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pages: 468 words: 124,573

How to Build a Billion Dollar App: Discover the Secrets of the Most Successful Entrepreneurs of Our Time by George Berkowski


Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing,, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, Paul Graham, QR code, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Y Combinator

, article on, 29 April 2013, 22 Interview with Jan Koum, 20 January 2014, op. cit. 23 J. J. Colao, ‘Snapchat: The Biggest No-Revenue Mobile App Since Instagram’, article on, 27 November 2012, 24 Evelyn M. Rusli and Douglas MacMillan, 13 November 2013, op. cit. 25 Mike Isaac, ‘Snapchat Closes $60 Million Round Led by IVP, Now at 200 Million Daily Snaps’, article on, 24 June 2013, 26 ‘Recent Additions to Team Snapchat’, blog post on, 24 June 2013, 27 Mike Isaac, ‘Snapchat Now Boasts More Than 150 Million Photos Taken Daily’, article on, 16 April 2013, 28 Justin Lafferty, ‘Facebook Photo Storage Is No Easy Task’, article on, 16 January 2013,

Chapter 23: Revenue-Engine Mechanics 1 David Skok, ‘Startup Killer: The Cost of Customer Acquisitions’, article on, 22 December 2009, 2 Eliana Dockterman, ‘Candy Crush Saga: The Science Behind Our Addiction’, article on, 15 November 2013, 3 Mia Shanley, ‘How Candy Crush Makes So Much Money’, article on, 8 October 2013, 4 Dave McClure, ‘Startup Metrics for Pirates’, presented to Wildfire Interactive, May 2012, slide 73, 5 Mike Isaac, ‘Snapchat Closes $60 Million Round Led by IVP, Now at 200 Million Daily Snaps’, article on, 24 June 2013, 6 Mike Isaac, ‘Snapchat Now Boasts More Than 150 Million Photos Taken Daily’, article on, 16 April 2013, 7 Liz Gannes, ‘Popular Photo Message App Snapchat Adds Video’, article on, 14 December 2012, 8 David Skok, ‘The Science Behind Viral Marketing’, article on, 15 September 2011,

Google VP Explains How to Go Big’, article on, 19 April 2012, 5 Mike Isaac, ‘Facebook Acquisition Talks With Waze Fall Apart’, article for, 29 May 2013, 6 Simone Wilson, ‘Billion-dollar Waze’, article on, 19 June 2013, 7 Ibid. 8 For details of the merger see 9 Gerry Shih and Sarah McBride, ‘Facebook to buy WhatsApp for $19 Billion in Deal Shocker’, article on, 20 February 2014, EA1I26B20140220. 10 ‘Facebook to Acquire WhatsApp’, press release on, 19 February 2014, 11 Justin Lafferty, ‘Facebook Revenue Hits $2B in Q3, Now Has 507m Mobile DAUs’, article on, 30 October 2013, 12 So WhatsApp seems to be processing more messages than all SMS in the world. 13 ‘Facebook to Acquire WhatsApp’, 19 February 2014, op. cit. 14 Adario Strange, ‘Facebook Reportedly Offered $1 Billion to Acquire Snapchat’, article on, 15 Evelyn M. Rusli and Douglas MacMillan, ‘Snapchat Spurned $3 Billion Acquisitions Offer from Facebook’, blog post on, 13 November 2013, 16 Cheryl Conner, ‘Facebook’s Reality Check: Death by a Thousand Snapchats?’, article on, 8 July 2013, 17 Kara Swisher, ‘Yahoo Tumblrs for Cool: Board Approves $1.1 Billion Deal as Expected’, article on, 19 May 2013, 18 Todd Wasserman, ‘Tumblr’s Mobile Traffic May Overtake Desktop Traffic This Year’, article on, 21 February 2013, 19 Ibid. 20 Marc Andreessen, ‘Why Software Is Eating the World’, article on, 20 August 2011, SB10001424053111903480 904576512250915629460. 21 Leena Rao, ‘As Software Eats the World, Non-Tech Corporations Are Eating Startups’, article on, 14 December 2013, 22 Alexia Tsotsis, ‘Monsanto Buys Weather Big Data Company Climate Corporation for Around $1.1B’, article on, 2 October 2013, 23 Leena Rao, 14 December 2013, op. cit. 24 Ibid. 25 Pitchbook, US, ‘VC Valuations and Trends’, 2014 annual report. 26 ‘Yesterday’s Big Payday for the IRS: 1600 Twitter Employees Now Millionaires’, research on, 8 November 2013, 27 Sven Grundberg, ‘“Candy Crush Saga” Maker Files for an IPO’, article on, 18 February 2014, 28 ‘UK Mobile Games Maker King Delays IPO Due to Candy Crush Surge’, article on, 9 December 2013, 29 Phillipa Leighton-Jones, ‘Why Candy Crush Is a Success That’s Hard to Copy’, blog post on, 18 February 2014, 30 Mark Berniker and Josh Lipton, ‘Uber CEO Kalanick: No Plans To Go Public Right Now’, article on, 6 November 2013,

pages: 428 words: 136,945

The Happiness Effect: How Social Media Is Driving a Generation to Appear Perfect at Any Cost by Donna Freitas

4chan, fear of failure, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Skype, Snapchat

They can rest easy knowing that their Snapchat photos, selfies, and comments will fade away. The very fact that snaps disappear has led Snapchat to become known as the “sexting app.”2 And, yes, people use it for that. But for the college students I spoke with, this is an impoverished and limited understanding of Snapchat’s true delights. College students can be silly on Snapchat. They can be ridiculous. They can say dumb things. They can take goofy, ugly, unbecoming photographs and show them to other people. They can be sad, they can be negative, they can be angry, they can even be mean. They can be as emotional as they really feel. They can be honest. And it’s true, on Snapchat college students feel they can be sexy. But most of all, they play on Snapchat and they engage in all kinds of foolishness.

But most of all, they play on Snapchat and they engage in all kinds of foolishness. And that’s why they love it. On Snapchat college students feel they can do all the things they’ve learned they’re not allowed to do on Facebook or any other platform that is more “permanent” and attached to their names. Matthew tried to explain the difference between Facebook and Snapchat to me, and why Snapchat is much more fun. Like many students, Matthew goes onto Facebook a lot, but not to post—posting is too time-consuming and too much work, because every post has become so high-stakes. Mostly, Matthew just scrolls through the feed and lurks, checking out other people’s updates and photos. But Matthew loves Snapchat and goes on it all the time, and unlike with Facebook, on Matthew actually participates. “When I’m bored,” Matthew says, “I’ll snap a picture of something random, send it to, like, five people and wait for somebody to respond.

It’s very difficult to find a student who makes regular updates on Facebook today because deciding what to post and wording and editing it takes so long and then you have to contend with all the stress that follows the posting. Updating social media—the kind that sticks around—can be exhausting and feel like a job. With Snapchat you can just relax and play around. Another thing that’s nice about Snapchat is that it’s one of the only platforms where you don’t have to worry about cultivating an image, Matthew tells me. You can snap pictures when you’re drinking alcohol, or simply not show your “perfect” side. This is a huge relief for him, and another reason he loves it so much. He explains, “My image on Facebook and Twitter is a lot better than it is to my friends on Snapchat.” By “better,” Matthew means more airbrushed and less himself. Snapchat brings Matthew so much joy because he can just be who he is, however he is at the moment, even if it’s not happy or particularly becoming.

pages: 199 words: 43,653

Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal


Airbnb, AltaVista, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance,, framing effect, game design, Google Glasses, Inbox Zero, invention of the telephone, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Oculus Rift, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QWERTY keyboard, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, the new new thing, Toyota Production System, Y Combinator

By simplifying the investment of sorting through potential mates, Tinder makes loading the next trigger more likely with each swipe. The more swipes, the more potential matches are made and of course, each match sends notifications to both interested parties. Figure 35 Snapchat As of June 2013, a popular photo sharing app called Snapchat boasted of five million daily active users collectively sending over 200 million photos and videos daily. [cxi] This tremendous engagement means an average Snapchat user sends 40 pics every day! But why are users so in love with Snapchat? In large part, its success can be attributed to the fact that users load the next trigger every time they use the service. Snapchat is more than a way to share images. It is a means of communication akin to sending an SMS message — with the added bonus of a built-in timer that can cause the message to self-destruct after viewing, based on the sender’s instructions.

Accessed November 13, 2013. [cx] Dating, Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Tinder’s Sean Rad Hints At A. Future Beyond, and Says The App Sees 350M Swipes A. Day. “Tinder’s Sean Rad Hints At A Future Beyond Dating, Says The App Sees 350M Swipes A Day.” TechCrunch. Accessed November 13, 2013. [cxi] “Snapchat: Self-destructing Messaging App Raises $60m in Funding.” The Guardian, June 25, 2013. [cxii] “Pinterest Does Another Massive Funding — $225 Million at $3.8 Billion Valuation (Confirmed).” AllThingsD. Accessed November 13, 2013. Chapter 6: What Are You Going to Do with This?

Accessed November 13, 2013. Chapter 7: Case Study: The Bible App [cxxv] “On Fifth Anniversary of Apple iTunes Store, YouVersion Bible App Reaches 100 Million Downloads: First-Ever Survey Shows How App Is Truly Changing Bible Engagement.” PRWeb, July 8, 2013. [cxxvi] Tsotsis, Alexia. “Snapchat Snaps Up A $80M Series B Led By IVP At An $800M Valuation.” TechCrunch. Accessed November 13, 2013. [cxxvii] “YouVersion Infographics.” Accessed November 13, 2013. [cxxviii] Alford, Henry. “If I Do Humblebrag So Myself.” The New York Times, November 30, 2012, sec. Fashion & Style.

pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen


3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

,” TechCrunch, June 15, 2011, 42 Claire Carter, “Global Village of Technology a Myth as Study Shows Most Online Communication Limited to 100-Mile Radius,” BBC, December 18, 2013; Claire Cain Miller, “How Social Media Silences Debate,” New York Times, August 26, 2014. 43 Josh Constine, “The Data Factory—How Your Free Labor Lets Tech Giants Grow the Wealth Gap.” 44 Derek Thompson, “Google’s CEO: ‘The Laws Are Written by Lobbyists,’” Atlantic, October 1, 2010. 45 James Surowiecki, “Gross Domestic Freebie,” New Yorker, November 25, 2013. 46 Monica Anderson, “At Newspapers, Photographers Feel the Brunt of Job Cuts,” Pew Research Center, November 11, 2013. 47 Robert Reich, “Robert Reich: WhatsApp Is Everything Wrong with the U.S. Economy,” Slate, February 22, 2014. 48 Alyson Shontell, “Meet the 20 Employees Behind Snapchat,” Business Insider, November 15, 2013, 49 Douglas Macmillan, Juro Osawa, and Telis Demos, “Alibaba in Talks to Invest in Snapchat,” Wall Street Journal, July 30, 2014. 50 Mike Isaac, “We Still Don’t Know Snapchat’s Magic User Number,” All Things D, November 24, 2013. 51 Josh Constine, “The Data Factory—How Your Free Labor Lets Tech Giants Grow the Wealth Gap,” TechCrunch. 52 Alice E. Marwick, Status Update: Celebrity, Publicity and Branding in the Social Media Age (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013).

It’s the same reason Yahoo acquired the microblogging network Tumblr, with its 300 million users and just 178 employees, for $1.1 billion in May 2013, or why in November 2013 Facebook made its $3 billion cash offering for the photography-sharing app Snapchat with its mere twenty employees.48 And that’s why Evan Spiegel, Snapchat’s twenty-three-year-old, Stanford-educated CEO, turned down Facebook’s $3 billion offer for his twenty-person startup. Yes, that’s right—he actually turned down $3 billion in cash for his two-year-old startup. But, you see, Spiegel’s minuscule app company—which, six months after rejecting Facebook’s $3 billion deal, was negotiating a new round of financing with the Chinese Internet giant Alibaba at a rumored $10 billion valuation49—isn’t really as tiny as it seems. Its “workers” actually include around 25% of all cell phone users in the United Kingdom and 50% of all cell phone users in Norway, who, according to Spiegel, “actively” use the Snapchat app.50 Data factories are eating the world.

There’s also Twitter and Tumblr and Facebook and the rest of a seemingly endless mirrored hall of social networks, apps, and platforms stoking our selfie-centered delusions. Indeed, in an economy driven by innovator’s disasters, new social apps such as WhatsApp, WeChat, and Snapchat—a photo-sharing site that, in November 2013, turned down an all-cash acquisition offer of more than $3 billion from Facebook—are already challenging Instagram’s dominance.22 And by the time you read this, there will, no doubt, be even more destructive new products and companies undermining 2014 disruptors like Snapchat, WhatsApp, and WeChat. For us, however, Instagram—whether or not it remains the “second plotline” of the networked generation—is a useful symbol of everything that has gone wrong with our digital culture over the last quarter of a century.

pages: 271 words: 62,538

The Best Interface Is No Interface: The Simple Path to Brilliant Technology (Voices That Matter) by Golden Krishna

Airbnb, computer vision, crossover SUV,, fear of failure, impulse control, Inbox Zero, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, QR code, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, Tim Cook: Apple, Y Combinator, Y2K

In fact, it’s downright disruptive in most scenarios, so some of the most popular communication apps ditch the ring entirely. As a reporter at *The Verge,* I interviewed Snapchat CEO Evan Spiegel before the launch of the company’s video chat and texting features. Spiegel said something that really stuck out to me: “The biggest constraint of the next 100 years of computing is the idea of metaphors,” he said. “For Snapchat, the closer we can get to ‘I want to talk to you’—that emotion of wanting to see you and then seeing you — the better and better our product and our view of the world will be.” Instead of allowing you to ring friends for a video chat, as with FaceTime or Skype, Snapchat forces both users to be present inside a chat window before video can begin. So, instead of texting someone to set up a FaceTime call, you can simply chat them on Snapchat, and if they log on, you can start a video chat when you’re both in the same conversation.

So, instead of texting someone to set up a FaceTime call, you can simply chat them on Snapchat, and if they log on, you can start a video chat when you’re both in the same conversation. The “Hey, want to chat?” text replaces the ring entirely. You might have thought that Snapchat’s mission was to bring “ephemeral,” disappearing messages to the masses, when it was only one facet of a bigger idea that Spiegel had been stewing over. He had been thinking about digitally replicating the ways we talk in real life — ephemerality just happened to be one means of doing so. The point isn’t to _remove_ the ring, or to make photos disappear after they’ve been seen. The point is to understand how we use communication products today, how we live today, and to embrace those pieces of information. Thus, this example isn’t as much about altering product interfaces as it is about removing them whenever possible. For the tools we use every day, people are always going to take the path of least resistance and choose utility and pragmatism above all else.

When I wrote a small snippet about it on *The Verge,* it got more attention than other talks from massive companies like Google. Why? People are inherently drawn to new ideas and not old, derivative ones. People are drawn to hope for better solutions, even if they manifest themselves in tiny, seemingly insignificant ways. *Ring, ring.* Ellis Hamburger was a reporter for the technology news and culture website The Verge from 2012–2015. Now he’s working in marketing at Snapchat. Contents Welcome 1 Introduction Why did you buy this book? Um, why did you buy this book again? 2 Screen-based Thinking Let’s make an app! Tackle a global issue? Improve our lives? No, no. When smart people get together in Silicon Valley they often brainstorm, “What app can we make?” The Problem 3 Slap an Interface on It! Slimmer TVs! Faster computers! And an overlooked epidemic of awful.

pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman


23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Even legitimate apps can put you and your data at risk if the software is poorly written or contains undetected security vulnerabilities. Such was the case with the highly popular “social photo booth” app known as Snapchat. Snapchat is a service that allows users to send “selfie” photographs (often involving nudity) that purportedly disappear in just a few seconds after arriving on the recipient’s phone. More than one billion photographs have been sent via the service, and in late 2013 Facebook unsuccessfully tried to buy the company for $3 billion. In early 2014, it was revealed that Snapchat contained a security flaw that exposed millions of iPhone users to denial-of-service attacks. The vulnerability meant that hackers could target your phone specifically by sending a thousand Snapchat messages in just five seconds, thereby crashing your phone and making it unavailable for your use until you performed a hard reboot of the device.

The vulnerability meant that hackers could target your phone specifically by sending a thousand Snapchat messages in just five seconds, thereby crashing your phone and making it unavailable for your use until you performed a hard reboot of the device. Moreover, hackers were also able to compromise nearly five million Snapchat user accounts and published a database of user names and phone numbers on a hacker Web site. Worse, it was revealed that Snapchat’s foremost feature—the ability to send naked photographs that would self-destruct in ten seconds or less—was also flawed. The images did not self-destruct as promised and could still be retrieved both on the recipient device and on Snapchat’s own computer servers. As a result, tens of thousands of Snapchat photographs thought to have been deleted have shown up across the Internet, reposted on Instagram and on numerous revenge-porn sites. The photographs have subsequently been used for the purposes of extortion and other criminal offenses. Mobile Device and Network Threats The emerging threats to the data we carry on our mobile devices are not only affecting consumers but also having a major impact on business.

Vaughan-Nichols, “First Case of Android Trojan Spreading via Mobile Botnets Discovered,” ZDNet, Sept. 5, 2013. 26 As such, criminals: “Gartner Says Worldwide PC, Tablet, and Mobile Phone Shipments to Grow 5.9 Percent in 2013 as Anytime-Anywhere-Computing Drives Buyer Behavior,” Gartner Newsroom, June 24, 2013. 27 The vulnerability meant: Salvador Rodriguez, “Hackers Can Use Snapchat to Disable iPhones, Researcher Says,” Los Angeles Times, Feb. 7, 2014. 28 Moreover, hackers were also: Selena Larson, “Snapchat Responds to Massive Hack,” ReadWrite, Jan. 3, 2014. 29 Worse, it was revealed: Kashmir Hill, “Snapchats Don’t Disappear: Forensics Firm Has Pulled Dozens of Supposedly Deleted Photos from Android Phones,” Forbes, May 9, 2013. 30 As a result, tens of thousands: Tyler Kingkade, “Ohio University Student Accused of Using Nude Snapchat Photos to Extort Sex,” Huffington Post, Dec. 30, 2013. 31 Today 89 percent of employees: Juniper Networks, “Trusted Mobility Index,” May 2012. 32 For just a few hundred dollars: Brian Montopoli, “For Criminals, Smartphones Becoming Prime Targets,” CBS News, Aug. 7, 2013; Dan Nosowitz, “A Hacked Mobile Antenna in a Backpack Could Spy on Cell Phone Conversations,” Popular Science, July 16, 2013. 33 In Kenya, for example: “Why Does Kenya Lead the World in Mobile Money?

pages: 391 words: 105,382

Utopia Is Creepy: And Other Provocations by Nicholas Carr


Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, Airbus A320, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, computer age, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, deskilling, digital map, Donald Trump, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, factory automation, failed state, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, game design, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mental accounting, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Snapchat, social graph, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator


By extending the collection of data to once private spheres of personal activity and then centralizing the storage and processing of that data, the net is shifting the balance back toward the control function. MY COMPUTER, MY DOPPELTWEETER November 22, 2013 NOW THAT WE’RE ALL microcelebrities, we all need micropublicists. No mortal can keep up with Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Tumblr, LinkedIn, Snapchat, ad nauseam, all by herself. There’s just not enough real time in the day. The ever solicitous Google is rushing to our aid. It’s developing a software program that will will take over the hard work of maintaining one’s social media presence. The company was this week granted a patent for “automated generation of suggestions for personalized reactions in a social network.” The description of the anticipated service is giddy stuff: A suggestion generation module includes a plurality of collector modules, a credentials module, a suggestion analyzer module, a user interface module and a decision tree.

More interesting is the study’s finding of a causal link between higher connection speeds and higher abandonment rates. Every time a network gets quicker, we get antsier. “Every millisecond matters,” says a Google engineer. As we experience faster flows of information online, we become, in other words, less patient people. But impatience is not just a network effect. The phenomenon is amplified by the constant buzz of Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, texting, and social networking in general. Society’s “activity rhythm” has never been so harried. Impatience is a contagion spread from gadget to gadget. All of this has obvious importance to anyone involved in producing online media or running data centers. But it also has implications for how all of us think, socialize, and in general live. If we assume that networks will continue to get faster—a pretty safe bet—then we can also conclude that we’ll become more and more impatient, more and more intolerant of even the slightest delay between action and response, between desire and its fulfillment.

pages: 259 words: 73,193

The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in a World of Constant Connection by Michael Harris


4chan, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Burning Man, Carrington event, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation,, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Glasses, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, moral panic, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test

Chapter 8: Hooking Up On a single Sunday: “Grindr Sets Records,”, October 2, 2012. Meanwhile, Chatroulette links strangers: Robert J. Moore, “Chatroulette Is 89 Percent Male, 47 Percent American, and 13 Percent Perverts,” TechCrunch, accessed January 7, 2014, Youths send homemade porn to one another: “Snapchat’s Expired Snaps Are Not Deleted, Just Hidden,” The Guardian, accessed January 7, 2014, Surveys conducted in 1980: Eli J. Finkel et al., “Online Dating: A Critical Analysis from the Perspective of Psychological Science,” Psychological Science in the Public Interest 13, no. 1 (2012): 3–66. Today, at least one in five: “Online Dating Statistics,” Statistic Brain, accessed January 16, 2014,

Meanwhile, Chatroulette links strangers from Beijing to Bogotá via webcam feeds—inevitably leading to the ubiquitous Roulette Flashers, men who masturbate before the camera in the hopes of titillating/appalling female viewers (a report from TechCrunch found that one in eight users on Chatroulette is broadcasting R-rated content). These forums may be tawdry and voyeuristic, but even innocuous connections made on Facebook often belie a sexual pursuit (its progenitor, Facemash, was a game in which Harvard students rated their classmates as “hot” or “not”).20 Explicitly or otherwise, mainstream technologies are now integral to the game. Youths send homemade porn to one another via their phones, while apps like Snapchat encourage risqué photo sharing because they promise to automatically delete images (although, naturally, this turned out to be untrue). This is not a question of simply transferring offline behavior—meeting via newspaper classifieds, for instance, or picking up a stranger in a bar—onto the Internet. Yes, we’ve turned every new broadcast technology into a beacon for the lonely (the first printed personals were created a mere fifty years after the invention of the modern newspaper), but no, the Internet is not just an extension of what came before.

(Capek), 56–57 Russell, Bertrand, 195 Sabinus, Calvisius, 143–45 Sas, Corina, 156 Science, 142 Scoville, William Beecher, 138 search engines, 142–43, 146 Second Life, 104 Seed, 105 Seife, Charles, 145, 146 Sejong, 12n self-documentation, 68–71 selfies, 68 Seneca, 118, 143–44, 203–4 senses, 161, 179, 205 synesthesia and, 62–63 Sergeant Star, 59–60 Sesame Street, 1–2, 3 sex, 104, 164–77 pornography, 83, 88, 168, 169, 174 Shallows, The (Carr), 38, 86 Shaw, George Bernard, 57 Shelley, Mary, 56 Skinner, B. F., 114 Skype, 106 Sloth Club, 204 Slowness (Kundera), 184 Small, Gary, 10–11, 37–38 smartphones, see phones Smith, Gordon, 186 “smupid” thinking, 185–86 Snapchat, 168 social media, 19, 48, 55, 106, 150–51, 175 Socrates, 32–33, 40 solitude, 8, 14, 39, 46, 48, 188, 193, 195, 197, 199 Songza, 90–91, 125 Space Weather, 107 Squarciafico, Hieronimo, 33, 35 Stanford Engineering Everywhere (SEE), 94 Stanford University, 94–97 Statistics Canada, 174 sticklebacks, 124 Stone, Linda, 10, 169 Storr, Anthony, 203 stress hormones, 10 Study in Scarlet, A (Doyle), 147–48 suicide, 53–54, 63, 67 of Clementi, 63, 67 of Todd, 50–52, 67 sun, 107–9 surveillance, 66n synesthesia, 62–63 Tamagotchis, 29–30 technologies, 7, 18, 20, 21, 99, 179, 188, 192, 200, 203, 205, 206 evolution of, 43 Luddites and, 208 penetration rates of, 31 technology-based memes (temes), 42–44 Technopoly (Postman), 98 television, 7, 17, 27, 31, 69, 120 attention problems and, 121 temes (technology-based memes), 42–44 text messaging, 28, 30–31, 35–36, 100, 169, 192–94 Thamus, King, 32–33, 35, 98, 141, 145 Thatcher, Margaret, 74 theater reviews, 81–84, 88–89 Thompson, Clive, 141–42, 144–45 Thoreau, Henry David, 22, 113, 197–200, 202, 204 Thrun, Sebastian, 97 Thurston, Baratunde, 191 Time, 154 Timehop, 148–51, 160 Tinbergen, Niko, 124 Todd, Amanda, 49–53, 55, 62, 67, 70–72 Todd, Carol, 51–52, 71–72 Tolle, Eckhart, 102 Tolstoy, Leo: Anna Karenina, 125–26 War and Peace, 115, 116, 118, 120, 122–26, 128–29, 131–33, 135, 136 To Save Everything, Click Here (Morozov), 55 touch-sensitive displays, 27 train travel, 200–202 Transcendental Meditation (TM), 76–78 TripAdvisor, 92 Trollope, Anthony, 47–48 Trussler, Terry, 172 Turing, Alan, 60, 61, 67, 68, 186, 190 Turing test, 60–61 Turkle, Sherry, 30, 55–56, 103–4 Twain, Mark, 73, 104 Twitter, 9, 31, 46, 63, 149 Udacity, 97 Uhls, Yalda T., 69 Unbound Publishing, 88 Understanding Media (McLuhan), 14 University of Guelph, 53 Valmont, Sebastian, 166 Vancouver, 3–4 Vancouver, 8–11, 15 Vaughn, Vince, 89 Vespasiano da Bisticci, 33 video games, 32, 104 Virtual Self, The (Young), 68, 71 Voltaire, 83 Walden (Thoreau), 113, 198–200 Wales, Jimmy, 77 Walker, C.

pages: 284 words: 92,688

Disrupted: My Misadventure in the Start-Up Bubble by Dan Lyons


activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, call centre, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, dumpster diving, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, Googley, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, pre–internet, quantitative easing, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, tulip mania, Y Combinator, éminence grise

Trotsky makes it clear that he’s going to change the way they do things, and that, unlike Zack, he has real authority and is not afraid of them. One change has to do with e-books. The blog writers are supposed to coordinate their efforts with the e-book writers. If the e-book team creates a book about, say, how to use Snapchat to sell pet food, the blog should generate articles about Snapchat and pet food, and use those posts to promote the e-book. Instead, Marcia and Jan do whatever they want. They might write articles about Snapchat and pet food, or they might not. Some of it comes down to whether they like the person who wrote the e-book. Some of it hinges on whether they feel the e-book people were polite enough to them or gave them sufficient notice. If Marcia and Jan refuse to promote the e-book, the e-book just dies, because nobody finds it unless it gets mentioned on the blog.

Its offices are six miles from my house in Winchester, Massachusetts, yet I have never heard of the company and have no idea what they make. I pore through their website, which talks about something called inbound marketing, which I’ve also never heard of. All I can tell is that they make software used by marketing departments. I call around to friends who work in venture capital, who tell me that HubSpot is the real deal. The company is a bit of a sleeper. It’s not as well known as companies like Snapchat or Instagram, but it is run by a bunch of guys from MIT and headed for an IPO. Over the past seven years HubSpot has raised $100 million in venture capital, and its investors include some of the best firms in the business. Its business is booming. “Those guys,” one of my VC buddies says, “are going to make a shit ton of money.” I write to the woman who posted the content creator job opening on LinkedIn.

“You know what the big secret of all these start-ups is?” he tells me. “The big secret is that nobody knows what they’re doing. When it comes to management, it’s amateur hour. They just make it up as they go along.” Examples abound of tech start-ups trying to bring in more experienced people who end up leaving, sometimes citing a lack of “culture fit.” Evan Spiegel, the twenty-five-year-old founder of Snapchat, a photo sharing application, raised $1 billion in venture funding and realized, or was told by his investors, that he needed to hire people who could run a business and make money. Spiegel brought in veterans from Facebook and Google, then lost eight top executives in less than a year, with some people lasting only six months, according to Business Insider. Then there is twenty-two-year-old Lucas Duplan, whose wildly overhyped start-up, Clinkle, hired a well-known VP of engineering only to have the guy quit after one day.

pages: 437 words: 105,934

#Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media by Cass R. Sunstein

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, Donald Trump, drone strike, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, friendly fire, global village, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, prediction markets, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds

SOCIAL MEDIA My topic is online behavior in general, and so much of the discussion will involve uses of big websites—,,, But I will also spend a lot of time on social media, which requires some definitional work. Speaking of pornography, Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart famously wrote, “I know it when I see it.” Do we know social media when we see it? Any particular examples will become dated, but Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat certainly count. According to a helpful definition, social media are “Internet-based platforms that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content, usually using either mobile or web-based technologies.”15 Wikipedia fits that definition, because people use it to produce content. YouTube must be included, because people share content there; Flickr and Vine are also examples. Blogs (such as Marginal Revolution) and microblogs (such as Twitter) are definitely included.

For my purposes, they certainly can, so long as they fit the definition. It should be clear that we are dealing with a highly protean category, and its content changes rapidly over time. In 2006, blogs and the blogosphere were all the rage; while blogs exist and remain important, they have far less centrality (and the very word “blogosphere” seems to be a relic, a bit like “rotary phone” or “groovy”). Twitter was launched in 2006, Tumbler and WhatsApp in 2010, and Snapchat in 2011. Social media often have nothing at all to do with politics or democracy (indeed, they are a kind of vacation from it), and to that extent, they do not trigger my principal concerns here. But even if they are wholly apolitical, they might create niches, and niches produce fragmentation. A WORD ON BASELINES Any assessment of the world of the Internet, and any claims about what’s wrong with it, must ask one question: Compared to what?

The great benefit of deliberating enclaves is that positions may emerge that otherwise would not, and they deserve to play a larger role within both the enclave and the heterogeneous public. Properly understood, the case for deliberating enclaves is that they will improve social deliberation, democratic and otherwise, precisely because enclave deliberation is often required for incubating new ideas and perspectives that will add a great deal to public debate. Social media, including Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat, can be exemplary here. But for these improvements to take place, members must not insulate themselves from competing positions. At the very least, any such attempt at insulation must not be a prolonged affair. The phenomenon of group polarization suggests that with respect to communications, consumer sovereignty might well produce serious problems for individuals and society at large—and these problems will occur by a kind of iron logic of social interaction.

pages: 177 words: 56,657

Be Obsessed or Be Average by Grant Cardone


Albert Einstein, Elon Musk, fear of failure, job-hopping, Mark Zuckerberg, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, white picket fence

They’re hypnotized by the national media’s coverage of the most recent terrorist attack, missing plane, and celebrity scandal. Or they’re glued to one of so many made-up sagas about cops solving crimes or battles in imaginary kingdoms. Turn those off, and you live in a world where there are more mobile devices than human beings. We are being blasted by 24-7 Internet jabber, Twitter feeds in the hundreds of billions, eight billion daily Snapchat and YouTube videos, trillions of useless posts every day, and now streaming video where everyone can be a broadcaster puking mindless content. Not to mention we’re constantly being spammed with pornography, celebrity fascinations, and bouncing cats. With this much distraction coming at you nonstop, the chance for success is slight. But you can break out of the average cycle—in fact, you must.

Use the book as a filter to find out if people are up for being part of your team and your life. Most will not take the challenge—this is not for everyone. But it is for me and I expect it is for you. Hit me up on your favorite social media platform with the message “I am obsessed and refuse to have an average life. #BeObsessed,” and I will know you have read my book. On Twitter, Facebook, Snapchat, YouTube, and LinkedIn I am @GrantCardone (or just search for “Grant Cardone”). Come and join the Obsessed movement. If you need anything at all, don’t hesitate to reach out to a member of my team. We’d love the privilege of coaching and serving you, whether it’s using our training materials, delivering a live keynote to your organization, working with your kids’ school or college, speaking at your church, or delivering a virtual seminar to your people, and if I can answer any of your questions, I’m here for you.

RESOURCES CARDONEUNIVERSITY.COM Cardone University is the number one sales system in the world. It offers Grant Cardone’s most extensive sales training curriculum on the web today. With over thirty years of real-world sales experience, Grant Cardone provides a dynamic sales training tool for use in almost any sales situation for teams and individuals alike. FOR FREE SALES TIPS AND MOTIVATION, FOLLOW GRANT! Twitter: @GrantCardone Facebook: /GrantCardoneFan Snapchat: /GrantCardone GRANTCARDONETV.COM Grant Cardone TV provides programming made especially for entrepreneurs, business owners, go-getters, start-ups, sales organizations, and success-minded people who want to control where they get their news and their solutions. This channel is for those who refuse to be spectators and demand to be in control of the content they receive, understanding that the outcomes of life are literally the thoughts that you consume.

pages: 421 words: 110,406

Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker


3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital map, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel,, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipcar

A few will even show signs of attracting their own interactive communities, which means they have the potential to become platforms themselves. Recall that social gaming company Zynga and the photo-sharing services Instagram and Snapchat all started off as mere blips on the Facebook platform. But their social sharing and network effects enabled them to grow fast. Growth of this kind often launches a strategic tug-of-war. The platform may seek to absorb the function of the innovative partner and the value it creates by acquisition. As we’ve noted, Facebook succeeded in acquiring Instagram, purchasing the company for $1 billion in 2012; it has (so far) failed to acquire Snapchat, having made a $3 billion offer that company cofounder Evan Spiegel rejected in December 2013. The platform may also seek to weaken the startup by promoting competitors, as Facebook has done with Zynga.

The stories behind a number of them will be recounted in this book. Our goal here is to provide not a comprehensive or systematic overview but simply a sketch which we hope will convey the growing scope and importance of platform companies on the world stage. INDUSTRY EXAMPLES Agriculture John Deere, Intuit Fasal Communication and Networking LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, Tinder, Instagram, Snapchat, WeChat Consumer Goods Philips, McCormick Foods FlavorPrint Education Udemy, Skillshare, Coursera, edX, Duolingo Energy and Heavy Industry Nest, Tesla Powerwall, General Electric, EnerNOC Finance Bitcoin, Lending Club, Kickstarter Health Care Cohealo, SimplyInsured, Kaiser Permanente Gaming Xbox, Nintendo, PlayStation Labor and Professional Services Upwork, Fiverr, 99designs, Sittercity, LegalZoom Local Services Yelp, Foursquare, Groupon, Angie’s List Logistics and Delivery Munchery, Foodpanda, Haier Group Media Medium, Viki, YouTube, Wikipedia, Huffington Post, Kindle Publishing Operating Systems iOS, Android, MacOS, Microsoft Windows Retail Amazon, Alibaba, Walgreens, Burberry, Shopkick Transportation Uber, Waze, BlaBlaCar, GrabTaxi, Ola Cabs Travel Airbnb, TripAdvisor FIGURE 1.2.

, 275 side switching, 26, 198, 299 Siemens, 76, 204, 247, 284 signal-to-noise ratio, 199, 200 sign-up methods, 66, 81–85, 190 Silicon Valley, 16, 76–77, 112, 252–53, 281–82 siloed industries, 176, 178 Singapore, 160–61, 179 single-side strategy, 95–96, 105 single-user feedback loop, 45–46, 100–101 Siri, 147 Sittercity, 47, 122 Skillshare, 4, 96, 111, 122, 124, 212, 265, 266 Skullcandy, 162 Skype, 200–201 small businesses, 72, 276–77 smart grids, 272–74 smart metrics, 201–2 smartphones, 64, 66, 92, 113, 131, 140 Smith, Adam, 280 Snapchat, 217 social losses, 238, 239 social networks, 3, 11, 36, 41–42, 45, 51, 58, 71, 72, 90–91, 92, 95–104, 113–15, 120–21, 131–33, 152, 163, 185, 198, 204, 217, 218, 221, 226, 245, 251–52 software, 33, 52–54, 57, 62–63, 67, 91–92, 95, 125, 136, 137, 143, 151–53, 159, 170, 173–75, 216–17, 219, 254–55, 267, 295 SolarCity, 273 solar panels, 69, 273 Sollecito, Raffaele, 129–30 Sony, 61, 75, 94, 124, 137, 138–39, 178, 211, 240, 246, 259, 270–71 Sony Corp. of America v.

pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman


23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

You met a celebrity, cooked a great meal, or saw something extraordinary, and the photograph is what remains: the receipt of experience. Now that every smartphone comes complete with a digital camera as good as any point-and-shoot most of us had a few years ago, there is little reason not to photograph something. Into the camera roll it goes, so that later you can perform the ritual triage: Filter or no filter? Tumblr, Instagram, or Snapchat? The ubiquity of digital photography, along with image-heavy (or image-only) social networks such as Instagram, Pinterest, Tumblr, Imgur, Snapchat, and Facebook, has changed what it means to take and collect photos. No longer do we shoot, develop, and then curate them in frames or albums in the privacy of our homes. If we organize them into albums at all, it’s on Facebook or Flickr—that is, on someone else’s platform—and leave them there to be commented upon and circulated through the network.

It must be carefully tended to and managed, because it’s the only one you have. The relative decline of Facebook usage among young people may be attributed, at least in part, to this growing feeling of stasis. (The influx of older Facebook users, who render the network uncool and easily monitored by parents and other authority figures, also doesn’t help.) Private and ephemeral messaging apps such as Snapchat, Kik, and WhatsApp offer young people—who are already used to cleverly managing their privacy when dealing with prying parents at home—an opportunity to communicate creatively with less fear of repercussion. Like e-mail, these apps aren’t immune to eavesdropping, but they help return communication to a more protected space. Messaging apps are, however, illusory in the measure of privacy they offer.

Privacy becomes networked, as each context may have local standards, controls, and practices, but the information itself—the stuff which privacy dictates we have control over—slops over the sides of the vessel, spreading and multiplying. This can happen in many ways. People share things in other environments: a private message is read aloud; a tweet is posted on Facebook; a screenshot or photograph is taken of a supposedly ephemeral Snapchat. Requests to keep information private go ignored. A friend tags you in a photo without thinking about whether you want to be identified in it. Some people don’t know better—they don’t think how their sharing of some information may violate someone’s privacy, particularly as sharing becomes its own kind of sociocultural value. Danah Boyd has argued that this new model should be thought of as “networked privacy.”

The Open Organization: Igniting Passion and Performance by Jim Whitehurst


crowdsourcing, Google Hangouts, Network effects, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat

All the intelligence resided in the giant computers that routed your calls. To add a new service, like call-waiting, the operator had to reprogram the central switch, an expensive and risky endeavor. Screw it up and you could bring down the whole network. Not surprisingly, innovation proceeded at a snail’s pace. Today, the web hosts hundreds of web-based communication services including Apple’s iMessage, WhatsApp, Snapchat, Kakao Talk, Google Hangout, WeChat, and Grasshopper. On Skype alone, users spend more than 2 billion minutes communicating each day. The web has also spawned thousands of special interest groups, like, a site dedicated to improving the lives of individuals with autism. The community’s eighty thousand members have posted more than 1.2 million comments on the site’s general discussion board.

pages: 295 words: 89,430

Small Data: The Tiny Clues That Uncover Huge Trends by Martin Lindstrom


autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, big-box store, correlation does not imply causation, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, Richard Florida, rolodex, self-driving car, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, too big to fail, urban sprawl

Sometimes I go so far as to move inside people’s houses or apartments where, with the owners’ permission, I make myself at home. The families and I fraternize, listen to music, watch television and eat all our meals together. During these visits—again, with permission—I go through refrigerators, open desk drawers and kitchen cabinets, scour books, magazines, music and movie collections and downloads, inspect purses, wallets, online search histories, Facebook pages, Twitter feeds, emoji usage and Instagram and Snapchat accounts. In the search for what I call small data, almost nothing is off-limits. I’ve gone so far as to interview consumers through text-messaging—a study shows that people lie less frequently in texts3—though I’m far more likely to take people by surprise by inspecting their microwave ovens and glass and plastic recycling cans. More intriguing than the differences among the men and women I meet and talk to and observe—and the variations of place, and climate, and culture and skin color that I see over the course of a typical year—are the characteristics we all share.

My research revealed that girls spent around 80 percent of their waking hours mulling what they wore that day, what they were thinking about wearing the next day and clothing in general—a somewhat shocking statistic. They were also online anywhere from two to three hours a day visiting their favorite fashion retailers, websites and Tumblr blogs. Swiss girls were preoccupied by British and German fashion websites, as well as Tumblr, Instagram and Snapchat, while eastern European girls tracked Scandinavian websites. Most girls knew the fashion world intimately well, including the names of the top models, and kept an official or unofficial wish list of outfits they wanted to buy but couldn’t afford. This same preoccupation with fashion could be seen with their smartphones themselves, beginning with their covers, which were plastered with stickers and decals, and extending to the apps: color-matching apps, apps that matched lipstick hues to clothing, apps that gave the locations of the hottest clubs in town and apps offering techniques to improve a girl’s appearance or make her look slimmer than she was.

See also Subtext Research smartphones, 18, 43, 49, 59, 65, 153, 155 and escape/transformation, 64, 188 feature phones, 88–9 prevalence of, 57–8, 153 social media, 8, 14, 18, 43–5, 49, 61, 130, 145, 152, 162, 196, 220 and adolescent girls, 152, 154, 157 and dressing rooms, 167–8 Facebook, 18, 88, 130, 152, 154, 157, 162, 220, 221, 215 and identity, 13–14, 221, 226–7 Instagram, 5, 130, 152, 155, 221, 226 and maskenfreiheit (freedom conferred by masks), 13 Periscope, 164 as reflection of beliefs and biases, 219 and self-esteem, 215 Snapchat, 5, 155 Twitter, 5, 8, 130, 207, 226 and Uber, 225–6 (VK), 43–4 “What Color Is This Dress?” photo, 207–8, 219 YouTube, 12, 128, 154, 164 See also selfies somatic markers, 65–7, 116, 176–7 sound, 26, 28, 41, 196–8, 204–5 South America, 52–3, 124, 141–2, 177, 212. See also individual nations Spurlock, Morgan, 102 Subtext Research, 36, 61, 63, 67, 78, 88, 102, 108, 114, 127 7C Manifesto, 9, 217–27 for automobile manufacturer (China), 180–8, 199–205 for cereal manufacturer (India), 76–86, 88–9, 92–6 defined, 4 for Devassa (Brazil), 122–45 as ethnographic anthropology, 11 for Hong Kong Jockey Club, 131–4 for Jenny Craig, 107–17 for Lowes Foods (United States), 47–73 for mall project (Saudi Arabia), 35–43 for McDonald’s, 102–7 methods, 9–10 for Pepsi, 195–6, 209 for Roomba, 191–2, 194–6, 198–9 for Russian business, 19–35, 41–5 for Saga (United Kingdom), 91–3 Small Mining, 4, 11, 33, 49, 92, 115, 187, 202, 223–5, 231, 232 for Tally Weijl (adolescent girls), 151–68 Switzerland, 28–9, 81, 110, 226 fashion, 148, 151, 154, 155, 158 happiness, 170 license plates, 137 Swiss chocolate, 28 Swiss flag, 134 timeliness, 15, 193 walking habits, 115 Tally Weijl, 148, 151, 156, 158, 162–8, 226 Target, 62, 148, 163 taxis, 21, 51, 120, 128 technology, 5–6, 16–17, 59, 152.

pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff


3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

At the time of its billion-dollar purchase by Facebook, Instagram had raised $57.5 million, was valued at $500 million, and had generated $0 in revenue.14 It did, however, boast 49.6 million likes per day,15 which has grown to 1.2 billion in the ensuing year and a half.16Likewise, Tumblr netted negative $13 million the year it was purchased by Yahoo for $1.1 billion.17 What it lost in earnings it made up for in social traffic of 900 posts/second.18 Snapchat, a social media app with no revenue, turned down a $3 billion offer from Facebook—all for its users’ 400 million daily, dissolving pings.19 Whether or not all that social activity will someday generate true, sustainable profits is still left to be seen. What we do know is that the likes, follows, favorites, and reposts are not as immediately valuable to the people and things being liked as they are to the companies who mine these big data troves for trends.

Liz Gannes, “Instagram by the Numbers: 1 Billion Photos Uploaded,” All Things D, April 3, 2012, -photos-uploaded/. 16. Hilary Heino, “Social Media Demographics—Instagram, Tumblr, and Pinterest,”, 2014. 17. Peter Cohan, “Yahoo’s Tumblr Buy Fails Four Tests of a Successful Acquisition,”, May 20, 2013. 18. Chris Isidore, “Yahoo Buys Tumblr, Promises Not to ‘Screw It Up,’”, May 20, 2013. 19. Jordan Crook, “Snapchat Sees More Daily Photos Than Facebook,”, November 19, 2013. 20. Vindu Goel, “Facebook Tinkers with Users’ Emotions in News Feed Experiment, Stirring Outcry,”, June 29, 2014. 21. Astra Taylor, The People’s Platform: The Culture of Power in a Networked Age (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2014), 205. 22. “Generation Like,” Frontline, PBS, February 18, 2014. 23. Bob Lefsetz, “Tom Petty,” The Lefsetz Letter, July 22, 2014. 24.

See investors/investing sharing economy, 44–54, 218 crowdsharing apps and, 45–49 crowdsourcing platforms and, 49–50 employment opportunities, technology as replacing and obsolescing, 51–54 getting paid for our data and, 44–45 great decoupling and, 53 jobs assisting with transition to computerized society and, 51–52 learning to code and, 51 Shift Happens (Hagel), 76–77 Shirky, Clay, 27 Sidecar, 93–94 Silk Road, 145 singularity, 91 Slay, Julia, 58 Smith, Adam, 212–13 Snapchat, 32 social branding, 35–37 social graphs, 40 social media, and “likes” economy, 31–37 Somerhalder, Ian, 36 South by Southwest, 19 specialists, 178–79 Spotify, 218 Square, 141 Stallman, Richard, 216 stamp scrip, 158–59 startups, 184–205 angel investors and, 187, 188 burn rate and, 190 crowdfunding and, 198–201 direct public offerings (DPOs) and, 205–6 Google’s IPO, 194–95 hypergrowth expected of, 187–91 microfinancing platforms and, 202–4 model for building real and sustainable businesses, 196–98 playbook for establishing, 187 reverse engineering of, 184–86 Series A round of investment and, 188–89 venture capital and, 189–95 steady-state enterprises, 98–123 alternative corporate structures and, 118–23 appropriate size for business, finding, 104–5 benefit corporations and, 119 contracting with small and medium-sized enterprises and, 112 dividends as means of rewarding shareholders and, 113–14 dual transformation and, 108–9 ecosystem as model for assembling, 105 employee ownership of company and, 116–18 extractive bias of traditional corporate model, eschewing, 104 family business model and, 103–4, 231–32 flexible purpose corporations and, 119–20 growth, shifting away from, 103–6 hybrid approaches to attaining, 106–12 inclusive capitalism and, 111–12 low-profit limited liability company (L3C) and, 120–21 not-for-profits (NFPs) and, 121–23 open sharing and collaborative corporate strategies and, 106–7 privatization and, 114–16 shareholder mentality, changing, 112–18 technological revolutions, phases of, 98–102 stimulative economic policies, 136, 137 stock market crash of 1929, 99 storytelling, 236 Strickler, Yancey, 198 student debt, 153 subsidiarity, 231–32 supermarket chains, hybrid strategies for, 109–10 Supplier Connection, 112 surge pricing, 86 synergy, 99 Talmud, 208 Tapscott, Don, 49n Target, 142 TaskRabbit, 222 tax anticipation scrip, 159 taxi industry, 85–86 TD Waterhouse, 176 Tea Party, 99–100 technological revolutions, 98–102 creative destruction and, 83–87 destructive destruction and, 100 frenzy phase of, 98–99 government intervention and, 99–100 irruption phase of, 98 maturity phase of, 98–99 synergy phase of, 99 turning point phase of, 99 Thatcher, Margaret, 64 theAudience, 36 Thiel, Peter, 120, 191–92 This Changes Everything (Klein), 135 3-d printing, 62–63 360 deals, 34 time dollar systems, 161–63 toy industry, 85 Toyoda, Akio, 105–6 Toyota Motor Corporation, 105–6 tragedy of the commons, 215–16 Treehouse, 59 Tumblr, 32 turning point, 99 Twitter, 7, 8–9, 195 tyranny of choice, 30 Uber, 4, 93, 94, 98–99, 188, 213, 219, 222, 229 peer-to-peer commerce enabled by, 45, 46 as platform monopoly, 85–87 pricing power of, 47–48 unemployment insurance, 99 unemployment solution, 54–67 guaranteed minimum income programs and, 62–65 guaranteed minimum wage public jobs and, 65–66 hourly-wage employment, history of, 56 joblessness as feature of new digital economy and, 55–56 questioning need for work and, 56–58 real needs, getting paid to address, 65–67 reducing 40-hour workweek and, 58–60 sharing productivity gains with employees and, 60–62 Unilever, 112, 205 United Steel Workers, 220 Upwork, 51, 200 USA Today,173 velocity of money, 140–41 venture capital, 189–95 Vicarious, 119–20 Victorian exhibition, 20 Volkswagen, 106 Wall Street Journal,7, 8, 37–38 Walmart, 47, 73–75, 110–11 Watson, 90–91 wealth inequality.

pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly


3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

We constantly monitor Twitter streams and the flows of posts on our Facebook wall. We stream photos, movies, and music. News banners stream across the bottom of TVs. We subscribe to YouTube streams, called channels. And RSS feeds from blogs. We are bathed in streams of notifications and updates. Our apps improve in a flow of upgrades. Tags have replaced links. We tag and “like” and “favorite” moments in the streams. Some streams, like Snapchat, WeChat, and WhatsApp, operate totally in the present, with no past or future. They just flow past. If you see something, fine. Then it is gone. Flowing time has shifted as well. In the first era, tasks were accomplished in batch mode. You got your bills every month. Taxes were all paid on the same day of the year. Telephone service came only in units of 30 days. Items piled up and were dealt with in batches.

Indeed, every single frame in a big-budget Hollywood action film today has been built up with so many layers of additional details that it should be thought of as a moving painting rather than as a moving photograph. In the great hive mind of image creation, something similar is already happening with still photographs. Every minute, thousands of photographers are uploading their latest photos on websites and apps such as Instagram, Snapchat, WhatsApp, Facebook, and Flickr. The more than 1.5 trillion photos posted so far cover any subject you can imagine; I have not yet been able to stump the sites with an image request that cannot be found. Flickr offers more than half a million images of the Golden Gate Bridge alone. Every conceivable angle, lighting condition, and point of view of the Golden Gate Bridge has been photographed and posted.

See also lifestreaming sensor technology, 226, 230, 267 Sensory Substitution Vest, 225 services, 6–7, 54, 62, 111–14, 125 sex, virtual, 218–19 sharing, 135–64 and aggregated information, 140, 147 and collaborative commenting sites, 136 and consumers as content creators, 19 and crowdfunding, 156–61 and digital socialism, 136–38 and flowing, 8 and hierarchical/nonhierarchical infrastructures, 148–54 and increasing degree of coordination, 138–42 motivation behind, 144 and obscure or niche interests, 155 and open source industry, 135, 141–42, 143, 271 power of, 146 and social impact of connectivity, 271–75 societal problems addressed through, 146 technology facilitating, 145–46 ubiquity of, 139 Shirky, Clay, 138, 148 Sidecar, 62 Simon, Herbert, 176 singularity, 295–97 Siri, 287 sleep tracking, 238, 240 Smarr, Larry, 238 smart technology, 225, 253 smell, sense of, 226 Snapchat, 63, 199 Snowden, Edward, 261 socialism, digital, 136–38, 139, 146 social media and digital storage capacity, 265 influence of, on public conversation, 140 and intermediation of content, 150 and privacy vs. transparency, 262 and tracking technology, 254 value of content created on, 149 video and sound in, 76–77 social networks, 170, 186–87 software open source software, 135, 141–42, 143 as service (SaS), 113 The Sopranos (series), 282 SoundCloud, 75 Spielberg, Steven, 221 Spotify, 74–75, 109, 138, 169, 254 Square, 65, 124 Squid (smart shirt), 225 Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, 203 Star Trek, 211 startups, 27, 33, 116–17, 184 Star Wars films, 198–99 statistics, 242–43 stickiness, 69 Stoll, Cliff, 15–16 storage capacity, 166, 264–67 streaming devices, 254.

pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan


3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

There are a number of consequences we have already observed that flow directly from these three invariants: the separation of information from its physical artifacts as witnessed in the music, video entertainment, and publishing industries with the emergence of pure digital products delivered via iTunes, Netflix, and Amazon’s Kindle; the creation of powerful shared digital platforms, ranging from Google Maps to Amazon; and the emergence of increasingly rich digital spaces like Facebook, Snapchat, and WeChat for human interaction of increasing complexity.6 I outline four additional consequences of these digital forces that I believe are fundamental to the emergence and sustained evolution of crowd-based capitalism. They are: (1) the consumerization of the digital; (2) the digitization of the physical; (3) the emergence of decentralized peer-to-peer, and (4) the digitization of trust. The Consumerization of the Digital In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the convergence of workplace personal computers, client-server technologies, and corporate Ethernet access resulted in a massive redesign of workflows within organizations, as the physical paper files of the 1980s were increasingly rendered into pure digital work documents.

On the other hand, they actually have quite a powerful backing underneath, and one that is difficult to unseat.” What is this backing that Buterik refers to? As he notes in an Ethereum Blog post in April 2014, “It is important to first understand that, in the space of tech companies and especially social networking startups, a large number of them are literally backed by almost nothing but social consensus.” He then goes on to explain: Theoretically, it is entirely possible for all of the employees at Snapchat, Tinder, Twitter or any other such startup to all suddenly agree to quit and start their own business, completely rebuild all of the software from scratch within months, and then immediately proceed to build a superior product. The only reason why such companies have any valuation at all is a set of two coordination problems: the problem of getting all employees to quit at the same time, and the problem of getting all of the customers to simultaneously move over onto the new network.

., 131, 133 Scholz, Trebor, 196–197 Schor, Juliet, 6, 198, 208n12 Schwab, Klaus, 205 Scorpio, Jessica, 14 Search engines, 96–97 Second Machine Age, The (Brynjolfsson and McAfee), 165–166 Self-employed persons, 4–5 Self-regulatory organizations (SROs), 152–154, 221–222n25–26 Service platforms, 43–44 Shaffer, Alicia, 107, 177 Shaheen, Susan, 14, 110 Shapiro, Craig, 26, 118 Shapeways, 58 Shareable, 15 “‘Sharing Nicely’: On Shareable Goods and the Emergence of Sharing as a Modality of Economic Production” (Benkler), 30, 37 Sharp, Kristin, 161 SherpaShare, 84, 159 Shirky, Clay, 105, 114–115, 117 Shyp, 12, 160, 183 SideCar, 149, 154, 195 Silk Road, 86 Simon, Herbert, 71, 164–165 Sinders, Vanessa, 134 Sjogren, Karl, 199 Skill-biased technical change (SBTC), 166 Skillshare, 82 Small, Jara, 16 Smart contracts, 92–94 Smiley, Lauren, 189 Smith, Adam, 49, 70, 71, 118 Smith, Michael D., 112 Snapchat, 54 Snapgoods, 14 SnappCar, 3, 80 Social capital, 62, 64, 140 Social Capital Markets conference (SOCAP), 198–199 Social cohesion, 36 Social Progress Index, 111 Social safety net, new, 187–192 Sokolowsky, Oren, 94 Spare5, 114 Spotify, 2, 91 SpotOn, 107–108 SROs. See Self-regulatory organizations (SROs) Stancil, Benn, 156 Stangler, Dane, 108 Stein, Joel, 3–4 Stephany, Alex, 28, 29–30, 35 Stern, Andy, 187 “Stranger sharing Street, Satsuma, 106 Strickler, Yancey, 41 Stucke, Maurice, 120 StyleLend, 15–16, 44 Suicide (Durkheim), 45 Sunkist, 197, 49 Surowecki, James, 19 Sustainable Economies Law Center (SELC), 196 Swallow, Erica, 3 Swalwell, Eric, 137 Swan, Melanie, 93 Swarm, 199 Swift, 197 Taaki, Amir, 85–86 Tadelis, Steve, 61 “Tales from the Sharing Economy” (Stein), 3 Tambe, Prasanna, 75, 113 Tanz, Jason, 60 TaskRabbit, 3, 11, 77, 114, 157, 183, 197.

pages: 313 words: 93,214

Girls & Sex: Navigating the Complicated New Landscape by Peggy Orenstein


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Golden Gate Park, index card, Menlo Park, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Snapchat, software studies

Interest myself more in others.” And one hundred years later: “I will try to make myself better in any way I possibly can. . . . I will lose weight, get new lenses, already got new haircut, good makeup, new clothes and accessories.” Brumberg’s book was published in the late 1990s, a good decade before social media took off. With the advent of MySpace, then Facebook, then Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat, Tumblr, Tinder, YikYak, and—mark my words—some social media–linked microchip that they’ll soon implant in all our heads, the body has become even more entrenched as the ultimate expression of the female self, evolving from “project” to consciously marketed “product.” There are myriad ways social media can be fun, creative, connective, political. They can be a lifeline for kids who feel different from their peers, particularly LGBTQ teens, providing them with crucial support and community.

One of every three members surveyed by the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery in 2013 said that their patients sought their services to look better in selfies. Posting pictures of yourself—even lots and lots of pictures of yourself—while eating cereal or shopping for a prom dress or hanging with your besties is one thing. What really worries parents is the selfie’s evil cousin: the sext. Do not, we tell our daughters, absolutely do not send anyone sexually explicit messages or, God forbid, a nude or seminude photo. The Internet is forever, we say. Snapchat doesn’t prevent screenshots that can be redistributed in an instant and used as weapons (witness the rise of “revenge porn”: explicit images posted online without the victim’s consent, often following a breakup). In truth, it’s hard to know exactly how common “sexting” is among teens. In surveys, between 15 and 48 percent (depending on the age of the children asked and how “sexting” is defined) say they have sent or received an explicit text or photo.

., 146 Sex and the City, 68 sex education, 52, 62, 205–36 ABCD model for raising sexually healthy children, 235 abstinence-only, 52, 75, 76–77, 89, 210–12, 221 Denison and, 205–7, 208, 213–19, 222, 223–33 Devine and, 234 in Holland, 219–23, 232, 235 marriage and, 209–10 parents and, 234–36 Sex in America, 49 Sex Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS), 209 sexism, litmus test for, 12 Sex Lives of College Students, The, 125–26, 153 Sex Made Easy (Herbenick), 67 sexting, 21–23 sexual activity, overestimating, 105, 231 sexual assault, 58, 59, 131, 168 as “hilarious,” 181–82 investigation of college cases of, 179–80 photo/videos of, 181–82 refusal skills and, 196–99 reporting of, 133 among secondary students, 180 see also rape sexual harassment, 8–11, 16, 132 peer-to-peer, law against, 199–200 sexual intercourse, 104, 209 first, 3, 77–78, 79–82, 86 in hookups, 105, 106 and number of partners, 98 sexualization, 94, 233 purity and, 94 sexuality and, 15 sexual learning, 93 sexually active, being, 73, 78 evangelicals and, 88 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), 53, 222 abstinence and, 85 HIV/AIDS, 52, 157, 210–11 HPV, 100 protection against, 88, 89, 211, 221 pubic hair and, 67 virginity pledges and, 89 sexual manipulation, 195–97, 223 sexual orientation and identity, 141–66 asexual, 142 bisexual, 152–53, 159, 162 cis-gender, 163 coming out and, 148, 156–57, 158 coming out videos, 155–56 femininity and, 162, 163, 165 genderqueer, 162, 165 homosexual, see homosexuality Internet and, 142, 144, 145–48, 149 lesbian, see lesbians LGBTQ, 17, 146, 156–57, 166 masculinity and, 162, 163 rejection and, 157 and tensions between butch women and transmen, 164–65 transgender, 161–65 sexual partners, number of, 98, 105, 126–27 sexual revolution, 104, 208, 209, 220 sexual satisfaction, 69–72 in hookups, 106–7, 126 orgasm, see orgasm shame, walk of, 132 shaming, 3, 29, 86, 114, 124 shaving: of legs and armpits, 67, 69 of pubic hair, 67 Silver Ring Thing, 85 Simmons, Rachel, 20 Simpson Rowe, Lorelei, 195–97, 198 Sims, The, 147 Slate DoubleX, 185–86 sleepovers, 222, 235 “slut,” 3, 9, 14, 54, 81, 98, 124–25, 223, 230 Slutwalks, 16 Smith, William Kennedy, 169, 170 Snapchat, 22 social media, 17–21 Facebook, 18, 19, 20 Instagram, 9–10, 18, 19, 20, 25, 32, 41, 66, 135, 181 Reddit, 146 selfies on, 20–21, 23 Tumblr, 153–54 Twitter, 10, 200 YouTube, see YouTube Sociological Images, 42 Sommers, Christina Hoff, 172–73, 177, 194 sororities, 113–16, 133 Southern Baptist Convention, 85 South Park, 64 Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, 24, 26 Starr, Martin, 64 STDs, see sexually transmitted diseases Stenzel, Pam, 75–77, 86, 89, 100 Steubenville, Ohio, 180–81, 182 Student Success Act, 211–12 suicide, 85–86, 157, 181 Sulkowicz, Emma, 179 Supreme Court, 148, 170, 208 S.W.A.T.

pages: 344 words: 96,020

Hacking Growth: How Today's Fastest-Growing Companies Drive Breakout Success by Sean Ellis, Morgan Brown

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DevOps, Elon Musk, game design, Google Glasses, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, minimum viable product, Network effects, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, working poor, Y Combinator, young professional

This doesn’t at all mean that businesses of each type should limit themselves strictly to these most obvious channels, especially as they continue to scale. A growing e-commerce company, for example, might discover that building a community, which is a viral channel, is also a good lever for driving growth; just think about Amazon’s purchase of the book lovers’ community Goodreads. Or a booming social network that has pioneered in new terrain, and that has attracted hefty venture capital, as Instagram and Snapchat both did, might decide to invest in TV, radio, and print ads to solidify its ownership of the territory, rather than relying only on viral mechanisms. But you’ve got to first focus on optimizing the channels that are most cost effective for you. A next step in narrowing options is to consider the characteristics and behaviors of your users, and this means identifying the behaviors that they’re already engaged in, such as the types of Google searches they are doing, the places they are shopping, and the social networks they are using.

New tools like these—and there are countless other examples—enable companies to grab attention despite the cacophony of free content, from blogs and whitepapers to infographics and video tutorials, that saturates the Web these days. In addition to standing out, one of the beauties of tools is that they can be “evergreen,” requiring little continual upkeep to remain an effective new customer magnet, sometimes for many years. Other new tactics one could try could include building a community, as we have done with, or getting the first user advantage on one of the hot new platforms—like the next Snapchat—that are popping up all the time. The point is that even if you have found an established channel or set of tactics that work, new options are always emerging, and you should always be looking for which innovative ones to experiment with. In fact, it is precisely because there are so many new options, both for channels and for specific acquisition tactics, to choose from, that the growth hacking method is so efficient and effective; the data-driven, prioritized, and experimental approach helps you wade through that vast sea of options and smartly focus your efforts, and your marketing dollars.

Once new users have crossed the threshold of initial retention, they move into the medium retention phase, a period when the interest in a product’s novelty often fades. The core mission for growth teams in retaining users who are in this midterm phase is to make using a product a habit; working to create such a sense of satisfaction from the product or service that over time, users don’t need to be prodded to use it again because they have incorporated the use of the product into their routine. Think of the Snapchat user who constantly checks her friends’ stories while having breakfast and again after dinner. Or the Amazon shopper who always thinks of searching there first for any given product he’s looking for, no prodding required. In the coming sections, we’ll introduce a little about the psychology of habit formation and then introduce tactics growth teams can employ for increasing the number of initially retained users who become habitual ones.

pages: 202 words: 72,857

The Wealth Dragon Way: The Why, the When and the How to Become Infinitely Wealthy by John Lee


8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, butterfly effect, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Donald Trump, financial independence, high net worth, intangible asset, Mark Zuckerberg, negative equity, passive income, payday loans, self-driving car, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, Y2K

The legendary ice hockey player Wayne Gretzky once said, “A good hockey player plays where the puck is. A great hockey player plays where the puck is going to be.” (He also said, “You miss 100 percent of the shots you don't take.”) And here's a great example of that philosophy. In the heat of the social media and smartphone application explosion, two Stamford students turned a craze on its head. They created an app called Snapchat. The software allows users to take photos and record messages that they can send out to recipients who have a small window in which to view them before the messages are deleted forever! In June 2013 their company was valued at $800,000. Six months later Evan Spiegel, one of the company's cofounders, reportedly turned down an offer of $3 billion from Facebook; a month later, he turned down $4 billion from China's Tencent Holdings.

See Estate agents Recessions Refinancing Rental income Repossessions Retirement Return on investment (ROI) Rich Dad, Poor Dad (Kiyosaki) Ripple effect Risk hard work and property investment strategy undesirable truth about Wealth Dragon principle Roadblocks to success fear negative people rat race trap Robbins, Anthony Rocky Rodriguez, Darren Rohn, Jim Roosevelt, Franklin D. Rowling, J. K. Ruffin, Giavanni Sacrifices, making Salaries Sandford, Lee Saving, undesirable truth about Saving face Scarcity thinking Self-control Self-employment Self-importance Seller motivation The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People (Covey) Shakespeare, William Shaw, George Bernard Simpson, O. J. Smith, Adam Snapchat Social media Spending money to make money Spiegel, Evan Stallone, Sylvester Strauss-Kahn, Dominique Strength Sugar, Alan Sun Tzu Surveyors Teaching Teamwork approach Tenant problems Think and Grow Rich (Hill) Thinking big Thomas, Eric Time Tolle, Ekhart Trump, Donald Truths. See Undesirable truths Twain, Mark Undesirable truths education failure friendship frugality greed investments jobs money mortgages overview of pensions risk saving time work United States flipping property in higher education in multilevel marketing schemes repossession in Valuation of property Value, vs. cost Value investing Value of money Van Gogh, Vincent Visualization boards Vujicic, Nick Wages Wales, dragon national emblem Warhol, Andy Wealth definition of fear as roadblock to get-rich-quick schemes hard work and monetary wealth vs. moral wealth more money mindset negative people as roadblock to parallel universe perspective rat race trap as roadblock to strategy for building undesirable truths about Wealth Dragons first international tour founding of significance of name top principles of Wealth education Wealth strategy asset building business creation importance of infinite wealth achievement path overview of steps passive income generation See also Property investment Wealthy people, characteristics of Wilde, Oscar Williamson, Marianne Without Risk There’s No Reward (Mayer) Wong, Annika Wong, Vincent auctions Bruce Lee influence celebrity lifestyles daughter’s egg business education failure family background and childhood fear financial abundance financial experts hard work learning curve lease options lotteries luck making commitment to success moral obligation to be wealthy negative people off-plan property investments people skills property investment advantages property investment beginnings property investment deal making tips property investment experiences property investment learning curve rat race trap recessions as opportunity to make money relationship with John Lee taking action unglamorous nature of property investing Wealth Dragon origins wealth journey of Work, finding passion for.

pages: 83 words: 26,097

Payoff: The Hidden Logic That Shapes Our Motivations (TED Books) by Dan Ariely


3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, always be closing, David Brooks,, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, science of happiness, Snapchat, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

We work hard to spur ourselves to get up and go to work and do what we must do day after day. We also try to encourage the people working for and with us, those who are buying from and doing business with us, and even those who regulate us. We do this in our personal lives, too: from a very young age, kids try to persuade their parents to do things for them (“Dad, I’m too scared to do this!” or “All the other kids are on Snapchat”), with varying degrees of success. As adults, we try to encourage our significant others to do things for us (“Sweetie, I had such a stressful day today, can you please put the kids to bed and do the dishes?”). We attempt to get our kids to clean up their rooms and do their homework. We try to induce our neighbors to trim their hedges or help out with a block party. Whatever our official job descriptions, we are all part-time motivators.

pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol


23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

With well over 1.3 billion Facebook registrants, and five hundred million Twitter users, the vast majority makes their posts, tweets, and likes via mobile devices. In the United States, over 80 percent use a smartphone or tablet to access these social media.23 For every minute on the Internet, there are over two million Facebook likes, over seventy hours of YouTube video uploaded, three hundred thousand tweets, two hundred thousand Instagram and one hundred thousand Snapchat photos shared, and tens of thousands of interactions on LinkedIn, Pinterest, tumblr, flickr, and countless other social media networks.3 While not all of this connectivity is occurring via smartphones and tablets, it is quickly and asymptotically approaching that endpoint. But connecting people can also create wars and revolutions. As a result of the printing press, there were more than eleven religious wars, beginning with the Spanish Inquisition in 1480 and carrying on for two centuries through German, French, Irish, Scottish, and English civil wars.

It is exceedingly difficult to protect one’s privacy when tapping at a keyboard or mobile device. You can try to buy some privacy with such tools as the Blackphone, an Android smartphone costing $628,16 which has specialized software for users to make encrypted calls and send encrypted texts, the OFF Pocket cellphone case that for $85 blocks the signal from the phone to avoid location detection.17 The Snapchat app promises the automatic deletion of data, removing texts, photos, and videos from the recipient’s device and the company’s servers one to ten seconds after the data has been reviewed. (There are also Secret, Confide, Younity, Gliph, and Wickr “ephemeral” apps.)18 Efforts to limit data collection on a national scale have had little effect. The “Do Not Track” tool for consumers to opt out of web tracking is not at all effective, and the Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights, originally proposed by President Obama in 2012,19–24 has not gone past the idea stage.

declining doctor visits, 162–163 diagnosis through, 4–7 DIY activities, 47 global health impact, 261–267 iBlueButton apps, 130 imaging and the anatome, 84 lab on a chip, 109–111 medical revolution stemming from, 50–54 nuclear magnetic resonance device, 119 office visits, 165(fig.) patient access to test results, 108 patient-generated data, 135–136 prescription medication adherence, 132–134 price comparator apps, 154 printing press and, 41(fig.), 46(fig.) privacy and security concerns, 228–230 real-time test results, 121 social networking, 42–44 Smeeth, Liam, 227 Smith, Adam, 42 Snapchat, 221 Snowden, Edward, 219, 225 Snyder, Michael, 88 Social graph of the individual, 81–83 Social media clinical trials through, 212–214 data collection through, 220–221, 223 global spread increasing global autonomy, 47–48 identifying genetic commonalities in disease, 9 importance of online health communities, 10–12 machine learning, 245 managed competition, 51 open-source software, 197 predictive analysis at the individual level, 243–245 social graphs, 82–83 Social networks, 42–44 Soon-Shion, Patrick, 203–204 Spatiotemporal applications, 79–80 Spinal fusion, 214–215 Splinter, Mike, 175 Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD), 211–212 The Sports Gene (Epstein), 94 Sports injuries, 94–95 Stanford University, 112 Star Trek (television program), 286 Statins, 31–33 Stephens, Richard, 226–227 Stethoscope, 96, 119–120, 175–176, 253–256, 276, 289 Stone, Neil, 33 Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), 92, 103 Supreme Court, US, 74–76 Surgery Center of Oklahoma, 152–153 Surveillance, 219–224 Take Care clinics, 163 Target, 224, 239 Targeted marketing, 221–225, 243 Tay-Sachs disease, 89 TechFreedom, 69 Technion Institute, Haifa, Israel, 110 Technology adoption, 7(fig.)

pages: 320 words: 87,853

The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, asset-backed security, Atul Gawande, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, bonus culture, Brian Krebs, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computerized markets, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden,, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, High speed trading, hiring and firing, housing crisis, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, kremlinology, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, Philip Mirowski, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, risk-adjusted returns, Satyajit Das, search engine result page, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steven Levy, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, two-sided market, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

But they could also provoke elaborate efforts to cover their tracks and hide what’s going on. We have no idea how many classic stealth interactions— country club conversations, discreet drinks at out-of-the-way bars—take advantage of insider knowledge. It was rumored in 2013 that savvy traders will adopt Snapchat— a video and photo app promising self-destructing messages—to hide wrongdoing.99 If the damning chatter quoted above were merely written down, “snapped” as a picture, messaged, and deleted, misdeeds from banks to rating agencies may have been left uncovered. The “smoking gun” would be ephemeral 1’s and 0’s. But by 2014, Snapchat itself ran afoul of the FTC for lying about how ephemeral its communications were. A “sandbox” feature stored many video chats; other apps grabbed pictures. So perhaps we can hope the Internet sector’s dishonesty will provide some small check on finance’s skulduggery.

Cora Currier, “13 Reasons Goldman’s Quitting Exec May Have a Point,” ProPublica, March 14, 2012, http:// /article /13-reasons-goldmans-quitting -exec-may-have -a -point. Shahien Nasiripour, “Goldman Sachs Values Assets Low, Sells High to Customers as Senate Panel Alleges Double Dealing,” Huffington Post, April 14, 2011, http://www.huffi /2011/04 /14 /goldman-sachs-values-asse _n _849398.html. 99. Kayla Tausche, “Wall Street into Snapchat, and Regulators Are on Alert,” CNBC, July 30, 2013, /id /100924846. 100. For example, since a “simple fi xed/floating interest-rate swap contract . . . has zero value at the start,” it “is considered neither an asset nor a liability, but is an ‘off-balance-sheet’ item.” Carol J. Loomis, “Derivatives: The Risk That Still Won’t Go Away (Fortune 2009),” CNN Money, May 20, 2012, http://features .blogs .fortune .cnn .com /2012/05 /20 /derivatives -the -risk-that -still-wont-go-away-fortune-2009/. 101.

pages: 416 words: 129,308

The One Device: The Secret History of the iPhone by Brian Merchant

Airbnb, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John Gruber, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Lyft, M-Pesa, more computing power than Apollo, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, pirate software, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, special economic zone, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, zero day

“It got a lot of rave reviews, but where it became a cultural game-changer was after they allowed developers in. Letting them build their software. That’s what it is, right? How often do you use your phone as an actual phone? Most of the time, you’re sitting in line at the grocery store Tweeting about who-gives-a-fuck. You don’t use it as a phone.” No, we use the apps. We use Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter. We use Maps. We text, but often on nonnative apps like Messenger, WeChat, and WhatsApp too. In fact, of the use cases that Apple imagined for the product—phone, iPod, internet communicator—only one truly made the iPhone transformative. “That’s how Steve Jobs used his product,” says Horace Dediu, the Apple analyst. If you think about how people spend time on their mobile devices today, you’re not going to think about phone calls.

Clearly, most of the breakout early apps weren’t so lowbrow—many early successes were games, like Tap Tap Revenge, Super Monkey Ball, and a Texas Hold’Em poker app, and many were truly exciting, like Pandora Radio and Shazam, which continue to be successful today. “Of course, now, everyone’s writing fart apps, but he was the original,” Grignon says. “Apple had minted this new economy. And the early gold diggers won big.” This new economy, now colloquially known as the app economy, has evolved into a multibillion-dollar market segment dominated by nouveau-riche Silicon Valley companies like Uber, Facebook, Snapchat, and Airbnb. The App Store is a vast universe, housing hopeful start-ups, time-wasting games, media platforms, spam clones, old businesses, art projects, and experiments with new interfaces. But, given the extent to which the iPhone has entered the app into the global vernacular, I thought it was worth taking stock of what, at its core, an app actually is, and what this celebrated new market segment represents.

-based developers have earned more than $8 billion from App Store sales worldwide.” In 2016, one report estimated that the app economy was worth $51 billion and that it would double by 2020. In early 2017, Apple announced it had paid out $20 billion to developers in 2016 and that January 1 was the single biggest day in App Store sales in the company’s history; people downloaded $240 million worth of apps. Snapchat, a video-messaging app, is valued at $16 billion. Airbnb is worth $25 billion. Instagram, which was acquired by Facebook for $1 billion five years ago, is allegedly worth $35 billion now. And the biggest app-based company of all, Uber, is currently valued at $62.5 billion. “The app industry is now bigger than Hollywood,” Dediu tells me, “but nobody really talks about it.” Given that Apple is such a massive company and that the vast majority of its sales come from iPhones, just how successful they have been in the App Store business can be underappreciated—remember, they take a 30 percent cut of all sales made there, just for offering the platform.

pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest


23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

And like the shift from film photography to digital photography, once you change the substrate from a material, mechanical basis to a digital and informational one, the match is lit for an inevitable explosion. In 1995, 710 million rolls of film were developed at thousands of processing centers. By 2005, nearly 200 billion digital photographs, equaling about eight billion rolls, had been taken and edited, stored and displayed in ways that were unimaginable just a few years before. Today, web users upload almost one billion photographs per day to sites like Snapchat, Facebook and Instagram. As we saw in Chapter One, the shift from analog to digital is occurring in multiple core technologies that feature multiplier effects at their intersections. This process of “virtualizing” one industry after another is not just advancing exponentially, but at multiples of even that as data about the many different components of a single item or process is systematically analyzed and automated by software (data analytics).

Shingles and his Deloitte Innovation team are now talking to many industry groups about similar sweeps in their areas. As we stated in Chapter Five, disruption is the new norm. Throughout every industry, the democratization of accelerating technologies is allowing hundreds of startups to attack and disrupt traditional markets: Bitcoin, Uber, Twitch, Tesla, Hired, Clinkle, Modern Meadow, Beyond Verbal, Vayable, GitHub, WhatsApp, Oculus Rift, Hampton Creek, Airbnb, Matternet, Snapchat, Jaunt VR, Homejoy, Waze, Quirky, Tongal, BuzzFeed—the list of disruptors is virtually endless. And while of course many newcomers won’t succeed, their sheer number means that plenty will be around long enough to create a revolution. Large companies must identify and track disruptive ExOs with the aim of observing, partnering with, investing in and/or acquiring them. And they must do so as early as possible to lower the investment threshold needed and to pre-empt the competition.

pages: 383 words: 81,118

Matchmakers: The New Economics of Multisided Platforms by David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee


Airbnb, Alvin Roth, big-box store, business process, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, if you build it, they will come, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Jean Tirole, John Markoff, Lyft, M-Pesa, market friction, market microstructure, mobile money, multi-sided market, Network effects, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, Victor Gruen, winner-take-all economy

PricewaterhouseCoopers, “Global Top 100 Companies by Market Capitalization,” March 31, 2015, 5. CB Insights, “The Unicorn List: Current Private Companies Valued at $1 Billion and Above,” The following ten companies were the largest in order of valuation; companies in [brackets] are not multisided platforms. Uber, [Xiaomi], Airbnb, [Palantir Technologies], Snapchat, Flipkart, Didi Kuaidi, [SpaceX], Pinterest, and Dropbox. 6. The company was initially called but changed its name early on. 7. The company also signed up restaurants in Chicago at first. 8. Unless otherwise noted, all monetary values we report are not adjusted for inflation. 9. “USA: Names James Jeffrey Edwards CEO,” just-food, May 18, 2000, 10.

PricewaterhouseCoopers, “Global Top 100 Companies by Market Capitalization,” March 31, 2015, 3. According to Bloomberg, market capitalization for Apple and Google was $665 billion and $527 billion, respectively, as of November 20, 2015. See Ibid. for the rankings as of March 2015. 4. As of November 25, 2015. CBInsight, “The Unicorn List: Current Private Companies Valued at $1B and Above,” 5. Ibid. These include Uber, Airbnb, Snapchat, Flipkart, Didi Kuaidi, Pinterest and Dropbox. 6. For an interesting history of much of this digital revolution, see Walter Isaacson, The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2014). 7. The iPhone 6 has a speed of 1.4 GHz, compared to 4.77 MHz for the 1981 IBM PC. Clock speed is a somewhat imprecise measure of overall speed, due to the many other factors that affect overall performance.

pages: 326 words: 103,170

The Seventh Sense: Power, Fortune, and Survival in the Age of Networks by Joshua Cooper Ramo


Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, defense in depth, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Google Chrome, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, market bubble, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, packet switching, Paul Graham, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Metcalfe, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Vernor Vinge, zero day

We’re not nearly as dangerous in a sense as another group: our current leaders. 4. At this early moment in a new revolution, most of our leaders are blind. It’s not simple technical fluency that eludes them—though this is among the most embarrassing of their deficits, marked by their leaked emails and overheard voice mails. It’s certainly true that listening to some of our leaders talk about technology resembles nothing so much as trying to explain Snapchat to your grandparents. But the problem is more profound. Avoiding cyberaccidents, controlling the spread of nuclear weapons, handling global warming, stemming financial crises, restoring equitable growth—all these puzzles yearn to be tackled with a new sensibility. They are produced by new forces, after all. These problems linger not as independent fractures on some solid base that can be easily patched, but rather as markers of connected cracks that are growing over time.

Technology permits us to remain in constant touch. “We don’t have a word for the opposite of loneliness, but if we did, I could say that’s what I want in life…,” the millennial writer Marina Keegan wrote in a famous essay that captured more than a little of this zeitgeist. “More than finding the right job or city or spouse—I’m scared of losing this web we’re in. This elusive, indefinable, opposite of loneliness.” The early interface of Snapchat, where you had to leave your finger resting on the screen in order for the video to unspool, was a kind of metaphor for this unbreakable relationship between touch and connection. (As was, in a different way, the diffident, “out of my life” left swipe of Tinder.) Networks, we are discovering, don’t only compress space and time; they compress, in the process, the path to knowledge. We are also, now, statefully in touch with all sorts of knowledge.

pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase


3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk,, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

Consider that Hilton Hotels has been in the business for more than ninety-five years and has amassed only 610,000 rooms in 3,800 hotels in eighty-eight countries.1 And the French chain Accor, in third place, took forty-four years to produce its 610,000 rooms in 4,452 hotels in ninety-two countries.2 By all the existing rules of the game, attempting to rival these companies’ market shares within just a few years would be totally impossible. Yet Airbnb did it in just four years. By business standards—by any standards—this is a miracle. It is a completely new game. Nothing on earth could be further from business as usual. And this is not the virtual-assets, Snapchat type of growth. These are hard physical assets, with beds, bath towels, and soap. The figure below shows how the old-fashioned, physics-constrained, business-as-usual trajectory compares. What happened? The magic of the Peers Inc model. Airbnb’s platform unlocked excess capacity, built a compelling platform for participation, and the peers collaborated to provide the service in almost every place where people live.

Think you are safe in your wealthy-country enclave? Climate refugees will be everyone’s problem. One hundred and fifty million people in Bangladesh live less than a meter above sea level. Thirty percent of the arable land in Africa will be unsuitable for farming by 2030. Many current wars are all about resource scarcity; there will be more of them. Desperate people are not passive. Money earned from the next Snapchat, Instagram, or clever advertising mechanism won’t buy you the solace needed in this future. Go build something that makes a real difference and positively affects the lives of millions. And by ‘positively,’ I don’t mean it helps them pass the time or check up on their friend’s most recent I-consumed-this photo. You, with the fancy education and the desire to build something big, how do you convert your peers from producing eighteen tons of carbon per person per year in the United States (seven tons per capita in Europe) down to zero by 2050?

pages: 113 words: 37,885

Why Wall Street Matters by William D. Cohan

Apple II, asset-backed security, bank run, Bernie Sanders, bonus culture, break the buck, buttonwood tree, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, Donald Trump, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, financial repression, Fractional reserve banking, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, London Interbank Offered Rate, margin call, money market fund, moral hazard, Potemkin village, quantitative easing, secular stagnation, Snapchat, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, too big to fail, WikiLeaks

Or maybe you are just utterly confused by the fact that after attacking Wall Street mercilessly during his campaign, Donald Trump has surrounded himself with Wall Street veterans. But here’s the thing: If you like your iPhone (which you clearly do, because more than one billion iPhones have been sold worldwide since its inception in June 2007), or your wide-screen TV, or your car, or your morning bacon, or your pension, or your 401(k), then you are a fan of Wall Street, whether you know it or not. If you like the power and functionality of Facebook, Snapchat, and Twitter, you actually like Wall Street. None of these things would be even remotely possible to have, in the size and the scope that we have them, and as affordable and as easily accessible as they are, without the free flow of capital that Wall Street manages to provide nearly twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week to people who need it anywhere on the globe. The ability of Wall Street to provide capital when and where it is needed at a fair price isn’t a magic trick, or a strange form of alchemy, or something to be feared, or detested.

pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss


Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

For nearly anything mentioned, assume that I’ve chosen wording that will allow you to find it easily on Google or Amazon. All full podcast episodes can be found at Just search the guest’s name, and the extended audio, complete show notes, links, and resources will pop up like warm toast on a cold morning. In nearly every guest’s profile, I indicate where you can best interact with them on social media: TW = Twitter, FB = Facebook, IG = Instagram, SC = Snapchat, and LI = LinkedIn. Your Send-off—The 3 Tools that Allow All the Rest Siddhartha by Hermann Hesse is recommended by many guests in this book. There is one specific takeaway that Naval Ravikant (page 546) has reinforced with me several times on our long walks over coffee. The protagonist, Siddhartha, a monk who looks like a beggar, has come to the city and falls in love with a famous courtesan named Kamala.

Spirit animal: Octopus * * * Phil Libin Phil Libin (TW: @plibin, is the co-founder and executive chairman of Evernote. Evernote has roughly 150 million users, and I personally use it at least 10 times a day. It is my external brain for capturing all the information, documents, online articles, lists, etc., in my life. It was used to capture all the research for this book. Phil is also a managing director at General Catalyst, a venture capital firm that has invested in companies such as Airbnb, Snapchat, Stripe, and Warby Parker. Phil’s roster of mentors blows my mind, as evidenced in this profile. ✸ Who’s the first person who comes to mind when you think of the word “successful”? “The first thing that popped into my mind when you said ‘successful’ was [the] iPhone. . . . I guess I don’t really think of people as ‘successful.’ . . . Tons of people deserve to be successful because they’re supersmart and interesting and work hard, but they just haven’t had the luck

(See Neil Strauss, page 347, and Ramit Sethi, page 287.) A Shared Obsession The book Surely You’re Joking, Mr. Feynman! by Richard P. Feynman: “If you ever meet me in person, I have an extra copy because it’s just that amazing.” ✸ What is the worst advice you see or hear given in your trade or area of expertise? “That you should prioritize growing your social following (Instagram, FB, Twitter, Snapchat, YouTube). Grow things that you can fully control that directly affect sales, like your email list. ‘Likes’ don’t pay the bills. Sales do.” ✸ Who are three people or sources you’ve learned from—or followed closely—in the last year? Andrew Chen (Growth team at Uber), Tomasz Tunguz (venture capitalist and software as a service [SaaS] expert), Jonathan Siegel (chairman of Earth Class Mail) For Hiring Well—“Who?”

pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen


3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

In the future this adage will broaden to include not just what you say and write, but the websites you visit, who you include in your online network, what you “like,” and what others who are connected to you do, say and share. People will become obsessively concerned about where personal information is stored. A wave of businesses and start-ups will emerge promising to offer solutions, from present-day applications such as Snapchat, which automatically deletes a photo or message after ten seconds, to more creative solutions that also add a layer of encryption and a shorter countdown. At best, such solutions will only mitigate the risk of private information being released more broadly. Part of this is due to counter-innovations such as apps that will automatically take a screenshot of every message and photo sent faster than your brain can instruct your fingers to command your device.

., itr.1, 5.1, 5.2 in schools selective memory self-control self-driving cars, itr.1, 1.1, 1.2 September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks of, 3.1, 5.1 Serbia, 4.1, 6.1 servers Shafik, Ahmed shanzhai network, 1.1 sharia Shia Islam Shia uprising Shiites Shock Doctrine, The (Klein), 7.1n short-message-service (SMS) platform, 4.1, 7.1 Shukla, Prakash Sichuan Hongda SIM cards, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.1, 6.2, nts.1 Singapore, 2.1, 4.1 Singer, Peter, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6, 6.7, 6.8 singularity SkyGrabber Skype, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1, 5.1 sleeping rhythms Slim Helú, Carlos smart phones, itr.1, 1.1, 1.2, 5.1, 5.2, 7.1 in failed states peer-to-peer capability on Snapchat Snoad, Nigel social networking, 2.1, 4.1, 5.1 social-networking profiles social prosthetics social robots “socioeconomically at risk” people Solidarity Somalia, 2.1, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.1n, 210, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Sony South Africa, 4.1, 7.1 South Central Los Angeles Southern African Development Community (SADC) South Korea, 3.1, 3.2 South Sudan Soviet Union, 4.1, 6.1 Spain Speak2Tweet Special Weapons Observation Reconnaissance Detection System (SWORDS), 6.1, 6.2 speech-recognition technology spoofing Spotify Sputnik spyware, 3.1, 6.1 Stanford University statecraft State Department, U.S., 5.1, 7.1 states: ambition of future of Storyful, n Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) Stuxnet worm, 3.1, 3.2 suborbital space travel Sudan suggestion engines Summit Against Violent Extremism Sunni Web supersonic tube commutes supplements supply chains Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) surveillance cameras Sweden switches Switzerland synthetic skin grafts Syria, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 4.2 uprising in Syrian Telecommunications Establishment tablets, 1.1, 1.2, 7.1 holographic Tacocopter Tahrir Square, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3 Taiwan Taliban, 2.1, 5.1, 7.1 TALON Tanzania technology companies, 2.1, 3.1 Tehran Telecom Egypt telecommunications, reconstruction of telecommunications companies Télécoms Sans Frontières television terrorism, terrorists, 4.1, 5.1, con.1 chat rooms of connectivity and cyber, 3.1n, 153–5, 5.1 hacking by Thailand Thomson Reuters Foundation thought-controlled robotic motion 3-D printing, 1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 5.1 thumbprints Tiananmen Square protest, 3.1, 4.1 Tibet time zones tissue engineers to-do lists Tor service, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1, 5.1n Total Information Awareness (TIA) trade transmission towers transparency, 2.1, 4.1 “trespass to chattels” tort, n Trojan horse viruses, 2.1, 3.1 tsunami Tuareg fighters Tumblr Tunisia, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 Turkey, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1 Tutsis Twa Twitter, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2, nts.1 Uganda Uighurs, 3.1, 6.1 Ukraine unemployment UNESCO World Heritage Centre unique identification (UID) program United Arab Emirates, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 United Kingdom, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.1 United Nations, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1 United Nations Security Council, 3.1n, 214, 7.1 United Russia party United States, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1, 5.1, 7.1 engineering sector in United States Agency for International Development (USAID) United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5 Ürümqi riots user-generated content Ushahidi vacuuming, 1.1, 1.2 Valspar Corporation Venezuela, 2.1, 2.2, 6.1 verification video cameras video chats video games videos Vietcong Vietnam vigilantism violence virtual espionage virtual governance virtual identities, itr.1, 2.1, 2.2 virtual juvenile records virtual kidnapping virtual private networks (VPNs), 2.1, 3.1 virtual reality virtual statehood viruses vitamins Vodafone, 4.1, 7.1 Vodafone/Raya voice-over-Internet-protocol (VoIP) calls, 2.1, 5.1 voice-recognition software, 1.1, 2.1, 5.1 Voilà VPAA statute, n Walesa, Lech walled garden Wall Street Journal, 97 war, itr.1, itr.2, 6.1 decline in Wardak, Abdul Rahim warfare: automated remote warlords, 2.1, 2.2 Watergate Watergate break-in Waters, Carol weapons of mass destruction wearable technology weibos, 62 Wen Jiabao Wenzhou, China West Africa whistle-blowers whistle-blowing websites Who Controls the Internet?

pages: 390 words: 114,538

Digital Wars: Apple, Google, Microsoft and the Battle for the Internet by Charles Arthur


activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil,, Firefox, gravity well, Jeff Bezos, John Gruber, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Network effects, PageRank, pre–internet, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, software patent, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, turn-by-turn navigation, upwardly mobile

She replied that the usage data Nokia collected indicated that people who bought them did so to use the camera – a feature where the company excelled. I mentioned this later to a senior Apple executive, who guffawed quietly, and said: ‘That’s because they don’t have any apps.’ Even three years after its launch, Windows Phone still didn’t have some of the most popular, and many of the less popular (but fringe), apps. Among them were a native version of the photo-sharing service Instagram, now owned by Facebook, and Snapchat, a photo sharing service whose wrinkle made it hugely popular with teenagers: you sent the photo to a recipient – and then it wiped itself. Windows Phone had no native version, and had to rely on third-party bolt-ons. So if Nokia thought the smartphone was about photos, what did Apple think the smartphone was for? ‘A computer in your pocket,’ the executive replied at once. In mid-July, Nokia hit one mark: sales of Lumia phones for the three months to June outstripped those of BlackBerry.

(i), (ii), (iii) see also Microsoft Bang & Olufsen (i) Bartz, Carol (i) Basillie, Jim (i) Battelle, John (i), (ii) Bauer, John (i) BBC iPlayer (i) Bechtolsheim, Andy (i), (ii) Beckham, David and Victoria (i) BenQ (i) Berg, Achim (i) Berkowitz, Steve (i), (ii) Best Buy (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Bezos, Jeff (i) Bilton, Nick (i) BlackBerry (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi) BlackBerry Messenger (i) BlackBerry Storm (i), (ii) Block, Ryan (i) Blodget, Henry (i) Bloomberg (i), (ii) BMG (i) Boeing (i) Boies, David (i), (ii) Bondcom (i) (i) Bowman, Douglas (i) Bracken, Mike (i) Brass, Richard (i) Brin, Sergey (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) see also Google; Page, Larry Bronfman, Edgar (i) Brunner, Robert (i) Buffett, Warren (i) BusinessWeek (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Bylund, Anders (i) Carr, Nick (i) Chafkin, Max (i) Chambers, Mike (i) China (i), (ii), (iii) and Apple (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and Google (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) and Microsoft (i) mobile web browsing (i) China Mobile (i), (ii), (iii) China Unicom (i), (ii) Chou, Peter (i) CinemaNow (i) Cingular and the iPhone (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) and the ROKR (i), (ii) Cisco Systems (i) ClearType (i) Cleary, Danika (i), (ii) CNET (i), (ii), (iii) Colligan, Ed (i), (ii), (iii) Compaq (i), (ii) ComScore (i), (ii), (iii) Cook, Tim (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x) Creative Strategies (i) Creative Technologies (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Creative Labs (i), (ii) Cringely, Robert X (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Crothall, Geoffrey (i) Daisey, Mike (i), (ii) Dalai Lama (i) Danyong, Sun (i) Daring Fireball (i), (ii) Deal, Tim (i) Dean, Jeff (i) DEC (i) Dediu, Horace (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv) ’Dediu’s Law’ (i) Dell Computer (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii) Dell DJ (i), (ii), (iii) Dell, Michael (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Design Crazy (i) Deutschman, Alan (i) Digital Equipment Corporation (i) Divine, Jamie (i) Dogfight (i), (ii) Dowd, Maureen (i) Drance, Matt (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Drummond, David (i), (ii) Dunn, Jason (i) EarthLink (i), (ii) eBay (i) Edwards, Doug (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii) Eisen, Bruce (i) Electronic Arts (i) Elop, Stephen (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) EMI (i) eMusic (i) Engadget (i), (ii) Ericsson (i) European Patent Office (i) Evangelist, Mike (i) Evans, Benedict (i) Evslin, Tom (i) Facebook (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Fadell, Tony (i), (ii), (iii) Fester, Dave (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) FingerWorks (i), (ii) Fiorina, Carly (i), (ii) Flash (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Flowers, Melvyn (i), (ii) Foley, Mary Jo (i), (ii), (iii) Forrester Research (i), (ii) Forstall, Scott (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Fortune (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Foundem (i) Foxconn Technology (i), (ii), (iii) Fried, Ina (i) Galaxy Tab (i), (ii) Galvin, Chris (i) Gartenberg, Michael (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Gartner (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi) Gates, Bill (i), (ii), (iii) SPOT watch (i) and Steve Jobs (i), (ii), (iii) see also Ballmer, Steve; Microsoft; Sculley, John Gateway (i), (ii) Gemmell, Matt (i) Ghemawat, Sanjay (i) Gibbons, Tom (i) Gilligan, Amy K (i) Gladwell, Malcolm (i), (ii), (iii) Glass, Ira (i) Glazer, Rob (i) Golvin, Charles (i), (ii) Google (i), (ii), (iii) ‘40 shades of blue’ (i), (ii) AdSense (i) and advertising (i), (ii), (iii) AdWords (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Android (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) 4G patent auction (i) China, manufacturing in (i), (ii) and Flash (i) and the iPhone (i), (ii) and Microsoft (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Oracle patent dispute (i) origins of (i), (ii) and standardization (i) and tablets (i), (ii), (iii) antitrust investigation (i) and AOL (i) Bigtable (i), (ii) Buzz (i) Checkout (i) Chinese market (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) (i) ’Great Firewall’ (i) hacking (i) Chrome (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Compete (i) confrontation with Microsoft (i), (ii) data, importance of (i) Gmail (i), (ii) Goggles (i) Google Now (i) Google Play (i), (ii) Google+ (i), (ii) hiring policy (i), (ii) Instant (i) Maps (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) location data (i), (ii) users, loss of (i) vector vs raster images (i) market capitalization (i) Music All Access (i) Nest (i) and the New York terrorist attacks 2001 (i) Overture lawsuit (i) PageRank (i), (ii) and porn (i), (ii) profitability of (i) public offering (i) QuickOffice (i) and selling (i) Street View (i), (ii) and Yahoo (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) see also Brin, Sergey; Kordestani, Omid; Meyer, Marissa; Page, Larry; Schmidt, Eric; Silverstein, Craig Googled (i) (i), (ii), (iii) Gou, Terry (i) Grayson, Ian (i) Greene, Jay (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Griffin, Paul (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x) Griffin Technology (i), (ii) Grokster (i), (ii) Gross, Bill (i), (ii) Gruber, John (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Guardian (i), (ii), (iii) Gundotra, Vic (i), (ii) Hachamovitch, Dean (i) Handango (i) Handspring (i) Harlow, Jo (i) Hase, Koji (i), (ii), (iii) Hauser, Hermann (i) Hedlund, Marc (i) Heiner, Dave (i) Heins, Thorsten (i) Hewlett-Packard (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv) Hitachi (i) Hockenberry, Craig (i) Hölzle, Urs (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Hotmail (i) HTC (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) Huawei (i) Hwang, Suk-Joo (i) I’m Feeling Lucky (i) IBM (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) IDC (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Idealab (i) i-mode (i) Inktomi (i), (ii), (iii) Instagram (i) Intel (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) Intellectual Ventures (i) Iovine, Jimmy (i) iRiver (i), (ii), (iii) Ive, Jonathan (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) Jackson, Thomas Penfield (i), (ii), (iii) Java (i), (ii) Jefcoate, Kevin (i) Jha, Sanjay (i) Jintao, Hu (i) Jobs, Steve (i), (ii), (iii) and Bill Gates (i), (ii) death (i) departure from Apple (i) see also Apple; Cook, Tim; Forstall, Scott; Ive, Jonathan; Schiller, Phil Johnson, Kevin (i) Johnson, Ron (i) Jones, Nick (i) Joswiak, Greg (i), (ii) Jupiter Research (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Kallasvuo, Oli-Pekka (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Khan, Irene (i) Khan, Sabih (i) King, Brian (i), (ii) King, Shawn (i) Kingsoft (i) Kleinberg, Jonathan (i) Knook, Pieter (i), (ii) and competition from China (i) and Microsoft’s antitrust judgment (i) and Pink (i), (ii) and Steve Ballmer (i) and Windows Mobile (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) and the Xbox (i) and Zune (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Komiyama, Hideki (i) Kordestani, Omid (i), (ii), (iii) Kornblum, Janet (i) Krellenstein, Marc (i) Laakmann, Gayle (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Lawton, Chris (i) Lazaridis, Mike (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Lees, Andy (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii) Lenovo (i), (ii) LG (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) LimeWire (i), (ii) LinkExchange (i), (ii) Linux (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Lodsys (i), (ii) Lotus (i), (ii) Lucovsky, Marc (i) Lynn, Matthew (i) Ma, Bryan (i) MacroSolve (i), (ii) Madrigal, Alexis (i) Mapquest (i) Mayer, Marissa (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Media Metrix (i), (ii), (iii) MeeGo (i) Mehdi, Yusuf (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Meisel, Ted (i) Microsoft antitrust trial (i), (ii) APIs (i) company split (i) impact of (i) and Apple QuickTime (i) Azure (i) Bing Maps (i) ’Cashback’ (i) China, manufacturing in (i) Chinese market (i) censorship (i) pirating of software (i) confrontation with Google (i), (ii) Courier (i), (ii) Danger (i), (ii), (iii) acquisition by Microsoft (i), (ii), (iii) disintegration of the team (i), (ii), (iii) digital rights management (DRM) of music (i) DirectX (i) and Facebook (i) horizontal system (i) Internet Explorer (i), (ii) Janus (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) ’Keywords’ (i) market capitalization (i) and Netscape (i), (ii) and Nokia (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) ’Pink’ (i), (ii) announcement (i) failure of (i) PlaysForSure (i), (ii), (iii) failure of (i) problems with (i), (ii), (iii) rebranding and end (i) and the Zune (i) Portable Media Center (PMC) (i) potential acquisition of Overture (i), (ii), (iii) ’roadmap’ (i) search (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) and antitrust (i) Bing (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x) launch and crash (i) and Office (i) page design (i) profitability of (i) Project Underdog (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) rebranding (i) Surface tablets (i), (ii), (iii) and tablets (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Flash (i) Windows and ARM (i), (ii) WebTV (i) Windows (i), (ii) Windows Media Audio (i), (ii) Windows Media Player (i), (ii), (iii) Windows Mobile (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) and Android (i), (ii) decline (i) peak (i) Windows Phone (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) and tablets (i) Windows RT (i) Windows Server (i), (ii), (iii) Xbox (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) Xbox 360 (ii) Xbox Live Music Marketplace (i) Xbox Music (i) and the Zune (i) and Yahoo search (i), (ii) Zune (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Christmas 2006 (i) demise of (i) failings of (i) market position (i), (ii) and music in the cloud (i), (ii) and the Xbox (i) Zune Music Store (i), (ii) see also Allard, J; Ballmer, Steve; Gates, Bill; Knook, Pieter; Sculley, John; Sinofsky, Steve; Spolsky, Joel Milanesi, Carolina (i), (ii), (iii) Miller, Trudy (i) Mobile World Congress (i) Morris, Doug (i), (ii) Moss, Ken (i), (ii) Mossberg, Walt (i) Motorola (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) and Android (i) and the iPhone (i) and iTunes (i), (ii) Motorola Mobility (MMI) (i), (ii) Q phone (i) ROKR (i), (ii), (iii) Mozilla Firefox (i), (ii) Mudd, Dennis (i) Mundie, Craig (i) MusicMatch (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) MusicNet (i), (ii) Myerson, Terry (i) Myhrvold, Nathan (i) Nadella, Satya (i) Namco (i) Napster (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi) Narayen, Shantanu (i) Navteq (i), (ii) Netscape (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) and Google (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and Windows (i) (ii), (iii) New York Times (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) New Yorker (i), (ii) NeXT Computer (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Nintendo (i), (ii), (iii) and 4G (i) Nokia (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii) Apple patent dispute (i), (ii) Communicator (i) and the iPhone (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii) Lumia (i), (ii) and Microsoft (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) N91 (i) and Navteq (i), (ii) and Steve Ballmer (i) and Symbian (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) touchscreen development (i), (ii) Norlander, Rebecca (i) Norman, Don (i), (ii), (iii) Northern Light (i) Novell (i), (ii), (iii) NPD Group (i), (ii), (iii) O2 (i) Observer (i) Ohlweiler, Bob (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Ojanpera, Tero (i) Open Handset Alliance (OHA) (i) Oracle (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Overture (i), (ii), (iii) acquisition by Yahoo (i) Google lawsuit (i), (ii) potential acquisition by Microsoft (i), (ii), (iii) Ozzie, Ray (i), (ii) PA Semi (i) Page, Larry (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii) see also Brin, Sergey; Google Palm (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) acquisition by Hewlett-Packard (i) Pilot (i) Pre (i) profitability (i), (ii) Treo (i), (ii) Pandora (i) Partovi, Ali (i) Parvez, Shaun (i), (ii) Payne, Chris (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) see also Microsoft PC World (i) PeopleSoft (i) Pepsi (i), (ii), (iii) Peterschmidt, David (i) Peterson, Matthew (i) ’phablets’ (i) Pixar (i), (ii), (iii) Placebase (i) PressPlay (i), (ii), (iii) Qualcomm (i) Quanta (i) Raff, Shivaun (i), (ii), (iii) Real Networks (i), (ii), (iii) Helix (i) Red Hat (i), (ii) Reindorp, Jason (i) Research In Motion (RIM) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii) and Android (i), (ii), (iii) and Bing (i), (ii) and the iPhone (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) PlayBook (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) renaming to BlackBerry (i) Rockstar Bidco (i) writeoffs (i) see also BlackBerry Rockstar Bidco (i), (ii) Rosenberg, Scott (i) Rubin, Andy (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) and Flash (i) and Google phones (i) and Motorola Mobility (i), (ii) and touch-based devices (i) see also Google; Microsoft Rubinstein, Jon (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Samsung (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv), (xvi), (xvii) SanDisk (i) SAP (i) Sasse, Jonathan (i) Sasser, Cabel (i) Savander, Niklas (i) Schiller, Phil (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), and apps (i) and the iPhone (i) and iPod nano (i), (ii) and Wal-Mart (i) and 4G (i) Schmidt, Eric (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) and Android (i), (ii) and AOL (i) and Google Goggles (i) and the iPhone (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Schmitz, Rob (i) Schoeben, Rob (i) Schofield, Jack (i) Sculley, John (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Search (i) SEC (i), (ii) Second Coming of Steve Jobs, The (i) Sega (i) Shaw, Frank (i) Siemens (i) Sigman, Stan (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Silverstein, Craig (i) Sinofsky, Steven (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) see also ARM architecture; Microsoft Slashdot (i), (ii) Snapchat (i) Sony (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) and digital rights management (DRM) (i) MiniDisc (i), (ii), (iii) PressPlay (i), (ii) Rockstar Bidco (i) Walkman (i), (ii), (iii) Sony Ericsson (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) SoundJam (i) Spindler, Michael (i) Spolsky, Joel (i), (ii), (iii) Spotify (i) Sprint (i) Stac Electronics (i) standards-essential patents (SEPs) (i) Starbucks (i) StatCounter (i) Stephens, Mark (i), (ii) Stringer, Howard (i) Sullivan, Danny (i) Sun Microsystems (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Super Monkey Ball (i) Symbian (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) apps (i), (ii) and Flash (i) licencing (i) loss of market share (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Tao, Shi (i) Telefónica (i) Thompson, Rick (i) Time Warner (i), (ii) T-Mobile (i), (ii) TomTom (i) Topolsky, Joshua (i) Toshiba (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) traffic acquisition costs (TACs) (i), (ii) Twitter (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Universal (i), (ii), (iii) US Patent Office (i) Usenet (i) Vanjoki, Anssi (i) Varian, Hal (i) Verizon (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) Virgin Electronics (i), (ii) Visa (i) Vodafone (i), (ii), (iii) Vogelstein, Fred (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii) Wall Street Journal (i), (ii) Wal-Mart (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Wapner, Scott (i) Warner Music (i) Warren, Todd (i) Washington Post (i), (ii) Watsa, Prem (i) Waze (i) WebM (i), (ii) Wilcox, Joe (i), (ii) Wildstrom, Steve (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) Williamson, Richard (i) Windsor, Richard (i) Winfrey, Oprah (i), (ii) Wired (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) Wojcicki, Susan (i) WordPerfect (i), (ii) Xiaomi (i) Yahoo (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii), (viii), (ix) Flickr (i) and Google (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and GoTo (i) and Inktomi (i) and LinkExchange (i) localization (i) and Microsoft (i), (ii) and Overture (i), (ii) Tao, Shi (i) Yandex (i) Yang, Jerry (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) see also Yahoo YouTube (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) Zander, Ed (i), (ii) ZTE (i), (ii), (iii) Zuckerberg, Mark (i), (ii) see also Facebook Publisher’s note Every possible effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this book is accurate at the time of going to press, and the publishers and author cannot accept responsibility for any errors or omissions, however caused.

pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

Rare 20 years ago, today cybercrimes are ubiquitous: in our email, on the web, in social media, on mobile devices and on private networks. Their rapid spread has been enabled by maturing online marketplaces that supply cybercrime labor and tools, and that fence stolen goods. It is no longer a question of if you will become a victim of cybercrime, but when. These crimes injure us personally, through the theft and ransom of identities, login information, webcam videos or Snapchat photos. They also use us to injure others, by making us unwitting accomplices in spam, phishing and email attacks, or by using our computers as web servers for malware and child pornography. And as more smart devices, from appliances to automobiles to the locks on our house, connect to the “Internet of Things,” the range of injuries that cyber criminals can cause us will only widen. In July 2015, some 1.4 million Jeeps were recalled when researchers proved they could exploit a bug to hack, and crash, the vehicles remotely over the Internet.81 Cybercrime also steals intellectual property and other secrets from institutions.

What was remarkable about the protests that beset the last Renaissance was, first, their strength, breadth and frequency, and the role new technologies played in making them. These traits, at least, the New Renaissance surely shares. In 2011, Time magazine named “The Protester” its “Person of the Year,” in recognition of the social movements that had erupted planet-wide, from New York to New Delhi. Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp and Snapchat became, and have remained, means by which the disaffected discover one another and coordinate their voices. The other notable feature of social protest in the last Renaissance was how, from Savonarola’s bonfire to Luther’s Reformation, the focus of public anger evolved from corrupt leaders to a corrupted system, and a consensus was reached that to make things better, the system itself had to be rejected.

pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma


3D printing, Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel,, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

.‡ That x factor, which can be influenced by everything from experience using a computer to better management or better roads to get workers to their workplaces faster, is the fuzziest part of this difficult calculation. Technoskeptics say that the last decade’s decline in productivity growth reflects the fact that most recent innovations involve relatively trivial advances in communications and entertainment: Twitter, Snapchat and the like. Even with worker training and experience, these advances will do much less to raise productivity than previous innovations like electricity, the steam engine, the car, the computer, or air conditioning, which was a huge boost to human output per hour in a stuffy office setting. Optimists respond that productivity growth measurements aren’t capturing the cost and time savings produced by new technologies, ranging from artificial intelligence to increasingly powerful broadband connections and the nascent “Internet of things.”

Meanwhile, many of the oldest billionaires were found in the same countries where tycoons control a disproportionately large share of the economy and derive much of their wealth from inherited fortunes: The average age was 74 in Malaysia, 68 in Chile, and 67 in Taiwan. Taiwan’s youngest billionaire was 46 years old, compared to 34 in China and 25 in the United States, reinforcing the impression of an older family-based elite. New billionaires whose companies rise quickly out of nowhere—such as twenty-five-year-old Evan Spiegel of Snapchat—are the global exceptions, emerging as they do from hothouse environments like Silicon Valley. Indeed, the United States and China are quite unusual in terms of the number of billionaires they have generated from the ranks of young solo entrepreneurs, unaided by family ties. The absence of inherited wealth should be a good sign, demonstrating that new business can compete with entrenched ones.

pages: 397 words: 110,130

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson


3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp,, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise

A year? Crucially, deletion was the default, the inverse of most save-everything Web services. If you wanted something left permanently online you had to specifically set it that way. This behavioral hack worked. When I interviewed then-CEO Sam Lessin, fully two thirds of the material people had uploaded to in the previous year and a half was gone. More recently, social media tools like Snapchat or Poke have emerged, with the aim to make individual bits of sharing—a photo, a note—vanish after a single view. Obviously, artificial forgetting can’t stop malicious people from cutting and pasting personal info elsewhere. But it minimizes the windows in which this happens. There’s also the possibility that new laws and regulations could help us minimize unwanted digital traces, at least in countries that respect the rule of law.

See writing online Purrone, Ruben, 193 QQ, 246 Quantified Self Web, 90 question-answering, 72–77 sites for, 72–77 on social networks, 230 and Watson supercomputer, 281–82 Quora, 72–74 Rachid, Walid, 255 racial segregation, 251–52 radio, invention of, 60 Rainie, Lee, 231 Raymond, Paula, 124 reading digital instruction, 184–88 early novels, critics of, 223–24 engaged form of, 203–4 read it later services, 136 Reagan, Ronald, 249 Reagle, Joseph, 163–64 recency effect, 225 recursion, 190–91 Reddit, 76, 80 Remembrance Agent, 36–37 reputation bankruptcy, 242 reputation management, and social network postings, 235–42 Rheingold, Howard, 9, 206 rhetoricians, skills of, 67 Rhodes, Bradley, 36–37 Richeliue, Cardinal, 236 Richtel, Matt, 180 Rite-Solutions, 170 Ritzer, George, 238 Robinett, Warren, 149 Rosenblatt, Louise, 203 Rosetta@Home, 167 Roy, Deb, 19–23, 26 Rushkoff, Douglas, 195–96 Russia, photomanipulation, use of, 105–7 Said, Khaled, 256–57 Salah, Ahmed, 255 Sanchez, Esmil, 193–94 Schacter, Daniel, 134–35 Schacter Memory Lab, 134–35 Scheele, Carl Wilhelm, 59 Schmidt, Eric, 237 school-reform movement, 179 Schultz, Deb, 79–80 science problems, collective knowledge applied to, 166–69 scientific method and video games, 196–99 Scratch, 193–94 search credible Web sites, recognizing, 206 Google method, 33, 37 human memory versus machine, 32 lifelog, problems of, 32–35 queries as remembering, 130, 143 semantic memory based search, 116 teaching students mechanics of, 204–6 as transactive memory, 126–31 Sega, 149 self-tracking tools, 89–90 semantic memory, 116 Senft, Terri, 238 SenseCam, 30–34, 41, 144 sensors, self-tracking tools, 89–90 Shannon, Claude, 139 Shapeways, 112 Shereshevskii, Solomon, 40 Sherlock (TV show), 96 Shifang, China, environmental protest, 245–49 Shirky, Clay, 151–52, 222, 260 Shi Tao, 273 Sina Weibo, 47, 246–48 Siwak, Heidi, 188 slash fiction, 153–54 Slaughter, Anne-Marie, 215 Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, diagnostic supercomputer, 284–85 Smeaton, Alan, 144 Snapchat, 242 social awareness, and online postings. See ambient awareness social change, and access to information, 251–54 social memory, 124 social networks. See also ambient awareness; specific networks feminization aspects of, 226 historical view, 223–25 and homophily, 230–31 and micro-celebrity, 238 narcissistic overdrive of, 220–22 question-answering on, 230 reputation management/privacy, 235–42 as seductive/addictive, 231–32 small forums, 240–41 strength of weak ties, 227–30 trivial comments, online versus offline, 222 Socrates, 117–18, 120 on writing versus debate, 68–69, 75 on writing versus memory, 117–18 sousveillance, 266–67 spaced retention, 144–45 Space Invaders (video game), 147–48 Sparrow, Betsy, 126–28 Squire, Kurt, 199–203 Stager, Gary, 192 Stalin, Joseph, 106–7 Standage, Tom, 223 Stanford Study of Writing, 67 Starner, Thad, 138–44, 146, 286 Star Trek (TV show), 153 Stein, Bob, 82 Steinkuehler, Constance, 196–99, 203–4 Stephen, Zackary, 4–5 step-tracking, 90 Stevens, Tyrone, 85 “Strength of Weak Ties, The” (Granovetter), 227–29 students, and digital tools.

pages: 515 words: 132,295

Makers and Takers: The Rise of Finance and the Fall of American Business by Rana Foroohar


3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, bank run, Basel III, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deskilling, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Emanuel Derman, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, High speed trading, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, information asymmetry, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, John Markoff, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, the new new thing, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vanguard fund, zero-sum game

Moreover, when that style is imposed on Silicon Valley firms, they typically falter (think of John Sculley, the Wharton MBA who made the ill-fated decision to oust Steve Jobs after his first tenure at Apple, or the reign of Carly Fiorina at HP, during which that company’s stock lost half its value). One of the scariest trends in business these days is the increased movement of MBAs and finance types into the technology industry. They now are bringing their focus on financial engineering and balance sheet manipulation to firms such as Google, Apple, Facebook, Yahoo, and Snapchat—a shift that, if history is any indicator, doesn’t bode well for the future of such firms. Why has business education failed business? Why has it fallen so much in love with finance and the ideas it espouses? It’s a problem with deep roots, which have been spreading for decades. It encompasses issues like the rise of neoliberal economic views as a challenge to the postwar threat of socialism.

There are those who would argue that $59 billion isn’t small change. True enough; yet the mercurial nature of the tech business makes it imperative for companies like Apple and IBM, which depend on innovation for growth, to save as much as possible in order to stay ahead of unexpected competitors, rather than disgorging all their free cash to investors. Even a few years ago, who could have predicted the rise of companies like Facebook, Snapchat, or WhatsApp? In the technology industry in particular, as well as in our increasingly digital and information-oriented economy as a whole, new game-changing companies can appear overnight. Business models can change in a nanosecond. Industries can be completely disrupted not just over many years but within months or even weeks. In this new economic milieu, there’s every reason in the world for tech firms to pour every penny into blue-sky research and invest in workers at all levels—as well as pay their fair share of taxes to the federal government, whose investments in basic science and technology are arguably what created most of Silicon Valley’s growth potential to begin with.

pages: 472 words: 117,093

Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future by Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson

3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, airline deregulation, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, complexity theory, computer age, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, disintermediation, distributed ledger, double helix, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, family office, fiat currency, financial innovation, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, law of one price, Lyft, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precision agriculture, prediction markets, pre–internet, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, yield management, zero day

It was considered so important to the company that in 2013 Microsoft bought the mobile phone business of the Finnish manufacturer Nokia, a company that at one time had dominated the global phone industry itself but had been too slow to recognize and respond to the threat posed by app-centric smartphones. Nokia found itself squeezed between smartphones on one side and much cheaper basic phones from Asian manufacturers on the other. The purchase by Microsoft didn’t help much, unfortunately. The combined company’s efforts to build a vibrant platform to rival iOS and Android never achieved significant traction, and many popular apps, including Snapchat, declined to offer a Microsoft version. By the first quarter of 2016, Microsoft phones represented less than 1% of worldwide smartphone sales. By the end of that year, commentators had declared, “Microsoft’s Nokia experiment is over.” The failure resulted in more than 20,000 layoffs and almost $8 billion in write-downs, the largest in Microsoft history. Other efforts fared even worse. BlackBerry was an early leader in the mobile device market, especially among busy executives who became addicted to their e-mail-enabled “CrackBerries.”

Chen, “How Microsoft Hit CTRL+ALT+DEL on Windows Phone,” Wired, November 8, 2010, 167 Windows Phone: Windows Central, “Windows Phone,” last updated February 3, 2017, 167 Microsoft bought the mobile phone business: Microsoft, “Microsoft to Acquire Nokia’s Devices & Services Business, License Nokia’s Patents and Mapping Services,” September 3, 2013, 167 including Snapchat: Microsoft, “Top Free Apps,” accessed February 5, 2017, 167 less than 1% of worldwide smartphone sales: Gartner, “Gartner Says Worldwide Smartphone Sales Grew 3.9 Percent in First Quarter of 2016,” May 19, 2016, table 2, 167 “Microsoft’s Nokia experiment is over”: Tom Warren, “Microsoft Lays Off Hundreds as It Guts Its Phone Business,” Verge, May 25, 2016, 168 more than 20,000 layoffs: ZDNet, “Worst Tech Mergers and Acquisitions: Nokia and Microsoft, AOL and Time Warner,” Between the Lines (blog), February 13, 2016, 168 almost $8 billion in write-downs: Nick Wingfield, “Cutting Jobs, Micro-soft Turns Page on Nokia Deal,” New York Times, July 8, 2015, 168 the largest in Microsoft history: Gregg Keizer, “Microsoft Writes Off $7.6B, Admits Failure of Nokia Acquisition,” Computerworld, July 8, 2015, 168 By 2009, the BlackBerry operating system powered 20%: Statista, “Global Smartphone OS Market Share Held by RIM (BlackBerry) from 2007 to 2016, by Quarter,” accessed February 5, 2017, 168 By the end of 2016 the company had announced: Andrew Griffin, “BlackBerry Announces It Will Make No More New Phones,” Independent, September 28, 2016, 168 saw its market value drop below $4 billion: Google Finance, “BlackBerry Ltd (NASDAQ:BBRY),” accessed February 5, 2017,

pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, call centre, carried interest, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, TaskRabbit, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

‘[It] is in the progressive state, while the society is advancing to the further acquisition, rather than when it has acquired its full complement of riches, that the condition of the labouring poor, of the great body of the people, seems to be the happiest and the most comfortable,’ Smith wrote.23 When economic growth slows, society loses pace. That might seem counterintuitive in an age of instant connectivity. But we delude ourselves that the frequency with which we post Facebook updates, tweet or communicate on Snapchat amounts to meaningful action. Having hundreds of Facebook friends is no substitute for seeing people. Western societies are steadily getting older. The median age in the US is now thirty-nine compared with twenty-seven in India, for example. In the UK it is forty.24 During the baby boom years, which ended in 1964, people tended to have large families, as is true today for most of the rising middle classes in Asia and elsewhere.

pages: 233 words: 66,446

Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby


3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, fixed income, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, land value tax, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks

However, my mother, who learnt to type on a typewriter, practised this convention and insists on it even now. So, Satoshi’s double spacing suggests someone who is a little older – probably born before 1975 – when he says he was born.126 There are plenty of academic coders younger than that who write with two spaces – so this is not conclusive. But Bitcoin isn’t a product of youth like Facebook, Twitter or Snapchat. It’s not enough to be a whizz on computers. It requires knowledge of so many other areas, which would have taken years to accumulate. The language in which Bitcoin is written – C++ – is also regarded by coders as ‘old school’. All in all, I dismiss the idea that Satoshi was in his twenties when he created Bitcoin. On the other hand, I cannot see that he was born before that key period of 1955–56 – i.e. older than 54 in 2009.

Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World by Cal Newport


8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business climate, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey,, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, new economy, Nicholas Carr, popular electronics, remote working, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, statistical model, the medium is the message, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

This strategy offers you a different but complementary approach to these same issues, and it’s inspired by Ryan Nicodemus’s approach to getting rid of his useless stuff. In more detail, this strategy asks that you perform the equivalent of a packing party on the social media services that you currently use. Instead of “packing,” however, you’ll instead ban yourself from using them for thirty days. All of them: Facebook, Instagram, Google+, Twitter, Snapchat, Vine—or whatever other services have risen to popularity since I first wrote these words. Don’t formally deactivate these services, and (this is important) don’t mention online that you’ll be signing off: Just stop using them, cold turkey. If someone reaches out to you by other means and asks why your activity on a particular service has fallen off, you can explain, but don’t go out of your way to tell people.

pages: 302 words: 73,581

Platform Scale: How an Emerging Business Model Helps Startups Build Large Empires With Minimum Investment by Sangeet Paul Choudary


3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, frictionless, game design, hive mind, Internet of things, invisible hand, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social software, software as a service, software is eating the world, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, TaskRabbit, the payments system, too big to fail, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Wave and Pay

PATTERN 2: INFRASTRUCTURE-DOMINATED The concept of a core value unit is much simpler to understand in cases where the platform acts as the underlying infrastructure on top of which value is created. Apps form the core value unit on a development platform. The minimum unit of content constitutes the core value unit on a content platform. Articles on Medium, videos on YouTube, and the ephemeral messages on Snapchat, all denote the core value units for the respective platforms. There is an additional complexity when understanding value on infrastructure platforms. While a single selfie on Instagram – the core value unit – is created by a single producer, a single article on Wikipedia may be created by multiple producers. When multiple producers collaborate to create value, as on platforms like Wikipedia or Quirky, the actions of all producers need to be designed for.

pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee


4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Or, as is the case with Amazon, a growing business provides money that can be re-invested in building more efficient infrastructure, driving the next cycle of competitive advantage. Not that network effects continue without limit. New technologies do come along to challenge existing ones such as music streaming companies challenging Apple’s iTunes Store. Also, cultural instincts don’t just bind us all together on Facebook, they drive us apart too. What teen wants to be on the same social networking site as their parents? So Snapchat and Instagram become the social networks for the next generation, and new entrants (Yoho, Whisper, WhatsApp, Kik) try to create new identities that will appeal to a new demographic. Faced with generational changes in tastes, the best thing that this generation’s company can do is sometimes to buy its challengers, as Facebook has done by buying Instagram and WhatsApp. Network effects are not unique to the Internet, but the Internet provides an environment in which they can become particularly powerful.

pages: 265 words: 83,677

The Lonely City: Adventures in the Art of Being Alone by Olivia Laing


East Village, forensic accounting, global village, late capitalism, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Snapchat

Six years later, he founded a pioneering internet television network, Pseudo, which produced multiple channels of entertainment, each catering for and made by different subcultures, from hip hop and gaming to erotica – the same panoply of communities, in fact, that still colonise the web today. Years before social media, before Facebook (2004) and Twitter (2006), before Grindr (2009), ChatRoulette (2009), Snapchat (2011) and Tinder (2012), before even Friends Reunited (2000), Friendster (2002), MySpace (2003) and Second Life (2003), not to mention the broadband that made them viable, Harris understood that the internet’s most powerful appeal was not going to be as a way of sharing information, but rather as a space in which people could connect with others. He foresaw from the beginning that there would be an appetite for interactive entertainment and he also foresaw that people would be willing to pay a good deal in order to participate, to have a presence in the virtual world.

pages: 222 words: 70,132

Move Fast and Break Things: How Facebook, Google, and Amazon Cornered Culture and Undermined Democracy by Jonathan Taplin

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Legislative Exchange Council, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, battle of ideas, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, David Brooks, David Graeber, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of journalism, future of work, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Google bus, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, revision control, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator

And how would Vox, BuzzFeed, or even the vaunted Atlantic survive without the native advertising that blurs the line between editorial content and paid advertising? If indeed the author of Hooked is onto something—exposing our powerful addictions to social networking apps—then is Peter Thiel’s almost spiritual commitment to “liberty” really the same as Thomas Jefferson’s life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness? I don’t think so. Is your friend who spends three hours a day on Snapchat really free? What agency do any of us have in our relationship with Facebook? I am just as guilty as you are. I surrender all my personal data to Facebook in return for the ability to share my vacation photos with my friends. But Twitter and Facebook want more than the personal data of any one user. Each platform has become a critical tool in political campaigns. During the 2016 presidential campaign, Donald Trump regularly boasted about his ten million Twitter followers, even though (according to the site StatusPeople, which tracks how many Twitter accounts are bots, how many are inactive, and how many are real) only 21 percent of Trump’s Twitter followers are real, active users on the platform.

pages: 260 words: 76,340

When You Find Out the World Is Against You: And Other Funny Memories About Awful Moments by Kelly Oxford

Donald Trump, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Snapchat

Somehow I manage to act like a complete idiot around her. I’m like that nerdy younger kid the older kids let stick around so they can make fun of him. This is easily done when you don’t have the same group logic as the peers. With Sal, lately, a lot of conversations involve a line of questioning, such as, “Who do you think is hotter? _____ or _____?” and then she texts her friends my answers. Her friends have dozens of snapchats of me saying, “I don’t think Harry Styles is hot, I’m not a pedophile.” Which is a lie, he’s hot. But isn’t it worse if I tell her that I think he’s hot? I’d rather talk to Sal about Joan Didion or how I think Monica Lewinsky got the rawest of deals. But I’ve tried those topics, and similar ones, and she doesn’t seem as interested in those as she is in my attraction to Harry Styles. Yeah, maybe I do have something to worry about.

pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

To assist in his campaign, he set up a website called Europe versus Facebook ( These concerns were not confined to Europe. The US Federal Trade Commission found in 2011 that Facebook had ‘deceived consumers by telling them they could keep their information on Facebook private, and then repeatedly allowing it to be shared and made public’.117 Moreover, even American teenagers started migrating to other platforms, such as Snapchat, WhatsApp, Secret and Whisper, doubtless partly because those were snappier on a smartphone, but perhaps also because—as the names Secret and Whisper might suggest—they were seen as more attentive to privacy. (Facebook responded by buying WhatsApp.) Under such sustained criticism from both dogs and mice, but probably above all because it feared the loss of customers, Facebook introduced new privacy settings in 2014.

., 195 search engine manipulation, 365 ‘search engine optimisation,’ 302 Second Life, 316 secrecy: C/S ratio, 324; guarding the guardians, 334–38; official, 324–27, 332–34, 337–38, 344–45; in wartime, 326; ‘well-placed sources,’ 341–45; whistleblowers and leakers, 339–41 section 295 of Indian/Pakistani penal code, 225, 254, 268, 275 secularism, 261, 265, 267, 273, 277–78, 281 security: executive oversight of, 335; versus freedom, 327–29; judiciary oversight of, 336–37; legislative oversight of, 335–36; national and personal, 321 sedition, 325 seditious libel, 331 Sedley, Stephen, 77, 131 Seinfeld, Jerry, 244 Selassie, Haile, 205 self-broadcasting/-publishing, 56–58 self-restraint, 213 Semantic Web, 164 Semprun, Jorgé, 304 Sen, Amartya, 78, 109, 193–94 Senegal, 243, 277 September 11, 2001 attacks, 64, 273, 322–24 Serbia, 133, 242 Serbo-Croat language, 123, 207 Serrano, Andres, 146 Serres, Michel, 25 sex, speech as, 89, 247–48 Shakarian, Hayastan, 349 Shakespeare, William, 156, 212 Shamikah, 313 Shamsie, Kamila, 90 ‘sharing,’ 166 Sharp, Gene, 148–49 Shaw, George Bernard, 17, 109 Shayegan, Daryush, 98 shield laws, 342 Shils, Edward, 99, 208–9 Shotoku (Prince), 109 Shrimsley, Robert, 142 Shteyngart, Gary, 13, 16 ‘Shunga’ art exhibition, 246–47 Sikhs, 131, 253, 262, 274 Siliconese, 50 Simone, Nina, 74, 78, 119, 212 Simpson, O. J., 298 Sina Weibo, 40, 43–45, 58, 60, 211, 300, 371 Singapore, 67 Singer, Peter, 156 Singh, Simon, 153 Siri, 17 Skeleton Army, 132, 139, 145 skin colour, 221 Slate, 144 smartphones, 11, 13 SMERSH, 182 Smith, Joseph, 259, 261 Smith, Zadie, 179, 244 Snapchat, 310 Snowden, Edward, 46, 284, 288, 318, 320–21, 327, 330, 337, 341, 345–46, 355–56 Socrates, 346 Sohu, 40 Solzhenitsyn, Alexander, 56, 58, 142, 371 SOPA (Stop Online Piracy Act), 59, 164 Sorabjee, Soli, 227 Soros, George, 236 ‘sousveillance,’ 338 South Africa, 46–47, 110–11, 136, 223, 242, 333–34, 353–54 South Korea, 29, 325, 354 Soviet Union, 21, 157, 387n63. See also Russia Spain, 175f, 198f, 201f, 215, 272, 277, 293, 304, 334.

pages: 353 words: 110,919

The Road to Character by David Brooks


Cass Sunstein, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, follow your passion, George Santayana, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, New Journalism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile

Third, social media encourages a broadcasting personality. Our natural bent is to seek social approval and fear exclusion. Social networking technology allows us to spend our time engaged in a hypercompetitive struggle for attention, for victories in the currency of “likes.” People are given more occasions to be self-promoters, to embrace the characteristics of celebrity, to manage their own image, to Snapchat out their selfies in ways that they hope will impress and please the world. This technology creates a culture in which people turn into little brand managers, using Facebook, Twitter, text messages, and Instagram to create a falsely upbeat, slightly overexuberant, external self that can be famous first in a small sphere and then, with luck, in a large one. The manager of this self measures success by the flow of responses it gets.

pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor


A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

, popular bloggers asked whether the site should compensate those who provided the most viewed photographs; when the Huffington Post was acquired by AOL for $315 million, many of the thousands of people who had been blogging for free were aghast, and some even started a boycott; when Facebook announced its upcoming IPO, journalists speculated about what the company, ethically, owed its users, the source of its enormous valuation.9 The same holds for a multitude of sites: Twitter wouldn’t be worth tens of billions if people didn’t tweet, Yelp would be useless without freely provided reviews, Snapchat nothing without chatters. The people who spend their time sharing videos with friends, rating products, or writing assessments of their recent excursion to the coffee shop—are they the users or the used? The Internet, it has been noted, is a strange amalgamation of playground and factory, a place where amusement and labor overlap in confusing ways. We may enjoy using social media, while also experiencing them as obligatory; more and more jobs require employees to cultivate an online presence, and social networking sites are often the first place an employer turns when considering a potential hire.

pages: 606 words: 87,358

The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization by Richard Baldwin


3D printing, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, buy low sell high, call centre, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, Commodity Super-Cycle, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, domestication of the camel, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial intermediation, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Henri Poincaré, imperial preference, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invention of the telegraph, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Dyson, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, New Economic Geography, out of africa, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus

They grew up in a world where conference invitations went by airmail, international calls cost five dollars a minute, and sending a single document by overnight courier could cost fifty dollars or more. Faxing was faster but the quality was horrible. Even younger readers will have lived through dramatic changes. To them, email is a clunky ancient technology that is only useful for some things, while Facebook (since 2004), Twitter (since 2006), and Snapchat (since 2011) are much better adapted for instant communication and group organization. The revolution can also be understood in the numbers. Between 1986 and 2007, world information storage capacity grew at 23 percent per year, telecommunications at 28 percent, and computation power at 58 percent per year. Such growth rates can be transformational in as little as a decade. For example, the amount of information transmitted by telecommunications during the whole of 1986 could be transmitted in just two-thousandths of a second in 1996.

pages: 363 words: 92,422

A Fine Mess by T. R. Reid

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, centre right, clean water, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, game design, Gini coefficient, High speed trading, Home mortgage interest deduction, Honoré de Balzac, income inequality, industrial robot, land value tax, loss aversion, mortgage tax deduction, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Tesla Model S, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, Tobin tax, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks

The drive for standardization came from Europe, which is why we still measure time and longitude based on a meridian running through Greenwich, England, and why the global standards for the meter and the kilogram are stored in a vault in Sèvres, France. In the twentieth century the United Nations, the World Health Organization, Interpol, the International Olympic Committee, the International Committee of the Red Cross, NATO, and the like were created. In recent decades, the Internet and the smartphone, Facebook and Snapchat, have sparked a new rush of international organization creation. There’s an international Video Electronics Standards Association and an International Programmers Guild. There are global fan groups for dozens of video games you’ve probably never heard of. There are hundreds of global associations for specific industries, ranging from the International Federation of Beekeepers’ Associations to the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists to the International Association of Wood Anatomists.

pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier


23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

Your computer, the sites you visit, and the computers in the network each produce data. Your browser sends data to websites about what software you have, when it was installed, what features you’ve enabled, and so on. In many cases, this data is enough to uniquely identify your computer. Increasingly we communicate with our family, friends, co-workers, and casual acquaintances via computers, using e-mail, text messaging, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, SnapChat, WhatsApp, and whatever else is hot right now. Data is a by-product of this high-tech socialization. These systems don’t just transfer data; they also create data records of your interactions with others. Walking around outside, you might not think that you’re producing data, but you are. Your cell phone is constantly calculating its location based on which cell towers it’s near. It’s not that your cell phone company particularly cares where you are, but it needs to know where your cell phone is to route telephone calls to you.

pages: 309 words: 114,984

The Digital Doctor: Hope, Hype, and Harm at the Dawn of Medicine’s Computer Age by Robert Wachter


activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, deskilling,, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Glasses, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, lifelogging, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine,, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, US Airways Flight 1549, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra

The third obstacle stemmed from the youth of most IT entrepreneurs. Unless a 26-yearold computer engineer has a loved one with a serious medical illness or hails from a long line of physicians, the world of healthcare is utterly foreign, with a different language and a set of problems whose solutions appear to be well beyond the horizon. “People like to build products that solve problems in their lives. Snapchat may do that, whereas a healthcare app doesn’t,” Gross told me. As their business school project continued, the partners began to believe that they might be able to help fledgling companies by, said Gross, “giving them a little bit of funding, introducing them to the right investors, refining their pitch to build investor confidence, and then helping them build an investable business.” They also felt that it was important to “make health IT sexy”—to convince a young engineer or entrepreneur that the field offered a path to economic success and “doing good in the world at the same time.”

pages: 473 words: 121,895

Come as You Are: The Surprising New Science That Will Transform Your Sex Life by Emily Nagoski Ph.d.


cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, delayed gratification, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, Skype, Snapchat, spaced repetition, the scientific method

You’re stressed, exhausted, or overwhelmed, it’s very noisy in your brain, there’s heavy traffic, lots of yelling and horns honking about all the stuff that’s stressing you out. Your partner’s affectionate touch travels from your arm, up your spine, to your brain, and it says, “This is happening. What do you think?” And your brain says, “WHAT? I CAN’T HEAR YOU OVER ALL THIS NOISE!” And by then the sensation is over. (Sensations are a little bit like Snapchat.) If your partner keeps touching you, the sensation keeps asking your brain, “This is still happening. What do you think?” And eventually it might get your brain’s attention, and your brain might say, “ARE YOU KIDDING ME? I’VE GOT ALL THIS OTHER NOISE TO CONTEND WITH!” And if the sensation ever gets noticed enough to expand out of your brain’s emotional One Ring, it comes out in the form of, “Not now, honey.”

pages: 559 words: 155,372

Chaos Monkeys: Obscene Fortune and Random Failure in Silicon Valley by Antonio Garcia Martinez


Airbnb, airport security, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, Burning Man, Celtic Tiger, centralized clearinghouse, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, drone strike, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, financial independence, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hive mind, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Paul Graham, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social web, Socratic dialogue, source of truth, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, urban renewal, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, éminence grise

They also convinced the company’s management to make ambitious (and stunningly large) acquisitions in the ads-technology space. This was Twitter Ads, and so its leadership eventually becoming company leadership, however unique among consumer Internet companies, was not a huge surprise. FRIDAY, MARCH 25, 2011 Matters really kicked into gear when Twitter sent us that sine qua non of startup scheming, a corporate NDA. This is effectively the Snapchat messaging of the corporate world: you can take a peek, but the message needs to effectively be deleted from your brain (or at least never leave it) forever. Shit had just gotten real, and we needed a lawyer. Not a litigator like the Undertaker or Wang, whose generosity we didn’t want to test anymore, but a lawyer skilled in the polite work of corporate governance. Conveniently, a few weeks before this, I had gotten worried about our corporate paperwork.

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The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload by Daniel J. Levitin


airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anton Chekhov, Bayesian statistics, big-box store, business process, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump,, epigenetics, Eratosthenes, Exxon Valdez, framing effect, friendly fire, fundamental attribution error, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, impulse control, index card, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, invention of writing, iterative process, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, pre–internet, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, ultimatum game, zero-sum game

Realizing when a diversion has gotten out of control is one of the great challenges of life. Anything that tempts us to break the extended concentration required to perform well on challenging tasks is a potential barrier to success. The change and novelty centers in your brain also feed you chemical rewards when you complete tasks, no matter how trivial. The social networking addiction loop, whether it’s Facebook, Twitter, Vine, Instagram, Snapchat, Tumblr, Pinterest, e-mail, texting, or whatever new thing will be adopted in the coming years, sends chemicals through the brain’s pleasure center that are genuinely, physiologically addicting. The greatest life satisfaction comes from completing projects that required sustained focus and energy. It seems unlikely that anyone will look back at their lives with pride and say with satisfaction that they managed to send an extra thousand text messages or check social network updates a few hundred extra times while they were working.