18 results back to index

pages: 440 words: 108,137

The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, old-boy network, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional

Even if one is an especially skilled and competent nurse, the head nurse on the floor may also be competent, forty years old, and going nowhere. Many pink-collar jobs are disproportionately located in the low-wage service sector of the economy. The jobs themselves are insecure, and those who hold them face higher-than-average risks of irregular employment, involuntary part-time work, and layoffs or firing. These jobs typically carry limited fringe benefits, and some require shift work. Pink-collar jobs and the industries in which they are located are typically not unionized; therefore, workers do not benefit from protections won by the collective power of unions. Change has occurred in a few of the female-dominated professions, such as social work, teaching, and nursing, which have formed more powerful professional associations. But most pink-collar jobs are in the low-wage service sector of the economy, which is grossly unrepresented by either unions or professional associations.

In both the public and private sectors, nearly all of the positions at the top, such as those held by corporate officers, members of boards of directors, top professionals, and high elected officials, are held by males. Men continue to dominate socially, politically, and economically. In short, gender, a factor with no demonstrable independent effect on individual merit, conditions access to opportunity, and women have been denied full participation in the American Dream. Indeed, women’s continued subordinate status is visible in practically every aspect of American life. The Pink-Collar Ghetto Historically and cross-culturally, the degree of male dominance in society is directly related to the kind and extent of female participation in economic production. That is, the more women participate in economic production, and the more equally they participate in economic production, the less the degree of male dominance. Since the 1970s, female labor-force participation has steadily increased.

Men, however, have not been moving as quickly into traditionally female-dominated professions, such as social work, nursing, and elementary school teaching. Likewise, there is very little movement of women into traditionally male-dominated blue-collar trades such as construction, and there has not been much movement of men into the lower-white-collar service jobs such as secretary. Collectively, the jobs in which women remain highly concentrated have come to be called the pink-collar ghetto. Some jobs in which women are concentrated, such as nursing and teaching, pay moderately well and carry moderate prestige. Nevertheless, they are often lower in pay and prestige than “men’s jobs” that require equivalent levels of skill and training. These jobs also tend to be “order-taker” rather than “order-giver” positions and are often located in direct relation to an occupationally defined chain of command: nurses take orders from doctors, secretaries take orders from bosses, and so on.

pages: 267 words: 79,905

Creating Unequal Futures?: Rethinking Poverty, Inequality and Disadvantage by Ruth Fincher, Peter Saunders


barriers to entry, ending welfare as we know it, financial independence, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open economy, pink-collar, positional goods, purchasing power parity, shareholder value, spread of share-ownership, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

We know from the way the labour market is developing that blue-collar occupations—particularly at the less-skilled end— are likely to come under increased pressure as the economy restructures in ways unfavourable to manufacturing (O’Loughlin and Watson 1997; DEETYA 1997). Downward pressures on wages, particularly in the award-only sector, will also be unfavourable to these occupations. This will be offset to some extent by growth in ‘pink-collar’ service sector jobs (such as waiters and cashiers), but these are low-paying jobs whose future growth will not lead to higher wages. Consequently, the blue-collar reference person with a pink-collar spouse may find little improvement in their household’s earning situation. Blue-collar/blue-collar households face bleak earnings prospects, unless both end up working much longer hours, as has happened in the United States. Only low-wage households with clerical workers can expect to maintain or marginally improve their situation.

pages: 493 words: 139,845

Women Leaders at Work: Untold Tales of Women Achieving Their Ambitions by Elizabeth Ghaffari


Albert Einstein, AltaVista, business process, cloud computing, Columbine, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, follow your passion, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, high net worth, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, performance metric, pink-collar, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

She has a passion for fashion, so she decided to start a company that married her skills and her passion. That’s our target demographic—women in their thirties to fifties who have been in the corporate world, have run departments, or have expertise in a given area. There are a lot of women out there with the ability and interest to run billion-dollar companies. Ghaffari: Do you see, among your clientele, that women follow the pink-collar kind of work, staying within the same businesses that women have been in for centuries? Or do you see them branching out of that? Millman: I don’t see those stereotypes these days, but I’m sure there are many women who pursue those careers. I see the engineers, the scientists, the medical doctors, the finance and marketing gurus. Now, I won’t tell you that they don’t have an interest in fashion, health, well-being, and education.

., 63–64 Gold Award, 80–81 hiring people, 79 inspiration, 59 job, 60 at Doheny, 67–68 leader/leadership definition, 80 leadership aspects, 62–63 Luttgens & Associates, 71 mentors, 78–79 merger and acquisition specialist, 69 merger of six area councils, 72 merger of sixe area councils, 73–74 new Girl Scouts, 76–77 Noce, Bill CHLA, 70 influence, 70 moment of truth, 70 succession planning, 70 organization's long-term strategy, 79 planning, 74–75 professional services departments, 65–66 responsible and accountable manner, 64 Ronald McDonald job, 72 thesis, 61–62 transition plan, 71 turning points, 66 UCLA in Southern California, 64 Yale experience, 61 M McElhaney, Kellie advice to women, 220–221 AmeriCorps program, 205 in banking, 203 Calvert, 213–214 co-faculty director, 215 corporate environment, 216 decision-making style, 218 early childhood and family influences, 200 executive education, 215 experience, 204–205 faculty and corporate games, 211 family support, 209, 220 fellowships, 210 first job, 202 founder of Center for Responsible Business at University of California, 199 honors, 200 ING, 216 as leader, 219 master's degree, 202 at Michigan, 206–208 Mike, 210 negative things, dealing, 220 Net Impact, 207 non-tenure teacher, 215 North Carolina University, 201 McElhaney, Kellie (continued) organizational behavior and communication, 202 performance, 213 Sandra Lober's advice, 203 social media, 217 social responsibility committees, 220 Socially Responsible Investment Fund, 212–213 success, 219 supporters, 211 Sustainable Products and Solutions Program, 214 faculty response, 214 traditional media usage, 217 West Coast, 208 Mercer, 43–44 Millman, Amy accomplishments, 129 achievements, 133 brain trust, 133 Carnegie Mellon University, 126–127 Congressional Quarterly, 128 decision-making style, 137, 138 family, 138 entrepreneurs, 126 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 135 graduation, 126 learnt from experience, 127, 130 legislative analyst, OSHA, 126 memorable experience, at Trucking Association, 131 mentors, 130 National Women's Business Council, 131–132 Philip Morris anti-smoking movement, 130 contributions to women organizations, 129–130 lobbyist job, 129 Springboard Enterprises, 134 growth, 135–136 international market, 136 Kauffma Foundation, 135 Oracle Conference Center, 134 president of, 125 Washington, DC, 127 business in, 128 women advice for, 138–139 entrepreneurs, 140 pink-collar kind of work, 140 source of venture capital, 141 Monster Meetings, 23 N, O, P Nelson, Georgia, 56 Net Impact, 207 Q QuakeFinder, 8 R Returns on investment (ROI), 206 and metric concept, 213 Roden, Laura advise to women, 237 advisory board, 231–232 boutique investment bank, 232 competitive challenges, 234 decision-making style, 236 education, 224 enhancing deals and membership, 229–230 family, 232–233 future aspects, 234 Harvard Business School, 225 investment, 231 involvement in 100 Women in Hedge Funds, 236 job, 224–25 Chronicle Publishing, 225 food companies/industry, 225 leader, definition, 236 leading-edge kind of person, 226–227 licenses, 232 mentors, 226 motivation, 231 opportunity for young women professionals, 237 positive/negative responses, 233 PowerTV, 227 private investors, 235 relationship with investors/ partners/colleagues, 234 risk taker, 235 San Francisco Jewish Community Federation, 235 strategy decisions, 233 SVASE Angels' Forum, 228–229 combination of venture capitalists, investors, and entrepreneurs, 228 executive director role, 227–228 position, 227 success key factors, 228 US Media Group, 226 VC Privé, 230, 231 S Starting New Ventures, 246–247 Stellar Solutions Aerospace Ltd.

pages: 399 words: 116,828

When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson


affirmative action, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, jobless men, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

In another study the social scientists Robert Lerman and Martin Rein revealed that from 1989 to 1993, the period covering the economic downturn, social service industries (health, education, and welfare) added almost 3 million jobs, while 1.4 million jobs were lost in all other industries. The expanding job market in social services offset the recession-linked job loss in other industries. The movement of lower-educated men into the growth sectors of the economy has been slow. For example, “the fraction of men who have moved into so-called pink-collar jobs like practical nursing or clerical work remains negligible.” The large concentration of women in the expanding social service sector partly accounts for the striking gender differences in job growth. Unlike lower-educated men, lower-educated women are working more, not less, than in previous years. The employment patterns among lower-educated women, like those with higher education and training, reflect the dramatic expansion of social service industries.

Also see Rifkin (1995). 12 Today, most of the new jobs for workers with limited education: Nasar (1994), Freeman (1994), and Holzer (1995). 13 One study found that the U.S. created: McKinsey & Co. (1994). 14 Robert Lerman and Martin Rein revealed that: Lerman and Rein (forthcoming). 15 The expanding job market in social services: Social services increased from 17 percent of total employment in 1979 to 21 percent in 1993. Lerman and Rein (forthcoming). 16 For example, “the fraction of men who have moved into so-called pink-collar jobs”: Nasar (1994). 17 The large concentration of women in the expanding social service sector: Lerman and Rein (forthcoming). 18 Between 1989 and 1993, jobs held by women: Lerman and Rein (forthcoming). 19 Although the wages of low-skilled women … rose slightly: Blank (1994). 20 The wage gap between low-skilled men and women shrank: Blank (1994). 21 The unemployment rates among both low-skilled men and women: Blank (1994). 22 quotation from Freeman and Katz: Freeman and Katz (1994), p. 46. 23 quotation from Rebecca Blank: Blank (1994), p. 17. 24 The workplace has been revolutionized by technological changes: Marshall (1994). 25 Unlike men with lower education, college-educated men are working more, not less: In the decade of the 1980s, 79 percent worked at least eight out of ten months, up from 77 percent during the 1970s.

pages: 206 words: 51,534

Wrap It In A Bit Of Cheese Like You're Tricking The Dog: The fifth collection of essays and emails by New York Times Best Selling author David Thorne by David Thorne

Minecraft, pink-collar, telemarketer

“Nothing we should be worried about then? We haven’t arrived in the middle of a coup or something?” “No. Is normal. Good to have police. When no police, then you worry. Your hotel though, very safe, very nice. Here it is now.” He indicated and slowed the van, turning up a path flanked by white painted concrete and hibiscus in full bloom. Pulling up at a pink and white reception building, a smiling man in white pants and pink collared shirt opened the door for us. “Hola, welcome to Las Brisas.” “Well this is alright,” said Holly, throwing back the last of her complimentary cocktail. We’d been driven to our private guest villas in the back of a pink jeep named Kevin Costner.All of the jeeps were named for celebrities who had stayed at the resort and we’d passed Barbara Streisand and Humberto Zurita on the way. A flower petal path led us through a spacious room to a patio with a private pool overlooking the bay.

pages: 309 words: 78,361

Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor


Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser,, Gini coefficient, global village, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar

It’s a produce-on-demand method, so it minimizes waste by avoiding overproduction (a chronic problem in mass production). It incorporates desirable consumer features such as the ability to customize. Small-scale and sufficiency production also match the emergent skill set of the population. In the old mass production system, advanced numeracy and literacy were concentrated in managers and designers, and blue- and pink-collar work was deskilled. By contrast, high levels of numeracy and literacy are required more broadly in a technologically advanced economy, and equally so for the high-productivity, low-impact systems of agriculture and manufacture I have been discussing. As these skills are diffused through the population, the efficient scale of production falls. I will return to these issues in the final chapter, where I situate them within the macro context.

pages: 239 words: 64,812

Geek Sublime: The Beauty of Code, the Code of Beauty by Vikram Chandra


Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, conceptual framework, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, East Village, European colonialism, finite state, Firefox, Flash crash, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, haute couture, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, land reform, London Whale, Norman Mailer, Paul Graham, pink-collar, revision control, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supercomputer in your pocket, theory of mind, Therac-25, Turing machine, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce

Manifest destiny—with its cast of robber barons, tragically doomed natives, laboring Asians and African Americans, grizzled soldiers, and Lone Rangers—still casts its spell over the boardrooms and universities of America, and so the practitioners of some of the most nerdy professions in history (media-making; software-making; lending and borrowing money) develop codes of masculinity that allow them to “walk smart.” In September 2011, the programmer Rob Spectre gave a presentation at a conference entirely in character as Chad the Brogrammer, wearing the standard fraternity-bro uniform of popped pink collar and dark glasses. A video of the presentation quickly went viral, and Spectre’s lines were suddenly all over the blogosphere: “In the immortal words of Brosef Stalin, ‘Dude, I’m way too faded to build this [difficult low-level] shiz. Imma have some other broheims do the grunge work. Totes magotes.’”62 Spectre was joking, but he had touched on a trend that many had noticed: “Tech’s latest boom,” Businessweek observed in 2012, “has generated a new, more testosterone-fueled breed of coder,” such as Danilo Stern-Sapad, a twenty-five-year-old who doesn’t like being called a geek, who “wears sunglasses and blasts 2Pac while programming,” who proudly reports that “we got invited to a party in Malibu where there were naked women in the hot tub.

pages: 255 words: 75,172

Sleeping Giant: How the New Working Class Will Transform America by Tamara Draut


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, always be closing, battle of ideas, big-box store, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, full employment, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, payday loans, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional

The long-standing “others” in our society—women and people of color—became a much larger share of the non-college-educated workforce. And their marginalized status in our society carried over into the working class, making it easier to overlook and devalue their work. When working-class women punched the clock in ever greater numbers in the 1980s and 1990s, it was nearly entirely in the absence of a union. Unlike the hard-hat guys, America’s mushrooming “pink collar” workforce lacked the social solidarity that unions had provided for generations of blue-collar workers. And so working-class women toiled on the margins of political and social awareness while preserving their families’ dignity by bringing home a paycheck. That’s now changing, as women are at the forefront of the new movement for better wages and working conditions and are now almost as likely as men to belong to unions, closing the long-standing gap in unionization.

pages: 278 words: 88,711

The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century by George Friedman


banking crisis, British Empire, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, mass immigration, megastructure, Monroe Doctrine, pink-collar, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, working poor

The very poorest, on the other hand, have lived in a world of dysfunctional families since the industrial revolution began. For them, chaotic patterns of reproduction have always been the norm. However, between the college-educated professional and business classes on the one side and the underclass on the other, there is a large layer of society that has only partially experienced the demographic shifts. Among blue-and pink-collar workers there have been other trends, the most important of which is that they have shorter educations. The result is less of a gap between puberty and reproduction. These groups tend to marry earlier and have children earlier. They are far more dependent on each other economically, and it follows that the financial consequences of divorce can be far more damaging. There are nonemotional elements holding their marriages together, and divorce is seen as more consequential, as are extramarital and premarital sex.

pages: 291 words: 86,705

Hogg by Samuel R. Delany



The girl pushed herself up on her hands, tried to drag herself away, but she couldn't get her foot loose from under the chair. The wop stepped up, dropped to a squat, and put his other hand on the girl's cheek. He pushed her hair, lighter brown than her mother's, back from her ear, bringing his dirty middle finger down her cheek, under her jaw—she blinked, opened her mouth a little, closed it again, but she must have been scared to turn her head— down her neck, and hooked it in the round, pink collar. He pulled at it, slow, down enough so you could see the top of her bra. She was maybe fourteen; and the bra was just about flat. The woman, half limp in the nigger's grip, was crying now. It wasn't a full sound at all, but a non-stop squeak that went on at the same pitch while she shook her head, with her eyes closed tight. The girl was taking quick breaths, then holding them a long time.

pages: 1,104 words: 302,176

The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon


3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser,, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism, yield management

Claudia Goldin, who calls it the “Quiet Revolution,” describes this period after 1970: “With more accurate expectations, they could better prepare by investing in formal education and they could assume positions that involved advancement. That is, they could plan for careers rather than jobs.”18 Women began to become accepted as career-track professionals whose progress went far beyond the traditional pink-collar occupations. In 1960, 94 percent of doctors were white men, as were 96 percent of lawyers and 86 percent of managers. By 2008 these numbers had fallen to 63 percent, 61 percent, and 57 percent respectively.19 The new environment was described in the early 1990s by Shirley Bigley, then a vice president of Citibank: It was right in my vintage when the numbers of women dramatically started to change.

In consequence, the residual portion of the gap rose relative to the explained portion.”25 Goldin’s analysis of the residual gap distinguishes two different sources of gender-related wage differences, those between occupations and those within occupations. Despite the increased professionalization of female occupational choices, the occupational composition of women is still quite different than men, particularly when skilled pink-collar occupations are compared with skilled blue-collar occupations. For instance, virtually all midwives are female, and virtually all cement contractors are male. Goldin concludes that these occupational choices explain only about a third of the residual gender wage gap, leaving the remaining two-thirds to be explained within occupations. Goldin’s analysis of within-occupation wage differences centers on the age profile, which shows that “something happens that decreases women’s earnings relative to those of men as they age.”

pages: 467 words: 116,902

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander


affirmative action, cognitive bias, Columbine, Corrections Corporation of America, deindustrialization, desegregation, ending welfare as we know it, friendly fire, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, land reform, large denomination, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

A study of urban black fathers found that only 28 percent had access to an automobile. The rate fell to 18 percent for those living in ghetto areas.79 Women fared somewhat better during this period because the social-service sector in urban areas—which employs primarily women—was expanding at the same time manufacturing jobs were evaporating. The fraction of black men who moved into so called pink-collar jobs like nursing or clerical work was negligible.80 The decline in legitimate employment opportunities among inner-city residents increased incentives to sell drugs—most notably crack cocaine. Crack is pharmacologically almost identical to powder cocaine, but it has been converted into a form that can be vaporized and inhaled for a faster, more intense (though shorter) high using less of the drug—making it possible to sell small doses at more affordable prices.

pages: 372 words: 152

The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin


banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

According to a study conducted by Paine Webber, upwards of 18 percent of the workforce in the steel industry is now made up of employees working for subcontractors.38 Typical is the case of a former pipe fitter employed by U.S. Steel at the Gary Works. He earned $13 an hour and enjoyed a generous company benefits package. After being laid off, he was only able to find a job for a small subcontractor at $ 5.00 an hour with no benefits. His new job was making parts for his former employer. 39 Although the public perception of temp workers is still the Kelly girl-part-time receptionists, secretaries, and other pink collar clerical workers-the reality is that temps are being used as a substitute for permanent workers in virtually every industry and sector. In 1993 temporary agencies leased more than 348,000 temporary workers a day to the nation's manufacturing companies, up from 224,000 in 1992 .40 Professional employment is also becoming temporary. The Executive Recruiter News reports that more than 125,000 professionals work as temps every day.

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay


3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel,, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Supposing a 50 percent jump in passengers following its current expansion (a decidedly optimistic assumption), the corresponding 5 percent rise in employment would yield about 185,000 jobs—more than the population of Little Rock or Salt Lake City. Working backward, he estimated that O’Hare creates twenty-two jobs for every thousand passengers it adds, and it doesn’t matter whether they’re going to Toledo or Tokyo. Interestingly, all appear to be the white- or pink-collar kind. They range from CEOs and insurance salesmen to real estate agents and teenagers manning fast-food counters. What sets Las Colinas apart from Chicago and every other city in America is that its boosters won’t settle for anything less than luring a headquarters here. They woo executives at the apex of the org chart, the ones whose time is worth whatever the stock price closes at that day.

pages: 781 words: 226,928

Commodore: A Company on the Edge by Brian Bagnall


Apple II, belly landing, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Firefox, game design, index card, inventory management, Isaac Newton, low skilled workers, Menlo Park, packet switching, pink-collar, popular electronics, prediction markets, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson

The ad agency was responsible for many high-profile brands including Arm & Hammer baking soda (with the boxes wearing scarves and earmuffs and chatting with each other inside the freezer), Head & Shoulders (the man with two different dandruff shampoos on each side of his head saying, ‘This side tingles’), and Black Flag insecticide. The agency would film the commercials and shoot the photographs in New York. In the early eighties, most computer companies had a spokesman named Bill. Radio Shack had Bill Bixby and later Bill Gates in a stunning pink-collared shirt and white sweater. Texas Instruments had Bill Cosby. Commodore would also have a Bill. The ad agency made an inspired choice for company spokesman. Almost every computer nerd in the 1980s was a Star Trek fanatic. A sure sign of this was the number of early computer games that focused on Star Trek. The characters from Star Trek even routinely appeared on the cover of early Byte magazines.

pages: 1,199 words: 332,563

Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition by Robert N. Proctor


bioinformatics, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, index card, Indoor air pollution, information retrieval, invention of gunpowder, John Snow's cholera map, language of flowers, life extension, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, speech recognition, stem cell, telemarketer, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra

Some of course must have made their way into the hands of children, and some of those sold in Britain—emblazoned with John Player Special insignia, for example—came with instructions cautioning that “modeling skills” were helpful “if under 10 years of age.”50 That of course was the whole point: to keep the brand in the public eye. It didn’t really matter what sport was being sponsored, or even whether it really was a sport, so long as cigarettes entered the hearts and hands of the right kinds of people. Which increasingly in the 1970s and 1980s meant the young and your average blue- and pink-collar working stiff. We don’t normally think of auto shows as a sport, for example, but R. J. Reynolds in 1982 started sponsoring Winston Championship Auto Shows, which it took over and renamed from the International Championship Auto Shows. Three million people were expected to attend these two hundred annual events, where 730,000 free packs of cigarettes were to be handed out by “attractive sampling girls.”

pages: 1,152 words: 266,246

Why the West Rules--For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future by Ian Morris


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Doomsday Clock,, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, Francisco Pizarro, global village, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, market bubble, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pink-collar, place-making, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, upwardly mobile, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

A woman’s work was still never done, but by 1960 she could jump in the car (almost every American family had one), drive to the supermarket (where two-thirds of the country’s food was sold), store her purchases in the refrigerator (98 percent of houses had them), and put the laundry on before the two or three kids got back from school and settled in front of the TV. The changes freed women for work outside the home in an economy rapidly shifting from manufacturing toward services, shedding blue-collar labor but crying out for pink-collar workers. In the richest countries the proportion of women in paid jobs and higher education rose steadily after 1960, and, like every era before it, this age got the thought it needed. Books such as The Feminine Mystique and Sexual Politics urged middle-class American women to seek fulfillment outside their traditional roles. In 1968 a hundred protestors broke up the Miss America pageant in Atlantic City.

The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal by M. Mitchell Waldrop


Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Wiener process, zero-sum game

True, this was a distinctly unmathematician-like interest on Wiener's part: most other members of his tribe were contemptuous of computation, argu- ing that a real mathematician gained insight by abstract reasoning, not by reck- oning. Slide rules were acceptable for scientists and engineers, but brute number crunching was just arithmetic, a task for desktop adding machines-women's work (the word computer was still a job description in the 1920s, carrying much the same pink-collar connotation as typist). The building of computing machinery was, by extension, a job for mere tinkerers. The greatest apparatus man in America: Vannevar Bush contemplates the Differential Analyzer THE LAST TRANSITION 25 Wiener, however, was among the few great mathematicians who had actually worked as computers, and his patriotic stint calculating artillery trajectories dur- ing World War I had taught him all too well that numerical calculation was not just a matter of punching numbers into an adding machine.