morris flag aloft long enough to establish familiarity with its brands. Not until a generation later, after the company withdrew from controlling ownership, selling off to local proprietors and retaining about 25 percent of the equity, did it begin to realize a small return on its investment.