cryptocurrency

42 results back to index


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

But that’s not what the proponents of this technology foresee—especially those in the cryptocurrency sector. They believe that decentralization is just getting started and that the centralized economic and political establishments—even governments and nation-states, those ultimate centralized loci of power—will be disrupted by it. If so, cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology could ride that wave triumphantly. A phrase from Mastercoin’s David Johnston that some in the cryptocurrency community call Johnston’s law could come true: “Everything that can be decentralized will be decentralized.” This especially optimistic view of cryptocurrency technology’s potential runs up against the many obstacles that it faces. But if we set aside cryptocurrencies for a moment, it’s hard not to believe that the decentralizing trend has momentum.

While business adopters could be the most powerful catalysts for change, they will watch how consumers and the general public view bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies before jumping. Most consumers may never show sufficient support. Consumer-focused digital-wallet, payment-processing, and bitcoin-depository services such as Coinbase, Bitreserve, Circle Internet Financial, and Xapo are making it easier to use cryptocurrencies and safer for the general public, trying to erase the lingering memory of Mt. Gox. But little evidence suggests that they’ve managed to reach people beyond the small groups of tech-minded early adopters and cryptocurrency enthusiasts currently using it. Perhaps cryptocurrency’s reputation has been forever ruined by bad press. Add to that public image the headache of capital-gains-tax tracking now required in the United States, as well as the regulatory burdens that make it hard for cryptocurrency providers to seamlessly reach ordinary consumers, and it’s possible that this new form of money will never gain appeal.

Well, keeping our imagination hats on, we could foresee a set of international standards to define what governments can and can’t do with digital money, maybe some sort of international board of cryptocurrency regulators to align rules and regulations that pertain to independent cryptocurrencies such as bitcoin. But given that nation-states have trouble keeping control of decentralized, leaderless cryptocurrencies, it’s fair to say international law would be even harder to impose. After all, there is no fully endorsed international criminal court; the one in The Hague isn’t recognized by Washington. The international realm exists in a state of quasi anarchy—a perfect fit for borderless cryptocurrencies. Some international agreements do stick, such as the Bretton Woods system of pegged currencies established in 1944 amid the crisis of World War II (and ended when President Nixon squelched the gold standard in 1971). Might a cryptocurrency crisis goad governments into another such sweeping agreement?


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

Fifth, there could be a RealJobs module connecting local employers with students for topical internships and jobs with industry exposure and job force readiness training, all in a rewards-structured environment. There are several efforts under way to support students learning about and using cryptocurrencies on university campuses. The student-founded Campus Cryptocurrency Network counts 150 clubs in its network as of September 2014 and is a primary resource for students interested in starting campus cryptocurrency clubs. In the future, this network could be the standard repository for templated Campuscoin applications. Likewise, students founded and operate theBitcoin Association of Berkeley and organized their first hackathon in November 2014. MIT, with the MIT Bitcoin Project, has made a significant commitment to encourage the use and awareness of cryptocurrency among students, and it plans to give half a million dollars’ worth of Bitcoin to undergraduates. Students were invited to claim their $100 of Bitcoin per person in October 2014.169 Stanford University has made an effort to develop cryptography courses, which it offers for free online.

CryptoCoins News, updated November 17, 2014. https://www.cryptocoinsnews.com/spanish-bank-bankinter-invests-bitcoin-startup-coinffeine/. 37 Mac, R. “PayPal Takes Baby Step Toward Bitcoin, Partners with Cryptocurrency Processors.” Forbes, September 23, 2014. http://www.forbes.com/sites/ryanmac/2014/09/23/paypal-takes-small-step-toward-bitcoin-partners-with-cryptocurrency-processors/. 38 Bensinger, G. “eBay Payments Unit in Talks to Accept Bitcoin.” The Wall Street Journal, August 14, 2014. http://online.wsj.com/articles/ebay-payment-unit-in-talks-to-accept-bitcoin-1408052917. 39 Cordell, D. “Fidor Bank Partners with Kraken to Create Cryptocurrency Bank.” CryptoCoins News, updated November 2, 2014. https://www.cryptocoinsnews.com/fidor-bank-partners-kraken-create-cryptocurrency-bank/. 40 Casey, M.J. “TeraExchange Unveils First U.S.-Regulated Bitcoin Swaps Exchange.” The Wall Street Journal, September 12, 2014. http://teraexchange.com/news/2014_9_12_Tera_WSJ.pdf. 41 Rizzo, P.

New York: Dutton Publishing, 2013. 194 Antonopoulos, A.M. Mastering Bitcoin: Unlocking Digital Crypto-Currencies. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, 2014. 195 Bostrom, N. Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2014. 196 Swan, M. “Blockchain-Enforced Friendly AI.” Crypto Money Expo, December 5, 2014. http://cryptomoneyexpo.com/expos/inv2/#schedule and http://youtu.be/qdGoRep5iT0/. Index A address, How a Cryptocurrency Works Airbnb, Government Regulation Alexandria, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel altcoin, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use altcoin wallet, How a Cryptocurrency Works alternative currencies, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use-Relation to Fiat Currency, Cryptocurrency Basics-Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List anti-censorship, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel APIs, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs Aráoz, Manuel, Proof of Existence archiving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation art (see digital art) artificial intelligence (AI), The Blockchain as a Path to Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Smart Contract Advocates on Behalf of Digital Intelligence artworks, Smart Property (see also digital art) Ascribe, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection autocitation, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin automated digital asset protection, Digital Asset Proof as an Automated Feature automatic markets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets autonomy, Smart Contracts B bandwidth, Technical Challenges banking industry (see financial services) betting, Bitcoin Prediction Markets, Smart Contracts big data, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation .bit domains, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System "Bitbank", Financial Services Bitcoin colored coins, Smart Property concept, Preface digital divide of, Digital Divide of Bitcoin M2M/IoT payment network, M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy MOOCs, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy neutrality, Blockchain Neutrality origins and applications overview, What Is Bitcoin?


pages: 296 words: 86,610

The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

If you would like to donate to the author, you can do so with the following QR code: Bitcoin Address: 3Bi1fhng5LfoDzue5MTfGw9PgHNKKgRkVt Disclaimer: Although I have attempted to make this book as accurate as possible, cryptocurrencies are complex and constantly evolving. So it is worth mentioning right off the bat: do your own research—things can change from month to month and week to week. I also make no claim to the legitimacy of the companies mentioned in this book, as their status can change at any time. Keywords altcoin: Short for “alternative cryptocurrency”; another cryptocurrency similar to Bitcoin. There are more than a thousand altcoins currently in existence; most are nearly exact copies of more successful cryptocurrencies, but some very innovative ones have been produced as well. ASIC: Application-specific integrated circuit. A piece of hardware designed to do one thing and one thing only. In the cryptocurrency world, it mines for a specific algorithm (SHA256, Scrypt, etc.).

As mentioned, Bitcoin doesn’t just bring basic banking to those without banking access; it also has the potential to bring advanced banking abilities to users around the world. Bitcoin 2.0 projects, as they are often called, can involve Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies. The main idea behind these projects is that the blockchain and blockchain technologies can be used to transfer and keep track of holdings of valuables other than Bitcoin or other digital currencies. Even if a 2.0 project is not built off of Bitcoin, like Ethereum, increased investment and interest in cryptocurrencies as a whole tend to increase Bitcoin’s value as well. Since Bitcoin is currently the most successful, secure, and popular cryptocurrency, any increased interest in cryptocurrencies as a whole has a positive effect on Bitcoin’s price. The first example of a “2.0” cryptocurrency was Namecoin, which, in addition to being a currency, acted as a distributed domain name registrar free from the control of any government, individual or group.

Afterward, merge mining became a popular feature in a lot of smaller cryptocurrencies. Dogecoin isn’t the future of Internet currency, as even its most adamant supporters admit. But that doesn’t mean it doesn’t have a place in the meantime. It has already passed all expectations and the rest of the cryptocurrency scene could learn a lot from Dogecoin’s community and its successes. Ripple/Stellar Ripple Labs technically existed before Bitcoin itself.6 It was originally a payment processor not all that different from PayPal. After Satoshi Nakamoto’s white paper was published and Bitcoin’s subsequent rise, the company decided to launch its own cryptocurrency, called Ripple. Ripple is different than Bitcoin and most other currencies. Many in the community argue that it isn’t a “true” cryptocurrency because of its centralized nature, and they might have a point.


pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, fixed income, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

Luckily, within a pure Bitcoin world, that potential global bank is you, if you are armed with a cryptocurrency wallet. A local cryptocurrency wallet skirts some of the legalities that existing banks and bank look-alikes (cryptocurrency exchanges) need to adhere to, but without breaking any laws. You take “your bank” with you wherever you travel, and as long as that wallet has local onramps and bridges into the non-cryptocurrency terrestrial world, then you have a version of a global bank in your pocket. This backdrop about the evolution of consumer-based cryptocurrency trading is important, because it demonstrates that we can achieve another form of connectedness by virtue of the blockchain itself, achieving a SWIFT-like3 effect. The 50 or so cryptocurrency exchanges that exist in various parts of the world are not overtly linked together, yet they are seamlessly connected by the blockchain.

One of the challenging issues with cryptocurrencies is their price volatility, which is enough to keep most consumers away. In a 2014 paper describing a method for stabilizing cryptocurrency, Robert Sams quoted Nick Szabo: “The main volatility in bitcoin comes from variability in speculation, which in turn is due to the genuine uncertainty about its future. More efficient liquidity mechanisms do not help reduce genuine uncertainty.” As cryptocurrency gains more acceptance and understanding, its future will be less uncertain, resulting in a more stable and gradual adoption curve. Cryptocurrency can have a “production” role for compensating miners who win rewards when they successfully validate transactions. Cryptocurrency can also have a “consumption” role when paying a small fee for running a smart contract (e.g., Ethereum’s ETH), or as a transaction fee equivalent (e.g., Ripple’s XRP or Bitcoin’s BTC).

In addition to venture capital, crowdfunding by self-issuing cryptocurrency or crypto-tokens is also another funding option. This approach carries some risks and uncertainty, due to lower external accountability controls. Although viable for certain cases, the success rates are not better than venture capital-funded startups. Volatility of Cryptocurrency Cryptocurrency volatility is a usage and confidence deterrent, but it is expected that volatility will gradually stabilize, tracking the increasing maturity and market adoption of the underlying technology behind each cryptocurrency. Eventually, bad actors and speculators will progressively become an insignificant minority with little to no impact on the overall health of cryptocurrencies. Onboarding New Users Most users cannot handle increased usage complexity, especially when the underlying technology is complex (the blockchain).


pages: 361 words: 97,787

The Curse of Cash by Kenneth S Rogoff

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, cryptocurrency, debt deflation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, ethereum blockchain, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial intermediation, financial repression, forward guidance, frictionless, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, moveable type in China, New Economic Geography, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, RFID, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, The Great Moderation, the payments system, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, unconventional monetary instruments, underbanked, unorthodox policies, Y2K, yield curve

A lot of truly fascinating science supports the different systems, and one can find many excellent treatments.2 Governments around the world have already begun regulating cryptocurrencies more aggressively. In the United States, Bitcoin wallets must now comply with anti-money-laundering rules, and the Internal Revenue Service has begun to issue rulings on how Bitcoin earnings should be taxed. The European Union, too, is in the process of intensifying its regulations. Where governments have the greatest leverage is in regulating how financial institutions interact with cryptocurrencies. In China, although trading in cryptocurrencies between individuals is legal at present, financial institutions are proscribed from buying, selling, and insuring these currencies or any derivative products. Advanced countries have temporarily taken a more hands-off approach, but this will not last forever.

They have deep conviction that with encrypted digital currencies like Bitcoin, someday no one will have to trust banks, either. For true believers in the promise of cryptocurrencies, trying to find ways of improving the current system, as this book aims to do, is a waste of time. Better to fast-forward to the brave new world where governments are no longer in the payments picture and no longer even control the unit of account. With all due respect to promising security advances offered by public ledger technology and the ingenious algorithms embodied in some of the new “currencies,” the view that Bitcoin—or any other cryptocurrency—is going to replace the dollar anytime soon is quite naive. As currency innovators have learned over the millennia, it is hard to stay on top of the government indefinitely in a game where the latter can keep adjusting the rules until it wins.

In the extreme, the quantitative effect of a Bencoin on banks’ lending capacities could be absolutely as dramatic as the Chicago plan (chapter 6) that effectively forces all private money substitutes to be 100% backed by government debt. Much would depend on regulation, however, including what alternatives private financial institutions were allowed to offer. CRYPTOCURRENCIES AND PRIVACY You might be wondering why I have framed the discussion of cryptocurrencies in terms of their security protocol and not their privacy features. It is true that much of the early publicity for Bitcoin surrounded dodgy retail merchants or underworld marketplaces, such as Silk Road, but the landscape is constantly evolving. For example, for many years, people regarded Bitcoin as a way to do anonymous transactions that the government can never detect.


pages: 275 words: 84,980

Before Babylon, Beyond Bitcoin: From Money That We Understand to Money That Understands Us (Perspectives) by David Birch

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, bank run, banks create money, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, capital controls, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, creative destruction, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, distributed ledger, double entry bookkeeping, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, index card, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Irish bank strikes, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, large denomination, M-Pesa, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, Northern Rock, Pingit, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Real Time Gross Settlement, reserve currency, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, social graph, special drawing rights, technoutopianism, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, wage slave, Washington Consensus, wikimedia commons

Chapter 13 Counting on cryptography A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution. — ‘Satoshi Nakamoto’ (2008) Having said earlier that the iconic technology of money is the plastic card, right now the iconic money of the future seems to be cryptocurrency. Spurred on by the widespread interest in Bitcoin, there are many people looking at the concept and wondering whether cryptocurrency – money that depends on cryptography rather than the belief of a community – might be a feature in the emerging money landscape. There are, of course, cryptocurrencies other than Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies that are yet to be invented (Birch 2015), but if we use Bitcoin as the case study then it seems the jury is out. Stefan Brands, a leading cryptographer and one of the pioneers of digital currency, describes Bitcoin as ‘clever’ and is loath to denigrate it, but he believes that, fundamentally, it is structured like ‘a pyramid scheme’ that rewards early adopters (Wallace 2011) – a charge also levelled by other observers of the financial markets (Robinson 2014).

The post-industrial economy needs a new kind of money, not one devised by representatives of the status quo, and it won’t be the single galactic currency of science fiction imagination (we can’t even make a single currency work between Germany and Greece, let alone between Ganymede and Gamma Centauri) but thousands, even millions, of currencies. Crypto-alternatives Not only will there be cryptocurrencies beyond Bitcoin and not only will they be better – more powerful and more efficient – there will also be a great many of them as the cost of launching a digital currency falls. Without launching into a treatise on cryptocurrencies, I think it would be useful to take a quick look at a couple of the newer cryptocurrencies on the block (pun intended) to give a sense of the spectrum of possibilities. Ethereum Ethereum is comparable to Bitcoin, in that it uses a blockchain, but it was designed to provide a better platform for shared ledger applications.

Participants can therefore choose which other participants they want to include in their ‘consensus quorum’ (Kelleher 2015). Rather than target consumers, Ripple targets banks, positioning itself as an efficient intermediary for payments, remittances and cross-border exchanges. It makes payments using its native cryptocurrency, ‘the ripple’ (XRP), by having users make digitally signed updates to its ledger and leaves the users to determine which other users they do or not trust for the purposes of consensus. Zcash As I write, at the end of 2016, the newest kid on the block is Zcash: a cryptocurrency with the added special sauce of genuine anonymity, rather than the pseudonymity that got some people into trouble when they used the Satoshi system for various nefarious purposes. The claim of Zcash’s founders is that it is true electronic cash because it shares the characteristics of cash, such as fungibility.


pages: 233 words: 66,446

Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, fixed income, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, land value tax, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks

Bitcointalk.org is the biggest forum – a good place to get opinions and stories (as well as all the usual misinformation you find on chat boards). Coinmarketcap.com is a useful site to introduce yourself to the altcoins. It gives you price information about the hundred biggest cryptocurrencies, as well links to their sites. For those with an interest in finance, I would also single out cryptocomposite.com. Its CC10 Index measures the performance of the top ten cryptocurrencies in real time. It’s almost certain to become the benchmark when tracker funds, ETFs and other financial vehicles eventually arrive to play the price of cryptocurrencies. As for vehicles to invest in block chain tech, they are coming – of that you can be sure – but they have not yet arrived. As this book goes to press, Ehereum is accepting investment – but you need bitcoins to invest.

A Billion-Dollar Hedge Fund Manager and a Super-Smart Mathematician Forecast the Future 10. Should You Buy In? 11. The People’s Money Appendix I: A Beginner’s Guide to Buying Bitcoins Appendix II: Who Is Satoshi? The Usual Suspects Acknowledgements Bibliography Notes Subscribers Author’s Note I have called this book Bitcoin: The Future of Money? Really, I should have called it Cryptocurrency: The Future of Money? Bitcoin is just one of many cryptocurrencies (don’t worry, I’ll explain what that means). It is, arguably, not even the first. But it is the first that works. And it is the one that has caught everyone’s attention. Rather as people say ‘Scotch tape’ or ‘Sellotape’ instead of ‘sticky-back plastic’, Bitcoin is the name everybody knows – hence my choice of title. I have quoted extensively from online forums and chat boards.

But with the failure of companies such as MtGox, you can bet there are many stories that are as disheartening as the above are amusing. The world of crypto-currencies (there are now over 300 altcoins) has attracted all sorts of crooks and fraudsters, as well as those who religiously think they are changing the world. There are scams and get-rich-quick schemes galore. It has become a free-for-all, like the gold rushes of the Wild West. Over time, things should settle. But one of the things you quickly notice is the sense of humour to it all. Many altcoins are based around a joke – ‘Coinye West’, for example. (When my father read this he asked, ‘What’s the joke?’) Many are simply in it for the laugh. Dogecoin is, according to its website, ‘an open source peer-to-peer cryptocurrency, favored by Shiba Inus worldwide’. (Shibu Inus are petite Japanese dogs that have a surprised look on their faces.)


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

Bitcoin, a new transnational currency released in the midst of the financial crisis in 2008–2009, offers a case study for the future of currency as the code-ification of money intensifies. Bitcoin is a “digital currency”—a currency that is stored in code and traded online. It is also a “cryptocurrency,” a term that is often used interchangeably with “digital currency” but signifies that the currency uses cryptographic methods in an attempt to make it secure. Bitcoin has become the world’s first cryptocurrency to gain widespread use. Although there are dozens of cryptocurrencies, it is currently the largest and most influential. At first glance, Bitcoin looks kind of like PayPal in that it offers a way to pay for goods online, with no physical interaction needed. As of the 2014 holiday season, some 21,000 merchants accepted bitcoins, including household names like Victoria’s Secret, Amazon, eBay, and Kmart.

Ripple is backed by Marc Andreessen’s VC firm Andreessen Horowitz and Peter Thiel’s Founder’s Fund. Most Silicon Valley figures push back whenever another cryptocurrency is mentioned. Investor Chamath Paliyipatiya believes Bitcoin will continue to dominate the space. “I don’t want to comment on other currencies because they’re all irrelevant,” he says. “It’s about Bitcoin, so we should talk about Bitcoin.” Former CEO John Donahoe of eBay, one of the first companies to establish a trust-based commerce network online, said, “I don’t know what Bitcoin will look like ten years from now, but I do think cryptocurrency and digital currency are growing technologies with tremendous potential. There is no reason why you shouldn’t have almost perfectly secure transfer of money with traceability. Cryptocurrency and digital currency are here to stay. And it will get more powerful, not less.”

And it will get more powerful, not less.” So what will be the future digital currency landscape? When I think of cryptocurrencies, I think of the search engines of the 1990s—WebCrawler, AltaVista, Lycos, Infoseek, Ask Jeeves, MSN Search, Yahoo!—and wonder if there is a Google among them. I think the vast majority of the cryptocurrencies in circulation today will disappear to nothing, but the category will endure. I think that the cryptocurrency that breaks out (whether it is Bitcoin or another) will shed its cryptolibertarian roots and embrace the responsibilities that come with being economically significant. This includes doing away with anonymity and pseudo-anonymity. There are too many economic benefits, particularly in markets with unstable currencies and a reliance on remittances. There are many possibilities for the blockchain technology beyond its function as a currency, and once some applications come to market and achieve meaningful scale, people in power who have misunderstood it or haven’t realized its full potential will see its benefits.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, wealth creators, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

God being the ultimate in confessional discretion, no party would learn anything more about the other parties’ inputs than they could learn from their own inputs and the output.”4 His point was powerful: Doing business on the Internet requires a leap of faith. Because the infrastructure lacks the much-needed security, we often have little choice but to treat the middlemen as if they were deities. A decade later in 2008, the global financial industry crashed. Perhaps propitiously, a pseudonymous person or persons named Satoshi Nakamoto outlined a new protocol for a peer-to-peer electronic cash system using a cryptocurrency called bitcoin. Cryptocurrencies (digital currencies) are different from traditional fiat currencies because they are not created or controlled by countries. This protocol established a set of rules—in the form of distributed computations—that ensured the integrity of the data exchanged among these billions of devices without going through a trusted third party. This seemingly subtle act set off a spark that has excited, terrified, or otherwise captured the imagination of the computing world and has spread like wildfire to businesses, governments, privacy advocates, social development activists, media theorists, and journalists, to name a few, everywhere.

For doing the right thing—that is, correctly stating that an event happened, who won a sporting match, or who won an election—they receive more reputation points. Maintaining the integrity of the system has other monetary benefits: the more reputation points you have, the more markets you can make, and thus the more fees you can charge. In Augur’s words, “our prediction markets eliminate counterparty risks, centralized servers, and create a global market by employing cryptocurrencies including bitcoin, ether, and stable cryptocurrencies. All funds are stored in smart contracts, and no one can steal the money.”83 Augur resolves the issue of unethical contracts by having a zero-tolerance policy for crime. To Augur’s leadership team, human imagination is the only practical limit to the utility of prediction markets. On Augur, anyone can post a clearly defined prediction about anything with a clear end date—from the trivial, “Will Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie divorce?”

Central banks could simply begin holding reserves in bitcoin, as they do in other currencies, and assets such as gold. They could also require financial institutions to hold reserves at the central bank in these nonstate currencies. These holdings would enable a central bank to perform their monetary role in both fiat and cryptocurrencies. Sounds prudent, right? When considering financial stability relative to monetary policy, Wilkins said, “The implications [for monetary policy] of electronic money depend on how it’s denominated.” She suggested in a recent speech that “e-money,” as she called it, could be denominated by a government in a national currency or as a cryptocurrency.49 A digital currency denominated in Canadian dollars would be easy to manage, she said. If anything, it would help a central bank to respond more quickly. Most likely, we will see a combination of the two: central banks will hold and manage alternative blockchain-based currencies as they do foreign reserves and will explore converting fiat currency to so-called e-money through a blockchain-based ledger.


pages: 410 words: 119,823

Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

And even in a small way, the chance to live in an environment we’ve fashioned ourselves, using tools we ourselves have crafted. True to its roots, digital fabrication is helping us work out the shape of the future, one experiment at a time. We remain at the proof-of-concept stage: we now know that in principle, these things can be done. But all the social and intellectual heavy lifting begins now. 5 Cryptocurrency The computational guarantee of value All written accounts of the technological development we know as “the blockchain” begin and end the same way. They note its origins in the cryptocurrency called Bitcoin, and go on to explain how Bitcoin’s obscure, pseudonymous, possibly even multiple inventor “Satoshi Nakamoto” used it to solve the problems of trust that had foxed all previous attempts at networked digital money. They all make much of the blockchain’s potential to transform the way we exchange value, in every context and at every level of society.

How would this work? While formally open to anyone, a DAO presents would-be investors with barriers to entry only a little less onerous than those of participation in the traditional equities market. One invests in a DAO by purchasing “vote tokens” denominated in whatever cryptocurrency the organization runs on, in most cases Ether, and this means going through all the steps of downloading and setting up a suitable wallet. Once purchased, tokens allow the investor to share in profits realized by the DAO, also denominated in cryptocurrency, and they carry voting rights to a degree proportional to the magnitude of the investment. The tokens themselves would fluctuate in value on the open market, in principle appreciating like any other equity should the DAO’s ventures meet with success. (If tokens sound an awful lot like shares of stock, you’re not wrong.

., the light on your door to show that you’re home. One has to become a cybernetician to remain a humanist. Peter Sloterdijk Contents Introduction: Paris year zero 1.Smartphone: The networking of the self 2.The internet of things: A planetary mesh of perception and response 3.Augmented reality: An interactive overlay on the world 4.Digital fabrication: Towards a political economy of matter 5.Cryptocurrency: The computational guarantee of value 6.Blockchain beyond Bitcoin: A trellis for posthuman institutions 7.Automation: The annihilation of work 8.Machine learning: The algorithmic production of knowledge 9.Artificial intelligence: The eclipse of human discretion 10.Radical technologies: The design of everyday life Conclusion: Of tetrapods and tactics—radical technologies and everyday life Acknowledgements Notes Index Introduction Paris year zero It’s a few moments before six in Paris, on a damp evening in early spring.


pages: 472 words: 117,093

Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future by Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson

3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, airline deregulation, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, complexity theory, computer age, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, disintermediation, distributed ledger, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, family office, fiat currency, financial innovation, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, law of one price, Lyft, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precision agriculture, prediction markets, pre–internet, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, yield management, zero day

Questions were raised about why the hacker would attempt this exploit, since the ethers siphoned off couldn’t immediately be converted into dollars or any other fiat currency. One explanation, advanced by Daniel Krawisz of the Satoshi Nakamoto Institute, was that the hacker could have made approximately $3 million by shorting ethers in one of the cryptocurrency exchanges operating online, correctly betting that once the hack became public, the ether’s value would plummet. But the important questions were not about the hacker’s motivations. They were instead about the vulnerabilities of cryptocurrencies and smart contracts revealed by the exploit. The Nakamoto Institute’s withering assessment was that Ethereum was “doomed.” Its combination of poor programming and terms of use that essentially made this lousy programming legally binding spelled disaster. Believers in the dream of decentralizing all the things, however, weren’t yet ready to give up.

The fact that the concentration was occurring within China was particularly troubling. The government there had a long tradition of overseeing its financial institutions closely and sometimes intervening in them directly, and this kind of activity seems fundamentally at odds with the cryptocurrency dream of complete freedom from government meddling. Having control over Bitcoin and the blockchain behind the great firewall of China, many felt, would turn the dream into a nightmare. The Technologies of Disruption . . . The troubles experienced by The DAO and the Bitcoin-mining network highlight a fundamental question about the rise of cryptocurrencies, smart contracts, powerful platforms, and other recent digital developments. The question, which we posed at the start of this chapter, is a simple one: Are companies becoming passé? As we get better at writing smart contracts, building networks that brilliantly combine self-interest and collective benefit, and increasingly democratizing powerful tools for production and innovation, will we still rely so much on industrial-era companies to get work done?

Governments have not yet shown much willingness to create digital dollars, euros, yen, renminbi, and so on.‡ So Nakamoto proposed, with considerable ambition, to create an entirely new and completely independent digital currency, called Bitcoin. Because it relied heavily on many of the same algorithms and mathematics as cryptography (the art and science of making and breaking codes), Bitcoin came to be known as a “cryptocurrency.” American dollars, Japanese yen, Turkish lira, Nigerian naira, and all the other money issued by nations around the world, meanwhile, are called “fiat currencies” because they exist by government fiat, or order; governments simply declare them to be legal tender.§ Existing combinations of “crypto” code and math helped Nakamoto solve the tough problem of identifying who owned Bitcoins as they got used over time and all over the web to pay for things.


The Blockchain Alternative: Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy and Economic Theory by Kariappa Bheemaiah

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, bank run, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, cellular automata, central bank independence, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, constrained optimization, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, deskilling, Diane Coyle, discrete time, distributed ledger, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, interest rate derivative, inventory management, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, large denomination, liquidity trap, London Whale, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, precariat, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, QR code, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Real Time Gross Settlement, rent control, rent-seeking, Satoshi Nakamoto, Satyajit Das, savings glut, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, supply-chain management, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Von Neumann architecture, Washington Consensus

NY, for example, has begun providing a business license (BitLicense), which obliges virtual 132 Chapter 3 ■ Innovating Capitalism currency companies to adhere to a specific licensing regime), and who is using it (miners, banks, users, exchanges…). In other countries, the situation is the same and at present there is no legal consensus as to the status of cryptocurrencies.15 The definition and legal acceptance of cryptocurrencies is a primary impairment to its widescale use. Apart from these two impediments, there are also other differences between cryptocurrencies and state fiat. Staying with the legal angle, it is the acceptance of legal tender that determines the use of a currency. Central banks already compete with currencies issued by other central banks within their own states and, to a domestic central bank, a private money is essentially a foreign currency as its monetary policy is governed by an entity that is outside the domestic government’s jurisdiction (Andolfatto, 2016).

In spite of this choice-based interpretation of what can be legally accepted as money, the same rule is not extended to cryptocurrencies, as they use their own denomination, i.e., they are not electronic, digital, or virtual forms of a particular currency. They are different from known currencies and, as none of them have been declared as the official currency of a state, they do not have a legal tender capacity. Thus, no creditor is obliged to accept payment with it to discharge a debtor of its debt (ECB, 2015). This means that virtual currencies can be used only as contractual money, when there is an agreement between buyer and seller in order to accept a given virtual currency as a means of payment (ECB, 2015). The legalese revolving around cryptocurrencies is even more complicated in the US, where it differs according to how it is being used (does it fall under the purview of the SEC, the CFTC, or FinCEN?)

the significant computational energy that is expended in the proofs-of-work process (which helps manage the ledger and makes double-spending attacks excessively expensive), as it has to broadcast results on the network 2. the fixed supply: this provides little or no flexibility for policy aimed at controlling its volatility As the Bank of England asked “whether central banks should themselves make use of such technology to issue digital currencies,” researchers from University College London responded by creating RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework that separates the generation of the money supply from the maintenance of the transaction ledger. This framework is different from other cryptocurrencies in that the supply is centralized. Thus, the model is ideal for adoption by central banks and in line with the proposals that have been made in this chapter. Some of the stated benefits of RSCoin include: 152 • Unlike traditional fiat money, RSCoin provides the government with a transparent transaction ledger, a distributed system for maintaining it, and a globally visible monetary supply.


pages: 387 words: 112,868

Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, QR code, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks

He and Satoshi communicated regularly and fell into an easy rapport. While Satoshi never discussed anything personal in these e-mails, he would banter with Martti about little things. In one e-mail, Satoshi pointed to a recent exchange on the Bitcoin e-mail list in which a user referred to Bitcoin as a “cryptocurrency,” referring to the cryptographic functions that made it run. “Maybe it’s a word we should use when describing Bitcoin. Do you like it?” Satoshi asked. “It sounds good,” Martti replied. “A peer to peer cryptocurrency could be the slogan.” As the year went on they also worked out other details, like the Bitcoin logo, which they mocked up on their computers and sent back and forth, coming up, finally, with a B with two lines coming out of the bottom and top. They also batted back and forth potential improvements to the software.

DURING HIS TWO-WEEK stay in the United States, Bobby Lee visited his brother Charlie, who had quit his job at Google over the summer and joined Coinbase to work on Bitcoin full-time. Bobby showed up at the company’s makeshift offices in a converted three-bedroom apartment a day after the company announced the $25 million investment from Andreessen Horowitz. Charlie Lee didn’t need to work another day of his life. Litecoin, his alternative cryptocurrency, which was a slightly faster, lightweight version of Bitcoin, had now become the second-most-popular cryptocurrency in what was becoming an increasingly crowded field of Bitcoin knockoffs. In part because of Charlie’s transparency in launching Litecoin, people trusted it and were betting that it would be, as Charlie had intended, the silver to Bitcoin’s gold. In November the value of all the outstanding Litecoins had briefly surpassed $1 billion.

Krugman focused largely on Bitcoin’s claim to be a currency, given the difficulty it seemed to have fulfilling one of the basic roles of money: serving as a reliable store of value. Why would people store their wealth in Bitcoin if they knew the value was going to fluctuate so violently? Krugman asked. Cowen, meanwhile, argued that Bitcoin was going to have difficulty sustaining its value as new and better-designed cryptocurrencies came along and drew users away from it. Some people were, indeed, already choosing to hold Litecoin, Charlie Lee’s creation, and a hip, younger cryptocurrency, Dogecoin. But a deeper strain lurking beneath these critiques was an awareness that one of the fundamental premises that had driven Bitcoin’s popularity seemed, increasingly, to have been disproved. Many early Bitcoiners, particularly in the libertarian camp, had believed that the Federal Reserve’s efforts to stimulate the economy in the wake of the financial crisis, by pumping lots of new money into banks, would devalue the dollar and lead to high inflation, similar to what had happened in Argentina.


pages: 267 words: 82,580

The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, moral panic, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

He fears its radical libertarian potential is being diluted. ‘The Bitcoin Foundation says, “Oh we need to make it better for the consumers.” No we don’t! What these people forget is that Satoshi himself was political.’ Satoshi Tim May and the cypherpunks hadn’t invented digital crypto-currencies, but they’d seen what they might do. The honour goes to a cryptographer called David Chaum. Although he never attended a meeting, his work on anonymous payment systems was an inspiration for many cypherpunks, including May. The basic principle of a crypto-currency is that each unit of the currency is a string of unique numbers that users can send one another online. But strings of numbers can be easily copied and spent several times over, which makes them valueless. Chaum solved this problem by creating a single centralised ledger, which kept a record of each person’s transaction to verify that each unit of currency wasn’t in two places at once.

fn3 Typically, an administrator is in charge of the entire page or group, while a moderator has specific powers to edit or delete other users’ posts. Chapter 3 Into Galt’s Gulch We the Cypherpunks are dedicated to building anonymous systems. Eric Hughes, ‘A Cypherpunk’s Manifesto’ (1993) A LARGE ABANDONED Pizza Express in north London is an unusual place to start a revolution. But seventy of us have turned up to hear a computer coder named Amir Taaki explain how the crypto-currency Bitcoin will change the world. We share the space with a dozen slightly confused-looking squatters who have recently taken up residence here. Cans of lager are being passed around, and there is a fug of cigarette smoke in the air, which gives the whole event a rebellious edge, especially for the non-smoking sedentary audience members like me. There is a hush, as an unshaven man with short dark hair and a thin ponytail walks to the front of the room.

It set the tone perfectly for what would follow: ‘For a fraction of the investment in time, money and effort I might expend in trying to convince the state to abolish wiretapping and all forms of censorship,’ wrote Hammill, ‘I can teach every libertarian who’s interested how to use cryptography to abolish them unilaterally.’ The list quickly grew to include hundreds of subscribers who were soon posting every day: exchanging ideas, discussing developments, proposing and testing cyphers. This remarkable email list predicted, developed or invented almost every technique now employed by computer users to avoid government surveillance. Tim May proposed, among other things, secure crypto-currencies, a tool enabling people to browse the web anonymously, an unregulated marketplace – which he called ‘BlackNet’ – where anything could be bought or sold without being tracked, and a prototype anonymous whistleblowing system. The cypherpunks were troublemakers: controversial, radical, unrelenting, but also practical. They made things. Someone would write a piece of software, post it to the list, and others would test it and improve it.


pages: 200 words: 47,378

The Internet of Money by Andreas M. Antonopoulos

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, cryptocurrency, ethereum blockchain, financial exclusion, global reserve currency, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, Marc Andreessen, Oculus Rift, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, QR code, ransomware, reserve currency, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, the medium is the message, trade route, underbanked, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

That required people to grasp not only how this unorthodox technology worked but also its profound promise for society. No one has done more than Andreas Antonopoulos to get them over that hurdle. Read him. It will make you wiser. — Michael J. Casey, co-author The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money are Challenging the Global Economic Order Foreword By Don Tapscott In early 2014, my son Alex and I began the research for our book Blockchain Revolution. I had been working on the 20th anniversary edition of The Digital Economy and reflecting on the last two decades and what’s next, I had become fascinated by Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. Meanwhile, Alex was an executive with the investment bank Canaccord Genuity. He noticed the growing enthusiasm of early stage bitcoin and blockchain companies in 2013 and began leading his firm’s efforts in the space.

The euro is a digital currency, the US dollar is a digital currency. Less than 8 percent of these currencies exist in physical form; the rest is bits on ledgers. But the fundamental difference is that these ledgers are controlled by centralized organizations, whereas in bitcoin, they’re not. Bitcoin has a decentralized network, an open network. "Bitcoin isn’t a digital currency. It’s a cryptocurrency. It’s a network-centric money." Bitcoin isn’t a digital currency. It’s a cryptocurrency. It’s a network-centric money. I really like the idea of a network-centric money. A network that allows you to replace trust in institutions, trust in hierarchies, with trust on the network. The network acting as a massively diffuse arbiter of truth, resolving any disagreements about transactions and security in a way where no one has control. 3.7.

Really all of these things are forms of expression, and that comes back to the original point: that currency, in the end, is really a form of language. It’s a language by which we communicate our expectations and desires of value, and now that we can do it on such a massive scale, now that everyone can create currency, our choices will really matter. We’re past the zero-sum game. This isn’t about nation-states anymore. This isn’t about who adopts bitcoin first or who adopts cryptocurrencies first, because the internet is adopting cryptocurrencies, and the internet is the world’s largest economy. It is the first transnational economy, and it needs a transnational currency. "This isn’t about nation-states anymore. The internet is the world’s largest economy. It is the first transnational economy, and it needs a transnational currency." 7.7. Currency Creates Sovereignty To summarize, we’ve inverted the very basic and most fundamental equation of currency.


pages: 50 words: 15,603

Orwell Versus the Terrorists: A Digital Short by Jamie Bartlett

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Edward Snowden, ethereum blockchain, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Satoshi Nakamoto, technoutopianism, Zimmermann PGP

According to a recent poll by Ipsos-Mori and the Royal Statistics Society (2014), only between 4 and 7 per cent of respondents say they have a high level of trust in institutions such as media, internet companies, telecommunications companies and insurance companies to use data appropriately. fn3 You’ve probably heard of this pseudonymous digital cash because it was, and still is, the currency of choice on the illegal online drugs markets. fn4 And increasingly, I predict, politics. Although no political parties – save the occasional fringe party – have given any thought to what crypto-currencies might mean. What does a modern centre-left party think of crypto-currency, or of blockchain decentralisation? They have no idea. Orwell I’ve interviewed many of the people in the frontline of the battle, the people behind the extraordinary innovation currently taking place. They see the question of online privacy as the digital front in a battle over individual liberty: a rejection of internet surveillance and censorship that they believe has come to dominate modern life online.

And there are even more revolutionary plans in the pipeline. An alternative way of organising the internet is being built as we speak, an internet where no one is in control, where no one can find you or shut you down, where no one can manipulate your content. A decentralised world that is both private and impossible to censor. Back in 2009, in an obscure cryptography chat forum, a mysterious man called Satoshi Nakamoto invented the crypto-currency Bitcoin.fn3 It turns out the real genius of Bitcoin was not the currency at all, but the way that it works. Bitcoin creates an immutable, unchangeable public copy of every transaction ever made by its users, which is hosted and verified by every computer that downloads the software. This public copy is called the ‘blockchain’. Pretty soon, enthusiasts figured out that the blockchain system could be used for anything.


pages: 395 words: 116,675

The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge by Matt Ridley

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, altcoin, anthropic principle, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Corn Laws, cosmological constant, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Edward Snowden, endogenous growth, epigenetics, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, George Santayana, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hydraulic fracturing, imperial preference, income per capita, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, land reform, Lao Tzu, long peace, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Necker cube, obamacare, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, price mechanism, profit motive, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce

As Dominic Frisby remarks, not only has bitcoin’s evolution so far been chaotic, unplanned and organic, but the people around it are ‘an eclectic mix of all sorts from the computer whizz to the con artist to the economist; from the opportunist to the altruist to the activist’. None the less, it is worth remarking just how much the humble bitcoin has achieved in a world where it has no intrinsic value whatsoever, which bodes well for future crypto-currencies online. There are now more than three hundred rival online crypto-currencies competing with bitcoins – altcoins, they are called – and though none has yet gained anything like the market share of bitcoin, it may only be a matter of time. Just imagine what might happen if decentralised crypto-currencies really do take off. If people started putting their savings in them, and financial firms started offering interesting crypto-currency-based products, governments would find their room for manoeuvre much diminished. They could not borrow profligately, or tax rapaciously, or spend freely without looking over their shoulders to see what it might do to their currency against (say) bitcoin.

He started printing money in Iraq, but the quality was poor, counterfeiting was easy and the quantity was too high, causing inflation. However, the Swiss-made dinars remained in circulation, and began to diverge in value from the local ones. Since there were no more being made, people saw them as a store of value and they held their value against the dollar. And then came bitcoins. The implications of crypto-currencies, and their recent evolution, are profound; they go well beyond the subject of money. They give us a glimpse of the future evolution of the internet itself. 16 The Evolution of the Internet Nothing can be made from nothing – once we see that’s so, Already we are on the way to what we want to know: What can things be fashioned from? And how is it without The machinations of the gods, all things can come about?

This firm has gleaming corporate offices and the power to hand out domain names. In general I remain optimistic that the forces of evolution will outwit the forces of command and control, and the internet will continue to provide a free space for all. But only because of human ingenuity staying one step ahead of the dirigistes. Perhaps the most profoundly important of the internet’s offspring will be digital currencies independent of government: bitcoin, or the crypto-currencies that will come after it. ‘I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government. The one thing that’s missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash,’ said Milton Friedman. And it is not just e-cash; it is the technology behind bitcoin that could finally decentralise not just the internet but society too. The blockchain technology that makes bitcoin work has far-reaching implications.


pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

For almost five years, the Bitcoin network and its pool of bitcoins grew, while users exchanged bitcoins for products such as thumb drives, alpaca socks, and, yes, drugs. The fact that people transact through cryptographic keys instead of names or e-mail addresses lets them make purchases anonymously. Since there’s no credit-card statement at the end of the month listing the illicit goods and services someone may have purchased, cryptocurrency became popular on black markets and earned a reputation as money for criminals. Then in late 2013, something interesting, if all too predictable, happened. Whether in response to the high-profile bust of an illicit online bitcoin-based marketplace known as the Silk Road or to the growing participation of Chinese users, Wall Street suddenly seized on bitcoins as a new instrument for speculative investing.

To do that, we may have to turn not to a collectively negotiated digital file but to one another. MONEY IS A VERB As creatures of a digital age, our first impulse is often to apply some algorithm, computer program, or other technological solution to a problem. Bitcoin is just such an approach, turning the massive processing power of distributed personal computers to verifying the exchange of value. In using such a technology, we learn to trust the cryptocurrency’s open-source algorithms over the bankers and authorities who may have abused that privilege in the past. In blockchain we trust. Of course, the underlying assumption is that people can’t trust one another enough to transact directly without the constant threat of double-dealing, fraud, or nondelivery of services. By implementing a money system that encourages us to put our faith in technology, we again usurp whatever social bonds our marketplaces may afford us.

This makes it harder for anyone but the platform monopolist to make money by standing still—and even the platform monopolists are losing their grasp on the economy. Money alone won’t buy security, and everyone is going to have to learn how to invest through work, active participation, and assets other than cash. Not to worry: this isn’t all happening so fast. As disappointing as it may be to the revolutionaries among us, the traditional debt-based investment economy is not flipping into a real-time, distributed, peer-to-peer, cryptocurrency marketplace overnight. Those of us with jobs and families and mortgages ignore the investment markets at our own peril. And there are still ways to invest plain old money that capitalize on the current economic transition without overly compromising our potential for a more equitable economic future. I’ll briefly touch on some of these strategies now because, believe it or not, there are readers who came for this alone and have been skimming to this point.


pages: 121 words: 36,908

Four Futures: Life After Capitalism by Peter Frase

3D printing, Airbnb, basic income, bitcoin, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, fixed income, full employment, future of work, high net worth, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), iterative process, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, litecoin, mass incarceration, means of production, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, price mechanism, private military company, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart meter, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck

The rediscovery of the need for central banking and government regulation is good for a laugh at the expense of a gaggle of libertarian young men, but it tells us little about the future. Bitcoin is not the only cryptocurrency, however, even though it has the most exchange value in traditional currencies, and has certainly been the most widely promoted. Innumerable rivals exist, based on slight variations of the Bitcoin code, going by names like Litecoin and Quarkcoin. Many of these are opportunistic rivals driven by speculators. They are little better than traditional stock market pump-and-dump scams, in which a few promoters talk up the value of a company so that others will bid up its price, and then sell off their own holdings before the suckers realize what’s happening. For the purposes of this chapter, however, the most interesting cryptocurrency is the one that is generally regarded as a silly joke: Dogecoin. In its rise and fall we can see a promising mechanism that may have been introduced prematurely into a society that was not ready for it.

The authors of the study quipped that Wikipedia had become “the encyclopedia that anyone who understands the norms, socializes him or herself, dodges the impersonal wall of semi-automated rejection and still wants to voluntarily contribute his or her time and energy can edit.”28 Bitcoins, Doges, and Whuffie A contemporary reader of Doctorow’s book may find that the concept of “Whuffie” resonates more than it used to, because of the renewed prominence of invented nonstate currencies—in particular, the distributed cryptocurrency Bitcoin. As an accounting system that maintains an artificially scarce points system that is nevertheless not tied to the traditional money and banking system, it is of some limited economic interest. But it turns out that Bitcoin, for all its media hype, may be less significant than some other alternative currencies that currently lack its pretentions. The partisans of Bitcoin aspire for it to substitute for capitalist money.


pages: 302 words: 73,581

Platform Scale: How an Emerging Business Model Helps Startups Build Large Empires With Minimum Investment by Sangeet Paul Choudary

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, frictionless, game design, hive mind, Internet of things, invisible hand, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social software, software as a service, software is eating the world, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, TaskRabbit, the payments system, too big to fail, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Wave and Pay

Similarly, Waze, an Israeli traffic prediction app, crowdsources driving information from multiple drivers while simultaneously using algorithms to determine authenticity before distributing traffic conditions to the wider community. Wikipedia and Waze reimagine the organization of the traditional production function, away from supply chains and onto platforms. They provide an early glimpse into a future where value creation may not need a supply chain, instead being orchestrated via a network of connected users on a platform. h. Cryptocurrencies Platform theory helps to explain the workings of cryptocurrencies, like Bitcoin. Decentralized management – through mechanisms like the blockchain – has the potential to change governance structures for the next generation of platforms, much like social feedback tools power curation on many of the current generation of platforms. While we do not explore Bitcoin in detail in this book, the principles laid out apply equally well to understanding all emerging platforms that the book may not explicitly cover.

Platform Scale explains the design of a family of emerging digital business models that enables today’s startups to achieve rapid scale: the platform business model. The many manifestations of the platform business model - social media, the peer economy, cryptocurrencies, APIs and developer ecosystems, the Internet of things, crowdsourcing models, and many others - are becoming increasingly relevant. Yet, most new platform ideas fail because the business design and growth strategies involved in building platforms are not well understood. Platform Scale is a builder’s manual for anyone building a platform business today. It lays out a structured approach to designing and growing a platform business model and addresses the key factors that lead to the success and failure of these businesses.


pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

A series of emerging contemporary phenomena must be thought through carefully: for instance, the causes and effects of secular stagnation; the transformations invoked by the shift to an informational, post-scarcity economy; the changes wrought by the introduction of full automation and a universal basic income; the possible approaches to collectivising automated manufacturing and services; the progressive potentials of alternative approaches to quantitative easing; the most effective ways to decarbonise the means of production; the implications of dark pools for financial instability – and so on. Equally, research should be revived on what postcapitalism might look like in practice. Beyond a few outdated classics, very little research has been done to think through an alternative economic system – even less so in the wake of emerging technologies like additive manufacturing, self-driving vehicles and soft AI.68 What role, for instance, could non-state cryptocurrencies have? How does one measure value if not by abstract or concrete labour? How can ecological concerns be fully accounted for in a postcapitalist economic framework? What mechanism can replace the market and overcome the socialist calculation problem?69 And what are the likely effects of the possible tendency for the rate of profit to fall?70 Building a postcapitalist world is as much a technical task as a political one, and in order to begin thinking about it, the left needs to overcome its general aversion to formal modelling and mathematics.

It would mean building upon the post-nation-state territory of ‘the stack’ – that global infrastructure that enables our digital world today.26 A new type of production is already visible at the leading edges of contemporary technology. Additive manufacturing and the automation of work portend the possibility of production based on flexibility, decentralisation and post-scarcity for some goods. The rapid automation of logistics presents the utopian possibility of a globally interconnected system in which parts and goods can be shipped rapidly and efficiently without human labour. Cryptocurrencies and their block-chain technology could bring forth a new money of the commons, divorced from capitalist forms.27 The democratic guidance of the economy is also accelerated by emerging technologies. Famously, Oscar Wilde once said that the problem with socialism was that it took up too many evenings. Increasing economic democracy could require us to devote an overwhelming amount of time to discussions and decisions over the minutiae of everyday life.28 The use of computing technology is essential in avoiding this problem, both by simplifying the decisions to be made and by automating decisions collectively deemed to be irrelevant.

Index 1968, 16–7, 63, 188n33 15M, 11, 22 abstraction, 10, 15, 36, 44, 81 additive manufacturing, 110, 143, 150, 182 affect, 7–8, 113–4, 140–1 afro-futurism, 139, 141 AI (artificial intelligence), 110, 143 alienation, 14–5, 82 algorithmic trading, 111 Allende, Salvador, 148, 149 alternativism, 194n95 Althusser, Louis, 81, 141–2 anti-globalisation, 3, 159, 162 anti-war, 3, 5, 22, 162 Apple, 146, Arab Spring, 131, 159 Argentina, 37–9, 173 authenticity, 10–1, 15, 27, 82, 180 automation, 1–2, 86, 88–9, 94–5, 97–8, 104–5, 109–17, 122, 127, 130, 143, 150–1, 167, 171–4, 181–2, 203n15, 212n121, 214n161, 215n9, 218n45 banking, 43–6, 61, 147 Beveridge Report, 118 big data, 110, 111 Bolshevik Revolution, 131 Bolsheviks, 137 Russian Revolution, 139 Brazil, 75, 119, 147, 157, 169 Bretton Woods, 61–2 Brown, Michael, 173 care labour, 113–4 Chicago School, 51, 59–60 Chile, 52, 62, 148, 149, 150 China, 87, 89, 97, 170 class, 14, 16–7, 20–1, 25, 53, 64–5, 87, 91, 96–102, 116, 120, 122–3, 126–7, 132–3, 155–62, 170, 173–4, 189n1, 206n44, 233n119, 233n4, 233n5, 234n18 Cleaver, Eldridge, 91–2 climate change, 13–4, 116 colonialism, 73, 75–6, 96–7, 225n3 common sense, 9–11, 21–2, 40, 54–5, 58–60, 63–7, 72, 131–7 communisation, 92, 225n5 competitive subjects, 63–5, 99, 124 complex systems, 13–4, conspiracy theories, 14–5 cosmism, 139 Critchley, Simon, 72 cryptocurrencies, 143, 182 Cybersyn, 149–150 debt, 9, 22, 35–6, 94 demands, 6–7, 30, 33, 107–8, 130, 159–62, 167 no demands, 7, 34–5, 107, 186n3 non-reformist demands, 108 transitional demands, 215n5 democracy, 31–3, 182 direct democracy, 27–9, 31–3, 164, 190n8 direct action, 6, 11, 27–9, 35–6 education, 64, 99, 104, 141–5, 165–6 Egypt, 32–4, 190n21 energy, 2, 16,19,41, 42–43, 116, 147, 148, 150–51, 164, 171, 178, 179, 182, 183 Engels, Friedrich, 79 Erhard, Ludwig, 57 ethics, 42 work ethic, 124–6 evictions, 8, 12, 36 feminism, 18–21, 122, 138, 161 Fisher, Antony, 58–9, 196n34 food miles, 42–3 fracking, 8 France, 17, 62, 149, 167 free time, 80, 115–6, 120–1, 167, 219n50 freedom, 63–5, 120–1, 126–7, 180–1 negative freedom, 79 synthetic freedom, 78–83 Friedman, Milton, 56, 59–61 full employment, 98–100 future, 1, 71–5, 175–8, 181–3 G20, 6, 94 gender, 21, 41, 90, 122 Germany, 45, 56–7 ghettos, 95–6 Gramsci, Antonio, 132, 165 Graeber, David, 33 grand narratives, 73–4 Great Depression, 46, 65, 99–101, 114–5 Harvey, David, 135 Hayek, Friedrich, 54–6 Holzer, Jenny, 175, 178 horizontalism, 18, 26–39 housing, 8, 28, 35, 48, 77, 80, 95, 96, 148, 159, 167, 168, humanism, 81–3, 180–1 hyperstition, 74–5, 138–9 Iceland, 34, 164 idleness, 85–6 immediacy, 10–1 immigration, 101–2, 161 India, 87, 97–8, 130 inequality, 22, 80, 93–4 informal economy, 95–8, 203n10, 206n44, 210n95 Institute of Economic Affairs, 58–9 Iranian Revolution, 131 Jameson, Fredric, 14, 92, 198n10 Japan, 147 Jimmy Reid Foundation, 117 jobless recovery, 94–5 Jobs, Steve, 179 Johnson, Boris, 172 Kalecki, Michał, 120 Krugman, Paul, 118 labour, 2, 3,9, 17, 20, 21, 33, 38, 48, 52, 58, 61–3, 74, 79, 81, 83, 85–143, 148, 150, 151, 156–8, 161, 163–181, 182 Laclau, Ernesto, 155, 159 Lafargue, Paul, 115, language, 81, 132, 160, 164–5 leisure, 85–6 Leninism, 17, 131, 188n33 Live Aid, 8 localism, 40–6 locavorism, 41–2 Lucas Aerospace, 147 Luxemburg, Rosa, 15 Lyotard, Francois, 73, 74 Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, 58, 59 marches, 6, 30, 49 Marikana massacre, 170 Marinaleda, 48 Marx, Karl, 73, 79, 85, 86, 92, 115, 119, 121, 122, 132, 142, 156, 158, 180 Mattick, Paul, 92, 118 media, 2, 7–8, 31, 36, 52, 58, 60, 63, 67, 88, 118, 125–6, 129, 133–5, 163–5, 176, 182 Mirowski, Philip, 66 modernity, 23, 63, 69–85, 86, 131, 176, 181 modernisation, 23, 60, 63, 137, 174 Mont Pelerin Society, 54, 86, 134, 164, 166 MPS, 55, 56, 58, 66, 67, 134 Move Your Money, 44 Murray, Charles, 59 Musk, Elon, 179 National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers, 172 negative solidarity, 20, 37 neoliberalism, 3, 12, 20–3, 47, 49, 51–67, 70, 72, 108, 116, 117, 119, 121, 124, 134, 141, 142, 148, 156, 176, 179, 183 neoliberal, 7, 9, 14–16, 20, 21, 37, 47, 49, 73, 93, 99, 118, 126, 127, 129, 131–2, 134, 135, 162, 169, 174, 176, 181 New Economics Foundation, 117, 144 new left, 18–22 New Zealand, 151 occupations, 5, 7, 10, 11, 29–31, 34, 49, 94, 172 Occupy Wall Street, 3, 6, 7, 11, 18, 22, 26, 29–38, 126, 133, 158, 159, 160, 162, 189n1 ordoliberals, 54, 57 organic intellectual, 165–6 Overton Window, 134, 139 Partido dos Trabalhadores, 169 parties, political, 2, 10, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 30, 34, 39, 46, 59, 105, 116, 118, 124, 129, 162, 164, 168, 169 personal savings, 94 Piketty, Thomas, 140 Plan C, 117 planning, 1, 15, 56, 141, 142, 149, 151, 182 Plant, Sadie, 82 Podemos, 159, 160, 169 police, 6, 30, 33, 36, 37, 102, 133, 161, 168, 171, 173 postcapitalism, 17, 38, 130, 143, 145, 150, 151, 158, 168, 178, 180 postcapitalist, 12, 15, 16, 32, 34, 83, 109, 115, 126, 136, 143, 145, 150, 152, 153, 157, 179, 180 Post-Crash Economic Society, 143 post-work, 23, 69, 83, 85, 86, 105, 107–127, 129, 130, 138, 140, 141, 153, 155, 156, 158, 161, 163, 164, 167, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178 Pou Chen Group, 170 power, 1, 2, 7, 9, 10, 14, 15, 18–21, 26, 28–30, 33, 36, 43, 46, 48, 49, 59, 61, 62, 65, 73, 78, 79, 80, 81, 87, 88, 93, 100, 108, 111, 116, 120, 123, 127, 130–5, 146, 148, 151, 153, 155–74, 175, 176, 179, 180, 182 precarity, 9, 86, 88, 93, 94, 95, 98, 104, 121, 123, 126, 130, 156, 157, 166, 167, 173, 174 precarious, 2, 64, 117, 129, 167 Precarious Workers Brigade, 117 premature deindustrialisation, 97, 98 primitive accumulation, 87, 89, 90, 96, 97 prison, 90, 102, 103, 119, 133 incarceration, 102, 103, 104, 105, 161 productivity, 74, 88, 97, 110–17, 125, 150, 167 progress, 21, 23, 46, 71–5, 77, 107, 114, 115, 120, 126, 131, 138, 179, 180 protests, 1, 7, 18, 22, 28, 31, 37, 49, 66, 153, 164 psychopathologies, 64 radio-frequency identification, 110 race, 14, 31, 90, 102, 103, 140, 156, 171, 172 Reagan, Ronald, 60, 62, 66, 70 Republican Party (US), 135 resistance, 2, 5, 12, 15, 30, 35, 46–8, 49, 69, 72, 74, 83, 114, 124, 134, 158, 173, 181 Rethinking Economics, 143 Robinson, Joan, 87 Roboticisation, 110, 209n69 mechanisation, 95, 101 Rolling Jubilee, 9 Samuelson, Paul, 142 second machine age, 111 secular stagnation, 143 self-driving cars, 110, 111, 113, 173 shadow work, 115 slavery, 74, 90, 95, 103 slow food, 41, 42 slum, 86, 96–8, 102, 104 social democracy, 3, 17, 46, 66, 70, 167, 176 social democratic, 10, 13, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, 47, 57, 72, 80, 98, 100, 108, 123, 127, 168 social media, 1, 8, 182 South Africa, 119, 157, 170 Spain, 12, 22, 34, 35, 45, 159, 164 stagflation, 19, 27, 61, 65, 100 Stalinist, 17, 18, 137 strategy, 12, 20, 26, 49, 56, 67, 117, 127, 131–3, 136, 148, 153, 156, 163, 164 strategic, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 25, 28, 29, 35, 49, 52, 55, 66, 70, 77, 108, 116, 131, 135, 157, 162, 163, 164, 170, 171, 173, 174 strikes, 9, 10, 28, 36, 37, 116, 120, 157, 167, 170–3 suicide, 94 surplus populations, 40, 86, 88–94, 96–97, 101–3, 104, 105, 120, 130, 166–7, 173, 203n10 Syriza, 159, 160 tactics, 6, 10, 11, 15, 18, 19, 26, 28, 39, 40, 49, 157, 164, 171–4 Tahrir Square, 32, 34 Taylorism, 152 technology, 1, 3, 72, 81, 88, 89, 98, 109, 110, 111, 129, 136, 137, 145–8, 150–3, 178, 179, 182 Thatcher, Margaret, 59, 60, 62, 66, 70, 72, 100 think tanks, 16, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 63, 67, 117, 134, 135, 165 trade unions, 10, 27, 47, 59, 61, 62, 71, 105, 116, 117, 124, 129, 148, 162, 166 labour unions, 16, 171 unions, 17, 18, 20, 27, 30, 44 UK Uncut, 126 unemployment, 20, 56, 60, 79, 86–98, 99, 100, 101, 101, 102, 115, 116, 118, 121, 123, 125, 127, 129, 147, 159, 161, 168, 170, 173, 207n44 United Automobile Workers, 170 United Kingdom UK, 8, 20, 40, 42, 45, 52, 54, 56, 58, 61, 62, 92, 93, 94, 117, 118, 126, 144, 147, 151, 172 United States, 8, 18, 29, 36, 44, 45, 59, 62, 78, 92, 95, 103, 114, 118, 123, 133, 135, 138, 167 America, 6, 16, 30, 38, 47, 56, 62, 76, 95, 97, 98, 100, 101, 102, 103, 110, 164 universal basic income, 108, 118, 123, 127, 140, 143 basic income, 80, 108, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 127, 129, 130, 140, 143, 164, 165, 167 universalism, 69, 70, 75–8, 83, 119, 132, 175, 197n1, 199n40 USSR, 62, 63, 79, 139 Soviet Union, 57, 70, 74, 139 utopia, 3, 28, 32, 35, 48, 54, 58, 60, 66, 69, 70, 72, 108, 113, 114, 132, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 143, 145, 146, 150, 153, 177, 179, 181, 182 vanguard functions, 163 Venezuela, 169 wages, 2, 71, 87, 90, 91, 93, 94, 97, 98, 101, 111, 120, 122, 125, 156, 166, 167 welfare, 14, 38, 57, 59, 61, 62, 63, 64, 71, 73, 90, 100, 101, 103, 105, 118, 119, 122, 124 Wilde, Oscar, 182 withdrawal, 11, 47, 48, 69, 131, 182 exit, 47, 48, 181 escape, 3, 9, 11, 38, 69, 107, 114, 139, 165, 178 work, 1, 2, 16, 17, 23, 32, 36, 41, 44, 47, 64, 71, 85, 86, 90–6, 98, 100, 101, 103–5, 108, 109, 110–7, 120–7, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 136, 140, 141, 142, 143, 147, 150, 151, 152, 157, 163, 165, 166, 170, 173, 174, 176, 177, 178, 181 wage labour, 74, 85, 86, 87, 89, 90, 92, 103, 104, 105, 120, 136, 141, 180 job, 2, 38, 41, 47, 48, 63, 64, 79, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105, 110, 111, 113, 114–23, 124, 125, 126, 129, 147, 148, 161, 166, 167, 171 worker-controlled factories, 38, 39 workfare, 59, 100, 104 World Trade Organisation, 6 World War II, 46, 54, 56, 57, 115, 156 Zapatistas, 11, 22, 26, 35 zero-hours contracts, 93 Žižek, Slavoj, 140 Zuccotti Park, 31, 32


pages: 182 words: 53,802

The Production of Money: How to Break the Power of Banks by Ann Pettifor

Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, clean water, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, decarbonisation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, interest rate derivative, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, light touch regulation, London Interbank Offered Rate, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mobile money, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, The Chicago School, the market place, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail

In a recent blog, Financial Times journalist Izabella Kaminska argued that financial technology fads follow a pattern similar to new music designated first as ‘hip’ and ‘cool’ but which then fades and becomes ‘so last year’. In the same way, for her as an investigative journalist, Blur (bitcoin) evolved into a love of Radiohead (blockchain). But Radiohead (blockchain) was adopted too quickly by those who then compromised the likeability of the entire Indy genre (cryptocurrency). It was time consequently to turn to drum and bass (private blockchains). But drum and bass was being cross-polluted by Indy rock enthusiasts (cryptocurrency enthusiasts) so it became time to embrace something totally radical and segregated, i.e. go backwards to an ironic appreciation of Barry Manilow abandoning all refs to modern musical phenomena (Distributed Ledger Technology). Which puts us roughly at the point where cheesy revivalism should be turning into a general love of the all time provable greats (old school centralised ledger technology, but you know, digitally remastered).


Martin Kleppmann-Designing Data-Intensive Applications. The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable and Maintainable Systems-O’Reilly (2017) by Unknown

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

A transaction log can be made tamper-proof by periodically signing it with a hardware security module, but that does not guarantee that the right transactions went into the log in the first place. It would be interesting to use cryptographic tools to prove the integrity of a system in a way that is robust to a wide range of hardware and software issues, and even poten‐ tially malicious actions. Cryptocurrencies, blockchains, and distributed ledger tech‐ nologies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Stellar, and various others [71, 72, 73] have sprung up to explore this area. I am not qualified to comment on the merits of these technologies as currencies or mechanisms for agreeing contracts. However, from a data systems point of view they contain some interesting ideas. Essentially, they are distributed databases, with a data model and transaction mechanism, in which different replicas can be hosted by mutually untrusting organizations.

The transaction throughput of Bitcoin is rather low, albeit for political and economic reasons more than for technical ones. However, the integrity checking aspects are interesting. Cryptographic auditing and integrity checking often relies on Merkle trees [74], which are trees of hashes that can be used to efficiently prove that a record appears in some dataset (and a few other things). Outside of the hype of cryptocurrencies, certif‐ icate transparency is a security technology that relies on Merkle trees to check the val‐ idity of TLS/SSL certificates [75, 76]. 532 | Chapter 12: The Future of Data Systems I could imagine integrity-checking and auditing algorithms, like those of certificate transparency and distributed ledgers, becoming more widely used in data systems in general. Some work will be needed to make them equally scalable as systems without cryptographic auditing, and to keep the performance penalty as low as possible.

The opposite of bounded. 558 | Glossary Index A aborts (transactions), 222, 224 in two-phase commit, 356 performance of optimistic concurrency con‐ trol, 266 retrying aborted transactions, 231 abstraction, 21, 27, 222, 266, 321 access path (in network model), 37, 60 accidental complexity, removing, 21 accountability, 535 ACID properties (transactions), 90, 223 atomicity, 223, 228 consistency, 224, 529 durability, 226 isolation, 225, 228 acknowledgements (messaging), 445 active/active replication (see multi-leader repli‐ cation) active/passive replication (see leader-based rep‐ lication) ActiveMQ (messaging), 137, 444 distributed transaction support, 361 ActiveRecord (object-relational mapper), 30, 232 actor model, 138 (see also message-passing) comparison to Pregel model, 425 comparison to stream processing, 468 Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (see AMQP) aerospace systems, 6, 10, 305, 372 aggregation data cubes and materialized views, 101 in batch processes, 406 in stream processes, 466 aggregation pipeline query language, 48 Agile, 22 minimizing irreversibility, 414, 497 moving faster with confidence, 532 Unix philosophy, 394 agreement, 365 (see also consensus) Airflow (workflow scheduler), 402 Ajax, 131 Akka (actor framework), 139 algorithms algorithm correctness, 308 B-trees, 79-83 for distributed systems, 306 hash indexes, 72-75 mergesort, 76, 402, 405 red-black trees, 78 SSTables and LSM-trees, 76-79 all-to-all replication topologies, 175 AllegroGraph (database), 50 ALTER TABLE statement (SQL), 40, 111 Amazon Dynamo (database), 177 Amazon Web Services (AWS), 8 Kinesis Streams (messaging), 448 network reliability, 279 postmortems, 9 RedShift (database), 93 S3 (object storage), 398 checking data integrity, 530 amplification of bias, 534 of failures, 364, 495 Index | 559 of tail latency, 16, 207 write amplification, 84 AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol), 444 (see also messaging systems) comparison to log-based messaging, 448, 451 message ordering, 446 analytics, 90 comparison to transaction processing, 91 data warehousing (see data warehousing) parallel query execution in MPP databases, 415 predictive (see predictive analytics) relation to batch processing, 411 schemas for, 93-95 snapshot isolation for queries, 238 stream analytics, 466 using MapReduce, analysis of user activity events (example), 404 anti-caching (in-memory databases), 89 anti-entropy, 178 Apache ActiveMQ (see ActiveMQ) Apache Avro (see Avro) Apache Beam (see Beam) Apache BookKeeper (see BookKeeper) Apache Cassandra (see Cassandra) Apache CouchDB (see CouchDB) Apache Curator (see Curator) Apache Drill (see Drill) Apache Flink (see Flink) Apache Giraph (see Giraph) Apache Hadoop (see Hadoop) Apache HAWQ (see HAWQ) Apache HBase (see HBase) Apache Helix (see Helix) Apache Hive (see Hive) Apache Impala (see Impala) Apache Jena (see Jena) Apache Kafka (see Kafka) Apache Lucene (see Lucene) Apache MADlib (see MADlib) Apache Mahout (see Mahout) Apache Oozie (see Oozie) Apache Parquet (see Parquet) Apache Qpid (see Qpid) Apache Samza (see Samza) Apache Solr (see Solr) Apache Spark (see Spark) 560 | Index Apache Storm (see Storm) Apache Tajo (see Tajo) Apache Tez (see Tez) Apache Thrift (see Thrift) Apache ZooKeeper (see ZooKeeper) Apama (stream analytics), 466 append-only B-trees, 82, 242 append-only files (see logs) Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), 5, 27 for batch processing, 403 for change streams, 456 for distributed transactions, 361 for graph processing, 425 for services, 131-136 (see also services) evolvability, 136 RESTful, 133 SOAP, 133 application state (see state) approximate search (see similarity search) archival storage, data from databases, 131 arcs (see edges) arithmetic mean, 14 ASCII text, 119, 395 ASN.1 (schema language), 127 asynchronous networks, 278, 553 comparison to synchronous networks, 284 formal model, 307 asynchronous replication, 154, 553 conflict detection, 172 data loss on failover, 157 reads from asynchronous follower, 162 Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), 285 atomic broadcast (see total order broadcast) atomic clocks (caesium clocks), 294, 295 (see also clocks) atomicity (concurrency), 553 atomic increment-and-get, 351 compare-and-set, 245, 327 (see also compare-and-set operations) replicated operations, 246 write operations, 243 atomicity (transactions), 223, 228, 553 atomic commit, 353 avoiding, 523, 528 blocking and nonblocking, 359 in stream processing, 360, 477 maintaining derived data, 453 for multi-object transactions, 229 for single-object writes, 230 auditability, 528-533 designing for, 531 self-auditing systems, 530 through immutability, 460 tools for auditable data systems, 532 availability, 8 (see also fault tolerance) in CAP theorem, 337 in service level agreements (SLAs), 15 Avro (data format), 122-127 code generation, 127 dynamically generated schemas, 126 object container files, 125, 131, 414 reader determining writer’s schema, 125 schema evolution, 123 use in Hadoop, 414 awk (Unix tool), 391 AWS (see Amazon Web Services) Azure (see Microsoft) B B-trees (indexes), 79-83 append-only/copy-on-write variants, 82, 242 branching factor, 81 comparison to LSM-trees, 83-85 crash recovery, 82 growing by splitting a page, 81 optimizations, 82 similarity to dynamic partitioning, 212 backpressure, 441, 553 in TCP, 282 backups database snapshot for replication, 156 integrity of, 530 snapshot isolation for, 238 use for ETL processes, 405 backward compatibility, 112 BASE, contrast to ACID, 223 bash shell (Unix), 70, 395, 503 batch processing, 28, 389-431, 553 combining with stream processing lambda architecture, 497 unifying technologies, 498 comparison to MPP databases, 414-418 comparison to stream processing, 464 comparison to Unix, 413-414 dataflow engines, 421-423 fault tolerance, 406, 414, 422, 442 for data integration, 494-498 graphs and iterative processing, 424-426 high-level APIs and languages, 403, 426-429 log-based messaging and, 451 maintaining derived state, 495 MapReduce and distributed filesystems, 397-413 (see also MapReduce) measuring performance, 13, 390 outputs, 411-413 key-value stores, 412 search indexes, 411 using Unix tools (example), 391-394 Bayou (database), 522 Beam (dataflow library), 498 bias, 534 big ball of mud, 20 Bigtable data model, 41, 99 binary data encodings, 115-128 Avro, 122-127 MessagePack, 116-117 Thrift and Protocol Buffers, 117-121 binary encoding based on schemas, 127 by network drivers, 128 binary strings, lack of support in JSON and XML, 114 BinaryProtocol encoding (Thrift), 118 Bitcask (storage engine), 72 crash recovery, 74 Bitcoin (cryptocurrency), 532 Byzantine fault tolerance, 305 concurrency bugs in exchanges, 233 bitmap indexes, 97 blockchains, 532 Byzantine fault tolerance, 305 blocking atomic commit, 359 Bloom (programming language), 504 Bloom filter (algorithm), 79, 466 BookKeeper (replicated log), 372 Bottled Water (change data capture), 455 bounded datasets, 430, 439, 553 (see also batch processing) bounded delays, 553 in networks, 285 process pauses, 298 broadcast hash joins, 409 Index | 561 brokerless messaging, 442 Brubeck (metrics aggregator), 442 BTM (transaction coordinator), 356 bulk synchronous parallel (BSP) model, 425 bursty network traffic patterns, 285 business data processing, 28, 90, 390 byte sequence, encoding data in, 112 Byzantine faults, 304-306, 307, 553 Byzantine fault-tolerant systems, 305, 532 Byzantine Generals Problem, 304 consensus algorithms and, 366 C caches, 89, 553 and materialized views, 101 as derived data, 386, 499-504 database as cache of transaction log, 460 in CPUs, 99, 338, 428 invalidation and maintenance, 452, 467 linearizability, 324 CAP theorem, 336-338, 554 Cascading (batch processing), 419, 427 hash joins, 409 workflows, 403 cascading failures, 9, 214, 281 Cascalog (batch processing), 60 Cassandra (database) column-family data model, 41, 99 compaction strategy, 79 compound primary key, 204 gossip protocol, 216 hash partitioning, 203-205 last-write-wins conflict resolution, 186, 292 leaderless replication, 177 linearizability, lack of, 335 log-structured storage, 78 multi-datacenter support, 184 partitioning scheme, 213 secondary indexes, 207 sloppy quorums, 184 cat (Unix tool), 391 causal context, 191 (see also causal dependencies) causal dependencies, 186-191 capturing, 191, 342, 494, 514 by total ordering, 493 causal ordering, 339 in transactions, 262 sending message to friends (example), 494 562 | Index causality, 554 causal ordering, 339-343 linearizability and, 342 total order consistent with, 344, 345 consistency with, 344-347 consistent snapshots, 340 happens-before relationship, 186 in serializable transactions, 262-265 mismatch with clocks, 292 ordering events to capture, 493 violations of, 165, 176, 292, 340 with synchronized clocks, 294 CEP (see complex event processing) certificate transparency, 532 chain replication, 155 linearizable reads, 351 change data capture, 160, 454 API support for change streams, 456 comparison to event sourcing, 457 implementing, 454 initial snapshot, 455 log compaction, 456 changelogs, 460 change data capture, 454 for operator state, 479 generating with triggers, 455 in stream joins, 474 log compaction, 456 maintaining derived state, 452 Chaos Monkey, 7, 280 checkpointing in batch processors, 422, 426 in high-performance computing, 275 in stream processors, 477, 523 chronicle data model, 458 circuit-switched networks, 284 circular buffers, 450 circular replication topologies, 175 clickstream data, analysis of, 404 clients calling services, 131 pushing state changes to, 512 request routing, 214 stateful and offline-capable, 170, 511 clocks, 287-299 atomic (caesium) clocks, 294, 295 confidence interval, 293-295 for global snapshots, 294 logical (see logical clocks) skew, 291-294, 334 slewing, 289 synchronization and accuracy, 289-291 synchronization using GPS, 287, 290, 294, 295 time-of-day versus monotonic clocks, 288 timestamping events, 471 cloud computing, 146, 275 need for service discovery, 372 network glitches, 279 shared resources, 284 single-machine reliability, 8 Cloudera Impala (see Impala) clustered indexes, 86 CODASYL model, 36 (see also network model) code generation with Avro, 127 with Thrift and Protocol Buffers, 118 with WSDL, 133 collaborative editing multi-leader replication and, 170 column families (Bigtable), 41, 99 column-oriented storage, 95-101 column compression, 97 distinction between column families and, 99 in batch processors, 428 Parquet, 96, 131, 414 sort order in, 99-100 vectorized processing, 99, 428 writing to, 101 comma-separated values (see CSV) command query responsibility segregation (CQRS), 462 commands (event sourcing), 459 commits (transactions), 222 atomic commit, 354-355 (see also atomicity; transactions) read committed isolation, 234 three-phase commit (3PC), 359 two-phase commit (2PC), 355-359 commutative operations, 246 compaction of changelogs, 456 (see also log compaction) for stream operator state, 479 of log-structured storage, 73 issues with, 84 size-tiered and leveled approaches, 79 CompactProtocol encoding (Thrift), 119 compare-and-set operations, 245, 327 implementing locks, 370 implementing uniqueness constraints, 331 implementing with total order broadcast, 350 relation to consensus, 335, 350, 352, 374 relation to transactions, 230 compatibility, 112, 128 calling services, 136 properties of encoding formats, 139 using databases, 129-131 using message-passing, 138 compensating transactions, 355, 461, 526 complex event processing (CEP), 465 complexity distilling in theoretical models, 310 hiding using abstraction, 27 of software systems, managing, 20 composing data systems (see unbundling data‐ bases) compute-intensive applications, 3, 275 concatenated indexes, 87 in Cassandra, 204 Concord (stream processor), 466 concurrency actor programming model, 138, 468 (see also message-passing) bugs from weak transaction isolation, 233 conflict resolution, 171, 174 detecting concurrent writes, 184-191 dual writes, problems with, 453 happens-before relationship, 186 in replicated systems, 161-191, 324-338 lost updates, 243 multi-version concurrency control (MVCC), 239 optimistic concurrency control, 261 ordering of operations, 326, 341 reducing, through event logs, 351, 462, 507 time and relativity, 187 transaction isolation, 225 write skew (transaction isolation), 246-251 conflict-free replicated datatypes (CRDTs), 174 conflicts conflict detection, 172 causal dependencies, 186, 342 in consensus algorithms, 368 in leaderless replication, 184 Index | 563 in log-based systems, 351, 521 in nonlinearizable systems, 343 in serializable snapshot isolation (SSI), 264 in two-phase commit, 357, 364 conflict resolution automatic conflict resolution, 174 by aborting transactions, 261 by apologizing, 527 convergence, 172-174 in leaderless systems, 190 last write wins (LWW), 186, 292 using atomic operations, 246 using custom logic, 173 determining what is a conflict, 174, 522 in multi-leader replication, 171-175 avoiding conflicts, 172 lost updates, 242-246 materializing, 251 relation to operation ordering, 339 write skew (transaction isolation), 246-251 congestion (networks) avoidance, 282 limiting accuracy of clocks, 293 queueing delays, 282 consensus, 321, 364-375, 554 algorithms, 366-368 preventing split brain, 367 safety and liveness properties, 365 using linearizable operations, 351 cost of, 369 distributed transactions, 352-375 in practice, 360-364 two-phase commit, 354-359 XA transactions, 361-364 impossibility of, 353 membership and coordination services, 370-373 relation to compare-and-set, 335, 350, 352, 374 relation to replication, 155, 349 relation to uniqueness constraints, 521 consistency, 224, 524 across different databases, 157, 452, 462, 492 causal, 339-348, 493 consistent prefix reads, 165-167 consistent snapshots, 156, 237-242, 294, 455, 500 (see also snapshots) 564 | Index crash recovery, 82 enforcing constraints (see constraints) eventual, 162, 322 (see also eventual consistency) in ACID transactions, 224, 529 in CAP theorem, 337 linearizability, 324-338 meanings of, 224 monotonic reads, 164-165 of secondary indexes, 231, 241, 354, 491, 500 ordering guarantees, 339-352 read-after-write, 162-164 sequential, 351 strong (see linearizability) timeliness and integrity, 524 using quorums, 181, 334 consistent hashing, 204 consistent prefix reads, 165 constraints (databases), 225, 248 asynchronously checked, 526 coordination avoidance, 527 ensuring idempotence, 519 in log-based systems, 521-524 across multiple partitions, 522 in two-phase commit, 355, 357 relation to consensus, 374, 521 relation to event ordering, 347 requiring linearizability, 330 Consul (service discovery), 372 consumers (message streams), 137, 440 backpressure, 441 consumer offsets in logs, 449 failures, 445, 449 fan-out, 11, 445, 448 load balancing, 444, 448 not keeping up with producers, 441, 450, 502 context switches, 14, 297 convergence (conflict resolution), 172-174, 322 coordination avoidance, 527 cross-datacenter, 168, 493 cross-partition ordering, 256, 294, 348, 523 services, 330, 370-373 coordinator (in 2PC), 356 failure, 358 in XA transactions, 361-364 recovery, 363 copy-on-write (B-trees), 82, 242 CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture), 134 correctness, 6 auditability, 528-533 Byzantine fault tolerance, 305, 532 dealing with partial failures, 274 in log-based systems, 521-524 of algorithm within system model, 308 of compensating transactions, 355 of consensus, 368 of derived data, 497, 531 of immutable data, 461 of personal data, 535, 540 of time, 176, 289-295 of transactions, 225, 515, 529 timeliness and integrity, 524-528 corruption of data detecting, 519, 530-533 due to pathological memory access, 529 due to radiation, 305 due to split brain, 158, 302 due to weak transaction isolation, 233 formalization in consensus, 366 integrity as absence of, 524 network packets, 306 on disks, 227 preventing using write-ahead logs, 82 recovering from, 414, 460 Couchbase (database) durability, 89 hash partitioning, 203-204, 211 rebalancing, 213 request routing, 216 CouchDB (database) B-tree storage, 242 change feed, 456 document data model, 31 join support, 34 MapReduce support, 46, 400 replication, 170, 173 covering indexes, 86 CPUs cache coherence and memory barriers, 338 caching and pipelining, 99, 428 increasing parallelism, 43 CRDTs (see conflict-free replicated datatypes) CREATE INDEX statement (SQL), 85, 500 credit rating agencies, 535 Crunch (batch processing), 419, 427 hash joins, 409 sharded joins, 408 workflows, 403 cryptography defense against attackers, 306 end-to-end encryption and authentication, 519, 543 proving integrity of data, 532 CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), 44 CSV (comma-separated values), 70, 114, 396 Curator (ZooKeeper recipes), 330, 371 curl (Unix tool), 135, 397 cursor stability, 243 Cypher (query language), 52 comparison to SPARQL, 59 D data corruption (see corruption of data) data cubes, 102 data formats (see encoding) data integration, 490-498, 543 batch and stream processing, 494-498 lambda architecture, 497 maintaining derived state, 495 reprocessing data, 496 unifying, 498 by unbundling databases, 499-515 comparison to federated databases, 501 combining tools by deriving data, 490-494 derived data versus distributed transac‐ tions, 492 limits of total ordering, 493 ordering events to capture causality, 493 reasoning about dataflows, 491 need for, 385 data lakes, 415 data locality (see locality) data models, 27-64 graph-like models, 49-63 Datalog language, 60-63 property graphs, 50 RDF and triple-stores, 55-59 query languages, 42-48 relational model versus document model, 28-42 data protection regulations, 542 data systems, 3 about, 4 Index | 565 concerns when designing, 5 future of, 489-544 correctness, constraints, and integrity, 515-533 data integration, 490-498 unbundling databases, 499-515 heterogeneous, keeping in sync, 452 maintainability, 18-22 possible faults in, 221 reliability, 6-10 hardware faults, 7 human errors, 9 importance of, 10 software errors, 8 scalability, 10-18 unreliable clocks, 287-299 data warehousing, 91-95, 554 comparison to data lakes, 415 ETL (extract-transform-load), 92, 416, 452 keeping data systems in sync, 452 schema design, 93 slowly changing dimension (SCD), 476 data-intensive applications, 3 database triggers (see triggers) database-internal distributed transactions, 360, 364, 477 databases archival storage, 131 comparison of message brokers to, 443 dataflow through, 129 end-to-end argument for, 519-520 checking integrity, 531 inside-out, 504 (see also unbundling databases) output from batch workflows, 412 relation to event streams, 451-464 (see also changelogs) API support for change streams, 456, 506 change data capture, 454-457 event sourcing, 457-459 keeping systems in sync, 452-453 philosophy of immutable events, 459-464 unbundling, 499-515 composing data storage technologies, 499-504 designing applications around dataflow, 504-509 566 | Index observing derived state, 509-515 datacenters geographically distributed, 145, 164, 278, 493 multi-tenancy and shared resources, 284 network architecture, 276 network faults, 279 replication across multiple, 169 leaderless replication, 184 multi-leader replication, 168, 335 dataflow, 128-139, 504-509 correctness of dataflow systems, 525 differential, 504 message-passing, 136-139 reasoning about, 491 through databases, 129 through services, 131-136 dataflow engines, 421-423 comparison to stream processing, 464 directed acyclic graphs (DAG), 424 partitioning, approach to, 429 support for declarative queries, 427 Datalog (query language), 60-63 datatypes binary strings in XML and JSON, 114 conflict-free, 174 in Avro encodings, 122 in Thrift and Protocol Buffers, 121 numbers in XML and JSON, 114 Datomic (database) B-tree storage, 242 data model, 50, 57 Datalog query language, 60 excision (deleting data), 463 languages for transactions, 255 serial execution of transactions, 253 deadlocks detection, in two-phase commit (2PC), 364 in two-phase locking (2PL), 258 Debezium (change data capture), 455 declarative languages, 42, 554 Bloom, 504 CSS and XSL, 44 Cypher, 52 Datalog, 60 for batch processing, 427 recursive SQL queries, 53 relational algebra and SQL, 42 SPARQL, 59 delays bounded network delays, 285 bounded process pauses, 298 unbounded network delays, 282 unbounded process pauses, 296 deleting data, 463 denormalization (data representation), 34, 554 costs, 39 in derived data systems, 386 materialized views, 101 updating derived data, 228, 231, 490 versus normalization, 462 derived data, 386, 439, 554 from change data capture, 454 in event sourcing, 458-458 maintaining derived state through logs, 452-457, 459-463 observing, by subscribing to streams, 512 outputs of batch and stream processing, 495 through application code, 505 versus distributed transactions, 492 deterministic operations, 255, 274, 554 accidental nondeterminism, 423 and fault tolerance, 423, 426 and idempotence, 478, 492 computing derived data, 495, 526, 531 in state machine replication, 349, 452, 458 joins, 476 DevOps, 394 differential dataflow, 504 dimension tables, 94 dimensional modeling (see star schemas) directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), 424 dirty reads (transaction isolation), 234 dirty writes (transaction isolation), 235 discrimination, 534 disks (see hard disks) distributed actor frameworks, 138 distributed filesystems, 398-399 decoupling from query engines, 417 indiscriminately dumping data into, 415 use by MapReduce, 402 distributed systems, 273-312, 554 Byzantine faults, 304-306 cloud versus supercomputing, 275 detecting network faults, 280 faults and partial failures, 274-277 formalization of consensus, 365 impossibility results, 338, 353 issues with failover, 157 limitations of distributed transactions, 363 multi-datacenter, 169, 335 network problems, 277-286 quorums, relying on, 301 reasons for using, 145, 151 synchronized clocks, relying on, 291-295 system models, 306-310 use of clocks and time, 287 distributed transactions (see transactions) Django (web framework), 232 DNS (Domain Name System), 216, 372 Docker (container manager), 506 document data model, 30-42 comparison to relational model, 38-42 document references, 38, 403 document-oriented databases, 31 many-to-many relationships and joins, 36 multi-object transactions, need for, 231 versus relational model convergence of models, 41 data locality, 41 document-partitioned indexes, 206, 217, 411 domain-driven design (DDD), 457 DRBD (Distributed Replicated Block Device), 153 drift (clocks), 289 Drill (query engine), 93 Druid (database), 461 Dryad (dataflow engine), 421 dual writes, problems with, 452, 507 duplicates, suppression of, 517 (see also idempotence) using a unique ID, 518, 522 durability (transactions), 226, 554 duration (time), 287 measurement with monotonic clocks, 288 dynamic partitioning, 212 dynamically typed languages analogy to schema-on-read, 40 code generation and, 127 Dynamo-style databases (see leaderless replica‐ tion) E edges (in graphs), 49, 403 property graph model, 50 edit distance (full-text search), 88 effectively-once semantics, 476, 516 Index | 567 (see also exactly-once semantics) preservation of integrity, 525 elastic systems, 17 Elasticsearch (search server) document-partitioned indexes, 207 partition rebalancing, 211 percolator (stream search), 467 usage example, 4 use of Lucene, 79 ElephantDB (database), 413 Elm (programming language), 504, 512 encodings (data formats), 111-128 Avro, 122-127 binary variants of JSON and XML, 115 compatibility, 112 calling services, 136 using databases, 129-131 using message-passing, 138 defined, 113 JSON, XML, and CSV, 114 language-specific formats, 113 merits of schemas, 127 representations of data, 112 Thrift and Protocol Buffers, 117-121 end-to-end argument, 277, 519-520 checking integrity, 531 publish/subscribe streams, 512 enrichment (stream), 473 Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB), 134 entities (see vertices) epoch (consensus algorithms), 368 epoch (Unix timestamps), 288 equi-joins, 403 erasure coding (error correction), 398 Erlang OTP (actor framework), 139 error handling for network faults, 280 in transactions, 231 error-correcting codes, 277, 398 Esper (CEP engine), 466 etcd (coordination service), 370-373 linearizable operations, 333 locks and leader election, 330 quorum reads, 351 service discovery, 372 use of Raft algorithm, 349, 353 Ethereum (blockchain), 532 Ethernet (networks), 276, 278, 285 packet checksums, 306, 519 568 | Index Etherpad (collaborative editor), 170 ethics, 533-543 code of ethics and professional practice, 533 legislation and self-regulation, 542 predictive analytics, 533-536 amplifying bias, 534 feedback loops, 536 privacy and tracking, 536-543 consent and freedom of choice, 538 data as assets and power, 540 meaning of privacy, 539 surveillance, 537 respect, dignity, and agency, 543, 544 unintended consequences, 533, 536 ETL (extract-transform-load), 92, 405, 452, 554 use of Hadoop for, 416 event sourcing, 457-459 commands and events, 459 comparison to change data capture, 457 comparison to lambda architecture, 497 deriving current state from event log, 458 immutability and auditability, 459, 531 large, reliable data systems, 519, 526 Event Store (database), 458 event streams (see streams) events, 440 deciding on total order of, 493 deriving views from event log, 461 difference to commands, 459 event time versus processing time, 469, 477, 498 immutable, advantages of, 460, 531 ordering to capture causality, 493 reads as, 513 stragglers, 470, 498 timestamp of, in stream processing, 471 EventSource (browser API), 512 eventual consistency, 152, 162, 308, 322 (see also conflicts) and perpetual inconsistency, 525 evolvability, 21, 111 calling services, 136 graph-structured data, 52 of databases, 40, 129-131, 461, 497 of message-passing, 138 reprocessing data, 496, 498 schema evolution in Avro, 123 schema evolution in Thrift and Protocol Buffers, 120 schema-on-read, 39, 111, 128 exactly-once semantics, 360, 476, 516 parity with batch processors, 498 preservation of integrity, 525 exclusive mode (locks), 258 eXtended Architecture transactions (see XA transactions) extract-transform-load (see ETL) F Facebook Presto (query engine), 93 React, Flux, and Redux (user interface libra‐ ries), 512 social graphs, 49 Wormhole (change data capture), 455 fact tables, 93 failover, 157, 554 (see also leader-based replication) in leaderless replication, absence of, 178 leader election, 301, 348, 352 potential problems, 157 failures amplification by distributed transactions, 364, 495 failure detection, 280 automatic rebalancing causing cascading failures, 214 perfect failure detectors, 359 timeouts and unbounded delays, 282, 284 using ZooKeeper, 371 faults versus, 7 partial failures in distributed systems, 275-277, 310 fan-out (messaging systems), 11, 445 fault tolerance, 6-10, 555 abstractions for, 321 formalization in consensus, 365-369 use of replication, 367 human fault tolerance, 414 in batch processing, 406, 414, 422, 425 in log-based systems, 520, 524-526 in stream processing, 476-479 atomic commit, 477 idempotence, 478 maintaining derived state, 495 microbatching and checkpointing, 477 rebuilding state after a failure, 478 of distributed transactions, 362-364 transaction atomicity, 223, 354-361 faults, 6 Byzantine faults, 304-306 failures versus, 7 handled by transactions, 221 handling in supercomputers and cloud computing, 275 hardware, 7 in batch processing versus distributed data‐ bases, 417 in distributed systems, 274-277 introducing deliberately, 7, 280 network faults, 279-281 asymmetric faults, 300 detecting, 280 tolerance of, in multi-leader replication, 169 software errors, 8 tolerating (see fault tolerance) federated databases, 501 fence (CPU instruction), 338 fencing (preventing split brain), 158, 302-304 generating fencing tokens, 349, 370 properties of fencing tokens, 308 stream processors writing to databases, 478, 517 Fibre Channel (networks), 398 field tags (Thrift and Protocol Buffers), 119-121 file descriptors (Unix), 395 financial data, 460 Firebase (database), 456 Flink (processing framework), 421-423 dataflow APIs, 427 fault tolerance, 422, 477, 479 Gelly API (graph processing), 425 integration of batch and stream processing, 495, 498 machine learning, 428 query optimizer, 427 stream processing, 466 flow control, 282, 441, 555 FLP result (on consensus), 353 FlumeJava (dataflow library), 403, 427 followers, 152, 555 (see also leader-based replication) foreign keys, 38, 403 forward compatibility, 112 forward decay (algorithm), 16 Index | 569 Fossil (version control system), 463 shunning (deleting data), 463 FoundationDB (database) serializable transactions, 261, 265, 364 fractal trees, 83 full table scans, 403 full-text search, 555 and fuzzy indexes, 88 building search indexes, 411 Lucene storage engine, 79 functional reactive programming (FRP), 504 functional requirements, 22 futures (asynchronous operations), 135 fuzzy search (see similarity search) G garbage collection immutability and, 463 process pauses for, 14, 296-299, 301 (see also process pauses) genome analysis, 63, 429 geographically distributed datacenters, 145, 164, 278, 493 geospatial indexes, 87 Giraph (graph processing), 425 Git (version control system), 174, 342, 463 GitHub, postmortems, 157, 158, 309 global indexes (see term-partitioned indexes) GlusterFS (distributed filesystem), 398 GNU Coreutils (Linux), 394 GoldenGate (change data capture), 161, 170, 455 (see also Oracle) Google Bigtable (database) data model (see Bigtable data model) partitioning scheme, 199, 202 storage layout, 78 Chubby (lock service), 370 Cloud Dataflow (stream processor), 466, 477, 498 (see also Beam) Cloud Pub/Sub (messaging), 444, 448 Docs (collaborative editor), 170 Dremel (query engine), 93, 96 FlumeJava (dataflow library), 403, 427 GFS (distributed file system), 398 gRPC (RPC framework), 135 MapReduce (batch processing), 390 570 | Index (see also MapReduce) building search indexes, 411 task preemption, 418 Pregel (graph processing), 425 Spanner (see Spanner) TrueTime (clock API), 294 gossip protocol, 216 government use of data, 541 GPS (Global Positioning System) use for clock synchronization, 287, 290, 294, 295 GraphChi (graph processing), 426 graphs, 555 as data models, 49-63 example of graph-structured data, 49 property graphs, 50 RDF and triple-stores, 55-59 versus the network model, 60 processing and analysis, 424-426 fault tolerance, 425 Pregel processing model, 425 query languages Cypher, 52 Datalog, 60-63 recursive SQL queries, 53 SPARQL, 59-59 Gremlin (graph query language), 50 grep (Unix tool), 392 GROUP BY clause (SQL), 406 grouping records in MapReduce, 406 handling skew, 407 H Hadoop (data infrastructure) comparison to distributed databases, 390 comparison to MPP databases, 414-418 comparison to Unix, 413-414, 499 diverse processing models in ecosystem, 417 HDFS distributed filesystem (see HDFS) higher-level tools, 403 join algorithms, 403-410 (see also MapReduce) MapReduce (see MapReduce) YARN (see YARN) happens-before relationship, 340 capturing, 187 concurrency and, 186 hard disks access patterns, 84 detecting corruption, 519, 530 faults in, 7, 227 sequential write throughput, 75, 450 hardware faults, 7 hash indexes, 72-75 broadcast hash joins, 409 partitioned hash joins, 409 hash partitioning, 203-205, 217 consistent hashing, 204 problems with hash mod N, 210 range queries, 204 suitable hash functions, 203 with fixed number of partitions, 210 HAWQ (database), 428 HBase (database) bug due to lack of fencing, 302 bulk loading, 413 column-family data model, 41, 99 dynamic partitioning, 212 key-range partitioning, 202 log-structured storage, 78 request routing, 216 size-tiered compaction, 79 use of HDFS, 417 use of ZooKeeper, 370 HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System), 398-399 (see also distributed filesystems) checking data integrity, 530 decoupling from query engines, 417 indiscriminately dumping data into, 415 metadata about datasets, 410 NameNode, 398 use by Flink, 479 use by HBase, 212 use by MapReduce, 402 HdrHistogram (numerical library), 16 head (Unix tool), 392 head vertex (property graphs), 51 head-of-line blocking, 15 heap files (databases), 86 Helix (cluster manager), 216 heterogeneous distributed transactions, 360, 364 heuristic decisions (in 2PC), 363 Hibernate (object-relational mapper), 30 hierarchical model, 36 high availability (see fault tolerance) high-frequency trading, 290, 299 high-performance computing (HPC), 275 hinted handoff, 183 histograms, 16 Hive (query engine), 419, 427 for data warehouses, 93 HCatalog and metastore, 410 map-side joins, 409 query optimizer, 427 skewed joins, 408 workflows, 403 Hollerith machines, 390 hopping windows (stream processing), 472 (see also windows) horizontal scaling (see scaling out) HornetQ (messaging), 137, 444 distributed transaction support, 361 hot spots, 201 due to celebrities, 205 for time-series data, 203 in batch processing, 407 relieving, 205 hot standbys (see leader-based replication) HTTP, use in APIs (see services) human errors, 9, 279, 414 HyperDex (database), 88 HyperLogLog (algorithm), 466 I I/O operations, waiting for, 297 IBM DB2 (database) distributed transaction support, 361 recursive query support, 54 serializable isolation, 242, 257 XML and JSON support, 30, 42 electromechanical card-sorting machines, 390 IMS (database), 36 imperative query APIs, 46 InfoSphere Streams (CEP engine), 466 MQ (messaging), 444 distributed transaction support, 361 System R (database), 222 WebSphere (messaging), 137 idempotence, 134, 478, 555 by giving operations unique IDs, 518, 522 idempotent operations, 517 immutability advantages of, 460, 531 Index | 571 deriving state from event log, 459-464 for crash recovery, 75 in B-trees, 82, 242 in event sourcing, 457 inputs to Unix commands, 397 limitations of, 463 Impala (query engine) for data warehouses, 93 hash joins, 409 native code generation, 428 use of HDFS, 417 impedance mismatch, 29 imperative languages, 42 setting element styles (example), 45 in doubt (transaction status), 358 holding locks, 362 orphaned transactions, 363 in-memory databases, 88 durability, 227 serial transaction execution, 253 incidents cascading failures, 9 crashes due to leap seconds, 290 data corruption and financial losses due to concurrency bugs, 233 data corruption on hard disks, 227 data loss due to last-write-wins, 173, 292 data on disks unreadable, 309 deleted items reappearing, 174 disclosure of sensitive data due to primary key reuse, 157 errors in transaction serializability, 529 gigabit network interface with 1 Kb/s throughput, 311 network faults, 279 network interface dropping only inbound packets, 279 network partitions and whole-datacenter failures, 275 poor handling of network faults, 280 sending message to ex-partner, 494 sharks biting undersea cables, 279 split brain due to 1-minute packet delay, 158, 279 vibrations in server rack, 14 violation of uniqueness constraint, 529 indexes, 71, 555 and snapshot isolation, 241 as derived data, 386, 499-504 572 | Index B-trees, 79-83 building in batch processes, 411 clustered, 86 comparison of B-trees and LSM-trees, 83-85 concatenated, 87 covering (with included columns), 86 creating, 500 full-text search, 88 geospatial, 87 hash, 72-75 index-range locking, 260 multi-column, 87 partitioning and secondary indexes, 206-209, 217 secondary, 85 (see also secondary indexes) problems with dual writes, 452, 491 SSTables and LSM-trees, 76-79 updating when data changes, 452, 467 Industrial Revolution, 541 InfiniBand (networks), 285 InfiniteGraph (database), 50 InnoDB (storage engine) clustered index on primary key, 86 not preventing lost updates, 245 preventing write skew, 248, 257 serializable isolation, 257 snapshot isolation support, 239 inside-out databases, 504 (see also unbundling databases) integrating different data systems (see data integration) integrity, 524 coordination-avoiding data systems, 528 correctness of dataflow systems, 525 in consensus formalization, 365 integrity checks, 530 (see also auditing) end-to-end, 519, 531 use of snapshot isolation, 238 maintaining despite software bugs, 529 Interface Definition Language (IDL), 117, 122 intermediate state, materialization of, 420-423 internet services, systems for implementing, 275 invariants, 225 (see also constraints) inversion of control, 396 IP (Internet Protocol) unreliability of, 277 ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), 284 isolation (in transactions), 225, 228, 555 correctness and, 515 for single-object writes, 230 serializability, 251-266 actual serial execution, 252-256 serializable snapshot isolation (SSI), 261-266 two-phase locking (2PL), 257-261 violating, 228 weak isolation levels, 233-251 preventing lost updates, 242-246 read committed, 234-237 snapshot isolation, 237-242 iterative processing, 424-426 J Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) distributed transaction support, 361 network drivers, 128 Java Enterprise Edition (EE), 134, 356, 361 Java Message Service (JMS), 444 (see also messaging systems) comparison to log-based messaging, 448, 451 distributed transaction support, 361 message ordering, 446 Java Transaction API (JTA), 355, 361 Java Virtual Machine (JVM) bytecode generation, 428 garbage collection pauses, 296 process reuse in batch processors, 422 JavaScript in MapReduce querying, 46 setting element styles (example), 45 use in advanced queries, 48 Jena (RDF framework), 57 Jepsen (fault tolerance testing), 515 jitter (network delay), 284 joins, 555 by index lookup, 403 expressing as relational operators, 427 in relational and document databases, 34 MapReduce map-side joins, 408-410 broadcast hash joins, 409 merge joins, 410 partitioned hash joins, 409 MapReduce reduce-side joins, 403-408 handling skew, 407 sort-merge joins, 405 parallel execution of, 415 secondary indexes and, 85 stream joins, 472-476 stream-stream join, 473 stream-table join, 473 table-table join, 474 time-dependence of, 475 support in document databases, 42 JOTM (transaction coordinator), 356 JSON Avro schema representation, 122 binary variants, 115 for application data, issues with, 114 in relational databases, 30, 42 representing a résumé (example), 31 Juttle (query language), 504 K k-nearest neighbors, 429 Kafka (messaging), 137, 448 Kafka Connect (database integration), 457, 461 Kafka Streams (stream processor), 466, 467 fault tolerance, 479 leader-based replication, 153 log compaction, 456, 467 message offsets, 447, 478 request routing, 216 transaction support, 477 usage example, 4 Ketama (partitioning library), 213 key-value stores, 70 as batch process output, 412 hash indexes, 72-75 in-memory, 89 partitioning, 201-205 by hash of key, 203, 217 by key range, 202, 217 dynamic partitioning, 212 skew and hot spots, 205 Kryo (Java), 113 Kubernetes (cluster manager), 418, 506 L lambda architecture, 497 Lamport timestamps, 345 Index | 573 Large Hadron Collider (LHC), 64 last write wins (LWW), 173, 334 discarding concurrent writes, 186 problems with, 292 prone to lost updates, 246 late binding, 396 latency instability under two-phase locking, 259 network latency and resource utilization, 286 response time versus, 14 tail latency, 15, 207 leader-based replication, 152-161 (see also replication) failover, 157, 301 handling node outages, 156 implementation of replication logs change data capture, 454-457 (see also changelogs) statement-based, 158 trigger-based replication, 161 write-ahead log (WAL) shipping, 159 linearizability of operations, 333 locking and leader election, 330 log sequence number, 156, 449 read-scaling architecture, 161 relation to consensus, 367 setting up new followers, 155 synchronous versus asynchronous, 153-155 leaderless replication, 177-191 (see also replication) detecting concurrent writes, 184-191 capturing happens-before relationship, 187 happens-before relationship and concur‐ rency, 186 last write wins, 186 merging concurrently written values, 190 version vectors, 191 multi-datacenter, 184 quorums, 179-182 consistency limitations, 181-183, 334 sloppy quorums and hinted handoff, 183 read repair and anti-entropy, 178 leap seconds, 8, 290 in time-of-day clocks, 288 leases, 295 implementation with ZooKeeper, 370 574 | Index need for fencing, 302 ledgers, 460 distributed ledger technologies, 532 legacy systems, maintenance of, 18 less (Unix tool), 397 LevelDB (storage engine), 78 leveled compaction, 79 Levenshtein automata, 88 limping (partial failure), 311 linearizability, 324-338, 555 cost of, 335-338 CAP theorem, 336 memory on multi-core CPUs, 338 definition, 325-329 implementing with total order broadcast, 350 in ZooKeeper, 370 of derived data systems, 492, 524 avoiding coordination, 527 of different replication methods, 332-335 using quorums, 334 relying on, 330-332 constraints and uniqueness, 330 cross-channel timing dependencies, 331 locking and leader election, 330 stronger than causal consistency, 342 using to implement total order broadcast, 351 versus serializability, 329 LinkedIn Azkaban (workflow scheduler), 402 Databus (change data capture), 161, 455 Espresso (database), 31, 126, 130, 153, 216 Helix (cluster manager) (see Helix) profile (example), 30 reference to company entity (example), 34 Rest.li (RPC framework), 135 Voldemort (database) (see Voldemort) Linux, leap second bug, 8, 290 liveness properties, 308 LMDB (storage engine), 82, 242 load approaches to coping with, 17 describing, 11 load testing, 16 load balancing (messaging), 444 local indexes (see document-partitioned indexes) locality (data access), 32, 41, 555 in batch processing, 400, 405, 421 in stateful clients, 170, 511 in stream processing, 474, 478, 508, 522 location transparency, 134 in the actor model, 138 locks, 556 deadlock, 258 distributed locking, 301-304, 330 fencing tokens, 303 implementation with ZooKeeper, 370 relation to consensus, 374 for transaction isolation in snapshot isolation, 239 in two-phase locking (2PL), 257-261 making operations atomic, 243 performance, 258 preventing dirty writes, 236 preventing phantoms with index-range locks, 260, 265 read locks (shared mode), 236, 258 shared mode and exclusive mode, 258 in two-phase commit (2PC) deadlock detection, 364 in-doubt transactions holding locks, 362 materializing conflicts with, 251 preventing lost updates by explicit locking, 244 log sequence number, 156, 449 logic programming languages, 504 logical clocks, 293, 343, 494 for read-after-write consistency, 164 logical logs, 160 logs (data structure), 71, 556 advantages of immutability, 460 compaction, 73, 79, 456, 460 for stream operator state, 479 creating using total order broadcast, 349 implementing uniqueness constraints, 522 log-based messaging, 446-451 comparison to traditional messaging, 448, 451 consumer offsets, 449 disk space usage, 450 replaying old messages, 451, 496, 498 slow consumers, 450 using logs for message storage, 447 log-structured storage, 71-79 log-structured merge tree (see LSMtrees) replication, 152, 158-161 change data capture, 454-457 (see also changelogs) coordination with snapshot, 156 logical (row-based) replication, 160 statement-based replication, 158 trigger-based replication, 161 write-ahead log (WAL) shipping, 159 scalability limits, 493 loose coupling, 396, 419, 502 lost updates (see updates) LSM-trees (indexes), 78-79 comparison to B-trees, 83-85 Lucene (storage engine), 79 building indexes in batch processes, 411 similarity search, 88 Luigi (workflow scheduler), 402 LWW (see last write wins) M machine learning ethical considerations, 534 (see also ethics) iterative processing, 424 models derived from training data, 505 statistical and numerical algorithms, 428 MADlib (machine learning toolkit), 428 magic scaling sauce, 18 Mahout (machine learning toolkit), 428 maintainability, 18-22, 489 defined, 23 design principles for software systems, 19 evolvability (see evolvability) operability, 19 simplicity and managing complexity, 20 many-to-many relationships in document model versus relational model, 39 modeling as graphs, 49 many-to-one and many-to-many relationships, 33-36 many-to-one relationships, 34 MapReduce (batch processing), 390, 399-400 accessing external services within job, 404, 412 comparison to distributed databases designing for frequent faults, 417 diversity of processing models, 416 diversity of storage, 415 Index | 575 comparison to stream processing, 464 comparison to Unix, 413-414 disadvantages and limitations of, 419 fault tolerance, 406, 414, 422 higher-level tools, 403, 426 implementation in Hadoop, 400-403 the shuffle, 402 implementation in MongoDB, 46-48 machine learning, 428 map-side processing, 408-410 broadcast hash joins, 409 merge joins, 410 partitioned hash joins, 409 mapper and reducer functions, 399 materialization of intermediate state, 419-423 output of batch workflows, 411-413 building search indexes, 411 key-value stores, 412 reduce-side processing, 403-408 analysis of user activity events (exam‐ ple), 404 grouping records by same key, 406 handling skew, 407 sort-merge joins, 405 workflows, 402 marshalling (see encoding) massively parallel processing (MPP), 216 comparison to composing storage technolo‐ gies, 502 comparison to Hadoop, 414-418, 428 master-master replication (see multi-leader replication) master-slave replication (see leader-based repli‐ cation) materialization, 556 aggregate values, 101 conflicts, 251 intermediate state (batch processing), 420-423 materialized views, 101 as derived data, 386, 499-504 maintaining, using stream processing, 467, 475 Maven (Java build tool), 428 Maxwell (change data capture), 455 mean, 14 media monitoring, 467 median, 14 576 | Index meeting room booking (example), 249, 259, 521 membership services, 372 Memcached (caching server), 4, 89 memory in-memory databases, 88 durability, 227 serial transaction execution, 253 in-memory representation of data, 112 random bit-flips in, 529 use by indexes, 72, 77 memory barrier (CPU instruction), 338 MemSQL (database) in-memory storage, 89 read committed isolation, 236 memtable (in LSM-trees), 78 Mercurial (version control system), 463 merge joins, MapReduce map-side, 410 mergeable persistent data structures, 174 merging sorted files, 76, 402, 405 Merkle trees, 532 Mesos (cluster manager), 418, 506 message brokers (see messaging systems) message-passing, 136-139 advantages over direct RPC, 137 distributed actor frameworks, 138 evolvability, 138 MessagePack (encoding format), 116 messages exactly-once semantics, 360, 476 loss of, 442 using total order broadcast, 348 messaging systems, 440-451 (see also streams) backpressure, buffering, or dropping mes‐ sages, 441 brokerless messaging, 442 event logs, 446-451 comparison to traditional messaging, 448, 451 consumer offsets, 449 replaying old messages, 451, 496, 498 slow consumers, 450 message brokers, 443-446 acknowledgements and redelivery, 445 comparison to event logs, 448, 451 multiple consumers of same topic, 444 reliability, 442 uniqueness in log-based messaging, 522 Meteor (web framework), 456 microbatching, 477, 495 microservices, 132 (see also services) causal dependencies across services, 493 loose coupling, 502 relation to batch/stream processors, 389, 508 Microsoft Azure Service Bus (messaging), 444 Azure Storage, 155, 398 Azure Stream Analytics, 466 DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model), 134 MSDTC (transaction coordinator), 356 Orleans (see Orleans) SQL Server (see SQL Server) migrating (rewriting) data, 40, 130, 461, 497 modulus operator (%), 210 MongoDB (database) aggregation pipeline, 48 atomic operations, 243 BSON, 41 document data model, 31 hash partitioning (sharding), 203-204 key-range partitioning, 202 lack of join support, 34, 42 leader-based replication, 153 MapReduce support, 46, 400 oplog parsing, 455, 456 partition splitting, 212 request routing, 216 secondary indexes, 207 Mongoriver (change data capture), 455 monitoring, 10, 19 monotonic clocks, 288 monotonic reads, 164 MPP (see massively parallel processing) MSMQ (messaging), 361 multi-column indexes, 87 multi-leader replication, 168-177 (see also replication) handling write conflicts, 171 conflict avoidance, 172 converging toward a consistent state, 172 custom conflict resolution logic, 173 determining what is a conflict, 174 linearizability, lack of, 333 replication topologies, 175-177 use cases, 168 clients with offline operation, 170 collaborative editing, 170 multi-datacenter replication, 168, 335 multi-object transactions, 228 need for, 231 Multi-Paxos (total order broadcast), 367 multi-table index cluster tables (Oracle), 41 multi-tenancy, 284 multi-version concurrency control (MVCC), 239, 266 detecting stale MVCC reads, 263 indexes and snapshot isolation, 241 mutual exclusion, 261 (see also locks) MySQL (database) binlog coordinates, 156 binlog parsing for change data capture, 455 circular replication topology, 175 consistent snapshots, 156 distributed transaction support, 361 InnoDB storage engine (see InnoDB) JSON support, 30, 42 leader-based replication, 153 performance of XA transactions, 360 row-based replication, 160 schema changes in, 40 snapshot isolation support, 242 (see also InnoDB) statement-based replication, 159 Tungsten Replicator (multi-leader replica‐ tion), 170 conflict detection, 177 N nanomsg (messaging library), 442 Narayana (transaction coordinator), 356 NATS (messaging), 137 near-real-time (nearline) processing, 390 (see also stream processing) Neo4j (database) Cypher query language, 52 graph data model, 50 Nephele (dataflow engine), 421 netcat (Unix tool), 397 Netflix Chaos Monkey, 7, 280 Network Attached Storage (NAS), 146, 398 network model, 36 Index | 577 graph databases versus, 60 imperative query APIs, 46 Network Time Protocol (see NTP) networks congestion and queueing, 282 datacenter network topologies, 276 faults (see faults) linearizability and network delays, 338 network partitions, 279, 337 timeouts and unbounded delays, 281 next-key locking, 260 nodes (in graphs) (see vertices) nodes (processes), 556 handling outages in leader-based replica‐ tion, 156 system models for failure, 307 noisy neighbors, 284 nonblocking atomic commit, 359 nondeterministic operations accidental nondeterminism, 423 partial failures in distributed systems, 275 nonfunctional requirements, 22 nonrepeatable reads, 238 (see also read skew) normalization (data representation), 33, 556 executing joins, 39, 42, 403 foreign key references, 231 in systems of record, 386 versus denormalization, 462 NoSQL, 29, 499 transactions and, 223 Notation3 (N3), 56 npm (package manager), 428 NTP (Network Time Protocol), 287 accuracy, 289, 293 adjustments to monotonic clocks, 289 multiple server addresses, 306 numbers, in XML and JSON encodings, 114 O object-relational mapping (ORM) frameworks, 30 error handling and aborted transactions, 232 unsafe read-modify-write cycle code, 244 object-relational mismatch, 29 observer pattern, 506 offline systems, 390 (see also batch processing) 578 | Index stateful, offline-capable clients, 170, 511 offline-first applications, 511 offsets consumer offsets in partitioned logs, 449 messages in partitioned logs, 447 OLAP (online analytic processing), 91, 556 data cubes, 102 OLTP (online transaction processing), 90, 556 analytics queries versus, 411 workload characteristics, 253 one-to-many relationships, 30 JSON representation, 32 online systems, 389 (see also services) Oozie (workflow scheduler), 402 OpenAPI (service definition format), 133 OpenStack Nova (cloud infrastructure) use of ZooKeeper, 370 Swift (object storage), 398 operability, 19 operating systems versus databases, 499 operation identifiers, 518, 522 operational transformation, 174 operators, 421 flow of data between, 424 in stream processing, 464 optimistic concurrency control, 261 Oracle (database) distributed transaction support, 361 GoldenGate (change data capture), 161, 170, 455 lack of serializability, 226 leader-based replication, 153 multi-table index cluster tables, 41 not preventing write skew, 248 partitioned indexes, 209 PL/SQL language, 255 preventing lost updates, 245 read committed isolation, 236 Real Application Clusters (RAC), 330 recursive query support, 54 snapshot isolation support, 239, 242 TimesTen (in-memory database), 89 WAL-based replication, 160 XML support, 30 ordering, 339-352 by sequence numbers, 343-348 causal ordering, 339-343 partial order, 341 limits of total ordering, 493 total order broadcast, 348-352 Orleans (actor framework), 139 outliers (response time), 14 Oz (programming language), 504 P package managers, 428, 505 packet switching, 285 packets corruption of, 306 sending via UDP, 442 PageRank (algorithm), 49, 424 paging (see virtual memory) ParAccel (database), 93 parallel databases (see massively parallel pro‐ cessing) parallel execution of graph analysis algorithms, 426 queries in MPP databases, 216 Parquet (data format), 96, 131 (see also column-oriented storage) use in Hadoop, 414 partial failures, 275, 310 limping, 311 partial order, 341 partitioning, 199-218, 556 and replication, 200 in batch processing, 429 multi-partition operations, 514 enforcing constraints, 522 secondary index maintenance, 495 of key-value data, 201-205 by key range, 202 skew and hot spots, 205 rebalancing partitions, 209-214 automatic or manual rebalancing, 213 problems with hash mod N, 210 using dynamic partitioning, 212 using fixed number of partitions, 210 using N partitions per node, 212 replication and, 147 request routing, 214-216 secondary indexes, 206-209 document-based partitioning, 206 term-based partitioning, 208 serial execution of transactions and, 255 Paxos (consensus algorithm), 366 ballot number, 368 Multi-Paxos (total order broadcast), 367 percentiles, 14, 556 calculating efficiently, 16 importance of high percentiles, 16 use in service level agreements (SLAs), 15 Percona XtraBackup (MySQL tool), 156 performance describing, 13 of distributed transactions, 360 of in-memory databases, 89 of linearizability, 338 of multi-leader replication, 169 perpetual inconsistency, 525 pessimistic concurrency control, 261 phantoms (transaction isolation), 250 materializing conflicts, 251 preventing, in serializability, 259 physical clocks (see clocks) pickle (Python), 113 Pig (dataflow language), 419, 427 replicated joins, 409 skewed joins, 407 workflows, 403 Pinball (workflow scheduler), 402 pipelined execution, 423 in Unix, 394 point in time, 287 polyglot persistence, 29 polystores, 501 PostgreSQL (database) BDR (multi-leader replication), 170 causal ordering of writes, 177 Bottled Water (change data capture), 455 Bucardo (trigger-based replication), 161, 173 distributed transaction support, 361 foreign data wrappers, 501 full text search support, 490 leader-based replication, 153 log sequence number, 156 MVCC implementation, 239, 241 PL/pgSQL language, 255 PostGIS geospatial indexes, 87 preventing lost updates, 245 preventing write skew, 248, 261 read committed isolation, 236 recursive query support, 54 representing graphs, 51 Index | 579 serializable snapshot isolation (SSI), 261 snapshot isolation support, 239, 242 WAL-based replication, 160 XML and JSON support, 30, 42 pre-splitting, 212 Precision Time Protocol (PTP), 290 predicate locks, 259 predictive analytics, 533-536 amplifying bias, 534 ethics of (see ethics) feedback loops, 536 preemption of datacenter resources, 418 of threads, 298 Pregel processing model, 425 primary keys, 85, 556 compound primary key (Cassandra), 204 primary-secondary replication (see leaderbased replication) privacy, 536-543 consent and freedom of choice, 538 data as assets and power, 540 deleting data, 463 ethical considerations (see ethics) legislation and self-regulation, 542 meaning of, 539 surveillance, 537 tracking behavioral data, 536 probabilistic algorithms, 16, 466 process pauses, 295-299 processing time (of events), 469 producers (message streams), 440 programming languages dataflow languages, 504 for stored procedures, 255 functional reactive programming (FRP), 504 logic programming, 504 Prolog (language), 61 (see also Datalog) promises (asynchronous operations), 135 property graphs, 50 Cypher query language, 52 Protocol Buffers (data format), 117-121 field tags and schema evolution, 120 provenance of data, 531 publish/subscribe model, 441 publishers (message streams), 440 punch card tabulating machines, 390 580 | Index pure functions, 48 putting computation near data, 400 Q Qpid (messaging), 444 quality of service (QoS), 285 Quantcast File System (distributed filesystem), 398 query languages, 42-48 aggregation pipeline, 48 CSS and XSL, 44 Cypher, 52 Datalog, 60 Juttle, 504 MapReduce querying, 46-48 recursive SQL queries, 53 relational algebra and SQL, 42 SPARQL, 59 query optimizers, 37, 427 queueing delays (networks), 282 head-of-line blocking, 15 latency and response time, 14 queues (messaging), 137 quorums, 179-182, 556 for leaderless replication, 179 in consensus algorithms, 368 limitations of consistency, 181-183, 334 making decisions in distributed systems, 301 monitoring staleness, 182 multi-datacenter replication, 184 relying on durability, 309 sloppy quorums and hinted handoff, 183 R R-trees (indexes), 87 RabbitMQ (messaging), 137, 444 leader-based replication, 153 race conditions, 225 (see also concurrency) avoiding with linearizability, 331 caused by dual writes, 452 dirty writes, 235 in counter increments, 235 lost updates, 242-246 preventing with event logs, 462, 507 preventing with serializable isolation, 252 write skew, 246-251 Raft (consensus algorithm), 366 sensitivity to network problems, 369 term number, 368 use in etcd, 353 RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks), 7, 398 railways, schema migration on, 496 RAMCloud (in-memory storage), 89 ranking algorithms, 424 RDF (Resource Description Framework), 57 querying with SPARQL, 59 RDMA (Remote Direct Memory Access), 276 read committed isolation level, 234-237 implementing, 236 multi-version concurrency control (MVCC), 239 no dirty reads, 234 no dirty writes, 235 read path (derived data), 509 read repair (leaderless replication), 178 for linearizability, 335 read replicas (see leader-based replication) read skew (transaction isolation), 238, 266 as violation of causality, 340 read-after-write consistency, 163, 524 cross-device, 164 read-modify-write cycle, 243 read-scaling architecture, 161 reads as events, 513 real-time collaborative editing, 170 near-real-time processing, 390 (see also stream processing) publish/subscribe dataflow, 513 response time guarantees, 298 time-of-day clocks, 288 rebalancing partitions, 209-214, 556 (see also partitioning) automatic or manual rebalancing, 213 dynamic partitioning, 212 fixed number of partitions, 210 fixed number of partitions per node, 212 problems with hash mod N, 210 recency guarantee, 324 recommendation engines batch process outputs, 412 batch workflows, 403, 420 iterative processing, 424 statistical and numerical algorithms, 428 records, 399 events in stream processing, 440 recursive common table expressions (SQL), 54 redelivery (messaging), 445 Redis (database) atomic operations, 243 durability, 89 Lua scripting, 255 single-threaded execution, 253 usage example, 4 redundancy hardware components, 7 of derived data, 386 (see also derived data) Reed–Solomon codes (error correction), 398 refactoring, 22 (see also evolvability) regions (partitioning), 199 register (data structure), 325 relational data model, 28-42 comparison to document model, 38-42 graph queries in SQL, 53 in-memory databases with, 89 many-to-one and many-to-many relation‐ ships, 33 multi-object transactions, need for, 231 NoSQL as alternative to, 29 object-relational mismatch, 29 relational algebra and SQL, 42 versus document model convergence of models, 41 data locality, 41 relational databases eventual consistency, 162 history, 28 leader-based replication, 153 logical logs, 160 philosophy compared to Unix, 499, 501 schema changes, 40, 111, 130 statement-based replication, 158 use of B-tree indexes, 80 relationships (see edges) reliability, 6-10, 489 building a reliable system from unreliable components, 276 defined, 6, 22 hardware faults, 7 human errors, 9 importance of, 10 of messaging systems, 442 Index | 581 software errors, 8 Remote Method Invocation (Java RMI), 134 remote procedure calls (RPCs), 134-136 (see also services) based on futures, 135 data encoding and evolution, 136 issues with, 134 using Avro, 126, 135 using Thrift, 135 versus message brokers, 137 repeatable reads (transaction isolation), 242 replicas, 152 replication, 151-193, 556 and durability, 227 chain replication, 155 conflict resolution and, 246 consistency properties, 161-167 consistent prefix reads, 165 monotonic reads, 164 reading your own writes, 162 in distributed filesystems, 398 leaderless, 177-191 detecting concurrent writes, 184-191 limitations of quorum consistency, 181-183, 334 sloppy quorums and hinted handoff, 183 monitoring staleness, 182 multi-leader, 168-177 across multiple datacenters, 168, 335 handling write conflicts, 171-175 replication topologies, 175-177 partitioning and, 147, 200 reasons for using, 145, 151 single-leader, 152-161 failover, 157 implementation of replication logs, 158-161 relation to consensus, 367 setting up new followers, 155 synchronous versus asynchronous, 153-155 state machine replication, 349, 452 using erasure coding, 398 with heterogeneous data systems, 453 replication logs (see logs) reprocessing data, 496, 498 (see also evolvability) from log-based messaging, 451 request routing, 214-216 582 | Index approaches to, 214 parallel query execution, 216 resilient systems, 6 (see also fault tolerance) response time as performance metric for services, 13, 389 guarantees on, 298 latency versus, 14 mean and percentiles, 14 user experience, 15 responsibility and accountability, 535 REST (Representational State Transfer), 133 (see also services) RethinkDB (database) document data model, 31 dynamic partitioning, 212 join support, 34, 42 key-range partitioning, 202 leader-based replication, 153 subscribing to changes, 456 Riak (database) Bitcask storage engine, 72 CRDTs, 174, 191 dotted version vectors, 191 gossip protocol, 216 hash partitioning, 203-204, 211 last-write-wins conflict resolution, 186 leaderless replication, 177 LevelDB storage engine, 78 linearizability, lack of, 335 multi-datacenter support, 184 preventing lost updates across replicas, 246 rebalancing, 213 search feature, 209 secondary indexes, 207 siblings (concurrently written values), 190 sloppy quorums, 184 ring buffers, 450 Ripple (cryptocurrency), 532 rockets, 10, 36, 305 RocksDB (storage engine), 78 leveled compaction, 79 rollbacks (transactions), 222 rolling upgrades, 8, 112 routing (see request routing) row-oriented storage, 96 row-based replication, 160 rowhammer (memory corruption), 529 RPCs (see remote procedure calls) Rubygems (package manager), 428 rules (Datalog), 61 S safety and liveness properties, 308 in consensus algorithms, 366 in transactions, 222 sagas (see compensating transactions) Samza (stream processor), 466, 467 fault tolerance, 479 streaming SQL support, 466 sandboxes, 9 SAP HANA (database), 93 scalability, 10-18, 489 approaches for coping with load, 17 defined, 22 describing load, 11 describing performance, 13 partitioning and, 199 replication and, 161 scaling up versus scaling out, 146 scaling out, 17, 146 (see also shared-nothing architecture) scaling up, 17, 146 scatter/gather approach, querying partitioned databases, 207 SCD (slowly changing dimension), 476 schema-on-read, 39 comparison to evolvable schema, 128 in distributed filesystems, 415 schema-on-write, 39 schemaless databases (see schema-on-read) schemas, 557 Avro, 122-127 reader determining writer’s schema, 125 schema evolution, 123 dynamically generated, 126 evolution of, 496 affecting application code, 111 compatibility checking, 126 in databases, 129-131 in message-passing, 138 in service calls, 136 flexibility in document model, 39 for analytics, 93-95 for JSON and XML, 115 merits of, 127 schema migration on railways, 496 Thrift and Protocol Buffers, 117-121 schema evolution, 120 traditional approach to design, fallacy in, 462 searches building search indexes in batch processes, 411 k-nearest neighbors, 429 on streams, 467 partitioned secondary indexes, 206 secondaries (see leader-based replication) secondary indexes, 85, 557 partitioning, 206-209, 217 document-partitioned, 206 index maintenance, 495 term-partitioned, 208 problems with dual writes, 452, 491 updating, transaction isolation and, 231 secondary sorts, 405 sed (Unix tool), 392 self-describing files, 127 self-joins, 480 self-validating systems, 530 semantic web, 57 semi-synchronous replication, 154 sequence number ordering, 343-348 generators, 294, 344 insufficiency for enforcing constraints, 347 Lamport timestamps, 345 use of timestamps, 291, 295, 345 sequential consistency, 351 serializability, 225, 233, 251-266, 557 linearizability versus, 329 pessimistic versus optimistic concurrency control, 261 serial execution, 252-256 partitioning, 255 using stored procedures, 253, 349 serializable snapshot isolation (SSI), 261-266 detecting stale MVCC reads, 263 detecting writes that affect prior reads, 264 distributed execution, 265, 364 performance of SSI, 265 preventing write skew, 262-265 two-phase locking (2PL), 257-261 index-range locks, 260 performance, 258 Serializable (Java), 113 Index | 583 serialization, 113 (see also encoding) service discovery, 135, 214, 372 using DNS, 216, 372 service level agreements (SLAs), 15 service-oriented architecture (SOA), 132 (see also services) services, 131-136 microservices, 132 causal dependencies across services, 493 loose coupling, 502 relation to batch/stream processors, 389, 508 remote procedure calls (RPCs), 134-136 issues with, 134 similarity to databases, 132 web services, 132, 135 session windows (stream processing), 472 (see also windows) sessionization, 407 sharding (see partitioning) shared mode (locks), 258 shared-disk architecture, 146, 398 shared-memory architecture, 146 shared-nothing architecture, 17, 146-147, 557 (see also replication) distributed filesystems, 398 (see also distributed filesystems) partitioning, 199 use of network, 277 sharks biting undersea cables, 279 counting (example), 46-48 finding (example), 42 website about (example), 44 shredding (in relational model), 38 siblings (concurrent values), 190, 246 (see also conflicts) similarity search edit distance, 88 genome data, 63 k-nearest neighbors, 429 single-leader replication (see leader-based rep‐ lication) single-threaded execution, 243, 252 in batch processing, 406, 421, 426 in stream processing, 448, 463, 522 size-tiered compaction, 79 skew, 557 584 | Index clock skew, 291-294, 334 in transaction isolation read skew, 238, 266 write skew, 246-251, 262-265 (see also write skew) meanings of, 238 unbalanced workload, 201 compensating for, 205 due to celebrities, 205 for time-series data, 203 in batch processing, 407 slaves (see leader-based replication) sliding windows (stream processing), 472 (see also windows) sloppy quorums, 183 (see also quorums) lack of linearizability, 334 slowly changing dimension (data warehouses), 476 smearing (leap seconds adjustments), 290 snapshots (databases) causal consistency, 340 computing derived data, 500 in change data capture, 455 serializable snapshot isolation (SSI), 261-266, 329 setting up a new replica, 156 snapshot isolation and repeatable read, 237-242 implementing with MVCC, 239 indexes and MVCC, 241 visibility rules, 240 synchronized clocks for global snapshots, 294 snowflake schemas, 95 SOAP, 133 (see also services) evolvability, 136 software bugs, 8 maintaining integrity, 529 solid state drives (SSDs) access patterns, 84 detecting corruption, 519, 530 faults in, 227 sequential write throughput, 75 Solr (search server) building indexes in batch processes, 411 document-partitioned indexes, 207 request routing, 216 usage example, 4 use of Lucene, 79 sort (Unix tool), 392, 394, 395 sort-merge joins (MapReduce), 405 Sorted String Tables (see SSTables) sorting sort order in column storage, 99 source of truth (see systems of record) Spanner (database) data locality, 41 snapshot isolation using clocks, 295 TrueTime API, 294 Spark (processing framework), 421-423 bytecode generation, 428 dataflow APIs, 427 fault tolerance, 422 for data warehouses, 93 GraphX API (graph processing), 425 machine learning, 428 query optimizer, 427 Spark Streaming, 466 microbatching, 477 stream processing on top of batch process‐ ing, 495 SPARQL (query language), 59 spatial algorithms, 429 split brain, 158, 557 in consensus algorithms, 352, 367 preventing, 322, 333 using fencing tokens to avoid, 302-304 spreadsheets, dataflow programming capabili‐ ties, 504 SQL (Structured Query Language), 21, 28, 43 advantages and limitations of, 416 distributed query execution, 48 graph queries in, 53 isolation levels standard, issues with, 242 query execution on Hadoop, 416 résumé (example), 30 SQL injection vulnerability, 305 SQL on Hadoop, 93 statement-based replication, 158 stored procedures, 255 SQL Server (database) data warehousing support, 93 distributed transaction support, 361 leader-based replication, 153 preventing lost updates, 245 preventing write skew, 248, 257 read committed isolation, 236 recursive query support, 54 serializable isolation, 257 snapshot isolation support, 239 T-SQL language, 255 XML support, 30 SQLstream (stream analytics), 466 SSDs (see solid state drives) SSTables (storage format), 76-79 advantages over hash indexes, 76 concatenated index, 204 constructing and maintaining, 78 making LSM-Tree from, 78 staleness (old data), 162 cross-channel timing dependencies, 331 in leaderless databases, 178 in multi-version concurrency control, 263 monitoring for, 182 of client state, 512 versus linearizability, 324 versus timeliness, 524 standbys (see leader-based replication) star replication topologies, 175 star schemas, 93-95 similarity to event sourcing, 458 Star Wars analogy (event time versus process‐ ing time), 469 state derived from log of immutable events, 459 deriving current state from the event log, 458 interplay between state changes and appli‐ cation code, 507 maintaining derived state, 495 maintenance by stream processor in streamstream joins, 473 observing derived state, 509-515 rebuilding after stream processor failure, 478 separation of application code and, 505 state machine replication, 349, 452 statement-based replication, 158 statically typed languages analogy to schema-on-write, 40 code generation and, 127 statistical and numerical algorithms, 428 StatsD (metrics aggregator), 442 stdin, stdout, 395, 396 Stellar (cryptocurrency), 532 Index | 585 stock market feeds, 442 STONITH (Shoot The Other Node In The Head), 158 stop-the-world (see garbage collection) storage composing data storage technologies, 499-504 diversity of, in MapReduce, 415 Storage Area Network (SAN), 146, 398 storage engines, 69-104 column-oriented, 95-101 column compression, 97-99 defined, 96 distinction between column families and, 99 Parquet, 96, 131 sort order in, 99-100 writing to, 101 comparing requirements for transaction processing and analytics, 90-96 in-memory storage, 88 durability, 227 row-oriented, 70-90 B-trees, 79-83 comparing B-trees and LSM-trees, 83-85 defined, 96 log-structured, 72-79 stored procedures, 161, 253-255, 557 and total order broadcast, 349 pros and cons of, 255 similarity to stream processors, 505 Storm (stream processor), 466 distributed RPC, 468, 514 Trident state handling, 478 straggler events, 470, 498 stream processing, 464-481, 557 accessing external services within job, 474, 477, 478, 517 combining with batch processing lambda architecture, 497 unifying technologies, 498 comparison to batch processing, 464 complex event processing (CEP), 465 fault tolerance, 476-479 atomic commit, 477 idempotence, 478 microbatching and checkpointing, 477 rebuilding state after a failure, 478 for data integration, 494-498 586 | Index maintaining derived state, 495 maintenance of materialized views, 467 messaging systems (see messaging systems) reasoning about time, 468-472 event time versus processing time, 469, 477, 498 knowing when window is ready, 470 types of windows, 472 relation to databases (see streams) relation to services, 508 search on streams, 467 single-threaded execution, 448, 463 stream analytics, 466 stream joins, 472-476 stream-stream join, 473 stream-table join, 473 table-table join, 474 time-dependence of, 475 streams, 440-451 end-to-end, pushing events to clients, 512 messaging systems (see messaging systems) processing (see stream processing) relation to databases, 451-464 (see also changelogs) API support for change streams, 456 change data capture, 454-457 derivative of state by time, 460 event sourcing, 457-459 keeping systems in sync, 452-453 philosophy of immutable events, 459-464 topics, 440 strict serializability, 329 strong consistency (see linearizability) strong one-copy serializability, 329 subjects, predicates, and objects (in triplestores), 55 subscribers (message streams), 440 (see also consumers) supercomputers, 275 surveillance, 537 (see also privacy) Swagger (service definition format), 133 swapping to disk (see virtual memory) synchronous networks, 285, 557 comparison to asynchronous networks, 284 formal model, 307 synchronous replication, 154, 557 chain replication, 155 conflict detection, 172 system models, 300, 306-310 assumptions in, 528 correctness of algorithms, 308 mapping to the real world, 309 safety and liveness, 308 systems of record, 386, 557 change data capture, 454, 491 treating event log as, 460 systems thinking, 536 T t-digest (algorithm), 16 table-table joins, 474 Tableau (data visualization software), 416 tail (Unix tool), 447 tail vertex (property graphs), 51 Tajo (query engine), 93 Tandem NonStop SQL (database), 200 TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), 277 comparison to circuit switching, 285 comparison to UDP, 283 connection failures, 280 flow control, 282, 441 packet checksums, 306, 519, 529 reliability and duplicate suppression, 517 retransmission timeouts, 284 use for transaction sessions, 229 telemetry (see monitoring) Teradata (database), 93, 200 term-partitioned indexes, 208, 217 termination (consensus), 365 Terrapin (database), 413 Tez (dataflow engine), 421-423 fault tolerance, 422 support by higher-level tools, 427 thrashing (out of memory), 297 threads (concurrency) actor model, 138, 468 (see also message-passing) atomic operations, 223 background threads, 73, 85 execution pauses, 286, 296-298 memory barriers, 338 preemption, 298 single (see single-threaded execution) three-phase commit, 359 Thrift (data format), 117-121 BinaryProtocol, 118 CompactProtocol, 119 field tags and schema evolution, 120 throughput, 13, 390 TIBCO, 137 Enterprise Message Service, 444 StreamBase (stream analytics), 466 time concurrency and, 187 cross-channel timing dependencies, 331 in distributed systems, 287-299 (see also clocks) clock synchronization and accuracy, 289 relying on synchronized clocks, 291-295 process pauses, 295-299 reasoning about, in stream processors, 468-472 event time versus processing time, 469, 477, 498 knowing when window is ready, 470 timestamp of events, 471 types of windows, 472 system models for distributed systems, 307 time-dependence in stream joins, 475 time-of-day clocks, 288 timeliness, 524 coordination-avoiding data systems, 528 correctness of dataflow systems, 525 timeouts, 279, 557 dynamic configuration of, 284 for failover, 158 length of, 281 timestamps, 343 assigning to events in stream processing, 471 for read-after-write consistency, 163 for transaction ordering, 295 insufficiency for enforcing constraints, 347 key range partitioning by, 203 Lamport, 345 logical, 494 ordering events, 291, 345 Titan (database), 50 tombstones, 74, 191, 456 topics (messaging), 137, 440 total order, 341, 557 limits of, 493 sequence numbers or timestamps, 344 total order broadcast, 348-352, 493, 522 consensus algorithms and, 366-368 Index | 587 implementation in ZooKeeper and etcd, 370 implementing with linearizable storage, 351 using, 349 using to implement linearizable storage, 350 tracking behavioral data, 536 (see also privacy) transaction coordinator (see coordinator) transaction manager (see coordinator) transaction processing, 28, 90-95 comparison to analytics, 91 comparison to data warehousing, 93 transactions, 221-267, 558 ACID properties of, 223 atomicity, 223 consistency, 224 durability, 226 isolation, 225 compensating (see compensating transac‐ tions) concept of, 222 distributed transactions, 352-364 avoiding, 492, 502, 521-528 failure amplification, 364, 495 in doubt/uncertain status, 358, 362 two-phase commit, 354-359 use of, 360-361 XA transactions, 361-364 OLTP versus analytics queries, 411 purpose of, 222 serializability, 251-266 actual serial execution, 252-256 pessimistic versus optimistic concur‐ rency control, 261 serializable snapshot isolation (SSI), 261-266 two-phase locking (2PL), 257-261 single-object and multi-object, 228-232 handling errors and aborts, 231 need for multi-object transactions, 231 single-object writes, 230 snapshot isolation (see snapshots) weak isolation levels, 233-251 preventing lost updates, 242-246 read committed, 234-238 transitive closure (graph algorithm), 424 trie (data structure), 88 triggers (databases), 161, 441 implementing change data capture, 455 implementing replication, 161 588 | Index triple-stores, 55-59 SPARQL query language, 59 tumbling windows (stream processing), 472 (see also windows) in microbatching, 477 tuple spaces (programming model), 507 Turtle (RDF data format), 56 Twitter constructing home timelines (example), 11, 462, 474, 511 DistributedLog (event log), 448 Finagle (RPC framework), 135 Snowflake (sequence number generator), 294 Summingbird (processing library), 497 two-phase commit (2PC), 353, 355-359, 558 confusion with two-phase locking, 356 coordinator failure, 358 coordinator recovery, 363 how it works, 357 issues in practice, 363 performance cost, 360 transactions holding locks, 362 two-phase locking (2PL), 257-261, 329, 558 confusion with two-phase commit, 356 index-range locks, 260 performance of, 258 type checking, dynamic versus static, 40 U UDP (User Datagram Protocol) comparison to TCP, 283 multicast, 442 unbounded datasets, 439, 558 (see also streams) unbounded delays, 558 in networks, 282 process pauses, 296 unbundling databases, 499-515 composing data storage technologies, 499-504 federation versus unbundling, 501 need for high-level language, 503 designing applications around dataflow, 504-509 observing derived state, 509-515 materialized views and caching, 510 multi-partition data processing, 514 pushing state changes to clients, 512 uncertain (transaction status) (see in doubt) uniform consensus, 365 (see also consensus) uniform interfaces, 395 union type (in Avro), 125 uniq (Unix tool), 392 uniqueness constraints asynchronously checked, 526 requiring consensus, 521 requiring linearizability, 330 uniqueness in log-based messaging, 522 Unix philosophy, 394-397 command-line batch processing, 391-394 Unix pipes versus dataflow engines, 423 comparison to Hadoop, 413-414 comparison to relational databases, 499, 501 comparison to stream processing, 464 composability and uniform interfaces, 395 loose coupling, 396 pipes, 394 relation to Hadoop, 499 UPDATE statement (SQL), 40 updates preventing lost updates, 242-246 atomic write operations, 243 automatically detecting lost updates, 245 compare-and-set operations, 245 conflict resolution and replication, 246 using explicit locking, 244 preventing write skew, 246-251 V validity (consensus), 365 vBuckets (partitioning), 199 vector clocks, 191 (see also version vectors) vectorized processing, 99, 428 verification, 528-533 avoiding blind trust, 530 culture of, 530 designing for auditability, 531 end-to-end integrity checks, 531 tools for auditable data systems, 532 version control systems, reliance on immutable data, 463 version vectors, 177, 191 capturing causal dependencies, 343 versus vector clocks, 191 Vertica (database), 93 handling writes, 101 replicas using different sort orders, 100 vertical scaling (see scaling up) vertices (in graphs), 49 property graph model, 50 Viewstamped Replication (consensus algo‐ rithm), 366 view number, 368 virtual machines, 146 (see also cloud computing) context switches, 297 network performance, 282 noisy neighbors, 284 reliability in cloud services, 8 virtualized clocks in, 290 virtual memory process pauses due to page faults, 14, 297 versus memory management by databases, 89 VisiCalc (spreadsheets), 504 vnodes (partitioning), 199 Voice over IP (VoIP), 283 Voldemort (database) building read-only stores in batch processes, 413 hash partitioning, 203-204, 211 leaderless replication, 177 multi-datacenter support, 184 rebalancing, 213 reliance on read repair, 179 sloppy quorums, 184 VoltDB (database) cross-partition serializability, 256 deterministic stored procedures, 255 in-memory storage, 89 output streams, 456 secondary indexes, 207 serial execution of transactions, 253 statement-based replication, 159, 479 transactions in stream processing, 477 W WAL (write-ahead log), 82 web services (see services) Web Services Description Language (WSDL), 133 webhooks, 443 webMethods (messaging), 137 WebSocket (protocol), 512 Index | 589 windows (stream processing), 466, 468-472 infinite windows for changelogs, 467, 474 knowing when all events have arrived, 470 stream joins within a window, 473 types of windows, 472 winners (conflict resolution), 173 WITH RECURSIVE syntax (SQL), 54 workflows (MapReduce), 402 outputs, 411-414 key-value stores, 412 search indexes, 411 with map-side joins, 410 working set, 393 write amplification, 84 write path (derived data), 509 write skew (transaction isolation), 246-251 characterizing, 246-251, 262 examples of, 247, 249 materializing conflicts, 251 occurrence in practice, 529 phantoms, 250 preventing in snapshot isolation, 262-265 in two-phase locking, 259-261 options for, 248 write-ahead log (WAL), 82, 159 writes (database) atomic write operations, 243 detecting writes affecting prior reads, 264 preventing dirty writes with read commit‐ ted, 235 WS-* framework, 133 (see also services) WS-AtomicTransaction (2PC), 355 590 | Index X XA transactions, 355, 361-364 heuristic decisions, 363 limitations of, 363 xargs (Unix tool), 392, 396 XML binary variants, 115 encoding RDF data, 57 for application data, issues with, 114 in relational databases, 30, 41 XSL/XPath, 45 Y Yahoo!


pages: 320 words: 87,853

The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, asset-backed security, Atul Gawande, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, bonus culture, Brian Krebs, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computerized markets, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, High speed trading, hiring and firing, housing crisis, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, kremlinology, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Philip Mirowski, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, risk-adjusted returns, Satyajit Das, search engine result page, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steven Levy, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, two-sided market, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

We can be sure the “wealth defense industry” is redoubling its investments in avoiding future leaks. Dan Froomkin, “ ‘Wealth Defense Industry’ NOTES TO PAGES 56–60 245 Protects 1% from the Rabble and Its Taxes,” Huffi ngton Post (blog), December 13, 2011, http://www.huffi ngtonpost .com /dan-froomkin /wealth-defense -industry-p_b_1145825.html. 214. Omri Marian, “Are Cryptocurrencies Super Tax Havens?,” Michigan Law Review First Impressions 112 (2013): 38–48. Available at http://www.michigan lawreview.org/articles/are-cryptocurrencies-em-super-em-tax-havens. 215. Frank Pasquale, “Grand Bargains for Big Data: The Emerging Law of Health Information,” Maryland Law Review 72 (2013): 682–772. 216. On the new economy as a system of social control and modulation, see Julie Cohen, Configuring the Networked Self (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012). 217.

It does not address the real problems of invasive data collection or unfair data use. 56 THE BLACK BOX SOCIETY Full-Disclosure Future Even if absolute secrecy could somehow be democratized with a universally available cheap encryption tool, would we really want it? I don’t think I want the NSA blinded to real terrorist plots. If someone developed a fleet of poison-dart drones, I’d want the authorities to know. I wouldn’t want so-called “cryptocurrencies” hiding ever more money from the tax authorities and further undermining public finances.214 Biosurveillance helps public health authorities spot emerging epidemics. Monitoring helps us understand the flow of traffic, energy, food, and medicines.215 So while hiding—the temptingly symmetrical solution to surveillance—may be alluring on the surface, it’s not a good bet. The ability to hide— and to detect the hiders— is so comprehensively commodified that only the rich and connected can win that game.


pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

4chan, airport security, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, commoditize, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, intangible asset, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mega-rich, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, selection bias, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, union organizing, wealth creators, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

It is safe to assume that e-gold was deliberately targeted, not because it allowed terrorists to collect money (US dollars work much better for that), rather, because it was a viable digital currency. The use of anti-money-laundering regulations and the PATRIOT Act to attack a digital currency is, I'd claim, a good indicator of how seriously the currency threatens to succeed. The same year that e-gold died, its successor popped up in the form of BitCoin, the first credible crypto-currency. While e-gold based its denomination on the tangible value of gold coins, BitCoin is backed by nothing more than mathematics. This has led people to accuse it of being a pyramid scheme, destined for collapse. BitCoin works by "mining" new coins as a side effect of doing the cryptographic bookkeeping for other people, processing the so-called "transaction chains." In the beginning, when transaction chains were short, they were easy to process, and people could mine thousands of coins on their PCs.

If the BitCoin network survives the different attacks that seem inevitable -- and I give it a 50-50 chance of surviving -- the crypto currency will get a natural monopoly for on-line commerce. At a certain point buying or selling BitCoin for dollars or Euros will not be so important: people will simply hold and spend BitCoin. If the network does not survive the attack, the currency will die, and other crypto-currencies will take its place. Either way, the Spider will lose this particular fight, and the Para-state will eventually (it may take decades) find itself facing a truly independent financial system. Licensed to Make a Killing When I see sustained, multilateral action against systems as organic and valuable as Hawala and BitCoin, my first response is to slice up the official story and look for the lies.


pages: 523 words: 143,139

Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions by Brian Christian, Tom Griffiths

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

4chan, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, constrained optimization, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, diversification, Donald Knuth, double helix, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, first-price auction, Flash crash, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Henri Poincaré, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, Lao Tzu, Leonard Kleinrock, linear programming, martingale, Nash equilibrium, natural language processing, NP-complete, P = NP, packet switching, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert X Cringely, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, sorting algorithm, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, stochastic process, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, traveling salesman, Turing machine, urban planning, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

If you’re willing to tolerate an error rate of just 1% or 2%, storing your findings in a probabilistic data structure like a Bloom filter will save you significant amounts of both time and space. And the usefulness of such filters is not confined to search engines: Bloom filters have shipped with a number of recent web browsers to check URLs against a list of known malicious websites, and they are also an important part of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. Says Mitzenmacher, “The idea of the error tradeoff space—I think the issue is that people don’t associate that with computing. They think computers are supposed to give you the answer. So when you hear in your algorithms class, ‘It’s supposed to give you one answer; it might not be the right answer’—I like to think that when [students] hear that, it focuses them. I think people don’t realize in their own lives how much they do that and accept that.”

weighs in at about seventy-seven characters: Kelvin Tan, “Average Length of a URL (Part 2),” August 16, 2010, http://www.supermind.org/blog/740/average-length-of-a-url-part-2. the URL is entered into a set of equations: Bloom, “Space/Time Trade-offs in Hash Coding with Allowable Errors.” shipped with a number of recent web browsers: Google Chrome until at least 2012 used a Bloom filter: see http://blog.alexyakunin.com/2010/03/nice-bloom-filter-application.html and https://chromiumcodereview.appspot.com/10896048/. part of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin: Gavin Andresen, “Core Development Status Report #1,” November 1, 2012, https://bitcoinfoundation.org/2012/11/core-development-status-report-1/. “The river meanders”: Richard Kenney, “Hydrology; Lachrymation,” in The One-Strand River: Poems, 1994–2007 (New York: Knopf, 2008). use this approach when trying to decipher codes: See Berg-Kirkpatrick and Klein, “Decipherment with a Million Random Restarts.”


pages: 461 words: 125,845

This Machine Kills Secrets: Julian Assange, the Cypherpunks, and Their Fight to Empower Whistleblowers by Andy Greenberg

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, computerized markets, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, domain-specific language, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, hive mind, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammed Bouazizi, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Richard Stallman, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social graph, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Vernor Vinge, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, X Prize, Zimmermann PGP

It was a 1981 cover story in the journal Communications of the Association of Computing Machinery, already years old when May came upon it. Its author: David Chaum, a man who would come to be known as the prophet and godfather of digital anonymity. Chaum, a bearish, bearded, and white-maned academic, today heads a foundation devoted to secure voting, and spent a decade pitching an anonymous transactions system called eCash. Despite signing up a few major banks, Chaum’s crypto-currency never quite caught on, a result of what some say is bad luck and others say was Chaum’s overly controlling style of doing business, which may have quashed many of his company’s attempts to find mainstream partnerships. But few in the computer security world doubt Chaum’s sheer cryptographic brilliance—his patents range from physical locks to software security systems to anonymity and pseudonymity mechanisms that would secure his reputation as a computer science and information security powerhouse.

Soon it was running on around two thousand Unix machines around the world, pumping a flow of tens of thousands of anonymous e-mails a day, as close an approximation to Chaum’s ideal Mix Network as ever existed. Meanwhile, anonymous financial transactions were starting to feel like a reality too. Chaum’s own company, called DigiCash, had implemented many of the ideas he outlined in his Communications of the ACM article. The result was eCash, a crypto-currency that would allow buyers to wire money untraceably to a seller. In the mid-nineties, DigiCash botched a series of deals and replaced Chaum with a new CEO before going bankrupt in 1998. But despite its lack of business success, no one doubted that Chaum’s anonymous transactions technology worked—it had even been integrated into a Dutch toll road system that could reliably charge drivers without recording any trace of their identities.


pages: 390 words: 109,870

Radicals Chasing Utopia: Inside the Rogue Movements Trying to Change the World by Jamie Bartlett

Andrew Keen, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, brain emulation, centre right, clean water, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, failed state, gig economy, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, life extension, Occupy movement, off grid, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, QR code, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rosa Parks, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism

All donations, along with Vit’s spending, are available to view on their website.) One of Liberland’s largest donors is thirty-seven-year-old multimillionaire Roger Ver. Like Vit, Roger considers himself an anarcho-capitalist. He left the United States and renounced his citizenship a decade ago after being convicted of selling firecrackers on eBay, and subsequently made money in Silicon Valley start-up companies, and then became a very early investor in the cryptocurrency bitcoin. (Roger plans to be cryonically frozen by Alcor when he dies, like Zoltan.) He now lives in Tokyo running a bitcoin-based business and donates $10,000 a month to Liberland.13 ‘I know it’s a long shot,’ Roger told me via Skype, ‘but the minute I’m assured the Croatian police aren’t going to destroy any investment I make there, yeah, sign me up! I’ll even consider moving there. And so would a lot of my friends.’

Or if, as predicted by the United Nations, by 2050 the population hits 10 billion, half of them facing extreme water shortages, and 250 million climate-change refugees are on the move looking for habitable places to live?4 If, as a growing number of scientists now believe, breakthroughs in gerontology mean life expectancy will significantly extend within a generation? Or when, within the next couple of decades, health services and pension plans become financially unsustainable, requiring dramatic tax increases, just as more and more people start using untraceable cryptocurrencies?5 And what if all these things happen at roughly the same time? I don’t have the answer. The radicals in this book might not either. But the more experiments in collective living, the more new ways of looking at problems, the more we encourage radical thinking, the greater our chances of improving the way we live together. The one constant of history is that everything changes. We should not assume that liberal democracies are the natural order of things.


pages: 144 words: 43,356

Surviving AI: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence by Calum Chace

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, discovery of the americas, disintermediation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, life extension, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Wall-E, zero-sum game

v=HW5Fvk8FNOQ (21) http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf (22) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2981946/Self-driving-cars-30-cities-2017-Pilot-projects-aims-mass-roll-driverless-vehicles-safe-they.html (23) http://www.alltrucking.com/faq/truck-drivers-in-the-usa/ (24) http://www.bls.gov/ooh/transportation-and-material-moving/bus-drivers.htm (25) http://www.bls.gov/ooh/transportation-and-material-moving/taxi-drivers-and-chauffeurs.htm (26) http://www.cristo-barrios.com/discografia/iamus-2/?lang=en (27) http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/11/the-great-forgetting/309516/ (28) https://twitter.com/MFordFuture/status/606939607356219392/photo/1 (29) http://www.reddit.com/r/Futurology/comments/34u1a9/technostism_the_ideology_of_futurology/People also talk about a financial singularity arriving if and when cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin based on the blockchain technology disrupt traditional banking. Are we perhaps nearing peak singularity, or a singularity singularity? (30) https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html (31) http://www.nature.com/news/flashing-fish-brains-filmed-in-action-1.12621 (32) http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2007/dec/20/research.it (33) http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/is-deep-learning-a-revolution-in-artificial-intelligence (34) http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/may/21/google-a-step-closer-to-developing-machines-with-human-like-intelligence (35) . https://intelligence.org/2014/05/13/christof-koch-stuart-russell-machine-superintelligence (36) http://uk.businessinsider.com/elon-musk-killer-robots-will-be-here-within-five-years-2014-11#ixzz3XHt6A8Lt (37) I am grateful to Russell Buckley for drawing my attention to this illustration


pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, lifelogging, market design, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, too big to fail, US Airways Flight 1549, web application, zero-sum game

INDEX 3D printing access and accessibility see also barriers; communication; digital; social media — factors of production — knowledge adoption rates advertising see also marketing; mass media; promotion; television Airbnb Alibaba Amazon antifragility Apple artisanal production creativity audience see also crowd — connecting with — vs target Away from Keyboard (AFK) banking see also crowdfunding; currencies barriers Beck (musician) big as a disadvantage bioengineering biomimicry biotechnology bitcoins blogs borrowed interest brand business strategies change see disruption and disruptive change Cluetrain Manifesto co-creation coffee culture Cold War collaboration collaborative consumption collective sentience commerce, future see also retail and retailers communication see also advertising; promotion; social media; social relationships — channels — tools community vs target competition and competitors component retail computers see also connecting and connection; internet; networks; smartphones; social media; software; technology era; 3D printing; web connecting and connection see also social media; social relationships — home/world — machines — people — things consumerism consumption silos content, delivery of coopetition corporations see also industrial era; retail and retailers; technology era costs see also finance; price co-working space creativity crowd, contribution by the crowdfunding cryptocurrencies culture — hacking — startup currencies see also banking deflation demographics device convergence digital see also computers; internet; music; smartphone; retail and retailers, online; social media; social relationships; technology; web; work — cohorts — era — footprint — revolution — skills — strategy — tools — world disruption and disruptive change DNA as an operating system drones Dunbar's number e-commerce see retail and retailers, online economic development, changing education employment, lifetime see also labour; work ephermalization Facebook see also social media finance, peer to peer see also banking; crowdfunding; currencies Ford, Henry 4Ps Foursquare fragmentation — of cities — industrial — Lego car example gadgets see also computers; smartphone; tools games and gaming behaviour gamification geo-location glass cockpit Global Financial Crisis (GFC) globalisation Google hacking hourglass strategy IFTTT (If this then that) industrialists (capital class) industry, redefining industrial era see also consumerism; marketing; retail and retailers — hacking — life in influencers information-based work infrastructure — changing — declining importance of — legacy innovation intention interest-based groups see also niches interest graphs internet see also access and accessibility; connecting and connection; social media; social relationships; web Internet.org In Real Life (IRL) isolation iTunes see also music Jumpstart Our Business Startups (JOBS) Act (USA) keyboards knowledge economy lab vs factory labour see also work — low-cost language layering legacy — industries — infrastructure — media Lego car project life — in boxes — in gaming future — hack living standards see also life location see place, work making see also artisanal production; retail and retailers; 3D printing malleable marketplace manufacturing see also artisanal production; industrial era; making; product; 3D printing; tools — desktop marketing see also advertising; consumerism; 4Ps; mass media; promotion; retail and retailers — demographics, use in — industrial era — language — mass — metrics — new — post-industrial — predictive — research — target — traditional mass media ; see also advertising; marketing; media; promotion; television — after materialism media see also communication; legacy; mass media; newspapers; niches; television — consumption — hacking — platform vs content — subscription Metcalfe's law MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) Moore's law music Napster Netflix netizens networks see also connecting and connection; media; social media; social relationships newspapers see also media niches nodes nondustrial company Oaida, Raul oDesk office, end of the omniconnection era open source parasocial interaction payment systems Pebble phones, number of mobile see also smartphones photography Pinterest piracy place — of work platforms pop culture power-generating technologies price see also costs privacy see also social media; social relationships product — unfinished production see also industrial era; product; 3D printing — mass projecteer Project October Sky promotion see also advertising; marketing; mass media; media quantified self Racovitsa, Vasilii remote controls RepRap 3D printer retail cold spot retail and retailers — changing — digital — direct — hacking — mass — online — price — small — strategies — traditional rewards robots Sans nation state economy scientific management search engines self-hacking self-publishing self-storage sensors sharing see also social media; social relationships smartphones smartwatch social graphs social media (digitally enhanced conversation) see also Facebook; social relationships; Twitter; YouTube social relationships see also social graphs; social media — digital software speed subcultures Super Awesome Micro Project see Lego car project Super Bowl mentality target tastemakers technology see also computers; digital; open source; social media; smartphones; social relationships; software; 3D printing; work — deflation — era — free — revolution — speed — stack teenagers, marketing to television Tesla Motors thingernet thinking and technology times tools see also artisanal production; communication; computers; digital; making; smartphones; social media; 3D printing — changing — old trust Twitter Uber unlearning usability gap user experience volumetric mindset wages — growth — low — minimum web see also connecting and connection; digital; internet; retail and retailers, online; social media; social relationships — three phases of — tools Wikipedia work — digital era — industrial era — location of — options words see language Yahoo YouTube Learn more with practical advice from our experts WILEY END USER LICENSE AGREEMENT Go to www.wiley.com/go/eula to access Wiley’s ebook EULA.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

As Clayton Christensen illustrated in The Innovators Dilemma, which was published in 1997, disruption is mostly achieved by a startup offering a less expensive product using emerging technologies and meeting a future or unmet customer need or niche. Christensen emphasized that it is not so much about disruptive products, but more about new business models threatening incumbents. For example, Southwest Airlines treated its planes like buses and created an entire niche for itself. Google created the AdWords business model, which never existed before the advent of web pages. In the near future, micro-transactions, enabled by crypto-currencies like Bitcoin, will create entirely new financial business models that have never existed before. In his 2005 book, Free: The Future of a Radical Price, Chris Anderson built on the lower cost positioning of the disruptor, noting that pretty much all business models, and certainly those that are information-based, will soon be offered to consumers for free. The popular “freemium” model is just such a case: many websites offer a basic level of service at no cost, while also enabling users to pay a fee to upgrade to more storage, statistics or extra features.


pages: 329 words: 95,309

Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Pingit, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, Y2K

In early 2007 he was appointed Sales Director for Multinational Corporates headquartered in the UK, Scandinavia and Netherlands. Mike moved to become Regional Director for North American Financial Institutions following the formation of Global Transactional Sales in January 2009, before moving to his current role in July 2010. BITCOIN, GLOBAL An interview with Donald Norman, Co-founder of the Bitcoin Consultancy Ltd Bitcoin is one of the first implementations of a concept called crypto-currency, a secure digital currency for exchange by anyone, anywhere globally. Bitcoin is designed around the idea of using cryptography to control the creation and transfer of money, rather than relying on central authorities, and is the first time that such a system has been launched. Although it is stumbling through its early evolution, many believe it could become the currency of the future. If it is, then what does it mean for banks?


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

You can then use your accumulated zooz to buy rides, much like you’d use currency to buy an Uber or Lyft ride. As Vitalik Buterin, an influential writer about decentralized peer-to-peer systems and the founder of Ethereum, a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts, noted in a blog post, “the idea of releasing a new currency as a mechanism for funding protocol development is perhaps one of the most interesting economic innovations to come out of the cryptocurrency space.”14 But a critical determinant of success is architecting this distribution of value right.15 It also seems important for the manifestation of this value, the “coin,” to be of continuing value as the platform grows and matures. And what’s also important here is to think of the coin as not just currency, but as a store of value, like shares in a private company. The coin provides returns to early contributors—of human capital, of risky early participation, of effort publicizing the marketplace and facilitating critical mass—a new breed of purpose-driven investors.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

“Core Infrastructure Initiative,” Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Core_Infrastructure_Initiative. 19. Michael Carney, “GitHub CEO Explains Why the Company Took So Damn Long to Raise Venture Capital,” pando.com, June 20, 2013, http://pando.com/2013/06/20/github-ceo-explains-why-the-company-took-so-damn-long-to-raise-venture-capital. 20. “Benevolent Dictator for Life,” Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benevolent_dictator_for_life. 21. “Crypto-Currency Market Capitalizations,” http://coinmarketcap.com. 22. “Who Controls the Bitcoin Network?,” Bitcoin website, https://bitcoin.org/en/faq#who-controls-the-bitcoin-network. 23. Bitsmith, “Inside a Chinese Bitcoin Mine,” The Coinsman, August 11, 2014, www.thecoinsman.com/2014/08/bitcoin/inside-chinese-bitcoin-mine. 24. “Government as Impresario: Emergent Public Goods and Public Private Partnerships 2.0,” talk given by Nicholas Gruen as part of a luncheon series at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society, January 14, 2014, http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/events/luncheon/2014/01/gruen. 25.


pages: 327 words: 90,542

The Age of Stagnation by Satyajit Das

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

9 dash line, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative economy, colonial exploitation, computer age, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, disintermediation, Downton Abbey, Emanuel Derman, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, margin call, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, open economy, passive income, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, the payments system, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, unpaid internship, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

There is growing interest in alternative money, such as the Bavarian chiemgauer, England's Lewes pound, and the BerkShares program in Massachusetts. Alternative currencies have limited acceptance within a small area and, sometimes, a finite expiry date. They are designed to encourage local business and emphasize community values. The rise of bitcoin, originally intended for anonymous payments for online purchases of illicit items, and of other digital or crypto-currencies reflects, in part, increased concern about the monetary system. But bitcoin is subject to price manipulation and fraud. When one bitcoin exchange collapsed, holders seeking to recover their investment discovered belatedly the rationale for state regulation of payment systems. Irrespective of whether alternative currencies succeed or fail, they are testament to a growing distrust of governments, central banks, and the financial system, and they represent a challenge to the authority and apparatus of the state.


pages: 403 words: 111,119

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

What’s more, the information embedded in every Ethereum transaction allows network members to put their values into action in the microgrid market, for example by opting to buy electricity from the nearest or greenest suppliers, or only from those that are community-owned or not-for-profit.59 And this is just one example of its potential. ‘Ethereum is a currency for the modern age,’ says the cryptocurrency expert David Seaman. ‘It’s a platform that could be really important to society down the road in ways that we can’t even predict yet.’60 These very different examples illustrate a few of the myriad possibilities of monetary redesign, involving the market, the state and the commons. But each one makes clear that the way that money is designed – its creation, its character, and its intended use – has far-reaching distributional implications.


pages: 481 words: 125,946

What to Think About Machines That Think: Today's Leading Thinkers on the Age of Machine Intelligence by John Brockman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, constrained optimization, corporate personhood, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, dark matter, discrete time, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, endowment effect, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, Flash crash, friendly AI, functional fixedness, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, Internet of things, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, loose coupling, microbiome, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Thaler, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

That’s why the AI achievements of computers were disappointingly limited when they were single machines, but as soon as the Internet came along remarkable things began to happen. Where machine intelligence will make the most difference is among the machines, not within the machines. It’s already clear that the Internet is the true machine intelligence. In the future, network phenomena like block-chains, the technology behind crypto-currencies, may be the route to the most radical examples of machine intelligence. ANOTHER KIND OF DIVERSITY STEPHEN M. KOSSLYN Psychologist; founding dean, Minerva Schools, Keck Graduate Institute; coauthor (with G. Wayne Miller), Top Brain, Bottom Brain Diversity isn’t just politically sensible, it’s also practical. A diverse group effectively uses multiple perspectives and a rich set of ideas and approaches to tackle difficult problems.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

The physical footprint of digital empires has certainly jacked up the cost of living in San Francisco. Amazon’s demand for programmers, salespeople, warehouses, and data servers is redrawing Seattle’s skyline. Hundreds of towns from California to Missouri have blocked Walmart from opening stores that threaten their retail outlets, but they can’t stop Amazon from doing the same by delivering straight to one’s door. At the same time, Bitcoin began as a niche crypto-currency, but people increasingly live off it in the “real” world; if it acquires a banking license to issue credit, it could outmaneuver banks in reaching the bottom billions. Mobile transmission technologies are eclipsing the need for giant towers, and more digital payment and e-commerce mean fewer physical coins: Sweden is going cashless and Canada has stopped minting pennies, something the United States might do as well, meaning less consumption of nickel and other metals.


pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

What they give back to their host city more than makes up for the cost.44 In 2015, The Economist’s Safe Cities Index ranked Toronto “the best place to live” in the world—confounding those who want to argue that immigration is a bad thing.45 Other big cities showing how to become new global crossroads through deliberate design include Mumbai (global offshore services), Lagos (African trade and finance) and Tel Aviv (technology). Smaller cities, if well run, can become major intersections at a niche or regional level. Copenhagen may never challenge New York or London for traditional financial flows, but it is rapidly becoming a hub for crypto-currencies. Per capita, more Bitcoins are used in Scandinavia than anywhere else.46 Regina, a small city in the middle of the Canadian Prairies, in 2010 opened one of Canada’s largest inland ports, a 1,700-acre Global Transportation Hub, to interconnect North America’s major rail and trucking networks. A city in the middle of nowhere is equidistant from everywhere, and as global trade volumes swell, such places can make themselves essential nodes to help balance loads across different transportation systems.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Rather, they turn to anonymous digital and virtual forms of money such as Bitcoin. In the days of Al Capone’s Prohibition-era racketeering, the Feds’ mantra became “Follow the money,” and it was ultimately tax evasion charges, not murder convictions, that brought down the world’s biggest crime boss of the 1930s. Though “follow the money” has been the core credo in law enforcement ever since, cops may soon have to find a new motto. There are now more than seventy virtual crypto-currency competitors to Bitcoin, such as Ripple, Litecoin, and Dogecoin, and it is estimated nearly $10 billion in virtual currencies were transacted in 2013 alone. Given the vast sums at play, it should come as no surprise that criminals are not only transacting Bitcoin but also targeting the crypto currency for theft. Hackers have been able to steal millions and millions of dollars in virtual money from one another, with the largest attack to date directed against Mt.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

Moving away from an untrue position doesn't make the new position truer. By way of comparison, merely inviting everything into a “parliament” (of all things) is to ask them to mimic and recite an old-fashioned, even reactionary, kind of political speech, but do strong computational alternatives seem any less arbitrary?71 Is some currency backed by tons of carbon or gigaflops instead of US dollars (or gold or cryptocurrencies) a greater or lesser danger than the failures it would hope to ameliorate? Moreover, where is the limit to the conceptual violence of turning nature itself into a kind of permanent emergency, climate change into its final exception, and global warming into the masterwork of this ambient terrorist? Involving the planet as a ubiquitous enemy to be managed cannot end well for humans. What price is this to pay, even for a better currency?


Adaptive Markets: Financial Evolution at the Speed of Thought by Andrew W. Lo

Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, algorithmic trading, Andrei Shleifer, Arthur Eddington, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, backtesting, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, break the buck, Brownian motion, business process, butterfly effect, capital asset pricing model, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Carmen Reinhart, Chance favours the prepared mind, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computerized trading, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Diane Coyle, diversification, diversified portfolio, double helix, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Ernest Rutherford, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, framing effect, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, housing crisis, incomplete markets, index fund, interest rate derivative, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Meriwether, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, martingale, merger arbitrage, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, money market fund, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, old-boy network, out of africa, p-value, paper trading, passive investing, Paul Lévy, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, predatory finance, prediction markets, price discovery process, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, RAND corporation, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, statistical arbitrage, Steven Pinker, stochastic process, survivorship bias, The Great Moderation, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, ultimatum game, Upton Sinclair, US Airways Flight 1549, Walter Mischel, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Later revised by Moore to a doubling every two years, Moore’s Law has been a remarkably accurate forecast of the growth of the semiconductor industry over the last forty years. As computing has become faster, cheaper, and better at automating a variety of tasks, fi nancial institutions have been able to greatly increase the scale and sophistication of their services. The emergence of automated, algorithmic, and online trading, mobile banking, cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, crowdfunding, and financial robo-advisers are all consequences of Moore’s Law. Technological innovation has always been intimately interconnected with financial innovation, a coevolutionary process in which adaptations in one domain have influenced innovation in the other. New stamping and printing processes, used to prevent coin clipping, counterfeiting, and other forms of financial fraud, led directly to the modern system of paper banknotes and token coinage.