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The Big Roads: The Untold Story of the Engineers, Visionaries, and Trailblazers Who Created the American Superhighways by Earl Swift
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, big-box store, blue-collar work, Donner party, edge city, Kickstarter, new economy, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ralph Nader, side project, smart transportation, traveling salesman, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen
MacDonald replied that he looked forward to working with Joy and was " much interested" in the truck project. " In fact," he added, " if it seemed possible to spend the time necessary, I would feel better prepared to undertake the work at Washington after just such a trip." As it happened, Joy was persuasive—the army did send a convoy of its trucks across the country, from Washington to San Francisco, on the Lincoln Highway that summer. Among the officers assigned to the mission was a young lieutenant colonel named Eisenhower. PART II Connecting the Dots 4 DWIGHT EISENHOWER ENJOYED little promise of a great military future when, in the first days of July 1919, he heard that the army would attempt to drive a train of heavy trucks from the Atlantic to the Pacific; he volunteered to go along as a Tank Corps observer because he had nothing better to do. He had missed the war. While his West Point classmates earned battlefield reputations in Europe, Eisenhower had overseen a training camp erected on the battlefield at Gettysburg. When he'd finally won orders to lead troops overseas, the Armistice had intervened.
The trucks had trundled out of Washington after a late-morning ceremony on the Ellipse, just south of the White House and a few blocks from Thomas MacDonald's new office, accompanied by a flock of civilian hangers-on. It took seven hours to reach Frederick, where Eisenhower reported for duty, ready, he admitted later, for a summertime lark. Instead he got " a genuine adventure." The convoy joined the Lincoln Highway in Gettysburg and grunted up its twisting, steeply graded path over the Alleghenies. The greenhorn drivers took the Midwest's rough roads too fast, stripped gears, gunned engines until their radiators boiled over. Breakdowns were frequent. The trucks crushed scores of bridges—fourteen in one day, by Eisenhower's count—which trailing soldiers scrambled to rebuild. But the expedition encountered nothing truly unexpected, and though long hours and summer heat and seemingly unending repairs wore on the men, that held true until the convoy reached the desert southwest of Salt Lake City. Headed out of town, the Lincoln hugged the southern shore of the Great Salt Lake, then turned south into sparsely populated Tooele County.
Ambrose, Eisenhower: Soldier and President (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991); James David Barber, The Presidential Character (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1992); and Richard Weingroff, "The Man Who Changed America," http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/03mar/05.cfm. [>] The trucks had trundled ...: Pete Davies, American Road (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 2002); Dwight D. Eisenhower, At Ease: Stories I Tell to Friends (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988). My description of the convoy further relies on Eisenhower's after-action report, a lengthier report by army first lieutenant E. R. Jackson, and a program documenting a dinner held for the men in Sacramento, all available online from the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum at http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov. [>] The Townsend bill called for ...: Weingroff, "Clearly Vicious as a Matter of Policy"; Mertz; America's Highways; and ENR articles of February 27, May 29, and June 12, 1919. [>] Good riddance to it ...: Townsend 1920 Senate testimony (Archives); "Hearings to Begin on Townsend Highway Bill," ENR, April 22, 1920. [>] Its district engineers spent ...: E.
The Man Who Invented the Computer by Jane Smiley
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, British Empire, c2.com, computer age, Fellow of the Royal Society, Henri Poincaré, IBM and the Holocaust, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Karl Jansky, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, Pierre-Simon Laplace, RAND corporation, Turing machine, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture
At the time John Vincent Atanasoff conceived of his invention, he lived in Ames, Iowa, north of Des Moines, and taught in the physics department at Iowa State College (later to be renamed Iowa State University). He had been attempting to come up with a calculating machine since the early thirties, and he had tried all sorts of ideas. On that night in December 1937, frustrated that his work seemed stalled and baffling, he left his house on Woodland Street after supper and went back to his office in the physics building, but that was no good, either. So he jumped in his new car and headed for the Lincoln Highway—the two-lane road that was the first highway to connect the East Coast with the West Coast (Times Square in New York with Lincoln Park in San Francisco). Atanasoff drove east for some sixty or seventy miles, through the flat prairies of Story County and Marshall County, to Tama, then he turned southeast toward Marengo. He drifted past Iowa City on Highway 6. The landscape of eastern Iowa was rolling and forested—decidedly different from the flatlands around Ames.
At Goldstine’s behest, Mauchly, Brainerd, and Brainerd’s secretary put together as good a new proposal as they could come up with and took it to Aberdeen. A major Allied setback that was not understood until after the war was the fact that the Germans also managed to crack English codes, specifically the code that routed convoys, Naval Cipher No. 3. Even though they did not have the benefit of a machine like the Bombe to do so in real time, they could often figure out the “size, destinations, and departure times,” according to Andrew Roberts, but “instead of recognizing the danger, the Admiralty put the U-boats’ remarkable success in intercepting convoys down to the advanced hydrophone equipment they used … Naval Cipher Code No. 3 was not replaced with No. 5, which the Germans never cracked, until June 1943.” The spring of 1943 saw the sinking, between March 16 and March 20, of twenty-seven Allied ships on their way from New York to Liverpool; 360 seamen died in the battle.
But there were concerns other than weather—principally the question of what the Germans thought the Allies were planning. On June 5, Eisenhower was interrupted in a staff meeting by a courier bringing the first Colossus-decoded German communication from Bletchley Park. Flowers writes, “Hitler had sent Field Marshall Rommel battle orders by radio transmission, which Bletchley Park had decoded with the aid of the new Colossus. Hitler had told Rommel that the invasion of Normandy was imminent, but that this would not be the real invasion. It was a feint to draw the troops away from the channel ports, against which the real invasion would be launched later. Rommel was not to move any troops. Eisenhower read the paper silently, then announced, ‘We go tomorrow.’ And on the morrow, 6 June, they went.” With the help of Colossus, the decoders at Bletchley Park then decoded Hitler’s subsequent messages to his armed forces and preempted his attempt to foil the invasion.
The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War
When unemployment rose above 5 percent, President Dwight D. Eisenhower pushed Congress to pass the Federal Highway Acts of 1954, 1956, and 1958. In Keynesian fashion, government funds poured into building an interstate highway system with ribbons of four-lane roads tying the country together as it generated hundreds of thousands of jobs. As a young lieutenant colonel Eisenhower had participated a generation earlier in the caravan of army vehicles sent across the country to see how easily troops could be moved from the East to the West Coast. “Not very easy” was the answer. The trip took sixty-two days and sometimes required oxen to pull the trucks out of the mud. The new interstate highway system followed the same route, the old Lincoln Highway, as the army convoy of 1919.18 Organized labor became a force in the American economy after passage of the Wagner Act, formally known as the National Labor Relations Act of 1935.
The American Telephone and Telegraph Company ran its own Bell Laboratories, and pharmaceutical companies also maintained first-rate research facilities of their own.28 Three days before he left office, President Dwight Eisenhower warned about the dangers of something he dubbed a military-industrial complex. Calling attention to the permanent war footing of the country and the vastly more complicated weaponry involved, he asked Americans to be alert to “the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific, technological elite.” After noting that the United States annually spent more on military security than the net income of all U.S. corporations, Eisenhower urged “the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty might prosper together.29 Only the catchphrase “military-industrial complex” caught on; the warning went pretty much unnoticed.
As early as 1564 Spain began to convoy its gold and silver fleets from the New World to the House of Trade in Seville. The convoys, leaving the Americas in April and August, continued for a century. The English too organized convoys once the tobacco grown in its Chesapeake settlements grew valuable enough to attract raiders. Europe’s endemic warfare lent some legitimacy to attacks on the high seas because all countries issued what were called letters of marque—licenses—to the owners of vessels to arm them for the purpose of capturing enemy merchant ships. As long as two countries were at war, as was much of the time, privateers were part of the nations’ armed forces. Dutch, English, and French privateers repeatedly raided Spanish settlements, and they lay in wait for straggling ships in the Spanish silver convoys, twice capturing the entire fleet.
The Great Railroad Revolution by Christian Wolmar
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, accounting loophole / creative accounting, banking crisis, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, cross-subsidies, intermodal, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban sprawl
At the federal level, little progress was made until 1912, when at last the federal government, under pressure from campaigners within the automotive industry, began to consider building a transcontinental road. In 1919, a military convoy traveled from coast to coast using the partly completed road known as the Lincoln Highway and took sixty days to make the journey. It was led by Lieutenant Colonel Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was so appalled at the poor condition of the roads that, when he was president in the 1950s, he launched the program to build the interstate network that would have such a devastating effect on the railroads (see next chapter). The thirty-three-hundred-mile Lincoln Highway, mostly called US Route 30, was not actually completed until 1923, but support for the project showed that the federal government was at last taking an interest in the issue, despite the fact that the Constitution, as mentioned in Chapter 1, notionally prevented federal funds from being spent on national infrastructure.
The real killer was Eisenhower’s curse, the creation of the interstate network of superhighways linking every town of significance in the United States. When Eisenhower became president in 1953, he had not forgotten his awful experience on his trip across the continent as a young officer, and he supported a bill to create the interstate network of superhighways that would not only ensure it was quicker to drive than take the train on most journeys but also, in effect, be a vast hidden subsidy to the trucking industry. Created by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the forty-six-thousand-mile system, officially named after Eisenhower, was built over a period of thirty-five years and cost in excess of $425 billion.12 Federal funding was allowed because the system was seen as essential for military purposes and for use at times of national emergencies, and consequently the roads were engineered to very high standards, paid for by a national tax on fuel.
As soon as it was realized that this was to be a key battle, Haupt went to Baltimore to organize the operation of the Western Maryland Railroad, a line running northwest from Baltimore to Westminster, thirty miles away, where it eventually connected through to the Gettysburg front. The Western Maryland was an inadequate single-track line with scrap-iron rails on poor-quality ties and no adequate sidings or even a telegraph system. Haupt quickly drafted four hundred men to improve the line, and consequently it was used to send a series of huge convoys to the front and, crucially, bring back the wounded from what proved to be the bloodiest battle of the war. Rather than allowing a higgledy-piggledy timetable to be run by the military, Haupt established a service of three convoys of trains per day, each consisting of five ten-car sets carrying fifteen hundred tons of supplies, and once the battle commenced, they were used to return to Baltimore with up to four thousand wounded soldiers each. The other side of the coin was the destruction of lines that were of use to the enemy.
The Green New Deal: Why the Fossil Fuel Civilization Will Collapse by 2028, and the Bold Economic Plan to Save Life on Earth by Jeremy Rifkin
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, decarbonisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, failed state, ghettoisation, hydrogen economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, megacity, Network effects, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, planetary scale, renewable energy credits, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Levy, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, union organizing, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game
Or taking the analogy one step further, KEMA, a former leading European energy, electricity, and engineering consultancy, made the point years ago that the “smart grid is to the electric energy sector what the Internet was to the communications sector and should be viewed and supported on that basis.”12 There is another parallel between the Third Industrial Revolution’s smart digital infrastructure and the Interstate Highway System. President Dwight D. Eisenhower was keen on erecting a vast interstate highway system, in part because of his own personal experience in the military. In 1919, when he was a young colonel in the army, he participated in a motor convoy across the continental United States on the historic Lincoln Highway—at that time the first road across America. The journey was designed to focus attention on improving America’s highways and took over two months to complete. Later, in an autobiography, he quipped that “the trip had been difficult, tiring, and fun,” but the memory of all the delays across the country stayed with him during his military career. In World War II, General Eisenhower pondered his earlier experience after observing the German Autobahn—at that time the world’s only national highway system—and later remarked that “the old convoy had started me thinking about good, two-lane highways, but Germany had made me see the wisdom of broader ribbons across the land.”13 When Eisenhower became president in 1953, he already had in mind “the grand plan” for an interstate highway system connecting all of the American economy and society.
In World War II, General Eisenhower pondered his earlier experience after observing the German Autobahn—at that time the world’s only national highway system—and later remarked that “the old convoy had started me thinking about good, two-lane highways, but Germany had made me see the wisdom of broader ribbons across the land.”13 When Eisenhower became president in 1953, he already had in mind “the grand plan” for an interstate highway system connecting all of the American economy and society. Defense and security issues were a constant companion. He was particularly concerned about the possible mass-evacuation of urban populations in the event of a nuclear attack and the need to move military equipment, where needed, in the case of an invasion, and saw an interstate highway system as critical to national security and defense. This was not the only reason for engaging in an interstate mobility infrastructure project.
The wiser course of action would be for the federal government to provide tax credits, tax deductions, tax penalties, grants, and low-interest loans to encourage a Green New Deal transition and let both the marketplace and the states use the incentives to quickly speed the transition from a fossil fuel civilization to a zero-carbon emission society. However, the federal government should take a significant responsibility, along with the states, for financing some of the build-out of the national power grid, which will serve as the backbone of the Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure. There is precedent for this. The backbone of the Second Industrial Revolution infrastructure was the Eisenhower-era National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956. This public works project connected the country, created the suburbs, and established a totally integrated mobility and logistics infrastructure across America. The infrastructure cost the federal government an estimated $425 billion (in 2006 dollars) to lay out thousands of miles of roads over a period of thirty-seven years.10 The federal government covered 90 percent of the financing, paid for by a slight increase in the gasoline tax, and the states covered the remaining 10 percent of the bill.11 The smart national power grid in the twenty-first century, providing seamless digital interconnectivity to enable the sharing of electricity from renewable energy sources across every region of the country, is analogous to the build-out of the Interstate Highway System, which provided a seamless interconnectivity for mobility across the country in the twentieth century.
Turing's Cathedral by George Dyson
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Benoit Mandelbrot, British Empire, Brownian motion, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, Danny Hillis, dark matter, double helix, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, Georg Cantor, Henri Poincaré, housing crisis, IFF: identification friend or foe, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, mandelbrot fractal, Menlo Park, Murray Gell-Mann, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Paul Samuelson, phenotype, planetary scale, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Feynman, SETI@home, social graph, speech recognition, Thorstein Veblen, Turing complete, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture
After basic training in how to keep the ambulances running and the wounded alive, he departed for France in September, where he served at the front lines, attached to the Sixteenth Division of the French infantry, until 1919. The Society of Friends had grown respectable since the time of Charles II and the imprisonment of William Penn. Bound by a humanitarian mission to assist the wounded, combined with Quaker refusal to submit to military authority, the Friends’ Ambulance Unit served with heroic self-discipline during the Great War. Richardson’s convoy, known as Section Sanitaire Anglaise Treize, or S.S.A. 13, reached a full strength of twenty ambulances and forty-five men. Between February 1914 and January 1919 they transported 74,501 patients over 599,410 kilometers of evacuation runs.6 A poor driver but a gifted mechanic, Richardson endeared himself to the rest of the group.
The Jones family put up the entire $2 million to match the contribution from the General Education Board, more than enough to realize Veblen’s ambitions for mathematics at Princeton—but Fine began distributing the money to other departments first. Things changed suddenly at the end of 1928. In 1913 the former Lenni Lenape footpath through Princeton had become part of the first transcontinental motorway across the United States. The Lincoln Highway, beginning at Times Square in New York City and terminating at an overlook above Point Lobos in San Francisco, followed the route of the old King’s Highway between Princeton and Kingston, and was fully paved between New York and Philadelphia by 1922. In the late afternoon of December 21, with darkness falling, a driver heading toward Kingston failed to see a seventy-year-old bicyclist making a left turn.
John von Neumann, “Defense in Atomic War,” paper delivered at a symposium in honor of Dr. R. H. Kent, December 7, 1955, in “The Scientific Bases of Weapons,” Journal of the American Ordnance Association (1955): 23; reprinted in Collected Works, vol. 6: Theory of Games, Astrophysics, Hydrodynamics and Meteorology (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1963), p. 525. 12. Discussion at the 258th Meeting of the National Security Council, Thursday, September 8–15, 1955, Eisenhower Papers, Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas (transcript in NASA Sputnik History Collection). 13. Robert Oppenheimer to James Conant, October 21, 1949, in In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1954), p. 243; minutes, Institute for Advanced Study Electronic Computer Project Steering Committee, March 20, 1953, IAS. 14. James D. Watson and Francis H. C.
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
"Robert Solow", 1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, disruptive innovation, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low earth orbit, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
As the former World Bank chief economist Justin Lin argues, capital markets, multilateral institutions, and other structural funds should focus on strengthening regional banks so they can finance large-scale infrastructure that creates jobs and connects societies.*6 There is no better example than America’s own Interstate Highway System, ushered in by President Dwight Eisenhower in the 1950s. Having participated in an exhausting cross-country convoy from Washington to San Francisco in 1919 along the degraded, muddy, and potholed Lincoln Highway (America’s first transcontinental road) and then witnessed the advantages of Germany’s sturdy Autobahn highway network during World War II, Eisenhower lobbied the nation to enact a “grand plan” of over sixty-five thousand kilometers of highways at a cost of $25 billion. To this day, it is impossible to imagine America’s modern prosperity without it.*7 The same is true of China. Since the financial crisis, China’s economic stimulus has focused on infrastructure such as highways, housing, metros, and railways.
Once political geography is resolved, functional geography takes over. Flows become the solution to problems that frictions alone don’t solve. THE NEW GRAND TRUNK ROAD TO PAX INDICA The Grand Trunk Road is no longer the world’s most majestic road trip. The portion from Kabul to Jalalabad, while now a paved section of Afghanistan’s new highway system, has endured more than a decade of suicide bombers attacking NATO convoys. Heading east from Jalalabad through the spectacular Khyber Pass, one enters Pakistan’s restive tribal areas, where the government is struggling to build roads, power lines, and irrigation canals in a landscape beset by feudal rulers and Taliban insurgents. Another day of driving past the capital, Islamabad, and four hundred kilometers south to the cultural hub of Lahore brings you to the heavily armed Indian border at Wagah, famous for its goose-stepping daily flag-lowering ceremony.
While the former is stretching north into the Arctic and south into Latin America, the latter is expanding south into Indochina and northwest into Russia and Central Asia. These supply chain empires represent the alignment of diplomatic, military, and commercial instruments to extend the tentacles of influence. Tracing this connectivity, rather than reading doctrines, reveals the future geopolitical map. — SUPPLY CHAIN MASTERY is the original driver of geopolitical status—preceding military might. Both nineteenth-century America and twenty-first-century China were supply chain superpowers before they became military ones. They achieved continental dominance, industrialized heavily through import substitution, and became the world’s largest economies prior to asserting themselves militarily. Good grand strategy is thus multidimensional: Trade, finance, energy, military, governance, and other arenas are all fair game. This is why the domestic and international dimensions of grand strategy cannot be treated as separate priorities.
Parks Directory of the United States by Darren L. Smith, Kay Gill
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Asilomar, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donner party, El Camino Real, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hernando de Soto, indoor plumbing, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, oil shale / tar sands, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transcontinental railway, Works Progress Administration
Start/Endpoint: Byway winds from Saline and Gallatin counties on SR 146, following the Ohio River south through Hardin and Pope counties. It then runs west through Massac and Pulaski counties, ending at the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers at Cairo. Time to Allow: 4 hours (Illinois section). ★1168★ LINCOLN HIGHWAY Illinois Lincoln Highway Coalition 200 South State St Belvidere, IL 61008 Web: www.lincolnhwyil.com Phone: 866-455-4249 Length: 179 miles. Designation/Year: National Scenic Byway (2000). Description: The historic byway follows the original alignment of the Lincoln Highway, the first paved, transcontinental highway in the United States. It was the site of the first ‘‘seedling mile’’ of paved roadway, conceived and promoted by Carl Fisher to demonstrate the superiority of pavement over 250 8. NATIONAL SCENIC BYWAYS Length: 326 miles (Iowa section); 2,069 miles (entire byway).
Special Features: Park is situated ★3247★ FORT STARK HISTORIC SITE Wildrose Ln New Castle, NH 03854 Web: www.nhstateparks.org/ParksPages/FortStark/ FortStark.html Phone: 603-436-1552 Size: 10 acres. Location: Off NH Route 1B in the southeast corner of New Castle Island. Facilities: Historic site, unmarked 627 9. State Parks ★3242★ EISENHOWER MEMORIAL WAYSIDE PARK Rt 302 Carroll, NH 03598 Web: www.nhstateparks.org/ParksPages/Eisenhower/ Eisenhower.html Phone: 603-323-2087 Size: 0.7 acres. Location: On NH Route 302. Facilities: Picnic tables. Special Features: Park honors President Dwight D. Eisenhower. A short walk leads to views of the Presidential Range in the White Mountain National Forest. PARKS DIRECTORY OF THE UNITED STATES—5th EDITION walking trail. Special Features: This historic military fortification overlooking the Piscataqua River, Atlantic Ocean, and Little Harbor was used as an active fort in every war from the Revolutionary War through World War II.
The grounds include flower gardens, fields, trails, wooded areas, and a pond. ★102★ EISENHOWER NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE 250 Eisenhower Farm Ln Gettysburg, PA 17325 Web: www.nps.gov/eise/ Phone: 717-338-9114; Fax: 717-338-0821 Size: 690 acres. History: Designated on November 27, 1967; authorized by act of Congress on December 2, 1969. Location: Adjoins Gettysburg National Military Park (see separate entry for description) in southeastern Pennsylvania, 35 miles southwest of York. Facilities: Rest rooms (u), visitor center (u), museum/exhibit, self-guided tour/trail. Entrance fee required. Activities: Guided tours, interpretive programs. Special Features: This was the only home ever owned by General Dwight D. Eisenhower and his wife, Mamie. It served as a refuge when he was President and as a retirement home after he left office.
Southwest USA Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Columbine, Donner party, El Camino Real, friendly fire, G4S, haute couture, haute cuisine, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), low earth orbit, off grid, place-making, supervolcano, trade route, transcontinental railway, walkable city, Works Progress Administration, X Prize
Follow Hwy 163 north 22 miles to the park entrance. Time This trip can be done in a day, but to spend some time exploring the area, allow two to three days. Highway 50: The Loneliest Road Stretching east from Fallon, Nevada, to Great Basin National Park and the Nevada state line, remote Highway 50 follows some of Americas most iconic routes – the Pony Express, the Overland Stagecoach and the Lincoln Highway – across the heart of the state. Why Go? Why would you drive the Loneliest Road in America? As mountaineer George Mallory said about Everest: ‘Because it’s there.’ And yes, Mallory disappeared while attempting the feat, but the lesson still applies. You drive Highway 50 because something might just…happen. So take the blue pill Neo, wake up from your slumber and point your ride toward Fallon, a former pioneer town now home to the US Navy’s TOPGUN fighter-pilot school.
Trinitite, a green, glassy substance resulting from the blast, is still radioactive, still scattered around and still must not be touched. Resist the urge to add it to your road-trip rock collection. This desolate area is fittingly called Jornada del Muerto (Journey of Death) and is overshadowed by 8638ft Oscura Peak (Darkness Peak on state maps). Travel to Trinity is permitted only as part of an official convoy. Call the Alamogordo Chamber of Commerce (505-437-6120; www.alamogordo.com) in advance for information. Best Western Desert Aire Motor Inn HOTEL $$ (575-437-2110; www.bestwestern.com; 1021 SWhite Sands Blvd; r from $78; ) Recently remodeled, this chain hotel has standard-issue rooms and suites (some with kitchenettes), along with a sauna and whirlpool. In summer, the swimming pool is a cool sanctuary.
Look for the ranch 5 miles north of Cuba at the end of Los Pinos Rd. Gallup The mother town on New Mexico’s Mother Road seems stuck in time. Settled in 1881, when the railroad came to town, Gallup had her heyday during the road-tripping 1950s, and many of the dilapidated old hotels, pawn shops and billboards, mixed in with today’s galleries and Native American handicraft stores, haven’t changed much since the Eisenhower administration. Just outside the Navajo Reservation, modern-day Gallup is an interesting mix of Anglos and Native Americans; it’s not unusual to hear people speaking Navajo on their cell phones while buying groceries at the local Walmart. Gallup’s tourism is limited mostly to Route 66 road-trippers and those in search of Native American history. Even with visitors, it’s not exactly crowded, and at night it turns downright quiet.