Growth in a Time of Debt

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Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea by Mark Blyth

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency peg, debt deflation, deindustrialization, disintermediation, diversification, en.wikipedia.org, ending welfare as we know it, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Irish property bubble, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal capitalism, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Philip Mirowski, price stability, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, savings glut, short selling, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, unorthodox policies, value at risk, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Actually, debt does matter. It’s a problem, and those arguing for austerity out of more than just an innate hatred of the state and all its works are not tilting at windmills. While we may not be “drowning in debt,” there are many folks out there who are concerned that we will do a bit more than just get our feet wet if we are not careful. Carmen Reinhardt and Kenneth Rogoff’s much-cited paper, “Growth in a Time of Debt,” argues that government debt above a critical threshold of 90 percent can become a substantial drag on the economy.17 This claim is not without its critics, but notwithstanding those criticisms, the basic point can be rephrased as, why would any state want to carry and pay for such a debt load if it didn’t have to?18 Looking to the longer term, Simon Johnson and James Kwak argue that “America does face a long-term debt problem” that breeds a political climate of “hysteria, demagoguery and delusion,” which over the long haul leads to cuts that most affect “the people who can afford it least.”19 The end result, assuming that the United States doesn’t suffer an interest-rate shock in the short run, is that “the United States will look like the stereotypical Latin American country, with the super-rich living in private islands … a comfortable professional class … and a large, struggling lower class.”20 One could observe cynically that we are pretty much already there, but the point is once again well taken.

Leigh Phillips, “ECB Austerity Drive Raises Fears for Democratic Accountability in Europe,” The Guardian, August 22, 2011; Mort Zuckerman, “America Has No Choice but to Enter Its Own Age of Austerity,” Financial Times, July 14, 2011, “The A-List” Commentary; Alberto Alesina, Silvio Ardagna, Roberto Perotti, and Fabiano Schiantarelli (2002), “Fiscal Policy, Profits, and Investment,” American Economic Review, 92(3): 571–589; Peter Coy, “What Good Are Economists Anyway?” Bloomberg Business Week, April 16, 2009, cover story. 17. Carmen Reinhardt and Kenneth Rogoff, Growth in a Time of Debt, National Bureau of Economic Research (hereafter, NBER) working paper 15639, Cambridge, MA, January 2010. 18. See, for example, John Irons and Josh Bivens, “Government Debt and Economic Growth: Overreaching Claims of Debt ‘Threshold’ Suffer from Theoretical and Empirical Flaws,” Economic Policy Institute, Briefing Paper 271, Washington DC, July 16, 2010. Irons and Bivens take the 90 percent threshold idea to task on grounds of reverse causation.

By that time global oil supplies may have run out, and the last thing we may care about is sovereign debt. 26. “Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2002,” Executive Office of the President of the United States, 224, table S. 2, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BUDGET-2002-BUD/pdf/BUDGET-2002-BUD.pdf. 27. Alberto Alesina, “Tax Cuts vs. ‘Stimulus’: The Evidence Is In,” Wall Street Journal, September 15, 2010, Opinion; Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff “Growth in a Time of Debt,” American Economic Review, 100, 2 (2010): 573–578. 28. Timothy Noah, “Introducing the Great Divergence,” Slate, September 3, 2010, Part of a series entitled “The United States of Inequality,” http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/the_great_divergence/features/2010/the_united_states_of_inequality/introducing_the_great_divergence.html. 29. See US Census Bureau website, http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/about/overview/index.html, accessed September 19, 2011. 30.


Science Fictions: How Fraud, Bias, Negligence, and Hype Undermine the Search for Truth by Stuart Ritchie

Albert Einstein, anesthesia awareness, Bayesian statistics, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, coronavirus, correlation does not imply causation, COVID-19, Covid-19, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, Growth in a Time of Debt, Kenneth Rogoff, l'esprit de l'escalier, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Milgram experiment, mouse model, New Journalism, p-value, phenotype, placebo effect, profit motive, publication bias, publish or perish, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, replication crisis, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Thomas Bayes, twin studies, University of East Anglia

Just as physicists would love to discover a new law (or a way to break the ones we already know), and just as mathematicians work endlessly to prove their theorems, many social scientists, particularly economists, long to discover a stylised fact that can be associated with their name – and that the people who make important decisions can easily keep in mind. When they published a major paper in 2010, the economists Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff thought they’d hit the stylised-fact jackpot. For two years, politicians had been frantically trying to address the fallout of the 2008 financial crisis and the ensuing Great Recession. Amid all the conflicting advice, Reinhart and Rogoff’s paper, entitled ‘Growth in a Time of Debt’, was a godsend, providing strong evidence to recommend one particular course of economic action: austerity.2 Reinhart and Rogoff had studied the debt-to-GDP ratio – the relationship between what a country owes to its creditors (its public debt, which, perhaps confusingly, is also known as its government debt or its sovereign debt) and what new goods and services it can produce (its Gross Domestic Product).

My point here is that they can all bias our view of scientific results. 5: Negligence Epigraph: Charles Caleb Cotton, Lacon, or Many Things in Few Words (London, 1820). 1.  Daniel Hirschman, ‘Stylized Facts in the Social Sciences’, Sociological Science 3 (2016): pp. 604–26; https://doi.org/10.15195/v3.a26 2.  The study was an online ‘working paper’ for a while (as is normal in economics, as we’ll see in the final chapter), but it was eventually officially published as Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff, ‘Growth in a Time of Debt’, American Economic Review 100, no. 2 (May 2010): pp. 573–78; https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.100.2.573 3.  Osborne: George Osborne, ‘Mais Lecture – A New Economic Model’, 24 Feb. 2010; https://conservative-speeches.sayit.mysociety.org/speech/601526; Republican members: United States Senate Committee on the Budget, ‘Sessions, Ryan Issue Joint Statement On Jobs Report, Call For Senate Action On Budget’, 8 July 2011; https://www.budget.senate.gov/chairman/newsroom/press/sessions-ryan-issue-joint-statement-on-jobs-report-call-for-senate-action-on-budget 4.  

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University College London University of British Columbia University of California Berkeley Los Angeles University of Connecticut University of East Anglia University of Edinburgh University of Hertfordshire University of London University of Pennsylvania unsaturated fats unwarranted advice vaccines Vamplew, Peter Vanity Fair Vatican Vaxxed Viagra vibration-of-effects analysis virology Wakefield, Andrew Walker, Matthew Wansink, Brian Washington Post weasel wording Weisberg, Michael Wellcome Trust western blots Westfall, Jake ‘Why Most Published Research Findings Are False’ (Ioannidis) Why We Sleep (Walker) Wiley Wiseman, Richard Wolfe-Simon, Felisa World as Will and Presentation, The (Schopenhauer) World Health Organisation (WHO) Yale University Yarkoni, Tal Yes Men Yezhov, Nikolai Z-tests Ziliak, Stephen Zimbardo, Philip Zola, Émile About the Author Stuart Ritchie is a lecturer in the Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre at King’s College London.


pages: 353 words: 81,436

Buying Time: The Delayed Crisis of Democratic Capitalism by Wolfgang Streeck

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, banking crisis, basic income, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, David Graeber, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial repression, fixed income, full employment, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, means of production, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, profit maximization, risk tolerance, shareholder value, too big to fail, union organizing, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

The leader of the Green group in the Bundestag, Jürgen Trittin, described Rösler’s remarks as “amateurish” and said they demonstrated that a “novice was in charge in the economics ministry”. The stock markets will react’ (Thielemann, ‘Das Ende der Demokratie’, p. 820). 72 Presumably this is so only beneath a certain level of debt. An influential expert view is that 80 per cent of GDP is the threshold beyond which the public debt hinders future growth (C. Reinhart and K. Rogoff, Growth in a Time of Debt, NBER Working Paper No. 15639, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009). If this is true – like all econometric ‘laws’, it should be treated with utmost caution – many developed economies are already incapable of growth. 73 See a few thoughts on the subject in chapter 4 below. 74 In combination with low interest rates, capital controls and high inflation, this may add up to a public debt reduction strategy.

Rademacher, Inga, National Tax Policy in the EMU: Some Empirical Evidence on the Effects of Common Monetary Policy on the Distribution of Tax Burdens, unpublished thesis, social sciences faculty, Frankfurt/Main, 2012. Raithel, Thomas et al. (eds), Auf dem Weg in eine neue Moderne? Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland in den siebziger und achtziger Jahren, Munich: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag, 2009. Rappaport, Alfred, Creating Shareholder Value, New York: The Free Press, 1986. Reinhart, Carmen M. and Kenneth S. Rogoff, Growth in a Time of Debt, NBER Working Paper No. 15639, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009. Reinhart, Carmen M. and M. Belen Sbrancia, The Liquidation of Government Debt, NBER Working Paper No. 16893, Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2011. Rose, Richard, ‘Inheritance Before Choice in Public Policy’, Journal of Theoretical Politics, vol. 2/3, 1990, pp. 263–91. ———. and Phillip L.


pages: 414 words: 119,116

The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot

active measures, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, twin studies, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor

Lancet. 2009; 374(9686): 315–23. 27Siegrist J, Rosskam E, Leka S. Report of task group 2: Employment and working conditions including occupation, unemployment and migrant workers 2012 [updated 2012/08/13]. Available from: https://www.instituteofhealthequity.org/members/workplans-and-draft-reports. 28Ibid. 29Lewis M. The Big Short: Inside the Doomsday Machine. London: Allen Lane, 2011. 30Reinhart C, Rogoff K. Growth in a time of debt. American Economic Review. 2010; 100(2): 473–8. 31Herndon T, Ash M, Pollin R. Does High Public Debt Consistently Stifle Economic Growth? A Critique of Reinhart and Rogoff. Political Economy Research Institute – Working Paper Series. 2013; April(322). 32International Monetary Fund. World Economic Outlook October 2012: Coping with High Debt and Sluggish Growth. Washington DC: IMF, 2012. 33UCL Institute of Health Equity.

Of Baboons and Men: Social Circumstances, Biology, and the Social Gradient in Health. In: Weinstein M, Lane MA, editors. Sociality, Hierarchy, Health: Comparative Biodemography: A Collection of Papers. Washington DC: National Academies Press, 2014. 10 LIVING FAIRLY IN THE WORLD 1Yang J. Did politics ruin ‘the world’s coolest mayor’? Toronto Star. 23 June 2014. 2Reinhart C, Rogoff K. Growth in a time of debt. American Economic Review. 2010; 100(2): 473–8. 3Herndon T, Ash M, Pollin R. Does High Public Debt Consistently Stifle Economic Growth? A Critique of Reinhart and Rogoff. Political Economy Research Institute – Working Paper Series. 2013; April(322). 4Stuckler D, Basu S. The Body Economic: Why Austerity Kills. New York: Basic Books, 2013. 5Eyraud L, Weber A. The Challenge of Debt Reduction during Fiscal Consolidation.


pages: 446 words: 117,660

Arguing With Zombies: Economics, Politics, and the Fight for a Better Future by Paul Krugman

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, cryptocurrency, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, different worldview, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, employer provided health coverage, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, frictionless, frictionless market, fudge factor, full employment, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, index fund, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, London Whale, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shock, open borders, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, universal basic income, very high income, working-age population

NASA’s Mars Orbiter crashed because engineers forgot to convert to metric measurements; JPMorgan Chase’s “London Whale” venture went bad in part because modelers divided by a sum instead of an average. So, did an Excel coding error destroy the economies of the Western world? The story so far: at the beginning of 2010, two Harvard economists, Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff, circulated a paper, “Growth in a Time of Debt,” that purported to identify a critical “threshold,” a tipping point, for government indebtedness. Once debt exceeds 90 percent of gross domestic product, they claimed, economic growth drops off sharply. Ms. Reinhart and Mr. Rogoff had credibility thanks to a widely admired earlier book on the history of financial crises, and their timing was impeccable. The paper came out just after Greece went into crisis and played right into the desire of many officials to “pivot” from stimulus to austerity.

., 97, 118, 157 and recessions, 124, 142 government spending, economic growth driven by, 227 government stimulus: multiplier effect of, 116 Obama plan, 104, 107–8, 113–14, 115–17, 118–20, 131, 193, 206, 362 “Graduates Versus Oligarchs” (Krugman), 260, 282–84 Graham, Lindsey, 360 Gramlich, Edward, 91 Grassley, Charles, 54, 346 Great Depression, 81, 103, 106, 115, 157, 407 as economy’s adjustment to change, 134, 139 and Federal Reserve, 133, 140 and interest rates, 143 Keynes on, 137 loss of faith in the market system, 123, 131, 132 as problem of inadequate demand, 124, 138, 139, 144 and unemployment, 131, 215 Great Moderation, 130, 142, 409 Great Recession (2007–2009), 157, 407 “Great Slump of 1930, The” (Keynes), 137 Great Unraveling, The (Krugman), 9 Greece: austerity in, 163–65, 188 budget crisis (2009), 158 economy of, 153, 160, 178, 179, 184, 185–86, 188 elections in, 99 and euro, 99, 176, 186, 187 loans to, 182 unemployment in, 182 Green Book, 265 greenhouse gases, 330, 335, 339–40 Green New Deal, 208–9, 211, 328, 338–40 Greenspan, Alan: and the Fed, 140 and financial crisis, 94, 136 and housing bubble, 83, 84, 91, 141 and income inequality, 283 and interest rates, 161 and Social Security, 17, 19, 20 Gross, Bill, 89 “Growth in a Time of Debt” (Reinhart and Rogoff), 163–65 “Gullibility of the Deficit Scolds, The” (Krugman), 193–94 gun violence, 2 halo effect, 4 hard-money policy, 185 Hassett, Kevin, 84 Hastert, Dennis, 362, 363 Hastert rule, 362 Hawley, Josh, 225 Health and Human Services Department, 57, 368 health care, 35–37, 340 basic facts about, 38–40 competitiveness of, 40 costs of innovation in, 38–39 deductibility of health benefits, 199 failed Clinton plan (1993), 35, 37, 50, 378 government spending on, 116 inefficiency of, 39–40 and midterm election, 367 as morality issue, 44 private sector in, 31, 39–40 rising costs of, 17, 36, 38, 40, 200 scare tactics in, 44–45, 47, 49, 51, 54, 313 and socialized medicine, 43, 52 special interests in, 37, 45, 46, 48, 52, 67 Trump’s sabotage of, 351–52, 367, 371 see also Affordable Care Act; Medicaid; Medicare healthcare.gov, 77 health coverage: comparison shopping for, 43 competition in, 68 “death spiral” in, 68, 70, 71 employer-provided, 36, 37, 39, 61, 67, 71, 212, 286, 317, 339 government efficiency in, 30–31 government provision for, 36–37, 212 individual mandate for, 68, 69, 71, 313, 324 insurance exchanges in, 68, 70, 71 for lower-income families, 221, 305 minimum standards for, 68, 71 necessity of, 36, 68 for pre-existing conditions, 67, 68, 69, 71, 73, 74, 225, 307 single-payer system, 36–37, 51, 67, 324, 339 universal, 4, 35, 36, 42, 44–45, 46, 47–49, 50–52, 313, 317, 321, 339 V.H.A. system of, 40, 41–43 Heckscher-Ohlin model, 400–401, 403 Heller, Dean, 75, 225 Helpman, Elhanan, 398 Hersh, Seymour, 300 Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander, 305, 306 high development theory, 399 “Hijacked Commission, The” (Krugman), 194, 198–200 Himmelfarb, Gertrude, The De-Moralization of Society, 285–86 Hofstadter, Richard, “The Paranoid Style in American Politics,” 346 honesty and dishonesty, 7–8, 324 Hoover, Herbert, 161 Horton, Willie, 306 House Ways and Means Committee, 265 housing: construction spending, 88, 90 Flatland vs.


pages: 457 words: 125,329

Value of Everything: An Antidote to Chaos The by Mariana Mazzucato

"Robert Solow", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, bank run, banks create money, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, business cycle, butterfly effect, buy and hold, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cleantech, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, European colonialism, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, G4S, George Akerlof, Google Hangouts, Growth in a Time of Debt, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, interest rate derivative, Internet of things, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, money market fund, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, rent control, rent-seeking, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart meter, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, software patent, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

UNDERVALUING THE PUBLIC SECTOR 1. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/mansion-house-2015-speech-by-the-chancellor-of-the-exchequer 2. ‘The third industrial revolution', The Economist, 21 April 2012: http://www.economist.com/node/21553017 3. K. Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (1944; Boston MA: Beacon Press, 2001), p. 144. 4. C. M. Reinhart and K. S. Rogoff, ‘Growth in a time of debt', American Economic Review, 100(2) (2010), pp. 573-8. 5. Ibid., p. 573. 6. T. Herndon, M. Ash and R. Pollin, ‘Does high public debt consistently stifle economic growth? A critique of Reinhart and Rogoff', Cambridge Journal of Economics, 38(2) (2014), pp. 257-79: http://doi.org/10.1093/cje/bet075, p. 5. 7. Ibid., pp. 7-8. 8. Reinhart and Rogoff: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/26/opinion/debt-growth-and-the-austerity-debate.html?

., The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for the 21st Century Capitalism (New York: Knopf, 1991). Reich, R. B., ‘Economist John Maynard Keynes', TIME magazine, 29 March 1999. Reich, U. P. and Horz, K., ‘Dividing government product between intermediate and final uses', Review of Income and Wealth, 28(3) (1982), pp. 325-44. Reinert, E. S., How Rich Countries Got Rich and Why Poor Countries Stay Poor (London: Constable, 2008). Reinhart, C. M. and Rogoff, K. S., ‘Growth in a time of debt', American Economic Review, 100(2) (2010), pp. 573-8. Reinhart, C. M. and Rogoff, K. S., ‘Debt, growth and the austerity debate', New York Times, 25 April 2013: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/26/opinion/debt-growth-and-the- austerity-debate.html?_r=0 Reinhart, C. M. and Rogoff, K. S., ‘Reinhart and Rogoff: Responding to our critics', New York Times, 25 April 2013: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/26/opinion/reinhart-and-rogoff- responding-to-our-critics.html Ricardo, D., The Works and Correspondence of David Ricardo, ed.


pages: 478 words: 126,416

Other People's Money: Masters of the Universe or Servants of the People? by John Kay

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, buy and hold, call centre, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, Irish property bubble, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, loose coupling, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, market design, millennium bug, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, NetJets, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Piper Alpha, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, Yom Kippur War

., 2006, ‘A Brief History of the 1987 Stock Market Crash with a Discussion of the Federal Reserve Response’, Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2007–13, Divisions of Research & Statistics and Monetary Affairs Federal Reserve Board, p. 10. 4. Ibid., p. 19. 5. Ibid. 6. Bagehot, W., 1873, Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, New York, Scribner, Armstrong & Co. 7. Federal Reserve, Recent balance sheet trends. 8. Bank of England, Annual Reports 2007–14, Financial Statements. 9. Reinhart, C.M., and Rogoff, K.S., 2010, ‘Growth in a Time of Debt’, American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings, 100 (2), May, pp. 573–8. 10. Herndon, T., Ash, M., and Pollin, R., 2013, ‘Does High Public Debt Consistently Stifle Economic Growth? A Critique of Reinhart and Rogoff’, University of Amherst, Political Economic Research Institute Working Paper 322, has received almost as much attention as the original exercise. 11. The latest (2014) Trustees’ report shows that the fund is adequate to pay current and projected benefits to 2042.

., 1986, Creating Shareholder Value: The New Standard for Business Performance, New York, Free Press. Rawnsley, J.H., 1995, Going for Broke: Nick Leeson and the Collapse of Barings Bank, London, HarperCollins. Reader, W.J., 1970–75, Imperial Chemical Industries: A History, London, Oxford University Press. Reich, R.B., 1990, ‘Who Is Us?’, Harvard Business Review, January. Reinhart, C.M., and Rogoff, K.S., 2010, ‘Growth in a Time of Debt’, American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings, 100 (2), May, pp. 573–8. Rieffel, A., 2003, Restructuring Sovereign Debt: The Case for Ad Hoc Machinery, Washington, DC, Brookings Institution Press, pp. 289–94. Roosevelt, T., 1975, The Autobiography, Condensed from the Original Edition, Supplemented by Letters, Speeches, and Other Writings, ed. Andrews, W., New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons.


pages: 466 words: 127,728

The Death of Money: The Coming Collapse of the International Monetary System by James Rickards

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, complexity theory, computer age, credit crunch, currency peg, David Graeber, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, G4S, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, jitney, John Meriwether, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market design, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, risk-adjusted returns, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, working-age population, yield curve

Taylor, and Volker Wieland, “New Keynesian Versus Old Keynesian Government Spending Multipliers,” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper no. 14782, February 2009, http://www.nber.org/papers/w14782.pdf?new_window=1. the relationship of U.S. debt and deficits . . . : John H. Makin, “Trillion-Dollar Deficits Are Sustainable for Now, Unfortunately,” American Enterprise Institute, December 13, 2012, http://www.aei.org/outloook/trillion-dollar-deficits-are-sustainable-for-now-unfortunately. Contrary to the oft-cited . . . : Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff, “Growth in a Time of Debt,” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper no. 15639, January 2010, http://www.nber.org/papers/w15639. “The Liquidation of Government Debt”: Carmen M. Reinhart and M. Belen Sbrancia, “The Liquidation of Government Debt,” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper no. 16893, March 2011, http://www.nber.org/papers/w16893. “A . . . reason why forward guidance may be needed . . .”: Michael Woodford, “Methods of Policy Accommodation at the Interest-Rate Lower Bound,” paper presented at the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City Symposium, Jackson Hole, Wyo., August 31, 2012, p. 6, emphasis in the original, http://www.kc.frb.org/publicat/sympos/2012/mw.pdf.

“Unusual Option Market Activity and the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001.” Journal of Business 79, no. 4 (July 2006), http://econpapers.repec.org/article/ucpjnlbus/v_3a79_3ay_3a2006_3ai_3a4_3ap_3a1703-1726.htm. Pufeng, Major General Wang. “The Challenge of Information Warfare.” China Military Science, Spring 1995, http://www.fas.org/irp/world/china/docs/iw_mg_wang.htm. Reinhart, Carmen M., and Kenneth S. Rogoff. “Growth in a Time of Debt.” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper no. 15639, January 2010, http://www.nber.org/papers/w15639. Reinhart, Carmen M., and M. Belen Sbrancia. “The Liquidation of Government Debt.” National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper no. 16893, March 2011, http://www.nber.org/papers/w16893. Rickards, James G. “A New Risk Management Model for Wall Street.” Journal of Enterprise Risk Management (March 2009), pp. 20–24. ———.


pages: 524 words: 143,993

The Shifts and the Shocks: What We've Learned--And Have Still to Learn--From the Financial Crisis by Martin Wolf

air freight, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, break the buck, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, light touch regulation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandatory minimum, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market fragmentation, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Real Time Gross Settlement, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, very high income, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Alan Taylor, ‘When is the Time for Austerity?’, 20 July 2013, Vox, http://www.voxeu.org/article/when-time-austerity. 22. These arguments were developed in Martin Wolf, ‘How Austerity has Failed’, The New York Review of Books, vol. LX, no. 12, 11 July–4 August 2013, pp. 20–22, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2013/jul/11/how-austerity-has-failed/?pagination=false. 23. Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff, ‘Growth in a Time of Debt’, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 15639, January 2010, www.nber.org. 24. Thomas Herndon, Michael Ash and Robert Pollin, ‘Does High Public Debt Consistently Stifle Economic Growth? A Critique of Reinhart and Rogoff’, 15 April 2013, http://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/working_papers/working_papers_301-350/WP322.pdf. 25. International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook, April 2013, Fig. 1.1.2. 26.

‘A Step in the Dark: Unconventional Monetary Policy after the Crisis’, Andrew Crockett Memorial Lecture, Bank for International Settlement, 23 June 2013. http://www.bis.org/events/agm2013/sp130623.pdf. Reinhart, Carmen M. and Kenneth S. Rogoff. This Time is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2009). Reinhart, Carmen M. and Kenneth S. Rogoff. ‘Growth in a Time of Debt’, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 15639, January 2010. www.nber.org. Report of the Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards. Changing Banking for Good: Volume 1. Summary, and Conclusions and Recommendations, 12 June 2013. http://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/joint-select/professional-standards-in-the-banking-industry/news/changing-banking-for-good-report.


pages: 226 words: 59,080

Economics Rules: The Rights and Wrongs of the Dismal Science by Dani Rodrik

airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, butterfly effect, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, distributed generation, Donald Davies, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, fudge factor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, loss aversion, low skilled workers, market design, market fundamentalism, minimum wage unemployment, oil shock, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, school vouchers, South Sea Bubble, spectrum auction, The Market for Lemons, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, unorthodox policies, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, white flight

Andrew Weiss, Efficiency Wages: Models of Unemployment, Layoffs, and Wage Dispersion (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990). 16. Itzhak Gilboa, Andrew Postlewaite, Larry Samuelson, and David Schmeidler, “Economic Models as Analogies” (unpublished paper, January 27, 2013), 6–7. 17. See, for example, my online debate for the Economist magazine with Harvard Business School professor Josh Lerner, July 12–17, 2010, http://www.economist.com/debate/debates/overview/177. 18. Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff, Growth in a Time of Debt, NBER Working Paper 15639 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2010). 19. Thomas Herndon, Michael Ash, and Robert Pollin, “Does High Public Debt Consistently Stifle Economic Growth? A Critique of Reinhart and Rogoff” (Amherst: University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Political Economy Research Institute, April 15, 2013). 20. R. E. Peierls, “Wolfgang Ernst Pauli, 1900–1958,” Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 5 (February 1960): 186. 21.


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Crashed: How a Decade of Financial Crises Changed the World by Adam Tooze

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, break the buck, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, diversification, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, friendly fire, full employment, global reserve currency, global supply chain, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, large denomination, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, open economy, paradox of thrift, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, predatory finance, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trade liberalization, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, white flight, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, yield curve, éminence grise

The fate of Greece in 2010 seemed to spell out what lay in store for any state that slid over the edge into insolvency. Warnings ranged from outrageous rants and scaremongering from the likes of Beck to ultrarespectable academic research, most notably by two former IMF economists, Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff. Following their surprise bestseller This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly, in January 2010 Reinhart and Rogoff launched a research paper with the title “Growth in a Time of Debt.”2 This purported to show that as public debts passed the threshold of 90 percent of GDP, economic growth slowed down sharply. It was a slippery slope that ended in a cliff. Excessive debt weighed on growth, which made the debt even less sustainable, further slowing growth. To avoid this fate, it was crucial to take action sooner rather than later. On closer inspection, Reinhart and Rogoff’s analysis turned out to be riddled with errors.

., 139; and IMF, Greece: Staff Report on Request for Stand-By Arrangement (IMF Country Report No. 10/110, 2010). CHAPTER 15: A TIME OF DEBT 1. For this and the following, see http://www.foxnews.com/story/2010/02/12/glenn-beck-is-us-doomed-to-follow-greece-into-crisis.html. 2. C. M. Reinhart and K. Rogoff, This Time Is Different, Eight Centuries of Financial Folly (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009); and C. M. Reinhart and K. S. Rogoff, “Growth in a Time of Debt” (NBER Working Paper 15639, 2010). 3. J. Cassidy, “The Reinhart and Rogoff Controversy: A Summing Up,” New Yorker, April 26, 2013. 4. C. Reinhart and K. Rogoff, “Why We Should Expect Low Growth Amid Debt,” Financial Times, January 28, 2010. 5. “Germans Say Euro Zone May Have to Expel Greece: Poll,” Reuters, February 14, 2010. 6. Irwin, The Alchemists, 237–238. 7. G.

See United Kingdom “great moderation”, 10, 11, 44 Greece, 15 austerity in, 330–31, 340, 376–77, 384–85, 409 cross-border financial flows in, 106–7 debt crisis in, 14, 322, 323–45, 357–59, 376–78, 381–89, 408–10, 422–29 debt restructuring and, 384–85, 388–89, 423–28 deficits in, 101, 324, 338 demonstrations in, 340, 375, 409 elections of 2012, 428 Eurogroup-Syriza debt restructuring confrontation, 517–35 extend-and-pretend in, 325, 328, 331, 336, 358–59, 376, 382–83, 401, 425, 529, 532 Fitch downgrade of debt of, 339 Papandreou replaced as prime minister, 409–10 real estate boom in, 107 rescue fund for, 342–44 social crisis in, 515–16 #Thisisacoup, 533 troika’s rescue plan for, 336–37, 339–40 unemployment in, 358–59, 374, 408, 428, 515 vote against troika proposal, 530 Greenspan, Alan, 29, 32, 37, 293, 574, 575 Gref, Herman, 503 Gross, Bill, 40, 349, 379, 481 “Growth in a Time of Debt” (Reinhart & Rogoff), 347 Habermas, Jürgen, 116, 122, 534 Hamilton Project, 25–27, 29, 36, 42, 182, 281, 451, 456, 458 Hammond, Philip, 560, 592 Hartz IV, 95 HBOS, 154, 171, 189–90 Hellwig, Martin, 313 Hensarling, Jeb, 182, 588 Hessel, Stéphane, 374 Hitachi, 158 Hollande, François, 429, 434, 518, 532 Honohan, Patrick, 363 housing market, 7 as collateral for banking, 43 bubble in American, 42–43 bubble in European, 105–6 collapse in, 143–44, 156–57 consumption, impact of rising prices on, 43 savings and loan crisis, 44–45 as single largest form of wealth, 42–43 speculation in, 65–66 See also mortgages/mortgage system HSBC, 75, 143–44, 145, 191, 541, 542 Hu Jintao, 244 Hungary, 121, 123, 126, 127, 227, 229, 230–32, 491–92 Hurricane Harvey, 582 Hypo Real Estate, 84, 154, 185, 188, 198, 286, 358, 378 Hyundai Motors, 256–57, 260 Iceland, 167, 232 Iglesias, Pablo, 376 IKB, 144 IMF.


pages: 382 words: 92,138

The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Sector Myths by Mariana Mazzucato

"Robert Solow", Apple II, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, California gold rush, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, computer age, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demand response, deskilling, endogenous growth, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, G4S, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, incomplete markets, information retrieval, intangible asset, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, natural language processing, new economy, offshore financial centre, Philip Mirowski, popular electronics, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Available online at http://www.bl.uk/bipc/pdfs/richardreport2008.pdf (accessed 6 June 2011). Robinson, J. 1953–54. ‘The Production Function and the Theory of Capital’. Review of Economic Studies 21, no. 2: 81–106. _____. 1978. ‘Obstacles to Full Employment’. In Contributions to Modern Economics. New York, San Francisco: Academic Press. Rodrik, D. 2004. ‘Industrial Policy for the 21st Century’. CEPR Discussion Paper 4767. Rogoff, K. and C. Reinhart. 2010. ‘Growth in a Time of Debt’. American Economic Review 100, no. 2: 573–8. Roland, A. and P. Shiman. 2002. Strategic Computing: DARPA and the Quest for Machine Intelligence, 1983–1993. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Roush, W. 2010. ‘The Story of Siri, from Birth at SRI to Acquisition by Apple – Virtual Personal Assistants Go Mobile’. Xconomy.com, 14 June. Available online at http://www.xconomy.com/san-francisco/2010/06/14/the-story-ofsiri-from-birth-at-sri-to-acquisition-by-apple-virtual-personal-assistants-go-mobile/ (accessed 2 July 2012).


pages: 370 words: 102,823

Rethinking Capitalism: Economics and Policy for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth by Michael Jacobs, Mariana Mazzucato

balance sheet recession, banking crisis, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, business climate, business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collaborative economy, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Detroit bankruptcy, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, endogenous growth, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, facts on the ground, fiat currency, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, forward guidance, full employment, G4S, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, new economy, non-tariff barriers, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price stability, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, very high income

In the US, the cumulative amount committed by the Federal Reserve to shoring up the financial system has been calculated at between $7.77 trillion by Bloomberg—Secret Fed Loans Gave Banks $13 Billion Undisclosed to Congress, Bloomberg Markets, 28 November 2011, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2011-11-28/secret-fed-loans-undisclosed-to-congress-gave-banks-13-billion-in-income (accessed 12 April 2016)—and $29 trillion by James Felkerson, $29,000,000,000,000: A Detailed Look at the Fed’s Bailout by Funding Facility and Recipient, Working Paper No. 698, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College, 2011, http://www.levyinstitute.org/pubs/wp_698.pdf (accessed 12 April 2016). 7 OECD, General government deficit (indicator), 2016, doi: 10.1787/77079edb-en (accessed 12 April 2016). 8 Testimony to the Congressional Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, 23 October 2008, https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-110hhrg55764/html/CHRG-110hhrg55764.htm (accessed 12 April 2016). 9 R. J. Shiller, Irrational Exuberance, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2000. 10 C. Reinhart and K. Rogoff, ‘Growth in a time of debt’, American Economic Review, vol. 100, no. 2, 2010, pp. 573–8. 11 L. Laeven and F. Valencia, Systemic Banking Crises: A New Database, IMF Working Paper No. 224, November 2008. 12 J. A. Turner, Between Debt and the Devil: Money, Credit, and Fixing Global Finance, Princeton and Oxford, Princeton University Press, 2016. 13 Unemployment was lower in 2014 than in 2007 in five OECD countries: Chile, Germany, Israel, Japan and Poland.


pages: 443 words: 98,113

The Corruption of Capitalism: Why Rentiers Thrive and Work Does Not Pay by Guy Standing

3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Bonfire of the Vanities, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, first-past-the-post, future of work, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, housing crisis, income inequality, information retrieval, intangible asset, invention of the steam engine, investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, mini-job, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Neil Kinnock, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, nudge unit, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, openstreetmap, patent troll, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, precariat, quantitative easing, remote working, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Right to Buy, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, structural adjustment programs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, the payments system, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Psychologists have shown that debt adversely affects mental health and mental alertness and leads to a more passive and conservative mindset.36 Insecurity associated with debt makes people less resilient and less resourceful. Having large numbers of people deeply in debt and exposed to circumstances that make indebtedness more likely is also chipping away at freedom, which requires non-domination by external pressures. NOTES 1 ‘The never-ending story’, The Economist, 20 November 2015, p. 13. 2 C. Reinhart and K. Rogoff, ‘Growth in a Time of Debt’, NBER Working Paper No. 15639 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2010). 3 T. Herndon, M. Ash and R. Pollin, Does high public debt consistently stifle economic growth? A critique of Reinhart and Rogoff (Amherst: Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, 2013). 4 A. Pescatori, D. Sandri and J. Simon, ‘Debt and Growth: Is There a Magic Threshold?’


pages: 573 words: 115,489

Prosperity Without Growth: Foundations for the Economy of Tomorrow by Tim Jackson

"Robert Solow", bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, bonus culture, Boris Johnson, business cycle, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Graeber, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hans Rosling, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, paradox of thrift, peak oil, peer-to-peer lending, Philip Mirowski, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, secular stagnation, short selling, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, universal basic income, Works Progress Administration, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Reay, David, Colin Ramshaw and Adam Harvey 2008. Process Intensification: Engineering for Efficiency, Sustainability and Flexibility. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Reinhart, Carmen and Kenneth Rogoff 2013. ‘Financial and sovereign debt crises: some lessons learned and those forgotten’. IMF Working Paper WP/13/266. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund. Reinhart, Carmen and Kenneth Rogoff 2010. ‘Growth in a time of debt’. American Economic Review: Papers and Proceedings 100: 573–578. Ridley, Matt 1996. The Origins of Virtue. London: Penguin Books. Ridley, Matt 1994. The Red Queen – Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature. London: Penguin Books. Ritzer, George 2004. The McDonaldization of Society. New York: Pine Forge Press. Robeyns, Ingrid and Robert van der Veen 2007. ‘Sustainable quality of life – conceptual analysis for a policy-relevant empirical specification’.


pages: 515 words: 142,354

The Euro: How a Common Currency Threatens the Future of Europe by Joseph E. Stiglitz, Alex Hyde-White

bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency peg, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, housing crisis, income inequality, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, light touch regulation, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market friction, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, open economy, paradox of thrift, pension reform, pensions crisis, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the payments system, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, working-age population

Brown (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), pp. 35–68. 57 See, for example, Dean Baker, “The Myth of Expansionary Fiscal Austerity,” Center for Economic and Policy Research, October 2010, available at http://cepr.net/documents/publications/austerity-myth-2010-10.pdf; and Arjun Jayadev and Mike Konczal, “The Boom Not The Slump: The Right Time For Austerity,” Roosevelt Institute, 2010, available at http://scholarworks.umb.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1026&context=econ_faculty_pubs. 58 See, for example, International Monetary Fund, “Will It Hurt? Macroeconomic Effects of Fiscal Consolidation,” chapter 3 in 2010 World Economic Outlook. 59 Eurostat figures for the eurozone for March 2016. 60 See, for example, International Monetary Fund, “Will It Hurt?” 62 Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff, “Growth in a Time of Debt,” American Economic Review 100, no. 2 (May 2010): 573–78. 62 By now, there is a large literature on the subject. See, for example, Thomas Herndon, Michael Ash, and Robert Pollin, “Does High Public Debt Consistently Stifle Economic Growth? A Critique of Reinhart and Rogoff,” Cambridge Journal of Economics 38, no. 2 (2014): 257–79; Ugo Panizza and Andrea F. Presbitero, “Public Debt and Economic Growth: Is There a Causal Effect?


pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, peer-to-peer rental, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

That is why consistent and carefully calibrated fiscal consolidation remains necessary in Europe.” http://ec.europa.eu/commission_2010-2014/rehn/documents/cab20130213_en.pdf 203 Eurostat, general government consolidated gross debt. Code: tsieb090. In the eurozone as a whole this was 85.4 per cent of GDP in 2010, 87.3 per cent in 2011 and 90.6 per cent in 2012. 204 Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff, "Growth in a Time of Debt", NBER working paper 15639, January 2010 205 http://www.nextnewdeal.net/rortybomb/guest-post-reinhartrogoff-and-growth-time-debt 206 A point eloquently made by Adam Posen here: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/a6d94b02-a774-11e2-9fbe-00144feabdc0.html 207 Thomas Herndon, Michael Ash and Robert Pollin, "Does High Public Debt Consistently Stifle Economic Growth? A Critique of Reinhart and Rogoff", 15 April 2013.


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Them And Us: Politics, Greed And Inequality - Why We Need A Fair Society by Will Hutton

Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Blythe Masters, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cloud computing, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, discovery of the americas, discrete time, diversification, double helix, Edward Glaeser, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, low cost airline, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, money market fund, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Neil Kinnock, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price discrimination, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unpaid internship, value at risk, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, working poor, zero-sum game, éminence grise

Portsmouth’s predicament compares starkly with the current approach favoured by its south-coast neighbours, Southampton, of building up the side over time. 3 Margot Finn (2003) The Character of Credit: Personal Debt in English Culture, 1740–1914, Cambridge University Press. 4 McKinsey Global Institute (2010) ‘Debt and Deleveraging: The Global Credit Bubble and its Economic Consequences’, report. 5 Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff (forthcoming) ‘Growth in a Time of Debt’, prepared for the American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings. 6 McKinsey Global Institute (2010) ‘Debt and Deleveraging: The Global Credit Bubble and its Economic Consequences’, report. 7 Richard Koo (2008) The Holy Grail of Macroeconomics: Lessons from Japan’s Great Recession, John Wiley & Sons. 8 Robert Chote, Carl Emmerson and Jonathan Shaw (eds) (2010) The Green Budget 2010, Institute for Fiscal Studies. 9 Ken Coutts and Robert Rowthorn (2009) ‘Prospects for the UK Balance of Payments’, University of Cambridge Centre for Business Research Working Paper No. 394. 10 Kenneth Rogoff (2003) ‘Globalisation and Global Disinflation’, presented to the Conference on Monetary Policy and Uncertainty: Adapting to a Changing Economy, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. 11 Olivier Blanchard and John Simon, ‘The Long and Large Decline in US Output Volatility’, Brooklyn Papers on Economic Activity 1 (2001): 135–64. 12 On similar themes, see Jonathan McCarthy and Egon Zakrajsek (2003) ‘Inventory Dynamics and Business Cycles: What Has Changed?’


Not Working by Blanchflower, David G.

active measures, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Clapham omnibus, collective bargaining, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, George Akerlof, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, job satisfaction, John Bercow, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, obamacare, oil shock, open borders, Own Your Own Home, p-value, Panamax, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, quantitative easing, rent control, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, urban planning, working poor, working-age population, yield curve

New York: Simon and Schuster. Rees, A. 1989. The Economics of Trade Unions. 3rd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Reeves, A. M., M. McKee, and D. Stuckler. 2014. “Economic Suicides in the Great Recession in Europe and North America.” British Journal of Psychiatry 205: 246–47. Reinhart, C. M., and K. S. Rogoff. 2009. “The Aftermath of Financial Crises.” NBER Working Paper #14656. ———. 2010. “Growth in a Time of Debt.” American Economic Review 100 (2): 573–78. Reis, R. 2017. “Is Something Really Wrong with Macroeconomics?” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 34 (1–2): 132–55. Rieder, T. N. 2017. “In Opioid Withdrawal, with No Help in Sight.” Health Affairs 36 (1): 182–85. Rinne, U., and K. F. Zimmermann. 2012. “Another Economic Miracle? The German Labor Market and the Great Recession.” IZA Journal of Labor Policy 1: 3. ———. 2013.


How to Be a Liberal by Ian Dunt

4chan, Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, bounce rate, British Empire, Brixton riot, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, invisible hand, John Bercow, Kenneth Rogoff, liberal world order, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Mohammed Bouazizi, Northern Rock, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, recommendation engine, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, working poor, zero-sum game

They started to treat traditionally safe government bonds – the IOUs issued for national borrowing – as uncertain. That drove up interest rates on borrowing, which would in turn plunge countries further into the red, trapping them in debt servitude. This argument was given additional potency in 2010 by the publication of a research paper by two former IMF economists, Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff, called Growth in a Time of Debt. It contained an alarming finding. Once public debt passed 90 per cent of GDP, it said, something happened. Economic growth slowed. The economy couldn’t get out from under the sheer weight of state borrowing. Government revenue dwindled, more and more money was spent on servicing the debt, and hopes of ever paying it off vanished. The country started to sink. But there was a problem. The calculations on the media-friendly 90 per cent marker were flawed.


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The Bankers' New Clothes: What's Wrong With Banking and What to Do About It by Anat Admati, Martin Hellwig

Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, bonus culture, break the buck, business cycle, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centralized clearinghouse, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, George Akerlof, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Rogoff, Larry Wall, light touch regulation, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, regulatory arbitrage, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra

“Debt Folklore and Cross-Country Differences in Financial Structure.” Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 10: 102–107. Rajan, Uday, Amit Seru, and Vikrant Vig. 2010. “The Failure of Models to Predict Models.” Working paper. University of Chicago, Chicago. Reinhart, Carmen M., and Kenneth Rogoff. 2009. This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ———. 2010. “Growth in a Time of Debt.” American Economic Review 100 (2): 573–578. Reiss, Peter. 1990. “Economic and Financial Determinants of Oil and Gas Exploration Activity.” In Asymmetric Information, Corporate Finance and Investment, ed. R. Glenn Hubbard. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ricardo, David. 1817. “The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation.” London. Full text available at http://www.econlib.org/library/Ricardo/ricP.html.


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The Economists' Hour: How the False Prophets of Free Markets Fractured Our Society by Binyamin Appelbaum

"Robert Solow", airline deregulation, Alvin Roth, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Benoit Mandelbrot, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, clean water, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, greed is good, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, John Markoff, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, low cost airline, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, Network effects, new economy, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit motive, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, starchitect, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

Alesina and Silvia Ardagna, “Large Changes in Fiscal Policy: Taxes Versus Spending,” October 2009, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 15438. Alesina and Ardagna were graduates of the School of Economics at Bocconi University in Milan, founded by the conservative economist and politician Luigi Einaudi, who served as Italy’s president from 1948 to 1955. The school became associated with the economic theory that deficit reduction could spur economic growth. 7. Carmen M. Reinhart and Kenneth S. Rogoff, “Growth in a Time of Debt,” January 2010, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 15639. 8. The error was discovered by Thomas Herndon, a graduate student at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, who was doing his homework: The assignment was to pick a published economics paper and try to replicate the results. Herndon and two of his professors published a paper in the spring of 2013 pointing out the mistake in the Reinhart and Rogoff study.


Money and Government: The Past and Future of Economics by Robert Skidelsky

anti-globalists, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, Basel III, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, constrained optimization, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, law of one price, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, market clearing, market friction, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Nick Leeson, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, placebo effect, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, short selling, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade liberalization, value at risk, Washington Consensus, yield curve, zero-sum game

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