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pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton


1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk,, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

We imagine Cedric Price's Fun Palace (1961) turned inside out by North Korean stadium pageants where the audience itself is the media content, but instead of free to play, each actor is instead rendered into disciplined pixel within a larger choreography of the spectacular image. We could mark an ancestral trace from Yona Friedman's La Ville Spatiale to the new Asian smart cities such as New Songdo City (“a ubiquitous city,” says its brochure) in South Korea's Incheon development, or see Paolo Soleri's Arcology as a first pass at Masdar, the massive “green” smart city in Abu Dhabi. (Both Songdo and Masdar were built with Cisco and IBM as key partners.) Is Situationist cut-and-paste psychogeography reborn or smashed to bits by Minecraft? What binds the hyperlibertarian secessionism of the Seasteading Institute, which would move whole populations offshore to live on massive ships floating from port to port unmolested by regulation and undesired publics (Facebook funder Peter Thiel is a key funder) with Archigram's Walking City project from 1967, which plotted for Star Wars Land Walker–like city machines to get up and amble away to greener pastures as needed?

New “totalistic” (not really totalitarian) smart city initiatives from global information technology companies have borne real fruit for those offering them, often finding clients in sovereign capital funds or in sovereign governments directly.22 They also are in no way allergic to collaboration with (or subcontracting to) globally known architectural design firms. This mix of “real” architects and urbanists with consultants and IT systems architects and administrators is neither intrinsically offensive nor automatically fortunate, but it does alter the relative tabula rasa on which synthetic megacities are built. No more Brasilia or Tsukuba Science City; now we have variations on J. G. Ballard's Super-Cannes: Masdar (Norman Foster, Partners, et al.), Skolkova (Cisco et al.) Songdo City (Cisco, IBM, et al.), KAUST (IBM, HOK, et al.), and on and on.23 These Moon-bases on Earth are spliced from Soviet science cities, Silicon Valley campuses, Orange County gated communities, and a mutual understanding between political despotism and technological innovation. They are what cities look like in the shadow of airports, Special Economic Zones, and “sustainability mandates.”

The prospect of constructing new civilizations from whole cloth on nearby planets and moons has inspired no shortage of utopian schemes, but in this case, that cloth is the moon itself, turned into the printed matter with which off-Earth habitations might be mechanically excreted.51 Such a project should be called robotic terraforming as much as off-planet urbanism because instead of sending designers and building supplies across the vacuum of space, the mission calls instead for programs (call them what you like: scripts, recipes, algorithms) that would instruct a replicating printer to build up new structures layer-by-layer of lunar soil, and in time fill the sunny southern lunar pole with new airport cities. The choice of Foster's office for this project like this is not surprising, as he is arguably the preeminent architect of the Google Earth perspective: he might terraform the Moon because he has already, project by project, terraformed Earth. Regardless of how you may like or not like the projects, from Masdar to the new Reichstag and the Gherkin, few contemporary offices have done more to expand the perspectival scale of architectural figuration than his. Architectural students now include “satellite” view along the required plan, section, elevation, and axonometric perspectives on their projects, and his portfolio suggests one reason why. While a building's face has usually been read from the view of a pedestrian front or entrance, Foster's projects (especially but not uniquely) are sometimes best considered from tens of thousands of feet in the air, as landscape-scale interventions in relation to the urban regions that they gather into their midst.

pages: 578 words: 168,350

Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West

Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor

It is hard not to perceive Masdar as effectively a large private suburban residential industrial park rather than a vibrant diverse autonomous city. In many ways its philosophy is derivative of Ebenezer Howard’s garden city concept brought into the high-tech culture of the twenty-first century, except that it appears to be designed for the privileged rather than for the working poor. Nicolai Ouroussoff, who was the architecture critic for the New York Times from 2004 to 2011, suggested that Masdar is the epitome of a gated community: “the crystallization of another global phenomenon: the growing division of the world into refined, high-end enclaves and vast formless ghettos where issues like sustainability have little immediate relevance.” It’s too early to tell whether Masdar will become a real city or remain just a grandiose upscale “gated community” stuck out in the Arabian desert.

Another more recent Pritzker Prize winner, Norman Foster, has also tried his hand at designing a city ex nihilo, in this case in the harsh desert environment of the Gulf States. This is the much-publicized city of Masdar in Abu Dhabi, which is envisioned to be a showcase for a sustainable, energy-efficient, user-friendly high-tech community by taking advantage of abundant solar energy enabled by sexy advances in IT. It’s a bold and exciting plan, even if it is rather a strange beast. It is planned to have about fifty thousand inhabitants by around 2025 at a cost of about $20 billion. Its main business is expected to be the high-tech research and manufacturing of environmentally friendly products to be supported by an influx of an additional sixty thousand commuters from Abu Dhabi itself. Perhaps the most bizarre aspect of Masdar is that its boundaries have been designed to be about as inorganic and unimaginative as possible—they form an exact square.

This is reflected in phrases he used such as “cleaning and purging” the city, or developing “a calm and powerful architecture,” and in his insistence that buildings be designed without ornamentation. Thank goodness that his grandiose plans were not acted upon so that we can still enjoy some of the more decadent urban embellishments of central Paris and Stockholm. Top left: An example of Ebenezer Howard’s plans for a garden city; top right: the new city of Masdar in Abu Dhabi; middle and bottom left: examples of Le Corbusier’s design for a new city. Le Corbusier had an enormous influence on architects and urbanists across the globe, as evidenced by the dominance of rigid steel and concrete structures that adorn the central districts of all of our major cities. Just as Howard’s urban design philosophy has left its indelible mark on suburban city life, so has Le Corbusier’s left its indelible mark on our downtown cityscape.

pages: 570 words: 158,139

Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker


airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise

Hegazy argued that architects and engineers should apply lessons from the original desert dwellers, building with pillars and screens that caught breezes and took advantage of cool mornings and evenings without air-conditioning. “You don’t need it—that was proved in New Mexico,” he said. About 20 miles outside of Abu Dhabi, a multibillion-dollar project called Masdar is attempting to do just that but on a mammoth scale that has become the norm in the United Arab Emirates. Promising to be the first carbon-neutral city in the world, the architects and engineers are using modern technology and ancient urban desert design like narrow streets and latticework screens that fight off the heat and glare of the sun. Eventually this refuge should show the way to a desert life after the oil economy runs dry. Masdar is part of the larger Masdar Initiative to develop alternative energy in the UAE, investing in solar, wind and nuclear. The poor environmental record of tourism in the UAE was rarely mentioned at the conference meant to advertise that Abu Dhabi was intent on becoming known as a “green” destination, however loosely defined.

., 385 Leon, Donna, 85–86 Leonardo da Vinci, 39 Leshan Giant Buddha, 339 Levy, Michael, 319 Liang Sicheng, 298 Liberia, 157, 161 ship registry of, 139, 140 Libya, 193 LICADHO, 110 Lichtenwald, Janice, 266 Lindblad Expeditions, 246, 248, 257 Lin Xi, 329–34 Living Planet report, 196 Livingstone, Zambia, 237 “Living Working Countryside” (Taylor), 74 Lloyds Cruise International, 164 London, 1851 Exposition in, 49 London Daily Mail, 72 Los Angeles Times, 30 “Lost Decade, The” (report), 360 Louvre, Abu Dhabi, 191, 192 Louvre, Paris, 38–39, 66 Lovdal, Trond, 225 Love Boat, The (TV show), 137 Luangwa River valley, 211, 212, 218 Lufthansa, 172 Lula da Silva, Luis Inácio, 272–73, 276 Lusaka, Zambia, 209–10, 229 Lustenberger, Joe, 372–73 Maasai, 242 Macao, 113, 295, 306, 314, 368–69 McBride, Kelly, 31 McCain, John, 366 McCartney, Mike, 387 McCullough, David, 248 McDonald’s, 243 McGhee, Dorothy, 376 McMafia (Glenny), 115 Madrid, 7–8, 34 Magic Planet, 176 Maine, 161 Malafante, Marco, 78, 82 Malawi, 218 Malaysia, 377–78 Malkovich, John, 73 Mall of Emirates, 167, 176 Malraux, André, 55–56, 59 Mam, Somaly, 117–18 Manaus, Brazil, 274 Mann, Thomas, 82 Manuel Antonio National Park, 261 Mao Zedong, 292, 297, 299, 300, 313, 330 Marchetti, Marco, 47, 70 Mardi Gras (cruise ship), 136, 137 Marina Bay Sands, 113, 369 marine life, threats to, 156 maritime transport industry: environmental standards for, 157–58 flags of convenience in, 139, 142, 256 pollution from, 156 Marriott, J. W. “Bill,” Jr., 44, 276, 359, 361 Marriott family, 367 Marriott International, 340, 380 Brazilian rainforest preserve of, 271, 274–76 carbon footprint of, 271, 276 Chinese hotels of, 313–14, 315, 322 Marshall Plan, 52–54 Martin, Esmond, 234–35 Masdar, UAE, 195 Masdar Initiative, 195 mass tourism: at Angkor temples, 91, 94–95, 98 dangers of, 47 in Venice, 75, 76–86 Matthews, Charlie, 63–64 Matthews, Kathleen, 270–71, 274 Maud’hui, Philippe, 47, 57, 66, 75 Mauriac, François, 62 Mavrogiannis, Anthony, 381–82 Maxa, Rudy, 32 Mayle, Peter, 72, 73 Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 181–85 media, see travel writers, travel writing medical tourism, 18–19, 348, 376–79 Medina, Saudi Arabia, 182 MediTour Expo, 377 Mérimée, Prosper, 56 Mexico, 116, 377 Meyer, Chris, 371–72, 374 Meyers, Arlen, 377, 378 Mfuwe Lodge, 211–12, 214, 219, 223, 225, 226–27, 240 Miami, Fla., 34 Miami Herald, 26, 27, 32 Miami News, 26 MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions) business, 18, 370–74 middle classes, as tourists, 10, 12 Middleton, Drew, 28 Minc, Alain, 71 mining: in Costa Rica, 258–59 in Zambia, 210, 228, 236 Mitterrand, François, 38 Mitterrand, Frédéric, 67 Mohammed, Prophet, 185, 190 Mohammed Al-Maktoum, Sheikh, 169, 172 Moi, Daniel arap, 221 Moller, Eric, 324–25 Moloka’i, Hawaii, 152 Mona Lisa (Leonardo), 39 Monet, Claude, 47–48, 70, 309 Monterey Bay, 161 Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, 253–54 Morella, Connie, 348–49, 353 Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park, 237 Motse Lodge, 240 Moulinier, Alain, 68 Mozambique, 208, 235, 238–39 M.

Organized by New York artists: “130 Artists Call for Guggenheim Boycott over Migrant Worker Exploitation,”, New York, March 17, 2011, create an elite battalion of foreign mercenaries: Mark Mazzetti and Emily B. Hager, “Secret Desert Force Set Up by Blackwater’s Founder,” New York Times, June 7, 2011. host its first Green Tourism conference: World Green Tourism Conference, Abu Dhabi, November 27–29, 2010. Masdar is attempting to do just that: Nicolai Ouroussoff, “In Arabian Desert, a Sustainable City Rises,” New York Times, September 26, 2010. Eventually this refuge should show the way: Ucilia Wang, “Abu Dhabi, Rise of a Renewable Energy Titan?” January 2011, the UAE has had the worst score: Living Planet Report 2010, World Wildlife Fund, p. 14,

pages: 363 words: 101,082

Earth Wars: The Battle for Global Resources by Geoff Hiscock


Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Bakken shale, Bernie Madoff, BRICs, butterfly effect, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, global rebalancing, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban decay, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

The 110 MW project, named Crescent Dunes, will be able to run as much as 12 hours without sunlight. Rather than a parabolic trough, it uses the newer technology of a bank of mirrors focused on a solar collector at the top of the tower. The first example of this technology, the Gemasolar plant near Seville in Spain, was commissioned in June 2011 as a joint venture between the Abu Dhabi energy investment fund Masdar, and Spanish engineering group SENER. These large-scale solar projects in the United States and elsewhere are typical of the way renewable energy is winning the support of governments and big corporates around the world. Ivanpah backer Google, for example, is also a big investor in two massive U.S. wind farms: Caithness Energy’s 845 MW Shepherds Flat facility in Oregon, and TerraGen’s Alta Wind Energy Centre in California that aims to generate 1,020 MW by 2012 and 1,550 MW on full completion.

Thanet, which is owned by the Swedish state energy group Vattenfall, has been delivering power into the UK grid since late 2010, and by late 2012 will be joined by two bigger wind farms nearby, the 140-turbine 504 MW Greater Gabbard field and the spectacular 630 MW London Array, a 175-turbine farm spreading across 245 square kilometres of the Thames Estuary between the coasts of Kent and Essex. If all goes well in stage one of the London Array, the consortium behind it—made up of DONG Energy of Denmark, German power company E.ON, and the Abu Dhabi energy fund Masdar—may expand it to 1,000 MW. E.ON already owns and operates three large offshore wind farms in the United Kingdom and is pushing ahead with the 230 MW Humber Gateway off the coast of Yorkshire. The east coast of England is not the United Kingdom’s only suitable location for utility-scale projects. On the other side of Britain, German power company RWE’s UK subsidiary, RWE Npower Renewables, aims to have its 160-turbine 576 MW Gwynt y Mor project off the coast of north Wales in full production by 2014.

Black Sea Blavatnik, Leonard Bogdanov, Vladimir Bohai Sea Bolivia Bontang, Indonesia Borneo Botswana Bouazizi, Mohammed BP Gulf of Mexico in Russia Brahmaputra River Brazil ethanol iron ore nuclear power, uranium oil and gas presalt Bridas Corp BrightSource Energy Brookings Institution Brunei Bryant, Robert BSG Group, BSG Resources Buenos Aires Buffett, Warren Bulgheroni, Carlos Bumi Resources Bunge Burma (Myanmar) Burundi BYD Co Cairo Caithness Energy Calderon, Felipe Calicut, India Cambodia Cameco Canada tar sands LNG shale nuclear power, uranium Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers Canadian Natural Resources Canadian Solar Inc Cantarell oil field, Mexico Carabobo, Venezuela Cargill Caribbean Sea Carrizo Oil & Gas Carroll, Cynthia Caspian Sea Cecil, Ronnie Central Asia Centre for Global Energy Studies Century Aluminium Cerrejon Ceyhan, Turkey Chad Chalco Changlang district, India Chatterji, Zohra Chavez, Hugo Chenab River Cheniere Energy Chesapeake Energy Chevron Chile copper lithium China 12th Five-Year Plan coal Communist Party copper iron ore investment abroad nuclear power oil and gas rare metals solar power water wind power China Coal Energy China Development Bank China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGNPG) China Investment Corp (CIC) China Iron and Steel Association (CISA) China Metallurgical Group Corp China Metallurgical Mines Association China Minmetals China Mobile China National Coal Group China National Nuclear Corp (CNNC) China National Offshore Oil Corp (CNOOC) China National Petroleum Corp (CNPC) China Nonferrous Metal Mining Group Co (CNMC) China Petroleum & Chemical Corp (Sinopec) China Railway Construction Corp China Railway Engineering Corp China Shenhua Coal China State Shipbuilding Corp Chinalco Chodiev, Patokh Chromium Chubu Electric Power Co Chung Joon-yang Chunxiao gas field CITIC Clinton, Bill Clinton, Hillary CNOOC Coal production clean technology metallurgical thermal Coal India Ltd Codelco Codexis COFCO Colombia Common Economic Space Comtec Solar Conde, Alpha Conga, Peru Congo, Democratic Republic (DRC) ConocoPhillips Cosmo Oil Consolidated Thompson Iron Ore Mines Conte, Lansana Copper Cosan Critical Materials Strategy report Cuba Cubapetroleo Currie, Jeffrey Curtis, Nicholas Cyprus Dadis Camara, Moussa Dalian (Port Arthur) D’Amato, Richard Danube River Daqing, China Datong Coal Dauphin, Claude Davis, Mick Daye Non-ferrous Metals Co (DNMC) De Beers DeKastri oil terminal De Margerie, Christophe De Turckheim, Eric Deng Xiaoping Denmark Deripaska, Oleg Diaoyutai (Senkaku islands) Disi-Saq aquifer Domen Kazunari DONG Energy Dongfang Turbine DP Clean Tech Drummond Co Du Plessis, Jan Dubai Dudley, Robert (Bob) Dunand, Marco Dutch East India Company (VOC) Eagle Ford shale field East China Sea East Prinovozemelsky field East Timor (Timor-Leste) EBX Ecuador EDF Elenin, Platon (Boris Berezovsky) Empresas Frisco Enbridge Encana Enercon Enex EngelInvest Group England Eni E.ON Equinox Minerals Erdenes-Tavan Tolgoi Eritrea Escondida mine, Chile Essar Oil Essar Steel Estonia Ethanol Ethiopia Eurasian Energy Corp Eurasian National Resources Corp Europe nuclear power solar power shale wind power European Union (EU) European Wind Energy Association Eurozone Evraz Group Exxon Neftegas ExxonMobil Falklands (Malvinas) Fan Shenggen Fayetteville shale Fedun, Leonid Ferghana Valley, Central Asia Ferreira, Murilo First Quantum First Solar Ford Motor Forrest, Andrew Fortescue Metals Group Foster, Maria das Gracas Silva Fosun International Fox, Josh Fracturing, “fracking” France nuclear power Freeport McMoRan Fresnillo Friedland, Robert Fridman, Mikhail Frolov, Alexander Fu Chengyu Fukushima Gabon Gaddafi, Muammar Galp Energia Gamesa Gandhi, Rahul Gandur, Jean Claude Ganges River Gangotri Glacier Gao Jifan Garnaut, Ross Gas Authority of India Ltd (GAIL) Gazprom Gazprom Neft GCL Poly Energy Gecamines General Electric (GE) GE Wind Energy General Motors (GM) Germany nuclear power solar power wind power Gevo Ghawar oil field, Saudi Arabia Gidropress Gindalbie Metals Gladstone LNG Glasenberg, Ivan Glencore International Glencore Xstrata International Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC) Gold Goldman, Arnold Goldman Sachs Google Gorgon LNG project Grasberg mine, Indonesia Great Artesian Basin Great Lakes Great Man-made River (GMR), Libya Greece Green Energy Technology Greenland Greenland Minerals and Energy Grupo Carso Grupo Mexico Guangzhou Guarani aquifer Guinea Gunvor Group Guodian United Power Technology Gutseriev, Mikhai Hainan island Hancock Coal, Hancock Prospecting Hansen Transmissions Hanwha Solarone Hasankeyf Haynesville shale field Hayward, Tony Hebei Iron & Steel Heilongjiang-Amur aquifer Himalayas Hindalco Hindustan Copper Hitachi Hokkaido Holland Hong Kong Hormuz, Strait of Houser, Trevor HRT Participacoes em Petroleo HSBC Hu, Stern Hunan Valin Hunt, Simon Hydro power Ibragimov, Alijan Idemitsu Kosan Ilisu Dam, Turkey Impeccable, USNS Imperial Oil India coal copper hydropower iron ore nuclear power oil and gas solar power wind power Indian Ocean Indian Oil Corp Ltd (IOCL) Indonesia coal oil and gas Indus River Industrial & Commercial Bank of China Industrias Nucleares do Brazil (INB) Industrias Penoles Inmet Inner Mongolia Yitai Coal Inpex International Atomic Energy Agency International Copper Study Group International Energy Agency International Finance Corp International Food Policy Research Institute International Monetary Fund Interros Inuit Iran South Pars Iraq Iraq National Oil Co (INOC) Ireland Iron ore Israel Istanbul Itaipu Dam Italy ITOCHU Ivanhoe Mines Ivory Coast JA Solar Jaeggi, Daniel Jakarta Jamnagar Japan earthquake and tsunami nuclear power and Fukushima disaster solar power steel industry trading houses Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corp (JOGMEC) Japan Petroleum Exploration Co (Japex) Japan Renewable Energy Foundation Jazan JFE Jhelum River Jiang Jiemin Jiang Zemin Jiangsu Shagang Jiangxi Copper Corp Jin Baofang Jinchuan Group Jindal Steel Jordan, Jordan River JSW Steel Jubail JX Holdings Kaltim Prima Coal, Indonesia Kamchatka peninsula Kan Naoto Kansai Electric Power Co Karachaganak field, Kazakhstan Karachi, Pakistan Karakoram Pass Kashagan field, Kazakhstan Kashgar, China Kashmir Katanga Mining Kazmunaigas Khan, German Khartoum, Sudan Kazakhmys Kazakhstan coal copper nuclear test site, uranium oil and gas Kazzinc Kazatomprom Kenya Keystone pipeline Khabarovsk, Russia Khodorkovsky, Mikhail Khudainatov, Eduard Khunjerab Pass Khuzestan province, Iran Kim, Vladimir Kloppers, Marius Koc Holding Koizumi Junichiro Kolkata (Calcutta) Kolomoisky, Igor Korea Electric Power Corp (Kepco) Korea Gas (KoGas) Krishna-Godavari (KG) Basin, India Kuantan, Malaysia Kudankulam, India Kulibayev, Timur Kuwait Kuwait Foreign Petroleum Exploration (Kufpec) Kuwait Petroleum Corp (KPC) Kuzbassrazrezugol Kyrgyzstan Kyushu Electric Power Co Kvanefjeld, Greenland Lagos Lanco Infratech Laos Las Bambas, Peru Lavrov, Sergey LDK Solar Lead Lebanon Legacy Iron Ore Li Keqiang Li Xianshou Li Yihuang Liang Guanglie Liberia Libya Lifton, Jack Liquefied natural gas (LNG) Lisin, Vladimir Lithium Lithuania Lombok Strait Lomonosov ridge Lorenz, Edward Los Bronces, Chile Louis Dreyfus Lu Tingxiu Lu Xiangyang LUKOIL Lumwana, Zambia Lundin Mining Lynas Corp Ma Zhaoxu Maanshan Iron & Steel Macarthur Coal McArthur River McClendon, Aubrey McMahon Line MacMines AustAsia Madagascar Magnitogorsk Iron & Steel (MMK) Makhmudov, Iskander Malacca, Strait of Malaysia Malawi Malvinas (Falklands) Manila Mao Zedong Marcellus shale field Marubeni Corp Mary River Masdar Mashkevich, Alexander Mechel Medcalf, Rory Mediterranean Sea Medvedev, Dmitry MEG Energy Mehta, Sureesh Mekong River Mekong River Commission Melnichenko, Andrey MEMC Mercuria Group Merkel, Angela Metalloinvest Metorex Mexico Mexico City Mexico, Gulf of Miao Liansheng MidAmerican Energy Middle East Mikhelson, Leonid Miller, Alexei Mineralogy/Resourcehouse Mittal, Lakshmi Minmetals Resources Mitsubishi Chemical Mitsubishi Corp Mitsubishi Electric Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Mitsui & Co Modi, Narendra Molycorp Mongolia coal copper uranium Mongolia, Inner Montana Resources Morocco Mordashov, Alexei Mount Weld, Australia Mountain Pass, California Mozambique Mulva, Jim Mumbai (Bombay) Muziris, India Myanmar (Burma) Nabucco project Namcha Barwa, Tibet Namibia Nansha (Spratlys) National Iranian Oil Co (NIOC) National Oil Co of Libya National Mineral Development Corp (NMDC), India National Thermal Power Corp (NTPC), India Natuna field Natural gas Nazarbayev, Nursultan Neelum river Neira, Dr Maria Netherlands New Delhi New Hope Coal Newcastle, Australia Newmont Mining NewZim Steel Niger Nigeria Nigerian National Petroleum Corp Nile River Ningbo Niobrara shale field Niobium Nippon Mining Nippon Oil Nippon Steel Noble Group Noda Yoshihiko Nomura China Non-Proliferation Treaty Norilsk Nickel North Atlantic Gyre North Caspian Operating Co North Korea North Pacific Gyre North Pars field, Iran North Pole North Slope, Alaska North West Shelf, Australia Northern Sea Route, Russia Northwest Passage, Canada Norway Novatek Novolipetsk Steel (NLMK) NRG Energy Nubian Sandstone aquifer Nuclear power Nuclear Power Corp of India Ltd (NPCIL) NUKEM Nunavut Obama, Barack Occidental Petroleum Corp Ogallala aquifer OGX Petroleo & Gas Ohmae Kenichi Oil & Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) Oil India Ltd (OIL) Olam International Olympic Dam Oman Ombai Strait ONEXIM Group ONGC Videsh Opium Wars Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Origin Energy Oryx Petroleum Osaka Gas Osborne, Milton Oyu Tolgoi, Mongolia Palmer, Clive Pan American Energy Papua New Guinea Paracels Pakistan Paraguay Paraná River Pars Oil & Gas Co Pasha Bulker Patna Peabody Energy Pearl River Pemakochung monastery, Tibet Pemex Peng Xiaofeng Penn West Energy Persian Gulf Pertamina Peru Petrobras PetroChina PetroHawk Energy Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) Petronas Petronet LNG PetroVietnam Philippines Pioneer 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Plc/Ltd coal copper iron ore uranium Rinehart, Gina Riversdale Mining Roeslani, Rosan Rosatom Rosneft Ross Sea Rothschild, Nathaniel Rousseff, Dilma Royal Dutch Shell Royal Society of Canada Ruia, Shashi and Ravi Rusal RusHydro Russia coal iron ore oil and gas nuclear/uranium Russian Far East Russky Ugol (Russian Coal) Russneft Rwanda RWE Power Saami Sabic Salar de Atacama Salar de Cauchari Salar de Olaroz Salar de Uyuni Sakhalin Sakhalin Oil & Gas Development Saleh, Ali Abdullah Salween River Samruk Energo Samruk Kazyna Samsung Electronics Samsung Heavy Industries Sanaa basin, Yemen Santos basin Santos Ltd Sao Paulo Sargasso Sea Saudi Arabia Saudi Aramco Sawyer, Steve Sechin, Igor Senkaku islands Serageldin, Ismail Sesa Goa Severstal Shanghai Shandong Iron & Steel Group Shanxi Meijin Energy Sharp Corp Shatt al-Arab waterway Shell Australia LNG Shen Wenrong Shenzhen Shi Zhengrong Shougang Beijing Group Shvidler, Eugene Siachen Glacier Siberia Siberian Coal Energy Co (SUEK) Sibneft Siemens Sierra Gorda, Chile Sierra Leone Silver Simandou, Guinea Sindh province, Pakistan Singapore Singh, Manmohan Sino American Silicon SinoHydro Sinopec (China Petroleum & Chemical Corp) Sinosteel Midwest Corp Sinovel Wind Sistema Slavneft Slovakia Soeryadjaya, Edwin SoftBank Sogo Shosha Sojitz Solar power Solar Reserve Son Masayoshi Sonangol Sonatrach South Africa South America South China Sea South Kara Sea South Korea South Kuzbass Coal South Pars field, Iran South Sudan South Yolotan, Turkmenistan Southeast Anatolia Development (GAP) Southeast Asia Southern California Edison Soya Strait Spain Spratlys State Grid, China State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR) Statoil Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) Steinmetz, Beny Sterlite Industries Strait of Malacca Strait of Hormuz Strothotte, Willy SUAL Sudan Sumatra Sumitomo Chemicals Sumitomo Corp Sumitomo Metal Suncor Energy Sunda Strait Sundance Resources SunPower Suntech Surgutneftegas Sutlej River Suzlon Energy Swaminathan, M.S.

pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna


Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

Commercial real estate firms planning billions of square feet of office space in China now put forward green building plans rather than offering to retrofit later. India’s burgeoning second-tier cities like Gwalior are buying energy-efficient fluorescent lighting as well as load-monitoring systems that distribute electricity where it’s most needed. And First Solar of Arizona is building a solar field larger than Manhattan—in Mongolia. Even oil-rich countries are investing in a non-oil future. Abu Dhabi’s Masdar City, a joint venture with General Electric, MIT, and numerous other international partners, aims to create a $22 billion, fully carbon neutral eco-city to be ready by 2016, complete with fifty thousand residents. All power will come from photovoltaic cells and hot-water collectors, cars will be banned, electric-powered shuttles will ferry citizens around, and waste water will irrigate biofuel farms.

The project’s seventeen major products include the GE90–115B aircraft engine, which in a twin-engine plane emits 141,000 fewer tons of greenhouse gasses than competing four-engine planes, or enough CO2 to be absorbed by thirty-five thousand acres of forest. Ecomagination’s sales are reaching 10 percent of GE’s overall portfolio while making the company’s worldwide customers more energy efficient. Ecomagination is now reaching beyond its Masdar City work in Abu Dhabi. Together with the emirate’s Mubadala sovereign wealth fund, it has announced venture funds of a combined $40 billion to invest in pursuing renewable energy in Africa and Asia and has signed an agreement with China’s National Development and Reform Commission to advance renewable energy in two hundred second-tier Chinese cities. Between Wal-Mart and GE, the private sector is doing more to elevate China’s environmental policies and standards than any vague treaty could.

pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin


3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation,, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

The deserts of the Middle East and North Africa have more solar potential per square inch than any other region in the world—more energy potential, in fact, than all of the oil ever extracted from deep beneath its sand dunes. The United Arab Emirates, the fifth-largest oil producing power, is already preparing for a post-oil era. Abu Dhabi is investing billions of dollars in the construction of a new city rising from the desert. It’s called Masdar, a post-carbon city that will be run exclusively by the sun, wind, and other forms of renewable energy. It’s a Third Industrial Revolution urban space, the first of thousands of such cities that will be nodes in the distributed networks that will crisscross every continent. I visited Masdar in 2009 and watched as engineers and construction crews were putting up the first building. The structure was like nothing I’d ever seen before. The design, building material, and facade all looked like something out of a futuristic movie. It took my breath away.

“Skip,” 210–1 Lappé, Frances Moore, 200–1 lateral learning, 244–8 lateral power, 5, 18, 37, 52, 137, 148, 151, 174–5 Lawrence, Elizabeth, 250 Leinen, Joe, 69 Lenglet, Claude, 66–7 Levine, Mark, 219 Linde, 62 Linux, 116 Lloyd, Alan, 78 Locke, John, 198–9, 212, 234 Lombardo, Raffaele, 46 Louv, Richard, 249, 253 Lovelock, James, 223–4 Lovins, Amory, 53 machismo, 139–40 Macy, Joanna, 24 Magnuson, Lisa, 232–3 Mao Zedong, 11 Margulis, Lynn, 223–4 Masdar, 178 McConnell, Mitch, 156 McCormick, Byron, 99–100 Mejia Vélez, Maria Emma, 176 Memory Bridge Initiative, 243–4 Merkel, Angela, 4, 50, 61, 64, 67–9, 149–50 Mexico, 13, 86, 178–9, 181 Microsoft, 20, 84, 116 Miliband, David, 145–9 Miliband, Edward, 147 Miliband, Marion, 146–7 Miliband, Ralph, 146–7 Miller, G. Tyler, 200 Milner, Anton, 75 Monaco, 78, 95–100 Mubarak, Hosni, 216 municipal solid waste (MSW), 42 Muñoz Leos, Raúl, 178–9 Mycoskie, Blake, 126–7 Nabuurs, Pier, 54, 57, 63, 66 Næss, Arne, 240–1 National Organization of Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology, 62 Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), 42 Ndiaye, Moustapha, 163 New Left movement, 11 New York Power Authority, 60 Newton, Isaac, 193–5, 198, 213, 223, 260 NH Hotels, 205–6 Nixon, Richard M., 11–2 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 163, 181–2 Northeast Utilities, 60, 156 NTR, 56 Nuclear Innovation North America (NINA), 90, 92 nuclear power, 30, 39, 52, 56–7, 89–93, 98, 134, 145–8, 153, 157, 166, 182, 219 Obama, Barack, 22, 28–9, 33–4, 129, 148, 153, 155, 157 OMV, 62 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), 4, 16, 223, 253 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 10 Orme, John E., 226 Pacific Northwest Economic Region (PNWER), 183–4 Page, Larry, 159 Paine, Thomas, 11 Palin, Sarah, 29 Panama Canal, 164–5 Pangaea, 162–5 Papandreou, George, 149–50 paradigm shift, 189, 248 Parker, Brad, 232 Patrick, Deval, 186–7 peak globalization, 14.

pages: 380 words: 104,841

The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman


23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

A snarky air-scrubber. Remember riding on the vacuum cleaner Mom or Dad propelled? Yes, the air could be called what it is, “recycled waste,” but where’s the fun in that? Speaking of fun, some wind-harvesting ideas look like they’ve sprung from either an aviary or pages of sci-fi. I have several favorites at the moment. One is Windstalk, created by the New York firm Atelier DNA to provide clean energy for Masdar City, Abu Dhabi. A work of “land art,” it aims to provide wind energy while fluttering, oscillating, vibrating, and generally behaving “as chaotically as possible,” and also being beautiful. The gentle, incantatory winds of an otherworldy oasis infuse the designers’ description with irresistible hints of lounging and longing: Our project starts out as a desire, a whisper, like grasping at straws, clenching water.

., 196 Kalmar, Sweden, 99–100 kangaroo, 296 Kanzi (bonobo), 202 Katrina, Hurricane, 46 katydids, 173–74 Kawasaki, Japan, 23 Keating, Tim, 147 kelp, 56, 57, 58, 60, 63–64 biofuels from, 64 Kenya, 124 Khoshnevis, Behrokh, 235 Kidd, Captain, 58 kidney, 239 King, Ross, 221 Kiribati, 49 knapweed, 166 knife fish, 147–48 Knights of the Order of the Barrier, 51 koalas, 164 Kockums, 101 Kojo Moe (Ohyama), 23 Korup National Park, 126 krill, 134 Kublai Khan, 272 Kubrick, Stanley, 269 kudzu vine, 132 Kungsbrohuset office building, 96 Kurzweil, Ray, 181, 218 Lactobacillus johnsonii, 301 Lafferty, Kevin, 299 Lake Cayuga, 30–31 Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste, 276–77 Lammens, Kathy, 302 lampreys, 132 Lancet, 277, 278 landscapes, 22–23 manufactured, 23–25 language, 7, 10, 171, 191, 255, 303 of animals, 201–3 Language Research Center, 201–2 Larry (boa), 130 lead, 271 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), 88 Leaves of Grass (Whitman), 184 Lederberg, Joshua, 289 LED lights, 90, 103–4 Leeuwenhoek, Antonie van, 290 Leno, Jay, 235 leopards, 118 leucine, 179 Library of Congress, 59 lifespan, 13 lights, 17 Lincoln Memorial, 59 Lindholm, Bosse, 100 Linnaeus, Carl, 217 lions, 164, 273 Lipson, Hod, 208–25, 226–27, 229, 235, 247, 250 livers, 150, 248 Living Machines Conference, 218–19 local farms, 88 Lockheed Martin, 236 locusts, 41 London, 50–51 London Zoo, 159 Long Island Sound, 60 loosestrife, 132 Losiny Ostrov National Park, 78 lotusin, 91 Louisiana, 46 Louv, Richard, 196 lungs, 239, 248 Lyme disease, 121 Lyme ticks, 39 lynxes, 132 macaws, 164 Maeslantkering, 50 magnolias, 111–12 magpies, 217 Mail Online, 271 malaria, 302 Malaysia, 79 Maldives, 76–77 mallards, 117 Mall of America, 96 Mandarin Chinese, 281 mantis shrimp, 61 manufactured landscapes, 23–25 manufacturing, 12 mariculture, 56–67 pushback against, 64–65 marigolds, 90 marine transport pollution, 76 Marshall Islands, 314 marsh rabbits, 129 Marsico, Ron, 119 Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, 103–4 Masters, Jeff, 47 mastodons, 31 Mayflower, 132 McDonough, William, 87–88 McGill University, 282, 284 McKibben, Bill, 112 McMurdo Station, 88–90 Meaney, Michael, 282–84 Mecanoo, 104 medical ecology, 300 medicine, 7, 12–13 Medieval Warm Period, 43 Mehler, Mark, 282 memories, 255 Men Who Stare at Goats, The (Ronson), 146 Mercedes, 236 mercury, 271 Mesopotamia, 235 metal alloy teeth, 253 methylation, 281 Mexico, 88 Mexico City, 77, 82–83 mice, 302 Michigan, 132 microbes, 287–304 effects of, on humans, 292, 295–303 evolution affected by, 292–93 microbiome, 289 microscope, 290 microtia, 244–45 Milky Way, 176 Milton, John, 51, 212–13 mining, 11, 21, 24, 34 mitochondria, 291 Mitsuku, 317 Mohali, India, 99 moist shaded zones, 79 Mojave Desert, 22, 106 Mongolia, 132 monkeys, 146, 267 monk parakeets, 131 monkshoods, 125 monsoon season, 51, 53 Montaigne, Michel de, 63 Montana, 117 Mooallem, Jon, 139–40 moon, 306 Moorea, 158 moor frogs, 124 moose, 132 Moscow, 78 MOSE Project, 50 mosquitoes, 302 Motherwell, Robert, 218 Motley Fool, 235 multiple sclerosis, 301 Mumbai, 78 musk oxen, 132 mussels, 58, 60, 66, 78 mussel tissue, 91 Muybridge, Eadweard, 191 Nakamura, Makoto, 238 Naki’o, 256 Namibia, 180–81 nanobots, 181 Nano Impacts Intellectual Community, 183 nanoparticles, 182–83 nanotechnology, 179–87 nanotubes, 179 NASA, 204, 235, 305, 314 Nasheed, Mohamed, 76 National Academy of Science, 266–67 National Arbor Day Foundation, 38 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 285 national parks, 165 National Resources Defense Council, 316 National Zoo, 123 NATO, 237 Natural History of the Senses, A (Ackerman), 175 nature: balance of, 132–33 romance with, 126–27 as term, 25, 111–27, 171–72, 309–10 Nature, 134 nature deficit disorder, 196–97 Nature Neuroscience, 282 Navigenics, 271 Navy, U.S., 145, 147 Nazis, 273–74 Neanderthals, 162, 178, 189, 263 nearsightedness, 192 Nelson Island, 48 Nemo, Blizzard, 58 Nestlé, 212 Netherlands, 101, 124, 132 Netherlands Antilles, 88 neural implants, 253 Nevada, 106 New Forest, 174–75 Newfoundland, 42 New Jersey, 46 New Mexico, 40 Newton, Isaac, 220 New York, 38, 46, 77 New York, N.Y., 55, 73 New York University, 197–98 night fiddlers, 172–73 Nile perch, 131 Nin, Anaïs, 186 nitrogen, 36 NOAA, 210 Norrbotten, Sweden, 275–76, 277–78, 280 North Africa, 106 North Carolina, 46 northern goshawks, 132 Northwest Passage, 135 Norway, 101, 124, 132 Norway maples, 132 nuclear bomb, 191 nuclear power, 22, 100 nuclear winter, 8, 9 Obama, Barack, 177 Obama administration, 233 obesity, 196 ocean, acidification of, 65, 66, 154 octopuses, 202, 216 Ohio, 77 Ohyama, Ken, 23 oil, 99, 106 oil refineries, 22 oil spills, 300 Oman, 132 1D farming, see mariculture Operation Acoustic Kitty, 146 Operation Migration, 139–40 opossums, 129 Orangutan Awareness program, 28 Orangutan Outreach, 5, 6, 313 orangutans, 3–7, 25–28, 132, 216, 217, 231, 296 human genes shared by, 3 impending extinction of, 27–28, 313 solitary lives of, 4 tool use by, 5 orca whales, 135, 144 orchids, 206 Orff, Kate, 55 organic fertilizer, 64 Organovo, 238–39 Ornstein, Len, 54 Orthopets, 256 Oshkosh Airshow, 187 osteoarthritis, 248 otters, 124 Outer Island, 58 ovarian cancer, 281–82 Överkalix, Sweden, 279–80 oxen, 140 oxeye daisies, 132 oxygen, 41, 53 oysters, 54–55, 56, 57, 60, 61–63 Ozawa, Masakatsu, 23 P-52 (python), 128 pacemakers, 253 Panbanisha (bonobo), 201–2, 203 pancreas, 281 pansies, 90 Papua New Guinea, 72 Paradise Lost (Milton), 212–13 Paris, 95–96 Paris Habitat, 96 Parkinson’s disease, 253, 295 parks, 73–74, 78 parrots, 202 parsley, 89 Partula, 156–59 passenger pigeons, 151–52 Pasteur, Louis, 290 Patagonia National Park, 99 pathogens, 290 peacock feathers, 91 Pearce, Mick, 93–94 Pembrey, Marcus, 279, 281 penguins, 134–35 peonies, 125 People’s Daily, 146 peppers, 89 peregrine falcons, 132 periwinkles, 61–62 permafrost, 48 personality, 200, 214, 216–17, 222–23, 229, 253, 292, 297, 299, 303–4, 307 Peru, 77 pesticides, 153, 166 pets, 149–50 Pettit, Don, 16 Phelps, Michael, 258 phenotypic elasticity, 249–50 Philippines, 46 photonic clusters, 35 phytoplankton, 61 piezoelectricity, 317 pigeons, 140, 142, 144, 145–46 pigs, 71 in war, 146 Pistorius, Oscar, 258, 260 Plan Bee, 166 planes, 171, 191 planets, 220–21 Planets, The: A Cosmic Pastoral (Ackerman), 220 plankton, 134–35 PlantLab, 90 plants: in cities, 79–85 texting by, 205–7 plastic stents, 253 Pleistocene Park, 151 Pliocene, 29 PLOS ONE, 271 pneumonia, 183 Poland, 78, 132, 273 polar bears, 134 polar molecules, 35 polar T3, 90 pollution, 154 marine transport, 76 Polo, Marco, 272 polymer teeth, 253 Polynesia, 156, 157 Ponce, Brent, 260–61 ponies, 137–38 Pons, Lily, 264 poppies, 125 population growth, 10 Porter, Eliot, 25 poverty, 285, 286 Power Felt, 185 prairie dogs, 131 presence, 199 Price of Freedom: Americans at War exhibit, 145 probiotics, 300 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 129 produce, 89 Project Orcon, 145 Project Pigeon, 145 Project X-Ray, 145 proprioception, 175–76 prosthetics, 256–58 protein, 190 protozoans, 172, 289–90, 300 Przewalski’s horses, 132 Puerto Rico, 175 Puppe (orangutan), 26–27 purple finch, 137 pyrolysis technology, 76 pythons, 128–31, 133, 140, 315 Quai Branly Museum, 80–82, 84–85 quarries, 24 quasi-crystal, 34 rabbits, 126, 129, 133 rabies, 298 racoons, 129 rail trails, 77 rainforests, 79 rains, 41 Raison, Charles, 300–301 Rambuteau subway station, 95–96 Rand, Ayn, 59 rats, 282–83, 296 reading, 191–92 Reconciliation Ecology, 74 recycling, 52, 74, 78, 87, 88, 90 heat, 95–108 red clover, 166 Red Delicious, 137 red foxes, 153 red kites, 132 Red Sea Star Restaurant, 76 reef death, 36–37 refrigerators, 87 regenerative medicine, 244 Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, 254–55 reindeer, 132 Reiss, Diana, 202, 204 religion, 176 Relman, David, 300 Renaissance, 190 Renault, 83 renewable energy, 307 restaurant rooftop farms, 88 retinas, 253 Revolutionizing Prosthetics program, 258–59 Rezwan, Mohammed, 52–53 rhododendrons, 125 rice, 71 Rice Plant Conservation Science Center, 82 Rig Veda, 257, 40, 314 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 78 Ripasso Energy, 100–101, 106 roadkill, 115–16 robomoths, 146–47 RobotCub Consortium, 218–19 robot fleas, 148 robotic evolution, 210, 213, 224–25 robots, 210–25 rocketships, 171 rock strata, 31, 35 roe deer, 124 Romania, 78, 124 Romans, 185 Rome, 267 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 145 rosemary, 90 Rosenzweig, Michael, 74 roses, 125 Rotterdam, Netherlands, 77 Royal Botanic Gardens, 118 Rwanda, 46 Ryu Chan Hyeon, 102 saber-tooth tigers, 162, 163 Sagan, Carl, 220 sage, 125 Sahara Desert, 54 Sahel, 46 St.

The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight

In London’s rundown East End, the site of the 2012 Olympic Games, stadiums are giving way to schools, arenas are being converted into affordable housing, and thousands of new jobs are slated to come to the neighborhood. Rio de Janeiro is working with IBM to streamline its emergency response services, including state-of-the-art systems to help monitor weather and traffic, greatly improving response times and the quality of life in Brazil’s frenetic metropolis. On the outskirts of Abu Dhabi, a new zero-carbon, zero-waste metropolis, Masdar City, is springing up from the desert, drawing its energy from solar power and other alternative technologies. A similar movement is happening in metropolitan areas across the United States, where creativity and innovation—two of the nation’s greatest resources—are most concentrated. The timing is no coincidence. As has happened many times throughout American history, many of the greatest innovations have come at times of great challenge, and this moment, on the heels of a string of economic troubles, is no exception.

See Funding Istrate, Emilia, 33 Jacksonville (Florida) metropolitan area, infrastructure development in, 4 Jacobs, Jane, 34, 113, 150 James, Franklin, 45–46 Jaquay, Bob, 70–71, 78–79 Johnson, Steven, 38, 39, 67, 83 5/20/13 7:04 PM INDEX Kansas City Federal Reserve Bank study, 53 Kendall Square, 122–23, 129 Kenney, Peter, 49, 54, 55, 56, 60, 61, 62–63 Kent State University, 75 Kharas, Homi, 147 Kim, Charlie, 27 Knowledge vs. information, 118 Koonin, Steven, 28, 29, 37 LaHood, Raymond, 138 Latin America: emerging market economies in, 32, 147, 148; innovation in, 204; and international tourism, 153; Miami, influence on, 161–62, 163, 186 Latinos/Latinas: education level of, 93, 103, 104; in suburbs, 99 Leadership, metropolitan vs. state and federal, 3–4, 5–9 Leal, Roberta, 99, 100, 105, 107 Lehman Brothers collapse (2008), 17–18 Lewis, Michael, 196 LG Corporation, 83–84 Light bulbs, metropolitan influence on invention of, 39–40 Liveris, Andrew, 182 London: East End development, viii; trade links with, 162, 165, 167; traffic congestion and pollution control, 204 Los Angeles (California) metropolitan area: game changers for, 197; transit system in, ix, 4, 185–86; vision established for, 196 Lübeck and Hamburg trade agreement, 166–68 Madison, James, 175–76 MAGNET development organization, 83 “Making Northeast Ohio Great Again: A Call to Arms to the Foundation Community” (Fund for Our Economic Future), 70 Manufacturing: additive, 77; and exports, 152; foreign investment in, 155; and innovation, 82–83 Marchio, Nicholas, 33 Marcuse, Peter, 160 Masdar City, viii Massachusetts Institute of Technology. See MIT MassChallenge, 124 McCall, Tom, 156 McDearman, Brad, 152 12-2151-2 index.indd 255 255 McKinsey & Company, 32, 82, 117, 148, 149–50, 165 McShane, Joseph M., 27 Mencia, Manny, 164 Menino, Thomas, 124 Metro builders, 142 Metro Deals program, 189–90, 193 Metro Denver Economic Development Corporation, 50, 55 Metropolitan areas: challenges facing, 41–42, 109; and clean technology, 30–31; composition of, 1; defined, 2, 47; demographic changes in, 1–2, 9, 32, 92, 147, 206; educational inequality in, 102–04; and exports, lack of, 33–35, 150–51; immigrant populations in, 92–93; jurisdictional overlap in, 43–44; and networks of collaboration, 67–68, 69; and next economy, 32–35; patents generated in, 22–23, 118; role of, vii–viii, 171; sovereignty of, 184–87; suburbanization of, 47–49.

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay


3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel,, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

To the west, on the way to the Guggenheim, is Yas Island, home to a Formula One track and the site of Ferrari World. Abu Dhabi has blown some of its oil wealth on a few trophies of its own—stakes in Virgin Galactic and the Ultimate Fighting Championship, the Chrysler Building, and Masdar, a “zerocarbon” solar-powered city in a country with the highest per capita carbon footprint on earth. Envisioned as a test bed for every type of renewable energy under the sun—picture solar cells powering personal monorails instead of cars—Masdar is a retort to the unsustainable sprawl of Dubai. “One day, all cities will be built like this,” its backers promised, hinting at a multitrillion-dollar industry to follow. MIT faculty consulted on the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, while the emirate is trying to coax clean-tech companies to move here with the carrot of $250 million in seed money and the usual lures—no taxes, no oversight, and the great basin of two billion customers within a few hours’ flight.

The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences by Rob Kitchin


Bayesian statistics, business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs

Such a smart city vision is being heavily promoted by a number of the world’s largest software services and hardware companies (e.g., IBM, CISCO, Microsoft, Intel, Siemens, Oracle, SAP) and being enthusiastically adopted by municipal, national and supranational institutions who foresee smart city technologies producing socio-economic progress and renewing urban centres as hubs of innovation and work (Kourtit et al. 2012). Whilst some smart city projects are being built from the ground up (e.g., Songdo or Masdar City), most are piecemeal and consist of retrofitting existing infrastructure with digital technology and data solutions. The key function of big data in both cases is to provide real-time analytics to manage how aspects of the city function and are regulated. Such real-time surveillance and data analytics have been employed for a number of years in some sectors. For example, many cities have implemented intelligent transport systems, where data concerning the movement of traffic around a system, generated by a network of cameras and transponders, are fed back to a central control hub and are used to monitor and regulate flow, adjusting traffic light sequences and speed limits and automatically administering penalties for traffic violations (Dodge and Kitchin 2007a).

pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

e Some argue that this has had an unforeseen consequence: wealthy Bogotáns purchasing additional cars (with different last numbers on their license plates) to evade the restriction. f In both cases, even the inflation-adjusted numbers are about 20 percent lower than the price at the end of 2014. g One of my smaller triumphs as a public servant was getting things like paint classified as a capital expense. h One system currently in development in Masdar City, just outside Abu Dhabi, will run underground. i More or less. The car steered itself, but humans controlled throttle and brake, out of a perfectly reasonable concern for safety. j As of this writing, another technological behemoth, Apple, is rumored to be developing an automobile that may be self-driving. k It’s been attributed to everyone from the Nobel Prize–winning physicist Niels Bohr to Yogi Berra, and is almost certainly the only time those two giants of the twentieth century have been confused with one another.

pages: 313 words: 92,053

Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard

augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

Rather than concerning themselves with the wiring together of a few household appliances to make our morning routines easier, massive corporations like Siemens and Microsoft are pushing hard to develop comprehensive systems that can do for an entire city what a Nest thermostat, which learns to turn down the heat when you leave your house and can talk to you via your phone, does for an individual abode. Indeed, entire cities such as Songdo City in Korea or Masdar in the United Arab Emirates, are beginning to spring from the ground complete with so-called smart city infrastructure. The utopian vision of the smart city is one in which the entire place is networked together to realize every possible efficiency. There is no traffic congestion, there are instant automated responses to emergencies, adaptive HVAC systems manage energy balances in the most efficient way possible, and other systems designed all the way down to the minute details of the lives of individual residents are there to take care of us.

The Prince of the Marshes: And Other Occupational Hazards of a Year in Iraq by Rory Stewart


Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, clean water, Etonian, full employment, Khartoum Gordon, Masdar, microcredit, trade route, unemployed young men, urban planning

PAGODA The people always desire two things: the first is to avenge themselves against those who were the cause of their being enslaved; the other is to regain their freedom . . . a small part of them desire to be free in order to command; but all the others, the countless majority, desire liberty in order to live in security. —Machiavelli, Discourses, Book I, Chapter 16 FRIDAY, OCTOBER 17, 2003 “Amin masdar quwwat lel ferd we el mujtema,” said Abu Mustafa in my first meeting with the supervisory committee of local leaders appointed by the British military. Security is the basis of the power of the individual and the community. Everyone smiled, recognizing the paraphrase of Saddam’s favorite aphorism. Saddam had stolen it from a great Shia ayatollah, but what Saddam and the ayatollah had said was “Democracy is the basis of power.”