Panopticon Jeremy Bentham

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Working the Phones: Control and Resistance in Call Centres by Jamie Woodcock

always be closing, anti-work, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, David Graeber, invention of the telephone, job satisfaction, late capitalism, means of production, millennium bug, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, profit motive, social intelligence, stakhanovite, women in the workforce

Thus every call has the potential to be a sale, so long as the worker internalises and repeats this combination of self-help phrases and management buzzwords. the panopticon The analogy of the Panopticon is used frequently in the academic literature on call centres. Often these involve arguments about control, either its totalisation or the effect of minimising resistance. Jeremy Bentham first discussed the Panopticon as an architectural structure that would allow ‘a new mode of obtaining power of mind over mind, in a quantity hitherto without example’.31 The now familiar construction of the central observation post with individual cells around it, allowed ‘the apparent omnipresence of the inspector . . . combined with the extreme facility of his real presence’.32 It is worth looking at Bentham’s writing before moving on to discuss Foucault’s developments. Bentham argues that when dealing with workers: ‘whatever be the manufacture, the utility 80 Management of the principle is obvious and incontestable, in all cases where the workmen are paid according to their time’.33 He foresaw an application for the Panopticon to remedy the indeterminacy of labour power.

Foucault, Discipline and Punish (1991), p. 152. 23. Ibid., p. 154. 24. Carl Cederström and Peter Fleming, Dead Man Working (Winchester: Zero Books, 2012), p. 10. 25. Ibid., p. 11. 26. Ibid., p. 9. 27. Ibid., p. 10. 28. Ibid., p. 16. 29. Marx, Capital ([1867] 1976), p. 342. 30. Foucault, Discipline and Punish (1991), p. 167. 31. Jeremy Bentham, The Panopticon Writings (London: Verso, 1995), p. 31. 32. Ibid., p. 45. 33. Ibid., p. 80. 34. Ibid., p. 106. 35. Ibid., p. 105. 36. Miran Božovič, ‘Introduction’, in The Panopticon Writings, by Jeremy Bentham (London: Verso, 1995). p. 4. 37. Ibid., p. 8. 38. Sue Fernie and David Metcalf, (Not) Hanging on the Telephone: Payment Systems in the New Sweatshops (Centre for Economic Performance: London School of Economics, 1997), p. 3. 39. Foucault, Discipline and Punish (1991), p. 173. 40. Ibid., p. 174. 41.

In this context it is easy to over-generalise and it is worth bearing in mind Taylor and Bain’s point that this ‘represents an unprecedented level of attempted control which must be considered a novel departure’.22 The metaphor of the Panopticon – which has been frequently referred to in the literature – was used to illustrate the process of surveillance and control in the call centre. Returning to Bentham’s Panopticon writings23 before looking at Foucault,24 the Panopticon was here used as a theoretical metaphor to explore the empirical research in detail. The Panopticon – both physically and in terms of processes – maps easily onto the organisation of the call centre; however it is important to note that the ‘factory and the office are neither prison nor asylum, their social architectures never those of the total institution’.25 The features of the call centre as a site in which the ‘dynamic process of capital accumulation’ takes place means that it can understate ‘both the voluntary dimension of labour and the managerial need to elicit commitment from workers’.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

This threat of being watched, Jeremy Bentham believed, represented “a new mode of obtaining power of mind over mind.” The Panopticon was a “vividly imaginative” fusion of architectural form with social purpose,” the architectural historian Robin Evans explains. And this purpose was discipline. The more we imagined we were being watched, Jeremy and Samuel Bentham imagined, the harder we would work and the fewer rules we would break. Michel Foucault thus described the Panopticon as a “cruel, ingenious cage.” It was “a microcosm of Benthamite society,” according to one historian, and “an existential realization of Philosophical Radicalism,” according to another.39 As the founder of Philosophical Radicalism, a philosophical school better known today as utilitarianism, Jeremy Bentham saw human beings as calculating machines driven by measurable pleasure and pain.

The Italian-born Lampi hadn’t been the only late-eighteenth-century European to go to Russia to enjoy Catherine the Great’s largesse. Two English brothers, Samuel and Jeremy Bentham, also spent time there gainfully employed by Catherine’s autocratic regime. Samuel worked for Count Grigory Potemkin, one of Catherine’s many lovers, whose name has been immortalized for his “Potemkin villages” of fake industrialization he built to impress her. Potemkin gave Bentham the job of managing Krichev, his hundred-square-mile estate on the Polish border that boasted fourteen thousand male serfs.38And it was here that Samuel and his brother Jeremy, who joined him in 1786 in Krichev and is best known today as the father of the “greatest happiness” principle, invented the idea of what they called the “Panopticon,” or the “Inspection House.” While Jeremy Bentham—who happened to have graduated from the same Oxford college as Tim Berners-Lee—is now considered the author of the Panopticon, he credits his brother Samuel with its invention.

While Jeremy Bentham—who happened to have graduated from the same Oxford college as Tim Berners-Lee—is now considered the author of the Panopticon, he credits his brother Samuel with its invention. “Morals reformed—health preserved—industry invigorated—instruction diffused—public burthens lightened—Economy seated, as it were, upon a rock—the Gordian knot of the poor law not cut, but untied—all by a simple idea in Architecture!” Jeremy Bentham wrote triumphantly in a letter from Krichev to describe this new idea. What Jeremy Bentham called a “simple idea in Architecture” reflected his brother’s interest in disciplining the serfs on Potemkin’s Krichev estate. Borrowing from the Greek myth of Panoptes, a giant with a hundred eyes, the Panopticon—intended to house a large institution like a prison, a school, or a hospital—was a circular structure designed to house a single watchman to observe everyone in the building.


pages: 263 words: 75,610

Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger

en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, full text search, George Akerlof, information asymmetry, information retrieval, information trail, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, John Markoff, Joi Ito, lifelogging, moveable type in China, Network effects, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, RFID, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Market for Lemons, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Vannevar Bush

Arthur Miller’s famous 1971 book The Assault on Privacy was prompted by the federal government’s plan to create a national data bank.28 And the world’s first data privacy act, in the German state of Hessia, was passed in direct response to similar plans by the German government.29 Others have offered eloquent critiques of the growing use of surveillance technologies to track human activity, warning of a digital version of Jeremy Bentham’s “panopticon,” a prison in which guards could watch prisoners without prisoners knowing whether they were being watched. Bentham thought that such a prison architecture would force prisoners to behave—at minimal cost to society, thus a “new mode of obtaining power of mind over mind.”30 Sociologist Michel Foucault took Bentham’s concept and argued that the panoptic mechanism has moved well beyond prisons and Bentham’s idea of a physical structure and is now used more abstractly as a tool of exerting power in our society. In this, communication theorist Oscar Gandy connected the panopticon with the growing trend towards mass surveillance in our times.31 The panopticon shapes present behavior: I act as if I am watched even if I am not.

“The Memory Gap in Surveillance Law.” University of Chicago Law Review 75 (2008): 137–79. Benkler, Yochai. The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 2006. Bennett, Colin J. Regulating Privacy. Data Protection and Public Policy in Europe and the United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. 1992. Bentham, Jeremy. “Panopticon (Preface),” in The Panopticon Writings, Miran Bozovic, ed. 29–95. London: Verso. 1995. Berg, Tom. “Remembering Every Day of Your Life.” The Orange County Register (April 25, 2008): Life Section. Berman, Francine. “Got Data? A Guide to Data Preservation in the Information Age.” Communications of the ACM 51 (Dec. 2008): 50–56. Bhatti, Jay and Jaideep Singh. Spock. http://www.spock.com/do/pages/pr_web_expo.

If in hindsight Stacy should have self-censored after considering who, in addition to her friends, might access her web site, Andrew should have constrained his writing based on an unforeseeable future. This makes Andrew’s case even more troubling. If we have to imagine how somebody years—perhaps decades into the future—may interpret and weigh our words, we would be even more careful in formulating them. If Stacy’s case is part of a spatial version of Bentham’s panopticon, in which she does not know who watches her but must assume she is watched by everybody, Andrew’s story exemplifies an even more constraining temporal panopticon. Will our children be outspoken in online equivalents of school newspapers if they fear their blunt words might hurt their future career? Will we protest against corporate greed or environmental destruction if we worry that these corporations may in some distant future refuse doing business with us? In democracies, individuals are both citizens and consumers.


pages: 170 words: 49,193

The People vs Tech: How the Internet Is Killing Democracy (And How We Save It) by Jamie Bartlett

Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer vision, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mittelstand, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, off grid, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, QR code, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Mercer, Ross Ulbricht, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, smart contracts, smart meter, Snapchat, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, ultimatum game, universal basic income, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

In some cases intelligence agencies don’t need to spy on you anymore; they can simply go to the technology companies and prise out of them what they need.* There is another more subtle threat from Little Brother’s constant surveillance and data sharing. Back in the eighteenth century, the philosopher Jeremy Bentham (of whom more later) proposed a new type of prison, which he called a ‘panopticon’. It was designed so that all the inmates could potentially be observed by a single watchman – without any knowledge of when they were being watched. The possibility alone was enough, thought Bentham, to ensure that everyone behaved. Our modern panopticon doesn’t have just one watchman: everyone is both watching and being watched. This kind of permanent visibility and monitoring is a way to enforce conformity and docility. Being always under surveillance and knowing that the things you say are collected and shared creates a soft but constant self-censorship.

It never has yet, but perhaps this time will be different, because of the intoxicating power of numbers. The most famous version of this dangerous idea came from our old friend Jeremy Bentham. The Panopticon wasn’t his only idea; in 1789 he designed a ‘felicific calculus’, a kind of algorithm that would (he claimed) calculate the moral rightness of any decision, which he thought could be measured by whether it increased pleasure and reduced pain for the most number of people. His proto-algorithm took into account things like intensity, duration and fecundity. Bentham was a utilitarian because he thought the consequences of an action determined its moral worth. That’s why he was enamoured by a machine. Consequences, unlike vague ethical theories like ‘honour’ or ‘duty’, can be measured and categorised. Bentham didn’t have either the computing power or the data to make his calculus really work.

Just like the eighteenth-century French revolutionaries, who believed they could construct a world based on abstract principles like equality, these latter-day utopians are busily dreaming up a society dictated by connectivity, networks, platforms and data. Democracy (and indeed the world) does not run like this – it is slow, deliberative and grounded in the physical. Democracy is analogue rather than digital. And any vision of the future that runs contrary to the reality of people’s lives and wishes can only end in disaster. Chapter 1: The New Panopticon What the Power of Data is Doing to Our Free Will We live in a giant advertising panopticon which keeps us addicted to devices; this system of data collection and prediction is merely the most recent iteration in a long history of efforts to control us; it is getting more advanced by the day, which has serious ramifications for potential manipulation, endless distraction and the slow diminishing of free choice and autonomy. FOUNDING MYTHS ARE IMPORTANT for industries.


pages: 134 words: 41,085

The Wake-Up Call: Why the Pandemic Has Exposed the Weakness of the West, and How to Fix It by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

Admiral Zheng, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, Corn Laws, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, global pandemic, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jones Act, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, McMansion, night-watchman state, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parkinson's law, pensions crisis, QR code, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, universal basic income, Washington Consensus

Leviathan gathering data to prevent an epidemic does not justify it gathering data to make everybody slimmer or ensure that people’s feelings aren’t hurt by political incorrectness. A particular horror to bear in mind is the Panopticon. Mill’s godfather, Jeremy Bentham, designed the perfect prison: circular in structure, which allowed a prison warder to keep watch on his charges from a central lodge, without them seeing him. Bentham’s logic was that the prisoners would feel under constant inspection, even when they weren’t. He wanted them to be kept in solitary confinement almost all the time and forced to wear masks for communal meals (so they couldn’t communicate with each other). Although its construction was never completed, the Panopticon has got a new lease of life in the way modern society measures, classifies, and regulates its citizenry. Michel Foucault cited the Panopticon in Discipline and Punish (1975), when he worried about the “disciplinary society” that controls people more through invisible observation than through direct physical punishment.

As a young man, he denounced the Great Reform Bill and, to his later shame, defended his father’s record as an owner of slaves in the West Indies. The historian Thomas Macaulay described him as “the rising hope” of the “stern and unbending Tories.”17 Mill’s background was more enlightened. His father, James Mill, was a believer in “liberty,” “reason,” and “effort,” all of which were being frustrated by the establishment—and he raised his son to be “a reformer of the world.”18 John Stuart’s godfather was Jeremy Bentham, who pioneered the utilitarian idea that every institution should be measured by how well it advanced the greatest happiness of the greatest number, and he was surrounded by radicals such as David Ricardo, the economist who invented the notion of “comparative advantage,” and John Wade, the compiler of The Extraordinary Black Book, which listed all the nepotistical abuses of government, rotten boroughs, sinecures, and all.

Big government would always mess things up: “If you put the federal government in charge of the Sahara Desert, in five years there’d be a shortage of sand,” Friedman said. He even broke with the standard reformers’ line that we must make government more efficient on the grounds that a better government would only improve Leviathan’s ability to rob the people. Like Hayek, Friedman hated being called a conservative. He saw himself squarely in the tradition of John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham. In 1964, his vision of a night-watchman state was embraced by the Republican presidential nominee: “I have little interest in streamlining government or in making it more efficient, for I mean to reduce its size,” Barry Goldwater told the electorate. “I do not undertake to promote welfare, for I propose to extend freedom.” Running against Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society, Goldwater won just six states.


pages: 209 words: 89,619

The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing

8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, old age dependency ratio, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional

This is the primary issue underlying this chapter. The panopticon society While the ‘social factory’ is not right as an image of how life for the precariat is being constructed, a better image is a ‘panopticon society’, in which all social spheres are taking the shape envisaged by Jeremy Bentham’s panopticon papers of 1787 (Bentham, 1995). It is not just what is done by government but what is allowed by the state in an ostensibly ‘free market’ society. Let us recall Bentham’s vision. He is known as the father of utilitarianism, the view that government should promote ‘the greatest happiness of the greatest number’. This conveniently allows some to rationalise making the minority thoroughly miserable, in the interests of preserving the happiness of the majority. Bentham took this in a scary direction, in a design for an ideal prison.

The guard’s power lay in the fact that the prisoners could not know whether or not he was watching, and so acted as if he was watching, out of fear. Bentham used the term ‘an architecture of choice’, by which he meant that the authorities could induce the prisoners to behave in desired ways. The key point for Bentham was that the prisoner was given an appearance of choice. But if he did not make the right choice, which was to labour hard, he would be left to ‘languish on bad bread and drink his water, without a soul to speak to’. And prisoners were to be isolated, to prevent them forming ‘a concert of minds’. He realised, just as neo-liberals were to realise, that collective agency would jeopardise the panopticon project. It was an idea Michel Foucault took up in the 1970s as a metaphor for producing ‘docile bodies’. Bentham believed his panopticon design could be used for hospitals, mental asylums, schools, factories, the workhouse and all social institutions.

Autor, D. and Houseman, S. (2010), ‘Do Temporary-Help Jobs Improve Labor Market Outcomes for Low-Skilled Workers: Evidence from “Work First”’, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 3(2): 96–128. Bamford, J. (2009), The Shadow Factory: The Ultra-Secret NSA from 9/11 to the Eavesdropping on America, New York: Doubleday. Bennett, C. (2010), ‘Do We Really Need Advice on How to Deal with Boomerang Kids?’ Observer, 3 January, p. 25. Bentham, J. ([1787] 1995), Panopticon; or The Inspection-House, reprinted in M. Bozovich (ed.), The Panopticon Writings, London: Verso, pp. 29–95. Bernstein, R. (2009), ‘Don’t Trust Anyone Under 30?’, New York Times, 14 January. Beveridge, W. (1942), Social Insurance and Allied Services, London: HMSO. Blinder, A. (2009), ‘How Washington Can Create Jobs’, Wall Street Journal, 17 November, p. 16. Bloomberg BusinessWeek (2005), ‘Embracing Illegals’, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, 18 July.


pages: 230 words: 61,702

The Internet of Us: Knowing More and Understanding Less in the Age of Big Data by Michael P. Lynch

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, Internet of things, John von Neumann, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patient HM, prediction markets, RFID, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, WikiLeaks

Arguably, the United States’ largest big data enterprise is run by the NSA, which was intercepting and storing an estimated 1.7 billion emails, phone calls and other types of communications every single day (and that was way back in 2010).1 As I write this, the same organization is purported to be finishing the building of several huge research centers to store and analyze this data around the country, including staggeringly large million-square-foot facilities in remote areas of the United States. We all understand that there is more known about what each of us thinks, feels and values than ever before. It can be hard to shake the feeling that we are living in an updated version of Jeremy Bentham’s famous panopticon—an eighteenth-century building design that the philosopher suggested for a prison. The basic idea was a prison as a fishbowl. Observation, Bentham suggested, affects behavior—and prisoners would control their behavior more if they knew their privacy was completely gone, if they could be seen by and see everyone at all times. In some ways, our digital lives are fishbowls; but fishbowls we’ve gotten into willingly. One of the more fascinating facts about the amount of tracking going on in the United States is that hardly anyone seems to care.

That might be due not to underreporting or lack of Internet savvy by the public (although both are true) but to the simple fact that the vast majority of people are simply used to it. Moreover, there are lots of positives. Targeted ads can be helpful, and smartphones have become effectively indispensable for many of us. And few would deny that increased security from terrorism is a good thing. Fig. 2. Elevation, section and plan of Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon penitentiary, drawn by Willey Reveley, 1791. Partly for these reasons, writers like Jeremy Rifkin have been saying that information privacy is a worn-out idea. In this view, the Internet of Things exposes the value of privacy for what it is: an idiosyncrasy of the industrial age.2 So no wonder, the thought goes, we are willing to trade it away—not only for security, but for the increased freedom that comes with convenience. This argument rings true because in some ways it is true: we do, as a matter of fact, have more freedom because of the Internet and its box of wonders.

Well, you’ll be wary, naturally. So wary that you will likely try and censor your thoughts and even your activities—perhaps by humming some Mozart in your mind to disguise your thoughts as best you can. And the reason you’d do so would be obvious—no matter how good I may seem to you now, you will want to minimize your exposure to exploitation and manipulation. This is not surprising. As Bentham knew when he designed his panopticon, observation affects behavior. But, of course, that too isn’t necessarily bad. It is why security cameras are not always hidden. If you know you are being watched, you are less likely to act out. And that can be an instrument for good. Or not. So, one reason privacy is important is that invasions of it can lead to exploitation, manipulation and loss of liberty. These, in turn, obviously can negatively affect a person’s autonomy.


In the Age of the Smart Machine by Shoshana Zuboff

affirmative action, American ideology, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, data acquisition, demand response, deskilling, factory automation, Ford paid five dollars a day, fudge factor, future of work, industrial robot, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, job automation, lateral thinking, linked data, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, old-boy network, optical character recognition, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Shoshana Zuboff, social web, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, zero-sum game

It enables power to be founded in the physical existence of the sovereign, but not in continuous and permanent systems of surveillance. . . . This new type of power. . . which lies outside the form of sovereignty, is disciplin- 1 ary power. The Panopticon was an architectural innovation developed by the moral philosopher Jeremy Bentham. In Foucault's view, it is both a sign of and metaphor for this new disciplinary society. Bentham extolled the Panopticon as a technological triumph capable of exploiting the productive potential of those who had flouted, thwarted, or otherwise escaped social authority. His initial targets were convicts and paupers, though he did not fail to see the potential usefulness of the Panopticon for students, asylum inmates, and workers. The architectural plan conceived by Bentham was first constructed by his brother Samuel, an engineer, in 1787 for a factory at Critchef in Russia. It was later adapted to the problems of housing convicts and paupers.

With masonry, nothing like the same panorama could have been achieved. 2 The Information Panopticon 321 The Panopticon's genius was that illumination and visibility provided the possibility of total control. Hence the major effect of the Panopticon: to induce on the inmate a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power. So to arrange things that the surveillance is permanent in its effects, even if it is discontinuous in its action; that the perfection of power should tend to render its actual exercise unnecessary; that this architectural apparatus should be a machine for creating and sustaining a power relation independent of the per- son who exercises it; in short, that the inmates should be caught up in a power situation of which they are themselves the bearers. . . . Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable.

There were at least some managers who saw the potential of the behavioral text as an in- strument of learning and improvement. What are the organizational conditions under which that potential might be exploited? The answer requires a closer examination of the information panopticon. What is the extent of the transparency it promises? Does it in truth accomplish its intended effect-to induce conformity with the foreknowledge of certain and involuntary self-display? HIERARCHY IN THE INFORMATION PANOPTICON One way that the information panopticon departs from Bentham's prin- ciples is that it is hierarchically organized. At every level of the organi- zation, the observer is as likely to be a target of technical control as its vehicle. Observation is double-edged: observer and observed are enmeshed in one body but are of two minds.


pages: 253 words: 75,772

No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance State by Glenn Greenwald

airport security, anti-communist, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, Ted Kaczynski, WikiLeaks

This principle was at the heart of British philosopher Jeremy Bentham’s eighteenth-century conception of the Panopticon, a building design he believed would allow institutions to effectively control human behavior. The building’s structure was to be used, in his words, for “any sort of establishment, in which persons of any description are to be kept under inspection.” The Panopticon’s primary architectural innovation was a large central tower from which every room—or cell, or classroom, or ward—could be monitored at any time by guards. The inhabitants, however, were not able to see into the tower and so could never know whether they were or were not being watched. Since the institution—any institution—was not capable of observing all of the people all of the time, Bentham’s solution was to create “the apparent omnipresence of the inspector” in the minds of the inhabitants.

“The persons to be inspected should always feel themselves as if under inspection, at least as standing a great chance of being so.” They would thus act as if they were always being watched, even if they weren’t. The result would be compliance, obedience, and conformity with expectations. Bentham envisioned that his creation would spread far beyond prisons and mental hospitals to all societal institutions. Inculcating in the minds of citizens that they might always be monitored would, he understood, revolutionize human behavior. In the 1970s, Michel Foucault observed that the principle of Bentham’s Panopticon was one of the foundational mechanisms of the modern state. In Power, he wrote that Panopticonism is “a type of power that is applied to individuals in the form of continuous individual supervision, in the form of control, punishment, and compensation, and in the form of correction, that is, the moulding and transformation of individuals in terms of certain norms.”

The danger posed by the state operating a massive secret surveillance system is far more ominous now than at any point in history. While the government, via surveillance, knows more and more about what its citizens are doing, its citizens know less and less about what their government is doing, shielded as it is by a wall of secrecy. It is hard to overstate how radically this situation reverses the defining dynamic of a healthy society or how fundamentally it shifts the balance of power toward the state. Bentham’s Panopticon, designed to vest unchallengeable power in the hands of authorities, was based on exactly this reversal: “The essence of it,” he wrote, rests in “the centrality of the inspector’s situation” combined with the “most effectual contrivances for seeing without being seen.” In a healthy democracy, the opposite is true. Democracy requires accountability and consent of the governed, which is only possible if citizens know what is being done in their name.


pages: 495 words: 138,188

The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time by Karl Polanyi

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, borderless world, business cycle, central bank independence, Corn Laws, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, inflation targeting, joint-stock company, Kula ring, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, manufacturing employment, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, price mechanism, profit motive, Republic of Letters, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor, Works Progress Administration

The idea that pauperism could be made to pay had firmly gripped people’s minds. It was exactly a century later that Jeremy Bentham, the most prolific of all social projectors, formed the plan of using paupers on a large scale to run machinery devised by his even more inventive brother, Samuel, for the working of wood and metal. “Bentham,” says Sir Leslie Stephen, “had joined his brother and they were looking out for a steam engine. It had now occurred to them to employ convicts instead of steam.” This was in 1794; Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon plan with the help of which jails could be designed so as to be cheaply and effectively supervised had been in existence for a couple of years, and he now decided to apply it to his convict-run factory; the place of the convicts was to be taken by the poor. Presently the Bentham brothers’ private business venture merged into a general scheme of solving the social problem as a whole.

The spate of industrial and banking systems which from Paterson and John Law to the Pereires had flooded stock exchanges with the projects of religious, social, and academic sectarians had now become a mere trickle. With those engaged in the routine of business, analytical ideas were at a discount. The exploration of society, at least so it was thought, was concluded; no white spots were left on the human map. A man of Bentham’s stamp had become impossible for a century. Once the market organization of industrial life had become dominant, all other institutional fields were subordinated to this pattern; the genius for social artifacts was homeless. Bentham’s Panopticon was not only a “mill to grind rogues honest, and idle men industrious”‡; it would also pay dividends like the Bank of England. He sponsored proposals as different as an improved system for patents; limited liability companies; a decennial census of population; the establishment of a Ministry of Health; interest-bearing notes to make savings general; a frigidarium for vegetables and fruit; armament factories on new technical principles, eventually run by convict labor, or alternatively, by the assisted poor; a Chrestomathic Day School to teach utilitarianism to the upper middle classes; a general register of real property; a system of public account keeping; reforms of public instruction; uniform registration; freedom from usury; the relinquishment of colonies; the use of contraceptives to keep the poor rate down; the junction of the Atlantic and the Pacific by means of a joint stock company; and others.

Presently the Bentham brothers’ private business venture merged into a general scheme of solving the social problem as a whole. The decision of the Speenhamland magistrates, Whitbread’s minimum wage proposal, and, above all, Pitt’s privately circulated draft of a comprehensive bill for the reform of the Poor Law had made pauperism a topic among statesmen. Bentham, whose criticism of Pitt’s Bill was supposed to have brought about its withdrawal, now came forward in Arthur Young’s Annals with elaborate proposals of his own (1797). His Industry-Houses, on the Panopticon plan—five stories in twelve sectors—for the exploitation of the labor of the assisted poor were to be ruled by a central board set up in the capital and modelled on the Bank of England’s board, all members with shares worth five or ten pounds having a vote. A text published a few years later ran: “(1) The management of the concerns of the poor throughout South Britain to be vested in one authority, and the expense to be charged upon one fund. (2) This Authority, that of a Joint-Stock Company under some such name as that of the National Charity Company.”* No less than 250 Industry-Houses were to be erected, with approximately 500,000 inmates.


Howard Rheingold by The Virtual Community Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier-Perseus Books (1993)

Apple II, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, experimental subject, George Gilder, global village, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, license plate recognition, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, The Great Good Place, The Hackers Conference, urban decay, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, young professional

But another kind of vision could apply to the use of the Net in the wrong ways, a shadow vision of a less utopian kind of place--the Panopticon. Panopticon was the name for an ultimately effective prison, seriously proposed in eighteenth-century Britain by Jeremy Bentham. A combination of architecture and optics makes it possible in Bentham's scheme for a single guard to see every prisoner, and for no prisoner to see anything else; the effect is that all prisoners act as if they were under surveillance at all times. Contemporary social critic Michel Foucault, in Discipline and Punish, claimed that the machinery of the worldwide communications network constitutes a kind of camouflaged Panopticon; citizens of the world brought into their homes, along with each other, the prying ears of the state. The cables that bring information into our homes today are technically capable of bringing information out of our homes, instantly transmitted to interested others.

The Net that is a marvelous lateral network can also be used as a kind of invisible yet inescapable cage. The idea of malevolent political leaders with their hands on the controls of a Net raises fear of a more direct assault on liberties. Caught in the Net: CMC and the Ultimate Prison In 1791, Jeremy Bentham proposed, in <Panopticon; or, the Inspection House, that it was possible to build a mechanism for enforcing a system of social control into the physical structure of a building, which he called the Panopticon. His design for this building was intended to be very general, an architectural algorithm that could be used in prisons, schools, and factories. Individual cells are built into the circumference of a circular building, around a central well. An inspection tower atop the well, 26-04-2012 21:46 howard rheingold's | the virtual community 15 de 26 http://www.rheingold.com/vc/book/10.html in conjunction with a method for lighting the cells and leaving the inspection tower dark, made it possible for one person to monitor the activity of many people, each of whom would know he or she was under surveillance, none of whom would know exactly when.

Kevin Robins and Frank Webster, in their article "Cybernetic Capitalism: Information, Technology, Everyday Life," made the connection between Bentham, Foucault, and the evolution of the telecommunications network: We believe that Foucault is right in seeing Bentham's Panopticon as a significant event in the history of the human mind. We want to suggest that the new communication and information technologies-particularly in the form of an integrated electronic grid--permit a massive extension and transformation of that same (relative, technological) mobilization to which Bentham's Panoptic principle aspired. What these technologies support, in fact, is the same dissemination of power and control, but freed from the architectural constraints of Bentham's stone and brick prototype. On the basis of the "information revolution," not just the prison or factory, but the social totality, comes to function as the hierarchical and disciplinary Panoptic machine.


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Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

That data is almost certainly digital: Seagate Technology LLC (2012), “Video surveillance storage: How much is enough?” http://m.seagate.com/files/staticfiles/docs/pdf/whitepaper/video-surv-storage-tp571-3-1202-us.pdf. Jeremy Bentham conceived of his “panopticon”: Jeremy Bentham (1791), The Panopticon, or the Inspection-House, T. Payne, http://cartome.org/panopticon2.htm. idea has been used as a metaphor: Oscar H. Gandy Jr. (1993), The Panoptic Sort: A Political Economy of Personal Information, Westview Press, http://books.google.com/books?id=wreFAAAAMAAJ. on the Internet and off: Tom Brignall III (2002), “The new panopticon: The Internet viewed as a structure of social control,” Tennessee Tech University, http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/apcity/unpan003570.pdf. All of us are being watched: Ellen Nakashima (16 Jan 2007), “Enjoying technology’s conveniences but not escaping its watchful eyes,” Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/01/15/AR2007011501304.html. 3: ANALYZING OUR DATA Target was right: Charles Duhigg (16 Feb 2012), “How companies learn your secrets,” New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/19/magazine/shopping-habits.html.

Once enough people regularly record video of what they are seeing, you’ll be in enough of their video footage that it’ll no longer matter whether or not you’re wearing one. It’s kind of like herd immunity, but in reverse. UBIQUITOUS SURVEILLANCE Philosopher Jeremy Bentham conceived of his “panopticon” in the late 1700s as a way to build cheaper prisons. His idea was a prison where every inmate could be surveilled at any time, unawares. The inmate would have no choice but to assume that he was always being watched, and would therefore conform. This idea has been used as a metaphor for mass personal data collection, both on the Internet and off. On the Internet, surveillance is ubiquitous. All of us are being watched, all the time, and that data is being stored forever. This is what an information-age surveillance state looks like, and it’s efficient beyond Bentham’s wildest dreams. 3 Analyzing Our Data In 2012, the New York Times published a story on how corporations analyze our data for advertising advantages.

Imagine this being normal for every job applicant. Of course, surveillance doesn’t affect everyone equally. Some of us are unconcerned about government surveillance, and therefore not affected at all. Others of us, especially those of us in religious, social, ethnic, and economic groups that are out of favor with the ruling elite, will be affected more. Jeremy Bentham’s key observation in conceiving his panopticon was that people become conformist and compliant when they believe they are being observed. The panopticon is an architecture of social control. Think of how you act when a police car is driving next to you, or how an entire country acts when state agents are listening to phone calls. When we know everything is being recorded, we are less likely to speak freely and act individually. When we are constantly under the threat of judgment, criticism, and correction for our actions, we become fearful that—either now or in the uncertain future— data we leave behind will be brought back to implicate us, by whatever authority has then become focused upon our once-private and innocent acts.


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Private Government: How Employers Rule Our Lives (And Why We Don't Talk About It) by Elizabeth S. Anderson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, declining real wages, deskilling, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, invisible hand, manufacturing employment, means of production, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, principal–agent problem, profit motive, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Socratic dialogue, spinning jenny, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics

Employers, instead of drinking with their workers, preached temperance, industry, punctuality, and discipline. Conditions were harsh, hours long, wages low, and prospects for advancement, regardless of how hard one worked, minimal. The nineteenth century saw the spread of total institutions across society: the prison, the asylum, the hospital, the orphanage, the poorhouse, the factory. Jeremy Bentham’s notorious prison plan, the Panopticon, was his model for these other institutions.97 Other liberals, such as Joseph Priestley, allied with factory owners and social reformers to promote these new types of hyperdisciplinary institution. Here lay the central contradiction of the new liberal order: “Though these radicals preached independence, freedom, and autonomy in polity and market, they preached order, routine, and subordination in factory, school, poorhouse, and prison.”98 Preindustrial labor radicals, viewing the vast degradation of autonomy, esteem, and standing entailed by the new productive order in comparison with artisan status, called it wage slavery.

Cantor appears to be viscerally incapable of recognizing how a day could be dedicated to honoring wage laborers. 96. Sean Wilentz, Chants Democratic: New York City and the Rise of the American Working Class, 1788–1850 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), 508–16. 97. Gertrude Himmelfarb, The Idea of Poverty: England in the Early Industrial Age (New York: Knopf, 1984), 78. See, for example, Jeremy Bentham, Pauper Management Improved: Particularly by Means of an Application of the Panopticon Principle of Construction (London: R. Baldwin, 1812). 98. Isaac Kramnick, Republicanism and Bourgeois Radicalism: Political Ideology in Late Eighteenth-Century England and America (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1990), 97. 99. Smith, Wealth of Nations, vol. 2, V.1.F.50. 100. Smith, Theory of Moral Sentiments, I.3.3.1. Chapter 2 1. This is true of the corporate form.

., 145n2, 176–77n7 apprentices/apprenticeship, xiii, 9–10, 24, 33, 42, 59, 81–82, 83, 88 authoritarianism, x, 12, 36; feudal authoritarianism, 160n29; workplace authoritarianism, 50, 59, 62, 136 authority, 66, 133; discretionary authority of employers over workers, 113; and the firm, 56–57; hierarchies of, 52; interpersonal authority, 65; of managers over workers, 67; and political power, 98; scope of and limitations to employer authority, 53–54, 63; subjection to, 61–62, 127–28, 161n35 autonomy, exercise of as a basic human need, 128 Bank of North America, 24 Baptists, 12 begging/beggary, 15, 16 Belated Feudalism (Orren), 160n29 Bentham, Jeremy, prison plan of (the Panopticon), 34 Bismarck, Otto von, 29 Blake, William, 22 Bromwich, David, xiii–xiv, 119, 174n1; on the human costs of market dislocations for traditional societies, xiv–xv; on the rise of market society, 121–22, 126 Cantor, Eric, 156n95 charity, 29, 81, 83, 121, 151n46 Charles I (king of England), 76, 166n8 Chartists/Chartism, 24, 29–30 Chidley, Katherine, 13, 87 Church of England.


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The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global pandemic, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game

It assumes that surveillance of the kind that Google makes possible is analogous to the theory of social control described by Michel Foucault as the Panopticon. But this trope has exhausted its utility. The original Panopticon, conceived by Jeremy Bentham, was a design for a circular prison with a central watchtower, in which all the inmates would behave because they would assume that they were being observed at all times. Foucault argued that state programs to monitor and record our comings and goings create imaginary prisons that lead citizens to limit what they do out of fear of being observed by those in power. The gaze, the theory goes, works as well as iron bars to control the behavior of most people.64 Those who write about privacy and surveillance usually can’t help invoking the Panopticon to argue that the great harm of mass surveillance is social control.65 112 TH E G OOGL IZATION OF US However, the Panopticon model does not suffice to describe our current predicaments.

Certainly the Stasi in East Germany exploited the controlling power generated by widespread awareness of surveillance and the potential for brutal punishment for thought crimes.66 But that is not the environment in which most of us now live. And unless the Panopticon is as visible and ubiquitous as agencies like the Stasi, it cannot influence behavior as Bentham and Foucault assumed it would. But more important, the forces at work in Europe, North America, and much of the rest of the world are the opposite of a Panopticon: they involve not the subjection of the individual to the gaze of a single, centralized authority, but the surveillance of the individual, potentially by all, always by many. We have a “cryptopticon” (for lack of a better word). Unlike Bentham’s prisoners, we don’t know all the ways in which we are being watched or profiled—we simply know that we are. And we don’t regulate our behavior under the gaze of surveillance: instead, we don’t seem to care.

See, for example, Oscar H. Gandy, The Panoptic Sort: A Political Economy of Personal Information (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993); David Lyon, Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond (Cullompton, U.K.: Willan Publishing, 2006); Satu Repo and Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, Teacher Surveillance: The New Panopticon (Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, 2005); Mark Andrejevic, iSpy: Surveillance and Power in the Interactive Era (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2007). For a refreshing approach to studying surveillance without the Panopticon model, see Kevin Haggerty, “Tear Down the Walls: On Demolishing the Panopticon,” in Lyon, Theorizing Surveillance. 66. B. Brower, review of Sonia Combe, Une société sous surveillance: Les intellectuels et la Stasi, in Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 2 (2001): 88–92; Gary Bruce, “The Prelude to Nationwide Surveillance in East Germany: Stasi Operations and Threat Perceptions, 1945–1953,” Journal of Cold War Studies 5, no. 2 (May 1, 2003): 3–31; Sonia Combe, Une société sous surveillance: Les intellectuels et la Stasi (Paris: Albin Michel, 1999). 67.


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What About Me?: The Struggle for Identity in a Market-Based Society by Paul Verhaeghe

Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, deskilling, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, invisible hand, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Louis Pasteur, market fundamentalism, Milgram experiment, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, The Spirit Level, ultimatum game, working poor

A shift, in other words, from an authority that can be localised and held to account, to an anonymous and thus generalised disciplinary force. This means that you can no longer point the finger at power, which makes resistance very difficult. By way of metaphor, Foucault refers to the ideal prison devised by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham. Its unique feature was a single, central watchtower from which all inmates could be watched by an unseen observer. This Panopticon, as he called it, was also extremely efficient and cost-effective, because it only needed a single jailer. According to Foucault, present-day society and the new discipline go much further: the watchperson has left the Panopticon’s tower, and supervision is everywhere. Every time we walk down the street, turn on the television, or open a magazine we are told how to behave and how to attain the perfection expected of us. We all have to jump through evaluation hoops; we are forever being ‘invited’ to participate in health checks, audits, screenings, tests, and so on; and on top of that we are expected to carry out constant self-assessment.

The (Dutch) text can be accessed free of charge via the author’s website. 6 ‘We shall suppose that a creature, possessed of reason, but unacquainted with human nature, deliberates with himself what rules of justice or property would best promote public interest, and establish peace and security among mankind: His most obvious thought would be, to assign the largest possessions to the most extensive virtue, and give everyone the power of doing good, proportioned to his inclination … But were mankind to execute such a law; so great is the uncertainty of merit, both from its natural obscurity, and from the self-conceit of each individual, that no determinate rule of conduct would ever result from it; and the total dissolution of society must be the immediate consequence.’ (Hume, 2010, section III, part 2.) 7 Sutherland, 1992, chapter 8. 8 Swierstra & Tonkens, 2008. 9 Jeremy Bentham, 18th-century British philosopher and social reformer, the founder of utilitarianism (‘the greatest happiness of the greatest number’). He designed the Panopticon, an ideal prison in which a single guard could observe all prisoners from a central tower while himself remaining unseen. (Achterhuis, 2010; Sennett, 2005.) 10 Bauman, 1999, p. 26. 11 Sennett, 1998, p. 70. 12 Westen et al., 2004. For a detailed discussion of the consequences, see Verhaeghe, 2009. 13 Pels, 2007.

At the dawn of the Enlightenment, expectations were high: scientific knowledge would pave the way to the best possible society. The design of society had been debated for half a century by intellectuals in French salons, and their guiding principles were simple: any behaviour that causes people harm is wrong, while whatever promotes their happiness is right. Their goal was to achieve ‘the greatest happiness of the greatest number’, as it would be worded by the founder of utilitarianism, Jeremy Bentham. The radicals among them were atheists, which had far-reaching ethical implications. If there were no God to dictate what was good and evil, people would have to think about that themselves. Equally, if there were no reward or punishment in the life hereafter, these would have to be meted out on Earth, according to a system based on insights into human nature. The study of human nature was crucial to the philosopher Denis Diderot because it would underpin the new social order.


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The Formula: How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems-And Create More by Luke Dormehl

3D printing, algorithmic trading, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, death of newspapers, deferred acceptance, disruptive innovation, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Earth, Google Glasses, High speed trading, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, lifelogging, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, price discrimination, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, upwardly mobile, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator

Companies like Quantcast and Google get no benefit at all from everyone acting in the same way, since this allows for no market segmentation to occur. It is for this reason that articles like Steven Poole’s May 2013 cover story for the New Statesman, “The Digital Panopticon,” invoke the wrong metaphor when it comes to big data and algorithmic sorting.46 The panopticon, for those unfamiliar with it, was a prison designed by English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the late 18th century. Circular in design and with a large watchtower in the center, the theory behind the panopticon was that prisoners would behave as if they were being watched at all times—with the mere presence of the watchtower being as effective as iron bars in regulating behavior and ensuring that everyone acted the same way. (A similar idea is behind today’s open-plan offices.)

Quetelet followed with his own Sur l’homme et le développement de ses facultés (On Man and the Development of His Faculties) three years later. Both works proved immediately sensational: rare instances in which the conclusions of a previously obscure branch of academia truly captures the popular imagination. Guerry and Quetelet were translated into a number of different languages and widely reviewed. The Westminster Review—an English magazine founded by Utilitarians John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham—devoted a particularly large amount of space to Guerry’s book, which it praised for being of “substantial interest and importance.” Charles Darwin read Quetelet’s work, as did Fyodor Dostoyevsky (twice), while no less a social reformer than Florence Nightingale based her statistical methods upon his own.13 Nightingale later gushingly credited Quetelet’s findings with “teaching us . . . the laws by which our Moral Progress is to be attained.”14 In all, Guerry and Quetelet’s work showed that human beings were beginning to be understood—not as free-willed, self-determining creatures able to do anything that they wanted, but as beings whose actions were determined by biological and cultural factors.

Samsung 127–28 Apprentice, The (US) 89 Aquinas, Thomas 183 Aron, Arthur 101 art and entertainment 161–207 and dehumanisation 203–4 and films via Internet 179–80 and mass market 175–77 and Salganik–Dodds–Watts study 172–73 and “superstar” markets 173 see also Epagogix; individual participants; individual titles artificial intelligence 126, 217 AT&T 29 Atlantic 11 Avatar 163, 172, 205 Avaya 49 Balloon Brigade 33 Barefoot Into Cyberspace (Hogge) 44 Barrymore, Drew 167 Barthes, Roland 186 Bauman, Zygmunt 81–82 BeautifulPeople 78 beauty map 31–32 Beck, Charlie 106–7 Bedpost 13, 93–95 Bedwood, David 97 Beethoven, Ludwig 202 Bellos, David 215 Benjamin, Walter 178–79 Bense, Max 182n Bentham, Jeremy 55, 118 Berk, Richard 120–24, 236 Bezos, Jeff 190 Bianculli, David 189 Bieber, Justin 202–3 Blackstone Electronic Discovery 127–28 Blink (Gladwell) 211 blogging 30 and owners’ personalities 38–39 and word choice 38–39 body-hacking 13–14 BodyMedia 94 books, see art and entertainment Bowden, B. V. 184 Bowden, Mark 11 Boyce, Vincent Dean 15–16 Bratton, William 108–10, 113 Brazier, David 70 Breathalyzer 143–44 Brownsword, Roger 138 Brynjolfsson, Erik 217 Burberry 52 Busa, Roberto 183 California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology 7 call centers 21–22, 24, 49 CalWIN 159 Cameron, David 113 Cameron, James 162–63 Carter, Steve 74–76 Casablanca 86 Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge 68 CBS 126 CCTV 145–46 CCTV Today 146 celebrity marriages, predicting breakup of 67–69 chatterbot 99 Cheney-Lippold, John 58–59 Chivers, Tom 135 Christensen, Clayton 129 Churchill, Winston 45 Cisco 49 Citron, Danielle 150, 153–54 Claburn, Thomas 239 Clarke, Arthur C. 221 Clegg, Nick 225 Click: What We Do Online and Why It Matters (Tancer) 3, 233–34 Clinical vs.


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Dragnet Nation: A Quest for Privacy, Security, and Freedom in a World of Relentless Surveillance by Julia Angwin

AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

Bauer concluded that people who encountered the Stasi internalized repression into “the body’s wrinkles and the brain’s mechanisms.” * * * The power of observation to be repressive was the foundational idea of the “Panopticon”—a prison design proposed by Jeremy Bentham in 1787. His idea was that a perfect prison would allow prisoners to believe they were being watched at all times but allow the watchers to remain unseen. He designed a circular prison with a guard tower in the middle, but it was never built during his lifetime. In 1975, the French philosopher Michel Foucault popularized Bentham’s idea, describing the Panopticon as a “marvelous” instrument of power. “The more numerous those anonymous and temporary observers are, the greater the risk for the inmate of being surprised and the greater his anxious awareness of being observed,” he wrote in his book Discipline and Punish.

The Stasi would likely have conducted surveillance of everybody: Gary Bruce, in discussion with author, February 6, 2013. The problem was that a Stasi file: Bruce, The Firm, 156. In a study of psychological effects of Stasi surveillance: Babett Bauer, Kontrolle und Repression: individuelle Erfahrungen in der DDR (1971–1989), described in Bruce, The Firm, 158. Original: http://nypl.bibliocommons.com/item/show/16455058052907_kontrolle_und_repression. The power of observation to be repressive: Jeremy Bentham, The Panopticon Writings (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Verso, 2010). In 1975, the French philosopher Michel Foucault: Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Vintage, 1995). In 2011, Finnish researchers installed: Antti Oulasvirta et al., “Long-Term Effects of Ubiquitous Surveillance in the Home,” Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Helsinki, 2012. The lead author of the paper: Aalto University, “Study Exposes the Negative Effects of Increasing Computerized Surveillance” (press release), April 10, 2012, http://www.aalto.fi/en/current/news/view/2012-10-04/.

Lycos Maas, Jenna MAC (media access control) mail, postal malicious software Manning, Bradley marketers market manipulation Marlinspike, Moxie Marshall, Bruce Marshall, Thurgood Marwick, Alice MaskMe Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Registry of Motor Vehicles “mass production of bias” MATRIX program Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor McCain, John McGrath, Pat medical data Memari, Kaveh metadata “method of loci” Microsoft Microsoft Outlook Mijangos, Luis Mohamed, Gulet Monahan, Brian Monahan, Matthew money launderers Morgan, Ted mortgage data motor vehicle registries Mozilla Mozy mud-puddle test Mueller, Robert Mugshots.com Murphy, Frank Muslims Muslims Giving Back mutual surveillance MyLife.com MySpace Names Database Napolitano, Janet National Academy of Sciences National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) National Change of Address database National Counterterrorism Center National Security Agency (NSA) auditing your data on encryption and fairness test and negative rights NeoMail Netflix Netherlands Netscape Navigator Network Associates New Digital Age, The (Schmidt and Cohen) New Hampshire Supreme Court New Yorker New York Police Department (NYPD) New York Times Nielsen Company Nigeria no-fly lists Norway NoScript Noyes, Andrew nuclear weapons nude images Obama, Barack Obama, Michelle Oberman, Ethan Ofcom OFF Pocket Off-the-Record Messaging Olsen, Matthew Omniture Omnivore’s Dilemma, The (Pollan) One Nation, Under Surveillance (Royce) 1Password online “black markets” online–off-line matching online reputation, bulletproofing Open Security Foundation OpenTable “Operational Case Jentzsch” Operation High-Rise OPK (Operative Personenkontrolle) Oppenheim, Melissa opting out Otis, James, Jr. Oulasvirta, Antti Overstock.com “Panopticon” (Bentham) Party, Boston T. See Royce, Kenneth W. passports password-management software “Password Memorability and Security” (IEEE) PasswordResearch.com passwords children and creating strong mud-puddle test two-factor authentication PatientsLikeMe.com Patriot Act pay-for-performance principle Pearl Harbor attacks Peck, Amory PeopleSmart.com Perkins Coie law firm Permissus Perry, Edward Perry, Mike PersonicX database Petraeus, David Phoenix Suns basketball team phone calls.


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The Happiness Industry: How the Government and Big Business Sold Us Well-Being by William Davies

1960s counterculture, Airbnb, business intelligence, corporate governance, dematerialisation, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, intangible asset, invisible hand, joint-stock company, lifelogging, market bubble, mental accounting, nudge unit, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, social intelligence, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto

There is no reason why administration of this nature should be handled by the state directly, as so many neoliberal regimes have more recently discovered. Anticipating Thatcherism and workfare nearly two centuries beforehand, one of Bentham’s policy recommendations was for the state to establish a National Charity Company (a joint stock company, modelled on the East India Company), which would alleviate poverty by employing hundreds of thousands of people in privately managed ‘industry houses’.21 His proposal for the Panopticon also included a recommendation for private firms to build and run the prisons, with a license provided by the state. Not content with reconceiving the very basis of legal authority, Jeremy Bentham can be viewed as the godfather of public sector outsourcing. Fechner pointed the way to a more intimate micromanagement of individuals. In representing the relationship between mind and world as a numerical ratio, he implicitly offered two alternative ways of improving the human lot.

Quoted in Charles Milner Atkinson, Jeremy Bentham: His Life and Work, Lenox, Mass.: Hard Press, 2012, 30. 2See Philip Schofield, Catherine Pease-Watkin and Michael Quinn, eds., Of Sexual Irregularities, and Other Writings on Sexual Morality, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. 3Quoted in Atkinson, Jeremy Bentham: His Life and Work, 109. 4Ibid., 222. 5Jeremy Bentham, The Principles of Morals and Legislation, Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1988, 20. 6Ibid., 70. 7Joanna Bourke, The Story of Pain: From Prayer to Painkillers, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. 8Junichi Chikazoe, Daniel Lee, Nikolaus Kriegeskorte and Adam Anderson, ‘Population Coding of Affect Across Stimuli, Modalities and Individuals’, Nature Neuroscience, 17: 8, 2014. 9This is not undisputed, but for a convincing argument for Bentham’s monistic philosophy, see Michael Quinn, ‘Bentham on Mensuration: Calculation and Moral Reasoning’, Utilitas 26: 1, 2014. 10Bentham, The Principles of Morals and Legislation, 9. 11Ibid., 29–30. 12Immanuel Kant, ‘An Answer to the Question “What is Enlightenment?”’

It drove many of his more famous policy proposals, such as the ‘Panopticon’ prison, which was very nearly signed into English law during the 1790s before falling by the wayside. During the late 1770s, Bentham began to write on the topic of punishment, specifically because punishment seemed to offer a rational means of influencing human behaviour, if it could target the natural psychological propensity to pursue pleasure and avoid pain. This was never a merely academic or theoretical issue, and very little of this writing was published until several years later. His goal was always to achieve reform of public policy. But this did require a little deeper thinking about the nature of human psychology. The science of happiness Bentham was a fierce critic of the legal establishment, but he was scarcely much more sympathetic to the radical and revolutionary movements which were erupting elsewhere.


pages: 1,048 words: 187,324

Atlas Obscura: An Explorer's Guide to the World's Hidden Wonders by Joshua Foer, Dylan Thuras, Ella Morton

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, cosmic microwave background, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, double helix, East Village, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, horn antenna, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index card, Jacques de Vaucanson, Kowloon Walled City, Louis Pasteur, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, phenotype, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Tunguska event, urban sprawl, Vesna Vulović, white picket fence, wikimedia commons, working poor

Centralia is 2.5 hours northwest of Philadelphia. 40.804254 76.340503 Eastern State Penitentiary PHILADELPHIA Prior to 1829, prisons were chaotic, unruly institutions where criminals of all ages and sexes lived in the same cells. Then came Eastern State Penitentiary. Influenced by Enlightenment thinking, the prison was the first to implement the “Pennsylvania System,” a philosophy that kept prisoners isolated from each other and the outside world in the hope that their solitude would induce profound regret. Eastern State’s design was based on Jeremy Bentham’s panopticon, with cell-block “spokes” radiating from a central observation post. Each cell was equipped with a bed, flushing toilet, skylight, and Bible. All other reading material, including letters from family members, was forbidden. A door on the back wall of each cell led to a small exercise yard, where inmates could spend up to one hour per day. During any activity requiring a prison guard escort, prisoners had to wear a hood to prevent eye contact with another human being.

The statue is located at the eastern corner of the park. 23.131865 82.399842 Fidel Castro, unlikely Beatles fan, unveiled this statue himself in 2000. Presidio Modelo NUEVA GERONA, ISLA DE LA JUVENTUD During their four decades of operation, the circular cell blocks of Presidio Modelo housed political dissidents, counterrevolutionaries, and even Fidel Castro. Cuban president-turned-dictator Gerardo Machado oversaw the prison’s construction in 1926. Modeled after Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon design, with tiered cells surrounding a central observation post, the prison provided constant surveillance of its inmates. Fidel Castro spent two years at Presidio Modelo after leading a 1953 attack on Moncada Barracks that killed dozens and ignited the Cuban Revolution. The future Communist leader and icon spent his sentence penning “History Will Absolve Me,” a revolutionary manifesto that formed the basis for his junta.

Science Museum, Exhibition Road, London. 51.498190 0.173972 Now functional: Charles Babbage’s Victorian computer. Jeremy Bentham’s Auto Icon LONDON Jeremy Bentham has been sitting in a corridor at University College London since 1850. The moral philosopher, whose advocacy of animal welfare, prison reform, universal suffrage, and gay rights was far ahead of his time, left a will with specific instructions on the treatment of his corpse. He decreed that his mummified head and skeleton be clad in a black suit, seated upright on a chair in a wooden cabinet, under a placard reading “Auto Icon.” He also suggested that his corpse could preside over regular meetings of followers of his utilitarian philosophy. Bentham’s plans for his remains became something of an obsession. For 10 years prior to his death, he reportedly carried a pair of glass eyes in his pocket so that embalmers could easily implant them after his death.


pages: 324 words: 80,217

The Decadent Society: How We Became the Victims of Our Own Success by Ross Douthat

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, charter city, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, ghettoisation, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, helicopter parent, hive mind, Hyperloop, immigration reform, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Islamic Golden Age, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, megacity, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multiplanetary species, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Oculus Rift, open borders, out of africa, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, QAnon, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, women in the workforce, Y2K

But it is more difficult to escape the aegis of the Internet, which many of its disillusioned inventors increasingly acknowledge functions as a universal surveillance system—one that records your every move, your every transaction, your every utterance and photograph and e-mail, for purposes that are primarily corporate and commercial (to borrow from the novelist Walter Kirn, in an Atlantic essay on his Internet-age paranoia: send a text saying “don’t let the bedbugs bite,” get an e-mail ad for a commercial exterminator service the next morning) but that inevitably add up to a system of surveillance and control. As the security expert Bruce Schneier once put it, the issue isn’t that the Internet has been penetrated by the surveillance state, by the National Security Agency or the Central Intelligence Agency. It’s that the Internet, in effect, is a surveillance state: the virtual fulfillment of Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon, where Big Brother doesn’t have to watch everyone because everyone is always watching everybody else. Learning to Love the Panopticon This dystopian possibility haunted the online experience early on: witness paranoid Clinton-era movies such as Enemy of the State and The Net, in which innocents found themselves digitally hunted, surveilled, and erased. But the early Internet was far more anonymous than enfleshed experience—a world of chat rooms and comment sections, aliases and handles and screen names, whose spirit was encapsulated by a famous New Yorker cartoon’s promise that “on the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog.”

., 13, 157 Augustus, emperor of Rome, 200, 201 austerity, 33 Australia, birthrate in, 50 authoritarianism, 12, 49, 86, 162–63, 195, 199, 201, 218 soft, see pink police state sustainable decadence and, 137–54 Trump and, 80, 130 Autor, David, 29 Aztec Empire, 189–90 baby boom, 54–55 baby boomers: creative tension between previous generation and, 109–10 cultural impact of, 108–9 repetition and, 109, 111–12 utopianism of, 109 Back to the Future (film), 89–90 “Back to the Future” Day, 89 Back to the Future Part II (film), 89 Baffler, 37 Baldwin, James, 97 Balkans, civil wars in, 134 Bannon, Steve, 132–33 Barzun, Jacques, 8, 12, 69, 91, 96, 100, 113, 135, 172, 184 Baudrillard, Jean, 135 Bellah, Robert, 97, 101 Belloc, Hilaire, 178 Ben-Abbes, Mohammed (char.), 155, 156, 160 Bentham, Jeremy, 144 Bernanke, Ben, 84 Better Angels of Our Nature, The (Pinker), 165 Between the World and Me (Coates), 97 Bezos, Jeff, 213 bipartisanship, 68, 76–77, 82, 171 birthrates, 202 in Africa, 197, 198, 207 of American Jews, 222 in Israel, 50, 54, 217 birthrates, decline in, 27, 46, 47–65, 166–67, 180, 236 contributing factors in, 50–56 in dystopian fiction of Atwood and James, 47–50 economic consequences of, 56–58 innovation and, 57–58 in Islamic world, 161 mass immigration as solution to economic problems of, 62–65 psychological consequences of, 61–62 recessions and, 51 replacement rate and, 50, 53–54, 58, 63 shrinking families and, 58–62 welfare states and, 51, 52 Black Death, 190 Black Panther (film), 209–10 Blade Runner: 2049 (film), 94 Bloom, Allan, 97 Bloom, Harold, 224 Bloomberg, Michael, 143 Bloomberg BusinessWeek, 43 Bork, Robert, 78 brain drain, 171 Brave New World (Huxley), 127–28, 151, 184–85 Brazil, economic growth in, 166–67 Brexit, 63, 64, 85, 114, 172, 193 Great Recession and, 193 immigration and, 196 Brookings Institution, 71 Brown, Peter, 223 Brown, Scott, 67 Buckley, William F., 97 Buddhism, 225 Bundy, Ted, 119, 120 Bush, George H.

It also offers space for figures such as Donald Trump, who would not be so appealing to many people if he didn’t constantly enact precisely the kind of transgression that the kindly Panopticon is supposed to shame, to cancel, to rule out. And the mere fact of Trump’s presidency is proof that the system we are discussing is not inherently stable in the way of Huxley’s World State. By regulating dissent and chasing it to the margins, it’s always possible for the pink police state to invite it to come roaring back as populism, radicalism, revolution—and more so, presumably, if anything happens to reduce the pleasures of consumerism, the system’s cushioning of wealth. But the Panopticon is also adaptable, drawing even the rebels back into its matrix of playacting and performance, or perhaps encouraging and elevating forms of rebellion that are well suited for that matrix, that emerge from within its rules, its simulated realities, and can be reabsorbed.


pages: 356 words: 97,794

The Biggest Prison on Earth: A History of the Occupied Territories by Ilan Pappé

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, low skilled workers, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yom Kippur War

Today’s prison resembles the Panopticon, originally conceived by Jeremy Bentham, the first modern philosopher to justify the rationale of imprisonment within a new coercive penal system. The Panopticon prison, which was notorious in the early nineteenth century, was designed to allow guards to see their prisoners but not vice versa. The building was circular, with prisoners’ cells lining the outer perimeter, and in the centre of the circle was a large, round observational tower. At any given time guards could be looking down into each prisoner’s cell – and thereby monitor potentially unruly behaviour – but carefully situated blinds prevented prisoners from seeing the guards, so that they did not know if or when they were being monitored. Bentham believed that the ‘gaze’ of the Panopticon would force prisoners to behave morally.

As if under the all-seeing eye of God, they would feel shame at their wicked ways. If we substitute moral conduct for collaborating with the occupation, and we change the circular structure of the Panopticon to a variety of geometrical parameters of imprisonment, the 1967 Israeli decision was to isolate the Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in a modern Panopticon. And for those readers familiar with the further Foucauldian elaboration of the Panopticon model, this could also be a useful tool for partly understanding the edifice built by Israel in 1967 and thereafter. But Foucault, like Bentham, stressed the nature of the Panopticon prison as a system of control that had no need of physical barriers and where the guards are unseen. As we shall see, and as most readers probably know, this applies to only one element in the matrix of power that caged the Palestinian population in Israel’s mega-prison in the twentieth century.

Abdel-Shafi, Haidar 199 Abdullah I of Jordan, King 13 Absentee Property Law 143 Abu Labada, Hassan Abd al-Sayidi 183 Abu Mazen 222, 223 Abu Nidal 166 Agha, Hussein 205 Ahdut Ha’avoda 24, 50 AIPAC, see American Israel Public Affairs Committee Alon, Yigal 23–4, 36–7, 43, 48, 89–93 and colonization 95, 96–7, 98, 101–2, 103 and Gaza Strip 136 and punishment 107 and refugees 67 American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) 18, 43, 61 Amir, Yigal 155 Angleton, James 34 annexation 50–3, 56–9, 60–1, 62–6, 100–2 anti-Semitism 10 Arab Higher Committee 197 Arab League 12, 25, 197 Arab states 10, 18, 26, 28, 30–1 and radicalization 20, 21, 23, 24 see also pan-Arabism Arab Summit 25 Arafat, Yasser 194, 195, 196, 204–6, 207, 208 Aran, Zalman 52, 68, 126 Argov, Shlomo 166 Arnon, Ya’acov 137 assassinations 211–12 al-Astal, Muhammad Ahmad 182–3 autonomy xxviii, 50, 101–2, 157 Avnery, Uri 38–9, 73 Ba’ath party 18, 23, 26, 29 Bachi, Roberto 80 Baker, James 195 Barak, Ehud 196, 200, 206, 213 Barbour, Walworth 61 Bavli, Dan 150–1 Begin, Menachem xx, 49, 124, 154, 159 and Palestinians 51–2, 54, 55 Beilin, Yossi 125, 200 Ben-Amos, Dan 73 Ben-Eliezer, Fuad 161 Ben-Gurion, David xxii, 12, 13, 14, 17–20 and Egypt 15, 16–17 and Jerusalem 59 and settlers 131 and Six-Day War 39, 43 and West Bank 21–2 Bentham, Jeremy xxvii Bentov, Mordechai 53, 54, 120, 121, 123, 125–6 Benvenisti, Meron 170, 203 Bethlehem 62, 92 Black September 134–5 ‘Blueprint for Physical and Regional Planning, A’ 152–3 Bor 38, 39 Breaking the Silence 213–14 Britain, see Great Britain British Empire 138 British Mandate xxii, 9 B’Tselem 179, 183–4, 220 Buber, Martin 18–19 bureaucracy xxix–xxx, 4, 79–80; see also Committee of Directors General Burg, Yosef 69 Bush, George H.


pages: 131 words: 41,052

Why Europe Will Run the 21st Century by Mark Leonard

Berlin Wall, Celtic Tiger, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, different worldview, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, global reserve currency, invisible hand, knowledge economy, mass immigration, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, one-China policy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pension reform, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, shareholder value, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus

While sending inspectors is preferable to dropping bombs, they will still be unable to change the nature of the regime and, more importantly, of the society. Foucault’s real insight is that efficient exercise of power depends less on having military might or the technology of deterrence than on establishing legitimacy by making everyone complicit in the enforcement rules. His metaphor for the rise of the ‘surveillance society’ is a prison called the ‘Panopticon’, designed by the eccentric founder of utilitarian philosophy, Jeremy Bentham. Bentham’s prison was a circular building with open cells arranged in a ring around a central pillar where a guard could sit. The guard sits behind one-way blinds so that he can look out at the cells, but the inmates cannot look in. At any time, the guard may or may not be looking at an individual cell, so the prisoners have to assume that they are being watched the whole time.

In other words, even when the guard is not watching them, they must behave as if he is. A vast prison with dozens of cells can thus be supervised by a single guard. Each prisoner effectively becomes his own warder, the agent of his own surveillance.3 Once this happens, the prison guard becomes superfluous as the prison effectively polices itself. But the inspections in Iraq were not like the surveillance of the Panopticon. They were intrusive and imposed on an uncooperative Iraqi state. Hans Blix was like a single guard policing an enormous prison that had not internalized the international community’s rules. To get the Iraqis to obey the rules, the United Nations would have had to approach Iraq with a more radical idea of surveillance. This model of surveillance is what the European Union has achieved within its borders.

Western Balkans (5) Sub-Saharan Africa (49) Albania Angola Bosnia and Herzegovina Benin Croatia Botswana FYR Macedonia Burkina Faso FR Yugoslavia Burundi Ukraine Cameroon Cape Verde Middle East and Northern Africa (19) Central African Rep Algeria Chad Bahrain Comoros Egypt Congo, Dem Rep Iran Congo, Rep Iraq Côte d’lvoire Israel Djibouti Jordan Equatorial Guinea Kuwait Eritrea Lebanon Ethiopia Libya Gabon Morocco Gambia Oman Ghana Palestinian Territories Guinea Qatar Guinea-Bissau Saudi Arabia Kenya Syria Lesotho Tunisia Liberia United Arab Emirates Madagascar Yemen Malawi Mali European CIS (8) Mauritania Armenia Mauritius Azerbaijan Mayotte Belarus Mozambique Georgia Namibia Kazakhstan Niger Moldova Nigeria Russia Rwanda São Tomé & Principe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe NOTES Introduction 1Emmott, Bill (2003), Vision 20/21, London: Penguin. 2Fukuyama, Francis (Winter 1990–1), ‘The Unipolar Moment’, Foreign Affairs. 3Joseph Nye has written a number of works on ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ power, some of which include Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (2004), The Paradox of American Power: Why the World’s Only Superpower Can’t Go It Alone (2003), and Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power (1990). 4Calleo, David (Summer 2003), ‘Power and Deficit Spending’, The National Interest. 5Ibid. 6A fascinating paper published by the European Central Bank called ‘Economic Relations with Regions Neighbouring the Euro Area in the “Euro Time Zone”’ (December 2002) by Francesco Mazzafero, Arnaud Mehl, Michael Sturm, Christian Thimann, and Adalbert Winkler calls these countries the ‘euro time zone’ and examines the economic, monetary, and financial relations between them and the European Union. 7I am grateful to my colleague Richard Youngs, who in his work Sharpening European Engagement (2004), published by the Foreign Policy Centre, employs the phrase ‘transformative power’ when characterizing the nature of Europe. 8Rifkin, Jeremy (2004), European Dream, London: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin. Chapter 1 1Mazower, Mark (1999), Dark Continent: Europe’s Twentieth Century, London: Penguin. 2Valéry, Paul (1921), Essay entitled ‘On European Civilization and the European Mind’ (1919, 1922) 3Schuman, Robert (9 May 1950), Schuman Declaration. For additional analysis see Dick Leonard and Mark Leonard’s Pro-European Reader (2002), London: Palgrave Macmillan. 4Duchêne, François (1994), Jean Monnet: The First Statesman of Interdependence, New York and London: Norton. 5Ibid. 6Ibid. 7Smith, Adam (1776), An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. 8I am grateful to Ana Palacio for suggesting this evocative metaphor to me. 9Miller, Vaughne (2004), EC Legislation, Standard Note SN/IA/2888, London: House of Commons Library. 10Nugent, Neill (2003, 5th edn), The Government and Politics of the European Union, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 11DTI (1994) Review of the implementation and enforcement of EC law in the UK, 1994 Efficiency Scrutiny Report, DTI, London.


pages: 390 words: 96,624

Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business cycle, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, online collectivism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks

id=e655f9e2809e5476862f735da16bd1e7 (accessed June 21, 2011). 79 the challenge came from an entrepreneur named Nick Merrill: Kim Zetter, “‘John Doe’ Who Fought FBI Spying Freed from Gag Order After 6 Years,” Wired.com, August 10, 2010, www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/08/nsl-gag-order-lifted (accessed June 21, 2011). 79 Christopher Soghoian, an antisurveillance activist and doctoral candidate at Indiana University: The paper cited is Christopher Soghoian, “An End to Privacy Theater: Exposing and Discouraging Corporate Disclosure of User Data to the Government” (August 10, 2010), Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology, available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1656494. 79 “intelligence investigations have compromised the civil liberties of American citizens far more frequently, and to a greater extent, than was previously assumed”: Electronic Frontier Foundation, “Patterns of Misconduct: FBI Intelligence Violations from 2001–2008,” January 2011, www.eff.org/pages/patterns-misconduct-fbi-intelligence-violations. 80 “Panopticon effect,” named after a prison designed in 1785 by English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham: Jeremy Bentham, “Panopticon” (preface), in The Panopticon Writings, ed. Miran Bozovic (London: Verso, 1995), 29–95. 80 Michel Foucault warned that “panopticism” can extend beyond the physical prison: See Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Vintage Books, 1995). 80 In his recent book One Nation, Under Surveillance: Simon Chesterman, One Nation, Under Surveillance: A New Social Contract to Defend Freedom Without Sacrificing Liberty (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 12. 81 research paper comparing corporate data retention policies and companies’ specific practices in handing over user data: Christopher Soghoian, “The Law Enforcement Surveillance Reporting Gap,” April 10, 2011, http://ssrn.com/abstract=1806628. 84 Asked by the New York Times about the case, Twitter spokeswoman Jodi Olson replied: Scott Shane and John F.

For Americans seeking to change existing laws that they believe are wrong, ill-advised, or unfair, or for anybody who happens to be engaged in dissent, activism, or whistle-blowing that powerful people would like to prevent or contain, such a situation is chilling. Lack of sufficient public oversight and transparency about government surveillance through private networks can dampen dissent and activism over time through the “Panopticon effect,” named after a prison designed in 1785 by English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham. In his design, prisoners are given credible proof that they are under surveillance some of the time, though not all of the time. If they have no way of knowing exactly when they are being watched, they end up having to assume they are under surveillance all the time. In his 1975 book Discipline and Punish , philosopher Michel Foucault warned that “panopticism” can extend beyond the physical prison into society at large.

INDEX Abdulemam, Ali Access Controlled (Open Net Initiative) Access Denied (Deibert) Activism in digital commons Facebook and open-source software, use of Twitter and Adidas Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud Ai Weiwei Al-Assad, Bashar Al-Khalifa, Hamid bin Isa Al-Yousif, Mahmood Alberdingk Thijm, Yvette Alibaba Alves, Rosental Amamou, Slim AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) Android Anonymous Anti, Michael (Zhao Jing) Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) Anvari, Rezi Taqipour Apache Apple agreement to China’s censorship criteria alternatives to app shutdowns by BigBrother-destroying TV commercial April Media Arab Techies Collective Ars Technica magazine Ash, Timothy Garton Asmolov, Gregory Assange, Julian Association for Progressive Communications Astrubal (Riadh Guerfali) AT&T Attacks on the Press 2010 (Committee to Protect Journalists) Australia, opposition to national censorship in Authoritarian deliberation in China defined in Iran in Russia Bahrain, antigovernment protests in Bahrain Center for Human Rights Baidu Barlow, John Perry Bassyouni, Ahmed Hassan Beck, Greg Beckstrom, Rod Belarus, lawful intercept system in Ben Ali, Zine El Abidine Ben Gharbia, Sami Benkler, Yochai Bentham, Jeremy Berkman Center for Internet and Society Berman, Howard Berners-Lee, Tim Bezos, Jeff Biden, Joseph Bildt, Carl Bildt magazine Bits of Freedom BlackBerry BoingBoing Bollier, David Bollinger, Lee Bono Boorstin, Bob Boozman, John Bossio, Jorge Boston Common Asset Management Boston Consulting Group boyd, danah BP (British Petroleum) Bradley, Todd Broadcasting Board of Governors (BBG) Bruni, Carla BT Bush, George W.


pages: 245 words: 72,893

How Democracy Ends by David Runciman

barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Internet of things, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, Norman Mailer, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, quantitative easing, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, Yogi Berra

Otherwise there could be no true security, since political trouble can break out in the most unexpected places. Bentham created a different version of the same idea. He designed a prison he called the Panopticon. It was constructed on a circular model that would allow the governor to keep permanent watch on the inmates. Whistleblower Edward Snowden’s nickname for the National Security Agency (NSA), whose secret mass surveillance operations he revealed to the world, was ‘the Panopticon’. Bentham’s original purpose in designing his prison was to ensure that convicted criminals did not use prison as an opportunity to conspire with each other. The governor couldn’t hear everything that went on, so Bentham wanted to ensure he could always see who was mixing with whom. The NSA has defended its surveillance programme on the grounds that it is merely looking at the metadata of personal communications.

It made democratic politics a peculiarly alienating business. What gave us a voice was also what made us cogs in the machine. That, for Weber, was the modern condition. Jeremy Bentham, the philosopher and democratic reformer who was writing a century before Weber and Gandhi, was mocked by his critics as a ‘calculating machine’. He seemed to have reduced politics to a search for the algorithm of human happiness. He wished to know which levers to pull. But Bentham was anything but heartless. He desperately wanted the politics of his time to work better: to be less cruel, less arbitrary and more tolerant of human difference. That meant democratising it. But it also meant making it more formulaic in order to free it from prejudice. Bentham accepted that to humanise politics you had to be willing to dehumanise it first. Going even further back, the definitive image of modern politics is a picture of a robot.

Index A accelerationism, 199–202 Achen, Christopher see Bartels, Larry and Achen, Christopher Ackerman, Bruce, 54–5 advertising, 160 and elections, 158 internet, 157, 159 Afghanistan, 75 Africa, 79 see also Algeria; Zimbabwe Algeria: coup, 41–3 Amazon, 131, 137 anarchism, 192–3, 214 appeasement, 144 Apple, 131, 137 Arendt, Hannah, 85, 86–7, 98 Eichmann in Jerusalem, 84 Argentina, 162 Aristotle, 161 armies see military artificial intelligence (AI), 122–3, 126, 129–30, 189–91 Athens, ancient, 35–8, 142, 161 conspiracy theories, 60 epistocracy, 179 Athens, modern, 27–8; see also Greece austerity, 208 Australia, 162 authoritarianism, 154–5, 171–3 ‘competitive’, 175 pragmatic, 174–5, 176, 177–8, 181, 205 B bankers, 69, 116, 181 banks, 131, 135; see also European Central Bank Bannon, Steve, 13 Bartels, Larry and Achen, Christopher: Democracy for Realists, 184 Bell, David A., 176 Benn, Tony, 58 Bentham, Jeremy, 127, 151, 152 Bermeo, Nancy, 44, 45 bio-engineering, 102–3 Bitcoin, 136 Bostrom, Nick, 105–6 Bourne, Sam (pseudonym): To Kill the President, 57, 58 Brazil, 217 Brennan, Jason: Against Democracy, 183–5, 186–7, 188–9 Bryan, William Jennings, 68–9 bureaucracies, 85, 86–7, 99, 127, 164; see also civil service Burton, Robert, 159–60 Bush, President George W., 12, 55 C Cambridge Analytica (firm), 156, 157, 159 capitalism, 196, 199 Carson, Rachel, 85, 87–8 Silent Spring, 82–3, 89, 90–91, 93 catastrophes, 6, 7, 85–6 environmental, 82–3, 85, 87–93; see also climate change nuclear, 83–4, 97 total, 100 Chicago: violence, 211 China and climate change, 174 Communist Party, 172–3 economy, 172, 208 foreign policy, 30–31 government model, 174 as a meritocracy, 175–6 nationalism, 172 pollution, 89 view of Trump, 173 Churchill, Winston, 8, 75–6, 168–9, 177 civil service, 41, 55–6; see also bureaucracies Clark, Christopher: The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914, 115 Clemenceau, Georges, 71, 75–6 climate change, 90–93 China and, 174 consciousness raising, 89, 92–93 conspiracy theories, 91–92 incremental nature of, 97 and risk, 101 support for, 108 and uncertainty, 96 see also global warming Clinton, President Bill, 54–5 Clinton, Hillary, 13–15, 16, 198 Cold War, 28–9, 67, 94, 95–6, 106–7, 108–9 communism 194; see also China: Communist Party; Marxism-Leninism; Stalinism consciousness raising, 85, 89, 92–3, 106 conspiracy theories, 60–71 climate change, 91–2 and division, 99 and fake news, 75 France, 69 India, 65–6 nuclear weapons, 96 Poland, 65, 66 and totalitarianism, 98 Turkey, 65, 66 United Kingdom, 62–3 United States, 62, 64–5, 67 and war, 77 conspiracy theorists, 153 Constantine I, king of Greece, 27, 28 consumerism, 166 Corbyn, Jeremy, 58, 94–5, 148–9, 150, 209 corporations, 129–32, 139, 166 coups, 3, 217 Algeria, 41–3 and catastrophes, 85 and clarity, 59 and conspiracies, 7, 60 and counter-coups, 56–7 Cyprus, 33, 38–9 economic conditions for, 31 in fiction, 57–8 Greece, 26–30, 27, 32, 33, 34–5, 38, 40, 45 Luttwak on, 41–2, 46 Turkey, 50–52, 53, 66 varieties of, 44–5 election-day vote fraud, 44 executive, 44 executive aggrandisement, 44, 52, 55 promissory, 44, 47, 50–51 strategic election manipulation, 44 Zimbabwe, 48 crises, 5–6 Cuban missile Crisis (1962), 107–8 mid-life, 5, 8, 169, 218 Cummings, Dominic, 179 currencies, 135 digital, 136 Cyprus: coups, 33, 38–9 D databases, 123 de Gaulle, General Charles, 41, 42 de Tocqueville, Alexis, 142, 187 death, 23–4, 204, 216–17 democracy appeal of, 6, 169–71 audience, 47, 117 direct, 35, 48, 143, 161, 162, 163 failure of, 50 obsolescence, 167–8 plebiscitary, 47 spectator, 47 spread of, 3 strong and weak, 59–60 threats to 6–7, 53–4, 108, 112; see also coups digital revolution, 152, 164, 200–201, 215, 219 dignity collective, 172, 173, 177 and elections, 170, 177 and loss, 175 disruption, 198–9 Dorsey, Jack, 137 Dreyfus, Alfred, 69 dystopias, 90–91, 113, 114, 118–19, 126, 220 E East India Company, 130–31 economic growth, 172, 192 accelerationists and, 200 and populism, 192 United States, 175 Western Europe, 175 Economist (journal), 133 Edgerton, David, 122 education, 109–10, 163–4, 183–4, 185 Eggers, David: The Circle, 139, 140, 141–2, 144 Egypt, 48–50 Eichmann, Adolf, 84, 85–6 elections 4, 218 and advertising, 158–9 computers and, 125 and coups, 44, 45 decision-making process, 188–9 and dignity, 170, 177 and disinformation, 156–7 Egypt, 48–9 France, 148 fraud, 44 Greece, 28, 29, 39, 40, 148 Italy, 148 manipulation of, 44 Netherlands, 148 online, 162 Turkey, 51 United Kingdom, 95 United States see under United States see also vote, right to elites, 75 and climate change, 91–2 corporate, 139 and nuclear disarmament, 95 and populism, 65 power of, 61 see also wealth environmentalists, 200 epistocracy, 178–9, 180, 181–8, 191, 205 equality, 202–3; see also inequality Erdogan, President Recep, 51–3, 66, 149, 213 Estlund, David: Democratic Authority, 185 Ethiopia, 154–5 European Central Bank (ECB), 33, 39, 116–17 European Union (EU) and corporations, 132 and Greece, 30, 32, 116–17 executive aggrandisement, 45–6 military, 55, 56 United States presidents, 92 experts see epistocracy; technocracy ExxonMobil, 92 F Facebook, 131, 132–3, 134–5, 136, 138–9, 140, 141, 145, 150, 157 fascism, 169 financial crash (2008), 79, 110, 116 Forster, E.


pages: 242 words: 245

The New Ruthless Economy: Work & Power in the Digital Age by Simon Head

Asian financial crisis, business cycle, business process, call centre, conceptual framework, deskilling, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, informal economy, information retrieval, medical malpractice, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, supply-chain management, telemarketer, Thomas Davenport, Toyota Production System, union organizing

The great French historian, sociologist, and philosopher Michel Foucault has provided such a language. In his book Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (1979) Foucault develops the concept of "panoptic power" and its embodiment in an institution, the panopticon. As the title of Foucault's book suggests, the archetypal panopticon is a prison, and Foucault's definition of panoptic power is shot through with the vo- FOUCAUITS TOWER cabulary of punishment. The panoptic prison was to be a "twelve-sided polygon formed in iron and sheathed in glass" in order to create the effect of what the nineteenth-century English philosopher Jeremy Bentham called "universal transparency."36 A central tower, with wide windows, "opened onto the inner wall of the surrounding polygonal structure, which itself was divided into narrow cells extending across the width of the building."

See a o Call centers Automobile industry, 11,15-16, 38-59; andflexibilityin production/style, 34-35,44; Japanese expansion to U.S. and Europe, 38,41-42, 58; Japanese methods, adoption of, 40,171; and mass customization, 44-45; and mass production, 6-7,17, 28-29; and scientific management, 29-33; and unions, 33, 47, 58,172, 173. See also Japanese methods Bain and Company on costs of employee turnover, 112-14 Earth, Carl C, 26 Bentham, Jeremy, 165 Berwick, Donald, 125,128 Best practices: ERP off-the-shelf processes as, 159; focus of reengineering, 8; Japanese methods as, 50, 54 Bethlehem Steel Company, 23-24, 27 Better Office Management (Leffingwell), 60 Boeing, 36 213 INDEX 214 Botting, Christopher, 98 Bradley, BUI, 185 Branching technique: of call scripts, 87; as preplanned responses for contingencies, 156 Bresnahan, Timothy, 12,14 Brown, John Seely, 90, 169 Brynjolfsson, Erik, 12, 14 Buchanan, Pat, 183-84 Business @ the Speed of Thought (Gates), 81 Business Week, 66-67; poll on managed care, 119,184 Clinical Trial Research" (Horwitz), 147-±8 Computasoft Consulting on ERP implementation, 155 Computer telephony integration (CTI), 82, 85, 97 Corporate scandals, 2, 184-85 Craft workers: in German industry, 55, 56-57; McKinsey view of, 56; retreat of, in face of mass production, 19, 25, 27, 61; revival of, 37 CRM.

Each cell "had a window on both the inner and outer walls," allowing light to cross the cell, thus illuminating "all the inhabitants to an observer in the central tower, while that observer could not be seen from any one of the cells." Mirrors were also fixed around the tower to "dkect extra light into these apartments." Of course, the modern, high-security prison becomes a high-tech panopticon the moment closed-circuit television cameras are placed on or near the ceiling of its cells and passageways.37 Foucault analyzes the psychological effects of this "universal transparency." "The major effect of the panopticon," Foucault writes, was "to induce on the inmate a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assured the automatic functioning of power."38 For power to be exercised in this automatic way, the inmate does not have to believe that he is under constant observation, but only that the possibility of his being under observation is constantly present.


pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Knowing that they might be watched by government agents but not knowing how exactly such surveillance happens, many activists might lean toward self-censorship or even stop engaging in risky online behavior altogether. Thus, even if authoritarian governments cannot actually accomplish what the activists fear, the pervasive climate of uncertainty, anxiety, and fear only further entrenches their power. Such schemes have much in common with the design of the perfect prison, the panopticon, described by the nineteenth-century British utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham. The point of such systems is to exert control over prisoners’ behavior, even when nobody is watching them, by never letting the prisoners know if they are being watched. Governments, of course, are quite happy to overstate their actual capabilities, for such boasting works to their advantage. Thus, in January 2010, when Ahmadi Moghaddam, Iran’s police chief, boasted that “the new technologies allow us to identify conspirators and those who are violating the law, without having to control all people individually,” he must have known that his words would have an effect even if he had greatly exaggerated his capability.

Science, Technology & Human Values 28, no. 1 (2003): 112. Horner, D. S. “Digital Futures: Promising Ethics and the Ethics of Promising.” ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society 37, no. 2 (2007): 64-77. Jopson, Barney. “Hope Founders Where Ministers Lack E-mail.” Financial Times, February 17, 2010. Kakabadse, N. K., A. P. Kakabadse, and A. Kouzmin. “Designing Balance into the Democratic Project: Contrasting Jeffersonian Democracy Against Bentham’s Panopticon Centralisation in Determining ICT Adoption.” Problems and Perspectives in Management 1 (2007). Karlsson, R. “Why the Far-Future Matters to Democracy Today.” Futures 37, no. 10 (2005): 1095-1103. Keulartz, J., M. Schermer, M. Korthals, and T. Swierstra. “Ethics in Technological Culture: A Programmatic Proposal for a Pragmatist Approach.” Science, Technology & Human Values 29, no. 1 (2004): 3.

INDEX Activism and fund-raising and group identity group vs. individual and mobilization and organization and technological fixes vs. slacktivism See also Social network activism Adorno, Theodor Afghanistan Africa Agha-Soltan, Neda Ahmad, Moeed Ahmadi Moghaddam, Ismail Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud Al Ali, Mazen Alam Ahdi, Ayatollah Albrecht, Holger Albright, Madeleine Al-Din Shah, Nasi Aleksievich, Svetlana Alliance of Youth Movements (AYM) Allnut, Luke Al-Mulk, Nizam Al-Qaeda Al-Shabab (“The Lads”) Amazon.com Ambinder, Marc America Calling (Fischer) American Enterprise Institute Amusing Ourselves to Death (Postman) Anderson, Chris Anderson, Perry Anti, Michael Apple Arendt, Hannah Armani, Giorgio Armenia Armony, Ariel Arrington, Michael Artificial intelligence Ashmanov, Igor Asia Australia Authoritarian governments and blogospheres and dictator’s dilemma and digital activists diversity in and elections and information and information technology and information technology companies See also Dictators; individual countries Authoritarianism modern in Orwellian and Huxleyan worlds and technological fixes trinity of AYM. See Alliance of Youth Movements Azerbaijan Baker, James Baker, Stewart Bandurski, David Banking Barlow, John Perry Bauxite Vietnam Belarus censorship in and sanctions, U.S. and SIM cards, prepaid social network surveillance in Bentham, Jeremy Berkman Center for Internet and Society Berlin, Isaiah Berlin Wall Besleney, Zeynel Abidin Betts, Paul Bhagwati, Jagdish Bigotry Bildt, Carl Bing. See also Search engines Blair, Tony Bloggers Blogosin Blogospheres BlueHost Bo Xilai Boas, Taylor Boccaccio, Giovanni Bolívar, Simón Bollinger, Lee Bonner, Elena Book of Government (al-Mulk) Boorstin, Daniel Bowling Alone (Putnam) Bradbury, Ray Brady, Anne-Marie Brave New World (Huxley) Brave New World Revisited (Huxley) Breaking the Real Axis of Evil: How to Oust the World’s Last Dictators by 2025 (Palmer) Briggs, Asa British Broadcasting Corporation Brown, Gordon Brownback, Sam Brzezinski, Zbigniew Bulgaria Bulletin of the American Geographical and Statistical Society Burakumin Burke, Peter Burma Burton, Matthew Bush, George W.


pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, starchitect, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Medieval churches: Sennett, Richard, The Conscience of the Eye: The Design and Social Life of Cities (New York: W. W. Norton, 1990), 15. Happy the man: Horace, Epode II (Beutus ille), in Horace: The Complete Odes and Epode, trans. David West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), 4. felicific calculus: Bentham, Jeremy, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1789), Chapter 4. Bentham made his own: Bentham, Jeremy, The Panopticon Writings, ed. Miran Bozovic (London: Verso, 1995), 29–95. Vauxhall Gardens: Collinson, Peter, “Forget not mee & my garden…”: Selected Letters, 1725–1768 of Peter Collinson, F.R.S., ed. W. Alan Armstrong (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 2002); Coke, David E. and Alan Borg, Vauxhall Gardens: A History (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press), 211.

It may not have been linked to a philosophy of happiness per se, but the security provided by the Roman Empire undoubtedly led to prosperity and well-being across its territories for centuries. *Horace wrote: Happy the man who, free from cares, like men of old still works his father’s fields with his own oxen, encumbered by no debt. *Bentham made his own infamous foray into architecture, providing a chilling warning about the limits of weaving social goals into design. The Panopticon was a jail in which a circle of stacked cells faced inward toward a central guard tower. The windows of that tower would be shaded, so prisoners would have to assume they were always being watched. This sense of godlike omnipresence, he argued, would not only save money on prison guards but would also reform inmates’ morals.

Sure enough, in the fledgling United States, the Founding Fathers declared that God had endowed men with the unalienable right to pursue it. But this happiness was nothing like the eudaimonia of ancient Greece. The English social reformer Jeremy Bentham encapsulated the new approach to the concept in his principle of utility: since happiness was really just the sum of pleasure minus pain, he said, the best policy for governments and individuals on any given question could be determined by a straightforward act of mathematics, so as to maximize the former and minimize the latter. The obvious problem was figuring out how to measure the two. Scholars of the Enlightenment liked nothing more than to take a scientific approach to social problems. Bentham was a man of his time, so he devised a complex set of tables called the felicific calculus, which gauged the amount of pleasure or pain any action was likely to cause.


pages: 384 words: 112,971

What’s Your Type? by Merve Emre

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, card file, correlation does not imply causation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, God and Mammon, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, late capitalism, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, p-value, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Socratic dialogue, Stanford prison experiment, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

Despite the innovativeness of IPAR’s methods, there was something eerily retrograde about the house-party approach to testing. At the turn of the eighteenth century, the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham introduced the Western world to the idea of the Panopticon, or the “inspection house.” Its purpose was precisely that: to keep people under inspection at all times or, seeing as this was literally impossible, to make people feel as if they were under inspection at all times. Prisons, factories, madhouses, hospitals, schools—all these institutions could, in principle, accommodate the dense and impenetrable atmosphere of surveillance that Bentham imagined. Writing nearly two hundred years later, Michel Foucault, the great French theorist of social control, would describe the Panopticon in ruthlessly scientific terms as a “laboratory of power.” It was a “privileged place for experiments on men”—experiments so intense, so exhaustive in nature that they possessed “the ability to penetrate into men’s behavior.”

Each group occupied: Ibid. “We did not take any Oriental students”: Donald MacKinnon, “Interview with the Rockefeller Foundation,” February 8, 1952, Folder 18, Box 3, TRF. As for women: Ibid. Here was a group of elite white men: MacKinnon, “Proposal for an Institute of Personality Assessment and Research.” Yet inside the IPAR “fishbowl”: Ibid. At the turn of the eighteenth century: Jeremy Bentham, Panopticon; Or, The Inspection-House (London: T. Payne, 1791). Writing nearly two hundred years later: Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Vintage Books, 1991), 196. “Everything is grist”: Donald MacKinnon, “IPAR Annual Report, 1952–1953,” Folder 18, Box 3, TRF. Harrison Gough, who would invent: Harrison Gough, “Interview with the Rockefeller Foundation,” February 8, 1952, Folder 18, Box 3, TRF.

admissions, university, 174–75, 181–83, 187, 202 Adorno, Theodor: Authoritarian Personality, The, 125–26, 156–58, 178, 179 critique of personality testing by, xvi, 125–26, 135, 172, 264 Minima Moralia: Reflections on a Damaged Life, 155 questionnaire for fascist threat by, 127, 155–58, 184 advertisements, types in, 256 “advertisitis,” 92, 93 Advisory Committee on Uranium, 115–17 Allport, Gordon, 97 amateurism, 73–74, 83–85, 90–91 American Bar Association, 249 American Magazine, 16, 18 American Medical Association, 175 American Psychological Association, 44, 83, 203, 223 “Analysis of the Personality of Adolph [sic] Hitler, An” (Murray), 107, 111, 113 answer keys and sheets for MBTI, 136–37, 204, 210–11, 216, 232 APT (Association for Psychological Type), 252, 261 archives of Isabel, xii, xv, 262, 265 Arendt, Hannah, 188 “auxiliary” function (in Isabel’s system), 131 baby-training laboratory: adult outcomes from, 7, 13 checklist guide from, 17 as experiment in personality formation, 6–7, 8–9, 10, 12–13, 14 as source for parenting advice column, 16–18 Baker, Howard, 191 Baker, Ray Stannard, 16–17 Ballantyne, Sheila, 199 Barron, Francis Xavier: creativity, research on, 190–91, 193, 195, 197 creativity, theory of, 189, 200 description of, 179, 188 Bates, Marilyn, 260 Beauvoir, Simone de, 196 behaviorism, 7–8, 33, 35, 36, 97 Bell Telephone, 139, 161, 163 Bentham, Jeremy, 184–85 Bereiter, Carl, 237 Berkeley, Calif., 177, 197 Berry, John, 249 bimodality, statistical problem with, 215–16 Binswanger, Ludwig, 121–22 Black, John, 241–44, 245, 256 Bok, Edward, 18, 57 Breakfast at Tiffany’s (Capote), 192 Briggs, Albert, 5, 36, 99 Briggs, Katharine Cook: overview of, xii, xiii, xvii, xix as amateur Jungian analyst, 73–74, 83–85, 90–91 Chief, attitude toward, 21, 22, 23–25, 26–27, 28, 31 childhood, college, early marriage of, 1–6 Darwinian ideas of, 13–14 death of, 227 dementia of, 118, 162, 220 depression of, 32–33, 34 diary of child-rearing, 5, 7, 11, 13, 15, 16, 18, 62 dream analysis by, 36–37, 71–73, 72, 74–75, 77–78, 90–91 as grandmother, 57–58 on Hitler, 105–6, 110–11, 113, 116–17 home-schooling by, 15 images, use of, 80–81, 100 index cards of, 43, 74, 93 as Isabel’s critic, 56, 60, 132–33 as Isabel’s guide, 51, 63–64, 67–69, 118–19, 124–25, 127, 132 Jung, correspondence with, 46, 48, 49, 76, 77, 82–83, 84–85, 90, 102, 162–63 Jung, meeting with, 89, 91, 102–3 Jung, obsession with, xix, 38, 48–51, 73, 90–91, 102–3 Jung, rebuke by, 84–85 Jungian-inspired “Personality Paint Box” by, 43–46, 47 Jungian quest for self by, 36, 37–43 Jung’s theory of types and, 33–37 motherhood as “profession,” 6–7, 8–9, 10–13, 11, 14–18, 67–69 as mother to young adult, 18–19, 20, 21–25, 26–27, 28, 32–33, 42 Murray in comparison, 92–93, 94, 95–96, 97–98, 100, 105–6 parenting advice columns by, 16–18 physical description of, 2 political beliefs of, 91, 115–17 questionnaires by, xiii, 12, 90, 93, 97–98 salvation, ideas on, 3, 6, 7, 33, 75, 93 scientific inquiry vs. spirituality of, 2–4, 6 storytelling of, 10–11, 100 and Tuckerman family, 75–85 type table of, 46, 47, 74, 93 type theory of, 34, 36–37, 103, 131 as writer, 16–18, 42–46, 47, 49–51, 56, 90 see also baby-training laboratory; family, as origin of MBTI; specialization Briggs, Katharine Cook, writings of: “Case for the Homemaker, The,” 18 “Diary of an Obedience-Curiosity Mother, The,” 11, 13, 16, 18, 62 “Hail, Dr.


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Hired: Six Months Undercover in Low-Wage Britain by James Bloodworth

Airbnb, Berlin Wall, call centre, clockwatching, collective bargaining, congestion charging, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, gig economy, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, Network effects, new economy, North Sea oil, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, post-work, profit motive, race to the bottom, reshoring, Silicon Valley, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, working poor, working-age population

And there’s other things in the job that you gotta promote, so I still have to promote, and I still have to be on target, and sometimes that can be stressful ... people stay home ill and different things because they just fed up or end up leaving.’ Some call centres operate a system of overarching surveillance that has been compared by the academics Sue Fernie and David Metcalf to the ‘electronic panopticon’25 – a system of management in which every action is monitored, tracked and logged. The panopticon was a model of prison devised in the eighteenth century by the philosopher Jeremy Bentham, in which surveillance was absolute. Because inmates of Bentham’s imaginary prison believed they were being observed at all times, they internalised the objectives of their gaolers, behaving in line with management prerogatives as if they were being watched – even when they were not. ‘The team leader listens to your call and marks your call, marks your performance and that ... if your ACW is too high, [or] if you stay too long on the call, it will lead to you having a disciplinary.’

Aberfan disaster (1966) 170–1 ACAS 38 acid attacks, delivery drivers protest against, London (July, 2017) 256–7 Ackroyd, Peter 249 Admiral Insurance call centre, Swansea 150, 153–64, 180–1, 183, 185–6, 224 commission used as incentive for employees at 162–3 ‘fun’ culture 155, 161–2, 163, 164, 181 management 162–3, 224 performance league tables 183 politics, employee attitudes towards 164 ‘Renewals Consultant’ role 154 share scheme and dividends 159 staff turnover rate 159 training 155, 160–1 unions/collective action and 185, 186 university graduates employed at 153–4 wages/pay 155–6, 158–60, 164, 180 working hours and conditions 155, 160–4, 180–1, 185–6 Age UK 113 Aiden (building site worker) 135–6 Aiden (former miner) 175 Airbnb 217 Alex (former pit mechanic) 55, 57, 62–3 algorithmic management systems 16–17, 209, 210, 211, 217–18, 222, 223, 227, 231, 232, 242, 249 Aman (Uber driver) 236–8, 239–40, 241, 242, 255 Amazon: accommodation, employee 20–2, 24–6 algorithmic management system 16–17 blue badges 20, 41 breaks, employee 12–14, 36, 48, 49–50, 52–3, 64–5 British workers and 31, 33–4, 35–41, 57, 65, 72–3 diet/health of employees 51–2, 64–5, 70–1 disciplinary system 36, 39–41, 42–4 employment agencies, use of 19, 20, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 43, 65–6, 86 see also Transline and PMP Recruitment employment contracts 19–20, 53, 58 food served to employees 12–13, 14, 64 fulfillment centres in former mining areas 54–5 JB’s weekly budget whilst employed at 68–9 migrant labour, use of 11, 12, 13, 15, 20, 21, 22–7, 30, 32, 33, 34, 44, 45, 46, 51, 53, 57, 61–2, 65, 71–5, 258, 260–1 picker role 14, 16, 18, 19, 49, 65, 119, 258 process guide role 22–3 recruitment process 19–20 Rugeley distribution centre, Staffordshire 11–76, 79, 86, 119, 127, 128, 159, 258 security/security guards 11–13, 47, 48–9, 52 survey of employees, GMB 36 Swansea, warehouse in 145–6, 194 tax paid in UK by 146 tiredness/exhaustion of employees 44, 50–1, 65 transgender employees, treatment of 40–1 wages/salary 18, 19, 37–9, 42–3, 65–6, 68, 69, 70, 159 Amodeo, Michael 223 Anne (pensioner in Cwm) 197–8 anti-depressant medication 188 Armitage Shanks 57 Arora brothers 124–5 Aslam, Yaseen 229–30, 250 Assured Shorthold Tenancy 96 Attlee, Clement 173 ‘austerity’ policies 1–2, 6, 108 B&M Bargains 124–5, 126–30 BBC 138, 157, 173, 236 Bentham, Jeremy 182, 194 Berlin Wall, fall of (1989) 263 Bertram, Jo 235, 250–1 Bevan, Aneurin 144, 149, 192–3, 247 Bezos, Jeff 18 Big Issue, The 122 Big Pit National Coal Museum, Blaenavon 167, 170 Blackpool, Lancashire 77–140, 169, 187 accommodation in 80, 124, 137–8 B&M Bargains warehouse in 124–5, 126–31 Bloomfield district 137 building site work in 135–6 Central Drive 81, 120, 132–3 Golden Mile 121–2 health of residents 137 home care work in 81–90, 106–20, 140 homelessness in 95–105 job centres in 133–5 suicide rates in 100 unemployment in 121–3, 138, 139–40 Blaenau Gwent, Wales 187, 188, 190 see also under individual area and place name Booth, William 205 Brereton Colliery, Staffordshire 55 Brian (former miner) 196 Bryn Colliery, Wales 196 Brynmill, Swansea, Wales 150–1 building site work 121, 124, 135–6 buy-to-let housing market 24 Cadman, Scott 244, 245–6, 247–9 call centres 35, 61, 139, 150, 153–64, 180–6, 192, 199, 224 see also Admiral Insurance call centre, Swansea Cameron, David 259 Cannock Chase 21, 28, 54 capitalism 83, 145, 181 co-opts rebellion against 149 consumerism and 146 debt, reliance on 62 English culture overwhelmed by 32–3, 198–9 fall of Berlin Wall (1989) and 263 ‘gig’ economy and 210, 215, 232 platform capitalism 215 religious fatalism appropriated by 161 care sector: Eastern European migrant labour and 114–15 length of home care visits and 108–9, 110 local authority budget cuts and 107–10 privatisation of social care and 106–8, 109 staff training in 85–6 staffing crisis within 84–5, 119 zero hours contracts and 87 see also home care worker Carewatch UK 81–90, 109, 110, 118, 132, 135, 136, 150, 159 Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) process and 88–90, 109–10 employee reviews of 83–4 employment contracts/conditions 87–8, 118–19 length of care visits and 110 MAR (Medication Administration Record) sheets and 114, 115 recruitment 81–2, 84–5 ‘shadowing’ process 88, 109–10 training 85–6 see also care sector and home care worker Cefn Mawr No. 2, Afan Valley, Wales 171–2 Celcon 57 Centre for Cities 61 Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 153 Chartists 144, 149 China 183, 196–7 Chris (Amazon employee) 20, 21, 22–6, 65 Citizens Advice 243–4 CitySprint 246, 248–9, 251–2 Claire (Amazon employee) 36, 37–41, 50, 53 class: death of 4 erosion of class solidarity 193–4 fall of Berlin Wall and 263 liberalism and 263 scientific theories of 4, 17 see also middle-class and working-class Claudiu (housemate of JB) 22 coalition government (2010–15) 109, 115–16 coal mining: decline of industry 54, 55–6, 58, 144–5, 172–9 danger of/disasters 169–72 General Strike and 173 Miners’ Strike (1984–5) 3, 174–7 South Wales Valleys and 143–4, 147–9, 165–79, 180, 188, 189, 190–1, 193, 195, 196 Thatcher and 174–5, 263–4 collectivism 228 communism 17, 173, 178, 228, 263 Compare the Market 155 Conservative Party 3, 7, 109, 175 consumerism 146 Coombes, B.

He might be working three or four days. All of a sudden, now, there’s no work coming in. He likes doing that job; the problem is the company he’s working for.’ To really understand unemployment – or in this case underemployment – you have to go out and talk to the people who are buffeted from pillar to post by its volatility. You have to leave the comfortable realm of ‘freedom, equality, property and Bentham’ – or Twitter and Facebook, as Marx might have added today. It is no good simply looking at the figures released by the Office of National Statistics once a month, for this alone tells you little about the struggling woman who is working on a checkout for three hours a week, or the man packing boxes for thirty hours one week and two hours the next. The post-2008 crash years have been characterised by a huge rise in the number of people on zero-hours contracts and in temporary work.


pages: 420 words: 124,202

The Most Powerful Idea in the World: A Story of Steam, Industry, and Invention by William Rosen

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, All science is either physics or stamp collecting, barriers to entry, collective bargaining, computer age, Copley Medal, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, delayed gratification, Fellow of the Royal Society, Flynn Effect, fudge factor, full employment, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, iterative process, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge economy, moral hazard, Network effects, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Samuelson, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Simon Kuznets, spinning jenny, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, zero-sum game, éminence grise

His plate punching machine, operated by the same Jacquard system originally used for weaving, was the first digitally operated machine tool. * Or it would be if the Mills wasn’t actually still part of the naval base itself and consequently off-limits to most visitors. * Jeremy Bentham’s “Panopticon,” a multilevel prison with a central core from which guards could watch every move each prisoner made, and which has become a metaphor for the modern surveillance state, is one of his best-remembered, if creepiest, ideas. Less well known is that the original Panopticon was designed by Samuel Bentham, for use in supervising laborers at Krichev, the estate of Prince Vasiliy Potemkin. * Earl Spencer of Althorp, a direct ancestor of Diana, Princess of Wales. * Uncle Josiah emigrated to America in 1753, where he became a judge and speaker of the House of Assembly in New Jersey before dying in Belleville, New Jersey, in 1809

In 1786, while in Russia,12 where he had gone to take a job as a naval engineer, he was so short of skilled craftsmen that the only way to produce blocks, tackles, belaying pins, and all the other wooden impedimenta of the Age of Sail was to make the process simple enough that they could be manufactured by even illiterate and untrained serfs. Or, even better, by machines. Bentham’s older brother, the political philosopher Jeremy, had independently developed an interest in woodworking by unskilled laborers. While he is best remembered for his utilitarian philosophy—“the greatest good for the greatest number”—Jeremy Bentham probably spent as much time thinking about prison reform as anything else,* and his fascination with prisons extended to the idea that woodworking was the perfect way to occupy the idle but untrained hands of prisoners. In 1795, the Bentham brothers put their ideas together and drafted a contract proposing that the Admiralty use prison labor to operate the woodworking machines used to produce naval stores. Jeremy, evidently ambitious to find an even larger market for Samuel’s inventions, wrote a letter to his friend, the Duc de la Rochefoucauld, a French nobleman then in exile in North America, asking whether “a Propos of my brother’s inventions,13 do you know of anybody where you are … who would like to be taught how to stock all North America with all sorts of woodwork … on the terms of allowing the inventor [i.e.

This does not mean that Locke’s ideas swept all earlier ones away, any more than the Statute on Monopolies caused an immediate explosion in patent grants. Ideas, and the institutions that promote them, take some time to take root. Locke’s own protégé, David Hume, was never persuaded that property rights derived from natural law. Eighty years after Locke’s death, conservatives like Edmund Burke, and progressives like Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, were still uncomfortable with Locke’s idea of natural laws; Bentham called them “nonsense on stilts.”29 The final victory, however, was Locke’s; in 1776, Adam Smith was virtually channeling Locke’s Second Treatise, writing in The Wealth of Nations, “The property which every man has in his own labour, as it is the original foundation of all other property, so it is the most sacred and inviolable.” Smith’s French counterpart, Anne-Robert-Jacques Turgot, echoed him: “God … made the right of work30 the property of every individual in the world, and this property is the first, the most sacred, and the most imprescriptible of all kinds of property.”


pages: 287 words: 86,919

Protocol: how control exists after decentralization by Alexander R. Galloway

Ada Lovelace, airport security, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, computer age, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, John Conway, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, linear programming, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, phenotype, post-industrial society, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, semantic web, SETI@home, stem cell, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, the market place, theory of mind, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Review, working poor

Chapter 1 30 Figure 1.1 A centralized network The American judicial system, for example, is a centralized network. While there are many levels to the court system, each with its own jurisdiction, each decision of each court can always be escalated (through the appeals process) to a higher level in the hierarchy. Ultimately, however, the Supreme Court has final say over all matters of law. The panopticon, described in Foucault’s Discipline and Punish, is also a centralized network. In the panopticon, repurposed by Foucault from the writings of Jeremy Bentham, a guard is situated at the center of many radial cells. Each cell contains a prisoner. This special relationship between guard and prisoner “links the centre and periphery.” In it, “power is exercised without division, according to a continuous hierarchical figure” occupying the central hub.3 A decentralized network is a multiplication of the centralized network (see figure 1.2).

., 227n32 Braden, Bob, 142–143 Brain, relationship to computers, 103 Brand, Stewart, 152n10, 160, 169 Britain, 181 British Standards Institution (BSI), 129 Brecht, Bertolt, 55 Bretton Woods agreement, 26 Broeckmann, Andreas, 197n61 Browser, 75–76, 218 Bug, computer, 185–186, 224 Bukoff, Alan, 235 Bunting, Heath, 219, 225–226 Burden, Chris, 227n32 Bureaucracy, 121, 205 Bureau of Inverse Technology, 195, 228–229 Burger, Ralf, 179 Bush, Vannevar, 18, 58–60 Byfield, Ted, 47, 50 Babbage, Charles, 188 BackOrifice, 152n11 Baker, Fred, 123 Baker, Rachel, 195 Bandwidth, 219–220, 225 Baran, Paul, 4–5, 30n2, 35, 120, 127, 140n43, 200, 204n71 Barbie Liberation Organization, 228 Barlow, John Perry, 168, 229 Barratt, Virginia, 192 Barthes, Roland, 18, 92, 143 Baudrillard, Jean, 58, 69 Baumgärtel, Tilman, 216, 219 Bazin, André, 18, 69, 78 Being Digital (Negroponte), 18 Bell, Daniel, 17 Bell Telephone Laboratories, 123, 182 Benkler, Yochai, 40 Bentham, Jeremy, 31 Berkeley, University of California at, 124. See also Unix, Berkeley Software Distribution Berlin, 225–226 Berlin Wall, 26 Berners-Lee, Tim, 10, 39, 137–139, 142, 242, 246. See also World Wide Web (WWW) Bertillon system, 13, 111 Best Current Practice (BCP), 136 Betamax, Sony, 68, 125 Beuys, Joseph, 81 Bey, Hakim, 18, 33, 151, 158, 161 C, 123–124. See also Programming C++, 108, 123–124, 167.

In The History of Sexuality, Volume 1, Foucault contrasts the older power of the sovereign over life (one characterized by the metaphysical concern of either the absence or presence of life) to a new mode in which life is either created or destroyed: “One might say that the ancient right to take life or let live was replaced by a power to foster life or disallow it to the point of death.”21 He continues: “The old power of death that symbolized sovereign power was now carefully supplanted by the administration of bodies and the calculated management of life.”22 Foucault’s treatment of biopower is entirely protocological. Protocol is to control societies as the panopticon is to disciplinary societies. While protocol may be more democratic than the panopticon in that it strives to eliminate hierarchy, it is still very much structured around command and control and therefore has spawned counter-protocological forces. 19. Michel Foucault, Ethics: Subjectivity and Truth, ed. Paul Rabinow (New York: New Press, 1997), p. 73. 20. Foucault, Ethics, p. 71. 21. Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Volume 1, trans.


pages: 307 words: 82,680

A Pelican Introduction: Basic Income by Guy Standing

bank run, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial intermediation, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, intangible asset, job automation, job satisfaction, Joi Ito, labour market flexibility, land value tax, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, open economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, rent control, rent-seeking, Sam Altman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, universal basic income, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Zipcar

They have been highly influential, to the extent that one of the authors of Nudge, the seminal book on the subject, became principal regulator in Barack Obama’s White House, while the other became an adviser to the British Prime Minister.11 Libertarian paternalism has become a dominant mode of policy making in the globalization era, advocated and implemented by those calling themselves liberals (as in the case of Britain’s Liberal Democrats when they were in the coalition government) and by social democrats, as well as by conservatives. Its vision of ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ is rooted in the political philosophy of utilitarianism, drawing heavily on the writings of Jeremy Bentham (1748–1832). In particular, libertarian paternalism derives from Bentham’s ‘panopticon’, a prison design enabling prisoners to be watched by a guard at all times and their behaviour monitored. Bentham’s idea was to give prisoners apparent free choice, while knowing they would be punished if they made the ‘wrong’ choice. The authors of Nudge used the same words and phrases as Bentham, without mentioning his name or the panopticon. No doubt they were well-intentioned. Most paternalists mean well. But today, more than ever, the state can rely on subliminal and other devices, including incentives, sanctions and time-using obstacles, to induce people to act in one way rather than another.

In 2016 hundreds of applicants in seventy countries received these so far tiny grants that can be traded electronically. Such cryptocurrency schemes are in their infancy, and it is far too early to say whether they have a significant role to play as a secondary basic income scheme. But they should be watched with interest. In the Air Elsewhere By late 2016, political parties and movements in several countries were proposing basic income pilots. In Britain, following Jeremy Corbyn’s re-election as leader of the Labour Party, John McDonnell, Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer, announced at the 2016 party conference that Labour would consider advocating a basic income in its manifesto for the 2020 general election, with the proposal of a pilot as a first step. In Scotland, the governing Scottish National Party passed a motion supporting basic income, and councillors in Fife and Glasgow are discussing local pilots.

New political parties have embraced basic income in their manifestoes and some old established parties have moved towards including it in their party platforms or are committing themselves to conducting pilots. These include the British and New Zealand Labour Parties, the Scottish National Party, the Greens in most countries, including Britain, Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway and the United States, and the Pirate parties where they exist, most notably Iceland. In Britain, although the Conservatives have shown no interest, both Jeremy Corbyn, the Labour Party leader, and Labour’s Shadow Chancellor, John McDonnell, favour piloting the idea, as does Ed Miliband, Corbyn’s predecessor as leader. Canada’s governing Liberal Party has put basic income into its policy platform, and several provincial premiers have come out in support. As noted earlier, Finland’s Prime Minister has put money aside for a pilot in his country. In France, senior politicians have spoken in favour of basic income, including former Prime Minister Manuel Valls, and the Socialist Party has chosen a basic income advocate, Benoît Hamon, as its candidate for the presidential election in April 2017.


pages: 264 words: 76,643

The Growth Delusion: Wealth, Poverty, and the Well-Being of Nations by David Pilling

Airbnb, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Branko Milanovic, call centre, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Hangouts, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, off grid, old-boy network, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, performance metric, pez dispenser, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, science of happiness, shareholder value, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

And no discussion of the subject can begin without Jeremy Bentham. Bentham was a British philosopher and social critic born in 1748 in Houndsditch, London. The son of a wealthy lawyer, he was a child prodigy. By the age of three he was said to be learning Latin declensions and he attended Oxford University at twelve. Graduating with a master’s degree at the ripe old age of eighteen, he quickly gave up the practice of law, which he detested, and devoted his life to writing and pressing for social change. Bentham was an eccentric. Just in case the story about his mummified head hasn’t convinced you of that, he once wrote to the Home Office to suggest that its various departments be linked by a web of “conversation tubes” to aid communication. You could call him the father of the Internet. He also drew up plans for a panopticon prison, which would allow a single guard to observe every prisoner simultaneously.

How much, for example, is the head of Jeremy Bentham, the great English philosopher who died in 1832, worth? This book is chock-full of skepticism about the value we attach to certain things and about the difficulty of pricing things we really should be measuring, like pollution, housework, and nature. Here, at last, is a simple question with a simple answer. Jeremy Bentham’s head is worth ten pounds.1 We know this for a fact because, when students took his head hostage in 1975, University College London, to whom it belonged, agreed to pay ten pounds for its return. The offer was accepted. In economics that’s about as near to a slam dunk as you’re ever likely to get. How Bentham’s head ended up in the possession of UCL is a curious tale. Toward the end of his life, Bentham, who devoted much of his career to writing about what made people happy, got it into his ten-pound head that his body needed to be preserved after death.

Tore Skroppa, “State of Forest Genetic Resource in Norway,” March 2012, p. iii: www.skogoglandskap.no/​filearchive. 29. Its formal name, changed in 2006, is actually the Government Pension Fund Global, a slightly confusing name given that it is not really a pension fund but a sovereign wealth fund. CHAPTER 12: THE LORD OF HAPPINESS 1. In 1975 pounds. 2. “Jeremy Bentham Makes Surprise Visit to UCL Council,” UCL News, July 10, 2013: www.ucl.ac.uk. 3. Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, 1789. 4. William Davies, The Happiness Industry, Verso, 2015, p. 10. 5. Ibid., p. 61. 6. Ibid., p. 17. 7. This is based on a lecture by Jeffrey Sachs, director of the Earth Institute of Columbia University, at the London School of Economics, December 2016. 8.


pages: 927 words: 216,549

Empire of Guns by Priya Satia

banking crisis, British Empire, business intelligence, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, hiring and firing, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Khyber Pass, Menlo Park, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent-seeking, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, zero-sum game

In 1799, he had himself appointed to the select committee investigating the copper trade, thus ensuring that it would not probe into his activities. Samuel Bentham, as inspector general of naval works from 1796, pushed back against this kind of corruption by innovating new manufacturing methods that might free military agencies from dependence on contractors. His innovations built on his experience in Russia in the 1780s. His brother Jeremy visited him there and began to build on Samuel’s ideas of panoptical supervision of workers—the germ of the Panopticon prison Jeremy designed; the problem of mass production for the state inspired a key concept of British liberalism. In Britain in 1791, Samuel and Jeremy promoted the Panopticon scheme. The Admiralty asked Samuel to design ships in 1795, and he included interchangeable parts for masts and spars to enable repair at sea.

His ideal was an individual at the center of the dockyard directing all the activity around him, responsible to a single supervisor—the Panopticon principle. His techniques—which might have been innovated only in the context of a state operation—were later copied in industry, including introduction of steam power and mechanization of many processes. Steam pumps kept docks dry. Bentham invented bucket-ladder steam dredgers to keep them from silting up. He also built metal-processing mills in the dockyards, to take the supply of copper sheets and bolts back from contractors. Perhaps most important, he revolutionized production of the wooden pulley blocks used in ships’ rigging—to reclaim that work from a monopoly contract long held by Walter Taylor and his son. For this, Bentham worked with Marc Brunel, a French émigré who arrived in Britain from the United States in 1799 upon hearing of the navy’s difficulty in obtaining sufficient pulley blocks.

he had himself appointed: Upon his death, he left half a million pounds. It was Boulton and other Birmingham men who accused Williams of monopolistic practices in 1799, prompting the inquiry. His innovations built on: Knight, Britain Against Napoleon, 170–71, 320–21, 353. For this, Bentham worked: Ibid., 321, 376–80, 472–73; Knight and Wilcox, Sustaining the Fleet, 15–16. The Admiralty also sent Samuel Bentham to Russia in 1805 to oversee building of British warships there. There he built a wooden Panopticon to manage thousands of unskilled workers operating machinery. Samuel also set the manufacture of navy biscuits on a production-line basis. Maudslay’s factory at Lambeth set new standards of precision engineering using lathes but also made steam engines; he sold one to the Woolwich Arsenal in 1809.


pages: 266 words: 80,018

The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man by Luke Harding

affirmative action, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Firefox, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, kremlinology, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, undersea cable, web application, WikiLeaks

It was recognisable from the writings of Aldous Huxley or George Orwell. But the NSA’s ultimate goal seemed to go even further: to collect everything from everybody, everywhere and to store it indefinitely. It signalled a turning point. It looked like the extirpation of privacy. The spy agencies had hijacked the internet – once a platform for individuality and self-expression. Snowden used the word ‘panopticon’. This was a significant coinage by the 18th-century British philosopher and codifier Jeremy Bentham. It described an ingenious circular jail where the warders could see the prisoners at all times, without their knowing if they were being observed. And this, Snowden asserted, was why he had decided to go public. To throw away his life and career. He told Greenwald he didn’t want to live in a world ‘where everything that I say, everything that I do, everyone I talk to, every expression of love or friendship is recorded’.

In an interview with Der Spiegel, Senator John McCain called for a ‘wholesale housecleaning’ in the US intelligence community, starting from the top. Asked why US spooks had bugged Chancellor Merkel, he offered a concise reply: ‘The reason I think they did it is because they could do it.’ New faces, then, but by 2014 it seemed that the most of the programs exposed by Snowden would carry on. The White House had promised transparency but seemed unwilling to pull the plug on mass surveillance, and its electronic equivalent of Bentham’s panopticon. According to the New York Times, Obama had reluctantly concluded there was no workable alternative to the bulk collection of metadata, including metadata from Americans. The administration hinted that it might reduce the number of years it keeps this information – from five to three. But this was hardly a concession. The judiciary, however, took a different view. In December 2013, Richard Leon, a federal judge, delivered a massive legal blow to the NSA.

The upshot was a personal visit from Cameron’s most lofty emissary, the cabinet secretary Sir Jeremy Heywood. This top official had advised three prime ministers and three chancellors. Assured, urbane and intelligent, Oxford- and Harvard-educated Heywood was used to having his own way. In a 2012 profile, the Mirror had dubbed Heywood ‘the most powerful unelected figure in Britain … and you will never have heard of him.’ Heywood lived in some style in Clapham, south London, it reported (he was building a wine cellar and a gym). Nick Pearce, the former head of Downing Street’s policy unit, told the Mirror jokingly: ‘If we had a written constitution in this country, it would have to say something like, “Not withstanding the fact that Jeremy Heywood will always be at the centre of power, we are free and equal citizens.” ’ There was an unhappy precedent for using cabinet secretaries on these sorts of missions.


Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution by Howard Rheingold

A Pattern Language, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business climate, citizen journalism, computer vision, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, experimental economics, experimental subject, Extropian, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telephone, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, more computing power than Apollo, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pez dispenser, planetary scale, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, social intelligence, spectrum auction, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, transaction costs, ultimatum game, urban planning, web of trust, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

Foucault uses the word “discipline” to refer both to methods of control and to different branches of knowledge, for he saw knowledge specialization and social control as part of the same power/knowledge matrix. As an example of discipline and power/knowledge, Foucault cited the Panopticon (“all-seeing place”), an architectural design put forth by Jeremy Bentham in the mid-nineteenth century for prisons, insane asylums, schools, hospitals, and factories. Instead of employing the brutal and spectacular means used to control individuals under a monarchial state, the modern state needed a different sort of system to regulate its citizens. The Panopticon applied a form of mental, knowledge-based power through the constant observation of prisoners, each separated from the other and allowed no interaction. The Panoptic structure would allow guards to continually see inside each cell from their vantage point in a high central tower, unseen themselves.

See Bits and atoms Attentive billboards Auctions and the Prisoner's Dilemma and Reed's Law and reputation systems See also Auctionweb eBay Web site Auctionweb Augmented reality Aula project (Helsinki) Australia Automobiles: GPS devices in manufacturing of Axelrod, Robert Baker and McKenzie Barcode readers Barpoint service Battle of Seattle Baudrillard, Jean BAWUG (Bay Area Wireless Users Group) BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) News Beatles Becker, Gene Behlendorf, Brian Bell Canada Bell Labs See also AT&T (American Telephone & Telegraph) Bellovm, Steve Benkler, Yochai Bennahum, David Bentham, Jeremy Benzon, William Berners-Lee, Tim Big game hunting See also Hunting Big Sky Telegraph system Billboards, attentive BIND software Bioacoustics research Biology and reputation systems and self-organizing systems and threshold models Bits and atoms: dance of "marriage of," BlackBerry pagers Blink.com Web site Blogs Bluetooth Bluetooth Special Interest Group BMW (Bavarian Motor Works) Boingo Botfighters Botswana Bozofilters BPDG (Broadcast Protection Discussion Group) Bricklin, Dan Britain See also United Kingdom Bronowski, Jacob Browsers, advent of Brunner, John Bryant Park Bryant Park Restoration Corporation Bug's Life, A (film) Building Wireless Community Networks (O'Reilly Associates) Buildings, computer chips in See also Smart rooms Burning Man festival Bush, Vannevar Business plans Butera, William Cable: Internet access modems television Cancer Capitalism Carnegie Bosch Institute Carpenter, Loren Center for Bits and Atoms (MIT) Chechen rebels Chicken game See also Game theory Chwe, Michael Suk-Young Circuit-switched networks Cities, digital Cisler, Steve Citizen Watch Company CITRIS (Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society) City of Bits (Mitchell) Civil libertarians Clark, Andy Climate change Clothing.

Pakistan Panopticon structure Paradigms PARCpad Patents PCs (personal computers): evolution of invention of and Moore's Law and operating systems PDP-1 Peer-to-peer (p2p) computing basic description of Doctorow on and grid computing and journalism and mobile ad hoc social networks and Napster power of and reputation systems and wireless networks Pei, I. M. Penny tags Pentagon Pentium processors See also Microprocessors Pentland, Alex People Poweri Pepper, Tom Personal computers. See PCs (personal computers) Personal Telco Project Pervasive computing Pesce, Mark Pfizer Phicons ("physical icons") Philippines Philips Research Laboratory Physics and Media Group "Pick and drop" method Pimentel, Andrew Pister, Kristofer Pixar Place(s): all-seeing (Panopticon) "blurred," and the definition of presence less spaces Planetary communication systems Plant, Sadie PlayaNet Pozar, Tim Presence, definition of Prime numbers Princeton University Printers, ink-jet Printing press, advent of Prisoner's Dilemma game and eBay and reputation systems and swarm intelligence and the WALID system Privacy in America versus in Japan and mobile ad hoc social networks and surveillance technology Private Eye eyeglasses Prix Ars Electronica Processors,i and ad-hocracies clustering cycles and grid computing Intel, advent of and Moore's Law and the search for extraterrestrial intelligence Microsoft and Bluetooth developer conferences and Linux museum .NET initiative and reputation systems Research and wireless networks Procter & Gamble Prosch, Bernhardt Proteins, structure of Psion Public goods notion of shared Public Goods Game Punch cards Punishment history of and reputation systems .


pages: 335 words: 82,528

A Theory of the Drone by Gregoire Chamayou

drone strike, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, moral hazard, Necker cube, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, private military company, RAND corporation, telepresence, Yom Kippur War

The archives of lives constitute the basis for claims that, by noting regularities and anticipating recurrences, it is possible both to predict the future and to change the course of it by taking preemptive action. Such claims are clearly founded upon very fragile epistemological bases, which in no way prevents them from being extremely dangerous but, on the contrary, ensures that they are. The names given to these devices are very revealing: Argus26 and Gorgon Stare.27 In Greek mythology, Argus, the figure with a hundred eyes, was also known as Panoptes, “the one who sees all.” Jeremy Bentham’s panopticon, analyzed by Michel Foucault, was originally an architectural contraption. In a carrying forward of this pattern, in recent decades cities have been stuffed with video surveillance cameras. Surveillance by means of drones is more economical, as it involves no spatial alterations, nor does it require anything to be affixed to walls. Air and sky are all that are needed. As in the film Eyeborgs, the cameras are detached from walls and thereupon acquire wings and weapons.28 We are entering into the era of winged and armed panoptics.

See also robots automatization, 205–21 See also dronization automatized video surveillance, 39–41 autonomous aerial warfare, 165–66 aversion to losses, 100–101, 128, 184, 201 Barber, Keith L., 49 Barkan, Robert, 232–33n5 Barère, Bertrand, 268n7 bathyscape, 22, 22 battle lines, 33 Beale Air Force Base, 123 Becker, Jo, 146 becoming, 199 Bekaa Valley, 27–28 Bell, David “In Defense of Drones,” 93 Bellamy, Alex J., 130 Benjamin, Walter, 40, 78, 83–84, 100, 214 Bentham, Jeremy, 43–44 bin Laden, Osama, 141 black Americans, 202 “Black Hawk Down” syndrome, 128 Blank, Laurie, 169, 266n4 bodies, 23 See also corporeality Boeing X-45A, 192 borders, 52–53, 232n5 Bosnia, 186 Boucherie, Captain Henry, 96 Bradshaw, Nick “Goose,” 99 bravery. See courage Brennan, John, 142, 143, 145–46 Bryant, Brandon, 121–23 Bugsplat program, 216 bureaucratic machine, 214–15 bureaucratic rationality, 147–48 Bush, George W., 29 Calvados, France, 211 cameras, 44, 204, 247n1 Cameron, James The Terminator, 213 Camus, Albert, 153–57 L’Homme révolté, 155–56 Canguilhem, Georges, 14 care.

See civilians nonreciprocity, 118–19 nonstate actors, 33 See also guerrilla warfare; terrorists North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 127–29, 154 Northrup Grumman, 217 “Not in our name” slogan, 201–2 nullity of conditional comparison, 189–90 Obama, Barack, 14, 58, 168, 169–70 Obama administration, 167, 171 obedience protection and, 178–79 robots and, 217–18, 273n30 O’Connell, Mary Ellen, 169 Oltramari, Alessandro, 235–36n24 Omdurman, Sudan, battle of, 93 On Killing (Grossman), 115–16, 116 ontological vulnerability, 183–84 operational capacity, 142, 169–70 Operation Allied Force, 128 Operation Iraqi Freedom, 12 operative images, 114 Ortega, Hernando, 123 Ortega, Hugo, 109–10 Outdoor Life, 30 pacifism, 185 democratic, 186, 188 Pakistan, 13, 50, 51, 58–59, 65, 141, 142, 171 See also specific locations Palestinians, 32, 88, 130–32, 238n11 Panetta, Leon, 140 Panoptes, 43 panopticon, 43–44 panoptics, 43–44 “The Paradox of Riskless Warfare” (Kahn), 163 Paris, 1830 uprising in, 217 pattern-of-life analysis, 42–44, 46–51, 145, 235–36n24 peace democracy and, 186, 193 state–subject relations and, 178 “peace-ego,” 112, 120, 246n20 Pentagon. See U.S. Department of Defense perception, 118–19 permanent watch, 38 Perpetration-Induced Traumatic Stress (PITS), 112–13 Pershing, John J., 33 personnel, 2–9 persons, 210 perspectives, totalization of, 38–39 Petraeus, David, 64 “phantom shots,” 247n1 phenomenological unity, break in, 118–19 Phoenix Program, 32 physical distance, weaponry and, 254–55n12 pilots, 1–9 avoiding risks to, 100–101, 127, 129 fighter pilots, 99, 100, 214 resistance to dronization, 100 training of, 13 See also drone operators Plato, Republic, 96 Plaw, Avery, 136 play, techniques of, 83–84 poisoning, 158–59 police action, 163, 165–66, 168, 172–73, 203.


pages: 542 words: 161,731

Alone Together by Sherry Turkle

Albert Einstein, Columbine, global village, Hacker Ethic, helicopter parent, Howard Rheingold, industrial robot, information retrieval, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rodney Brooks, Skype, social intelligence, stem cell, technoutopianism, The Great Good Place, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, women in the workforce, Year of Magical Thinking

At a pre-awards cocktail party, one Web luminary spoke to me with animation about the wiretapping controversy. To my surprise, he cited Michel Foucault on the panopticon to explain why he was not worried about privacy on the Internet. For Foucault, the task of the modern state is to reduce its need for actual surveillance by creating a citizenry that will watch itself. A disciplined citizen minds the rules. Foucault wrote about Jeremy Bentham’s design for a panopticon because it captured how such a citizenry is shaped.13 In the panopticon, a wheel-like structure with an observer at its hub, one develops the sense of always being watched, whether or not the observer is actually present. If the structure is a prison, inmates know that a guard can potentially always see them. In the end, the architecture encourages self-surveillance. 14 The panopticon serves as a metaphor for how, in the modern state, every citizen becomes his or her own policeman.

.: Artificial Intelligence (film) AIBO aggression toward categorizing gives way to everyday routines care by, fantasies of creature and machine, views of it as caring for companion, role as “feelings” attributed to “growing up,” appearance of playing with projection and teaching it, experience of Alcott, Louisa May Aldiss, Brian “Alive enough,” as milestone for digital creatures Aliveness, children’s theories of Alterity, robots and Alzheimer’s disease, and robotic companions America Online Anger, as way of relating to robots Anthropomorphism, robots and Anxiety, online life, as provoking “of always,” privacy and Apologies confessions and online Appiah, Kwame Anthony Apple Artificial intelligence (AI) limits in understanding Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (MIT) Artificial life Aryananda, Lijin Asperger’s syndrome, robots and Attention, children’s desire for continual partial Authenticity, robotic companionship and illusion of, in social network profiles online life and Autism, robots and “Avatar of me,” Facebook profile as Avatars building relationships among Babysitters consideration of robots as Baird, Freedom Beatles: Rock Band Behaviorism, of robotic moment Bell, Gordon Bentham, Jeremy Bio Bugs (toy), robots and BIT (Baby IT) BlackBerry and sense of control excluding others and turning off Blade Runner (film) Blogs and the loss of the particular Bohr, Niels Boundaries, sense of personal, technology and Breakups face-to-face online Breazeal, Cynthia Brooks, Rodney Buber, Martin Bullying, online Bush, Vannevar Caper, Robert Caretakers, ideas about robots as Caring for a robot performance of substitutes for “Caring machines,” development of Cell phones (smartphones) and autonomy, development of people as “pausable” and avoiding calls and demands of documenting life using sense of emergency and identity (as collaborative) and photographs and private time on, desire for safety (feeling of), and turning off Chat logs “Chat people,” Chat rooms Chatroulette, playing Chess, computers and Churchill, Winston Civilization (game) Coach, robot as Cog seeking “affection” from building demystifying of meeting relationships, range of, with talking to teaching Cold comforts, robots as source of Collaborative self Collection, recollection and Columbine Communication (digital) in abbreviations (emoticons) versus connection choice among genres and nostalgia for letters volume and velocity of and simplification of responses from substitution to preference for hiding as affordance of and “discontents,” Community confessional sites and seeking Companionship, confusions in digital culture Complicity, with robot Computer psychotherapy, attitudes toward Computers as evocative object holding power of as mechanical and spiritual (soul in the) subjective versus instrumental as caring machines and cyborg self Connectivity and global consciousness and new symptoms of connection/disconnection Confessional sites, online apologies and communities, contrast to critical comments about and discussion of abuse reading, experience of as symptoms and venting cruelty of strangers and Connections on backchannels during meetings communication versus constant disconnection and online power of stepping back from, desire to seductions of Connectivity anxiety worries of parents culture discontents of global reach of robots merged with Conversations beginning/ending face-to-face online private robots and text messages as Crocodiles, real and robotic Csíkszentmihalyi, Mihaly Cubism, as metaphor for simultaneous vision of robot as machine and creature Communications culture, digital characteristics of cyborg sensibility and “dumbing down,” (emotional) in “networked” sensibility, characteristics of Walden images in sacred spaces and Damasio, Antonio Darwin, Charles “Darwinian Buttons,” eye contact track motion gesture in encounter with Cog De Vaucanson, Jacques Dean, Howard Death, simulation and Deep Thought (computer program) Democracy, privacy and Dertouzos, Michael Dick, Philip K.

From the earliest age, my civics lessons at the mailbox linked privacy and civil liberties. I think of how different things are today for children who learn to live with the idea that their e-mail and messages are share-able and unprotected. And I think of the Internet guru at the Webby awards who, citing Foucault with no apparent irony, accepted the idea that the Internet has fulfilled the dream of the panopticon and summed up his political position about the Net as follows: “The way to deal is to just be good.” But sometimes a citizenry should not simply “be good.” You have to leave space for dissent, real dissent. There needs to be technical space (a sacrosanct mailbox) and mental space. The two are intertwined. We make our technologies, and they, in turn, make and shape us. My grandmother made me an American citizen, a civil libertarian, a defender of individual rights in an apartment lobby in Brooklyn.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

Layered atop the fragile power grid, already prone to overload during crises and open to sabotage, the communications networks that patch the smart city together are as brittle an infrastructure as we’ve ever had. Before it ever comes close to collapse, we might tear down the walls of the smart city ourselves, for they will be the ultimate setup for surveillance. Will smart cities become the digital analogue of the Panopticon, Jeremy Bentham’s 1791 prison design, where the presence of an unseen watcher kept order more effectively than the strongest bars?36 In the 1990s, the Surveillance Camera Players staged sidewalk performances at camera locations in New York City to protest the rapid spread of video monitoring in public spaces. As we install countless new devices that record, recognize, influence, and control our movements and behaviors, this whimsical dissent will seem quaint in retrospection.

Country: Tom Peters & George Gilder debate the impact of technology on location,” Forbes ASAP, February 27, 1995, http://business.highbeam.com/392705/article-1G1-16514107/city-vs-country-tom-peters-george-gilder-debate-impact. 26David McCandless, “Financial Times Graphic World,” display at Grand Central Station, New York, March 27–29, 2012. 27Robert Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: Vintage, 1975), 849. 28Caro, The Power Broker, 508. 29“Global Investment in Smart City Technology Infrastructure to Total $108 Billion by 2020,” Pike Research, last modified May 23, 2011, http://www.pikeresearch.com/newsroom/global-investment-in-smart-city-technology-infrastructure-to-total-108-billion-by-2020. 30Daniel Fisher, “Urban Outfitter,” Forbes, May 9, 2011, 92. 31Sascha Haselmeyer, lecture, INTA33 World Urban Development Congress, Kaoshiung, Taiwan, October 5, 2009. 32“The Explosive Growth of Bus Rapid Transit,” The Dirt, blog, American Society of Landscape Architects, last modified January 27, 2011, http://dirt.asla.org/2011/01/27/the-explosive-growth-of-bus-rapid-transit/. 33Peter Jamison, “BART Jams Cell Phone Service to Shut Down Protests,” SF Weekly: The Snitch, blog, August 12, 201, http://blogs.sfweekly.com/thesnitch/2011/08/bart_cell_phones.php; BlackBerry: Josh Halliday, “David Cameron considers banning suspected rioters from social media,” The Guardian, August 11, 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2011/aug/11/david-cameron-rioters-social-media; social media: Chris Hogg, “In wake of London riots, UK considers social media bans,” Future of Media, blog, http://www.futureofmediaevents.com/2011/08/11/in-wake-of-london-riots-uk-considers-social-media-bans/#ixzz24xS7KHKP. 34Solomon Benjamin et al., “Bhoomi: ‘E-Governance,’ Or, An Anti-Politics Machine Necessary to Globalize Bangalore?” CASUM-m, Bangalore, India, January 2007, http://casumm.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/bhoomi-e-governance.pdf. 35Kevin Donovan, “Seeing Like a Slum: Towards Open, Deliberative Development,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 13, no. 1 (2012): 97. 36Jeremy Bentham. The Panopticon Writings (London: Verso, 1995), 29–95. 37Farah Mohamed, “Sen. Franken on facial recognition and Facebook,” Planet Washington, last modified July 18, 2012, http://blogs.mcclatchydc.com/washington/2012/07/sen-franken-on-facial-recognition-adnd-facebook.html. 38Adam Harvey, CV Dazzle, n.d., accessed August 26, 2012, http://cvdazzle.com. 39Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 238. 40Walter Lippmann, New York Herald Tribune, June 6, 1939, quoted in Robert W.

., 211 Banavar, Guru, 66–67, 69, 90, 306 Bangalore, 66, 178–79 Cisco’s smart city engineering group at, 45 as fast-growing city, 13 Ban Ki-moon, 181–82 Banzi, Massimo, 137 Baran, Paul, 259–60 Barcelona, 10, 246–47 destruction of wall of, 43 Barragán, Hernando, 137 Barry, Marion, 199 Batty, Michael, 85–87, 295–97, 313, 315–16 Becker, Gene, 112–13 Beijing, 49, 273–74 Belloch, Juan Alberto, 223 Beniger, James, 42–43 Bentham, Jeremy, prison design of, 13 Berlin, 38 Bernstein, Phil, 302 Bettencourt, Luis, 312–13 Betty, Garry, 196 Bhoomi, 12–13 big data, 29, 87, 191, 292–93, 297, 305–6, 316, 319 “Big Ideas from Small Places” (Khanna and Skilling), 224 BlackBerry Messenger, riots coordinated via, 12 blogosphere, 155 Bloomberg, Michael, 147, 205–6, 304 Boing-Boing, 156 Booz Allen Hamilton, 30 Bosack, Len, 44 Boston, Mass., 212–17, 239–41, 306–7 “Adopt-A-Hydrant” in, 213 Discover BPS, 240–42 Office of New Urban Mechanics in, 213–16 “What Are My Schools?”


pages: 289

Hustle and Gig: Struggling and Surviving in the Sharing Economy by Alexandrea J. Ravenelle

"side hustle", active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, barriers to entry, basic income, Broken windows theory, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, East Village, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Howard Zinn, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, low skilled workers, Lyft, minimum wage unemployment, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, passive income, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, performance metric, precariat, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, very high income, white flight, working poor, Zipcar

Ashley and Amy illustrate the precarious nature of work in the gig economy, even for the college-educated middle class. The gig economy promises flexibility and more free time, yet workers are increasingly tethered to work because of the on-demand nature of the work. The work is seemingly flexible, but it doesn’t end. And while the workers are “self-employed” contractors and don’t answer to bosses, they remain under constant observation through a technological panopticon. But unlike Bentham’s original prison model, where prisoners cannot see the watchers and never know when they are being watched, in the gig economy everything can be collected and viewed at any point. Chat logs in TaskRabbit, emails in Airbnb, travel locations for Uber—all of this is collected and can be viewed by the platform administrators. There’s also a bigger social and economic issue at play here.

Costle, 119 bartering, 29, 69 Basow, Susan, 127 bathroom access, 87–89, 104–7, 228n30. See also urination issues Beck, Jessica, 187–88 Becker, Ben, 174–75 benefits: access to, 189; guilds and, 71–72; portable benefits plan, 201–2, 203; productivity and, 190; provision of, 23; temporary workers lack of, 180; two-tier systems of, 94; unemployment benefits, 94, 177, 187; unionization and, 71, 177–78; vacation time, 177 Bentham, Jeremy, 15 Bergman, Barbara, 119 bidding marketplace model, 1, 55, 56, 79, 137–38 Black Car Fund fees, 76 black car services, 27, 49–50, 51, 76, 133, 223n75, 227n30 booking fees, 74–75 Boott Cotton Mills Museum, 67 breaks: in early-industrial system, 67, 87; lack of, 87–88, 90–91; monitoring and, 179; requests for, 90–91, 121. See also bathroom access British law, 64–65, 66, 92 broken-windows theory, 151–52 Brynjolfsson, Erik, 17, 162, 186 Bureau of Economic Analysis, 9 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 10, 37, 101, 176, 180 business-to-business tier, 182, 228n14 Busque, Leah, 54 C2C (consumer-to-consumer sales).

With required in-app communication, Airbnb and TaskRabbit track response times and record written communication. Furthermore, the crowdsourced nature of peer review allows for constant evaluation. While not every client gives a rating score or completes a peer review, workers don’t know in advance who will or won’t. This leads to internal monitoring as workers know that they must perform satisfactorily or risk a negative review or low rating. The technological panopticon has been outsourced. While ratings and reviews are marketed as a way to build trust and reduce the unknown for customers, such marketing is fallacious. Platform staff don’t examine the reviews to provide one-on-one feedback to workers or to implement additional training procedures. Instead, the rankings allow platforms to screen and evaluate workers en masse. Workers who drop below a certain metric are warned and then deactivated, losing access to the platform.


Raw Data Is an Oxymoron by Lisa Gitelman

23andMe, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Filter Bubble, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, index card, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Louis Daguerre, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, social graph, software studies, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, text mining, time value of money, trade route, Turing machine, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 159 Value, 61, 67, 69, 123, 127, 132, 133, 136, 153 Verizon, 128 Webster, Frank, 126 Weld, Angelina Grimké, 10, 89–99 Weld, Theodore, 89, 91–92, 98–99 White, Hayden, 3 White Noise, 121, 128 Wikileaks, 91 Williams, Raymond, 50–51 WorldCat, 35 Xenophon, 79 Yes Men, 135 Zimmermann, Johann Georg, 104 Color Plates Daniel Rosenberg, Ann Fabian, Thomas Augst, Jimena Canales, Lisa Lynch, Lisa Gitelman, Paul E. Ceruzzi, Lev Manovich, Jeremy Douglass, William Huber, and Vikas Mouli 1 Color Plates Chart of Biography (1765) The notion that human affairs may be studied through quantitative mechanisms was significantly advanced both in practice and theory during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Theorists and philosophers from William Petty to Jeremy Bentham promoted the power of quantitative research into social and psychological phenomena, while the application of quantitative methods spread by imitation among many domains of research. Joseph Priestley’s 1765 Chart of Biography is representative of both trends.

Data cannot “spoil” because it is now speculatively, rather than statistically, calculated.12 The name for the disciplinary and control practice of monitoring, aggregating, and sorting data is dataveillance, named as such by Roger Clarke, who suggested nearly twenty-five years ago that it was then “technically and economically superior” to the two-way televisual media of George Orwell’s fictional universe.13 It is such because dataveillance operations do not require a centralized system, provided a set of different databases are networked and provided that they share the same means of establishing individual identification, so that a single unit (an individual or number) can be identified consistently across a range of data sets with a primary key. Dataveillance is not new to information technologies and certainly one could construct a genealogy of biopolitical management that would include paper-based techniques such as the U.S. census. Indeed, in an early commentary on the “electronic panopticon,” David Lyon suggests that the difference made by information technologies is one of degree not kind, that they simply “make more efficient, more widespread, and simultaneously less visible many processes that already occur.”14 However, one could argue that there have been qualitative as well as quantitative shifts in dataveillance practices in the last decade, or, more precisely, that an intensification of quantitative differences allows for the articulation of qualitative difference.

John Poindexter’s plans for the Total Information Awareness Program (TIA) drew on Gelernter’s paradigm, endeavoring to use the principle of topsight to establish a terror network that could ostensibly be seen and disciplined, though not eliminated because of its regenerative ends. 37. Ibid., 112. 38. Thomas Pynchon, Gravity’s Rainbow (New York: Penguin Books, [1973] 1995), 703. 39. See Irving Goh, “Prolegomenon to a Right to Disappear,” Cultural Politics 2, no. 1 (March 2006): 97–114. 40. Critical Art Ensemble, Electronic Disturbance, 135. 41. Howard Rheingold and Eric Kluitenberg, “Mindful Disconnection: Counterpowering the Panopticon from the Inside,” OPEN 11 Hybrid Space (Amsterdam: NAi Publishers, 2007), 32. 42. Mayer-Schönberger, Delete, 129. 43. Critical Art Ensemble, Electronic Disturbance, 132. 44. Rubinstein, Lee, and Schwartz, “Data Mining and Internet Profiling,” 277. It is not uncommon to hear this argument made with respect to social media; in other words, if everyone’s intimate details are available, we are essentially hidden in plain sight. 143 144 Rita Raley 45.


pages: 498 words: 145,708

Consumed: How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole by Benjamin R. Barber

addicted to oil, AltaVista, American ideology, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business cycle, Celebration, Florida, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, G4S, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, McJob, microcredit, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, presumed consent, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, spice trade, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, X Prize

Similarly, in that famous commentary in which he at once praised and warned against the ambiguous potential of democracy in America, Tocqueville had proposed that, in the new dictatorship of public opinion, “tyranny leaves the body free and directs its attack at the soul.”2 In the same Rousseauist vein, Foucault would later argue that in modern times power had come to work “without recourse, in principle at least, to excess, force or violence.”3 Citing such liberal and liberating institutional devices as the prison “panopticon” propounded by liberal philosopher Jeremy Bentham (a circular prison floor plan that allowed prisoners to come under the full-time surveillance of omnipresent guardians stationed at the circle’s center, without entailing any physical encroachment on prisoner space), Foucault discerned a new form of liberal coercion which “assures the automatic functioning of power…so the perfection of power should tend to render its actual exercise unnecessary.”

Traditional ethics (in Aristotle, Augustine, or Kant, for example) distinguished higher and lower forms of pleasure and presumed that what gave pleasure might not always be identical with what was good. But modern ethical utilitarianism of the kind found in philosophers like David Hume and Jeremy Bentham tried to subordinate “the good” to what was merely pleasurable and then to simplify and reduce pleasure to elementary physical stimulation. It made no distinctions between kinds of pleasure (or pain), assuming that happiness depended merely on maximizing elementary pleasure and minimizing elementary pain for the greatest number of people. This permitted Bentham at the beginning of the nineteenth century to offer a useful if simplistic “felicific calculus” that associated all human behavior and all human ethics with simple, easy-to-measure indicators of elementary pleasure and pain.

Happiness was quantifiable. How intense was it? How long did it last? How soon would it come? How certain was its realization? But this meant the child’s easy pleasure (to take a Freudian example) in playing with his own excrement was simply another (largely indistinguishable) example of the kind of reductive pleasure an adult might find in playing the flute in an Afro-Caribbean rock band. Jeremy Bentham’s own student John Stuart Mill rebelled against such simplifications and insisted that pleasures had to be qualified, that there were kinds of pleasure, some worth more than others, some easy, others harder, some simple, others more complex, some childish, one might say, and some more grown-up. Not all pleasures were immediately commensurable with one another: like apples and oranges, or feces and flutes, they were distinguished by quality as well as quantity.


pages: 207 words: 59,298

The Gig Economy: A Critical Introduction by Jamie Woodcock, Mark Graham

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deindustrialization, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, global value chain, informal economy, information asymmetry, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, Lyft, mass immigration, means of production, Network effects, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, precariat, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

See https://www.reuters.com/article/us-uber-ola-strike/uber-ola-drivers-strike-in-india-demanding-higher-fares-idUSKCN1MW1WZ 6. Said, C. (2015) Could client poaching undercut on-demand companies? San Francisco Chronicle, 24 April. Available at: https://www.sfchronicle.com/business/article/Could-client-poaching-undercut-on-demand-6222919.php#photo-7874032 7. Quoted in Huet (2015). 8. Quoted in Said (2015). 9. Designed by the English philosopher and social theorist, Jeremy Bentham, the panopticon is an architectural design for a prison in which a single prison guard can watch all the inmates simultaneously without them knowing whether they are being watched, thus inducing self-regulating behaviour. 10. See Wiessner, D. (2018) US court revives challenge to Seattle’s Uber, Lyft union law. Reuters, 11 May. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-uber-seattle-unions/u-s-court-revives-challenge-to-seattles-uber-lyft-union-law-idUSKBN1IC27C Conclusion: What next for the gig economy?

It is ‘an activist system that allows workers to publicize and evaluate their relationships with employers. As a common infrastructure, Turkopticon also enables workers to engage one another in mutual aid’ (Irani and Silberman, 2013: 611). Turkopticon provides a browser plug-in that produces an overlay for workers while they are on the platform. It allows workers to share their rating of the requester – thus reversing the Panopticon-like relationship between platform and workers9 – to try and hold employers accountable for their treatment. Turkopticon then included a forum through which workers could meet and discuss online. The importance of Turkopticon is that it shows workers can collectively organize on the platform. Although it began as an outside intervention, the design promotes workers’ self-activity through its use.

Woodcock, J. (2018a) Changes in employment: Role of the state and its reconfiguration in the liberalization of employment policies. In O. Fedyuk and P. Stewart (eds.), Inclusion and Exclusion in Europe: Migration, Work and Employment Perspectives. London: ECPR Press, pp. 17–34. Woodcock, J. (2018b) Digital labour and workers’ organisation. In M. Atzeni and I. Ness (eds.), Global Perspectives on Workers’ and Labour Organizations. Singapore: Springer, pp. 157–73. Woodcock, J. (forthcoming) The algorithmic Panopticon at Deliveroo: Measurement, precarity, and the illusion of control. Ephemera. Woodcock, J. and Johnson, M.R. (2018) Gamification: What it is, and how to fight it. The Sociological Review, 66(3): 542–58. Yin, M., Gray, M.L., Suri, S. and Vaughan, J.W. (2016), The communication network within the crowd. Proceedings of the 25th International World Wide Web Conference (WWW), Montreal, Canada, 11 April.


pages: 510 words: 120,048

Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier

3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

In the real world most people just can’t conform to tedium superbly enough. Creepiness Thrives on the Quest for Utopia People often love the feeling of being open and trusting each other with information, and yet we’ve seen over and over that naïve openness fertilizes panopticons.* While you’re sharing, the search engine, the market intelligence firm, and the credit bureau are all sizing you up and influencing your life, but without transparency regarding their operations. *Michel Foucault popularized this metaphor. The panopticon was Jeremy Bentham’s prison design in which cells were arranged in a circle around a central guard tower so that all prisoners were put under constant surveillance with maximum efficiency by a small number of guards. Cyber-activists are usually most worried about traditional governments and law enforcement, with perhaps a nod to the potential of businesses or churches to overreach.

Brian, 169n artificial hearts, 157–58 artificial intelligence (AI), 23, 61, 94, 95, 114, 116, 136, 138n, 147, 155, 157, 178, 191, 192–93, 325, 330, 354, 359n artificial memory, 35 art market, 108 Art of the Long View, The (Schwartz), 214 ashrams, 213 assets, 31, 60 “As We May Think” (Bush), 221n asymmetry, 54–55, 61–66, 118, 188, 203, 246–48, 285–88, 291–92, 310 Athens, 22–25 atomic bomb, 127 “attractor nightmare,” 48 auctions, 170, 286 aulos, 23n austerity, 96, 115, 125, 151, 152, 204, 208 authenticity, 128–32, 137 authors, 62n automata, 11, 12, 17, 23, 42, 55, 85–86, 90–92, 97–100, 111, 129, 135–36, 155, 157, 162, 260, 261, 269, 296n, 342, 359–60 automated services, 62, 63, 64, 147–48 automated trading systems, 74–78, 115 automation, 7, 85, 123–24, 192, 234, 259, 261, 343 automobiles, 43, 86, 90–92, 98, 118–19, 125n, 302, 311, 314, 343, 367 avatar cameras, 265 avatars, 89n, 265, 283–85 baby boomers, 97–100, 339, 346 bailouts, financial, 45, 52, 60, 74–75, 82 Baird-Murray, Kathleen, 200n “Ballad of John Henry, The,” 134–35 bandwidth, 171–72 banking, 32–33, 42, 43, 69, 76–78, 151–52, 251, 269n, 289, 345–46 bankruptcy, 2, 89, 251 bargains, 64–65, 95–96 Barlow, John Perry, 353 Barnes & Noble, 62n, 182 barter system, 20, 57 Battlestar Galactica, 137, 138n “beach fantasy,” 12–13, 18, 236–37, 331, 366–67 Beatles, 211, 212, 213 behavior models, 32, 121, 131, 173–74, 286–87 behavior modification, 173–74 Belarus, 136 belief systems, 139–40 Bell, Gordon, 313 bell curve distribution, 39, 39–45, 204, 208, 262, 291–93 Bell Labs, 94 Bentham, Jeremy, 308n Berners-Lee, Tim, 230 Bezos, Jeff, 352 big business, 265–67, 297–98 big data, 107–40, 150, 151–52, 155, 179, 189, 191–92, 202–4, 265–66, 297–98, 305, 346, 366, 367 big money, 202–4, 265–67 billboards, 170, 267, 310 billing, 171–72, 184–85 Bing, 181–82 biodiversity, 146–47 biological realism, 253–54 biotechnology, 11–13, 17, 18, 109–10, 162, 330–31 Bitcoin, 34n BitTorrent, 223 blackmail, 61, 172–73, 207, 273, 314, 316, 322 Black Monday, 74 blogs, 118n, 120, 225, 245, 259, 349, 350 books, 1–2, 62, 63, 65, 113, 182, 192, 193, 246–47, 277–78, 281, 347, 352–60 bots, 62, 63, 64, 147–48 brain function, 195–96, 260, 328 brain scans, 111–12, 218, 367 Brand, Stewart, 214 brand advertising, 267 Brandeis, Louis, 25, 208 Brazil, 54 Brooks, David, 326 Burma, 200n Burning Man, 132 Bush, George H.

., 75, 91, 266–67 New York Times, 109 Nobel Prize, 40, 118, 143n nodes, network, 156, 227, 230, 241–43, 350 “no free lunch” principle, 55–56, 59–60 nondeterministic music, 23n nonlinear solutions, 149–50 nonprofit share sites, 59n, 94–95 nostalgia, 129–32 NRO, 199–200 nuclear power, 133 nuclear weapons, 127, 296 nursing, 97–100, 123, 296n nursing homes, 97–100, 269 Obama, Barack, 79, 100 “Obamacare,” 100n obsolescence, 89, 95 oil resources, 43, 133 online stores, 171 Ono, Yoko, 212 ontologies, 124n, 196 open-source applications, 206, 207, 272, 310–11 optical illusions, 121 optimism, 32–35, 45, 130, 138–40, 218, 230n, 295 optimization, 144–47, 148, 153, 154–55, 167, 202, 203 Oracle, 265 Orbitz, 63, 64, 65 organ donors, 190, 191 ouroboros, 154 outcomes, economic, 40–41, 144–45 outsourcing, 177–78, 185 Owens, Buck, 256 packet switching, 228–29 Palmer, Amanda, 186–87 Pandora, 192 panopticons, 308 papacy, 190 paper money, 34n parallel computers, 147–48, 149, 151 paranoia, 309 Parrish, Maxfield, 214 particle interactions, 196 party machines, 202 Pascal, Blaise, 132, 139 Pascal’s Wager, 139 passwords, 307, 309 “past-oriented money,” 29–31, 35, 284–85 patterns, information, 178, 183, 184, 188–89 Paul, Ron, 33n Pauli exclusion principle, 181, 202 PayPal, 60, 93, 326 peasants, 565 pensions, 95, 99 Perestroika (Kushner), 165 “perfect investments,” 59–67, 77–78 performances, musical, 47–48, 51, 186–87, 253 perpetual motion, 55 Persian Gulf, 86 personal computers (PCs), 158, 182n, 214, 223, 229 personal information systems, 110, 312–16, 317 Pfizer, 265 pharmaceuticals industry, 66–67, 100–106, 123, 136, 203 philanthropy, 117 photography, 53, 89n, 92, 94, 309–11, 318, 319, 321 photo-sharing services, 53 physical trades, 292 physicians, 66–67 physics, 88, 153n, 167n Picasso, Pablo, 108 Pinterest, 180–81, 183 Pirate Party, 49, 199, 206, 226, 253, 284, 318 placebos, 112 placement fees, 184 player pianos, 160–61 plutocracy, 48, 291–94, 355 police, 246, 310, 311, 319–21, 335 politics, 13–18, 21, 22–25, 47–48, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 149–51, 155, 167, 199–234, 295–96, 342 see also conservatism; liberalism; libertarianism Ponzi schemes, 48 Popper, Karl, 189n popular culture, 111–12, 130, 137–38, 139, 159 “populating the stack,” 273 population, 17, 34n, 86, 97–100, 123, 125, 132, 133, 269, 296n, 325–26, 346 poverty, 37–38, 42, 44, 53–54, 93–94, 137, 148, 167, 190, 194, 253, 256, 263, 290, 291–92 power, personal, 13–15, 53, 60, 62–63, 86, 114, 116, 120, 122, 158, 166, 172–73, 175, 190, 199, 204, 207, 208, 278–79, 290, 291, 302–3, 308–9, 314, 319, 326, 344, 360 Presley, Elvis, 211 Priceline, 65 pricing strategies, 1–2, 43, 60–66, 72–74, 145, 147–48, 158, 169–74, 226, 261, 272–75, 289, 317–24, 331, 337–38 printers, 90, 99, 154, 162, 212, 269, 310–11, 316, 331, 347, 348, 349 privacy, 1–2, 11, 13–15, 25, 50–51, 64, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 204, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–13, 314, 315–16, 317, 319–24 privacy rights, 13–15, 25, 204, 305, 312–13, 314, 315–16, 321–22 product design and development, 85–89, 117–20, 128, 136–37, 145, 154, 236 productivity, 7, 56–57, 134–35 profit margins, 59n, 71–72, 76–78, 94–95, 116, 177n, 178, 179, 207, 258, 274–75, 321–22 progress, 9–18, 20, 21, 37, 43, 48, 57, 88, 98, 123, 124–40, 130–37, 256–57, 267, 325–31, 341–42 promotions, 62 property values, 52 proprietary hardware, 172 provenance, 245–46, 247, 338 pseudo-asceticism, 211–12 public libraries, 293 public roads, 79–80 publishers, 62n, 92, 182, 277–78, 281, 347, 352–60 punishing vs. rewarding network effects, 169–74, 182, 183 quants, 75–76 quantum field theory, 167n, 195 QuNeo, 117, 118, 119 Rabois, Keith, 185 “race to the bottom,” 178 radiant risk, 61–63, 118–19, 120, 156, 183–84 Ragnarok, 30 railroads, 43, 172 Rand, Ayn, 167, 204 randomness, 143 rationality, 144 Reagan, Ronald, 149 real estate, 33, 46, 49–52, 61, 78, 95–96, 99, 193, 224, 227, 239, 245, 255, 274n, 289n, 296, 298, 300, 301 reality, 55–56, 59–60, 124n, 127–28, 154–56, 161, 165–68, 194–95, 203–4, 216–17, 295–303, 364–65 see also Virtual Reality (VR) reason, 195–96 recessions, economic, 31, 54, 60, 76–77, 79, 151–52, 167, 204, 311, 336–37 record labels, 347 recycling, 88, 89 Reddit, 118n, 186, 254 reductionism, 184 regulation, economic, 37–38, 44, 45–46, 49–50, 54, 56, 69–70, 77–78, 266n, 274, 299–300, 311, 321–22, 350–51 relativity theory, 167n religion, 124–25, 126, 131, 139, 190, 193–95, 211–17, 293, 300n, 326 remote computers, 11–12 rents, 144 Republican Party, 79, 202 research and development, 40–45, 85–89, 117–20, 128, 136–37, 145, 154, 215, 229–30, 236 retail sector, 69, 70–74, 95–96, 169–74, 272, 349–51, 355–56 retirement, 49, 150 revenue growth plans, 173n revenues, 149, 149, 150, 151, 173n, 225, 234–35, 242, 347–48 reversible computers, 143n revolutions, 199, 291, 331 rhythm, 159–62 Rich Dad, Poor Dad (Kiyosaki), 46 risk, 54, 55, 57, 59–63, 71–72, 85, 117, 118–19, 120, 156, 170–71, 179, 183–84, 188, 242, 277–81, 284, 337, 350 externalization of, 59n, 117, 277–81 risk aversion, 188 risk pools, 277–81, 284 risk radiation, 61–63, 118–19, 120, 156, 183–84 robo call centers, 177n robotic cars, 90–92 robotics, robots, 11, 12, 17, 23, 42, 55, 85–86, 90–92, 97–100, 111, 129, 135–36, 155, 157, 162, 260, 261, 269, 296n, 342, 359–60 Roman Empire, 24–25 root nodes, 241 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 129 Rousseau humor, 126, 129, 130–31 routers, 171–72 royalties, 47, 240, 254, 263–64, 323, 338 Rubin, Edgar, 121 rupture, 66–67 salaries, 10, 46–47, 50–54, 152, 178, 270–71, 287–88, 291–94, 338–39, 365 sampling, 71–72, 191, 221, 224–26, 259 San Francisco, University of, 190 satellites, 110 savings, 49, 72–74 scalable solutions, 47 scams, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 scanned books, 192, 193 SceneTap, 108n Schmidt, Eric, 305n, 352 Schwartz, Peter, 214 science fiction, 18, 126–27, 136, 137–38, 139, 193, 230n, 309, 356n search engines, 51, 60, 70, 81, 120, 191, 267, 289, 293 Second Life, 270, 343 Secret, The (Byrne), 216 securitization, 76–78, 99, 289n security, 14–15, 175, 239–40, 305–8, 345 self-actualization, 211–17 self-driving vehicles, 90–92, 98, 311, 343, 367 servants, 22 servers, 12n, 15, 31, 53–57, 71–72, 95–96, 143–44, 171, 180, 183, 206, 245, 358 see also Siren Servers “Sexy Sadie,” 213 Shakur, Tupac, 329 Shelley, Mary, 327 Short History of Progress, A (Wright), 132 “shrinking markets,” 66–67 shuttles, 22, 23n, 24 signal-processing algorithms, 76–78, 148 silicon chips, 10, 86–87 Silicon Valley, 12, 13, 14, 21, 34n, 56, 59, 60, 66–67, 70, 71, 75–76, 80, 93, 96–97, 100, 102, 108n, 125n, 132, 136, 154, 157, 162, 170, 179–89, 192, 193, 200, 207, 210, 211–18, 228, 230, 233, 258, 275n, 294, 299–300, 325–31, 345, 349, 352, 354–58 singularity, 22–25, 125, 215, 217, 327–28, 366, 367 Singularity University, 193, 325, 327–28 Sirenic Age, 66n, 354 Siren Servers, 53–57, 59, 61–64, 65, 66n, 69–78, 82, 91–99, 114–19, 143–48, 154–56, 166–89, 191, 200, 201, 203, 210n, 216, 235, 246–50, 258, 259, 269, 271, 272, 280, 285, 289, 293–94, 298, 301, 302–3, 307–10, 314–23, 326, 336–51, 354, 365, 366 Siri, 95 skilled labor, 99–100 Skout, 280n Skype, 95, 129 slavery, 22, 23, 33n Sleeper, 130 small businesses, 173 smartphones, 34n, 39, 162, 172, 192, 269n, 273 Smith, Adam, 121, 126 Smolin, Lee, 148n social contract, 20, 49, 247, 284, 288, 335, 336 social engineering, 112–13, 190–91 socialism, 14, 128, 254, 257, 341n social mobility, 66, 97, 292–94 social networks, 18, 51, 56, 60, 70, 81, 89, 107–9, 113, 114, 129, 167–68, 172–73, 179, 180, 190, 199, 200–201, 202, 204, 227, 241, 242–43, 259, 267, 269n, 274–75, 280n, 286, 307–8, 317, 336, 337, 343, 349, 358, 365–66 see also Facebook social safety nets, 10, 44, 54, 202, 251, 293 Social Security, 251, 345 software, 7, 9, 11, 14, 17, 68, 86, 99, 100–101, 128, 129, 147, 154, 155, 165, 172–73, 177–78, 182, 192, 234, 236, 241–42, 258, 262, 273–74, 283, 331, 347, 357 software-mediated technology, 7, 11, 14, 86, 100–101, 165, 234, 236, 258, 347 South Korea, 133 Soviet Union, 70 “space elevator pitch,” 233, 342, 361 space travel, 233, 266 Spain, 159–60 spam, 178, 275n spending levels, 287–88 spirituality, 126, 211–17, 325–31, 364 spreadsheet programs, 230 “spy data tax,” 234–35 Square, 185 Stalin, Joseph, 125n Stanford Research Institute (SRI), 215 Stanford University, 60, 75, 90, 95, 97, 101, 102, 103, 162, 325 Starr, Ringo, 256 Star Trek, 138, 139, 230n startup companies, 39, 60, 69, 93–94, 108n, 124n, 136, 179–89, 265, 274n, 279–80, 309–10, 326, 341, 343–45, 348, 352, 355 starvation, 123 Star Wars, 137 star (winner-take-all) system, 38–43, 50, 54–55, 204, 243, 256–57, 263, 329–30 statistics, 11, 20, 71–72, 75–78, 90–91, 93, 110n, 114–15, 186, 192 “stickiness,” 170, 171 stimulus, economic, 151–52 stoplights, 90 Strangelove humor, 127 student debt, 92, 95 “Study 27,” 160 “Study 36,” 160 Sumer, 29 supergoop, 85–89 supernatural phenomena, 55, 124–25, 127, 132, 192, 194–95, 300 supply chain, 70–72, 174, 187 Supreme Court, U.S., 104–5 surgery, 11–13, 17, 18, 98, 157–58, 363 surveillance, 1–2, 11, 14, 50–51, 64, 71–72, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–11, 315, 316, 317, 319–24 Surviving Progress, 132 sustainable economies, 235–37, 285–87 Sutherland, Ivan, 221 swarms, 99, 109 synthesizers, 160 synthetic biology, 162 tablets, 85, 86, 87, 88, 113, 162, 229 Tahrir Square, 95 Tamagotchis, 98 target ads, 170 taxation, 44, 45, 49, 52, 60, 74–75, 77, 82, 149, 149, 150, 151, 202, 210, 234–35, 263, 273, 289–90 taxis, 44, 91–92, 239, 240, 266–67, 269, 273, 311 Teamsters, 91 TechCrunch, 189 tech fixes, 295–96 technical schools, 96–97 technologists (“techies”), 9–10, 15–16, 45, 47–48, 66–67, 88, 122, 124, 131–32, 134, 139–40, 157–62, 165–66, 178, 193–94, 295–98, 307, 309, 325–31, 341, 342, 356n technology: author’s experience in, 47–48, 62n, 69–72, 93–94, 114, 130, 131–32, 153, 158–62, 178, 206–7, 228, 265, 266–67, 309–10, 325, 328, 343, 352–53, 362n, 364, 365n, 366 bio-, 11–13, 17, 18, 109–10, 162, 330–31 chaos and, 165–66, 273n, 331 collusion in, 65–66, 72, 169–74, 255, 350–51 complexity of, 53–54 costs of, 8, 18, 72–74, 87n, 136–37, 170–71, 176–77, 184–85 creepiness of, 305–24 cultural impact of, 8–9, 21, 23–25, 53, 130, 135–40 development and emergence of, 7–18, 21, 53–54, 60–61, 66–67, 85–86, 87, 97–98, 129–38, 157–58, 182, 188–90, 193–96, 217 digital, 2–3, 7–8, 15–16, 18, 31, 40, 43, 50–51, 132, 208 economic impact of, 1–3, 15–18, 29–30, 37, 40, 53–54, 60–66, 71–74, 79–110, 124, 134–37, 161, 162, 169–77, 181–82, 183, 184–85, 218, 254, 277–78, 298, 335–39, 341–51, 357–58 educational, 92–97 efficiency of, 90, 118, 191 employment in, 56–57, 60, 71–74, 79, 123, 135, 178 engineering for, 113–14, 123–24, 192, 194, 217, 218, 326 essential vs. worthless, 11–12 failure of, 188–89 fear of (technophobia), 129–32, 134–38 freedom as issue in, 32–33, 90–92, 277–78, 336 government influence in, 158, 199, 205–6, 234–35, 240, 246, 248–51, 307, 317, 341, 345–46, 350–51 human agency and, 8–21, 50–52, 85, 88, 91, 124–40, 144, 165–66, 175–78, 191–92, 193, 217, 253–64, 274–75, 283–85, 305–6, 328, 341–51, 358–60, 361, 362, 365–67 ideas for, 123, 124, 158, 188–89, 225, 245–46, 286–87, 299, 358–60 industrial, 49, 83, 85–89, 123, 132, 154, 343 information, 7, 32–35, 49, 66n, 71–72, 109, 110, 116, 120, 125n, 126, 135, 136, 254, 312–16, 317 investment in, 66, 181, 183, 184, 218, 277–78, 298, 348 limitations of, 157–62, 196, 222 monopolies for, 60, 65–66, 169–74, 181–82, 187–88, 190, 202, 326, 350 morality and, 50–51, 72, 73–74, 188, 194–95, 262, 335–36 motivation and, 7–18, 85–86, 97–98, 216 nano-, 11, 12, 17, 162 new vs. old, 20–21 obsolescence of, 89, 97 political impact of, 13–18, 22–25, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 199–234, 295–96, 342 progress in, 9–18, 20, 21, 37, 43, 48, 57, 88, 98, 123, 124–40, 130–37, 256–57, 267, 325–31, 341–42 resources for, 55–56, 157–58 rupture as concept in, 66–67 scams in, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 singularity of, 22–25, 125, 215, 217, 327–28, 366, 367 social impact of, 9–21, 124–40, 167n, 187, 280–81, 310–11 software-mediated, 7, 11, 14, 86, 100–101, 165, 234, 236, 258, 347 startup companies in, 39, 60, 69, 93–94, 108n, 124n, 136, 179–89, 265, 274n, 279–80, 309–10, 326, 341, 343–45, 348, 352, 355 utopian, 13–18, 21, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 see also specific technologies technophobia, 129–32, 134–38 television, 86, 185–86, 191, 216, 267 temperature, 56, 145 Ten Commandments, 300n Terminator, The, 137 terrorism, 133, 200 Tesla, Nikola, 327 Texas, 203 text, 162, 352–60 textile industry, 22, 23n, 24, 135 theocracy, 194–95 Theocracy humor, 124–25 thermodynamics, 88, 143n Thiel, Peter, 60, 93, 326 thought experiments, 55, 139 thought schemas, 13 3D printers, 7, 85–89, 90, 99, 154, 162, 212, 269, 310–11, 316, 331, 347, 348, 349 Thrun, Sebastian, 94 Tibet, 214 Time Machine, The (Wells), 127, 137, 261, 331 topology, network, 241–43, 246 touchscreens, 86 tourism, 79 Toyota Prius, 302 tracking services, 109, 120–21, 122 trade, 29 traffic, 90–92, 314 “tragedy of the commons,” 66n Transformers, 98 translation services, 19–20, 182, 191, 195, 261, 262, 284, 338 transparency, 63–66, 74–78, 118, 176, 190–91, 205–6, 278, 291, 306–9, 316, 336 transportation, 79–80, 87, 90–92, 123, 258 travel agents, 64 Travelocity, 65 travel sites, 63, 64, 65, 181, 279–80 tree-shaped networks, 241–42, 243, 246 tribal dramas, 126 trickle-down effect, 148–49, 204 triumphalism, 128, 157–62 tropes (humors), 124–40, 157, 170, 230 trust, 32–34, 35, 42, 51–52 Turing, Alan, 127–28, 134 Turing’s humor, 127–28, 191–94 Turing Test, 330 Twitter, 128, 173n, 180, 182, 188, 199, 200n, 201, 204, 245, 258, 259, 349, 365n 2001: A Space Odyssey, 137 two-way links, 1–2, 227, 245, 289 underemployment, 257–58 unemployment, 7–8, 22, 79, 85–106, 117, 151–52, 234, 257–58, 321–22, 331, 343 “unintentional manipulation,” 144 United States, 25, 45, 54, 79–80, 86, 138, 199–204 universities, 92–97 upper class, 45, 48 used car market, 118–19 user interface, 362–63, 364 utopianism, 13–18, 21, 30, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 value, economic, 21, 33–35, 52, 61, 64–67, 73n, 108, 283–90, 299–300, 321–22, 364 value, information, 1–3, 15–16, 20, 210, 235–43, 257–58, 259, 261–63, 271–75, 321–24, 358–60 Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles (VALS), 215 variables, 149–50 vendors, 71–74 venture capital, 66, 181, 218, 277–78, 298, 348 videos, 60, 100, 162, 185–86, 204, 223, 225, 226, 239, 240, 242, 245, 277, 287, 329, 335–36, 349, 354, 356 Vietnam War, 353n vinyl records, 89 viral videos, 185–86 Virtual Reality (VR), 12, 47–48, 127, 129, 132, 158, 162, 214, 283–85, 312–13, 314, 315, 325, 343, 356, 362n viruses, 132–33 visibility, 184, 185–86, 234, 355 visual cognition, 111–12 VitaBop, 100–106, 284n vitamins, 100–106 Voice, The, 185–86 “voodoo economics,” 149 voting, 122, 202–4, 249 Wachowski, Lana, 165 Wall Street, 49, 70, 76–77, 181, 184, 234, 317, 331, 350 Wal-Mart, 69, 70–74, 89, 174, 187, 201 Warhol, Andy, 108 War of the Worlds, The (Wells), 137 water supplies, 17, 18 Watts, Alan, 211–12 Wave, 189 wealth: aggregate or concentration of, 9, 42–43, 53, 60, 61, 74–75, 96, 97, 108, 115, 148, 157–58, 166, 175, 201, 202, 208, 234, 278–79, 298, 305, 335, 355, 360 creation of, 32, 33–34, 46–47, 50–51, 57, 62–63, 79, 92, 96, 120, 148–49, 210, 241–43, 270–75, 291–94, 338–39, 349 inequalities and redistribution of, 20, 37–45, 65–66, 92, 97, 144, 254, 256–57, 274–75, 286–87, 290–94, 298, 299–300 see also income levels weather forecasting, 110, 120, 150 weaving, 22, 23n, 24 webcams, 99, 245 websites, 80, 170, 200, 201, 343 Wells, H.


pages: 495 words: 154,046

The Rights of the People by David K. Shipler

affirmative action, airport security, computer age, facts on the ground, fudge factor, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, mandatory minimum, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, RFID, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, working poor, zero-sum game

The chilling sensation of being watched can generate internal censorship and self-policing, as described by a Pentagon committee on privacy and technology, headed by Newton Minow, a former chairman of the Federal Communications Commission: It is this principle that was at the heart of Jeremy Bentham’s concept of the Panopticon—a model prison consisting of a central tower surrounded by a ring of prison cells. One-way windows would allow a person in the tower to see into the prison cells, but prevent the prisoners from seeing into the tower. Bentham posited that a single inspector in the tower could control the behavior of all of the prisoners through “the illusion of constant surveillance.” According to philosopher and historian Michel Foucault, “modern society increasingly functions like a super Panopticon,” in which government constrains individual behavior by the threat of surveillance.… Knowledge that the government is observing data we generate through thousands of ordinary activities can alter the way we live our lives and interact with others.

Mitchell, not a judge, were used against three political dissidents accused of conspiring to destroy government property, one of whom allegedly bombed a CIA office in Michigan. The Supreme Court upheld the lower courts, which had ordered the contents of the overheard conversations disclosed to the defendants. 31. Newton Minow et al., Technology and Privacy Advisory Committee, Department of Defense, Safeguarding Privacy in the Fight Against Terrorism, March 1, 2004, p. 35. Quotes from Jeremy Bentham, The Panopticon Writings, Miran Bozovic, ed. (London, New York: Verso, 1995). Christopher Slobogin, “Symposium: Public Privacy; Camera Surveillance of Public Places and the Right to Anonymity,” Mississippi Law Journal 213, p. 240 (2002). 32. “Learning to Live with Big Brother,” The Economist, Sept. 27, 2007. 33. Rachel L. Swarns, “Senator? Terrorist? A Watch List Stops Kennedy at Airport,” New York Times, Aug. 20, 2004, p.


pages: 341 words: 89,986

Bricks & Mortals: Ten Great Buildings and the People They Made by Tom Wilkinson

Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, experimental subject, false memory syndrome, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, housing crisis, Kitchen Debate, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, megacity, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, starchitect, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

Ledoux’s irreducibly Enlightenment ideal of visual discipline – as he put it, ‘one sees well everywhere, one is well seen, which contributes to the pleasure of the spectacle and maintains decency’ – corresponds to the contemporary concept of the panopticon, a structure which coerces by its transparency.6 Invented by British philosopher Jeremy Bentham, the panopticon is a circular building with cells arranged around its perimeter, the inhabitants of which can be observed from a central watchtower. They can’t see into the watchtower and so they never know if they are actually being watched, but because of the constant possibility of surveillance, they constantly modify their behaviour. Eventually discipline becomes internalised – inside each of the prisoners grows an eye watching their every move. Bentham proposed the panopticon as a humane model for prisons, a way of getting rid of chains and dungeons, and also thought the idea might be profitably applied to factories.


pages: 533

Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech by Jamie Susskind

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, Andrew Keen, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, British Empire, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, continuation of politics by other means, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google bus, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, mittelstand, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Oculus Rift, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, payday loans, price discrimination, price mechanism, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selection bias, self-driving car, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technological singularity, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

Instead he developed the idea of disciplinary power, a power achieved through constant scrutiny, which he believed could be even more effective than the use or threat of force. Such power, unlike brute force, ‘reaches into the very grain of individuals, touches their bodies and inserts itself into their actions and attitudes, their discourses, learning processes and everyday lives’.5 Writing before the internet, Foucault compared modern society to Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon, a prison in which each person is constantly watched in an ‘apparatus of total and circulating mistrust’.6 In a Panoptic society:7 There is no need for arms, physical violence, material constraints. Just a gaze. An inspecting gaze, a gaze which each individual under its weight will end by interiorising to the point that he is his own overseer, each individual thus exercising this surveillance over, and against himself.

OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS IN DE X 3D printing 56–7, 178, 329 4D printing 57 Ackerman, Spencer 396 acquisitions by tech firms 318–19 action, freedom of 164–5, 166–7, 184 digital liberation 169 predictive systems 176 adaptive law 107–10 additive manufacturing (3D printing) 56–7, 178, 329 Affectiva.com 382 affective computing 52–3, 229 affirmative action 261, 268, 292 affordances 169–71 Afghanistan 50 Agoravoting.com 415 Agüera y Arcas, Blaise 172, 403 AI see Artificial Intelligence Airbnb Decentralised Autonomous Organisations 47 guest acceptance/rejection 290 individual responsibility 346 reputation system 289–90 sharing economy 335, 336 Taiwan 234 airport security systems 120–1, 186 Ajunwa, Ifeoma 418 Aletras, Nicolaos 372, 393 algorithmic audit 355–6 algorithmic injustice 279–94 data-based 282 discrimination 281–2 neutrality fallacy 288–92 rough and ready test 280–1 rule-based 283–8 well-coded society 292–4 algorithms 266 and code 94–5 and distribution 266–70, 278 and information 268–9 and participation 268 and price 269–70 of recognition 260, 275–8 scrutiny 132–3 Al-Khwār izmī, Abd’Abdallah Muhammad ibn Mūsā 94 Allen, Colin 393, 394 Allen, Jonathan P. 336, 417, 419, 429, 430, 431 Alphabet 318, 319, 320 altruism, limited 365 Amazon acquisitions 318, 319 Alexa 293 book recommendations 66, 147 commons 332 concentration of tech industry 318, 320 ‘cyber’ and ‘real’ distinction, disappearance of 97 Echo 134, 135 Kindle 151 machine learning 35 order refusal 106 robots 54 rules 116 working conditions 310 ambient intelligence see smart devices OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS 492 Index American Legal Realism 109 Amnesty International 148 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) 32 Anderson, Berit 410 Anderson, Elizabeth 118, 394, 401, 418, 420, 426, 429 Amazon’s working conditions 310 justice in recognition 273 Android 64, 359 Angelidou, Margarita 381 Anglican Church 159 anonymity 231–2 Anonymous ‘hacktivists’ 221 antitrust law 357, 358 Anwin, Julia 403, 422 apathy 349 Apollo Guidance Computer 38 Apple acquisitions 318 concentration of tech industry 320 founders 314 Guidelines for app developers 189 gun emoji 148 homosexuality ‘cure’ apps 235–6 inflexibility of operating system 359 iPad 38 manufacturers’ working conditions 151 refusal to unlock iPhone of San Bernadino terrorist 155 Siri 37, 47, 293 taxation 328 ‘Think Different’ advertisement 6 watches 44 Aquinas, Thomas 215, 409 AR see augmented reality Arab Spring 150, 221 Arbesman, Samuel 193, 406 arbitrariness, rule-based injustice 284 Arendt, Hannah 9, 72, 163, 237, 415 Aristotle 368, 403, 411, 418 democracy 215, 222, 224, 234, 249 justice and equality 259 man as a political animal 222 morality 176 objective failures of recognition 272 political theory 9 work paradigm 300–1 Armstrong, Neil 38 Arneson, Richard 308, 425, 426 Aron, Jacob 376 artificial emotional intelligence 53 artificial general intelligence 33 Artificial Intelligence (AI) 30–7 affective computing 53 AI Democracy 212, 213, 250–4, 348 algorithmic injustice 293 automation of force 119, 120 blockchain 47 bots see bots commons 332 Data Deal 337 data’s economic importance 317 degradation argument 361 Deliberative Democracy 232 digital law 108–9, 110, 113 Direct Democracy 240 facial recognition 66 future of code 98 increasingly quantified society 61 machine vision 51 perception-control 149 political campaigning 220 political speeches 31, 360–1 post-politics 362, 365–6 predictions 173 privatization of force 116 smart devices 48 software engineers 194 staff scrutiny 267 superintelligence 365–6 totalitarianism 177 usufructuary rights 330 Wealth Cyclone 322 Wiki Democracy 245 Asimov, Isaac 198 Assael,Yannis M. 371 Asscher, Lodewijk F. 400, 408 Associated Press 30 AT&T 20 OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS Index Athens, classical 212, 214–15, 217, 222–3, 224, 228, 232 audit, algorithmic 355–6 augmented reality (AR) 58–9 mixed reality 60 perception-control 146, 149, 151–2, 229, 278 scrutiny 135 augmented things see smart devices Austria 235 authoritarianism 177–9 cryptography 183 state ownership of capital 329 authority 93 automated number plate recognition technology 49–50 automation of force 100, 119–21 autonomy 165, 167 Autor, David 428 Avent, Ryan 424, 425, 427 Azuma, Hiroki 247, 416 Babylon 77, 324 Bachrach, Peter 389, 391, 398 backgammon 31 Bailenson, Jeremy 407 Baker, Paul 422 Ball, James 428 Ball, Terence 368, 389 Baraniuk, Chris 432 Baratz, Morton S. 389, 391, 398 Barr, Alistair 421 Bartky, Sandra 126, 395 Bartlett, Jamie 388, 413, 417 Bates, James 134, 135 Baughman, Shawnee 407 BBC 373, 379, 381, 385, 405 Belamaire, Jordan 386 Belgium 129 Beniger, Andrew J. 369, 389 Benkler,Yochai 368, 370, 378, 398, 399, 400, 412, 416, 431 cooperative behaviour 45 networked information environment 145 smartphones 146 493 Bentham, Jeremy 126, 195 Berkman Center for Internet and Society 184, 405 Berlin, Isaiah 9, 166, 195, 368, 401, 403, 407 Berman, Robby 382, 384 Bernays, Edward L. 410 Berners-Lee, Tim 7, 48, 294, 367, 380 Bess, Michael 402, 434 Bhavani, R. 382 Bible 100, 124, 142, 257, 300, 317 BI Intelligence 428 Bimber, Bruce 369, 412 biometric analysis 52–3, 131, 186 Bitcoin 8, 46 Black Mirror 140 Blake, William 390 blockchain 45–7 automation of force 120 justice 264 smart contracts 106, 119 usufructuary rights 330 voting 240 Blue Brain project 33, 373 Bluetooth 48, 136 Bobbit, Philip 279 Boden, Margaret A. 373–4, 381, 382, 383 Bogle, Ariel 385 Boixo, Sergio 375–6 Bollen, Johan 416 Bolukbasi, Tolga 423 bomb-detecting spinach 51 Bonchi, Francesco 422 Booth, Robert 399 Borges, Jorge Luis 53 Bostrom, Nick 365–6, 372, 373, 379, 381, 382, 435 bots Deliberative Democracy 232–4, 235 network effect 321 Bourzac, Katherine 377 Boyle, James 331, 333, 430–1 Brabham, Daren C. 416 OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS 494 Index Bradbury, Danny 415 brain–computer interfaces 48, 169 Braithwaite, John 431 Braman, Sandra 389 Brazil 244 Brexit 4, 233, 239 Bridge, Mark 393 Bridgewater Associates 267 British Empire 18 British Library 66 Brown, Gordon 95, 96, 391 Brownsword, Roger 176, 403 Brynjolfsson, Erik 374, 382, 390, 393, 427, 431 capital 315, 316, 334 Burgess, Matt 379 Burke, Edmund 263 Byford, Sam 32 Byrnes, Nanette 392 Cadwalladr, Carole 410, 413 Calabresi, Guido 279 Cambridge Analytica 220 campaigning, political 219–20 Campbell, Peter 371 Canetti, Elias 29 capital 314–17 commons 331–4 sharing economy 335–6 state ownership 329–30 taxation 327–9 usufructuary rights 330–1 carbon nanotubes 40 Casanova, Giacomo 216, 409 Casey, Anthony J. 109, 112, 393, 394 Castells, Manuel 144, 394, 398 Castillo, Carlos 422 CBC 383 Cellan-Jones, Rory 371 censorship by Anglican Church 159 perception-control 143, 146, 148, 151, 156 private power 190 cerebral hygiene 170 CERN 65 Chan, Connie 428 charisma 349 Charles I, King 167–8 chatbots 30 checkers 31 Cheney-Lippold, John 132, 395 chess 31, 36 Chesterton, G.

P. 318 Morozov, Evgeny 15, 336, 369, 414, 431 motor insurance 267 movement, freedom of 192 MoveOn 221 Moxley, Lauren 410 Moynihan, Daniel 230 Mumford, Lewis 42, 153 Muoio, Danielle 383 Muse.com 48, 380 Mussolini, Benito 118 Nagel, Thomas 423 Nakamoto, Satoshi 45 names 130–1 nanotechnology 56 Nardi, Bonnie, A. 431 nationalism 273 National Security Agency (NSA) FASCIA 67 HAPPYFOOT 67 MUSCULAR 156 phone taps 125 terrorists, identification of 35, 132 Nelson, Eric 429 Nelson, Justin 434 neo-Nazism 235, 236 Netflix 147, 269 network effect 320–2 network neutrality 157–8 neuroelectronics 41 neuroprosthetics 51 NeuroSky 48 neutrality fallacy 288–92 news fake 150, 230, 233, 234 perception-control 146–7, 150, 151, 152, 229 shared values principle 353–4 Newton, Casey 377 Newton, Sir Isaac 78 New York 130 New York Times 392 OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS Index New Zealand 24, 244, 276 Ng, Jason Q. 399 Niblett, Anthony 109, 112, 393, 394 Nichols, John 400 Nicholson, Peter P. 389 Nietzsche, Friedrich 88 night watchman state 265 Nike Fuelbands 44 Nissenbaum, Helen 170, 402 Nobel, Alfred 20 Nobel prize for Chemistry 56 Norman, Donald A. 401 normative analysis 83–5 norms 274, 275 Novartis 51 Noveck, Beth Simone 220, 410, 416 Nozick, Robert 263–4, 313, 418, 426 nuclear power 14 NYC Mayor’s Office of Technology and Innovation 377 Obama, Barack 4, 95, 219–20, 230 Ober, Josiah 411 objective failures of recognition 272 objectivity, and the neutrality fallacy 292 Obodovski, Daniel 380 Occupy 150, 221 Octobot 55 Odysseus 165–6 Olson, Parmy 430 O’Malley, James 380 O’Neil, Cathy 418, 419, 421, 433 Ong, Walter 111, 393 Onlife Initiative 368 online groups 221 Oord, Aäron van den 371 open-source production 244, 333 open-source software 243–4 opportunity, equality of 260, 261, 263, 270, 294 oppression 273 Oracle 427 oral cultures 111–12 O’Reilly, Tim 391, 392, 393 Original Sin 349 507 Orwell, George 390, 415 intellectual honesty and balanced judgment, disappearance of 237–8 Nineteen Eighty-Four 12, 122, 151 political speech 81 ostracism 217 overtly unjust rules 283–4 Owlchemy Labs 319 Oxford English Dictionary 79 Oxford University 30 Paine, Thomas 167–8 Pakistan 50 Palfrey, John 380 Panopticon 126 Parfit, Derek 418 Parijs, Philippe van 306, 425, 426 Paro 55 participation and algorithms 268 Pascal, Blaise 40, 41 Pasquale, Frank 397, 399, 400, 404, 406, 419, 422, 423, 428, 432, 434 algorithms 194 Google 351 Pateman, Carol 410 patents 315, 316, 324, 332, 333 patriarchy 349 Pearson, Jordan 421 Penney, Jon 395 Penny, Timothy J. 412 perception-control 89, 123, 142–52 Deliberative Democracy 229 digital liberation 170 digital lifeworld 146–50 implications 150–2 justice in recognition 278 public and private power 154, 156–7, 160 separation of control 358–9 twentieth century 144–6 Pericles 214, 224, 253 Perry, Walter 397 Persia 19 personal property 324 person-specific pricing 269, 270 OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 28/05/18, SPi РЕЛИЗ ПОДГОТОВИЛА ГРУППА "What's News" VK.COM/WSNWS 508 Index persuasion 142 pervasiveness of technology 43–4 Perzanowski, Aaron 325, 394, 429, 431 Peterson, Andrea 385 Pettit, Philip 167, 401 Philadelphia 130 Phillips, Anne 368 philosophical engineers 6–9, 294, 347 Piketty, Thomas 314, 327–8, 426–7, 430 PKK 236 PlanIt Valley, Portugal 50 Plato 389, 397, 409, 413, 432 democracy 212, 251 memory 136 philosophers 347 political theory 9 property 77 Ring of Gyges 232 Plaugic, Lizzie 414 Playstation VR 59 Pocock, J.


pages: 538 words: 145,243

Behemoth: A History of the Factory and the Making of the Modern World by Joshua B. Freeman

anti-communist, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate raider, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, joint-stock company, knowledge worker, mass immigration, means of production, mittelstand, Naomi Klein, new economy, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Pearl River Delta, post-industrial society, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

Fairbairn’s firm built plants around the world, including a wool factory near Istanbul for the Sultan of Turkey and a giant spinning and weaving complex in Bombay.40 Nothing better captured the sense of invention in the textile districts of Britain than the “Round Mill” built at the Strutts’ factory complex in Belper. The three-story, circular stone building, divided into eight segments, apparently derived from Samuel and Jeremy Bentham’s panopticon. In its center stood an inspection station from which a supervisor could observe activity in the entire building, realizing the ideal of constant surveillance the Benthams championed. The Strutts may have adopted the Benthams’ design to minimize the risk from fire, as the central overlooker could shut off any of the building segments by closing doors, isolating the flames and protecting the rest of the structure.41 Though the Round Mill found few direct imitators, the idea of continual surveillance would become ever more part of the factory regime, never more so than in our own times.

See also names of specific automotive manufacturers artistic depictions of, 155–58 in China, 298 conversion for military production, 229–31 in Germany, 265–67, 388n increase in number of giant factories, 127–28, 143–44 innovative factory architecture, 133, 136–37, 140 number of workers, 143–44, 245 product standardization, 141–42 protests and strikes, 161–66 in Soviet Union, 171, 190–93, 199–200, 205 trade unions and labor organization, 129, 162–68 Autostadt (Volkswagen), 267 Avtograd, Soviet Union, 248, 385n AvtoVaz, 248 Awful Battle at Homestead, Pa, An (illustration), 102 B Building (Ford), 139, 142 B-24 bombers, 229, 230, 231 B-26 bombers, 232 Babbage, Charles, 10–12 backward integration, 90, 105, 138, 353n, 388n Bage, Charles, 15 Baines, Edward, 5–6, 11–12 Bangladesh, 274, 318 Bank Misr, 268 BASF, 267 Bell, Daniel, 244–45 Bellamy, Edward, 72 Belper, England, 8, 17, 45 Belt, The (play), 172 Bendix, William, 244 Benjamin, Walter, 85 Bennett, Harry, 132, 142, 168 Bentham, Jeremy, 17 Bentham, Samuel, 17 Bentinck, William, 37 Berger, Victor, 77 Berkman, Alexander, 102 Berlin, Germany, 250, 256 Berman, Marshall, xvi Bessemer, Henry, 92 Bethlehem Iron Company, 95 Bethlehem Steel Company, 107, 113, 116, 232, 245, 356n, 385n BF Goodrich, 292 Biddeford, Maine, 55 Big Money, The (Dos Passos), 117, 147 Biggs, Lindy, 144 Birmingham, Alabama, 110 Blake, William, 28, 96 Bloomberg Businessweek, 310 Bloomfield, New Jersey, 238 Bloomington, Indiana, 237, 382n Boeing, 232 Bologna, Italy, 329n Bolton, England, 21, 29, 62 Bombay, India, 17 Bomber City proposal, 231 Boott, Kirk, 345n Boott Mills, 53, 74–75, 104, 315–16 boredom, 30, 60, 64, 165, 258–59 Boston, Massachusetts, 47–48, 54, 84, 115 Boston Associates companies, 55–56, 65, 77, 79, 99 Boston Manufacturing Company, 47–51, 53–54, 341n, 343n Boswell, James, 3–4 Boulware, Lemuel R., 240, 242 Bourke-White, Margaret, 119, 149–54, 170, 170, 197, 213–14, 216–18, 377n Braddock, Pennsylvania, 97, 110 branding, 50, 290–93 Brave New World (Huxley), 147 Bridgeport, Connecticut, 240 Brockport, New York, 240 Bron, Saul, 221 Brontë, Charlotte, 31, 42 Brooklyn Navy Yard, 228 Brown, Moses, 45 Brownson, Orestes, 72–73 Buffalo, New York, 85, 116, 133 Buick, 137, 144 Bukharin, Nikolai, 183, 215, 220, 371n Burlington Free Press (newspaper), 61 Burnham, James, 226, 380n Burtynsky, Edward, 273, 288, 312 Cadillac, 290 Calder, John K., 188, 196 calico industry, 5, 11, 51–52, 60, 345n California, 232–33, 235, 237, 368n Calvert Investments, 322 Cambodia, 274, 281 Cambria Iron and Steel Works, 91, 91, 93, 314 Camden, New Jersey, 166, 236 Cameron, Ardis, 76 Canada, 76, 363n Capital (Marx), 19, 33–34, 94 capitalism as atavistic slogan, 227 convergence theory and, 227, 316 early British textile mills and criticism of, 33–35 emergence of industrial capitalism, 33–35 factories as essential to development of, 319 implantation of by outside merchant capital, 56 iron and steel industry “super-capitalism,” 103–5 socialism vs., 172–73, 175–76, 224–25, 278 carding, 6–7, 18, 24, 45, 341n Carding, Drawing, and Roving (illustration), 24 Carlyle, Thomas, 31 Carnegie, Andrew, 93–94, 100–101, 105, 111–12 Carrefour, 293 Carriage, Wagon, and Automobile Workers’ Union, 129 Castro, Fidel, 256 Cayenne, French Guiana, 46 Céline, Louis-Ferdinand, 147 Cement (Gladkov), 217, 373n cement industry, 138, 217, 249 Cendrars, Blaise, 87 Centennial Exhibition (1876), 80–82, 81, 84, 88, 107, 350n “Centennial Inauguration March” (Wagner), 80 Central Labor Institute, 177, 371n Chadwick, Edwin, 333n Chagall, Marc, 86 Chamberlin, William Henry, 215 Chandler, Alfred D., Jr., 290 Chaplin, Charlie, xii, 159–61, 209, 214 Charles River, 48–49 Chartists and Chartism, 38, 41, 88 Chase, Stuart, 215 Chelmsford, Massachusetts, 54 Chelyabinsk, Soviet Union, 196, 201, 203, 212, 221, 224, 374n, 379n Chengdu, China, 272, 302, 304, 306 Chevalier, Michael, 43–44 Chevrolet, 144, 165, 237, 290, 314 Chiang Kai-shek, 283 Chicago, Illinois, 106, 128, 167, 228–29 post-WWII strikes, 238 world’s fairs, 85, 145, 158 WWI-era labor movement, 114–17 Chicago Century of Progress Exposition (1933–34), 145, 158 Chicago Federation of Labor, 114 Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts, 55, 62, 72 child labor, 19, 42, 348n early British textile mills, 3, 21–25 efforts to regulate, 30–33, 41, 68 New England textile mills, 45–46, 59–60, 68, 71, 74, 77, 78, 347n, 349n outsourcing, 294 China Labour Bulletin, 306 Chinese industry.

See names of specific locations oil industry, 277–78, 290 Olds Motor Works, 123 Olmsted, Frederick Law, 104–5 Omaha, Nebraska, 85 On the Economy of Machinery and Manufacturers (Babbage), 10–11 O’Neill, Eugene, 150 organzine industry, 2–3 Orjonikidje, Sergo, 198, 200, 220 Otis Elevator, 239 Otis Steel, 149–50 Ottoman Empire, 5, 329n outsourcing, 291–96 Overman, Frederick, 89 Owen, Robert, 24, 26 Ozersk, Soviet Union, 246 Packard Motor Company, 133, 137, 362n painting, 86, 148, 151–59, 157, 366n Palace of the Soviets (Moscow, Soviet Union), 230 Panama-Pacific International Exposition (1915), 144–45 panopticon, 17 paper industry, 72 “Paradise of Bachelors and the Tartarus of Maids, The” (Melville), 72 Paris, France, 85–88, 100 Parsons, Talcott, 227 Partisan Review (magazine), 161 patents and patent royalties, 3, 7, 9, 54, 190, 343n, 346n Pawtucket, Rhode Island, 45, 66 Pawtucket Falls, 51 PBM Mariner flying boats, 232 Pearl River Delta, China, 282–83 Pegatron Corporation, 273, 296, 310, 322 Pellerin, Cora, 76 Pelton, O., 55 Pemberton Mill, 76–77, 79, 349n Pennsylvania, 46.


pages: 252 words: 78,780

Lab Rats: How Silicon Valley Made Work Miserable for the Rest of Us by Dan Lyons

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, job-hopping, John Gruber, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, loose coupling, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, Milgram experiment, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, RAND corporation, remote working, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, software is eating the world, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tesla Model S, Thomas Davenport, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, traveling salesman, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, young professional

They can snoop on you as much as they want. And they do—more and more each year. At Work in the Panopticon In the eighteenth century, British philosopher Jeremy Bentham designed an ingenious prison in which a single guard could control a large number of inmates. It was a circular building where a guard sat in a central tower and prisoners were placed in cells around the periphery. A viewing mechanism enabled the guard to watch any prisoner at any time. Since prisoners could not tell when they were being watched, they would have to assume that they were always being watched. Therefore they would behave. Instead of needing an army of prison guards, you could exploit the psychology of the inmates and get them to control themselves. Bentham called this the panopticon, from Greek roots meaning, roughly, “to see all.” The idea didn’t really fly as a way to build prisons, but it is often used as a metaphor about power and control in modern society, most notably by French philosopher Michel Foucault.


pages: 501 words: 145,943

If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

As the second great French critic of the Enlightenment argued (Rousseau was the first), the moral geometry that justified the rational orderliness of a new Age of Reason penology, substituting rehabilitative imprisonment for bodily punishment, was itself fraught. The hoped-for liberation from justice as vengeance (an eye for an eye and limbs pulled apart by the rack) actually birthed new forms of domination unforeseen by the Enlightenment. In place of torture of the body: a permanent surveillance over the soul—inspiring Jeremy Bentham’s bleak vision of an all-seeing prison Panopticon that in Foucault’s imagination became an emblem of the new and subtle tyranny of modern rationality.27 How Foucaultian, then, are the new media to which we look with such hope for social and civic progress, even as they look back at us, watching us 24/7 with electronic “cookies” and taste assessments and information collection and “push commerce”? Can mayors and urban citizens afford to welcome the digital age uncritically?

Thousands of urban video cams centrally monitored (of the kind London now deploys) will no doubt be regarded by police officials as a boon to crime prevention, and London is being imitated in many other cities today, including New York. In Boston, it was these street cams that helped identify the Marathon bombers. But will citizens concerned with rights see the London practice more as something resembling Foucault’s Panopticon, sweeping away the last vestiges of privacy with ubiquitous surveillance? Or will the yearning for absolute security bury even modest notions of rights? I will not track here the new literature that toys with distinctions between smart cities and so-called cyber cities or digital or intelligent cities, though it must be noted that the plethora of hip brand names suggests that the many new public-private partnerships that are emerging around technology and the city are being rather heavily hyped.

., 189–190, 196 NIMBY (“Not in My Back Yard”), 303 Noncompliance, 354, 355 Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), 310–315, 343 Not-city, 63–66 “Not in My Back Yard” (NIMBY), 303 Noveck, Beth, 261, 266 NRA (National Rifle Association), 89, 112–113, 148–149, 325, 399n41 Nuclear weapons, 128–129 Nutter, Michael, 87–88, 92, 98 Obama, Barack: digital technology use by, 242, 260; on gun control, 89, 129, 149; health care plan, 199; on interdependence, 116, 158; on Law of the Sea Treaty, 159; urban vote for, 357 Occupy Wall Street (OWS), 47, 116–117, 225, 251, 259, 314–315 Older cities, 58–59 Olmsted, Frederick Law, 43–46, 48 Online communities, 265 Online voting, 260 Opportunity Fund, 230 Opt-in/opt-out rights, 346 Organization of World Heritage Cities, 293 Original consent. See Social contract Orlando, Leoluca, 50–52, 86, 87, 137–138 Ortiz-Cartagena, William, 230 Outsourcing, 253 OWS (Occupy Wall Street), 47, 116–117, 225, 251, 259, 314–315 Palermo. See Orlando, Leoluca Palestine, Moussa of, 91, 268–270 Panopticon, 245, 256 Parks, 44–48, 193, 206–208 Park Won-soon, 333–335, 401n9 Parliament of religions, 346–347 parliamentwatch.org, 264 Parochial schools, 236 Participation vs. power, 5 Participatory budgeting (PB), 264, 265, 303–309 Participatory design, 304, 395–396n7 Participatory governance, 301, 303–309 Partnership for Democratic Local Governance in Southeast-Asia (DELGOSEA), 118–119 PB (participatory budgeting), 264, 265, 303–309 Pedestrian mall programs, 8 Pedestrian zones, 137–138, 197 Peer-to-peer (P2P) technology, 266 People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy, 333 Personal engagement of mayors, 95–96 Personality of mayor, 85–86, 88 Petrosino, Giuseppe “Joe,” 107 Philanthropy, 117, 372n8 Piecemeal approach, 21–22, 148, 215, 336 Pirate Party (Germany), 264 Pittsburgh: business revival in, 223; as rebel town, 324 Planetary city, 17 “Planet of slums.”


pages: 1,327 words: 360,897

Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, anti-globalists, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Graeber, different worldview, do-ocracy, feminist movement, garden city movement, hive mind, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, liberation theology, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Naomi Klein, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the market place, union organizing, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

He went on in Discipline and Punish (1975) to trace eloquently, if at times inaccurately, the ideological foundations of modern punitive society in the Enlightenment. Foucault’s central insight turns on the recognition that the power to punish is not essentially different from the power to cure or to educate. ‘Is it surprising’, he asks, ‘that prisons resemble factories, schools, barracks, hospitals, which all resemble prisons?’69 This tendency is best symbolized by the ‘model’ prison called the Panopticon designed by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham which allowed complete surveillance of the inmates.70 Foucault’s study of prisons led him to an analysis of social power in general. What characterizes modern culture for Foucault is coercion. He follows Nietzsche, not Marx, in seeing power in non-economic terms: ‘Power is war, a war continued by other means’, that is to say ‘unspoken warfare’.71 Even repression is a subordinate effect of power.

., p. 90 65 Camus, L’Homme révolté (1951) (Paris: Gallimard, 1972), pp. 35–6 66 Ibid, p. 356 67 Quoted in Thody, Albert Camus, op. cit., p. 203 68 See J. G. Merquior, Foucault (Fontana Press, 1985), p. 154 69 Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prisons, trans. Alan Sheridan, III, 1 (New York: Pantheon, 1977), p. 228 70 See Foucault’s Preface ‘The Eye of Power’ to the French edition of Benthams’s Panopticon (1977) 71 Foucault, Power/Knowledge: Selected Inerviews and Other Writings 1972–1977, eds. Colin Gordon, Leo Marshall, John Meplam and Kate Soper (Brighton: Harvester Press, 1980), pp. 87–90, 110 72 Ibid., p. 151. Cf. Ibid., pp. 104–5 73 Foucault, The History of Sexuality, trans. Robert Hurley (New York: Pantheon, 1978), I, p. 59 74 Merquior, Foucault, op. cit., p. 149 75 See Interview in Le Nouvel Observateur (12 March 1977) 76 Foucault, ‘Réponse à une question’, Esprit, 371 (May, 1968), 850–74 77 Interview with Jean-Lousiézine in Nouvelles Littéraires, 2477 (17–23 March 1977) 78 Merquior, Foucault, op. cit., p. 156 Chapter Thirty-Eight 1 Quoted in Woodcock, ‘The Philosopher of Freedom’, Herbert Read: A Memorial Symposium, ed.

Mutualism and federalism not only became later the twin pillars of Proudhon’s system but Kropotkin was convinced that the principles of anarchism found their origin in the deeds of the French Revolution.1 The term anarchist was still used as a term of abuse at the time. It was applied indiscriminately to libertarians and authoritarians alike by their opponents. In England, the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham in his anti-revolutionary Anarchical Fallacies (1791) attacked the French Declaration of Rights, arguing that it would replace the old tyranny of a single master by the new tyranny of collective anarchy. The Jacobins called the sans culottes anarchists and were called anarchist in turn by the Directory which replaced them. The sans-culottes, the revolutionary mob who took to the streets in the spring and summer of 1793, were not strictly speaking anarchists for they helped overthrow the Girondins and bring about the Jacobin dictatorship.


pages: 494 words: 116,739

Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, liberation theology, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K

Annals of Internal Medicine 150:688–695, http://annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=744499. Benhabib, Jess, and Mark M. Spiegel. (1994). The role of human capital in economic development: Evidence from aggregate cross-country data. Journal of Monetary Economics 34(2):143–174, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0304393294900477. Bentham, Jeremy. (1789 [1907]). An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Library of Economics and Liberty, www.econlib.org/library/Bentham/bnthPML18.html. Bentley, Daniel. (2012). First annual results of David Cameron’s happiness index published. The Independent, July 24, 2012, www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/first-annual-results-of-david-camerons-happiness-index-published-7972861.html. Best, Michael L. (2004). Can the Internet be a human right? Human Rights & Human Welfare 4:23–31, https://www.du.edu/korbel/hrhw/volumes/2004/best-2004.pdf.

And before we deride a young king of a small, far-off land for his idealism, it’s worth remembering that Thomas Jefferson, representing a once young, once far-off land, enshrined “the pursuit of happiness” as an inalienable right on par with life and liberty. Jefferson and the Bhutanese king knew what they were talking about. Philosophers have proposed happiness as the highest good and the ultimate goal of human activity at least since the Buddha and Aristotle. A couple of thousand years later, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill expanded the notion to whole societies. In their utilitarian philosophy, the goal is the greatest good for the greatest number. Amazingly, in the past decade or so even no-nonsense economists have started taking happiness seriously. Neuroscientists such as Richard Davidson have shown that certain kinds of brain activity – measurable by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) – are correlated with self-reports of happiness.41 Alluding to this work, the eminent British economist Richard Layard wrote, “Now we know that what people say about how they feel corresponds closely to the actual levels of activity in different parts of the brain, which can be measured in standard scientific ways.”

A good review of the issues occurs in Small et al. (2010), who also conclude that careful, sensitive study of culture’s role in poverty is merited. 9.Singer (2011). 10.Controversially, some differences between groups that are often explained as differences in culture or personality could be explained as different breadth of intention. For example, if superior intention correlates with concern for larger circles of life, then the radius of concern is one measure of intrinsic growth. Isn’t it wiser for a society to honor women’s rights as well as men’s rights? To seek the benefit of people in other groups or nations as well as one’s own? And even to be sensitive to animal suffering as well as to human suffering? As Jeremy Bentham (1789 [1907]) noted, “The question is not, Can they reason? nor, Can they talk? but, Can they suffer?” 11.Bourdieu (1979 [1984]). Sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s discourse on cultural capital is part description and part political critique. His core claim is that various forms of social and cultural capital enforce class barriers, and that they are propagated by education and other social structures that have historical determinants.


pages: 397 words: 110,130

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, superconnector, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise

As she points out, the challenge that comes with broadcasting bits of your life is that you live with an “invisible audience;” you’re never quite sure who’s going to see this stuff, or when. Since anything online can be copied and circulated, you also get what boyd calls “context collapse”: sexy talk meant for your partner gets seen by your mother when you accidentally mismanage the settings on your social tools. In 1984, Orwell popularized Jeremy Bentham’s concept of the panopticon, a technological structure in which powerful forces can watch you but you can’t see them. This forces you to assume that you’re always being watched, a mental head game that deforms behavior. Today, plenty of similarly powerful forces eagerly observe your online behavior. Firms like Facebook are free only because they carefully collect our ambient signals, the better to sell us to advertisers.

(Just ask the insurance companies or hiring committees who can now easily find oodles of info on the private behavior of people they’re scrutinizing.) But as boyd and other researchers have found, these problems, while real, are still in the minority. The much more common complications come not from powerful interests surveying your ambient info from above but from those surveying your life beside you: colleagues, ex-lovers, friends, or family. We live less in a panopticon than an “omniopticon,” as Nathan Jurgenson and George Ritzer put it, a situation in which we’re made uneasy by potential ill uses of our info in the hands of these peers. Our problem isn’t just Big Brother—it’s all the Little Brothers and Sisters. These are the problems of what New York University professor Terri Senft deftly calls micro-celebrity. Andy Warhol quipped that in the future, everyone would be world famous for fifteen minutes.

See theory of multiples multiplexing, 142 multitasking, pros/cons of, 135–36 Mundaneum, 122 Munroe, Randall, 116 Muybridge, Eadweard, 97 Myrdal, Gunnar, 252 Myung-bak, Lee, 260 Nabokov, Vladimir, 23 Napier, John, 59 narcissism, and social network postings, 220–22 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 183–84 Natsidia, Christoph, 16 “Nature of the Firm, The” (Coase), 152 Navalny, Alexei, 105–6 Naver, 74–75 Netflix, 169 neurasthenia, 224 Nielsen, Michael, 160 Nilsson, Nils, 103 Nintendo, 149 Nook, 82 Norman, Don, 116 note taking, 120–21 novels, early, critics of, 223–24 Obama, Barack, 88, 239 ObscuraCam, 274 Occupy Wall Street, 81 Odnoklassniki, 269 Offer, Daniel, 27 Ogburn, William, 58–60 O’Gorman, Hubert, 251–52 Okolloh, Ory, 45–46, 61–63 omniopticon, 238, 241 O’Neill, Michael, 216–17 “On Exactitude in Science” (Borges), 33 open-source, 112 O’Reilly, Tim, 76 Orwell, George, 106–7, 236–37 Otlet, Paul, 122–23 Otpor!, 267 Pac-Man (video game), 148 PageRank (Google), 33 Pan, Bing, 204 Panagopoulos, Costas, 83–85 panopticon, 236–37 Papert, Seymour, 188–93 Pariser, Eli, 230–31 Park, Clara Claiborne, 132–33 partisan online discourse, 261–63 Patel, Rupal, 19 patent trolls, 64 Pearce, Katy, 269 penicillin, discovery of, 60–61, 63–64 Penny, Laurie, 77 Perry, Rick, 24 Phaedrus (Plato), 68–69, 118 photographic literacy, 105–10 filters, use of, 109–10 LOLcat-crafting, 108–9 photomanipulation, 105–8 political uses, 105–7, 109, 247–48 Photoshop, 107 Pinboard, 154–55 Pinterest, 221 Plato, 68, 117 pluralistic ignorance Egypt, breaking down in, 255–58 social effects of, 252–53 Plutchak, Scott, 208 Pocket, 136 Poincaré, Henri, 131–32 Poke, 242 politics and political activism, 245–77.


pages: 335 words: 98,847

A Bit of a Stretch: The Diaries of a Prisoner by Chris Atkins

Boris Johnson, butterfly effect, collapse of Lehman Brothers, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, forensic accounting, G4S, housing crisis, illegal immigration, index card, Mark Zuckerberg, Milgram experiment, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans

References Introduction 1 https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/apr/27/prison-statistics-revealbig-rise-in-assaults-on-staff-and-self-harm 2 https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/uk-prison-population-conditions-government-urged-reduce-a7991351.html 3 https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/724526/HMI-Prisons_Annual_Report_2017-18.pdf 4 https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/holidaycamp-prison-scoutgroup-9911810 5 https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/feb/20/ombudsman-termsteenagers-death-in-prison-appalling-osvaldas-pagirys 6 http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/Portals/0/Documents/Bromley%20 Briefings/Summer%202018%20factfile.pdf 7 https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmselect/cmworpen/58/5804.htm 8 https://www.channel4.com/news/new-allegations-of-sexual-assault-againstmohamed-al-fayed-by-three-women-including-15-year-old-employee 9 https://www.theguardian.com/film/2017/dec/08/dustin-hoffman-sexualharassment-broadway Chapter 1: Trauma and Toothpaste 1 https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/317904/Fact_Sheet_–_Overview_of_POCA__2_.pdf 2 https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-36384729 3 https://drug.addictionblog.org/does-spice-show-up-on-drug-tests/ 4 https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/09/22/letters-sent-prisonphotocopied-amid-fears-soaked-drugs/ 5 https://www.dailystar.co.uk/news/latest-news/597499/Superdrugs-UK-prisons-lag-reveals-synthetic-taking-hundreds-casualties-Brit-jails 6 https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-dorset-41319812 7 https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/jul/23/panopticon-digitalsurveillance-jeremy-bentham 8 https://prisonjobs.blog.gov.uk/your-a-d-guide-on-prison-categories/ Chapter 2: Lockdowns and Love Actually 1 https://www.itv.com/news/anglia/update/2016-07-14/norfolk-mp-liz-trusspromoted-to-justice-secretary/ 2 https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/jul/19/prisons-legal-highs-peterclarke-new-psychoactive-substances 3 https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/may/20/wandsworth-governorian-bickers-jail-disorder-prison-reform 4 https://www.standard.co.uk/news/crime/prison-perks-offenders-will-have-toearn-privileges-in-rules-shake-up-8596716.html 5 http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ForPrisonersFamilies/PrisonerInformationPages/IncentivesandEarnedPrivileges 6 https://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/offenders/psipso/psi-2011/psi_2011_11_incentives_and_earned_privileges.doc Chapter 3: Showers and Slips 1 https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-trial-insidertrading-sentences/ex-deutschebanker-and-accountant-jailed-for-insider-dealing-idUKKCN0Y31TG 2 https://www.elizabethtruss.com/news/elizabethtruss-outlines-her-viewssentencing-and-size-prison-population-centre-social-justice 3 https://www.theguardian.com/society/datablog/2016/nov/18/fewer-prisonofficers-and-more-assaults-how-uk-prison-staffing-has-changed 4 https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jul/20/moj-recruits-redundantstaff-ease-jails-crisis 5 https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/mar/24/ban-books-prisonersengland-wales-authors 6 https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/dec/05/prison-book-banunlawful-court-chris-grayling 7 https://news.sky.com/story/transport-secretary-chris-grayling-should-resignover-chaotic-railway-timetables-11571187 8 https://www.theguardian.com/society/2019/jan/29/more-than-half-youngpeople-jail-are-of-bme-background 9 http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3751059/New-isolation-cells-hatepreachers-t-spread-poison-jail-Units-stop-dangerous-inmates-inciting-join-Islamic-State.html Chapter 4: Goodfellas and Goldilocks 1 http://www.wandsworthguardian.co.uk/news/14636741.display/ 2 https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2013/mar/13/wandsworth-prison-jailchris-huhne 3 http://www.swlondoner.co.uk/hmp-wandsworth-criticised-desperate-stateprisoners-suicides-behind-bars-rise-dramatically/ 4 https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/jail-rejects-inmates-after-blunders-byrepair-firm-on-200m-contract-qcmxwg6mc 5 https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/chris-grayling-carillionrory-stewart-prison-maintenance-contract-justice-minister-a8417496.html 6 https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/jan/23/carillion-prisons-terriblestate-andrea-albutt-prison-governors-chief 7 https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/law-and-order/12185138/Crackdown-on-compensation-payouts-for-prisoners.html 8 http://www.politics.co.uk/comment-analysis/2016/09/07/prison-reformlooks-dead-in-the-water-under-liz-truss 9 https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/oct/01/nobel-prize-laureatesmoney-award 10 https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3807325/We-deserved-truth-25-years-ago-Ben-Needham-s-mother-slams-mystery-witness-not-comingforward-earlier-police-start-latest-dig-hunt-missing-toddler.html Chapter 5: Biohazard and Back Rubs 1 https://www.sentencingcouncil.org.uk/about-sentencing/types-of-sentence/life-sentences/ 2 https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/home-detention-curfew 3 https://www.simplypsychology.org/milgram.html 4 https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/oct/18/one-arrested-after-mankilled-in-pentonville-prison 5 https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-37698780 6 https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/uk-36327325/bbc-exclusive-a-look-insidewandsworth-prison 7 https://www.samaritans.org/how-we-can-help/prisons/listener-scheme/ 8 https://www.youtube.com/watch?

This is a massive domed hexagon at the heart of the prison structure, with six colossal wings feeding off it. The perfect prison The main part of Wandsworth follows the classic Victorian ‘spider’ design, where six wings radiate out from a central point. This structure was pioneered by the nineteenth-century philosopher Jeremy Bentham, who tried to create the perfect prison, believing that inmates would behave if they thought they were always being watched.7 However, given the utter carnage that was usually unfolding at Wandsworth, Bentham’s theory seemed somewhat flawed. Nobody ever gave a stuff about being watched, and prisoners seemed happy to run around dealing drugs, getting in fights and wrestling with officers. I’m led into a revolting holding room, full of smoking inmates. We’re all issued with purple bibs, presumably to identify us as prisoners, though looking round this group, I doubt anyone would be confused about who we were.


Gods and Robots: Myths, Machines, and Ancient Dreams of Technology by Adrienne Mayor

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, Elon Musk, industrial robot, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, life extension, Menlo Park, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, popular electronics, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, theory of mind, Turing test

Bottom, ancient blacksmith tools, from the Byci Skala cave, Czech Republic, sixth–fifth century BC, Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. Erich Lessing / Art Resource, NY. FIG. 7.6. Argus with many eyes and janiform head. Attic red-figure lekythos from Aphytis, by the Pan Painter, about 470 BC. © Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports, courtesy of Ephorate of Antiquities of Chalcidice and Mount Athos. The ancient myth of a hypervigilant watcher that never sleeps and observes from all angles inspired Jeremy Bentham’s eighteenth-century panopticon designs for institutions and prisons, heralding the proliferation of banks of surveillance cameras ubiquitous in the modern world. Accordingly, numerous security providers operate under the name “Argos/Argus.” The computerized exoskeleton TALOS suit to augment soldiers’ senses to be developed by US military scientists also features multiple “eyes” like Argus’s (chapter 1), while other military scientists seek ways to create soldiers who can forgo sleep, like Hera’s sentinel (chapter 4).10 The most captivating devices created by Hephaestus were those described as exceedingly lifelike and/or as self-moving automata that mimicked natural bodily forms and possessed something like mind.

See also ethics and morality Asilomar AI Principles, 144, 178 Asimov, Isaac, 144, 177–78 Asoka, King, 203–8, 211 Athena (Minerva): Athenians’ veneration of, 93, 124; and creation of humans, 106, 112, 113; Demetrios’s musical statue of, 187; in Heron’s Theater, 202; and manufacture of animal statues, 97; and manufacture of horse statues, Plate 9, 139, 141; in modern science fiction, 153; and Pandora, 156, 158, 162–63, 163, 164, 170–71; Phidias’s sculpture of, for Parthenon, 124, 170–71, 191 Athena (modern miniature robot), 216 Athenaeus, 71, 109, 198, 199 Athens, 90, 92, 93, 124, 170–72, 175, 192–93 athletes, 25, 47; realistic paintings and sculptures of, Plate 7, 97, 98, 99 automata: ancient conceptions of, 1–3, 95–96, 153–54, 211–15, 223n2; ancient examples of, 23, 145, 180–212, 214; Apega, 194–95; in China, 207–8, 231n19; Chinese tale about, 118, 121; controllability of, 29–30, 65–66, 206, 215; Daedalus’s moving statues, 90–95; defined, 220; desire of, to become human, 29; early uses of term, 145; economic motivations for creating, 152–53, 241n39; emotional responses to, 102–3; functions of, 180; guardians of Buddha, 203–11; historical, 179–212; in India, 203–11; Nysa, 198–99; Philo of Byzantium’s works, 199–200; philosophical questions raised by, 4, 211; slaves compared to, 93; Talos, 7–8, 22–23; terminology concerning, 3–4, 223n1. See also biotechne; robots autonomy, 108, 111, 122–23, 157, 160 Ayrton, Michael, 86–88, 98 Baghdad Batteries, 189–90 Banu Musa brothers, 201 Bentham, Jeremy, 138 Berlin Painter, 148; hydria with Apollo, 146, 147 Berryman, Sylvia, 22, 95, 153, 211, 224–25nn23–24, 233n21 biotechne (life through craft): ancient conceptions of, 1, 23, 28, 154, 179, 213–15; black box technology and, 3; defined, 220; and extension of human capacities, 59–70; for extension of life, 33–34, 36; and human creation, 114–24; persistence of stories about, 217; vulnerabilities of, 51.


Policing the Open Road by Sarah A. Seo

American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, barriers to entry, Ferguson, Missouri, jitney, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, strikebreaker, the built environment, traffic fines, War on Poverty

Reproduced from a copy at the New York Public Library. Harriss was essentially describing a panopticon, a circular prison designed by the eighteenth-century philosopher Jeremy Bentham. A tower in the center permitted a single guard to observe all the inmates, who could not tell whether they were being watched or not. Michel Foucault later analyzed the panopticon as an architectural metaphor for modern disciplinary mechanisms that control human behavior with a visible but unverifiable power. The tower (or traffic light) is always visible, but the prisoners (or drivers) cannot confirm whether they are being observed. According to Foucault, this motivates self-discipline, which enables the exercise of power to become automatic.71 Viewing signal lights as a type of panopticon highlighted the kind of governance that an automotive society seemed to require.

See Volstead Act Negligence. See Tort law Negro Motorist Green Book, 36, 185 New York Police Department, 58, 188, 190 New York v. Belton, 248–252, 258 Novels: Free Air, 10; The Great Gatsby, 34; On the Road, 10; A Wrinkle in Time, 222 O’Connor, Sandra, 262 Olmstead v. United States, 17, 130–132, 161 Operation Pipeline, 255–256 Order maintenance policing. See Vagrancy policing Originalism, 268–269 Panopticon, 58–60 Papachristou v. City of Jacksonville, 202–203, 207–208, 223–224 Patrol car, 2–3, 68, 95–99, 103–109 Pennsylvania v. Mimms, 6, 153, 273 People v. Cahan, 150, 192–194 People v. Case, 128–130, 132, 134, 139 Poems, 10, 153 Police power, 12, 23, 52, 72, 210, 212–213, 225 Police school, 87–88 Positive law, 26–27, 29–30, 48, 57 Pound, Roscoe, 24–25, 27, 34–35, 38, 39, 46–47 Pretextual policing, 232–234, 237, 246–247, 254–262, 264–266 Privacy: and Brandeis, 17–18, 131–132; and cars, 9, 10, 127–128, 167, 254; and houses, 162, 196–197, 229–230; individual expectations of, 135–136, 152, 174, 269; proceduralization of, 228–230; and Reich, 203, 209–210, 216, 218–220, 226; and smartphones, 270–272; substantive right to, 19–20, 125, 217, 219–220 Private enforcement, 3, 13, 85 Private property, 16, 127, 130, 152, 160, 210, 217–219, 268–269 Probable cause: for arrest, 115, 158, 176, 177, 221; for automobile exception, 137–141, 163–167, 252–254; and cars, 115–116, 133–134; for detention, 143, 151, 154; for vehicle stop, 252, 255; for warrant, 161 Proceduralism, 19, 220–221, 224–226, 228–230, 232, 245, 250, 253, 272, 275 Professionalization: and August Vollmer, 64, 67–68, 71–74, 107–109; and human relations, 178, 189–190; and traffic enforcement, 84–90, 94–95, 112 Progressivism, 12, 62, 66–67, 130–132, 218–219 Prohibition: and car cases, 113–118, 133–134, 138–139, 163–164; enforcement of, 28–30, 47, 72–76; and exclusionary rule, 119–124.

I finished writing this book at Columbia Law School, where I spent a semester as a scholar in residence at the Center for Contemporary Critical Thought. For this hospitality and intellectual enrichment, I owe Bernard Harcourt. Anna Krauthamer and Khamla Pradaxay ensured that I felt welcome. I was especially humbled when my alma mater hosted a manuscript workshop for me. Monica Bell, Deborah Dinner, Jeffrey Fagan, Bernard Harcourt, Jeremy Kessler, Kate Levine, Tracey Meares, Dan Richman, and Alice Ristroph read the manuscript and spent an entire day huddled in a conference room to talk about it—all on a month’s notice. The people at Harvard University Press have provided me with much reassurance and guidance. Andrew Kinney spent countless hours with me, and Timothy Jones, Stephanie Vyce, and Olivia Woods made sure the entire process went smoothly.


pages: 317 words: 98,745

Black Code: Inside the Battle for Cyberspace by Ronald J. Deibert

4chan, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Brian Krebs, call centre, citizen journalism, cloud computing, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, failed state, Firefox, global supply chain, global village, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, invention of writing, Iridium satellite, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low earth orbit, Marshall McLuhan, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, South China Sea, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, Ted Kaczynski, the medium is the message, Turing test, undersea cable, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, zero day

So, when any reference to “Bo Xilai” was censored, Internet users began referring to him as “Gua’s Father” instead (indicating that Bo Xilai is the father of Bo Guagua), until that term was filtered, and so on. The average Chinese user might go days without bumping into attempts of state control online, but the threat is always lurking. In this sense the system is less like 1984 and more like Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon, a system that gives the feeling of being watched, that someone somewhere knows what you’re doing. No doubt, this creates considerable self-censorship, especially when combined with high-profile arrests of those who openly challenge the system. It’s noteworthy that China’s cyberspace strategy – unlike, say, North Korea’s – is not aimed at completely isolating the country’s population from outside influence.

CSEC is Canada’s partner in the so-called Five Eyes alliance of signals intelligence agencies that includes the United States (National Security Agency), the United Kingdom (Government Communications Headquarters), Australia (Defence Signals Directorate), and New Zealand (Government Communications Security Bureau). See Martin Rudner, “Canada’s Communications Security Establishment, Signals Intelligence and Counter-terrorism,” Intelligence and National Security (2007); James Bamford, Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency (New York: Anchor Books, 2002); and Jeremy Littlewood, “Accountability of the Canadian Security Intelligence Community Post 9/11 : Still a Long and Winding Road?” in ed. Daniel Baldino, Democratic Oversight of Intelligence Services (Annandale, NSW: Federation Press, 2010). 2 The Citizen Lab did not trespass or violate anything: The ethical and legal issues underpinning the Citizen Lab’s research are discussed in Masashi Crete-Nishihata and Ronald J.

Facebook, Beluga, Yelp, Burbn, Instagram, Foursquare, Gowalla, Foodspotting, LinkedIn, Electronic Arts, Kik Interactive, and more. See “Tons of Companies Sued in Class Action Lawsuit over Uploading Phone Addressbooks,” Tech Dirt, March 20, 2012, http​://www​.techdir​t.com​/article​s/2012​0316/00561​5181​26/ton​s-companies-sued-class-action-lawsuit-over-uplo​ading-phone-addres​sbooks.shtml. See also Julia Angwin and Jeremy Singer-Vine, “Selling You on Facebook,” Wall Street Journal, April 7, 2012, http​://on​line.wsj.c​om/art​icle​/​SB10​0014​240527​023​03302​50457​73277​44009​0462​30.ht​ml?​mod=​WSJ​_Wh​atTh​eyK​now​Pri​vac​y_MI​DDL​ETo​pMi​niLe​adS​to​ry; Nick Bilton and Nicole Perlroth, “Mobile Apps Take Data without Permission,” New York Times, February 15, 2012, htt​p://bi​ts.bl​ogs.ny​times​.com​/2​012​/​02​/​15​/​google-and-mobile-apps-take​-data-books-wit​hout-per​mission/; “Now Twitter Admits ‘Harvesting’ Users’ Phone Contacts Without Telling the Owners as Apple Announces Crackdown,” Daily Mail, February 16, 2012, http​://www.​dailyma​il.co.uk​/science​tech/art​icle-210​1934/Apple-mov​es-stop-Facebook-Twitter-acc​essing-iPhone-us​ers-address-bo​oks-permis​sion.html; “Statement of Justin Brookman,” Before the Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Privacy, Technology, and the Law, Hearing on Protecting Mobile Privacy: Your Smartphones, Tablets, Cell Phones, and Your Privacy, May 10, 2011, https​://www.​cdt.org​/fil​es/pdf​s/201​10510​_mo​bile​_​pri​vac​y.pdf; and Lito Cruz, Andre Olober, and Kristopher Welsh, “The Danger of Big Data: Social Media as Computational Social Science,” First Monday 17, no.7 (2012), http​://​www.fir​stmond​ay.or​g​/​htbi​n​/​cgiw​rap​/​bin​/​ojs​/​ind​ex.php​/​fm​/​arti​cle​/​view​/​39​93​/​32​69. 14 U.S.


pages: 207 words: 64,598

To Show and to Tell: The Craft of Literary Nonfiction by Phillip Lopate

Charles Lindbergh, Columbine, desegregation, fear of failure, index card, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, white flight

There is a funny moment when he reverts to the idea that we are beasts at heart: “The wild beast resumes its sway within us, we feel like hunting-animals, and as the hound starts in his sleep and rushes on the chase in fancy, the heart rouses itself in its native lair, and utters a wild cry of joy, at being restored once more to freedom and lawless, unrestrained impulses. Every one has his full swing, or goes to the Devil his own way. Here are no Jeremy Bentham Panopticons . . . no more long calculations of self-interest.” Hazlitt is making fun of utilitarian philosophers such as Bentham who saw humanity as governed by a rational calculus of self-interest. This was, incidentally, the very same utilitarianism that Dostoevsky’s narrator in Notes from Underground took exception to, decades later, and his antidote would be quite similar to Hazlitt’s: the perversity of spite. Both authors saw man as a creature needing to feel free, even if by intentionally spiting one’s own self-interests.


pages: 579 words: 160,351

Breaking News: The Remaking of Journalism and Why It Matters Now by Alan Rusbridger

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Doomsday Book, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Filter Bubble, forensic accounting, Frank Gehry, future of journalism, G4S, high net worth, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pre–internet, ransomware, recommendation engine, Ruby on Rails, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Socratic dialogue, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks

(b. 1964) Her film about Snowden and our reporting, Citizenfour, premiered in October 2014. It went on to win an Oscar as best documentary feature. 8. Greenwald, G. No Place to Hide; see Bibliography. 9. Twitter, 6 June 2013, 2.39 a.m.; @algore 10. ‘Australian Spy Agencies Targeted Indonesian President’s Mobile Phone’, Guardian, 18 November 2013 11. The Panopticon was a building and system of all-seeing control imagined by the philosopher Jeremy Bentham in the late eighteenth century. 12. The story of Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers was first made into a feature film, The Most Dangerous Man in America, in 2009. Steven Spielberg’s The Post (2017) emphasised the parallel role of the Washington Post under Ben Bradlee and Katharine Graham. 13. His book, No Place to Hide (see Bibliography), speaks of his ‘contempt for the process . . . the government should not be a collaborative editorial partner with newspapers in deciding what gets published’ 14.

Both CA and Facebook initially responded with legal threats before the dam burst, at one stage wiping $80 billion (14 per cent) off the latter’s market value.10 At one level, many Facebook and Google users knew that their ability to use free email, search and messaging services came at a price – the surrender of quite significant amounts of their personal data. But the arithmetic of the harvesting – as many as 87 million profiles of friends and friends of friends – suddenly made Facebook look creepy.11 In the words of one Google artificial intelligence expert, not only could the platform be used as a totalitarian Panopticon, it was also a ‘psychological control vector’.12 Edward Snowden had shone a light on the state’s power to delve deeply into an infinite number of lives. Some had been outraged, others had shrugged. Now, some of the shruggers sat up straight and howled foul. As Zuckerberg struggled to frame an adequate response, a mob demanding regulation, if not actual dismemberment, soon made itself heard. There were also some calmer voices, even from the mainstream press.

Sullivan case (1964) ref1 New Yorker (magazine) ref1, ref2, ref3 Newland, Martin ref1 Newmark, Craig ref1 Newmarket Road (Cambridge) ref1, ref2, ref3 News Corporation ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7n News Digital Media ref1 News Group Newspapers (NGN) ref1, ref2, ref3 News International (NI) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10n News Network ref1 Newsday.com ref1 Newseum (US) ref1 Newsnight (TV) ref1 Newspaper Money (Hirsch/Gordon) ref1 Newsworks’ Shift conference ref1n NHS ref1 Nielsen NetRatings ref1 1984 (Orwell) ref1 Nixon, President Richard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 North Africa ref1, ref2 North Briton (newspaper) ref1 North Korea ref1 Northcliffe, Lord ref1 Northcliffe Media ref1 ‘Not Invented Here’ (NIH) resentment ref1 Nottingham Evening Post (newspaper) ref1 Nougayrède, Natalie ref1 Obama, President Barack ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Ofcom ref1, ref2, ref3 Official Secrets Act (OSA) ref1, ref2 Official Secrets (Hooper) ref1 O’Hagan, Andrew ref1 oil companies ref1, ref2, ref3 O’Kane, Maggie ref1 Old Bailey ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Oliver, Craig ref1, ref2 Omidyar, Pierre ref1 On Demand ref1 ‘On Journalism’ (Scott essay) ref1, ref2n, ref3n Open Democracy ref1, ref2, ref3 Open Weekend (2012) ref1, ref2 Operation Weeting ref1 O’Reilly, Tony ref1 ‘original sin’ ref1 Orphan ref1 Orwell, George ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Osborne, Peter ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Oscars ref1 ownership model ref1 Oxford University ref1 Pacino, Al ref1 page views ref1 Panopticon ref1, ref2, ref3n Panorama (TV) ref1 Paris climate talks ref1, ref2 Parker, Andrew ref1 Paton, John ref1 Patriot Act (2001) ref1, ref2 PayPal ref1 paywalls ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11n ‘hard’ ref1, ref2 metred ref1, ref2 Peake, Maxine ref1 Pearson & Co ref1, ref2 Pemsel, David ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n, ref6n, ref7n Pentagon ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 People Like Us (Luyendijk) ref1 Perch, Keith ref1n Perettu, Jonah ref1 Periscope ref1 perjury ref1 Permira Advisers Ltd ref1 Peterloo Massacre ref1, ref2, ref3 Petraeus, General David ref1 Pfauth, Ernst-Jan ref1 PFE (Proudly Found Elsewhere) ref1 philanthropy ref1 Philby, Kim ref1 Piano, Renzo ref1 Pilhofer, Aron ref1, ref2n Plastic Logic ref1 Plender, John ref1 podcasts ref1, ref2n Podemos ref1 Podesta emails ref1, ref2 Poitras, Laura ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 police ref1, ref2, ref3 passim, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6n, ref7n, ref8n political subsidy ref1 Politico ref1 Politics.co.uk ref1 Popbitch ref1 Popplewell, Sir Oliver ref1, ref2 Porter, Henry ref1 Post Office Act (US 1792) ref1 Pound, Ezra ref1 power ref1 Prescott, John (MP) ref1 Press Acquisitions Ltd ref1 Press Association ref1, ref2 Press Complaints Commission (PCC) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7n Press Holdings Ltd ref1 Preston, Peter ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 price war ref1, ref2 Price Waterhouse Cooper ref1 Pride and Perjury (Aitken) ref1 The Printing Press as an Agent of Change (Eisenstein) ref1 printing presses ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 prisons ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 privacy ref1 Private Eye (magazine) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8n private investigators ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 private sector ref1 Proctor & Gamble ref1 Prodigy Internet Service ref1 Product Development Unit (PDU) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Professional Footballers’ Association ref1 proportionality ref1 ProPublica ref1, ref2 Proudler, Gerald ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 public goods ref1, ref2 public interest ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 passim, ref1, ref2 passim, ref1 passim, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n, ref6n Public Library of Science (PLoS) ref1 public service ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 passim, ref1, ref2, ref3 public space ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 ‘publicness’ ref1 ‘purchase driver’ ref1 Putnam, Robert ref1 pyjama injunction ref1 Qantas ref1 Qatar ref1, ref2, ref3 Quatremer, Jean ref1 Qur’an ref1 R2 ref1 Raines, Howell ref1 Randall, Mike ref1 rape ref1, ref2, ref3n Rath, Matthias ref1 Ray Street offices ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 ‘reach before revenue’ model ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 readers ref1 American ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 knowledge ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 letters ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 readers’ editor ref1, ref2, ref3n response ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 talkboards ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n see also circulation Reading Football Club ref1 Real Networks ref1 Reckless, Mark (MP) ref1 Reddit ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Redford, Robert ref1, ref2 Reds (film) ref1 Rees, Jonathan ref1, ref2, ref3 referendum (UK 2016) ref1, ref2 regulation ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Regulatory Funding Council ref1 Reid, Harry ref1 religious stories ref1 rendition, Gibson report on ref1 Reuters ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n Institute for the Study of Journalism (RISJ) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Richard (reporter) ref1 Rinehart, Gina ref1 riots ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n Ritz hotel (London) ref1, ref2, ref3 Ritz hotel (Paris) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 rivalry ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7n Robards, Jason ref1 Roberts, Brian ref1 Roberts, Justine ref1 Robinson, Geoffrey (MP) ref1 Robinson, Stephen ref1 Rockefeller Foundation ref1 Rohm, Wendy Goldman ref1 Rolling Stones ref1 Rosen, Jay ref1, ref2, ref3 Rosenstiel, Tom ref1 Rossetto, Louis ref1 Rothermere, Lord ref1n, ref2n Rowlands, Tiny ref1 Royal Air Force (RAF) ref1 Royal Courts of Justice ref1, ref2, ref3 Rusbridger, Alan ref1, ref2n, ref3n, ref4n, ref5n Russian intelligence service ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Ryanair ref1 Saatchi, Maurice ref1 Sachs, Jeffrey ref1 Saffron Walden (Essex) ref1 Said Business School (Oxford) ref1 St Paul’s Cathedral ref1 Salon ref1 samizdat methods ref1 Sampson, Anthony ref1 San Jose Mercury (newspaper) ref1 Sanandaji, Tino ref1 Sandel, Michael ref1 Sanders, Bernie ref1, ref2 Sandy Hook ref1 Sandys, Duncan (MP) ref1 Sardar, Ziauddin ref1 Sark ref1, ref2 Sark Newspaper ref1 SAS ref1 Saudi Arabia ref1, ref2, ref3 Savoy Hotel (London) ref1, ref2, ref3 Savoy Taylors Guild ref1 Sawers, Sir John ref1 Schirrmacher, Franz ref1 Schmidt, Eric ref1, ref2 Schneier, Bruce ref1 Schudson, Michael ref1n science ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8n scoop ref1 Scoop (Waugh) ref1 Scotland Yard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Scotsman (newspaper) ref1, ref2, ref3 Scott, C.P. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9n, ref10n Scott, David ref1 Scott, Edward ref1 Scott, Henry E. ref1 Scott, John ref1 Scott, Richard ref1 Scott Trust ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15n Sellers, Frances Stead ref1 Selvey, Mike ref1 Senate Church committee (US) ref1 Senate Intelligence committee (US) ref1 Sensenbrenner, Jim ref1 September 11 (2001) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Serious Fraud Office (SFO) ref1 Shadid, Anthony ref1 Shainin, Jonathan ref1 Shaw, Fiona ref1 Sheehan, Neil ref1 Sheen, Michael ref1 Shenker, Jack ref1 Sherwood, Charles ref1 Shirky, Clay ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Siegal, Allan M. ref1 Silicon Valley ref1, ref2, ref3 passim, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 comes to Oxford (SVCO) ref1 Simon, David ref1 Simonds, Gavin ref1 Simpson, O.J. ref1 Singer, Marc ref1 Skype ref1 Slate Group ref1 smartphones ref1, ref2 Smith, Ben ref1 Smith, Brad ref1 Smith, Julian (MP) ref1 Smith, Shane ref1 Smith, Tim (MP) ref1 Snapchat ref1 Snowden, Edward ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 passim, ref1 passim, ref1 passim, ref1, ref2n, ref3n Snowden (film) ref1 Soho offices ref1 Sony ref1 Soros ref1 Sorrell, Martin ref1 sources ref1 South Africa ref1, ref2, ref3 South, Christopher ref1 Sparrow, Andrew ref1 Spectator (magazine) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Spielberg, Steven ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6n sponsorship ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 sport ref1 Spotify ref1, ref2 Springer, Axel ref1 The Square and the Tower (Ferguson) ref1 Stalin ref1, ref2 Standage, Tom ref1 Starr, Paul ref1, ref2 ‘Start Me Up’ (song) ref1 Start the Week (radio) ref1 State of the Union speech (Clinton) ref1 Steele, Christopher ref1 Steele, Jonathan ref1 Stephenson, Sir Paul ref1, ref2, ref3 Stewart, Mr Justice ref1 Stone, Biz ref1 Stone, Oliver ref1, ref2, ref3n Strathairn, David ref1 Streep, Meryl ref1 subscription ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14n ‘subsidariat’ ref1, ref2n Suez ref1 Sullivan, Andrew ref1, ref2n Sulston, John ref1 Sulzberger, A.G. ref1, ref2, ref3n Sulzberger, Arthur ref1n super-injunctions ref1 Supreme Court (UK) ref1 Supreme Court (US) ref1, ref2 Sweden ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n Sweeney, John ref1 Swift, Jonathan ref1 Switzerland ref1, ref2, ref3 Sydney Morning Herald (newspaper) ref1, ref2 Sykes, Richard ref1 Syria ref1, ref2 tabloids ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 passim, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9n, ref10n Tahrir Square (Cairo) ref1 Taliban ref1, ref2, ref3 talkboards ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n Tapscott, Don ref1 Task Force 373 ref1 tax ref1 avoidance ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n havens ref1, ref2, ref3 Taylor, Gordon ref1, ref2, ref3 Taylor, John Edward ref1, ref2 Taylor, Matthew ref1 Technorati ref1 Terrorism Act (2000) (UK) ref1, ref2 terrorists ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 counter-terrorism ref1, ref2, ref3 Terry, Quinlan ref1 Tesco ref1, ref2, ref3n, ref4n Thailand ref1, ref2, ref3n Thalidomide ref1, ref2n Thatcher, Prime Minister Margaret ref1 Thatcher, Carol ref1 Thatcher, Mark ref1 The Onion Router (TOR) ref1 Thewlis, David ref1 Thirty Club ref1 Thompson, Bill ref1 Thompson, E.P. ref1, ref2 Thompson, Robert ref1 threads ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 ‘threat reports’ ref1 Three Little Pigs boiling the Big Bad Wolf (film) ref1 Thurlbeck, Neville ref1 Time (magazine) ref1 Times Educational Supplement (magazine) ref1 Tomasky, Michael ref1 Tomlinson, Ian ref1, ref2 Topix.net ref1 torture ref1 Tow Center for Digital Journalism ref1, ref2 toxic waste ref1 Trafigura ref1, ref2, ref3n training ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 travel writing ref1, ref2n Travis, Alan ref1 Treanor, Jill ref1 Tribune Co (US) ref1 Trinity Mirror ref1, ref2, ref3 TripAdvisor ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n trolls ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Trump, President Donald ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15 Trump Bump ref1, ref2, ref3n, ref4n trust ref1, ref2 passim, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 passim, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 passim, ref1n Trust ownership ref1 truth ref1 passim, xxiv, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 reverse burden of ref1, ref2n Tucker Carlson Tonight (TV) ref1 Tugendhat, Mr Justice ref1 Turkey ref1 Tweetdeck ref1 Twitter ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 passim, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7n Tyas, John ref1 typesetting ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5n UHNWI (ultra-high net-worth individuals) ref1 UKIP ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n, ref5n Ukraine ref1 unions ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11 Unique Selling Point ref1 unique users ref1 United Nations (UN) ref1, ref2 University of California (Berkeley) ref1 Upworthy ref1 USA Today (magazine) ref1, ref2 Usenet ref1 Utley, T.E. ref1, ref2n van Beurden, Ben ref1 The Vanishing Newspaper (Meyer) ref1, ref2 Vanity Fair (magazine) ref1, ref2 Vaz, Keith (MP) ref1 Verizon ref1 ‘verticals’ ref1 Vice (magazine) ref1, ref2 Vickers, Paul ref1 video ref1, ref2, ref3 Vietnam War ref1 ‘viewspaper–newspaper’ ref1, ref2, ref3 Vignette ref1 Viner, Kath ref1, ref2, ref3 Vodafone ref1 Volkswagen ref1 Vyshinsky, Andrey ref1 Wadsworth, A.P. ref1 Wagner, Adam ref1 Waldman, Simon ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4n, ref5n Wales, Jimmy ref1 Walker, Christopher ref1 Wall Street ref1 Wall Street Journal (newspaper) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 Wallis, Neil ref1 Walter, Justin ref1 WAN-IFRA ref1 WannaCry ref1n Wapping ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 War Office ref1 Watergate ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Watson, Tom (MP) ref1 Waugh, Evelyn ref1 We the Media (Gillmor) ref1, ref2 Weatherup, James ref1 Web 1.0 ref1, ref2 Web 2.0 ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 ‘web monkeys’ ref1 Webster, Phil ref1 Weinstein, Harvey ref1 Weisberg, Jacob ref1 Wellcome Trust ref1, ref2, ref3 Wells, Holly ref1 West Africa ref1 West Coast giants see Silicon valley Westminster ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 What the Media Are Doing to Our Politics (Lloyd) ref1 whistleblowers ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 White House (US) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 White, Michael ref1 Whitehall ref1, ref2, ref3 Whittam Smith, Andreas ref1 Whittow, Hugh ref1 ‘Why I Write’ (Orwell essay) ref1 WikiLeaks ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Wikinomics (Tapscott) ref1 Wikipedia ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Wilby, Peter ref1 Wilkes, John ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6n Williams, Francis ref1 Wilton’s (restaurant) ref1 Windows 95 ref1 The Wire (TV) ref1 Wired (Anderson) ref1 Wired (magazine) ref1 Witherow, John ref1, ref2 witnesses ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Witty, Andrew ref1 Wolf, Armin ref1 women ref1, ref2 Wood, Graeme ref1 Woodward, Bob ref1, ref2 Workthing ref1, ref2 World Cup (football) ref1 World Economic Forum ref1 A World Without Bees (Benjamin) ref1 Worsthorne, Peregrine ref1 WPP plc ref1 Wu, Tim ref1 Yahoo ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Yates, John ref1, ref2, ref3 The Year the Future Began (Campbell) ref1 Yemen ref1 Yo!


pages: 428 words: 136,945

The Happiness Effect: How Social Media Is Driving a Generation to Appear Perfect at Any Cost by Donna Freitas

4chan, fear of failure, Joan Didion, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Skype, Snapchat, Year of Magical Thinking

They believe that all sorts of people are scrutinizing their social media accounts—that everyone is constantly being watched and judged and potentially shamed for mistakes.1 Their biggest fear is that potential employers will find an offending comment or photo on one of their social media accounts. They aren’t crazy to think so, either—employers really do check the social media profiles of applicants.2 Because college admissions officers do the same, many students have already gotten a taste of this variety of online stress before even arriving on campus—and once they do arrive, the scrutiny only continues.3 On the most sinister level, this sounds a lot like the interpretation of Bentham’s panopticon in Foucault’s Discipline and Punish, but on a virtual scale. College students (and young adults in general) are highly aware that because of social media, they can be “spied upon” at any and all moments by people they’ve never met, can’t see, and who may hail from far-flung locations, all of whom may have power over their lives. To draw on Foucault, this makes participants on social media “inmates” of a virtual sort, because no one knows “whether he is being looked at at any one moment; but he must be sure that he may always be so.”4 Young adults know (by way of the adults in their lives who’ve warned them) that this is effectively the deal they’ve signed up for on social media—by attaching their names to various platforms and by commenting and posting in these public spaces, they are allowing themselves to be surveilled and policed on a constant basis and must behave accordingly or suffer the punishment of not getting a job after college, or not even getting in to college.

But no one had a more elaborate theory of sexting than Jeremy. JEREMY: SEXTING THE RIGHT WAY I meet Jeremy on a beautiful, sunny day at his idyllic Catholic college. He wears a colorful, tie-dyed bucket hat on his head, a Beatles T-shirt, skater shoes, and shorts, and he exudes a sort of relaxed enthusiasm. Jeremy is an incredibly fun person to interview—lively, hilarious at times, very intelligent and thoughtful. He’s on just about every social media platform imaginable—Twitter, Tumblr, Snapchat, Vine, Tinder, Instagram, Facebook. He has a girlfriend back home, and when I ask him what sorts of things make him happy, he replies, “Too much makes me happy,” without skipping a beat. He’s a laid-back guy, disposed to enjoy life and have a positive attitude about things. In general, Jeremy posts whatever he wants on his accounts, though he does “watch his ass,” he explains, because he doesn’t want anybody Googling him and finding something for which he might get judged unfairly.

See bullying/cyberbullying monitoring of others, pervasiveness of, 11–2, 47–8 Moss, Eleanor, 305n4 narcissism, 102 anti-selfie views of, 85 pioneers of virtual world vs., 251–6 in solo selfies, 82, 83, 99 neutrality, 259–60 Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle), 256 nude photos. See sexting O’Brien, Edward, 167 official status. See Facebook official status OkCupid, 195 O’Neill, Essenia, 312n5 online dating, 193–5, 198. See also Tinder over-sharing, 78 panopticism (Bentham), 47 parents blocking of, 64–5 with Facebook accounts, 144, 180–1 restrictions based on religion, 112–7 setting boundaries on child’s use of phones/social media, 272, 280 unawareness of child’s online activity, 151–2, 175, 186–7 party photos, 5, 25, 40, 54, 56, 97, 98, 159, 261 peer enforcers, 45 Pew Research Center, 95, 303n7, 304n10 photo touchups, 97, 101 pics or it didn’t happen, use of term, 90 play, as virtue for social media age, 262–3 political/social issues posts branding of self and, 65–7 professionalization of online behavior and, 44, 46, 49–51, 58–62 sorority/fraternity life and, 4 Twitter and, 44, 46 popularity principle (Van Dijck), 19, 41, 305n3 predatory behavior, 11 privacy attempts to protect, 78 generational conflict over, 47–8 nonexpectation of, 208 religious observances and, 115 sexual orientation and, 180–4 produced candidness, 98 profile, use of term, 73–4 provocative opinions, 15 publics, use of term, 75–6 Raacke, John, 304n10 real me vs. online me, 10 Reclaiming Conversation (Turkle), 229 Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in a Digital Age (Turkle), 76 Reddit, 135, 169–70 religious expression, in social media, 104–23 anti-social media views and, 120–2 authenticity/inauthenticity, 112 avoidance of idolizing trap, 109 awareness of secular lives and, 118–20 Christian student interviewees, 105–12, 122–3 gender differences and, 121 God as viewer of one’s postings, 105–8 as inflammatory, 110 Muslim student interviewee, 112–7 Orthodox Jewish student interviewees, 117–22, 184–7 sense of purpose and control, 110, 116 as subversion of conservatism in faith, 112–7 summary conclusion, 122–3 as tool for evangelization, 110–2, 319n3 religious practices, and unplugging, 277–8 reputation selves, 72–5, 78–9 retweets.


pages: 296 words: 98,018

Winners Take All: The Elite Charade of Changing the World by Anand Giridharadas

"side hustle", activist lawyer, affirmative action, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Heinemeier Hansson, deindustrialization, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, friendly fire, global pandemic, high net worth, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Hyperloop, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, risk tolerance, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, working poor, zero-sum game

In order to define this new power, he decided to turn where few judges do: the late French philosopher Michel Foucault. In a remarkable passage, Judge Chen compared Uber’s power to that of the guards at the center of the Panopticon, which Foucault famously analyzed in Discipline and Punish. The Panopticon was a design for a circular prison building dreamed up in the eighteenth century by the philosopher Jeremy Bentham. The idea was to empower a solitary guard in the center of the building to watch over a large number of inmates, not because he was actually able to see them all at once, but because the design kept any prisoner from knowing who was being observed at any given moment. Foucault analyzed the nature and working of power in the Panopticon, and the judge found it analogous to Uber’s. He quoted a line about the “state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power.”


pages: 1,088 words: 297,362

The London Compendium by Ed Glinert

1960s counterculture, anti-communist, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Brixton riot, Corn Laws, Dava Sobel, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, hiring and firing, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nick Leeson, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, price stability, Ronald Reagan, Sloane Ranger, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, V2 rocket

Parliament, asked to choose between the two in 1836, decided to favour neither college but to create an umbrella body, the University of London, to administer exams for both sets of students. University College was the first British university to grant degrees to women. Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham, the eighteenth-century philosopher, bequeathed a large sum of money to University College on condition that his own skeleton be preserved and displayed every year at the annual general meeting. Every year the mummified Bentham is taken along to the AGM enclosed in a mahogany case with folding glass doors, seated in an armchair and holding his favourite walking stick. Over the years there have been some cosmetic changes to the skeleton: the head is a wax model, the original being stored in the college safe, and the underclothes were changed as recently as 1935, a visiting academic insisting on it before giving a lecture.

Central London CLERKENWELL | FINSBURY, EC1 (i) Little Italy Bleeding Heart Yard Brooke Street Clerkenwell Road Coldbath Square Ely Court Ely Place Greville Street Hatton Garden Leather Lane Mount Pleasant Saffron Hill (ii) Clerkenwell Green area Clerkenwell Close Clerkenwell Green Farringdon Lane Farringdon Road St John’s Square (iii) Farringdon Charterhouse Square Cowcross Street St John’s Lane St John Street (iv) Finsbury Exmouth Market Pine Street Rosebery Avenue St John Street (v) St Luke’s Bunhill Row City Road BLOOMSBURY, WC1 (i) around the colleges Byng Place Gordon Square Gower Street Malet Street Russell Square Tavistock Square (ii) around the British Museum Bedford Square Bloomsbury Square Bloomsbury Way Great Russell Street New Oxford Street (iii) east Bloomsbury Doughty Street Guilford Street Lamb’s Conduit Street Marchmont Street Percy Circus Queen Square Southampton Row Theobald’s Road (iv) High Holborn / Gray’s Inn Bury Place Gray’s Inn Road Gray’s Inn Square High Holborn Red Lion Square COVENT GARDEN, WC2 (i) around Leicester Square Charing Cross Road Cranbourn Street Leicester Square St Martin’s Place Trafalgar Square (ii) St Giles Denmark Street St Giles High Street (iii) Covent Garden Bedford Street Bow Street Covent Garden (Piazza) Earlharm Street Garrick Street Henrietta Street King Street Long Acre St Martin’s Lane Wellington Street (iv) Holborn Aldwych Drury Lane Great Queen Street Kingsway Tavistock Street (v) Lincoln’s Inn Chancery Lane Houghton Street Lincoln’s Inn Fields Portsmouth Street Sardinia Street Took’s Court (vi) Strand Strand (vii) Adelphi Adelphi Terrace The Arches Buckingham Street Craven Street Hungerford Lane John Adam Street Lower Robert Street Northumberland Avenue Northumberland Street Villiers Street York Place (viii) Savoy Savoy Court Savoy Hill Savoy Place The Sabini gang Wilkes and liberty John Wesley’s general rules of employing time The Bloomsbury Group Jeremy Bentham British Museum glossary Lenin’s Bloomsbury haunts Demonstrations and rallies in Trafalgar Square Gin Lane The Gordon Riots CLERKENWELL | FINSBURY, EC1 Although there were busy trades in Clerkenwell, and working jewellers by scores, it was a purer place, with farmhouses nearer to it than many modern Londoners would readily believe, and lovers’ walks at no great distance, which turned into squalid courts – Barnaby Rudge, Charles Dickens (1841) Clerkenwell, London’s first suburb, grew in medieval times on the slightly raised ground to the north of the City by the east bank of the River Fleet and took its name from the Fons Clericorum, or Clerks’ Well, on Farringdon Lane, a glimpse of which can be seen behind the façade at 14 Farringdon Lane.

Its cramped houses were demolished in the early twentieth century, after which the street was redeveloped with grandiose blocks including Thames House (home of MI5), Millbank Tower (late-twentieth-century Labour Party headquarters) and the Tate Britain art gallery. north side: Bessborough Gardens to Horseferry Road Morpeth Arms, No. 58 A well-preserved Victorian pub, featuring cut glass and wood panelling, that was built for the warders of Millbank Penitentiary. Millbank Penitentiary, Millbank at Bulinga Street Built in 1816 under the guidance of the social reformer Jeremy Bentham as the largest prison in the world, it was used mostly for convicts awaiting transportation to Australia, who were kept separate and silent for the first half of their sentence, a system that was scrapped after a cholera outbreak in 1823 when the women were released and the men transferred to prison boats on the Thames. Twenty years later the penitentiary was converted into a general prison, and after it closed in 1890 the site was taken up by the Tate Gallery.


The Master and His Emissary: The Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World by Iain McGilchrist

Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, computer age, Donald Trump, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, epigenetics, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, Georg Cantor, hedonic treadmill, Henri Poincaré, Lao Tzu, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, meta analysis, meta-analysis, music of the spheres, Necker cube, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, randomized controlled trial, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Schrödinger's Cat, social intelligence, social web, source of truth, stem cell, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind

Nature was to be treated with suspicion: observed, perhaps, as a parent might observe with indulgence an unruly child, but needing as much instruction in good manners – how to eat cold meat. Nature yields to artifice, not artifice to nature. The powerful all-surveying, all-capturing eye achieved its apotheosis in Jeremy Bentham’s Panopticon. This was, tellingly, a prison design which enabled prisoners to be under total surveillance while being themselves unaware of when they were being watched, a project about which Bentham was so enthusiastic that he spent much of his time and personal fortune on it. It has become familiar through the writings on modern society of Michel Foucault, with obvious correlates in the present world of technological surveillance, and in this way one could say that Bentham’s dream, or nightmare, was prescient. Bentham, the father of utilitarianism, was an eccentric character. In some ways he prefigures the child-like adults for whom Dickens had so keen an eye.

., ‘Impaired verbal reasoning and constructional apraxia in subjects with right hemisphere damage’, Neuropsychologia, 1990, 28(3), pp. 231–41 Benson, D. F. & Barton, M. I., ‘Disturbances in constructional ability’, Cortex, 1970, 6(1), pp. 19–46 Benson, D. F. & Stuss, D. T., ‘Frontal lobe influences on delusions: a clinical perspective’, Schizophrenia Bulletin, 1990, 16(3), pp. 403–11 Bentham, J., The Works of Jeremy Bentham, ed. J. Bowring, William Tait, Edinburgh, 1838–43 ——, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, in M. Warnock (ed.), Utilitarianism and On Liberty, including Mill’s ‘Essay on Bentham’ and selections from the writings of Jeremy Bentham and John Austin, Blackwell, Oxford, 2003 Benton, A. L., ‘Constructional apraxia and the minor hemisphere’, Confinia Neurologica, 1967, 29, pp. 1–16 Benton, A. L. & Fogel, M. L., ‘Three-dimensional constructional praxis: a clinical test’, Archives of Neurology, 1962, 7(4), pp. 347–54 Benton, A.

., ‘Getting the right idea: semantic activation in the right hemisphere may help solve insight problems’, Psychological Science, 1998, 9(6), pp. 435–40 Bowden, E. M. & Jung-Beeman, M., ‘Aha! Insight experience correlates with solution activation in the right hemisphere’, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2003, 10(3), pp. 730–37 Bowers, D., Blonder, L. X., Feinberg, T. et al., ‘Differential impact of right and left hemisphere lesions on facial emotion and object imagery’, Brain, 1991, 114(6), pp. 2593–609 Bowring, J., Memoirs of Bentham, in Bentham, J., The Works of Jeremy Bentham, ed. J. Bowring, William Tait, Edinburgh, 1838–43, vol. 10 Boyle, D., The Tyranny of Numbers, HarperCollins, London, 2001 Boys-Stones, G., ‘Physiognomy and ancient psychological theory’, in Swain, S. (ed.), Seeing the Face, Seeing the Soul, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007, pp. 19–124 Bracha, H. S., Cabrera, F. J., Karson, C. N. et al., ‘Lateralization of visual hallucinations in chronic schizophrenia’, Biological Psychiatry, 1985, 20(10), pp. 1132–6 Bradshaw, G.


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Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis

Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

In particular, criminologist Clive Norris found that black youths in the UK were ‘between one-and-a-half and two-and-a-half times more likely to be surveilled than one would expect from their presence in the population’.20 Surprisingly, the evidence shows that surveillance does little to assuage the fear of crime. The 2004 report from the University of Leicester asks where was the inconclusive proof that CCTV makes people feel safer? How do we feel being silently watched by the authorities all the time? Does it change the way people behave? Does it influence our sense of trust? In 1791, two years after the storming of the Bastille, the Utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham developed the notion of the Panopticon, a prison in which the inmates were observed at all times by some unseeing eye. The design of the gaol meant that the prisoner never knew whether he was being watched or not; therefore he was forced to behave himself rather than be disciplined. In effect he became both the jailer and the incarcerated. Does CCTV have the same effect, forcing us to readjust our behaviour where we think we are being watched?

., ‘Olympics 2012 security: welcome to lockdown London’, www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2012/mar/12/london-olympics-security-lockdown-london 18. news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/leicestershire/4294693.stm 19. www.guardian.co.uk/education/2006/jun/20/highereducationprofile.academicexperts 20. Graham, S., 2011, p. 263. 21. arstechnica.com/gadgets/news/2011/08/53-of-mobile-users-happy-to-hand-over-location-data-for-coupons.ars 22. www.theinternetofthings.eu/content/new-years-contest-panopticon-metaphor-internet-things---why-not-if-it-were-opposite 23. Goodyear, S., ‘Do Gated Communities Threaten Society?’, 11 April 2012, www.theatlanticcities.com/neighborhoods/2012/04/do-gated-communities-threaten-society/1737 24. Wilkinson, R. and Pickett, K., The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Better for Everyone, Penguin, 2010, p. 62. 25. Dorling, D., So You Think You Know About Britain, 2011, p. 73. 26.

., The Naked City, OUP, 2010 Acknowledgements There are many people to thank for this book. This has been a project that has connected me to many different people in many different places – more of an adventure than a writing exercise. Most importantly, thanks to the K. Blundell Trust whose generosity allowed me to travel and see some of the cities in the book for myself. Thanks also go to: Fran Tonkiss, Mike Batty, Jeremy Black, Michael Sorkin, Rahul and Matias at URBZ, Elizabeth Varley, Scott Burnham, Emer Coleman, Rick Burdett; Patrick Walsh, Claire Conville, Jake Bosanquet-Smith and Alex Christofi; Helen Garnons-Williams and Erica Jarnes; George Gibson and Jacqueline Johnson. This book is dedicated to Louis and Theadora because the city will one day belong to you and you must see it as an adventure, not a place of danger.


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The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

They live on the frontier of a new form of power that declares the end of a human future, with its antique allegiances to individuals, democracy, and the human agency necessary for moral judgment. Should we awaken from distraction, resignation, and psychic numbing with Scrooge’s determination, it is a future that we may still avert. VI. No Exit When Samuel Bentham, brother of philosopher Jeremy, first designed the panopticon as a means of overseeing unruly serfs on the estate of Prince Potemkin in the late eighteenth century, he drew inspiration from the architecture of the Russian Orthodox churches that dotted the countryside. Typically, these structures were built around a central dome from which a portrait of an all-powerful “Christ Pantokrator” stared down at the congregation and, by implication, all humanity.

., Deep China: The Moral Life of the Person (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011); Mette Halskov Hansen, iChina: The Rise of the Individual in Modern Chinese Society, ed. Rune Svarverud (Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, 2010); Yunxiang Yan, The Individualization of Chinese Society (Oxford: Bloomsbury Academic, 2009). 34. Hawkins, “Chinese Citizens Want the Government to Rank Them.” 35. Hvistendahl, “Inside China’s Vast New Experiment.” 36. Hvistendahl. 37. Masha Borak, “China’s Social Credit System: AI-Driven Panopticon or Fragmented Foundation for a Sincerity Culture?” TechNode, August 23, 2017, https://technode.com/2017/08/23/chinas-social-credit-system-ai-driven-panop ticon-or-fragmented-foundation-for-a-sincerity-culture. 38. “China Invents the Digital Totalitarian State,” Economist, December 17, 2016, http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21711902-worrying-implications-its-social-credit-project-china-invents-digital-totalitarian. 39.

See also consent Oremus, Will, 459 Origins of Architectural Pleasure (Hildebrand), 475 Origins of Totalitarianism, The (Arendt), 358, 383, 518 Orwell, George, 90, 523–524; and 1984, 371, 372–373, 636n68 otherization of humanity, 363–364, 365–366, 378, 397f, 410 Other-One viewpoint: as global presence, with Big Other, 377; human being as organism, 363–364, 365–366, 377; instrumentarian power operates from, 382, 418–419; Meyer’s, 363–366; Skinner seeks technology of human behavior institutionalizing, 369–371; Skinner’s elaboration of, 366–368; society as, 398–399; and tyranny, 513–514; in Walden Two, 373–374; and young people’s experience of hive life, 445–446, 465 “others,” dependency on: in adolescence, 448–449, 453–454, 465–466; and social media, 447–448, 456–457, 465 outside-looking-in experience of the self, 447–448, 456–457, 465 Overstock.com, 48 Overture search engine, 71, 76 Ovum, 246 Page, Larry: and advertising, 71, 74, 84; as exception to traditional utopian thinkers, 405; on Google as automagical, 128; and Google corporate governance structure, 101–102; and Google’s secrecy, 89; on lawlessness of cyberspace, 105; on right to be forgotten ruling, 60; on transformation of society, 401–402; on true nature of Google’s business, 98 Page Rank algorithm, 69 Paglen, Trevor, 491 Paine, Thomas, 513, 522 Palantir, 388 panopticon, 470–471 Paradiso, Joseph, 207–208, 208–209, 221, 224, 240, 378 Parker, Sean, 451 parking spaces, 229–230 Pasquale, Frank, 108, 109, 174, 187 Patel, Amit, 67–68, 75, 76 patents: Facebook’s, 159–160, 287, 393; Google’s, 77–80, 150; Microsoft’s, 411–412; for reality mining, 423; for vehicle telematics, 216 patients’ rights, 322, 325 Patriot Act (2001), 114 Pedersen, Darhl, 479 Peifer, Karl-Nikolaus, 59 Pentagon Highlands Forum, 118 Pentland, Alex: on attractions of instrumentarianism, 429; on behavior for the greater good, 432; commercial ventures of, 422, 424–425; on computation replacing politics, 433–434, 438; credentials of, 417–418; on death of individuality, 438–439, 440, 441; and detached observation (God’s eye view), 418–419; on laws of social behavior, 430–431; principles of instrumentarianism, 430–442; and reality mining, 420–423, 428; rejection of old social categories by, 428; on social network incentives, 436; on social pressure for harmony, 436–437; students of, 417–418, 419; theory of instrumentarianism, 416–417, 426–429; work on rendition of social relations, 419–429 people analytics.


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Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World by Niall Ferguson

British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, imperial preference, income per capita, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, night-watchman state, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, undersea cable, union organizing, zero-sum game

Even as laissez-faire economics began to set the tone back in London, Macquarie became an unabashed planner. Central to his urban vision were the huge Hyde Park Barracks, the biggest such building in the overseas empire at that time. With their austere symmetrical lines – the work of Francis Howard Greenway, a Gloucestershire architect and transported forger – the Barracks look like the prototype for Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarian ‘panopticon’. Six hundred criminals, with artisan skills, slept there in rows of hammocks, a hundred to a room, easily kept under surveillance through spy-holes. But this was far from a punishment block. It was a centre for the orderly allocation of skilled convict labour, the prisoners who had once been artisans and craftsmen but had fallen on hard times and turned to petty crime. These were the men Macquarie needed for the hundreds of public buildings which he believed would elevate Sydney from convict colony to conurbation, the first of which was a handsome hospital financed from a specially imposed duty on rum.

.), Sir Francis Drake and the Famous Voyage, 1577–1580 (Berkeley/Los Angeles/London, 1984), pp. 49–59 Armitage, David, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire (Cambridge, 2000) Barua, Pradeep, ‘Military Developments in India, 1750–1850’, Journal of Military History, 58/4(1994), pp. 599–616 Bayly, C. A., Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire (Cambridge, 1988) —, Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World, 1780–1830 (London, 1989) Bernstein, Jeremy, Dawning of the Raj: The Life and Trials of Warren Hastings (London, 2001) Boxer, C. R., The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 1600–1800 (London, 1965) Brenner, Robert, ‘The Social Basis of English Commercial Expansion, 1550-1650’, Journal of Economic History, 32/1 (1972), pp. 361–84 Brigden, Susan, New Worlds, Lost Worlds (London, 2000) Carlos, Ann M. and Nicholas, Stephen, ‘Agency Problems in Early Chartered Companies: The Case of the Hudson’s Bay Company’, Journal of Economic History, 50/4 (1990), pp. 853–75 Carnall, Geoffrey and Nicholson, Colin (eds.), The Impeachment of Warren Hastings: Papers from a Bicentenary Commemoration (Edinburgh, 1989) Cell, Gillian T.


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Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places by Sharon Zukin

1960s counterculture, big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, crack epidemic, creative destruction, David Brooks, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent control, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Jensen, “The BID’s of New York: Power, Place, and the Role of Business Improvement Districts,” paper presented at the eighteenth AESOP Congress, Grenoble, July 1–3, 2004, p. 10; “an earlier set of values”: Heather MacDonald, “Why Business Improvement Districts Work,” Civic Bulletin, no. 4, May 1996, www.manhattan-institute.org/html/cb_4.htm; Bennett, Birth of the Museum, p. 24. Certainly the use of surveillance for social control takes many modern forms, beginning with Jeremy Bentham’s panopticon and leading up to today’s closed-circuit TV and biometric screening. 27. Darren Walker quoted in Sewell Chan, http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/10/04/has-new-york-lost-its-soul/, October 4, 2007. 28. Thomas J. Lueck, “Public Needs, Private Answers—A Special Report; Business Districts Grow, at Price of Accountability,” New York Times, November 20, 1994; Dan Barry and Thomas J. Lueck, “Control Sought on Districts for Businesses,” New York Times, April 2, 1998; Thomas J.


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Behind the Berlin Wall: East Germany and the Frontiers of Power by Patrick Major

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, falling living standards, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-materialism, refrigerator car, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Sinatra Doctrine

Yet theorists and cultural historians have been equally guilty of fetishizing elite power fantasies, while ignoring their realizability. Reading eighteenth-century prescriptions for a more ordered society—epitomized by the prison, but replicated in factories, schools, barracks, and hospitals—Michel Foucault charted the rise of the modern regulatory state. His pinnacle of rational control was Bentham’s imagined Panopticon, that voyeuristic, theatrical penitentiary in which prisoners would learn to surveil themselves. Yet the society-as-prison metaphor is not without relevance to the GDR, as is Foucault’s recognition that heavy-handed shows of force could yield to more sophisticated techniques. As he suggested: ¹⁶ For a cultural anthropology of international borders, see Hastings Donnan and Thomas M.

Index 1953, 17 June uprising 11, 29, 54, 65–6, 85, Biermann, Wolf 178–9, 185–6, 208 99–100, 134, 168 black market 27, 89–90 1989 see Berlin Wall, fall of Blake, George 30 GDR’s fortieth anniversary 245, 248–9 Bloch, Ernst 70 blockade see Berlin blockade Adenauer, Konrad 13, 36, 56 Bohley, Bärbel 236 Alarm im Zirkus (1954) 98 Bond, James 182 Allinson, Mark 289 border Alltagsgeschichte (everyday history) 8, 10 closures 74, 90–1, 109, 120 airlift see Berlin blockade evacuations 91, 150 guards 89–90, 108–9, 145–7, 151–2; Anderson, Sascha 187 killings of, 148–9, 268–9 army see National People’s Army Bornholmerstraße crossing point 253 arrests 132, 147, 149–50, 219 Bouchet, Christophe 272 art see under Berlin Wall Bowie, David 176 Brandenburg Gate 254–5, 277 Bahr, Egon 163 Brandt, Willy 92, 145, 164, 258 Bahro, Rudolf 214 Brasch, Thomas 176 Bartmuß, Pastor 214 Brecht, Bertolt 90 Beatles 171 Brill, Hermann 65 Bentham, Jeremy 4 Brüssig, Thomas 260–1 Berlin 26–31 blockade 27–8, 30 fall of (1945) 26 Charité hospital 72, 126, 133 rebuilding 274 Checkpoint Charlie 1, 278 sector boundary 89, 95–6, 108, 120 chemicals industry 78–9, 83 Berlin, East 33, 39 Chernobyl reactor disaster 236 demonstrations in 245–6 children see under young people mass rally of 4 November 1989 250 China, People’s Republic of 33, 40 Berlin, West 24, 28, 31, 34, 128, 161–2, 291; Christmas pass agreements 163 as Free City 40 church 91, 153, 237–8 Berlin Crisis (1958–61) 31–42, 72–3 and emigration 237–8, 242 Berlin Wall 1, 155–62 Churchill, Winston 2 as ‘Antifascist Defence Rampart’ 143 CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) 29, 31 art installations at 272–3, 277–8 cinema see film Clay, Lucius D. 27 decision to build 108–16 collectivization 25, 49–50, 53 demolition 274–5 communist party see SED expansion 149–50, 152 compassionate leave 199–208, 240 Exclusion Zone 153, 261 computer programme 229 fall of 251–4 consciousness analyses 16 graffiti 271–3, 274; see also art installations consumerism see under economics at CSCE see human rights historiography of 283–90 Czechoslovakia 252 initial reactions to 119–28; personal factors 128–9, 157–9 preservation 275–83 Dahrendorf, Gustav 65 propaganda for and against 155–6, 284–6 DEFA (state film company) 15, 35 Berlin Ecke Schönhauser (1957) 98–9 defections, see ‘Republikflucht’ Berliner Romanze (1956) 98 demonstrations 238, 242–51 Beuys, Joseph 273 Diepgen, Eberhard 277 318 Index doctors 60, 68–9, 71–2, 73, 80, 83, 85, 86, Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) 32, 34, 99, 133 161 Deighton, Len 1, 286 asylum policy 58, 65, 74, 107 Demarcation Line 89–91, 145, 153–4, trade embargo 47–8 270–1 fiction 179–83 Diedrich, Torsten 289 film 31, 96, 98, 178, 183–6, 233 dissidents see opposition food see consumerism Dohlus, Horst 14, 233 foreign policy 17, 23–4, 25–6, 32, 33–4, 38, Dresden, battle of railway station 245 52, 54, 72–4, 163 Dulles, John Foster 36 Foucault, Michel 4–5 Dutschke, Rudi 70 Frankfurt/Oder 14 Frost, Robert 227 Fulbrook, Mary 10, 159 East German communist party see SED East Side Gallery 275–6 economics 24–5, 27, 42–52 Gaddis, John Lewis 25 autarky ( Störfeimachung) 46–8 Gagarin, Yuri (cosmonaut) 52 and Berlin Wall 111 Garton Ash, Timothy 220 consumerism 30–1, 49–51, 52–3, 63, 76, Geneva summit (1959) 34, 38 127, 165–6, 182–3, 189–90, 208, Glatzkopfbande, Die (1963) 183 210–11, 229–30, 258–9, 262 globalization 9, 193 currency reform 27, 29, 257 Göring, Peter 148 debt crisis 228, 251–2 Good Bye, Lenin!


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Addiction by Design: Machine Gambling in Las Vegas by Natasha Dow Schüll

airport security, Albert Einstein, Build a better mousetrap, business intelligence, capital controls, cashless society, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, game design, impulse control, information asymmetry, inventory management, iterative process, jitney, large denomination, late capitalism, late fees, longitudinal study, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nash equilibrium, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, profit motive, RFID, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, statistical model, the built environment, yield curve, zero-sum game

Gambling was understood to be an escape from routine and the futility of working-class lives (e.g., Zola 1963). As Caillois had written earlier: “Recourse to chance helps people tolerate competition that is unfair or too rigged. At the same time, it leaves hope in the dispossessed that free competition is still possible in the lowly stations in life” (1979 [1958], 115). 36. Goffman 1961, 34. 37. Geertz 1973. The concept of “deep play” was first elaborated by Jeremy Bentham to describe play in which financial stakes run “irrationally” high despite the fact that chance will determine the outcome, indicating that more than just money is at stake (in ibid., 431). 38. Dostoyevsky 1972 [1867], 199. The semiautobiographical novel was written during a period when Dostoyevsky struggled with his own excessive gambling. The quoted passage carries echoes of Schiller’s German romanticist view of gambling: “man only plays when in the full meaning of the word he is a man, and he is only entirely a man when he plays” (quoted in Caillois 1979 [1958], 163).

Bachelard, Gaston Bally Technologies: Comfort Zone consoles; data visualization system; and the first coin multiplier; and the first electromechanical slot machine; and the first patent for video poker; game design at; and legal hearings on near misses; and multiline slots; and player tracking; Powercash system; Privacy Zone cabinets; simulation of mechanical reels by; TITO system Bank of America Barney: on video poker as a direct way to destiny Bataille, Georges Bateson, Gregory: on addiction; on equilibrium; on nonpurposive activities Baudrillard, Jean Bauman, Zygmunt Beck, Ulrich. See also risk society. behavioral reinforcement. See reinforcement. Bell, Daniel Benjamin, Walter Bentham, Jeremy Bergler, Edmund Bernhard, Bo: on informational remedies for problem gambling; on spread of video gambling; on unintended consequences of gambling machine safety modifications; on video gambling addiction; on voluntary responsible gambling features Biggs, Lindy Blaszczynski, Alex Borrell, Jennifer: Bourgois, Philippe Brandt, Allen Breen, Robert Britain Brown, Denise Scott budget managementff Bull, Stuart Burke, Kenneth Burroughs, William Burton, Bill Bybee, Shannon Caesars Palace Caillois, Roger Calleja, Gordon Callon, Michel Canada: casino duty of care in; and the Informed Player Choice System; liberalization of gambling in; and the responsible gaming device; and use of the addition-detection algorithm in; video lottery terminals in Cantor Gaming capitalism: and the actuarial self; and addiction; and consumer affect; and consumption; cultural theories of; flexible; and flexible specialization; and flow; and Fordism; and gambling; limbic; ludo-; and reenchantment by rationalization; and the service economy; and space; and speed; and the zone.

Nevada Council on Problem Gambling Nevada Gaming Control Board Nietzsche, Friedrich Norman, Laurie Norway: limits on play in state–run casinos non-obvious relationship awareness (NORA) O.B.: gambling to forget O’Hare, Carol O’Malley, Pat online gambling: and addiction; anonymity of; and responsible gaming; similarity to machine gambling; spread of operant conditioning. See reinforcement; Skinner, B.F. Pace, Mark pachinko (pachislo/pachisuro) Pandolfo, Stefania panopticon PAR sheets (paytable and reel strip sheets) The Paradox of Choice pathological gambling: diagnosis of; endorsement of by gambling industry; medical classification of. See gambling addiction; problem gambling. Patsy: becoming robotlike in her human interactions; and compulsive budgeting rituals; and the desire for anonymity; juggling herfinances to gamble; and “machine life,”; self-medicating with video poker payback percentage.


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Debt: The First 5,000 Years by David Graeber

Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, David Graeber, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, double entry bookkeeping, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, informal economy, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, oil shock, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, place-making, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit motive, reserve currency, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, sexual politics, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Thales of Miletus, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, upwardly mobile, urban decay, working poor, zero-sum game

In fact, as Linebaugh has shown, the situation only really began to take recognizable form around 1800, when the government stabilized its finances, began paying cash wages on schedule, and therefore tried to abolish the practice of what was now relabeled “workplace pilfering”—which, meeting outraged resistance on the part of the dockworkers, was made punishable by whipping and imprisonment. Samuel Bentham, the engineer put in charge of reforming the dockyards, had to turn them into a regular police state in order to be able to institute a regime of pure wage labor—to which purpose he ultimately conceived the notion of building a giant tower in the middle to guarantee constant surveillance, an idea that was later borrowed by his brother Jeremy for the famous Panopticon.105 Men like Smith and Bentham were idealists; even utopians. To understand the history of capitalism, however, we have to begin by realizing that the picture we have in our heads, of workers who dutifully punch the clock at 8:00 a.m. and receive regular remuneration every Friday, on the basis of a temporary contract that either party is free to break off at any time, began as a utopian vision, was only gradually put into effect even in England and North America, and has never, at any point, been the main way of organizing production for the market, ever, anywhere.

“Fiscal and Monetary Institutions in Spain, 1600-1900.” In Transferring wealth and power from the old to the new world: monetary and fiscal institutions in the 17th through the 19th century (Michael D. Bordo and Robert Cortés Conde, editors), pp. 140-186. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Trawick, Margaret. 1992. Notes on Love in a Tamil Family. Berkeley: University of California Press. Trevett, Jeremy. 1992. Apollodoros the Son of Pasion. Oxford: Clarendon Press. _____. 2001. “Coinage and Democracy at Athens,” in A. Meadows and K. Shipton, eds., Money and Its Uses in the Ancient Greek World (Oxford: Oxford University Press), pp. 23–34 Trombert, Eric. 1995. Le crédit à Dunhuang: Vie matérielle et société en Chine médiévale. Paris: Ihec/Inst.Hautes Etudes. Tseayo, Justin Iyorbee. 1975. Conflict and Incorporation in Nigera: the Integration of the Tiv.


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Culture and Imperialism by Edward W. Said

Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, Khartoum Gordon, lateral thinking, lone genius, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, traveling salesman

From the time the first British expedition arrived there in 1608 until the last British Viceroy departed in 1947, India had a massive influence on British life, in commerce and trade, industry and politics, ideology and war, culture and the life of imagination. In English literature and thought the list of great names who dealt with and wrote about India is astonishingly impressive, for it includes William Jones, Edmund Burke, William Makepeace Thackeray, Jeremy Bentham, James and John Stuart Mill, Lord Macaulay, Harriet Martineau, and, of course Rudyard Kipling, whose importance in the definition, the imagination, the formulation of what India was to the British empire in its mature phase, just before the whole edifice began to split and crack, is undeniable. Kipling not only wrote about India, but was of it. His father, Lockwood, a refined scholar, teacher, and artist (the model for the kindly curator of the Lahore Museum in Chapter One of Kim), was a teacher in British India.

Maine’s great study Ancient Law (1861) explores the structure of law in a primitive patriarchal society that accorded privilege to fixed “status” and could not become modern until the transformation to a “contractual” basis took place. Maine uncannily prefigures Foucault’s history, in Discipline and Punish, of the shift in Europe from “sovereign” to administrative surveillance. The difference is that for Maine the empire became a sort of laboratory for proving his theory (Foucault treats the Benthamite Panopticon in use at European correctional facilities as the proof of his): appointed to the Viceroy’s Council in India as legal member, Maine regarded his sojourn in the East as an “extended field-trip.” He fought the Utilitarians on issues concerning the sweeping reform of Indian legislation (two hundred pieces of which he wrote), and interpreted his task as the identification and preservation of Indians who could be rescued from “status” and, as carefully nurtured elites, brought over to the contractual basis of British policy.


From Peoples into Nations by John Connelly

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bank run, Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, oil shock, old-boy network, open borders, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Chicago School, trade liberalization, Transnistria, union organizing, upwardly mobile, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce

Willi Stoph (wife of the number two) became a shopaholic, appearing daily in their compound’s shopping center and wanting to see something new.74 Even rumors of these modest privileges elicited deep resentment because the leaders claimed a right to rule in the name of higher standards and yet seemed out of touch with the language they had attempted to foist on workers. * * * But going from such insights to actual opposition was difficult. What was opposition? Every act, even thought, directed against agenda of the state? In theory, it was every point where the would-be total state encountered limitations. It had tried, like Jeremy Bentham’s panopticon, to “see and control every individual member of the society,” and society’s response was to draw down the shutters when possible, and when not, to protect themselves against lies by lying.75 Yet not every lie or evasion was opposition. Wearing jeans; slacking off at work; hoarding butter; changing money illegally (indeed, participating in any part of the gray economy)—actions that were somehow nonconformist or even subversive—were at best implicit opposition, and then only against the state as it was supposed to exist in theory.

George Barany, Stephen Széchenyi and the Awakening of Hungarian Nationalism (Princeton, NJ, 1968), 225. 25. C. A. Macartney, The Habsburg Empire 1790–1918 (London, 1969), 732. For the concept of flanking as applied to Yugoslav territories, see Robert Hislope, “Intra-ethnic Conflict in Croatia and Serbia: Flanking and the Consequences for Democracy,” East European Quarterly 30:4 (Winter 1996), 471–494. Jeremy King notes this phenomenon in 1890s Bohemia, where the Old and Young Czechs became successively more anti-German by trying to demonstrate their Czechness. Jeremy King, Budweisers into Czechs and Germans: A Local History of Bohemian Politics, 1848–1948 (Princeton, NJ, 2002), 86. For a general evocation of this principle, see also Judson, Guardians, 9, with copious references. 26. Yet even the enlightened Eötvös had extended cultural rights to minorities in the Hungarian kingdom as a way of lessening their opposition: he did not doubt that the ultimate fate of every citizen of the kingdom was to become culturally Magyar; they would ultimately find its attractions irresistible.

Berend, Justin Jampol, Stefan Wolle, Thomas Lindenberger, Zach Shore, Christoph Klessmann, Cameron Munter, Martin Guntau, Włodek Borodziej, Evelina Janczur, Timothy Garton Ash, Ivo Goldstain, Paweł Machcewicz, Urszula Pałłasz, Larry Wolff and David Wolff, Melissa Feinberg, Tvrtko Jakovina, Agnieszka Rudnicka, Maria Bucur, Holly Case, Anna Machcewicz, Kriszti Fehervary, Calvin Mackerron, Jim Gerlach, Artur Dmochowski, Jeff Kopstein, Piotr Hübner, Anja Machcewicz, James Felak, Peter Baldwin, Gary Cohen, Peter Haslinger, Eric Weitz, Staszek Obirek, Ralph Jessen, Jürgen Kocka, Omer Bartov, Jan Grabowski, Tim Snyder, Thomas Küttler, Steve Mull, Lutz Niethammer, Anna and Ludwik Spissowie, Michal Kopeček, Martin Putna, Małgosia Mazurek, Thomas Gertler, Peter Luban, Marci Shore, Bogdan Iacob, Vladimir Tismaneanu, Gosia Fidelis, Katherine Jolluck, Scott B. Smith, Justin Sparks, MaruškaSvašková, Bruce Berglund, Dirk Moses, Sam Moyn, Patrick Patterson, Lee Blackwood, Jeremy King, Brad Abrams, Ben Frommer, Árpád von Klimó, and Mark Keck-Szajbel. Among the graduate students I’ve had the pleasure of learning from, I mention Chad Bryant, James Krapfl, Winson Chu, Edith Sheffer, Stephen Gross, Brian McCook, Michael Dean, Terry Renaud, Andrew Kornbluth, Victoria Smolkin, Nicole Eaton, Andrej Milivojevic, Sarah Cramsey, Helaine Blumenthal, Clara Leon, Elizabeth Wenger, Jacob Mikanowski, Blaze Joel, Will Jenkins, Richard Smith, Joy Neumeyer, Sara Friedman, Dan Perez, Jason Morton, Lee Hekking, Paweł Kościelny, Thom Sliwkowski, Ula Madej-Krupitski, Harrison King, Alex Soros, and Agnieszka Smełkowska.