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How to Fix Copyright by William Patry
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, barriers to entry, big-box store, borderless world, business intelligence, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, means of production, moral panic, new economy, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, web application, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game
Newspapers unfortunately provide an example of a failure to adapt, and of the use of calls for new laws as an excuse for not adapting. Newspapers: A Failure to Adapt There is no question newspapers have serious problems, but those problems are business problems and cannot be solved by additional legal rights.To listen to some in the newspaper business, the industry was destroyed by Internet search engines. As we shall see, the decline in the newspaper business has been going on for a long time, well before the advent of the Internet, and involves loss of advertising revenue made possible by artiﬁcial, analog scarcity. Newspapers’ revenue losses, while substantial, have nothing to do with copying their content, and therefore nothing to do with copyright laws. If all search engines stop crawling and indexing newspapers’ websites, is there anyone who doubts newspapers 146 HOW TO FIX COPYRIGHT would receive less, and not more advertising revenue?
Newspaper circulation per household 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 1950 FIGURE 5.1 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Newspaper Circulation per Household Source: Newspaper Association of America In the competition for advertising dollars, the media share of U.S. advertising for newspapers has declined from around 36 percent in 1949 to 13 percent in 2009, with the steepest short-term decline being in the ten-year period of 1949 to 1959, as a result of the increased popularity of television. The next big short-term drop occurred in the period 1989 to 1993, the latter date being the date the World Wide Web was opened up for free to the public. Television, both over the air and cable, by contrast, began with zero advertising market share in 1949, and went up to 26 percent in 2009. Direct mail has also gone up, from 15 percent in 1949 to 22 percent in 2009. The decline in newspaper advertising thus 150 HOW TO FIX COPYRIGHT occurred most sharply before the introduction of the Web, while other media, especially cable television, have gained at newspapers’ expense. One important reason for newspapers’ decline in advertising revenue versus other media is the decline in the amount of time consumers spend with newspapers. Advertisers follow the eyeballs, and if the eyeballs go someplace else, advertisers go to that other place too.
Media Usage and Consumer Spending Media Unit 2005 2006 Total Hours 3,543 3,530 Television Broadcast Television Network stations Independent stations Cable, Satellite & RBOC TV Services Basic cable, satellite & RBOC TV Premium cable, satellite & RBOC TV Broadcast and satellite radio Recorded music Out-of-home media Consumer magazines Consumer books Videogames Home video Yellow Pages Box ofﬁce Pure-play mobile services In-ﬂight entertainment Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours 1,659 679 582 97 980 Hours 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 projection projection projection projection projection 3,532 3,559 3,569 3,596 3,624 1,673 676 599 77 997 1,686 676 603 73 1,010 1,704 678 604 74 1,027 1,714 673 598 75 1,041 1,728 673 598 75 1,055 1,742 669 593 76 1,073 807 835 849 865 877 891 913 Hours 173 161 161 162 164 164 159 Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours 805 196 130 124 107 73 63 12 12 9 1 778 186 133 121 108 76 62 13 12 12 1 769 171 137 119 108 82 64 13 13 16 1 768 165 141 117 108 90 66 13 13 21 2 760 168 145 114 109 91 68 13 13 28 2 758 174 149 112 109 94 70 12 14 33 2 751 185 154 110 110 100 70 12 14 38 2 152 HOW TO FIX COPYRIGHT It should be no surprise that advertisers have gone with media that have an increase in consumer viewing rather than with media that are declining in consumer viewing. Newspapers are in decline and therefore so are their advertising revenue. This is the market at work, and is not the fault of others, especially Internet companies. Laws cannot force people to spend more time reading newspapers. People are estimated to spend somewhat over one minute a day reading news online versus twenty-ﬁve minutes a day reading hard copy newspapers. Magazines readership is up, with readers (young and old) spending an average of fortythree minutes per issue.
3D printing, 4chan, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, Internet of things, John Gruber, John Markoff, Marshall McLuhan, Nicholas Carr, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand
As an employee of this industry, I’ve been involved in more meetings on this topic than a single human being should be allowed to attend in a lifetime. I’ve been to all-day talks and fifty-person meetings with everyone from the CEO to a lowly intern and all the players in between. I’ve also attended conferences as a panel member with other journalists and publishers to discuss this very topic. Depending on who is in the room, these conversations usually start out lamenting the death of newspapers and magazines and quickly move to asking how we will ever be able to charge people to access news online. I have heard over and over that young people won’t pay for anything. Movie producers, publishers, and musicians argue that kids have been raised to think content is free and they have a God-given right to take it. I’m not going to list a magic formula here with profit margins, returns on investment, or revenue models.
Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta
23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management, zero-sum game
Google had 7,000 employees working out of 62 offices, 30 of them outside the United States, which produced nearly 40 percent of its revenues. By the end of 2005, the company had indexed 8 billion Web pages in 116 languages; its revenues soared to $6.1 billion and its net income to $1.5 billion. Meanwhile, the tide was running against traditional media. In December of 2005, 77 percent of Americans had Internet access at work and 37 percent of all adults had high-speed access to the Internet. The slight but steady decline in newspaper circulation suddenly steepened in 2004 and 2005. The circulation of daily newspapers would plunge 6.3 percent between 2003 and 2006, with Sunday circulation falling 8 percent. Newspaper advertising revenues, which had grown on average in the high single digits since 1950, beginning in 2001 fell in four of the next seven years, and in 2006 began to fall more steeply. With investors convinced that companies like Google would grow while newspapers would not, the stock price of newspaper companies also plunged—falling 20 percent on average in 2005—leaving them less capital to diversify by acquiring growth businesses.
The critic’s inky, pulpy native habitat, a sometimes mean and shabby place but a home all the same, is threatened, like so much else, by the blindingly rapid rise of digital media, which has already, in a little more than a decade, decisively transformed the world of print and may yet kill it off entirely. Farseeing media mystics and hardheaded business analysts routinely show up on social media, on television, and between hard covers to prophesy the death of newspapers, the evolution of books and magazines into e- and app versions of their former selves, and the imminent obsolescence of all the old ways of doing things. Their visions grow less outlandish and more self-evident every day. There is no question that the world of printed discourse, in which criticism has occupied a small but well-appointed corner, is undergoing enormous change. The questions—at least as they are routinely brought up in academic symposia, industry gatherings, and late-night drunken pity parties—have to do with the direction and consequences of the change.
Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal
1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog
Recent books include Mark Bowden’s The Best Game Ever: Giants vs. Colts, 1958, and the Birth of the Modern NFL (National Football League); Howard Bryant’s The Last Hero: A Life of Henry Aaron; David Maraniss’ Rome 1960: The Olympics that Changed the World; and, boldest of all, Fred Kaplan’s 1959: The Year that Changed Everything. Or, as a Boston Globe columnist wrote in 2005, “This has to be the Golden Age of Apocalyptic Presentiments. The death of newspapers. The death of glaciers. An Atlantic Monthly writer The Resurgence of Utopianism 191 recently speculated on the death of death” because of healthy habits.10 Ironically, a genuine and profound change in the common conceptualization of technology has not been sufﬁciently appreciated. Whereas throughout most of the twentieth century science and technology were commonly conceived as the solution to widely acknowledged large-scale problems such as poverty, education, irrigation, and water and electrical power, in recent decades science and technology have increasingly come to be viewed as the fulﬁllment on a small scale of individual needs and desires, ranging from birth control pills to online college degrees to virtual travel to cyberspace relationships.
We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater
1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar
This view might offer some comfort to people who are worried about the web: we might have more time to get used to the web than we initially thought. The changes it brings might be evolutionary rather than disruptive. Yet if the Edgerton view is correct it would also mean that the changes we have seen in just the first decade of the mass adoption of the web – the complete upheaval in the music recording industry, the savage decline in US newspapers, the disappearance of many youth magazines, the quick creation of new media giants like Google – these might just be the tip of an iceberg. We have another fifty years of change of this kind to come and the scale of the upheavals may be even greater as the technology becomes widely adopted and gains momentum. A third small but vociferous group are people who say the web is already having a big impact on society and it is mainly bad for us.
Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff
affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game
As an independent publication run by the Bancroft family’s Dow Jones company since 1902, the Journal’s articles described only the process through which Time Warner’s “brands” would be updated, its divisions made more efficient, and its overpaid staff trimmed down. Within a few years, however, it was The Wall Street Journal fending off an unsolicited $5 billion offer from Rupert Murdoch. A pervasive feeling among investors that print publications were imperiled by the Internet had led to a decline in all newspaper stock prices—making the Journal an easy target, even though its website was one of the few profitable online newspaper ventures, earning far more than its print edition. All of a sudden the tables were turned. Editors who had long argued for free-market principles now saw the benefit in keeping a company small and independent—especially after it had gained over a hundred years of reputation and competency in its field.
The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood by James Gleick
Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, bank run, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, butterfly effect, citation needed, Claude Shannon: information theory, clockwork universe, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, lifelogging, Louis Daguerre, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rubik’s Cube, Simon Singh, Socratic dialogue, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, talking drums, the High Line, The Wisdom of Crowds, transcontinental railway, Turing machine, Turing test, women in the workforce
.♦ In England a writer for The Morning Chronicle described the thrill of receiving his first report across the Cooke-Wheatstone telegraph line, the first instalment of the intelligence by a sudden stir of the stationary needle, and the shrill ring of the alarum. We looked delightedly into the taciturn face of our friend, the mystic dial, and pencilled down with rapidity in our note-book, what were his utterances some ninety miles off.♦ This was contagious. Some worried that the telegraph would be the death of newspapers, heretofore “the rapid and indispensable carrier of commercial, political and other intelligence,”♦ as an American journalist put it. For this purpose the newspapers will become emphatically useless. Anticipated at every point by the lightning wings of the Telegraph, they can only deal in local “items” or abstract speculations. Their power to create sensations, even in election campaigns, will be greatly lessened—as the infallible Telegraph will contradict their falsehoods as fast as they can publish them.
With a Little Help by Cory Doctorow
autonomous vehicles, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, death of newspapers, don't be evil, game design, Google Earth, high net worth, lifelogging, margin call, Mark Shuttleworth, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Ponzi scheme, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, sensible shoes, skunkworks, Skype, traffic fines, traveling salesman, Turing test, urban planning, Y2K
The problem is, every now and then there's an unanticipated seismic shift in the world, something that changes everything and creates a corner we can't see around. The most recent of these was the potent combination of digital information and global connectivity that transformed the end of the 20th century. I like to call it "The Internet," and mark my words, it's going to be very big. The struggling record industry, the death of the newspaper, the rise of LOLCats - these are just warning shots. Everything is going to get swallowed up eventually, and it's all going to get loud and messy and complicated. Forget space travel, this is the future we need to imagine now, and quickly, before it overtakes us. 29 Luckily, we have Cory Doctorow; he thinks about the Internet, a lot. And so his stories are especially compelling because they are so relevant to our immediate future.
The Great Turning: From Empire to Earth Community by David C. Korten
Albert Einstein, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, death of newspapers, declining real wages, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, God and Mammon, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, new economy, peak oil, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, source of truth, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, trade route, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, World Values Survey
Empire mobilized to strike back. Television was transforming how people used their time and related to the world. Beginning about 1960, passive forms of participation in public life began displacing more active forms. People were patronizing Wake-Up Call 219 fast-food outlets, professional sporting events, and gambling casinos with greater frequency. There were corresponding declines in voter participation, newspaper readership, Parent Teacher Association membership, union membership, frequency of family meals, philanthropic giving, and perceptions of honesty and morality.3 Relationships among people were not so much changing as simply eroding. People were feeling increasingly vulnerable and disconnected. There was a troubling sense in the air, particularly among self-identiﬁed conservatives, that the moral and social foundations of society were disintegrating.
The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lifelogging, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Metcalfe’s law, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, Paul Samuelson, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional
Total workforce data from American Society of News Editors <http://asne.org/> (accessed 7 March 2015). 176 ‘The Late Edition’, Economist, 26 Apr. 2014. 177 George Brock, Out of Print: Newspapers, Journalism, and the Business of News in the Digital Age (2013), 149. 178 ‘Internet Overtakes Newspapers as News Outlet’, Pew Research Center, 23 Dec. 2008 <http://www.people-press.org> (accessed 7 March 2015). 179 Andrea Caumot, ‘12 trends shaping digital news’, Pew Research Center, 16 Oct. 2013 <http://www.pewresearch.org> (accessed 7 March 2015). 180 ‘Internet Access—Households and Individuals 2014’, Office for National Statistics, 7 Aug. 2014 <http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/index.html> (accessed 7 March 2015). 181 ‘The Internet Economy on the Rise: Progress since the Seoul Declaration’, OECD, Sept. 2013. 182 ‘Digital News Report 2014’, Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism <http://www.digitalnewsreport.org> (accessed 7 March 2015). 183 Eric Alterman, ‘Out of Print: The Death and Life of the American Newspaper’, New Yorker, 31 Mar. 2008. 184 ‘The Late Edition’, Economist, 26 Apr. 2014. 185 ‘Amid Criticism, Support for Media’s “Watchdog” Role Stands Out’, Pew Research Center, 8 Aug. 2013 <http://www.pewresearch.org > (accessed 7 March 2015). 186 Clay Shirky, ‘Last Call: The End of the Printed Newspaper’, Medium, 19 Aug. 2015 <https://medium.com> (accessed 7 March 2015). 187 The Evening Standard in London, for example, was making annual losses of £30 million before 2009.
.), Prospects for the Professions in China (Abingdon: Routledge, 2011). Allen, Woody, ‘Mechanical Objects’, Standup Comic, 1964–1968, transcript at <http://www.ibras.dk/comedy/allen.htm#Mechs> (accessed 23 March 2015). Alloway, Tracy, and Arash Massoudi, ‘Goldman Sachs leads $15m financing of data service for investors’, Financial Times, 23 Nov. 2014 <http://www.ft.com> (accessed 8 March 2015). Alterman, Eric, ‘Out of Print: The Death and Life of the American Newspaper’, New Yorker, 31 Mar. 2008. Andersen, Erika, ‘Why Writing a Book is Good Business’, Forbes, 12 Oct. 2012 <http://www.forbes.com> (accessed 8 March 2015). Andersen, Michael, ‘Four crowdsourcing lessons from the Guardian’s (spectacular) expenses-scandal experiment’, NiemanLab, 23 June 2009 <http://www.niemanlab.org> (accessed 8 March 2015). Anderson, Chris, Makers: The New Industrial Revolution (London: Random House, 2012).
The Rich and the Rest of Us by Tavis Smiley
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Corrections Corporation of America, Credit Default Swap, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, ending welfare as we know it, F. W. de Klerk, fixed income, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, job automation, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, mega-rich, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, traffic fines, trickle-down economics, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor
American settlement houses—private nonprofit agencies—were primarily established in poor immigrant neighborhoods and were modeled after Toynbee Hall in London, England. Inspired by religious convictions and a sense of moral obligation, the agencies were much more than institutions for the destitute. Settlement house leaders became vocal and visible advocates for social-welfare reform, arguing that poverty was not necessarily a character flaw but rather a state of being agitated by multiple factors—slave wages, disease, and the death of a spouse. Advocates challenged newspapers’ attacks on the poor and took on Industrial Age barons accused of exploiting women and children in sweat shops, factories, and mines. In a sense, settlements houses were early America’s think tanks, where recruiting, training, researching, and policy-setting were incorporated into everyday activities. By 1910, about 400 settlement houses were operating in the United States.
Makers by Chris Anderson
3D printing, Airbnb, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, business process, commoditize, Computer Numeric Control, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, factory automation, Firefox, future of work, global supply chain, global village, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, profit maximization, QR code, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, South of Market, San Francisco, spinning jenny, Startup school, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Y Combinator
What Would Google Do? by Jeff Jarvis
23andMe, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, clean water, commoditize, connected car, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, don't be evil, fear of failure, Firefox, future of journalism, Google Earth, Googley, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, PageRank, peer-to-peer lending, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, web of trust, Y Combinator, Zipcar
The attention given to and thus the value of this new wave of choice will grow. There are new opportunities in enabling, organizing, and monetizing this abundance. The blockbuster strategy always was a gamble; as it continues, it is a bigger gamble than ever. The mass market’s hold over the economy diminishes. The mass market was a short-lived phenomenon. It began with the large-scale adoption of television in the mid-1950s—and the consequent death of second and third newspapers in most American cities, yielding one-size-fits-all mass products in both broadcast and print. It was in the mid-1980s, in the age of the remote control, that I became the TV critic at People magazine, the last great mass magazine launched in America. In its first decade, the magazine was pretty much a piece of cake to run: Put a star in a big show on the cover and watch it sell.
3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar
In each of these previous events, professional journalists working in the mainstream media played a crucial and even iconic role in delivering and distributing the news to a mass audience. In the case of President Kennedy’s assassination, Walter Cronkite’s broadcasts on CBS News came to stand as a shared cultural experience for millions of Americans. Who was not moved watching the great journalist choke up while announcing the president’s death? The names of two respected newspaper journalists—Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein—likewise became indelibly linked to the Watergate scandal. Network television footage of crowds at the Berlin Wall in the darkness of November 9, 1989, provided unforgettable, collective images of the end of the Cold War, echoing President Reagan’s powerful rhetoric a few years earlier: “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!” And burned into the consciousness of many Americans following September 11, 2001, is the television footage of the airplanes plunging into the Twin Towers, not to mention the figure of Mayor Rudy Giuliani, standing at the podium answering questions at press conference after press conference with a mixture of calm, grief, and determination.
Me! Me! Me! by Daniel Ruiz Tizon
For a couple of years, I did wonder whether I’d be morally obliged to attend my ex's funeral if anything happened to her. With her dad being a large, powerfully built man whose knuckles alone were almost equal in size to my hands, this was a rather unnerving thought. I’d lay awake at night visualising him slapping me around like a rag doll at the service as he screamed at me to look at the open topped casket. I became paranoid, poring over the Births, Deaths and Marriages sections of local newspapers on a weekly basis for any news, barging my way through the crowds at any road accident to make sure the stricken pedestrian wasn't my ex. Relationship experts say that last year alone saw the highest number of break ups in 12 years, with a staggering 27% of those coming via, yes, you guessed it, text. This shocking trend was, we’re told, pioneered by a 34-year-old man from the County Durham area, who dumped his girlfriend via text in March 2002, some 18 months after my seminal SMS.
affirmative action, airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, data acquisition, death of newspapers, Extropian, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, informal economy, information asymmetry, Iridium satellite, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, means of production, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, open economy, packet switching, pattern recognition, pirate software, placebo effect, Plutocrats, plutocrats, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Robert Bork, Saturday Night Live, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telepresence, trade route, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP
You Are Not a Gadget by Jaron Lanier
1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, digital Maoism, Douglas Hofstadter, Extropian, follow your passion, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Conway, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Long Term Capital Management, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, social graph, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog
3D printing, algorithmic trading, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, death of newspapers, deferred acceptance, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Earth, Google Glasses, High speed trading, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, lifelogging, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, pattern recognition, price discrimination, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, upwardly mobile, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator
The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan
1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game
But its mastery at optimizing its pages for Google Web Search has made it a frequent user destination for news and much more effective than many of the sources that it aggregates. 43. Todd Gitlin, “Journalism’s Many Crises,” OpenDemocracy, May 20, 2009, www.opendemocracy.net; Leonard Downie and Michael Schudson, “The Reconstruction of American Journalism,” Columbia Journalism Review, December 2009, 28–51; John Nichols, “The Death and Life of Great American Newspapers,” Nation, April 6, 2009, 11; Zachary M. Seward, “How the Associated Press Will Try to Rival Wikipedia in Search Results,” Nieman Journalism Lab, August 13, 2009; Zachary M. Seward, “Google CEO Eric Schmidt Envisions the News Consumer of the Future,” Nieman Journalism Lab, November 4, 2009. 44. James Fallows, “How to Save the News,” Atlantic, June 2010. 45. Miguel Helft, “Google Calls Viacom Suit on YouTube Unfounded,” New York Times, May 1, 2007; Hof, “Maybe Google Isn’t Losing Big Bucks.” 46.
Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts
active measures, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, industrial cluster, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize
Paper read at 2005 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence, Sept. 19–22, at Compiègne University of Technology, France. Adler, Moshe. 1985. “Stardom and Talent.” American Economic Review 75 (1):208–12. Alicke, Mark D., and Olesya Govorun. 2005. “The Better-Than-Average Effect.” In The Self in Social Judgment, ed. M. D. Alicke, D. A. Dunning, and J. I. Krueger. 85–106. Alterman, Eric. 2008. “Out of Print: The Death and Life of the American Newspaper.” The New Yorker, March 31. Anderson, Philip W. 1972. “More Is Different.” Science 177 (4047):393–96. Andreozzi, Luciano. 2004. “A Note on Paradoxes in Economics.” Kyklos 57 (1):3–20. Aral, Sinan, Lev Muchnik, and Arun Sundararajan. 2009. “Distinguishing Influence-Based Contagion from Homophily-Driven Diffusion in Dynamic Networks.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (51):21544–21549.
The Full Catastrophe: Travels Among the New Greek Ruins by James Angelos
air freight, Alexander Shulgin, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, frictionless, Haight Ashbury, John Bercow, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Network effects, nuclear paranoia, packet switching, pattern recognition, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, pre–internet, QR code, RAND corporation, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, Zimmermann PGP
Chaos Monkeys: Obscene Fortune and Random Failure in Silicon Valley by Antonio Garcia Martinez
Airbnb, airport security, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, Burning Man, Celtic Tiger, centralized clearinghouse, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, drone strike, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, financial independence, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hive mind, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Paul Graham, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social web, Socratic dialogue, source of truth, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, urban renewal, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, éminence grise
I Think You'll Find It's a Bit More Complicated Than That by Ben Goldacre
call centre, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Desert Island Discs, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, Flynn Effect, jimmy wales, John Snow's cholera map, Loebner Prize, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, placebo effect, publication bias, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Simon Singh, statistical model, stem cell, the scientific method, Turing test, WikiLeaks
How Much Is Enough?: Money and the Good Life by Robert Skidelsky, Edward Skidelsky
banking crisis, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, lump of labour, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Paul Samuelson, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, union organizing, University of East Anglia, Veblen good, wage slave, wealth creators, World Values Survey, zero-sum game
Free Ride by Robert Levine
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Anne Wojcicki, book scanning, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Firefox, future of journalism, Googley, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Justin.tv, Kevin Kelly, linear programming, Marc Andreessen, moral panic, offshore financial centre, pets.com, publish or perish, race to the bottom, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, off grid, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey
MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams
accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, old-boy network, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar
Dave deBronkart, “What e-Patients Want from Doctors, Hospitals and Health Plans,” Presentation at ICSI/IHI (May 2010). Chapter 11 1. Amanda Ernst, “Huffington Post’s Traffic More Than Doubles Year Over Year,” mediabistro (January 19, 2010). 2. Huffington Post Company Profile, CrunchBase (April 28, 2010). 3. Erick Schonfeld, “The Huffington Post Starts to Give Out Badges to Readers,” TechCrunch (April 29, 2010). 4. Jonah Peretti as reported in “The Death and Life of the American Newspaper,” The New Yorker (March 23, 2008). 5. Andrew Lipsman, “Huffington Post Defies Expectations, Reaches New Heights Post-Election,” Comscore (June 4, 2009). 6. Sam Stein, “Bailed-Out Firms Distributing Cash Rewards: ‘Please Do Not Call It A Bonus,’” The Huffington Post (February 11, 2009). 7. Jeff Jarvis, “Arianna Huffington is saving journalism,” The Guardian (April 6, 2009). 8.
affirmative action, British Empire, David Brooks, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, family office, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, jitney, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Scientific racism, selection bias, Steven Levy, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, urban planning, We are the 99%, white flight
A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn
active measures, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, God and Mammon, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, jobless men, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration
Titan: The Life of John D. Rockefeller, Sr. by Ron Chernow
California gold rush, collective bargaining, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, double entry bookkeeping, endowment effect, family office, financial independence, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Santayana, God and Mammon, income inequality, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, New Journalism, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, passive investing, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, white picket fence, yellow journalism
Another embittered foe was George Rice, a Vermont native and independent refiner from Marietta, Ohio. A vigorous man with a bulldog face, Rice thrived on crossing swords with the oil trust. More than anyone else, Rice was driven mad by Standard Oil’s unjust methods and became a professional Rockefeller hater. He instigated many legislative probes of Standard Oil and in 1881 published a pamphlet entitled Black Death, an anthology of scathing newspaper exposés. For Rockefeller, Rice was nothing but a blackmailer. “He liked to harass, embarrass, annoy the Standard Oil interests with a view of enabling him to sell his quite unimportant refinery interest. . . . This is the whole story of George Rice.”69 In fairness to Rockefeller, Rice tried repeatedly to extort money from him, asking an outrageous $250,000 for a refinery Rockefeller valued at only $25,000.