post-work

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pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

Mass incarceration and the racialised system of domination associated with it must be abolished,163 and the spatial mechanisms of control – ranging from ghettos to border controls – must be taken apart to ensure the free movement of peoples. And the welfare state must be defended, not as an end in itself, but as a necessary component of a broader post-work society. The future remains open, and which direction the crisis of work takes is precisely the political struggle before us. Chapter 6 Post-Work Imaginaries The goal of the future is full unemployment. Arthur C. Clarke Whereas the previous chapter analysed the changing social conditions that are making a post-work world increasingly necessary, this chapter will outline what a post-work world might mean in practice.1 To that end, we advance some broad demands to start building a platform for a post-work society. In asserting the centrality of demands, we are breaking with a widespread tendency of today’s radical left that believes making no demands is the height of radicalism.2 These critics often claim that making a demand means giving into the existing order of things by asking, and therefore legitimating, an authority.

From the social democratic consensus to the neoliberal consensus, our argument is that the left should mobilise around a post-work consensus. With a post-work society, we would have even more potential to launch forward to greater goals. But this is a project that must be carried out over the long term: decades rather than years, cultural shifts rather than electoral cycles. Given the reality of the weakened left today, there is only one way forward: to patiently rebuild its power – a topic that will be covered in the chapters to follow. There simply is no other way to bring about a post-work world. We must therefore attend to these longer-term strategic goals, and rebuild the collective agencies that might eventually bring them about. By directing the left towards a post-work future, not only will significant gains be aimed for – such as the reduction of drudgery and poverty – but political power will be built in the process.

It would also accelerate the project of full automation: as worker power rose and as the labour market tightened, the marginal cost of labour would increase as companies turned towards machinery in order to expand.137 These goals resonate with each other, magnifying their combined power. And a new post-work hegemony would be resistant to reversion, having created a mass constituency benefiting from its continuation.138 The ambition here is to take back the future from capitalism and build ourselves the twenty-first-century world we want. It is to provide the time and money that are central to any meaningful conception of freedom. The traditional battle cry of the left, demanding full employment, should therefore be replaced with a battle cry demanding full unemployment. But let us be clear: there is no technocratic solution, and there is no necessary progression into a post-work world. The struggles for full automation, a shorter working week, the end of the work ethic and a universal basic income are primarily political struggles. The post-work imaginary generates a hyperstitional image of progress – one that aims to make the future an active historical force in the present.


pages: 350 words: 110,764

The Problem With Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries by Kathi Weeks

basic income, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, deskilling, feminist movement, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, late capitalism, low-wage service sector, means of production, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, pink-collar, post-work, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Shoshana Zuboff, social intelligence, two tier labour market, union organizing, universal basic income, wages for housework, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

But before we get there, two aspects of the analysis call for further explication: first, the prescription of a politics (a postwork politics) to counter the power of an ethic (the work ethic); and second, the defense of limited demands as tools for radical change. The one requires some attention to the distinction between politics and ethics that the analysis has only presumed so far; the other concerns the specific understanding of the relationship between reform and revolution that informs the argument. POLITICS AND CHANGE I will begin here: why counter the power of the work ethic with a post-work politics and not with a postwork ethic? One could, after all, imagine the contours of a postwork ethic as something distinct from a postwork morality—a matter, to cite Virno’s formulation, of “common practices, usages and customs, not the dimension of the must-be” (2004, 49).

LESS WORK FOR “WHAT WE WILL”: DECENTERING THE FAMILY The solution would seem to be to displace the family from the rationale for reduced hours, and the second approach I want to consider does that, emphasizing instead a broader and more open-ended set of justifications for and benefits of shorter hours. An inspired example of this approach can be found in “The Post-Work Manifesto” by Stanley Aronowitz et al. (1998). Their call for a thirty-hour week of six-hour days without a reduction in pay is part of a broader postwork vision and agenda that the authors propose as a response to current economic conditions and trends in the United States. Citing what they describe as an increase in working hours—whether through more overtime, the colonization of nonwork time by work, or piecing together multiple temporary or part-time jobs—they argue that “it is time for a discourse that imagines alternatives, that accounts for human dignity beyond the conditions of work.

New York: Viking. Aronowitz, Stanley. 1985. “Why Work?” Social Text 12:19–42. ———. 2003. How Class Works: Power and Social Movement. New Haven: Yale University Press. Aronowitz, Stanley, and William DiFazio. 1994. The Jobless Future: Sci-Tech and the Dogma of Work. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Aronowitz, Stanley, Dawn Esposito, William DiFazio, and Margaret Yard. 1998. “The Post-Work Manifesto.” In Post-Work: The Wages of Cybernation, edited by Stanley Aronowitz and Jonathan Cutler, 31–80. New York: Routledge. Bakker, Isabella, and Stephen Gill, eds. 2003. Power, Production, and Social Reproduction: Human In/security in the Global Political Economy. Houndmills, England: Palgrave Macmillan. Baldi, Guido. 1972. “Theses on Mass Worker and Social Capital.” Radical America 6 (3): 3–21. Baldoz, Rick, Charles Koeber, and Philip Kraft, eds. 2001.


pages: 121 words: 36,908

Four Futures: Life After Capitalism by Peter Frase

Airbnb, basic income, bitcoin, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, fixed income, full employment, future of work, high net worth, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), iterative process, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, litecoin, mass incarceration, means of production, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, peak oil, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, postindustrial economy, price mechanism, private military company, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart meter, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck

As with the Koch brothers and their denialist ilk, the eco-capitalists are concerned primarily with preserving the prerogatives and lifestyles of the elite, even if they put a more environmentalist veneer on this agenda. We will return to all of this in Chapter 4. I turn now to the specific purpose of this book. Politics in Command Why, the reader might ask, is it even necessary to write another book about automation and the postwork future? The topic has become an entire subgenre in recent years; Brynjolfsson and McAfee are just one example. Others include Ford’s Rise of the Robots and articles from the Atlantic’s Derek Thompson, Slate’s Farhad Manjoo, and Mother Jones’s Kevin Drum.20 Each insists that technology is rapidly making work obsolete, but they flail vainly at an answer to the problem of making sure that technology leads to shared prosperity rather than increasing inequality.

At best, like Brynjolfsson and McAfee, they fall back on familiar liberal bromides: entrepreneurship and education will allow us all to thrive even if all of our current work is automated away. The one thing missing from all these accounts, the thing I want to inject into this debate, is politics, and specifically class struggle. As Mike Konczal of the Roosevelt Institute has pointed out, these projections of a postwork future tend toward a hazy technocratic utopianism, a “forward projection of the Keynesian-Fordism of the past,” in which “prosperity leads to redistribution leads to leisure and public goods.”21 Thus, while the transition may be difficult in places, we should ultimately be content with accelerating technological development and reassure ourselves that all will be for the best in the best of all possible worlds.

By measuring the thing that money really represented—your personal capital with your friends and neighbors—you more accurately gauged your success.27 Of course, that description of “the old days” isn’t really a very accurate picture of the way capitalist society works, as demonstrated by the joke about the journalist who takes assignments for free from editors who promise her increased attention and prestige: she died of “exposure.” Being able to endure survival independent of Whuffie or any other currency makes all the difference in the world. The book’s story mostly takes place in Disneyland, which in the postwork society is now run by volunteers. But there still needs to be some hierarchy and organization, which is determined according to Whuffie. The drama of the story turns on the various intrigues and conflicts that result. Without having to worry about survival—or death, given this book’s cheery assumption that the dead can be easily resurrected from a backup—other conflicts present themselves, like whether Disneyland’s hall of presidents should include a display that interfaces with your brain to give you the experience of being Abraham Lincoln.


pages: 323 words: 90,868

The Wealth of Humans: Work, Power, and Status in the Twenty-First Century by Ryan Avent

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, Airbnb, American energy revolution, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, performance metric, pets.com, post-work, price mechanism, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, very high income, working-age population

The various partisans are like the allegorical blind men describing different parts of an elephant: each has his insights, but the competing stories have yet to be reconciled with each other. This book will provide that reconciliation. What is missing from the conversation is a clear explanation of how rapid technological change is compatible with both rising employment globally and disappointing growth in wages and productivity. And while it may be correct, as post-work prophets such as Ford foresee, that a world of technological prosperity and plenty awaits us in the distant future, it is wrong, I would assert, to characterize the digital revolution as something entirely different from anything that has come before. On the contrary, as this book will argue, the digital revolution is very much like the industrial revolution. And the experience of the industrial revolution tells us that society must go through a period of wrenching political change before it can agree on a broadly acceptable social system for sharing the fruits of this new technological world.

Ray labour abundance as good problem bargaining power cognitive but repetitive collective bargaining and demographic issues discrimination and exclusion global growth of workforce and immigration liberalization in 1970s/80s ‘lump of labour’ fallacy occupational licences organized and proximity reallocation to growing industries retraining and skill acquisition and scarcity and social value work as a positive good see also employment Labour Party, British land scarcity Latvia Le Pen, Jean-Marie Le Pen, Marine legal profession Lehman Brothers collapse (2008) Lepore, Jill liberalization, economic (from 1970s) Linkner, Josh, The Road to Reinvention London Lucas, Robert Lyft maker-taker distinction Malthus, Reverend Thomas Manchester Mandel, Michael Mankiw, Gregory marketing and public relations Marshall, Alfred Marx, Karl Mason, Paul, Postcapitalism (2015) McAfee, Andrew medicine and healthcare ‘mercantilist’ world Mercedes Benz Mexico Microsoft mineral industries minimum wage Mokyr, Joel Monroe, President James MOOCs (‘massive open online courses’) Moore, Gordon mortality rates Mosaic (web browser) music, digital nation states big communities of affinity inequality between as loci of redistribution and social capital nationalist and separatist movements Netherlands Netscape New York City Newsweek NIMBYism Nordic and Scandinavian economies North Carolina North Dakota Obama, Barack oil markets O’Neill, Jim Oracle Orbán, Viktor outsourcing Peretti, Jonah Peterson Institute for International Economics pets.com Philadelphia Centennial Fair (1876) Philippines Phoenix, Arizona Piketty, Thomas, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2013) Poland political institutions politics fractionalization in Europe future/emerging narratives geopolitical forces human wealth narrative left-wing looming upheaval/conflict Marxism nationalist and separatist movements past unrest and conflict polarization in USA radicalism and extremism realignment revolutionary right-wing rise of populist outsiders and scarcity social membership battles Poor Laws, British print media advertising revenue productivity agricultural artisanal goods and services Baumol’s Cost Disease and cities and dematerialization and digital revolution and employment trilemma and financial crisis (2008) and Henry Ford growth data in higher education of highly skilled few and industrial revolution minimum wage impact paradox of in service sector and specialization and wage rates see also factors of production professional, technical or managerial work and education levels and emerging economies the highly skilled few and industrial revolution and ‘offshoring’ professional associations skilled cities professional associations profits Progressive Policy Institute property values proximity public spending Putnam, Robert Quakebot quantitative easing Race Against the Machine, Brynjolfsson and McAfee (2011) railways Raleigh, North Carolina Reagan, Ronald redistribution and geopolitical forces during liberal era methods of nation state as locus of as a necessity as politically hard and societal openness wealth as human rent, economic Republican Party, US ‘reshoring’ phenomenon Resseger, Matthew retail sector retirement age Ricardo, David rich people and maker-taker distinction wild contingency of wealth Robinson, James robots Rodrik, Dani Romney, Mitt rule of law Russia San Francisco San Jose Sanders, Bernie sanitation SAP Saudi Arabia savings glut, global ‘Say’s Law’ Scalia, Antonin Scandinavian and Nordic economies scarcity and labour political effects of Schleicher, David Schwartz, Anna scientists Scotland Sears Second World War secular stagnation global spread of possible solutions shale deposits sharing economies Silicon Valley Singapore skilled workers and education levels and falling wages the highly skilled few and industrial revolution ‘knowledge-intensive’ goods and services reshoring phenomenon technological deskilling see also professional, technical or managerial work Slack (chat service) Slate (web publication) smartphone culture Smith, Adam social capital and American Constitution baseball metaphor and cities ‘deepening’ definition/nature of and dematerialization and developing economies and erosion of institutions of firms and companies and good government and housing wealth and immigration and income distribution during industrial revolution and liberalization and nation-states productive application of and rich-poor nation gap and Adam Smith and start-ups social class conflict middle classes and NIMBYism social conditioning of labour force working classes social democratic model social reform social wealth and social membership software ‘enterprise software’ products supply-chain management Solow, Robert Somalia South Korea Soviet Union, dissolution of (1991) specialization Star Trek state, role of steam power Subramanian, Arvind suburbanization Sweden Syriza party Taiwan TaskRabbit taxation telegraphy Tesla, Nikola Thatcher, Margaret ‘tiger’ economies of South-East Asia Time Warner Toyota trade China as ‘mega-trader’ ‘comparative advantage’ theory and dematerialization global supply chains liberalization shaping of by digital revolution Adam Smith on trade unions transhumanism transport technology self-driving cars Trump, Donald Twitter Uber UK Independence Party United States of America (USA) 2016 Presidential election campaign average income Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Constitution deindustrialization education in employment in ethno-nationalist diversity of financial crisis (2008) housing costs in housing wealth in individualism in industrialization in inequality in Jim Crow segregation labour scarcity in Young America liberalization in minimum wage in political polarization in post-crisis profit rates productivity boom of 1990s real wage data rising debt levels secular stagnation in shale revolution in social capital in and social wealth surpasses Britain as leading nation wage subsidies in university education advanced degrees downward mobility of graduates MOOCs (‘massive open online courses’) and productivity see also education urbanization utopias, post-work Victoria, Queen video-gamers Virginia, US state Volvo Vox wages basic income policy Baumol’s Cost Disease cheap labour and employment growth and dot.com boom and financial crisis (2008) and flexibility and Henry Ford government subsidies and housing costs and immigration and industrial revolution low-pay as check on automation minimum wage and productivity the ‘reservation wage’ as rising in China rising in emerging economies and scarcity in service sector and skill-upgrading approach stagnation of and supply of graduates Wandsworth Washington D.C.

Washington Nationals Watt, James wealth and income distribution absurdity of inequities and capital investment challenge of labour abundance decline of ‘labour share’ economic insecurity increasing and education levels and employment trilemma global changes in 21st-century and housing wealth impact of falling wages impact of scarcity and industrial revolution during liberal era maker-taker distinction in post-war period and post-work utopias and rich/elite cities rich-poor nation gap and secular stagnation and social capital and social wealth wealth as human wild contingency of wealth see also inequality; redistribution; rich people Weil, David welfare and social-safety institutions basic income policy and big states and ethno-nationalist separatism in Nordic countries Werth, Jayson Wikipedia World Trade Organization world wars World’s Fairs, nineteenth-century Yelp YouTube About the Author RYAN AVENT is an economics correspondent for the Economist.


pages: 236 words: 67,953

Brave New World of Work by Ulrich Beck

affirmative action, anti-globalists, Asian financial crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, full employment, future of work, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, McJob, means of production, mini-job, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

With the informalization of labour relations and contractual conditions, union-free zones are also spreading to the heart of the Western post-work society. Many countries of the non-Western world are considered weak states. If the neoliberal revolution continues, legitimation crises with open violence akin to civil war may be studied as one aspect of the West's future that is already present in the countries of the South. All this underlines two points: first, the urgency of a framework to analyse the world we inhabit under the risk regime, the world risk society, and to reveal the hidden connections, likenesses, oppositions and new lines of conflict between Western and non-Western countries; second, the need to break the spell of the work society and to outline the basic features and visions of a European model for the post-work society. What, then, is being opposed to the work society?

This book represents one attempt to do this – which is why it belongs to the category of ‘visionary non-fiction’.5 The argument is non-fiction because, in describing both the present and the future state of things, it has recourse to all imaginable and available arguments, data, concepts and models. It is visionary because, in opposition to the unexpressed self-perpetuation of the work society, it presents the embryonic vision of a post-work society whose basic features and traces can already be glimpsed today, in a new translocal and transnational sense of political civil society. The reader will be able to decide at the end whether this vision is plausible, eccentric, fantastic or realistic – or perhaps even all together.6 Notes 1 W. Bridges, Jobshift: How to Prosper in a World without Jobs, London 1995. 2 It would be more precise to speak here of ‘danger’, since ‘risk’ denotes calculable insecurity, whereas (second order) ‘danger’ denotes incalculable insecurity (stemming from the characteristic choices of a civilization).

The new technologies promise hugely increased production of goods and services in the twenty-first century, but only a fraction of the numbers employed today will be needed for it. Since virtual firms and factories almost empty of people are what the future holds in store, every person and every country must consider the question of how society, democracy, freedom and social security will be possible in the post-work society. Scenario 3: the world market – the neoliberal jobs miracle Black magic, is the answer that the world power of neoliberalism gives to this question. Just look at the United States! Look at Asia! Full-employment societies blossoming on all sides. Of course, such references to the tiger economies have become rather out-dated, now that they are one of the world's crisis regions. Radical political measures are accordingly prescribed as the royal road back to full employment: highly stable value of money, moderate wage increases and low strike rates, combined with a minimal state that does no more than provide a competitive social frame-work where individual citizens and companies bear much of the responsibility themselves.


pages: 256 words: 79,075

Hired: Six Months Undercover in Low-Wage Britain by James Bloodworth

Airbnb, Berlin Wall, call centre, clockwatching, collective bargaining, congestion charging, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, gig economy, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, Network effects, new economy, North Sea oil, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, post-work, profit motive, race to the bottom, reshoring, Silicon Valley, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, working poor, working-age population

Political decisions were something others took, while you let the arguments wash over you along with everything else emitted by ‘them’ – politicians, the taxman, landlords, the men and women who read out the Six O’Clock News, the company that billed you for your mobile phone, the moth-eaten busybodies who turned up religiously to local council and Neighbourhood Watch meetings. Politicians were in it for themselves, and it was a sign of something worse if they were not – the mark of a fanatic. The tremendous effort that Admiral went to to make work fun was really an attempt to portray themselves as one of us rather than one of them. 13 The ‘post-work’ world has become a media talking point now that the jobs of affluent professionals are threatened with automation. Yet there are parts of Britain that have long inhabited something resembling a ‘post-work’ realm. Indeed, at times the Valleys look an awful lot like a precursor to an automated – and therefore jobless – future. Putting a little bit more money into people’s pockets would have been welcome, certainly; but few here believed it would solve the myriad problems that stemmed from the loss of work.

.: These Poor Hands 23, 149, 190 courier firms 211, 215, 217, 223, 236, 244–7, 250, 256, 257 Cwm, Wales 147, 148, 187, 190, 195, 196, 197 Cwmbran, Wales 143 Daily Express 124–5 Daily Mail 66, 134, 188 Dan (bicycle courier) 248, 249 Dangerfield, George 72 Davies, Idris 148–9 Gwalia Deserta (Wasteland of Wales) 148 ‘The Angry Summer’ 174 debt 62, 69, 146, 151, 153 Deliveroo 215, 217, 223, 250, 256, 257 democratic socialists 192 Department for Work and Pensions 133 Dickens, Charles 29, 205, 210, 249; Hard Times 138–9 Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) 88–90, 109–10, 214 Dorothy (housemate of JB) 203, 204–5 DriveNow 217 Dropit 217 Eastern Europe, migrant workers from 11, 13, 15, 21, 24, 26–7, 30, 32, 33, 34, 45, 57, 61–2, 75, 114–16, 128–9, 154, 203–4, 260–1 see also under individual nation name Ebbw Vale, Wales 147, 149, 154; legacy of de-industrialisation in 187–200 Elborough, Travis 93 emergency housing 96 employment agencies 1, 16, 19, 20, 23, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 56, 65–6, 70, 72, 73, 82, 86, 127, 130, 158, 189, 194 see also under individual agency name Employment and Support Allowance (ESA) 248 employment contracts/classification: Amazon 19–20, 53, 58 care sector 87–8, 107–8, 116 Uber 214–15, 222, 229–35, 243, 245, 250–2, 257 zero-hours see zero-hours contracts employment tribunals 38, 229–30, 243–4 English seaside, debauchery and 92–3 Enterprise Rent-A-Car 214 ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) programmes 115–16 European Economic Community (EEC) 195 European Referendum (2016) 61, 195–6 Evening Standard 208, 241 Express & Star 59–60 Fabian Society 109 Farrar, James 229–31, 232, 233, 234, 236, 238, 240, 241–2, 250, 254, 255–6 Fellows of the Academies of Management 17 Fernie, Sue 182 financial crisis (2008) 1, 2, 45, 125, 195, 209 Flash (former miner) 165–8, 170, 171–2, 174, 175, 176–8, 179, 188, 196 Fleet News 246 Foot, Michael 149 football 56, 58, 92, 94, 97, 98, 126, 135, 169 fruit picking 61 FTSE 123, 262 Gag Mag 122 Gallagher, Patrick 246 Gary (homeless man, Blackpool) 96–104, 105 Gaz (Gag Mag seller, Blackpool) 122 GDP 146 General Election (2015) 109 General Strike (1926) 148, 149, 173 gentrification 219 Geoff (former miner) 189, 190, 191, 193 ‘gig’ economy 2, 208–10, 217–18, 232, 236, 242, 243–4, 248, 249–50, 252, 257 see also Uber Gissing, George: New Grub Street 64 GMB union 36 grammar schools 261 Guardian 5, 235 Hamstead Colliery, Great Barr 169 Hazel (home carer) 110–11, 114, 115, 116, 117, 119 Heller, Joseph: Catch-22 235–6 Hemel Hempstead 54, 70 Henley, William Ernest: ‘England, My England’ vii Hoggart, Richard: The Uses of Literacy 45 home care worker (domiciliary care worker): Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) checks 88–90, 109–10 employment contracts 87–8, 107–8, 116, 118, 120 length of home care visits 108–9, 110 local authority budget cuts and 107–10 MAR (Medication Administration Record) sheets 114, 115 migrant workers as 114–16 negligent 86–7 privatisation of social care and 106–8, 109 recruitment 82–4 ‘shadowing’ process 88, 109–10 societal view of 106 staffing crisis 85–6, 119 suicide rate among 100 typical day/workload 110–14, 118 unions and 88 view job as vocation 86–7 wages/pay 107–8, 117, 118–19, 159 Home Instead 119 homelessness 95–105, 138, 187, 208 hostels 95, 96, 101, 102 housing/accommodation: Amazon workers, Rugeley 20–2, 24–6 Blackpool 80, 124, 137–8 buy-to-let housing market 24 emergency housing 96 homelessness and 95, 96, 101, 102, 137–8 hostels 95, 96, 101, 102 inability to buy 62 landlords and 12, 21, 24, 39, 67, 69, 95–6, 137–8, 164, 204, 206, 258 London 203–8 migrant workers and 20–2, 24–6, 197–8 social housing 62, 206 Swansea 124, 150 housing benefit 96, 137–8, 248 immigration 26–7, 61, 115–16, 128–9, 144, 193, 197–9, 236, 259–61 see also migrant workers indeed.co.uk 83–4 independent contractors 209, 248, 251–2 Independent Workers Union of Great Britain (IWGB) 230, 257 inequality 18, 73, 123, 125, 207–8, 226, 238, 262, 263 inflation 2, 122 job centres 19, 96, 133–6, 139–40, 156, 158 Joe (housemate of JB) 22 John Lewis 23, 83 Joseph Rowntree Foundation 70, 159 June (call centre employee) 181–2, 183, 184 Kalanick, Travis 215, 228, 229, 233, 235 Kelly, Kath 66 Khan, Sadiq 256 Koestler, Arthur: The God that Failed 228 Labour Party 7, 57, 59, 61, 109, 144, 149, 150, 173, 174 Ladbroke Road, Notting Hill, London 219 Lamb, Norman 109 Lancashire Evening Post 104–5 landlords, private 12, 21, 24, 39, 67, 69, 95–6, 137–8, 164, 204, 206, 258 Lea Hall Colliery, Staffordshire 31–2, 54, 55, 56, 57 Lea Hall Miners’ Social Club, Staffordshire 55, 56, 74 Len (step-grandfather of JB) 143–4 Lili (London) 203–4 living wage 1, 85, 160, 246 Lloyd George, David 172 loan sharks 151, 156 local councils 104–5, 164 London 201–57 accommodation/housing in 65, 203–8, 218 gentrification in 219 ‘gig’ economy in 208–57, 263 homelessness in 95 migrant labour in 205–6, 213, 239 wealth divide in 207–8, 238 London Congestion Charge 254 London Courier Emergency Fund (LCEF) 247 London Metropolitan Police 90 London, Jack 205 low-skilled jobs, UK economy creation of 153 Lydia (Amazon employee) 70 Macmillan, Harold 3 manufacturing jobs, disappearance of 59, 139 Marine Colliery, Cwm, Wales 190 Mayhew, Henry 4, 205 McDonald’s 52, 68, 83 Merkel, Angela 196 Metcalf, David 182 middle-class 6, 39, 51, 67, 68, 69, 72–3, 74, 75, 149, 178, 205, 258, 259, 260, 262, 263 migrant labour: Amazon use of 11, 12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 22–7, 30, 32, 33, 34, 44, 45, 46, 51, 53, 57, 61–2, 65, 71–5, 258, 260–1 care home workers 114–16 ‘gig’ economy and 203–6, 213, 239 restaurant workers 154 retail sector and 128–9 Miliband, Ed 109 mining see coal mining Miners’ Federation of Great Britain (MFGB) 173 Miners’ Strike (1984–5) 3, 174–7 minimum wage 1, 7, 55, 62, 84, 107, 108, 118, 135, 155, 159, 173, 189–90, 209, 212, 235, 236, 245, 250, 262 Morecambe, Lancashire 137–8 Morgan family 156–8 Morgan, Huw: How Green Was My Valley 147 Moyer-Lee, Jason 257 National Coal Board (NCB) 54, 170, 171 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) 108 National Union of Miners (NUM) 174, 176 New York Times 222 NHS (National Health Service) 106, 108, 247 Nirmal (Amazon employee) 45–6, 51 Norbert (Amazon employee) 71–5 nostalgia 3, 60, 93–4, 216 Nottingham 2, 151–2 objectivism 228 oil crisis (1973) 122–3 Oliver, Jamie 154 Orwell, George 56, 169 Palmer, William 29 pay see wages and under individual job title and employer name payday loans 156 PayPal 216 Pimlico Plumbers 251–2 platform capitalism 215 PMP Recruitment 19, 189–90 Poland, migrant workers from 128–9, 130, 135, 197–8 ‘poor, the’ 145 Port Talbot, Wales 166, 176, 190, 196 ‘post-truth’ discourse 199 ‘post-work’ world 165 poverty: Blackpool and 132, 137 class and 4 darkness and 96 diet/weight and 137 ease of slipping into 5 Eastern Europe and 26 monthly salary and 156 as a moral failing 188–9 press treatment of 66–7 time and 67 working poor living in 194 Preston, Lancashire 100, 105, 138–9 private school system 123 progressive thought 262 Public Accounts Committee (PAC) 107 Putin, Vladimir 71 Rand, Ayn 228–9, 235, 236; The Fountainhead 228, 229 recession (2008) 1, 45, 104, 121, 125, 156 ‘regeneration’ 55, 60–1, 146 rent-to-own 157–8 retirement, working in 58–9 Reve, Gerard: The Evenings 160 Robin (Cwm) 196, 197 Rochelle (home care worker) 117–19 Romania, migrant workers from 11, 12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 22–7, 32, 44, 46, 51, 53, 61, 65, 71–5, 203, 206, 258 Ron (former miner) 170, 195 Royal London 59 Royal London pub, Wolverhampton 71 Royal Mail 151 Rugeley, Staffordshire 28–35 Amazon distribution centre in 11–76, 79, 86, 119, 127, 128, 159, 258 decline of coal mining industry in 31–2, 54–6, 57, 169 disappearance of manufacturing jobs from 54–63 high street 28–35 immigration and 30–4, 193–4 Tesco and 58–9, 62–3 Scargill, Arthur 175 scientific management theories 17 Scotland Yard 90 self-employment: ’gig’ economy and 214–15, 222, 229–30, 234, 243–4, 245, 246, 249, 250–1 increase in numbers of workers 2, 209 ‘independent contractors’ and 209, 248, 251–2 Selwyn (former miner) 175, 178, 179, 263–4 Senghenydd, Glamorgan pit explosion (1913) 169–70 Shelter 104 Shirebrook Colliery, Derbyshire 55 Shu, William 250 Silicon Valley, California 210, 232 Sillitoe, Alan: Saturday Night and Sunday Morning 2, 3, 94 Sky Sports News 126 social democracy 3, 263 social housing 62, 206 socialism 7, 56, 131, 144, 148, 149, 173 social mobility 58, 199, 261 South Wales Miners’ Museum, Afan Argoed 166, 196 South Wales Valleys 141–200 accommodation in 150, 197 Amazon in 145–6 beauty of 148 call centre jobs in 153–64, 180–6 coal industry and 143–4, 147–9, 165–79, 180, 188, 189, 190–1, 193, 195, 196 immigration and 197–9 JB’s family history and 143–4 legacy of de-industrialisation in 187–200 nostalgia and 147 radical history of 149–50 see also under individual place name ‘spice’ 95 Sports Direct 55 squatting 96, 99 steel industry 176, 180, 188, 189, 190, 196–7 Steven (housemate of JB) 124, 126, 127–31 Stoke-on-Trent 58–9 suicide 99–100 Sunday Times 175 ‘Best Companies to Work For’ 154 Rich List 125 Swansea, Wales 145–6, 150–2, 154–64, 176, 178, 197, 205 Tata Steel 190 tax 65, 69, 70, 118, 146, 158, 159, 163, 164, 212, 229, 244, 246, 248, 251, 255 Taylor, Frederick W.: The Principles of Scientific Management 17 Tesco 35, 57, 58–9, 62–3 Thatcher, Margaret 122, 123, 146, 174–5, 193, 207, 263–4 Thorn Automation 57 Thorn EMI 59 trade unions: Amazon and 36 B&M and 130, 131 call centres and 160, 181, 184–5, 186 care sector and 88 coal industry decline and 55–6, 173, 174, 263–4 decline of 2, 3, 35 ‘gig’ economy and 230, 257, 261 objectivism and 228 oil crisis (1973) and 122 Thatcher and 123, 174, 193, 263–4 Wales and 144, 149 see also under individual union name Trades Union Congress (TUC) 173 transgender people 40–1 Transline Group 19, 20, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 65–6, 86 Transport for London (TFL) 211, 212–13, 214, 233, 254, 256 Tredegar Workmen’s Medical Aid Society 247 Trefil, Wales 149 Trump, Donald 7 Uber 207, 211–57 ‘account status’ 221 clocking in at 218 corporation tax and 229 customers 221, 222, 226–7, 237–41, 244, 257 driver costs/expenses 214, 217, 233, 241, 246, 253–5 driver employment classification/contract 214–15, 222, 229–35, 243, 245, 250–2, 257 driver hours 221, 226, 230, 232, 233, 236, 246, 253, 255 driver numbers 211–13, 233–5 driver wages/pay 212, 218, 221, 229–30, 235, 236, 237, 240, 241, 244, 246, 252–5 employment tribunal against (2016) 229–34 flexibility of working for 213–14, 218, 230–3, 248, 250–1 James Farrar and see Farrar, James migrant labour and 213, 236 ‘Onboarding’ class 224–5, 238, 241, 256 opposition to 215–17 philosophy of 228–9, 235, 236 psychological inducements for drivers 222–3 rating system 225–7, 232, 238, 239, 243, 253 rejecting/accepting jobs 221–2, 224–5 ride process 219–21 surge pricing 237, 238, 253 TFL and 211, 212–13, 214, 233, 254, 256 Travis Kalanick and see Kalanick, Travis UberEATS 256 UberPOOL 225, 240–2, 253, 255–6 UberX 212, 225, 240, 241, 255 VAT and 229 vehicle requirements 214 unemployment 2, 32, 36, 62, 121–3, 132, 138, 148, 157, 172, 178, 179, 189–95, 199, 218 Unison 88, 108 Unite 55, 160 United Private Hire Drivers 230, 257 university education 3, 6, 61, 62, 123, 150–1, 152, 153–4 USDAW 130–1 Vettesse, Tony 138 Vicky (care sector supervisor) 86, 87 Wade, Alan 121, 123–4 wages: Amazon 18, 19, 37–9, 42–3, 65–6, 68, 69, 70, 159 call centre 155–6, 158–60, 164, 180 care sector 107–8, 117, 118–19, 159 living wage 1, 85, 160, 246 minimum wage 1, 7, 55, 62, 84, 107, 108, 118, 135, 155, 159, 173, 189–90, 209, 212, 235, 236, 245, 250, 262 Uber 212, 218, 221, 229–30, 235, 236, 237, 240, 241, 244, 246, 252–5 wage stagnation 2 see also under individual employer, job and sector name Wealth and Assets Survey 207–8 wealth inequality 18, 73, 123, 125, 207–8, 238 Wells, H.


pages: 389 words: 119,487

21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari

1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon-based life, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, deglobalization, Donald Trump, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, obamacare, pattern recognition, post-work, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

(This kind of scheme is currently being pioneered in Scandinavia, where governments follow the motto ‘protect workers, not jobs’.) Yet even if enough government help is forthcoming, it is far from clear whether billions of people could repeatedly reinvent themselves without losing their mental balance. Hence, if despite all our efforts a significant percentage of humankind is pushed out of the job market, we would have to explore new models for post-work societies, post-work economies, and post-work politics. The first step is to honestly acknowledge that the social, economic and political models we have inherited from the past are inadequate for dealing with such a challenge. Take, for example, communism. As automation threatens to shake the capitalist system to its foundation, one might suppose that communism could make a comeback. But communism was not built to exploit that kind of crisis.

If universal basic support is aimed at improving the objective conditions of the average person in 2050, it has a fair chance of succeeding. But if it is aimed at making people subjectively more satisfied with their lot and preventing social discontent, it is likely to fail. To really achieve its goals, universal basic support will have to be supplemented by some meaningful pursuits, ranging from sports to religion. Perhaps the most successful experiment so far in how to live a contented life in a post-work world has been conducted in Israel. There, about 50% of ultra-Orthodox Jewish men never work. They dedicate their lives to studying holy scriptures and performing religious rituals. They and their families don’t starve partly because the wives often work, and partly because the government provides them with generous subsidies and free services, making sure that they don’t lack the basic necessities of life.


pages: 320 words: 86,372

Mythology of Work: How Capitalism Persists Despite Itself by Peter Fleming

1960s counterculture, anti-work, call centre, clockwatching, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, David Graeber, Etonian, future of work, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, Parkinson's law, post-industrial society, post-work, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Results Only Work Environment, shareholder value, social intelligence, The Chicago School, transaction costs, wealth creators, working poor

Indeed, the old Marxist debates in the 1970s about whether or not the state was semi-autonomous from capital look quaint and naive today. When considering the present nature of work, I would go so far as to say that a critique of the state form is perhaps more pertinent than that of any other institution presently regulating our lives, including the multinational firm. In the following chapters, I focus on six themes that I believe we ought to comprehensively understand if we are to develop a post-work future. Some of the analyses developed here are somewhat bleak. However, I hope this tone is never at the expense of the optimistic conviction that a world beyond work is both desirable and feasible. Moreover, each chapter puts forward concrete suggestions about how we might conceptualize this life after work. Any sustained investigation into the religion of productivism like the one that follows risks reproducing the very obsession with the concept being critiqued (i.e. work).

I do not here intend to give an exhaustive overview of the division of labour, occupational segmentation and distribution of jobs, which has been done in a more complete manner elsewhere. Instead, I aim to focus on a number of emergent trends that I believe warrant our attention in relation to the way work has ballooned into its own ideological trope that so many find inescapable. In undertaking this exercise, we are able to more clearly identify facets of work that I will explore in more depth in forthcoming chapters and emphasise issues that are salient for the post-work movement presently gathering steam in neoliberal societies. Why Focus on Work? Important from the outset is to provide some conceptual reassurance about the centrality of work in the late-capitalist situation. If we position work as the dominant political problem in neoliberal societies, then we must account for recent arguments suggesting that work is of secondary importance in light of other socio-economic developments.

Open consultation can be politically invidious since even fearless speech may aid the endless deference of the real target, which remains irrefragable and patently uncontested. Emancipatory dialogue within the neoliberal setting must be recalibrated to avoid the recuperative traps we have noted above. If one must speak with power at all, then caution, care and circumspection are required. The first recalibration might be labelled ‘over-identification’; this has been explored a little in the post-work literature (see Fleming and Spicer, 2010). The idea here is relatively straightforward. Because much of the ideology in the biopolitical enterprise (e.g. self-managing teams, democracy, freedom, open speech, etc.) is not meant to be taken literally, it must invariably rely upon a subtextual negation that must not be fully articulated. The cynical enterprise must configure an inbuilt mental distance in this dialogical structure.


Work in the Future The Automation Revolution-Palgrave MacMillan (2019) by Robert Skidelsky Nan Craig

3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, anti-work, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, business cycle, cloud computing, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data is the new oil, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, off grid, pattern recognition, post-work, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, wealth creators, working poor

Concerns have been expressed about the prospect for machines to replace humans, giving rise to higher unemployment. Luddite-like anxiety has been fuelled by a fear of a future where jobs are scarce in number and where poverty levels increase significantly. Yet, by contrast, there has been the hope that automation processes will deliver a better future where human freedom is enlarged. Indeed, some writers have championed automation as a route to a superior ‘post-work’ society (Gorz 1985). Such concerns and hopes have resurfaced in the present, due to predictions of mass job losses via automation (see Spencer 2018). The evolution of machine learning and artificial intelligence, it is claimed, will allow for the replacement of human workers across myriad jobs. Pessimists, like in the past, worry about how society will adjust to a world without work (Ford 2015).

Wants, 3, 30, 88 Neoclassical economics, 4, 55, 60, 62, 73 Netherlands, the/Holland, 6, 68, 151, 163, 177, 181–183 Network effects, 138 Networks, 45, 48, 138, 196 Neumann, John von, 99 New Zealand, 179 Nübler, Irmgard, 6, 194, 196 Index O Obama, Barack, 164, 165, 171 Obligation, 38, 53, 73–79 Occupations, 16, 40, 41, 46, 47, 58, 70, 83, 84, 86, 87, 90, 92, 106, 178, 184, 190–192, 194 OECD, 66–68, 178 O’Neil, Cathy, 6 Ontology of work, 65 Organisations dynamics of, 164 Osborne, Michael, 90 Oswald, A, 60 209 Pre-modern/pre-industrial work, 3, 11, 47, 48 Productivity, 7, 10, 79, 86, 87, 176, 178–180, 183–185, 190–192, 199 Professional work, 1, 39 Profits (different profit models), 14–18, 30, 48, 75, 79, 93, 134, 135, 138, 152, 191 Protestant work ethic, 28 Public services, 94, 167 Puritan (view of work), 28, 75, 166 R P Painting Fool, The, 115, 116, 120 Parenting, 75, 76 Patocka, Jan, 9, 21 Pattern recognition, 129 Peasant labour, 41 Perez, Carlota, 192 Philosophy of work, 30 Physical labour, 3 Piasna, Agnieszka, 181, 183 Piece-work, 30 Platform economy/platform capitalism, 6, 140 Polanyi, Karl, 192, 193 Polanyi, Michael, 127 Policy (argument against), 7, 21, 67, 68, 95, 157–173, 180, 181, 183–185, 189–200 Population, 2, 12, 15–17, 19, 28, 30, 89, 90, 117, 147, 158, 172, 198 Postmates, 136 Post-work society, 59 Poverty, 15, 47, 59, 67, 177 Redistribution, 79, 169, 199 Redundancy, 10, 12, 15–17, 19, 78, 179 Religion/religious ritual, 12, 28, 194 Remittances, 40 Responsibility, 44, 47, 76–79, 106, 107, 115, 118, 136 Retail sector, 87, 137 Retirement, 19, 67, 78 Ricardo, David, 2, 13–17 Robinson, James, 194 Robotisation, 21, 94, 95, 192 Robots carers, 106 Romantic (view of work), 34, 35 Ruskin, John, 34 S Safety nets, 67, 68 Sahlins, Marshall, 26, 158 Salazar-Xirinachs, Jose M., 198 Schumpeter, Joseph, 190, 194 Scientific management, 30 Scott, James C., 28 210 Index Searle, John, 100–103 Self-employment, 69–70, 75 Self-realisation, 57, 165 Sennett, Richard, 3 Services/service sector low frequency vs. high frequency, 134 work, 40, 68, 161, 163 Singularity, 116 Skidelsky, Edward, 60, 176 Skidelsky, Robert, 60, 176 Skills acquisition, 33, 70 skilled vs. unskilled labour/jobs, 67 Slavery, 11, 29, 30, 45 Smartphones, 140 Smiles, Samuel, 28 Smith, Adam, 12, 13, 27, 35, 54, 55, 65 Smith, Rob, 177 Social drawing rights, 70 Social interaction, 53, 88, 91 Social media, 77, 138, 168 Societal knowledge base, 196–197 Sociology (of work), 166 Spencer, David, 4, 54, 59, 61 Spinning mills (cotton industry?)


Working the Phones: Control and Resistance in Call Centres by Jamie Woodcock

always be closing, anti-work, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, David Graeber, invention of the telephone, job satisfaction, late capitalism, means of production, millennium bug, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, profit motive, social intelligence, stakhanovite, women in the workforce

Paul Lafargue, The Right to Be Lazy (Chicago: Charles H. Kerr and Co. Co-operative, 1883), www.marxists.org/archive/lafargue/1883/ lazy 68. Christopher Taylor, ‘The Refusal of Work: From the Postemancipation Caribbean to Post-Fordist Empire’, Small Axe: A Caribbean Journal of Criticism, Vol. 18, No. 2: 44 (2014), p. 1. 69. Kathi Weeks, The Problem with Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries (Durham: Duke University Press, 2011). 70. Hardt and Negri, Empire (2001). 71. Taylor, ‘The Refusal of Work’ (2014), p. 3. 72. Ibid., p. 4. 73. Ibid., p. 7. 74. C. L. R. James, The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (London: Penguin, 2001). 75. David R. Roediger and Elizabeth D. Esch, The Production of Difference: Race and the Management of Labor in U.S.

Walker, P. (2010) ‘BA Flights Disrupted despite End of Three-Day Strike’, The Guardian, 23 March, www.theguardian.com/business/2010/ mar/23/ba-flights-cancelled-strike Walters, S. (2002) ‘Female Part-Time Workers’ Attitudes to Trade Unions in Britain’, British Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 49–68. Weeks, K. (2011) The Problem with Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries, Durham: Duke University Press. Williams, S. and Adam-Smith, D. (2009) ‘Web Case: Trade Unions and the Prospects for Unionization in the Service Sector’, In Contemporary Employment Relations: A Critical Introduction, edited by S. Williams and D. Adam-Smith, 2nd edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Woodcock, J. (2013) ‘Smile Down the Phone: An Attempt at a Workers’ Inquiry in a Call Center’, Viewpoint Magazine, No. 3.


pages: 231 words: 76,283

Work Optional: Retire Early the Non-Penny-Pinching Way by Tanja Hester

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, anti-work, asset allocation, barriers to entry, buy and hold, crowdsourcing, diversification, estate planning, financial independence, full employment, gig economy, hedonic treadmill, high net worth, index fund, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, medical bankruptcy, mortgage debt, obamacare, passive income, post-work, remote working, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, stocks for the long run, Vanguard fund

This section also covers strategies to speed up your progress toward your savings goal by increasing earnings and decreasing spending, perhaps by changing to a higher-paid career path or moving to a lower-cost-of-living area, and to build in contingency plans to create extra safety and security. Part III gets back to the life part, when life after work becomes optional, planning how you’ll adapt to a post-work life financially and emotionally, prioritize your well-being, and make the most of your newfound free time. Most of all, this part is about actually living your best life. Throughout the book, I share our story so that you can see one possible route to early retirement: how Mark and I envisioned the work-optional life we wanted to live instead of the work-centered conventional one, how we built our financial plan behind that, and the completely doable steps we took to make it our reality in a short period of time.

And the US has a long history of adopting programs that adjust only on basis of income, not on assets, what’s known as means testing, not asset testing. So the way premiums and subsidies are calculated is unlikely to change anytime soon, though funding for the subsidies themselves is consistently under threat. To get a sense of how much an ACA plan might cost, visit Healthcare.gov or your state exchange site and enter your location, your family size and ages, and your expected post-work optional income. (Remember that if you sell a share of stock for $150 that you paid $100 for, only $50 of that is income.) Health care premiums and subsidies are based off a number called your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI), a number that does not appear anywhere on your tax return. Essentially, it’s your total income minus deductions for qualified retirement plans like 401(k)s and IRAs, as well as any alimony you paid, and any student loan interest you’re eligible to deduct from your taxable income.


pages: 282 words: 81,873

Live Work Work Work Die: A Journey Into the Savage Heart of Silicon Valley by Corey Pein

23andMe, 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, bank run, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Build a better mousetrap, California gold rush, cashless society, colonial rule, computer age, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Extropian, gig economy, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hacker house, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, passive income, patent troll, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, RFID, Robert Mercer, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Skype, Snapchat, social software, software as a service, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, telepresence, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, X Prize, Y Combinator

But if you were really ambitious you’d know that “media” was out and “platforms” were in, and that the measure—excuse me, the “metric”—that investors used to judge platform companies was attention, because this ephemeral thing, attention, could be sold to advertisers for cash. So if someone asked “What’s your space?” and you had a deeply unfashionable job like, say, writer, it behooved you to say “I deliver eyeballs like a fucking ninja.” In my former life I’d have sooner gouged my own eyeballs out than describe myself in such a way, but in postrecession, postboom, postwork, postshame San Francisco, we all did what we had to do to survive. III Gigs Make Us Free I envied the tech workers even as I pitied them. The paychecks weren’t bad at all, and the benefits were downright Dionysian. Their industry was the alien invader that consumed everything it touched. Its radioactive presence may have sterilized the outside world, stifling organic life in all forms, but inside the warm embrace of the mother ship, the worker drones had comfort, stimulation, and plenty.

Camgirls’ forums were filled with sad stories about panic attacks, post-traumatic flashbacks, abusive customers, and costly website glitches. “I don’t have any real friends,” one camgirl wrote. “They are all at university or living their lives or having new relationships and I feel thoroughly forgotten about.” While traditional social institutions left such underemployed, undereducated young people behind, the postwork sharing economy came to the rescue by affording them the opportunity to serve as virtual strippers. Who says the tech industry doesn’t make room for women? * * * The sharing economy’s greatest success story was a YouTube celebrity for whom work and play and reality and artifice had merged beyond all recognition. There were many dubious aspects of his rise to stardom, not the least of which was his politics, beginning with the name he chose for himself: PewDiePie.


pages: 326 words: 91,559

Everything for Everyone: The Radical Tradition That Is Shaping the Next Economy by Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Mechanical Turk, back-to-the-land, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, disruptive innovation, do-ocracy, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Food sovereignty, four colour theorem, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hydraulic fracturing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, multi-sided market, new economy, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post-work, precariat, premature optimization, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, smart contracts, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, underbanked, undersea cable, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zipcar

Joss Winn, “Democratically Controlled, Co-operative Higher Education.” openDemocracy (April 23, 2015); The Schools Co-operative Society, co-operativeschools.coop. 39. Altenberg, “An End to Capitalism.” Chapter 3: The Clock of the World 1. See the final summary of her thinking, Grace Lee Boggs with Scott Kurashige, The Next American Revolution: Sustainable Activism for the Twenty-First Century, 2nd ed. (University of California Press, 2012). 2. See Kathi Weeks, The Problem with Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries (Duke University Press, 2011). 3. Jared Bernstein coined the term based on 2011 Bureau of Labor Statistics data comparing productivity to private-sector employment: Bernstein, “The Challenge of Long Term Job Growth: Two Big Hints,” On the Economy (blog) (June 5, 2011), jaredbernsteinblog.com/the-challenge-of-long-term-job-growth-two-big-hints; Andrew McAfee, “Productivity and Employment (and Technology): In the Jaws of the Snake” (March 22, 2012), andrewmcafee.org/2012/03/mcafee-bernstein-productivity-employment-technology-jaws-snake.

Magazine (December 9, 2015); Foster’s and Hughes’s organization is called the Economic Security Project, and more about its approach can be found in Chris Hughes, Fair Shot: Rethinking Inequality and How We Earn (St. Martin’s Press, 2018). 18. Cryptocurrency basic-income projects go by such names as Circles, Grantcoin, Group Currency, and Resilience; they interact at reddit.com/r/CryptoUBI. 19. Kathi Weeks, The Problem with Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries (Duke University Press, 2011); Andy Stern and Lee Kravitz, Raising the Floor: How a Universal Basic Income Can Renew Our Economy and Rebuild the American Dream (PublicAffairs, 2016). 20. “Black Cooperatives and the Fight for Economic Democracy,” session at the Left Forum at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice (May 31, 2015); see also Marina Gorbis’s calls for “universal basic assets” rather than merely income. 21.


pages: 393 words: 91,257

The Coming of Neo-Feudalism: A Warning to the Global Middle Class by Joel Kotkin

Admiral Zheng, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, don't be evil, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, European colonialism, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google bus, guest worker program, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, liberal capitalism, life extension, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, megacity, Nate Silver, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Parag Khanna, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Satyajit Das, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator

fbclid=IwAR2Qubw2ENnDLE_G1GHwGwsDaOUtwmBfRZalygyhQmO-Au7xAAd28CLXGwc; “Officials in Beijing worry about Marx-loving students,” Economist, September 27, 2018, https://www.economist.com/china/2018/09/27/officials-in-beijing-worry-about-marx-loving-students. 55 Guy Standing, “A ‘Precariat Charter’ is required to combat the inequalities and insecurities produced by global capitalism,” London School of Economics and Political Science, May 5, 2014, http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/europpblog/2014/05/05/a-precariat-charter-is-required-to-combat-the-inequalities-and-insecurities-produced-by-global-capitalism/; Aaron M. Renn, “Post-Work Won’t Work,” City Journal, August 4, 2017, https://www.city-journal.org/html/post-work-wont-work-15383.html. 56 Wendell Berry, What Are People For? (New York: Northpoint, 1990), 125. CHAPTER 16—THE NEW GATED CITY 1 Richard Florida, “How and Why American Cities Are Coming Back,” City Lab, May 17, 2012, https://www.citylab.com/life/2012/05/how-and-why-american-cities-are-coming-back/2015/; Lauren Nolan, “A Deepening Divide: Income Inequality Grows Spatially in Chicago,” Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement, March 11, 2015, https://voorheescenter. wordpress.com/2015/03/11/a-deepening-divide-income-inequality-grows-spatially-in-chicago/; Aaron M.

The third millennium augurs well.22 Wiring for Feudalism It was once widely hoped that emerging technologies would create a world of “new opportunities for personal growth, adventure and delight,” as the visionary Alvin Toffler wrote in Future Shock almost three decades ago. The prospect of a technologically advanced economy dangled like a bright gem for generations of utopian socialists, and for political thinkers on the right as well. Even today, some Marxists long for “a fully automated luxury communism” where technology has ended scarcity and created a “post-work society.”23 Sadly, such utopian visions can lead to frighteningly dystopian results. Technology may connect people in unprecedented ways, but it appears to be constraining intellectual debate under the control of a few powerful companies. The widespread censorship and “de-platforming” of unapproved views already being practiced, notes law professor and author Glenn Reynolds, could presage a new form of technologically enhanced thought control.24 The rewiring of society could be accelerated by an even more remarkable, and somewhat terrifying, biological transformation.


pages: 90 words: 27,452

No More Work: Why Full Employment Is a Bad Idea by James Livingston

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, business cycle, collective bargaining, delayed gratification, full employment, future of work, Internet of things, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, obamacare, post-work, Project for a New American Century, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, surplus humans, The Future of Employment, union organizing, working poor

So they were willing to experiment with an alternative to welfare that decoupled income from work. That’s the big difference between then and now. Politicians still whine about welfare—everybody does—but these days nobody’s willing to discuss the merits of a guaranteed income, except in the arcane terms Milton Friedman coined, as a “negative income tax,” or in the equally arcane terms the Autonomists and the futurists deploy to peddle their postwork Utopias. And this whining takes place as the crisis of unemployment foreseen by Nixon’s henchmen gets worse and worse. Instead of a guaranteed income, the battle cry we hear from both Left and Right is “full employment.” Both sides deploy the same slogan to avoid the economic and ethical implications of more “entitlements”—to get people “off welfare” and into jobs—because, unlike the advocates of Nixon’s FAP, they believe that private investment and/or government spending can create enough jobs to put everybody back to work.


pages: 100 words: 31,338

After Europe by Ivan Krastev

affirmative action, bank run, Berlin Wall, central bank independence, clean water, conceptual framework, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, job automation, mass immigration, moral panic, open borders, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, too big to fail, Wolfgang Streeck, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

Y Combinator, a big start-up incubator, has already announced it will conduct a basic income experiment with roughly one hundred families in Oakland, California, giving them between $1,000 and $2,000 a month for up to a year, no strings attached, to see what people do when they do not need to work to earn a living. The prospect of a jobless future is a major intellectual and existential challenge. How people will be capable of producing meaning in their lives in a postwork society is a question no less pressing than how democracy itself can function in a posttruth political world. In the demographic dystopia, citizens face a choice no less stark. In order to ensure their prosperity, Europeans need to open their borders; yet such openness threatens to annihilate their cultural distinctiveness. Alternatively, Europeans could shut their borders, but then they would need to be prepared for a steep decline in the overall standard of living and a future where everyone will need to work until physical debility makes it impossible.


pages: 339 words: 109,331

The Clash of the Cultures by John C. Bogle

asset allocation, buy and hold, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, diversification, diversified portfolio, estate planning, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, market bubble, market clearing, money market fund, mortgage debt, new economy, Occupy movement, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, post-work, principal–agent problem, profit motive, random walk, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, statistical arbitrage, survivorship bias, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, William of Occam, zero-sum game

However, this transformation to “pension fund capitalism” will not be easy for two reasons: (1) It requires the redesign of pension systems so these systems themselves become more sustainable and intergenerationally fair. (2) It requires the redesign of pension fund organizations so that they themselves become more effective and hence more productive stewards of the retirement savings of young workers and pensioners alike. The designs of traditional DC and DB plans are both problematical: 1. Traditional DC plans force contribution rate and investment decisions on participants that they cannot, and do not want to make. Also, little thought has been given to the design of the post-work asset decumulation phrase. As a result, DC plan investing has been unfocused, and post-work financial outcomes have been, and continue to be highly uncertain, raising fundamental questions about the effectiveness and sustainability of this individualistic pension model. 2. Traditional DB plans lump the young and the old on the same balance sheet, and unrealistically assume they have the same risk tolerance and that property rights between the two groups are clear.


pages: 366 words: 107,145

Fuller Memorandum by Stross, Charles

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Beeching cuts, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, congestion charging, dumpster diving, finite state, Firefox, HyperCard, invisible hand, land reform, linear programming, MITM: man-in-the-middle, peak oil, post-work, security theater, sensible shoes, side project, Sloane Ranger, telemarketer, Turing machine

Dower slumps forward against the door. The woman's arm follows him down with absolute precision and discharges a second round into the top of his skull, but it is unnecessary: he is already dead. She looks around with green eyes as deep as sacrificial cenotes, eyes in which a sensitive witness might see luminous worms writhing. But there are no sensitive witnesses to see through the glamour: just the ordinary post-work crowd hurrying about their business on the London streets. For a moment her face shimmers, the facade sliding--her attention is strained, flying in too many directions to maintain the illusion effectively--but then she notices and pulls herself together. She returns the chilly pistol to her bag. Then, turning on one spiked heel, she strides away from the corpse: just another professional woman on her way home from the office.

Mo will kill me, I think as I head down the main staircase at a fast clip and barrel through the staff exit. This is London. South Bank, south of the center, north of Tooting, and west of Wandsworth (come on, you can alliterate too)--suburban high street UK. It is early evening and the streets are still crowded, but most of the shops are closed. Meanwhile, the pubs are half-full with the sort of hardcore post-work crowd that go drinking on a Monday evening. I turn left, walking towards the nearest tube station: it's fifteen minutes away but once it gets this late there's no point waiting for a bus. This is London. The worst thing that can happen to you is usually a mugging at knifepoint, and I do my best not to look like a promising victim, which is why it takes me a couple of minutes to realize that I'm being tailed.


pages: 446 words: 108,844

The Driver: My Dangerous Pursuit of Speed and Truth in the Outlaw Racing World by Alexander Roy

Bonfire of the Vanities, Google Earth, post-work, urban planning, urban sprawl

After the war he started life anew, founded the family business in 1954, met my mother in 1970, had two sons he sent to private school, bought a Cadillac, and earned (and saved) enough for us to live comfortably. Even his enemies—and these were restricted to business competitors—respected him, trading insults over the phone every week for decades. He spoke fluent French and Spanish, and conversational German, Russian, and Polish. All agreed he was a gifted painter, photographer, and pianist. My brother and I knew better than to interrupt his weekday postwork relaxation time, during which he plucked at the precious custom-made flamenco guitar he’d bought in Seville. He loved work, and intended to work until the day he died. Surrender was inconceivable. I never believed it possible that he could be withered by cancer, his deep radio-commercial-grade voice cracking from multiple surgeries and chemotherapy, lying in a hospital bed 15 minutes from where we’d lived for more than twenty years.

Miss me, Mr. Pol-eez-eye?” “Rowwwww-lingsz!” I yelled back across the Soho House’s sixth-floor lounge. I hadn’t been there in months, but the 2006 Bullrun’s impending departure from New York demanded that I leave the house. I took malicious glee in booking their most prominent table for dinner with five of the world’s most infamous road-going outlaws. The 9:30 crowd still contained the more conservative post-work drink holdovers, but somehow I knew Rawlings and his entourage wouldn’t need cars to scatter these pigeons. “Wilkommen!” I called out. “Wilkommen im der Soho Haus!” Rawlings stomped toward me with a broad grin sharp enough to hack bark off a tree. He stopped halfway between the crowded bar and a neighboring table, his cowboy boots clattered as he performed a five-second jig of greeting, then he froze, slapped his hands together, and began the world’s loudest one-man game of patty-cake.


pages: 126 words: 37,081

Men Without Work by Nicholas Eberstadt

business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, deindustrialization, financial innovation, full employment, illegal immigration, jobless men, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral hazard, post-work, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

Assume that one-quarter of NILF men suffered such serious limitations as to restrict their capability to perform any care for others, engage in religious activity, or volunteer out of the home but that the others were as functional as working men and women their same ages. Assume further that those three-fourths of prime-age NILF men spent the same amount of time in personal care, eating/drinking, and on “socializing, relaxing, and leisure” as working men and women. And assume that the nondisabled NILF men expended the same fraction of their remaining postwork time at these “helping” activities as do working men and women. What would this mean for their time budgets and for the availability of time to help others for the NILF group as a whole? The assumption that one-quarter of the NILF group is completely incapable of home care, care for others, volunteering, etc., is, we should note, an extremely strong one. (We should further bear in mind that prime-age working men and women also can and do live with disabilities—and those disability burdens are already reflected in the time survey in table 6.1.)


pages: 128 words: 38,187

The New Prophets of Capital by Nicole Aschoff

3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Legislative Exchange Council, basic income, Bretton Woods, clean water, collective bargaining, commoditize, crony capitalism, feminist movement, follow your passion, Food sovereignty, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, Khan Academy, late capitalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, means of production, performance metric, post-work, profit motive, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, Tim Cook: Apple, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Social movements are also telling stories and developing projects that radically challenge the capitalist status quo through an emphasis on democracy, de-commodification, and redistribution. These stories and projects foster a new vision of society—a society designed for people instead of profit. ________ 1Luc Boltanski and Eva Chiapello, The New Spirit of Capitalism, London: Verso, 2007. 2See Kathi Weeks, The Problem with Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries, Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2011. 3“The Crisis of Democracy: Report on the Governability of Democracies to the Trilateral Commission,” quoted in Noam Chomsky, “The Carter Administration: Myth and Reality,” Australian Quarterly 50: 1, 1978, 8–36. 4Francesca Polletta, It Was Like a Fever: Storytelling in Protest and Politics, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. 5David Harvey, “The Enigma of Capital and the Crisis This Time,” in Craig Calhoun and Georgi Derluguian, eds., Business as Usual: The Roots of the Global Financial Meltdown, New York: New York University Press, 2011. 6Miles Rapoport and Jennifer Wheary, Where the Poor and the Middle Class Meet, New York: Demos, 2013. 7There are many prophets of capitalism telling stories today.


pages: 172 words: 48,747

The View From Flyover Country: Dispatches From the Forgotten America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, barriers to entry, clean water, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, George Santayana, glass ceiling, income inequality, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, payday loans, pink-collar, post-work, publish or perish, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, the medium is the message, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

But academia’s reliance on adjuncts makes it no different than fields that cater to the elite through unpaid internships. Anthropologists are known for their attentiveness to social inequality, but few have acknowledged the plight of their peers. When I expressed doubt about the job market to one colleague, she advised me, with total seriousness, to “reevaluate what work means” and to consider “post-work imaginaries.” A popular video on post-graduate employment cuts to the chase: “Why don’t you tap into your trust fund?” In May 2012, I received my PhD, but I still do not know what to do with it. I struggle with the closed-off nature of academic work, which I think should be accessible to everyone, but most of all I struggle with the limited opportunities in academia for Americans like me, people for whom education was once a path out of poverty, and not a way into it.


Affluenza: When Too Much Is Never Enough by Clive Hamilton, Richard Denniss

call centre, delayed gratification, experimental subject, full employment, hedonic treadmill, impulse control, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, mega-rich, Naomi Klein, Own Your Own Home, post-materialism, post-work, purchasing power parity, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, wage slave

They constantly return to this theme—a sign of how anxious they feel about their ability to provide for a comfortable retirement at a time when government has made it clear that people can no longer rely on the pension to meet their needs. Expectations about the amount of income needed in retirement appear to have escalated considerably, and these self-imposed benchmarks put people under great pressure. At the same time there has been a change in perceptions of retirement where baby 173 AFFLUENZA boomers in the professions and in managerial positions are concerned. They see no clear division between their working and post-working lives and think they will be able to wind down gradually and may never retire fully. Indeed, some see the idea of working hard to save for retirement then stopping work to enjoy the fruits of their labour as pathological. As one put it, ‘If you see retirement as the end then you are doing the wrong thing’. There is a marked difference in attitudes to retirement among people who have downshifted and people who have not.


pages: 200 words: 60,314

Beer Money: A Memoir of Privilege and Loss by Frances Stroh

cognitive dissonance, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Golden Gate Park, Kickstarter, new economy, nuclear winter, post-work, South of Market, San Francisco, urban renewal

By the time I was ten, I had learned how to make a good omelet, chocolate mousse, popovers, and pasta with bottled sauce. I missed the chickens Ollie would sometimes roast before she left to go home in the evening. But Ollie was gone now, back in Detroit and living on welfare, and with her had gone any sense of order. “Ollie has to take care of her mother full-time now,” my mother had told me. I went into the library with a plate. My father sat in his leather chair, a remote in his hand, in his usual postwork outfit—khaki pants, dress shirt, and Topsiders with no socks. With his light-blue eyes and cleft chin, he looked like some famous actor whose name you couldn’t quite remember. A Domino’s box sat open on the floor at his feet with a half-moon of pepperoni pizza. “Hi, Franny,” he said with an absent smile. “Been studying?” “Of course,” I answered. My grades were good so my parents never hassled me about my whereabouts.


pages: 237 words: 67,154

Ours to Hack and to Own: The Rise of Platform Cooperativism, a New Vision for the Future of Work and a Fairer Internet by Trebor Scholz, Nathan Schneider

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, capital controls, citizen journalism, collaborative economy, collaborative editing, collective bargaining, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, deskilling, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, future of work, gig economy, Google bus, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, minimum viable product, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, openstreetmap, peer-to-peer, post-work, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, SETI@home, shareholder value, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Osborne predict that 47 percent of all jobs are at risk of being automated over the next twenty years. And I have no doubt about the vision of platform owners like Travis Kalanick (Uber), Jeff Bezos (Amazon), or Lukas Biewald (CrowdFlower)—who, in the absence of government regulation and resistance from workers, will simply exploit their undervalued workers. I’m all on board for Paul Mason’s and Kathi Weeks’ visions for a post-capitalist, post-work future where universal basic income will rule the way we think about life opportunities. In the United States, however, unlike in Finland, the chances for this scenario becoming a reality over the next two years are not high. The question then becomes what we can do right now, with and for the most precarious among the contingent third of the American workforce, which is unlikely to see the return of the traditional safety net, the forty-hour workweek, or a steady paycheck.

One of the platform’s most egregious abuses is allowing workers to go unpaid for work completed to the best of their ability. Amazon not only condones this wage theft but has made it a feature, since the employer who posts work gets to see what is submitted in order to adjudicate it. All employers have to do is reject the worker, denying them payment, and they get to keep both the work and their cash. It is scraping the bottom of the barrel when a worker not only has to face being paid pennies per hour for their hard work, but also the possibility of not being paid at all. Many people assume that workers such as myself are all from developing countries, are unskilled, barely speak English, have no education, and will cheat to steal money from those who post work on the platform. It gets worse, with comments about the fact that we are literally the unwashed masses in our pajamas doing work for pennies an hour, the lumpenproletariat so clueless that it is a favor to pay us even a pittance in order to give us any job at all.


pages: 257 words: 64,285

The End of Traffic and the Future of Transport: Second Edition by David Levinson, Kevin Krizek

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Chris Urmson, collaborative consumption, commoditize, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Google Hangouts, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the printing press, jitney, John Markoff, labor-force participation, lifelogging, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, Network effects, Occam's razor, oil shock, place-making, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, technological singularity, Tesla Model S, the built environment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working-age population, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Americans now work fewer hours over their career than their working grandparents, and probably their parents (for annual hours, see Figure 3.3,58 which shows little change over the past 7 decades). They start their careers later, extending the pre-work period into their twenties, taking advantage of productivity gains of parents and ancestors, and borrowing against future productivity. They also retire earlier, post-work retirement starts into their fifties, reaping the rewards of our collective productivity. Vacation time has not changed much in recent decades. Travel patterns differ by age group, but those who do not work daily do not make work commutes daily. While some of the now available non-work time is made up with out-of-home activities requiring travel, that does not require peak hour travel, and so imposes fewer stresses on the transport system.


pages: 208 words: 65,733

This Is Going to Hurt: Secret Diaries of a Junior Doctor - the Sunday Times Bestseller by Adam Kay

airport security, butterfly effect, post-work, Skype

Of course, medics aren’t alone in working late – you could say the same of lawyers and bankers – but at least they can become ‘weekend warriors’, letting down their hair and their ancestors in a forty-eight-hour blast of unremitting hedonism. Our weekends were usually spent at work. But it’s more than just the hours; you’re generally no fun to be around when you get home. You’re exhausted, you’re snappy from a stressful day and you even manage to deny your partner their normal post-work chat of bitching about their colleagues. They know as soon as they start on their workplace quibbles – which presumably don’t involve any near-death experiences, unless they’re a tightrope walker, firefighter or counter staff at a drive-thru Burger King – you’ll reflexively man that old ship One-Up and talk about the horrors of your own day. Your subconscious ends up making a decision on your behalf.


pages: 213 words: 70,742

Notes From an Apocalypse: A Personal Journey to the End of the World and Back by Mark O'Connell

Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, California gold rush, carbon footprint, Carrington event, clean water, Colonization of Mars, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Donner party, Elon Musk, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, life extension, low earth orbit, Marc Andreessen, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, off grid, Peter Thiel, post-work, Sam Altman, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the built environment, yield curve

The game represented an apocalyptic logic of progress: a movement away from the nation-state, away from democracy, and finally away from the ravaged Earth itself. It represented everything I thought about when I thought about the end of the world. It was like being confronted with a lurid diorama of my own unease as I had come to conceive of it. It was uncanny, and terrible, and strangely perfect. * * * — Later that week, in a bar a few blocks from the harbor, I had a post-work beer with Matt Nippert, the New Zealand Herald reporter who had broken the citizenship story earlier that year. He told me of his personal certainty that Thiel had bought his property in the South Island for apocalypse-contingency purposes. In his citizenship application, he had pledged his commitment to devote “a significant amount of time and resources to the people and businesses of New Zealand.”


pages: 201 words: 70,698

Into the Fire: My Life as a London Firefighter by Edric Kennedy-Macfoy

Donald Trump, post-work

The paramedics had arrived by now, and they worked with us to get him out. The man was taken to the ambulance, and driven off to hospital. The police will want to speak to you pretty soon, I thought as it moved away, and I wish I could be there to see it. Then it was back to the body on the road. I started wondering what the story was behind the crash. Did these two guys work together? Was the older guy giving the young one a lift home after a few post-work pints? Maybe he was a mate of the dead guy’s dad, he looked that much older. I wondered all these things in the moments it took us to get to where he was lying. Whatever the story was, a life had been lost, and it was tragic. I never found out what happened to the driver, whether he went to prison, lost a leg, nothing. That’s normal for this job – you turn up to an incident, do what you have to do, then the injured are taken off to hospital and that’s it, you never hear of them again.


Into the Fire: My Life as a London Firefighter by Edric Kennedy-Macfoy

Donald Trump, post-work

The paramedics had arrived by now, and they worked with us to get him out. The man was taken to the ambulance, and driven off to hospital. The police will want to speak to you pretty soon, I thought as it moved away, and I wish I could be there to see it. Then it was back to the body on the road. I started wondering what the story was behind the crash. Did these two guys work together? Was the older guy giving the young one a lift home after a few post-work pints? Maybe he was a mate of the dead guy’s dad, he looked that much older. I wondered all these things in the moments it took us to get to where he was lying. Whatever the story was, a life had been lost, and it was tragic. I never found out what happened to the driver, whether he went to prison, lost a leg, nothing. That’s normal for this job – you turn up to an incident, do what you have to do, then the injured are taken off to hospital and that’s it, you never hear of them again.


pages: 231 words: 69,673

How Cycling Can Save the World by Peter Walker

active transport: walking or cycling, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, car-free, correlation does not imply causation, Enrique Peñalosa, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kickstarter, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, New Urbanism, post-work, publication bias, the built environment, traffic fines, transit-oriented development, urban planning

More relevant is that after a few months pedaling my behemoth of a bike for about sixty miles a day, the effect was starting to show, even on a milquetoast like me. This brings us back to the North London bedroom. A couple of days beforehand I had begun insulating my legs from the winter chill with a pair of my girlfriend’s thick cotton leggings, over which I wore a pair of denim shorts (I did say the courier trade wasn’t fashionable then). That evening, getting undressed ahead of the obligatory postwork bath, where I would happily steam amid a rising black tidemark of pollution residue, I decided to inspect my new look. Then came the shock. Not from the leggings. The mirror showed those to be about as curious-looking as I’d expected. What struck me was the encased silhouette of my legs. They had always been traditionally unimpressive. A cruel teenage acquaintance once likened them to lengths of string with knots for the knees.


pages: 300 words: 78,475

Third World America: How Our Politicians Are Abandoning the Middle Class and Betraying the American Dream by Arianna Huffington

American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration

The fear that the middle class is on an extended death march—and that the American Dream of a secure, comfortable standard of living has become as outdated as an Edsel with an eight-track player. We look at our obliterated 401(k)s and dwindling pensions, and hear the whispers about Social Security going broke, and we wonder if we will ever be able to retire—let alone maintain our standard of living into our sunset years. Golden visions of post-work leisure time have been replaced by dark, fevered flashes of deprivation—of having to decide between eating and paying for the medicine we need. Of letting our homes go into foreclosure to scrape together the money to live on. The void is filled by the fear that America is becoming a nation of haves and have-nots—and that millions are in danger of becoming permanent members of the have-nots. Forget Freddy Krueger.


pages: 306 words: 78,893

After the New Economy: The Binge . . . And the Hangover That Won't Go Away by Doug Henwood

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, feminist movement, full employment, gender pay gap, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet Archive, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, occupational segregation, pets.com, post-work, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

," Monthly Labor Review 123 (March) <stats.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2000/03/precis.htm>. Antolin, Pablo, Thai-Thanh Dang, and Howard Oxley (1999)." Poverty Dynamics in Four OECD Countries," Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Economics Department Working Paper 212 (Paris: OECD),April <www.olis.oecd.org/olis/ 1999doc.nsf/linkto/eco-wkp(99)4>. Aronowitz, Stanley, and Jonathan Cuder (1997). Post-Work (New York: Roudedge). Aronowitz, Stanley, and William DiFazio (1995). The Jobless Future: Sci-Tech and the Dogma of Work (Minneapolis: University of Mirmesota Press). Arrighi, Giovanni (1994). The LongTwentieth Century (NewYork and London:Verso). Atkinson, Robert D (2001). "Alive and Kicking," Blueprint Magazine (Democratic Leadership CouncU), April 25 <www.ndol.org/print.cfrn?contentid=3298>.


pages: 477 words: 75,408

The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism by Calum Chace

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

In chapter 5.4 we considered whether virtual reality might help resolve the problem of how to allocate rare goods and services in a world where incomes are hard to vary. In chapter 5.5 we tackled what may turn out to be the biggest challenge raised by the economic singularity: cohesion. We asked whether capitalism, and in particular the institution of private property, will be as suitable for the post-work world as it has been during the industrial revolution. This an uncomfortable discussion for people like me who believe that a sensibly-regulated market economy has been enormously beneficial for humanity. Along with the Enlightenment and the consequent scientific revolution, capitalism has made our time the best era to be born human, bar none. But a world where almost no-one works, and an elite owns the intelligent machines, is going to be a world of fantastic and entrenched inequality.


pages: 300 words: 76,638

The War on Normal People: The Truth About America's Disappearing Jobs and Why Universal Basic Income Is Our Future by Andrew Yang

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, call centre, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, falling living standards, financial deregulation, full employment, future of work, global reserve currency, income inequality, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Narrative Science, new economy, passive income, performance metric, post-work, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unemployed young men, universal basic income, urban renewal, white flight, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator

If you wanted to spur adoption, you could target various rewards and campaigns toward particular demographics and areas; things done for people with lower levels of DSCs could count for extra. The DSC system would be an example of harnessing market dynamics to spur social good. The federal government would help set up and fund the platform but it would be up to local governments, nonprofits, individuals, and companies to figure out the best ways to achieve various goals. The overall goal would be to improve social cohesion and maintain high levels of engagement for people in a post-work economy. The Freedom Dividend would elevate society beyond a need for subsistence and scarcity. The Digital Social Credit would tie together communities and give people a way to both generate value and feel valued regardless of how the market regards their time. NINETEEN HUMAN CAPITALISM Imagine an AI life coach with the voice of Oprah or Tom Hanks trying to help parents stay together or raise kids.


pages: 280 words: 74,559

Fully Automated Luxury Communism by Aaron Bastani

"Robert Solow", autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, computer vision, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, double helix, Elon Musk, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, G4S, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kuiper Belt, land reform, liberal capitalism, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, off grid, pattern recognition, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post scarcity, post-work, price mechanism, price stability, private space industry, Productivity paradox, profit motive, race to the bottom, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sensor fusion, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, working-age population

This Is Not 1917 FALC is not the communism of the early twentieth century, nor will it be delivered by storming the Winter Palace. The reason why is that, until the opening decades of the Third Disruption, communism was as impossible as surplus before the First Disruption or electricity before the Second. Instead it was socialism, still defined by scarcity and jobs, which became the North Star for hope across the world. The technologies needed to deliver a post-scarcity, post-work society – centred around renewable energy, automation and information – were absent in the Russian Empire, or indeed anywhere else until the late 1960s. Indeed, amid efforts to catch up with the more advanced capitalist economies of Europe and America, the Bolsheviks became students of the Taylorist science of productivity, applying themselves to the task of subordinating human time to economic production with ever-greater efficiency.


pages: 242 words: 73,728

Give People Money by Annie Lowrey

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, full employment, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Earth, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Jaron Lanier, jitney, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, late capitalism, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, mobile money, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, Peter Thiel, post scarcity, post-work, Potemkin village, precariat, randomized controlled trial, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, theory of mind, total factor productivity, Turing test, two tier labour market, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

“The most promising way forward lies in reclaiming modernity and attacking the neoliberal common sense that conditions everything from the most esoteric policy discussions to the most vivid emotional states,” Srnicek and Williams write in their engaging, radical book Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work. “This counter-hegemonic project can only be achieved by imagining better worlds—and in moving beyond defensive struggles. We have outlined one possible project, in the form of a post-work politics that frees us to create our own lives and communities.” It is worth pausing to note how radical that vision is. Economic growth, household income, and even inequality would become less important metrics than health, longevity, and thriving. GDP might even go down as more qualitative measures of human welfare go up. The world would not be defined by scarcity, but by abundance. Of course, this kind of utopian vision does not necessarily or immediately address the deep-seated emotional, mental, and financial struggles of someone like Jenner Barrington-Ward, who just wanted a job that would pay.


pages: 244 words: 79,044

Money Mavericks: Confessions of a Hedge Fund Manager by Lars Kroijer

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Bernie Madoff, capital asset pricing model, corporate raider, diversification, diversified portfolio, family office, fixed income, forensic accounting, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, implied volatility, index fund, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, Just-in-time delivery, Long Term Capital Management, merger arbitrage, NetJets, new economy, Ponzi scheme, post-work, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, statistical arbitrage, Vanguard fund, zero-coupon bond

In a year and a half, our three-man team had doubled in size and, when we added Doriana as our office manager, Holte started looking like a real office. Before the four of them joined the team, things still felt like a couple of guys sitting in a room. Now we were a real hedge fund, with our phones ringing and a constant stream of meetings in the office, even if our fairly academic approach to investing kept the atmosphere peaceful. We even had a company pub for post-work pints on a quiet street off Berkeley Square. As the hedge-fund industry grew massively during 2005 and 2006 towards its peak in 2007/08, a clear trend emerged. There were more and more people with hedge-fund experience interviewing for the positions we offered. This made sense. When I first interviewed for a hedge-fund position in early 1998 there were not that many hedge funds around; I doubt that someone with my background today could end up meeting an industry giant like Richard Perry at their first interview.


pages: 312 words: 78,053

Generation A by Douglas Coupland

Burning Man, call centre, Drosophila, hive mind, index card, Live Aid, Magellanic Cloud, McJob, new economy, post-work, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Stephen Hawking

Boredom is a form of criticism—so maybe you should go job-hunting. Goodbye.” As this was being said, Trevor was thinking: Is Suzanne cheating on me? What good is a girlfriend you can’t trust? The whole notion of girlfriend seemed American and synthetic, an archaic pairing concept from Pixar cartoons. Domestic partner? No, they didn’t live together. Close personal friend? No. Technically, they were nothing. They just spent a lot of post-work time together, having sex and eating, and it was all going nowhere, and besides, she was so goddam political when she wasn’t in the sack, and when she got going on Zionism and all that, it was like she’d turned herself into the world’s most unlistenable satellite music station. She’d start to blab and he’d go off into daydreams about long-chain carbon molecules, his mother’s knee-replacement surgery or old Smurf cartoons, only to be roused by a poke in the ribs and a jeremiad along the lines of, “And who do you think ended up paying for the Six-Day War, huh?


pages: 200 words: 72,182

Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting by in America by Barbara Ehrenreich

business process, full employment, housing crisis, income inequality, McMansion, place-making, post-work, sexual politics, telemarketer, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce, working poor, zero day

I was at all times cheerful, energetic, helpful, and as competent as a new hire can be expected to be. If I can do one week, I can do another, and might as well, since there's never been a moment for job-hunting. The 3:30 quitting time turns out to be a myth; often we don't return to the office until 4:30 or 5:00. And what did I think? That I was going to go out to interviews in my soaked and stinky postwork condition? I decide to reward myself with a sunset walk on Old Orchard Beach. On account of the heat, there are still a few actual bathers on the beach, but I am content to sit in shorts and T-shirt and watch the ocean pummel the sand. When the sun goes down I walk back into the town to find my car and am amazed to hear a sound I associate with cities like New York and Berlin. There's a couple of Peruvian musicians playing in the little grassy island in the street near the pier, and maybe fifty people—locals and vacationers—have gathered around, offering their bland end-of-summer faces to the sound.


pages: 267 words: 78,857

Discardia: More Life, Less Stuff by Dinah Sanders

A. Roger Ekirch, Atul Gawande, big-box store, Boris Johnson, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwatching, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, credit crunch, endowment effect, Firefox, game design, Inbox Zero, income per capita, index card, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Kevin Kelly, late fees, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Merlin Mann, post-work, side project, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand

Symptom #32: Emotional Baggage Solution #32: Opt out of Unnecessary Drama A man is rich in proportion to the things he can afford to let alone. —Henry David Thoreau, philosopher Calm helps you cope There is a moment of choice in how you react which deeply impacts your future self. When facing that moment, “Don't Freak Out” is always the best option. Maybe you’re having one of those postwork evenings that are part restoration and part collapse, and you’re watching a movie. The DVD player in your computer jams and the computer won't eject the DVD. Then the computer doesn't believe it has a DVD drive, even after restarting. You start to work yourself up into an “Oh, no! I can't afford this problem” worried state of mind. Stop and shut down, which helps sometimes with computers, turn the laptop upside down (the disk floats on a spindle), and go take a nice bath.


pages: 325 words: 73,035

Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life by Richard Florida

active measures, assortative mating, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, Celebration, Florida, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, edge city, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, extreme commuting, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, invention of the telegraph, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-work, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, World Values Survey, young professional

According to a major study by William Frey and Ross DeVol, the rise of the “yuppie elderly”—married, in good health, with substantial accumulated resources, more active lifestyle, and greater locational choices—will coincide with the rise of another group, the “needy elderly,” particularly widows over the age of seventy-five who are especially dependent on families and social institutions.2 Generation Ageless “When it comes to finding a place to live,” the Wall Street Journal wrote in October 2006, “today’s retirees are looking for something completely different.”3 While weather and leisure remain important, retirees are looking for a community “where they can make friends and connections quickly, whether it’s a small town or a walkable neighborhood in a big city.” They also want to live where they can indulge postwork passions, a second career, or a newly adopted sport, or be near their grandkids, whether in a mixed-used development, a small town, or an urban center. Empty nesters and retirees have a wide range of communities to choose from these days. Free from the constraints of full-time jobs and full-time parenting, some even find themselves with the flexibility and means to divide their time among multiple places.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

In Cognitive Surplus Shirky claims to be referring specifically to the cumulative free time of the world’s educated population but, according to Schor, that is just the population that has less free time compared to decades past: “Employees with low educational attainment have suffered more under- and unemployment, and those with high education are more overworked,” she writes. Another good take on this topic is Peter Frase’s “Post-Work: A Guide for the Perplexed,” posted on the Jacobin magazine Web site, February 25, 2013, http://jacobinmag.com/2013/02/post-work-a-guide-for-the-perplexed/. 24. Edward C. Prescott, “Why Do Americans Work So Much More Than Europeans,” Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Quarterly Review 28, no. 1 (July 2004): 2–13, www.minneapolisfed.org/research/QR/QR2811.pdf; and Robert B. Reich, “Totally Spent,” New York Times, February 13, 2008. 25. Robert Reich, “Unjust Spoils,” The Nation, July 19, 2010. 26.


pages: 252 words: 80,636

Bureaucracy by David Graeber

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, David Graeber, George Gilder, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, means of production, music of the spheres, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Parkinson's law, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, post-work, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, union organizing, urban planning, zero-sum game

True, from the perspective of those living in Europe and North America, or even Japan, the results did seem superficially to be much as predicted. Smokestack industries did increasingly disappear; jobs came to be divided between a lower stratum of service workers and an upper stratum sitting in antiseptic bubbles playing with computers. But below it all lay an uneasy awareness that this whole new post-work civilization was, basically, a fraud. Our carefully engineered high-tech sneakers were not really being produced by intelligent cyborgs or self-replicating molecular nanotechnology; they were being made on the equivalent of old-fashioned Singer sewing machines, by the daughters of Mexican and Indonesian farmers who had, as the result of WTO or NAFTA-sponsored trade deals, been ousted from their ancestral lands.


pages: 336 words: 83,903

The Refusal of Work: The Theory and Practice of Resistance to Work by David Frayne

anti-work, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, clockwatching, David Graeber, deindustrialization, deskilling, future of work, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, McJob, means of production, moral panic, new economy, post-work, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, unpaid internship, working poor, young professional

However, Marx’s call for collective appropriation – or the ‘Plain Marxist Argument’ (Booth, 1989: 207) – can be contrasted with ideas in his later writing, where some believed he tempered his earlier enthusiasm for work. It has been suggested that Marx himself ‘could not clearly decide if communism meant liberation from labour or the liberation of labour’ (Berki, 1979: 5). For a more detailed discussion of the distinction between the ‘plain’ and the ‘post-work’ Marx, see Granter (2009: Chapter 4). Return to text. 3. Curious readers can find more detailed summaries of Marcuse’s connection with the argument for shorter working hours elsewhere (for example, Granter, 2009: Chapter 5; Bowring, 2012; Frayne, forthcoming). Return to text. 4. For a more detailed overview of the ideas of André Gorz, see the accessible introduction by Lodziak and Tatman (1997) or the more in-depth treatise by Bowring (2000a).


Affluence Without Abundance: The Disappearing World of the Bushmen by James Suzman

access to a mobile phone, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, clean water, discovery of the americas, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, full employment, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, means of production, Occupy movement, open borders, out of africa, post-work, quantitative easing, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, We are the 99%

Mainstream economists and governments alike—on both the left and the right of the political spectrum—remain preoccupied with maintaining growth on the one hand and reducing unemployment on the other while debating about how much of our hard-earned wealth should be put to the common good and how much we should be able to squirrel away for ourselves. Few politicians seem willing to engage with the real challenge: the need for us to adjust to the reality of living in a post-work world. When Marshall Sahlins wrote about hunter-gatherers pursuing a “Zen road” to affluence by having few needs easily met, he was invoking a similar set of attitudes to those that Keynes hoped would prevail in a world where people’s absolute needs were adequately met. Keynes was of the view that our innate desire to solve what he referred to as our “real problems—the problems of life and of human relations, of creation and behavior and religion” would be enough to distract us from any residual instinct to work.


pages: 304 words: 80,965

What They Do With Your Money: How the Financial System Fails Us, and How to Fix It by Stephen Davis, Jon Lukomnik, David Pitt-Watson

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Admiral Zheng, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, buy and hold, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computerized trading, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, income inequality, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Northern Rock, passive investing, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, post-work, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks

You would think that they would each have to set aside the same amount of savings every year. Wrong. Beth, who chose Atlanta, and Cathy, in London, will most likely pay 50 percent or more beyond what Amsterdam-based Sarah will have to spend to secure exactly the same retirement benefits at exactly the same age. Either Beth and Cathy will have to scrimp for years to afford the retirement income they want, or they face a postwork income much less than Sarah’s.1 These huge variances in outcomes occur because small differences in annual charges compound over the years. Here is how it would work. From the age of twenty-five, Beth in Atlanta socks $6,000 annually into a commercial retirement savings plan selected by her employer. Beth can get a 5 percent return and so she could, in theory, have a savings pot of $725,000 when she retires at sixty-five.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Economist Bruce Bartlett, legal scholar Michael Graetz, and others have put together alternatives to the current American tax system that rely heavily on a VAT.22 We think these are valuable contributions to the discussion about how to best pay for government services in the second machine age, and deserve serious consideration. The Peer Economy and Artificial Artificial Intelligence Changing the subsidies and taxes on labor might seem like a short-term solution. After all, isn’t the second machine age defined by relentless automation that will lead to a largely or completely postwork economy? We’ve argued here that in many domains it is. But, as we’ve also hopefully shown, people have skills and abilities that are not yet automated. They may become automatable at some point but this hasn’t started in any serious way thus far, which leads us to believe that it will take a while. We think we’ll have human data scientists, conference organizers, divisional managers, nurses, and busboys for some time to come.


pages: 320 words: 90,526

Squeezed: Why Our Families Can't Afford America by Alissa Quart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, business intelligence, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, East Village, Elon Musk, full employment, future of work, gig economy, glass ceiling, haute couture, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, job automation, late capitalism, Lyft, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, new economy, nuclear winter, obamacare, Ponzi scheme, post-work, precariat, price mechanism, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, school choice, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, surplus humans, TaskRabbit, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, women in the workforce, working poor

up from $691 billion in 2012: Deborah Bach, “Study Reveals Surprising Truths about Caregivers,” UWNews, June 16, 2015, https://www.washington.edu/news/2015/06/16/study-reveals-surprising-truths-about-caregivers/. The Ottawa Citizen kvelled: Madeline Ashby, “Ashby: Let’s Talk about Canadian Values (Values Like a Universal Basic Income),” Ottawa Citizen, November 15, 2016, http://ottawacitizen.com/opinion/columnists/ashby-lets-talk-about-canadian-values-values-like-a-universal-basic-income. feminist theorist Kathi Weeks: Kathi Weeks, The Problem with Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011). “no longer socially necessary”: James Livingston, No More Work: Why Full Employment Is a Bad Idea (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016). the journalist Judith Shulevitz wrote: Judith Shulevitz, “It’s Payback Time for Women,” New York Times, January 10, 2016. “impossible professions”: Barbara Almond, “The Fourth Impossible Profession,” Psychology Today, November 5, 2010, https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/maternal-ambivalence/201011/the-fourth-impossible-profession.


pages: 728 words: 233,687

My Boring-Ass Life: The Uncomfortably Candid Diary of Kevin Smith by Kevin Smith

back-to-the-land, British Empire, Burning Man, G4S, Kickstarter, mutually assured destruction, post-work, pre–internet, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Wall-E

We talk about a bunch of stuff, including the Poetry Reading even we’re holding up at the house next weekend to benefit Harley’s school’s Fine Arts program. After lunch, we cross the street and go to Kitson’s, this chick store on Robertson. Jen picks up an ‘Award Winning Wife’ t-shirt and an ashtray. Mos calls, and we talk about the Rats cut, and how we should perhaps deliver big chunks to Universal, as there’s a lot of post-work to do to get it presentable (they’ve gotta go back to the negative, re-mix the sound, extend music cues, create new music cues, etc.). Done shopping, Jen and I head cross town to pick up Harley from school. On the ride, Jen and I start talking sex, which evolves (or devolves) into dirty talk. I’m hard and she’s wet, but the kid gets out of school in two minutes. All hot and bothered, we decide that, when we get home, we’re gonna send Harley to watch some TV in her room for ten minutes while we go upstairs for a quickie.

I knew that the arrival of legal adulthood would only up the ante on their campaign to get me out of the five-buck-an-hour convenience store service industry and into a gig that paid better and might finally deliver me from the realm of the per-hour rate into the promised elysium fields of a grown-up career. So with no birthday celebration looming, how did I opt to spend my birthday? Behind the register, slinging smokes. My friends stopped by during my shift, but no post-work plans were made. When the steel shutters were closed at the end of the night, it would also signal the close of my first day as a numerical adult. Around nine at night, my friend and co-worker Vincent Pereira closed up R.S.T. Video for the evening and joined me at Quick Stop, to stock the milk and mop the floors before heading off. We got to talking about movies, as per usual, and I told him about a review I’d read in the Village Voice for a film called Slacker that was playing up at the Angelika Film Center, in New York City.


pages: 320 words: 96,006

The End of Men: And the Rise of Women by Hanna Rosin

affirmative action, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, edge city, facts on the ground, financial independence, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Northern Rock, post-work, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, Results Only Work Environment, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford prison experiment, Steven Pinker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, white picket fence, women in the workforce, young professional

Working mothers the world over may complain, but in Korea the pressures on them are unimaginable. Work hours in Korea are the second longest of any advanced nation, after Japan. Office workers typically stay until eight or nine at night, and then are usually expected to go out drinking with their colleagues or clients—the Korean extreme-sport version of bonding and networking. As women have begun flooding the workforce, they have disrupted these elaborate post-work rituals, but they haven’t fundamentally transformed them. The drinking sessions still involve several rounds of high-proof soju, a sweet, vodka-like drink. Employees are asked on applications how many bottles of soju they can down in a session, and the newly ambitious working women feel pressure to keep up with the boys. Sometimes the colleagues will decamp to a “salon,” a Hooters-like club where sexy waitresses serve the drinks.


pages: 375 words: 105,067

Pound Foolish: Exposing the Dark Side of the Personal Finance Industry by Helaine Olen

American ideology, asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, buy and hold, Cass Sunstein, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, delayed gratification, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, estate planning, financial innovation, Flash crash, game design, greed is good, high net worth, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, London Whale, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, money market fund, mortgage debt, oil shock, payday loans, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, post-work, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Stanford marshmallow experiment, stocks for the long run, too big to fail, transaction costs, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vanguard fund, wage slave, women in the workforce, working poor, éminence grise

The numbers for African Americans and Latinos are worse—at $55,000 and $54,000 respectively, according to ING Retirement Research Institute, which claims $69,000 as the average amount of money in a workplace retirement plan. Only one in five workers over the age of fifty-five has managed to set aside $250,000 or more for their golden years. These are not exactly sums of money that will go far in retirement, especially when you recognize that many experts in the field believe that people need to save up a minimum of $1 million to get by in their post-work lives, a net worth currently achieved by 8 percent of all households. As for that bit about how the 401(k) would encourage the high income to save in individualistic ways? Well, the top 10 percent of households own more than 80 percent of all stock and mutual funds in the United States. If you expand the number to include the top 20 percent of households, that number climbs to more than 90 percent.


pages: 334 words: 104,382

Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys' Club of Silicon Valley by Emily Chang

23andMe, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, Airbnb, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, California gold rush, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, gender pay gap, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, high net worth, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microservices, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, post-work, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, women in the workforce

PARENTHOOD AND THE PRESSURE TO KEEP UP Katharine Zaleski had just given birth to her first daughter and had just launched her first start-up, PowerToFly, which aims to find women tech jobs that offer flexible working arrangements, when she publicly apologized to all the moms she had ever worked with. In a Fortune article, Zaleski admitted that in her many years running digital products at the Huffington Post and the Washington Post, she had “silently slandered” women with kids by negatively judging their job performance. She rolled her eyes when they couldn’t make post-work drinks, repeatedly questioned their commitment, scheduled last-minute meetings at 4:30 p.m., just when parents might be wrapping up so they could go pick up their kids, and stayed at work late simply to prove she was more dedicated to the job. Some mothers would come in early and leave early, doing more work after dinner, but Zaleski wouldn’t value their after-hours contributions. She only realized she’d committed this “long list of infractions” when she had her own child and discovered that “work is so rigged against mothers—and not only mothers, but young women, who are taught, ‘You have to outman the men.’”


pages: 363 words: 109,417

Big Dead Place: Inside the Strange and Menacing World of Antarctica by Nicholas Johnson

Joan Didion, job satisfaction, Milgram experiment, post-work, Ronald Reagan, telerobotics, trade route, young professional

Polies have told of pissing a blend of steam and crystals, and cold so annoying that even a cigarette won’t work properly because the slightest moisture freezes and blocks the filter. A metal machine brought into a warm building sucks up heat so fast that it emanates cold as a fire emanates heat. Fuel gets so cold that a lit match thrown in it won’t ignite it. Pole workers get used to frostnip as McMurdo workers get used to scrapes and bruises. And Polies are also used to scrapes and bruises. This cold, which often depresses Polies to post-work catatonic slothfulness, is without financial compensation. Denver pays by job description, so Polies make no more money than if they worked in McMurdo. Furthermore, Pole has no boondoggles. There is nowhere to go. No trips to ice caves. No trips to see penguins at Cape Royds. No lucky opportunities to help out at Siple Dome or Black Island. South Pole Station sits on a bulge of ice two miles thick at the center and thinning gradually toward the coasts.


pages: 461 words: 106,027

Zero to Sold: How to Start, Run, and Sell a Bootstrapped Business by Arvid Kahl

"side hustle", business process, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, continuous integration, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, crowdsourcing, domain-specific language, financial independence, Google Chrome, if you build it, they will come, information asymmetry, information retrieval, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kubernetes, minimum viable product, Network effects, performance metric, post-work, premature optimization, risk tolerance, Ruby on Rails, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, software as a service, source of truth, statistical model, subscription business, supply-chain management, trickle-down economics, web application

If your customers have Excel files and expect the result of using your solution to be a fully-featured one-file PDF with reports and calculations, you shouldn't ask them to supply you with CSV files and product Word documents. Envision a solution that works with the inputs and outputs that your customers will realistically have. Maybe your solution is too complicated. Often, this is related to the inputs and outputs and the necessary pre- and post-work that goes into making them compatible with the rest of the workflow your customers have. Other times, your solution involves steps that your customers can't envision taking, either because they don't have the knowledge or permission. In your solution validation calls, make sure that your prospect can take every action they need to use your solution effectively. Audience–Product Misalignment Finally, once the problem and solution are aligned, it may come down to the product.


pages: 438 words: 103,983

Dirty Genes: A Breakthrough Program to Treat the Root Cause of Illness and Optimize Your Health by Ben Lynch Nd.

23andMe, clean water, double helix, epigenetics, Indoor air pollution, microbiome, post-work, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)

You’ll be amazed at your productivity. —Stand up every hour and move around for a few minutes. Maybe do some push-ups or go up and down a flight or two of stairs. Even better—go outside to get some fresh air. ■Lunch. This is likely your largest meal of the day. —Don’t use electronics. No driving. Eat lunch sitting down, conversing with others. —Chew your food well. —Take your time. Enjoy your meal. ■Postwork. Plan a nonelectronic activity for yourself when you’ve finished work obligations for the day. —Exercise, read, hike, or make progress on a hobby. —Do grocery shopping, laundry, or housecleaning. ■Dinner. Eat based on your activity for the day and how you’re feeling. —Consult the Gene Meal Guide in chapter 13 and eat accordingly. —Don’t eat within three hours of bedtime unless you have a fast MAOA (based on Laundry List 1), in which case have some hummus and carrots or a few bites of leftovers from dinner within an hour of bedtime.


pages: 419 words: 115,170

The Glorious Heresies by Lisa McInerney

crowdsourcing, Isaac Newton, post-work

Or the right emergency. What the name of the magic trick was that turned Tony Cusack from one kind of man to no man at all. He made the decision but it sat with him for a while, and he ended up driving from one end of the city to the other, smoking, and asking himself who the fuck he was. He picked up Karine at the hospital at clocking-off time and she jumped into the passenger seat with the post-work high she denied and he was addicted to. ‘Hey, baby boy!’ There was an even blanket of mist over the city. Karine shivered. ‘So dark,’ she complained, turning up the heat. ‘It’s like December.’ Out of the corner of his eye he noticed her narrow hers and smile. ‘You’re cranky, are you?’ ‘Not really,’ he said. ‘You OK?’ ‘Course I am.’ They were at the car park exit; he leaned over the steering wheel and stared into the traffic.


pages: 407 words: 117,763

In the City of Bikes: The Story of the Amsterdam Cyclist by Pete Jordan

active transport: walking or cycling, business process, car-free, centre right, German hyperinflation, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, post-work, urban planning

The frustrated driver repeatedly honks his horn and calls them idiots, all to the delight of the blissful couple. Eventually the dinking pair cycle straight through an open door into a liquor store. Within a year, I watched more than a hundred Dutch films. When any Netherlander learned this, he or she usually first expressed disbelief and then sympathy, saying this figure was about a hundred more than the number of Dutch films he’d ever seen. I also spent my postwork afternoons sitting and watching the cyclists while carefully tallying any number of their noteworthy characteristics. For example, intrigued by the fact that so many Amsterdammers ate while cycling, I kept track of their tastes. The most popular food item consumed, by far, was apples; they outnumbered the second-place item, ice-cream cones, three-to-one. These were followed by (in descending order of popularity) sandwiches, croissants, ice-cream bars, Popsicles and bananas.


Lonely Planet Amsterdam by Lonely Planet

3D printing, Airbnb, haute couture, haute cuisine, post-work, QR code, Silicon Valley, trade route, tulip mania, young professional

Tunes BarCOCKTAIL BAR ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; www.conservatoriumhotel.com; Conservatorium Hotel, Van Baerlestraat 27; h12.30pm-1am Mon-Thu, to 2am Fri & Sat, to midnight Sun; j2/3/5/12/16 Van Baerlestraat) A small but exceedingly sleek bar inside the stunning Conservatorium Hotel, this has a long transparent bar and wow-factor flower displays to admire while you sample one of its speciality G&Ts, such as a Gin Mare, with orange, basil and fevertree tonic, or Monkey 47, with elderflower and blackberries. There's also a fine cocktail list, with all drinks around the €20 mark. Café BédierBROWN CAFE ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %020-662 44 15; Sophialaan 36; hnoon-1am Mon-Thu, to 3am Fri, 11am-3am Sat, to 1am Sun; j2 Amstelveenseweg) Café Bédier is a post-work favourite with a terrace out the front that is often so crowded on a summer evening that it looks like a street party in full swing. Inside it also gets rammed; the leather-upholstered wall panels, modular seats and hardwood floors put a 21st-century twist on classic brown cafe decor. Top-notch bar food, too. Golden Brown BarBAR ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; www.goldenbrownbar.nl; Jan Pieter Heijestraat 146; h11am-1am Mon-Thu, to 3am Fri & Sat; W; j1 Jan Pieter Heijestraat) This perennially hip, two-level bar with painted brickwork and cool colour palette attracts a young professional crowd that spills out onto the pavement.


pages: 410 words: 119,823

Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Some on the left—accelerationists such as Alex Williams and Nick Srnicek and the proponents of Fully Automated Luxury Communism prominent among them—have argued that the ends of economic justice in our time are best served by maximum automation and the elimination of work.15 Thinkers of this stripe argue that the soonest possible supplantation of human labor by cybernetic means is something close to an absolute ethical imperative. In some ways, left accelerationism is just a contemporary gloss applied to the visions of total leisure that were developed by the generations immediately preceding, in a few distinct currents. Forerunners like Constant Nieuwenhuys, the French Situationists, and the radical Italian architectural practice Superstudio explored the spatial dimensions of post-work society between the late 1950s and mid-1970s, developing conceptions of what urban environments might look like when more broadly arranged around self-actualization and play, while it was left to second-wave feminist thought to explore the social dimensions of full automation. Shulamith Firestone organizes much of the later argument of her 1970 The Dialectic of Sex on “machines that … surpass man in original thinking or problem-solving,” “the abolition of the labor force itself under a cybernetic socialism, the radical restructuring of the economy to make ‘work,’ i.e. wage labor, no longer necessary,” and ultimately the creation of a society in which “both adults and children could indulge in serious ‘play’ as much as they wanted.”16 And automated production, of course, furnishes Valerie Solanas one of the hinges of her SCUM Manifesto, with its ever-resonant demand to “overthrow the government, eliminate the money system, institute complete automation and destroy the male sex.”17 But for that last, these themes have recently reemerged to be picked up and developed in the contemporary accelerationist discourse, after a long interval during which utopian thought on the left seemed more captivated by the possibilities of networks than by any catalyzed by automation per se.


pages: 385 words: 123,168

Bullshit Jobs: A Theory by David Graeber

1960s counterculture, active measures, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, David Graeber, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, full employment, global supply chain, High speed trading, hiring and firing, informal economy, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, moral panic, post-work, precariat, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software as a service, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, unpaid internship, wage slave, wages for housework, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, éminence grise

The Nature of Work: An Introduction to Debates on the Labour Process. London: Macmillan, 1983. Veltman, Andrea. Meaningful Work. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. Wall, Richard. Family Forms in Historic Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London: Unwin Press, 1930. Weeks, Kathi. The Problem with Work: Feminism, Marxism, Antiwork Politics, and Postwork Imaginaries. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2011. Western, Mark, and Erik Olin Wright. “The Permeability of Class Boundaries to Intergenerational Mobility Among Men in the United States, Canada, Norway, and Sweden.” American Sociological Review 59, no. 4 (August 1994): 606–29. White, R. “Motivation Reconsidered: The Concept of Competence.” Psychological Review 66 (1959): 297–333. Williams, Eric.


pages: 874 words: 154,810

Lonely Planet Florence & Tuscany by Lonely Planet, Virginia Maxwell, Nicola Williams

Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Costa Concordia, G4S, haute couture, Kickstarter, period drama, post-work, Skype, trade route

BEST COOKING CLASSES » Pepenero (Click here) » Scuola di Arte Culnaria Cordon Bleu (Click here) » In Tavola (Click here) When to Eat » Colazione (breakfast) is a quick dash into a bar or cafe for a short sharp espresso and cornetto (croissant) or brioche (pastry) standing at the bar. » Pranzo (lunch) is traditionally the main meal of the day, though Tuscans now tend to share the main family meal in the evening. Standard restaurant times are noon or 12.30pm to 2.30pm; locals don’t lunch before 1pm. » Aperitivo (aperitif) is the all-essential post-work, early-evening drink that takes place any time between 5pm and 10pm when the price of your cocktail (€8 to €10 in Florence) includes a copious buffet of nibbles, finger foods, or even salads, pasta and so on. » Cena (dinner) has traditionally been lighter than lunch. The traditional Tuscan belt-busting, five-course whammy only happens on Sunday and feast days. Standard restaurant times are 7.30pm to around 10pm (often later in Florence and across the board in summer).


pages: 459 words: 144,009

Upheaval: Turning Points for Nations in Crisis by Jared Diamond

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, correlation coefficient, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, interchangeable parts, invention of writing, Jeff Bezos, medical malpractice, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, post-work, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, The Spirit Level, traffic fines, transcontinental railway, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Japan’s male/female pay differential for full-time employees is the third highest (exceeded only by South Korea and Estonia) among 35 rich industrial countries. A Japanese woman employee is paid on average only 73% of a man employee at the same level, compared to 85% for the average rich industrial country, ranging up to 94% for New Zealand. Work obstacles for women include the long work hours, the expectation of post-work employee socializing, and the problem of who will take care of the children if a working mother is expected to stay out socializing, and if her husband is also unavailable or unwilling. Child care is a big problem for working Japanese mothers. On paper, Japanese law guarantees women four weeks of maternity leave before and eight weeks after childbirth; some Japanese men are also entitled to paternity leave; and a 1992 law entitles parents to take one whole year of unpaid leave to raise a child if they so choose.


pages: 475 words: 149,310

Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, David Graeber, Defenestration of Prague, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global village, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, late capitalism, liberation theology, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Paul Samuelson, post-work, private military company, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Richard Stallman, Slavoj Žižek, The Chicago School, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

See www.kwru.org. 61 Ashwin Desai, We Are the Poors (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2002), 44. 62 On the proposal of guaranteed income or citizenship income, the fundamental text from the point of view of classical and monetary economics is Philippe Van Parijs, Real Freedom for All (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995). See also André Gorz, Reclaiming Work: Beyond the Wage-Based Society, trans. Chris Turner (Cambridge: Polity, 1999); André Gorz, L’immatériel (Paris: Galilée, 2003); Ulrich Beck, The Brave New World of Work (Cambridge: Polity, 2000); Edoardo Matarazzo Suplicy, Renda de cidadania (São Paulo: Cortez, 2002); and Stanley Aronowitz and Jonathan Cutler, eds., Post-Work (New York: Routledge, 1998). 63 On “social-movement unionism,” see Kim Moody, Workers in a Lean World: Unions in the International Economy (London: Verso, 1997). 64 For more information on the strikes of part-time workers and “intérimaires,” see the Web site of the group “Les précaires associés de Paris,” http://pap.ouvaton.org. 65 Unfortunately, twentieth-century readings of Dostoyevsky’s novel have been dominated and impoverished by its relation to Russian communism.


pages: 928 words: 159,837

Florence & Tuscany by Lonely Planet

Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, European colonialism, haute couture, Kickstarter, period drama, post-work, sensible shoes, Skype, trade route, urban planning

When to Eat » Colazione (breakfast) Breakfast for most Tuscans is a quick dash into a bar or cafe for a short sharp espresso and cornetto (Italian croissant) or brioche (breakfast pastry) balanced on the saucer standing at the bar. » Pranzo (lunch) Traditionally, the main meal of the day, though many Tuscans now tend to share the main family meal in the evening. Many businesses close for la pausa (afternoon break). Standard restaurant times are noon or 12.30pm to 2.30pm, though most locals don’t lunch before 1pm. » Aperitivo (aperitif) Fabulously popular in Florence, that all-essential post-work, early-evening drink can take place any time between 5pm and 10pm when the price of your cocktail (€8 to €10 in Florence) includes an eat-yourself-silly buffet of nibbles, finger foods, even salads, pasta and so on. » Apericena This growing trend among 20- and 30-something Florentines sees that copious aperitivo buffet double as cena (dinner). » Cena (dinner) Traditionally, dinner is lighter than lunch though still a main meal.


Sweden by Becky Ohlsen

accounting loophole / creative accounting, car-free, centre right, clean water, financial independence, glass ceiling, haute couture, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, mass immigration, New Urbanism, period drama, place-making, post-work, starchitect, the built environment, white picket fence

In summer, you can munch away in a sunny courtyard tucked between stately old mills. Pappa Grappa Bar & Trattorian (18 00 14; Gamla Rådstugugatan 26-28; mains Skr120-255; 6pm-late Mon-Sat, pizzeria also open Sun) Gobble up a brilliant wood-fired pizza in the pizzeria, or slip into the vaulted restaurant for scrumptious antipasto and meat and fish mains. Established by an Italian ballroom dancing champion, there’s also an on-site deli for take-home treats. Favourite post-work drinking spots include cellar pub Stopet (10 07 40; Gamla Torget) and nearby Pub Wasa (18 26 05; Gamla Rådstugugatan). The Bishop’s Arms (36 41 20; Tyska Torget 2), at the Grand Hotel, is a good English-style pub with a great river view. The blocks between Drottninggatan and Olai Kyrkogata contain shopping centres that are packed with chain stores and supermarkets. For an alcohol fix, drop into Systembolaget (Drottninggatan 50B).


Frommer's San Francisco 2012 by Matthew Poole, Erika Lenkert, Kristin Luna

airport security, Albert Einstein, Bay Area Rapid Transit, California gold rush, car-free, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, El Camino Real, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Loma Prieta earthquake, Mason jar, Maui Hawaii, place-making, Port of Oakland, post-work, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Le Colonial ★ VIETNAMESE Viet-chic environs and quality French Vietnamese food make this an excellent choice for folks who want to nosh at one of the sexiest restaurants in town. Picture slowly spinning ceiling fans, tropical plants, rattan furniture, and French colonial decor. The upstairs lounge (which opens at 4:30pm) is where romance reigns, with cozy couches, seductive surroundings, and a well-dressed cocktail crowd of post-work professionals who nosh on coconut-crusted crab cakes and Vietnamese spring rolls. In the tiled downstairs dining room and along the stunning heated front patio, guests savor the vibrant flavors of coconut curry with black tiger prawns, mangos, eggplant, and Asian basil and tender wok-seared beef tenderloin with watercress onion salad. 20 Cosmo Place (off Taylor St., btw. Post and Sutter sts.). 415/931-3600. www.lecolonialsf.com.


Lonely Planet Iceland (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Carolyn Bain, Alexis Averbuck

Airbnb, banking crisis, car-free, carbon footprint, cashless society, centre right, European colonialism, food miles, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, post-work, presumed consent, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, undersea cable

HressingarskálinnPUB ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; www.hresso.is; Austurstræti 20; h9am-1am Sun-Thu, 10am-4.30am Fri & Sat; W) Known as Hressó, this large cafe-bar serves a diverse menu until 10pm (everything from porridge to plokkfiskur; mains Ikr1700 to Ikr4500), then at weekends it loses its civilised veneer and concentrates on drinks and dancing. DJs offer pop and rock Thursday through Saturday. BastBAR ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %519 7579; www.bast.is; Hverfisgata 20; h11am-midnight Mon-Wed, to 1am Thu-Sat, to 8pm Sun) A young, happy post-work crowd fills this warehouse-like space hosting good DJs. LavabarinnCLUB ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; Lækjargata 6; h5pm-1am Thu, to 4.30am Fri & Sat) DJs get this former illegal gentlemen's club pumping with house, R&B, electronica and pop. English PubPUB (Enski Barinn; MAP GOOGLE MAP ; www.enskibarinn.is; Austerstræti 12a; hnoon-1am Sun-Thu, to 4.30am Fri & Sat) Reliable pub for catching football matches. 3Entertainment The vibrant Reykjavík live-music scene is ever-changing.


The Rough Guide to Jamaica by Thomas, Polly,Henzell, Laura.,Coates, Rob.,Vaitilingam, Adam.

buttonwood tree, call centre, centre right, colonial rule, computer age, ghettoisation, jitney, Kickstarter, post-work, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sustainable-tourism, trade route

Rarely crowded, it attracts a mature and upmarket clientele who come to dance or take in occasional live bands. Call ahead for details of special events. Mingles Courtleigh Hotel, 85 Knutsford Blvd T929 9000. Indoor and outdoor sections of this in-hotel nightclub provide pleasant settings for a drink during the week. Peppers 31 Upper Waterloo Rd. Late-opening and permanently popular outdoor bar that pulls in post-work drinkers and then younger clubbers, who pack out the outdoor dancefloor. There’s a huge line of pool tables, and inexpensive Jamaican food is available. Especially good every other Saturday night when the bar hosts Kingston’s best Latin party. Pure Trinidad Terrace, in the heart of New Kingston. Modern, sophisticated and uber-trendy, Pure is the first lounge to open in Kingston and is a perfect spot for early evening cocktails.


Lonely Planet London by Lonely Planet

Boris Johnson, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, congestion charging, discovery of the americas, East Village, Etonian, financial independence, haute couture, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market design, place-making, post-work, Skype, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent

From Hogarth’s 18th-century Gin Lane prints to Mayor Boris Johnson’s decision to ban all alcohol on public transport in 2008, the capital’s history has been shot through with the population’s desire to imbibe as much alcohol as possible and revel like there is no tomorrow. The Pub The pub (public house) is at the heart of London’s existence and is one of the capital’s great social levellers. Virtually every Londoner has a ‘local’ and looking for your own is one of the highlights of any visit to the capital. Pubs in central London are mostly drinking dens, busy from 5pm onwards with the postwork crowd during the week and revellers at weekends. But in more residential areas in East, South, West and North London, pubs come into their own at weekends, when long lunches turn into afternoons and groups of friends settle in for the night. Many also run popular quizzes on week nights. Ale on tap NAKI KOUYIOUMTZIS/PHOTOLIBRARY © You’ll be able to order almost anything you like in a pub, from beer to wine, soft drinks, spirit and mixer (whisky and coke etc) and sometimes hot drinks too.


pages: 686 words: 201,972

Drink: A Cultural History of Alcohol by Iain Gately

barriers to entry, British Empire, California gold rush, corporate raider, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haight Ashbury, Hernando de Soto, imperial preference, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Jones Act, Louis Pasteur, megacity, music of the spheres, Norman Mailer, Peace of Westphalia, post-work, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, strikebreaker, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, working poor

While the gerontocracy demanded and received respect for their years when behind their desks, after work, off premises, and over a drink, they let their young Turks speak. The Japanese divided business into two parts: “dry” relations, i.e., meetings during office hours; and mizu shobai, or the “water trade,” which took place at night in bars. For the dry portion of each working day, salarymen maintained the ancient ethos of seniority through age, and juniors were expected to refrain from passing an opinion. However, at postwork drinking sessions, after a single drink, the same subordinates were deemed to be “drunk” and given license to speak their minds. This convention allowed ideas to flow between different levels of staff that might otherwise have been stifled by tradition. Therefore, in order to make an impression, an aspiring salaryman was required to drink and to be theoretically, if not actually, drunk most evenings.


pages: 420 words: 219,075

Frommer's New Mexico by Lesley S. King

Albert Einstein, clean water, El Camino Real, place-making, post-work, Ronald Reagan, sustainable-tourism, trade route, X Prize

My favorite for lunch is the green-chile cheeseburger made with New Mexico grass-fed beef. Lunch also brings more formal dishes such as a grilled Atlantic salmon with grilled vegetables and mango salsa. At dinner, the prime rib is a big hit, as is the filet mignon, both served with a potato and vegetable. For dessert, try the chocolate pot. The bar here romps during happy hour, when the booths fill up, martinis nearly overflow, and reasonably priced menu items sate postwork appetites. 7 SANTA FE Mexico, he grew up in Santa Fe, where he started his career as a dishwasher. After formal training, he became executive chef at some of the city’s finest restaurants. Finally at his own eatery, he serves innovative flavors often utilizing chile peppers and local, seasonal ingredients. At lunch the delicious grilled-vegetable panini has eggplant, camembert, and golden tomatoes.


France (Lonely Planet, 8th Edition) by Nicola Williams

active transport: walking or cycling, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, Columbine, double helix, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information trail, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, post-work, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Sloane Ranger, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

Barberousse (Map; 04 72 00 80 53; 18 rue Terrailles, 1er; Hôtel de Ville; 7pm-3am Tue-Sat) The busiest time of day at this student-loved shooter bar, one of a handful of nightlife venues on back-alley rue Terrailles, is between 8pm and 10pm when its flavoured rums are downed sur le pouce (on the cheap). Cinnamon, chestnut, violet or rhubarb and caramel…the choice is exotic. Ké Pêcherie (Map; 04 78 28 26 25; quai de la Pêcherie, 1er; Hôtel de Ville; 7am-1.30am) Trendy with an older set, this Saône-side space spans the whole spectrum of drinking: daytime café, late-afternoon lounge bar, postwork aperitif and heaving music venue. Andy Walha (Map; 04 78 30 54 48; 29 rue de l’Arbre Sec, 1er; Hôtel de Ville; 11am-3am) Warhol inspires the pop-art decor at this cocktail bar where a beautiful set quaffs champagne, cocktails and elderflower cordial well past midnight. Food too: smoked salmon, foie gras (fattened liver) and gourmet half- or full-sized mixed platters (€14/26). Soda Bar (Map; 06 50 25 55 44; www.soda-bar.fr, in French; 7 rue de la Martinière, 1er; Hôtel de Ville; 6pm-1am Mon-Wed, 6pm-3am Thu & Fri, 8pm-3am Sat) Spirited bar staff juggle bottles between drinks (called ‘flair bartending’ apparently) at this contemporary cocktail bar with an exotic drinks menu.

Everyone has to sit on the terrace here at least once and have a coffee or the famous hot chocolate served in porcelain jugs. Montparnasse The most popular places to while away the hours over a drink or coffee in Montparnasse are large café-restaurants like La Coupole and Le Dôme on bd du Montparnasse. Cubana Café (Map; 01 40 46 80 81; 47 rue Vavin, 6e; Vavin; 11am-3am Sun-Wed, 11am-5am Thu-Sat) The perfect place to have cocktails and tapas (€3.70 to €7.10) before carrying on to the clubs of Montparnasse. A post-work crowd sinks into the comfy leather armchairs beneath oil paintings of everyday life in Cuba. Le Rosebud (Map; 01 43 35 38 54; 11bis rue Delambre, 14e; Edgar Quinet or Vavin; 7pm-2am) Like the sleigh of that name in Citizen Kane, Rosebud harkens to the past. Enjoy an expertly mixed champagne cocktail or whisky sour amid the quiet elegance of polished wood and aged leather. Opéra & Grands Boulevards De la Ville Café (Map; 01 48 24 48 09; 34 bd de Bonne Nouvelle, 10e; Bonne Nouvelle; 11am-2.30am) This one-time brothel has an alluring, slightly confused mix of restored history (original mosaic tiles, distressed walls) and modern design.


The Rough Guide to New York City by Martin Dunford

Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Buckminster Fuller, buttonwood tree, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Thorp, Exxon Valdez, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, market bubble, Norman Mailer, paper trading, post-work, Saturday Night Live, sustainable-tourism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, Yogi Berra, young professional

Stonewall 53 Christopher St, between Waverly Place and Seventh Ave S T 212/488-2705. Yes, that Stonewall, site of the seminal 1969 riot, mostly refurbished and flying the pride flag like they own it – which, one could say, they do. Bingo, DJs, drag variety shows, and comedy nights; call ahead to see what’s on. Therapy 348 W 52nd St, between Eighth and Ninth aves T 212/397-1700. Sleek bar/lounge geared to Midtowners and the post-work drinking crowd. DJ sets (weekends) and drag shows, washed down with signature cocktails that keep up the psychological theme like the Gender Bender (citron vodka, lemonade, and watermelon juice) and the Anorexic (rum and diet Red Bull in a Splenda-rimmed glass). Vlada 331 W 51st St, between Eighth and Ninth aves T 212/974-8030. Really, another Russian-leaning gay bar? This one couldn’t be more different: it’s in Midtown West, with a decidedly posh and trendy feel.


Germany Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, bank run, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, double helix, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Eisenman, post-work, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sensible shoes, Skype, starchitect, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, white picket fence

Candlelit, artist-designed and cosy, the postage-stamp-sized boîte exudes an almost existentialist vibe, so don your black turtleneck and join the chatty crowd for Bordeaux and sweaty cheeses. Hops & Barley PUB Offline map Google map (2936 7534; Wühlischstrasse 40; Warschauer Strasse, Warschauer Strasse) Conversation flows as freely as the unfiltered pilsner, malty dunkel (dark), fruity weizen (wheat) and potent cider produced right at this congenial microbrewery inside a former butcher’s shop. Fellow beer lovers range from skinny-jean hipsters to suits swilling post-work pints among ceramic-tiled walls and shiny copper vats. Half a litre is €3.10. Monster Ronson’s Ichiban Karaoke Offline map Google map Ronson’s Ichiban Karaoke KARAOKE (8975 1327; www.karaokemonster.com; Warschauer Strasse 34; Warschauer Strasse, Warschauer Strasse) Knock back a couple of brewskis if you need to loosen your nerves before belting out your best Britney or Lady Gaga at this mad, great karaoke joint.


Germany by Andrea Schulte-Peevers

Albert Einstein, bank run, Berlin Wall, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, computer age, credit crunch, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Google Earth, haute couture, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Eisenman, place-making, post-work, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Skype, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, white picket fence

Monster Ronson’s Ichiban Karaoke (Map; 8975 1327; Warschauer Strasse 34; from 7pm) Knock back a couple of ‘brewskis’ if you need to loosen your nerves before belting out your best J Lo or Justin at this kooky karaoke joint. Pop Idol wannabes can pick from thousands of songs and hit the stage; shy types may prefer renting a private party room (per hour €12). Hops & Barley (Map; 2936 7534; Wühlischstrasse 38) Conversation flows as freely as the beer (and cider) produced right at this congenial microbrewery. Share a table with low-key locals swilling postwork pints and munching rustic Treberbrot, a hearty bread made with a natural by-product from the brewing process. Return to beginning of chapter Charlottenburg & Schöneberg Galerie Bremer (Map; 881 4908; Fasanenstrasse 37; from 8pm Mon-Sat) Entering this tiny bar tucked behind an art gallery feels like slipping into a swanky ’20s speakeasy. The air, though, is rather genteel, grown-up and completely devoid of debauchery.


pages: 1,744 words: 458,385

Frommer's California 2009 by Matthew Poole, Harry Basch, Mark Hiss, Erika Lenkert

airport security, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Columbine, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, El Camino Real, European colonialism, Frank Gehry, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, indoor plumbing, Joan Didion, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, post-work, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

Finds VIETNAMESE Viet-chic envir ons—picture slo wly spinning Le C olonial ceiling fans, tr opical plants, rattan furnitur e, and F rench Colonial decor—and quality French Vietnamese food make this an ex cellent choice for folks who want to nosh at one of the sexiest r estaurants in town. The upstairs lounge (which opens at 4:30pm) is wher e romance r eigns, with cozy couches, seductiv e surr oundings, and a w ell-dressed cocktail crowd of post-work professionals who nosh on coconut-crusted crab cakes and Vietnamese spring rolls. In the tiled downstairs dining room and along the stunning heated front patio, guests savor the vibrant flavors of coconut curry with black tiger prawns, mangos, eggplant, and Asian basil and tender wok-seared beef tenderloin with watercress onion salad. 20 Cosmo Place (off Taylor St., btw. Post and Sutter sts.). & 415/931-3600. www.lecolonialsf.com.


Bookkeeping the Easy Way by Wallace W. Kravitz

double entry bookkeeping, information retrieval, post-work, profit motive

Know Your Vocabulary Balance Cross referencing Footings In balance Posting Trial balance < previous page page_48 next page > < previous page page_49 next page > Page 49 Questions 1. What steps are followed in posting journal entries? 2. On which side of accounts are balances normally found? 3. a) What does the journal posting refer to? b) What does the account posting refer to? 4. A bookkeeping clerk resumes his/her posting work after returning from lunch. How will he/she know where to resume? 5. What does a trial balance ''in balance" prove? Problems 7-1 After each account is posted, enter the account number in the posting reference column. < previous page page_49 next page > < previous page page_50 next page > Page 50 (A partial ledger is shown here.) < previous page page_50 next page > < previous page page_51 next page > Page 51 7-2 Below, in T-account form, is the general ledger for Alan Korn, who operates a computer consulting firm: Cash No. 11 1500 00 100 00 750 00 50 00 495 00 75 00 500 00 Hi-Tech Company No. 21 75 00 2000 00 Alan Korn, Capital No.31 3060 00 Services Income No. 41 750 00 495 00 Equipment No. 12 3500 00 465 00 Supplies No. 13 60 00 Comp-Software Company No. 22 465 00 Alan Korn, Drawing No. 32 500 00 Advertising Expense No. 51 100 00 Utilities Expense No. 52 50 00 (1) Pencil-foot the ledger to find the balance of each account. (2) Prepare a trial balance, using today's date

Steps in posting journal entries: (1) For the account debited, enter the amount on the debit side of the account. (2) Enter the year, month, and day in the date column (do not repeat the year or month). (3) Enter the journal page number in the posting reference column of the account. (4) Enter the account number in the posting reference column of the journal. 2. Account balances are normally found on the side the account increases. 3. (a) Journal posting refers to the account. (b) Account posting refers to the journal page. 4. A clerk resumes posting work after the last account posting indicated in the journal. 5. A trial balance ''in balance" proves that debit and credit column totals are correct. < previous page page_241 next page > < previous page page_242 next page > Page 242 Problems < previous page page_242 next page > < previous page page_243 next page > Page 243 7-2 (1) and (2) Cash 2,020.00 Equipment 3,965.00 Supplies 60.00 Korn, Drawing 500.00 Advertising Expense 100.00 Utilities Expense 50.00 Total 6,695.00 Hi-Tech 1,925.00 Comp-Software 465.00 Korn, Capital 3,060.00 Services Income 1,245.00 Total 6,695.00 < previous page page_243 next page > < previous page page_244 next page > Page 244 < previous page page_244 next page > < previous page page_245 next page > Page 245 7-3 (3) Cash 1,275.00 Equipment 1,642.50 Supplies 355.00 Schaffer, Drawing 300.00 Miscellaneous Expense Total Jessup Bank Schaffer, Capital Fee Income Total Think It Over 65.00 3,637.50 825.00 2,372.50 440.00 3,637.50 Fowler should retrace the steps in the procedure: 1) check trial balance column totals 2) verify that accounts are entered in proper debit or credit column 3) verify correct account balances 4) check posting procedure for each entry 5) verify proper journal entry Jacobs neglected to journalize and post an entry for the same amount$50thus not affecting the equality of debits and credits in the trial balance.


pages: 221 words: 46,396

The Left Case Against the EU by Costas Lapavitsas

anti-work, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, declining real wages, eurozone crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, neoliberal agenda, offshore financial centre, post-work, price stability, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck

See Hien and Joerges (2018) for an outstanding account of the specific character of ordoliberalism from a legal perspective as well as its retreat in Germany. 12. Ruoff (2016) shows the rapid rise of precarious work and the decline of stable employment after the Hartz Reforms. The rapid increase in low-paid employment already from the mid-1990s is noted by Hassel (2014). Benassi and Dorigatti (2015) document the relentless rise of agency work at the heart of the German industrial complex, eliciting the response of IG Metall. Posted work in the construction sector (i.e. work undertaken by employees sent by their employers to another EU member state) has also grown enormously (see Wagner 2015). The figures can be striking: thus Bispinck and Schulten (2011), drawing on the German Federal Employment Agency, report that ‘as a rule of thumb’ 40% of the total labour force can be considered as having an ‘atypical’ employment relationship. 13.

Adults in the Room: My Battle with Europe’s ‘Deep Establishment’, London: Penguin Random House. Vavouras, I. 2013. Economic Policy (in Greek), Athens: Papazisis. Verdun, A. 1999. ‘The Role of the Delors Committee in the Creation of EMU: An Epistemic Community?’, Journal of European Public Policy, 6(2): 308–28. Wagner, I. 2015. ‘Rule Enactment in a Pan-European Labour Market: Transnational Posted Work in the German Construction Sector’, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 53(4): 692–710. Webber, D. 2014. ‘How Likely Is It That the European Union Will Disintegrate? A Critical Analysis of Competing Theoretical Perspectives’, European Journal of International Relations, 20(2): 341–65. Weiler, J.H.H. 2012. ‘In the Face of Crisis: Input Legitimacy, Output Legitimacy and the Political Messianism of European Integration’, European Integration 34(7): 825–41.


pages: 52 words: 14,333

Growth Hacker Marketing: A Primer on the Future of PR, Marketing, and Advertising by Ryan Holiday

Airbnb, iterative process, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, market design, minimum viable product, Paul Graham, pets.com, post-work, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Wozniak, Travis Kalanick

In fact, based on the success of that collaboration, I worked with BitTorrent again with another client, the musician Alex Day. His results were equally stunning: 2,765,023 downloads, 276,409 page visits, 166,638 iTunes impressions, 52,151 Alex Day website impressions, and 5,000 new e-mail sign-ups for Alex’s mailing list. And we know what worked and what didn’t because we pored over the analytics. We looked at which blog posts worked and which didn’t, which drove traffic and which didn’t, what drove spikes in Amazon rank and what didn’t. This information will be crucial in subsequent launches and, of course, with my other clients. The Future of Marketing If you know the Way broadly you will see it in everything. —Musashi If something as old-school as publishing can be invigorated by the growth hacker approach, what else can?


pages: 132 words: 31,976

Getting Real by Jason Fried, David Heinemeier Hansson, Matthew Linderman, 37 Signals

call centre, David Heinemeier Hansson, iterative process, John Gruber, knowledge worker, Merlin Mann, Metcalfe's law, performance metric, post-work, premature optimization, Ruby on Rails, slashdot, Steve Jobs, web application

Give interviews to publications. Write articles that share helpful information. And write books. ;) An example from our own history is the Yellow Fade Technique, a method we invented to subtly spotlight a recently changed area on a page. We wrote a post about it on Signal vs. Noise. That post made the rounds and got thousands and thousands of page views (to this day it's doing huge traffic). The post worked on both an educational and a promotional level. A lesson was learned and a lot of people who never would have known about our products were exposed to them. Another example: During our development of Ruby on Rails, we decided to make the infrastructure open source. It turned out to be a wise move. We gave something back to the community, built up goodwill, garnered recognition for our team, received useful feedback, and began receiving patches and contributions from programmers all over the world.


pages: 211 words: 37,094

JQuery Pocket Reference by David Flanagan

Firefox, post-work, web application

Ajax Utility Functions The other high-level jQuery Ajax utilities are functions, not methods, and they are invoked directly through jQuery or $, not on a jQuery object. jQuery.getScript() loads and executes files of JavaScript code. jQuery.getJSON() loads a URL, parses it as JSON, and passes the resulting object to the specified callback. Both of these functions call jQuery.get(), which is a more general purpose URL-fetching function. Finally, jQuery.post() works just like jQuery.get() but performs an HTTP POST request instead of a GET. Like the load() method, all of these functions are asynchronous: they return to their caller before anything is loaded, and they notify you of the results by invoking a callback function that you specify. jQuery.getScript() The jQuery.getScript() function takes the URL of a file of JavaScript code as its first argument.


pages: 246 words: 68,392

Gigged: The End of the Job and the Future of Work by Sarah Kessler

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, financial independence, future of work, game design, gig economy, income inequality, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, job automation, law of one price, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, payday loans, post-work, profit maximization, QR code, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

And as a daycare provider, when she’d been stiffed by most of her clients the week before Christmas (because they were also struggling to make ends meet), she had marched to each of their homes with a letter explaining that she could not afford her own Christmas dinner and demanding payment. If Kristy couldn’t figure out how to make a living, it wouldn’t be because she hadn’t tried, and it wouldn’t be because she wasn’t a fighter. Her first idea was to work more hours on Mechanical Turk. Founded in 2005, Mechanical Turk is an online “crowdsourcing” marketplace run by Amazon. Its clients post work tasks on a dashboard that a “crowd” of workers can choose to complete. The process doesn’t work that much differently than Gigster’s process. But the tasks on Mechanical Turk are often simple and pay just cents each. They’re jobs like adding tags to images, filling out spreadsheets with contact information, or writing product descriptions for websites. While programmers who sign up for gigs on Gigster are called “remote talent,” workers who take small gigs on Mechanical Turk are called “crowd workers.”


pages: 361 words: 76,849

The Year Without Pants: Wordpress.com and the Future of Work by Scott Berkun

barriers to entry, blue-collar work, Broken windows theory, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Hangouts, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Lean Startup, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, post-work, remote working, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Stallman, Seaside, Florida, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the map is not the territory, Tony Hsieh, trade route, zero-sum game

When Mullenweg left Athens, we immediately began work on Highlander. Of the many features we knew it would have to include, we narrowed them down to find the simplest, easiest, highest-value project we could release first (what's often called MVP or minimum viable product). Putting our list of feature ideas aside for the moment, we applied the same design thinking we'd done for posting. If the blogger's experience posting worked like this: then the visitor's experience commenting was like this: The largest burden of convincing a visitor to decide to comment was on the blogger. Bloggers who wrote a better post were more likely to get visitors to write comments in response. But anything we could do to help the process was worth doing. The first step for every would-be commenter was to put in contact information, something WordPress required.


pages: 301 words: 89,076

The Globotics Upheaval: Globalisation, Robotics and the Future of Work by Richard Baldwin

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer vision, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, future of journalism, future of work, George Gilder, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Metcalfe’s law, new economy, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, post-work, profit motive, remote working, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, standardized shipping container, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, universal basic income

This went up on the site as a “job posting” that freelancers could respond to it with “proposals.” What I got was a dozen or so proposals, including some from freelancers that were suggested by Upwork’s matchmaker bot. After reading the proposals (short cover letters) and checking out their online profiles (which included the wage they were asking), I interviewed two of them online for about 15 minutes each. After hiring my preferred candidate, I started posting work via Upwork’s file sharing service, and communicating with the copyeditor on the site (the site sends me an email when there is a new message, or file posted). To reassure me that the hours billed by the freelancers are real, Upwork takes occasional screenshots of the freelancer’s screen while she is claiming to be working for me. The freelancer knows she’ll get paid since Upwork automatically charges the credit card I posted.


pages: 286 words: 82,065

Curation Nation by Rosenbaum, Steven

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, future of journalism, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, means of production, PageRank, pattern recognition, post-work, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, Yogi Berra

Having put aside for a moment the politics of the change in publishing, Blau says that there is a meaningful transformation under way: “What is clearly happening is that there are many, many, many more people speaking in public or some version of public without having to ask permission, some of whom seem to be able to accumulate large audiences, some audiences, the scale of traditional broadcast television or feature films.” But, of course, Keen doesn’t agree. “The reason why the Huffington Post is growing is because specialization is changing, and because of the existence now of more and more personal brands,” he argues. “The Huffington Post works because people get their stuff for free because they’re promoting themselves, their expertise; it reflects a free-agent nation. So again, it’s a new kind of meritocracy. The old kind of meritocracy would be you publish yourself and you sell it as a journalist, or you’d publish it in one of your professional guild magazines or publications. The Huffington Post reflects a meritocracy where we’re all peddling ourselves.


pages: 639 words: 212,079

From Beirut to Jerusalem by Thomas L. Friedman

Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, post-work, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, Unsafe at Any Speed

The truth is, I asked myself that question many times, especially when my colleagues began to be kidnapped. The first to be snatched, while walking to work, on March 7, 1984, was Jeremy Levin of Cable News Network, who lived in our apartment building just two floors above us. Levin had had a somewhat stormy relationship with the CNN bureau in Beirut, largely because he came in and tried to clean house and post work rules in what was a typical Beirut news bureau, where the local staff were all relatives and bookkeeping was “creative,” to say the least. It was a bit like posting work rules in Sodom and Gomorrah, so when Levin was abducted in the spring of 1984 my first thought was that one of the Lebanese in his own bureau might have arranged a pair of cement boots for him. The day Levin disappeared, CNN sent a two-man film crew over to our apartment house to take one of those clichéd close-up shots of the mailbox with his name on it.


pages: 322 words: 99,066

The End of Secrecy: The Rise and Fall of WikiLeaks by The "Guardian", David Leigh, Luke Harding

4chan, banking crisis, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, Downton Abbey, drone strike, eurozone crisis, friendly fire, global village, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, post-work, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

Others thought the revelations at least showed the bureaucracy of the state department in a fairly good light. In the Guardian, Timothy Garton Ash confessed he had been impressed by the professionalism of the US diplomatic corps – a hard-working and committed bunch. “My personal opinion of the state department has gone up several notches,” he wrote. “For the most part … what we see here is diplomats doing their proper job: finding out what is happening in places to which they are posted, working to advance their nation’s interests and their government’s policies.” Some world leaders brushed off the embarrassing revelations, at least in public, while others went on the attack. Iran’s President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who did not come out well in the disclosures of his regional unpopularity, dismissed the WikiLeaks data drop as “psychological warfare”. He claimed the US must have deliberately leaked its own files in a plot to discredit him.


pages: 346 words: 97,330

Ghost Work: How to Stop Silicon Valley From Building a New Global Underclass by Mary L. Gray, Siddharth Suri

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, big-box store, bitcoin, blue-collar work, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, deindustrialization, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial independence, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, hiring and firing, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, market friction, Mars Rover, natural language processing, new economy, passive income, pattern recognition, post-materialism, post-work, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, speech recognition, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, two-sided market, union organizing, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

As a direct result, the status of a workforce of millions is left in limbo. 1 TO 3 ON THE PAIN SCALE: HYPERVIGILANCE SPUN AS FLEXIBILITY The ability to see good work, on a reputable platform, and pluck it from a stream of projects hinges on a worker’s capacity to be in the right place at the right time. These workers must cultivate a hypervigilance that would have made Coase’s head spin. In interviewing dozens of on-demand workers, we saw two types of hypervigilance. The first was the need to spend hours wading and sorting through spam or suspicious offers for “at-home work,” searching for legitimate work on a legitimate platform. Because there are no legal requirements screening who posts work to on-demand marketplaces, workers had to make sure they weren’t signing up to a site that was simply looking to harvest their email address or that would open them up to identity theft. Lijo, 24, works for a business processing organization and lives in Bangalore, India. He learned about MTurk from a flyer stapled to a tree. He called the number, and the person who answered told him an account on the platform cost 1,000 rupees (almost $14).


Possiplex by Ted Nelson

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Bill Duvall, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, cuban missile crisis, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, HyperCard, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Murray Gell-Mann, nonsequential writing, pattern recognition, post-work, RAND corporation, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Vannevar Bush, Zimmermann PGP

"Ted successfully designed a system that leveraged these intuitions to give the users more power, more quickly, and more intuitively, and through a thinner interface, than I would have thought possible. Even I, when I went to use JOT, found that it would effortless [sic] do what I expected it to do, and what I wanted it to do. So long as I could make myself forget what I actually knew about the underlying formal complexity, JOT always seemed simple." -- Email from Mark Miller to the author, 2005.08.11. What would Jon Post have said about JOT? (ca.1978) Jonathan vos Post worked with Mark Miller on a version of JOT for the Z-80, as I recall. As they worked, Jon said to Mark, ‘Ted’s got some good ideas, but I think we should fix them.’ Mark replied, ‘I know Ted better than you do. Let’s try it his way first.’ Both were surprised by the result. Here is Jon’s reply when I recently asked him to summarize: “… your genius was not just in that JOT worked as you said it would, albeit with 100 times more lines of code than you predicted, but that it FELT the way you said it would.


pages: 382 words: 105,819

Zucked: Waking Up to the Facebook Catastrophe by Roger McNamee

4chan, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boycotts of Israel, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, computer age, cross-subsidies, data is the new oil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, game design, income inequality, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, laissez-faire capitalism, Lean Startup, light touch regulation, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

Animated GIFs work better than static photos. Sensational headlines work better than calm descriptions of events. As Tristan says, the space of true things is fixed, while the space of falsehoods can expand freely in any direction—false outcompetes true. From an evolutionary perspective, that is a huge advantage. People say they prefer puppy photos and facts—and that may be true for many—but inflammatory posts work better at reaching huge audiences within Facebook and other platforms. Getting a user outraged, anxious, or afraid is a powerful way to increase engagement. Anxious and fearful users check the site more frequently. Outraged users share more content to let other people know what they should also be outraged about. Best of all from Facebook’s perspective, outraged or fearful users in an emotionally hijacked state become more reactive to further emotionally charged content.


pages: 384 words: 118,572

The Confidence Game: The Psychology of the Con and Why We Fall for It Every Time by Maria Konnikova

attribution theory, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, epigenetics, hindsight bias, lake wobegon effect, lateral thinking, libertarian paternalism, Milgram experiment, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, post-work, publish or perish, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, side project, Skype, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, tulip mania, Walter Mischel

He had a lung condition that left him coughing amidst the smoke-filled air, and an elevated blood pressure that the stress of cell life did little to alleviate. But, he said, although it was a “very dehumanizing experience to be in prison,” adding that he and his fellow inmates were “treated like cattle,” he was staying creative, using the computer at Villa Devoto to continue with his research and follow field developments, like the Higgs boson discovery. He continued to post works in progress on ArXiv, an Internet repository of preprints in mathematical and scientific fields. Over the phone, he persisted in supervising two graduate students. He even found time to referee some journal articles. In October 2012, Frampton was allowed to leave the prison and instead spend his days under house arrest at an old friend’s home. His lawyers had convinced the judge that his lung condition was too dire, and ever-worsening, in the Villa Devoto cells.


pages: 349 words: 113,575

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest: 50th Anniversary Edition by Ken Kesey

financial independence, hiring and firing, post-work

He’d won his bet; he’d got the nurse’s goat the way he said he would, and had collected on it, but that didn’t stop him from going right ahead and acting like he always had, hollering up and down the hall, laughing at the black boys, frustrating the whole staff, even going so far as to step up to the Big Nurse in the hall one time and ask her, if she didn’t mind tellin’, just what was the actual inch-by-inch measurement on them great big ol’ breasts that she did her best to conceal but never could. She walked right on past, ignoring him just like she chose to ignore the way nature had tagged her with those outsized badges of femininity, just like she was above him, and sex, and everything else that’s weak and of the flesh. When she posted work assignments on the bulletin board, and he read that she’d given him latrine duty, he went to her office and knocked on that window of hers and personally thanked her for the honor, and told her he’d think of her every time he swabbed out a urinal. She told him that wasn’t necessary; just do his work and that would be sufficient, thank you. The most work he did on them was to run a brush around the bowls once or twice apiece, singing some song as loud as he could in time to the swishing brush; then he’d splash in some Clorox and he’d be through.


On the Road: Adventures From Nixon to Trump by James Naughtie

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Donald Trump, Ferguson, Missouri, Haight Ashbury, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Julian Assange, Mikhail Gorbachev, Norman Mailer, obamacare, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, white flight, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

In particular, he had no respect for wisdom or accumulated experience in government, a concept that appeared to offend his conviction that he could see around the next corner before anyone else. Hadn’t he said in the campaign that he knew more about ISIS than his generals, and didn’t need the help of CIA intelligence to navigate the world? After the inauguration, some of his officials had to begin to accept that he meant it. I spoke in early 2017 to a State Department lifer who had reason to understand. Tom Countryman became a diplomat in the early 1980s and, between foreign postings, worked in counter-terrorism, in the US delegation at the UN, on the staff of the National Security Council and, from 2011, was assistant secretary of the Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, dealing with Russia and arms reduction. He worked at the heart of the foreign policy and security machine for three Republican and two Democratic administrations, serving as a non-partisan official for presidents and secretaries of state of different colours, from Reagan to Obama.


pages: 439 words: 124,548

The Clockwork Rocket by Greg Egan

place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work

Yalda dragged the line around to bring the sacks within reach, slipped their drawstrings over her shoulders, then set off back to the mouth of the tunnel. The catapult sat on the other side of the guide rails. Yalda put the rubble sacks on holding hooks at the side of the machine, grasped a nearby support post with her two left hands, then started turning the crank that ratcheted the catapult’s launching plate back along its rails, stretching a set of springs below. As the crank began stiffening its resistance, she could feel the support post working itself loose from the ground. Cursing, she shifted her lower hands to the catapult, dug a mallet out of the tool hold, and bashed the support post half a dozen times. Yalda checked the post; it felt secure now. But as she bent to put the mallet back in the hold, she could feel a tiny rocking motion in the catapult itself: she’d managed to loosen some of the tapered wooden pegs that held its base against the ground.


pages: 363 words: 123,076

The Gang That Wouldn't Write Straight: Wolfe, Thompson, Didion, Capote, and the New Journalism Revolution by Marc Weingarten

1960s counterculture, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, Donner party, East Village, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Haight Ashbury, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Menlo Park, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, Norman Mailer, post-work, pre–internet, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, upwardly mobile, working poor, yellow journalism

It was an invaluable apprenticeship—for the first time, Wolfe was exposed to the political and cultural machinations of a multiethnic community—but Wolfe was eager to make it in a major city. Delighted by the exciting portrayals of newspaper life to be found in films such as Lewis Milestone’s The Front Page, he hungered for the competition and adrenaline rush of urban newspaper work, where reporters from four different papers might battle it out for a scoop. In 1959 Wolfe took a pay cut and landed a job at the Washington Post, working the city desk. Wolfe chafed at the Posts institutionalized, regimented approach to news gathering. “It was very much like an insurance office, with gray metal desks all lined up,” said Wolfe. “You couldn’t eat at your desk, and at one point, they even tried to ban smoking, but everyone just started climbing the walls.” As a cub reporter, Wolfe was beholden to his editors, who tended to assign standard-issue stories to him, which he would then embellish out of sheer boredom, turning crime blotter items into rococo flights of fancy.


pages: 519 words: 155,332

Tailspin: The People and Forces Behind America's Fifty-Year Fall--And Those Fighting to Reverse It by Steven Brill

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, future of work, ghettoisation, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, immigration reform, income inequality, invention of radio, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, old-boy network, paper trading, performance metric, post-work, Potemkin village, Powell Memorandum, quantitative hedge fund, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, telemarketer, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor

Issue One executive director Nick Penniman explained that he had come to the same conclusion when he left a journalism career to merge two smaller non-profits into Issue One in 2014. “I saw that all the issues I was writing about could be traced back to some policy dysfunction, which could always be traced back to money.” Although Penniman, then forty-four, had a left-leaning background (he ran investigative projects for The Huffington Post, worked with veteran public television broadcaster Bill Moyers, and was an editor at the liberal American Prospect), he has pushed Issue One in a determinedly bipartisan direction. In fact, he has worked hardest at converting Republicans, especially conservative Republicans, to the cause. Penniman’s website and the materials distributed to donors by Issue One—which raised about $2.5 million in 2017 and was hoping to raise a million dollars more in 2018—are adorned with pie charts demonstrating how fed up both Republicans and Democrats are: Polls show that 72 percent of Americans, including 66 percent of Republicans, favored government-financed, small-donor campaign finance systems.


pages: 554 words: 149,489

The Content Trap: A Strategist's Guide to Digital Change by Bharat Anand

Airbnb, Benjamin Mako Hill, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Minecraft, multi-sided market, Network effects, post-work, price discrimination, publish or perish, QR code, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, selection bias, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, two-sided market, ubercab, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Answer other learners’ questions and your course grade will improve. We’d graded students in our residential courses this way for years. During the previous decade, social networks had exploded, and so had the study of them. One question receiving attention had to do with why some social networks succeeded in encouraging certain behaviors, while others did not. For example, how did LinkedIn encourage participants to post work-related information, whereas Facebook postings were more personal? Why were users on Friendster interested in dating rather than building friendships, as its founders had intended? One emerging and powerful insight was that success rested on attracting the “right” users, giving them the “right” incentives to participate, and providing the “right” tools to engage in certain behaviors—it wasn’t about platform quality or social features per se.


pages: 589 words: 162,849

An Impeccable Spy: Richard Sorge, Stalin’s Master Agent by Owen Matthews

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, garden city movement, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, post-work, South China Sea, urban planning

In the meantime, Miyagi agreed to ‘participate in the ring, understanding completely that this activity was against the laws of Japan and that I would be executed in wartime for my espionage’.38 The first report Miyagi compiled for Sorge was on the mood of the army, gleaned mostly from newspaper reports and street gossip. Sorge was unimpressed. Miyagi had no local contacts of any sort, and though friendly and gregarious, Miyagi did not move in the kind of circles that could be of any use to the spy ring. What Sorge needed to make his Tokyo assignment worthwhile was a Japanese agent of a much higher calibre. Ozaki Hotsumi had spent the two years since the end of his Shanghai posting working in Osaka at the foreign desk of the Asahi Shimbun and living a quiet family life with his wife Eiko and young daughter Yoko, born in November 1929. A sweeping purge of Japanese communists had caught several of his old friends and comrades, but since Ozaki had always been careful never to formally join the party he remained above suspicion. In May 1934, Sorge decided that the time was ripe to seek out his old Shanghai collaborator.


pages: 706 words: 202,591

Facebook: The Inside Story by Steven Levy

active measures, Airbnb, Airbus A320, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, Oculus Rift, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sexual politics, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social software, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Tim Cook: Apple, web application, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Y2K

“Can you help us?” he asked. LeCun presented a list of requirements that Facebook would have to meet if he were to set up a lab. It would have to be a separate organization, with no ties to product groups. It would have to be completely open—no restrictions on publishing. The results they came up with would have to be open-source so they would benefit everyone. Oh, and LeCun would retain his NYU post, working there part-time, and base the new lab in New York City. No problem! said Zuckerberg, and the Facebook Artificial Intelligence Lab, or FAIR, now is centered in New York City, on the edge of NYU’s Greenwich Village campus. It is the horizon-exploring partner to the company’s Applied Machine Learning team, which directs its AI work to products. LeCun says that the integration worked superbly.


pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, lateral thinking, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, post scarcity, post-work, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Jim’s book (The Psychedelic Explorer’s Guide) offers comprehensive guidelines for this role, but in simple terms: “A good sitter is someone you trust. A great sitter is someone who loves you and you trust. A superlative sitter is someone who doesn’t have any agenda of their own. They don’t want you to see a certain thing. They don’t want you to be a certain way. They don’t want you to discover a certain thing.” With or without psychedelics, sounds like good criteria for close friends, too. On the Importance of “Pre” and “Post” Work There’s a saying in the psychedelic world: “If you get the answer, you should hang up the phone.” In other words, when you get the message you need, you shouldn’t keep asking (i.e., having more experiences), at least until you’ve done some homework assignments, or used the clarity gained to make meaningful changes. It’s easy to use the medicine as a crutch and avoid doing your own work, as the compounds themselves help in the short term as antidepressants.