gender pay gap

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pages: 82 words: 21,414

The Myth of Meritocracy: Why Working-Class Kids Still Get Working-Class Jobs (Provocations Series) by James Bloodworth

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Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, cognitive dissonance, Downton Abbey, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, income inequality, light touch regulation, precariat, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, zero-sum game

In this wretched incident, despite serious allegations of sexual assault being made against a senior party member of the SWP – ‘Comrade Delta’ – the female accusers were discouraged from going to the police on the basis that socialists should have ‘no faith in the bourgeois court system to deliver justice’.103 Again, rudimentary women’s rights had to wait until the victory of the glorious revolution. Nor is 21st-century Britain a meritocratic utopia for women and ethnic and sexual minorities. A gender pay gap evidently exists,104 even if there is a debate to be had over its size. Young black men are incarcerated in Britain at a much higher rate than young white men and are far more likely to be living in poverty.105 It is fashionable to emit a liberal sneer at the flagrant racism of the American justice system, but according to the Equality and Human Rights Commission, there is now greater disproportionality in the number of black people in prisons in the UK than in the US.106 Despite the state’s recognition of gay marriage, there also remain areas of Britain – and particularly within minority communities – where being openly gay is to risk physical injury or even death.

In fact, they encounter economic hurdles at least as difficult to surmount as the barriers of gender and racial equality faced by their contemporaries. A six-month unpaid internship at a prestigious newspaper – or an unpaid internship in any job, for that matter – is as off limits to a white working-class boy as it is to anyone else who lacks the sufficient funds. Professor Savage’s analysis of the British Class Survey found evidence of a social class pay gap comparable to the gender pay gap that rightly induces so much opprobrium in liberals. Those from the most elite backgrounds were often paid as much as 25 per cent more than those from more modest backgrounds for doing the same work.111 Equality of opportunity along the lines envisioned by proponents of identity politics would be an unquestionable improvement on the status quo. Equality gains of any sort are not to be sniffed at.


pages: 241 words: 78,508

Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead by Sheryl Sandberg

affirmative action, business process, Cass Sunstein, constrained optimization, experimental economics, fear of failure, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, old-boy network, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, social graph, women in the workforce, young professional

Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P60–239 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2011), 12, http://​www.​census.​gov/​prod/​2011pubs/​p60-​239.​pdf. Statistics cited are drawn from calculations of the gender pay gap based on median annual earnings. According to Dr. Pamela Coukos, a senior program advisor at the Department of Labor’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, the most commonly cited estimate of the gender pay gap is based upon the difference between men’s and women’s median annual earnings. Another widely used estimate of the gender pay gap is based upon the difference between men’s and women’s median weekly earnings. Some scholars believe weekly earnings are more accurate because they can better account for differences in the total number of hours worked, and since men often work more hours than women, this difference can account for some of the pay gap.


pages: 296 words: 86,188

Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong-And the New Research That's Rewriting the Story by Angela Saini

Albert Einstein, demographic transition, Drosophila, feminist movement, gender pay gap, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, out of africa, place-making, scientific mainstream, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, women in the workforce

Small individual choices, multiplied over millions of households, can have an enormous impact on how society looks. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research in the United States estimates that in 2015 women working full time earned only seventy-nine cents for every dollar that a man earned. In the United Kingdom, the Equal Pay Act was passed in 1970. But today, according to the Office for National Statistics, a gender pay gap of more than 18 percent still exists, although it’s falling. In the scientific and technical activities sector this gap is as big as 24 percent. Housework and motherhood aren’t the only things affecting gender balance. There’s outright sexism, too. In a study published in 2012, psychologist Corinne Moss-Racusin and a team of researchers at Yale University explored the possibility of gender bias in recruitment by sending out fake job applications for a vacancy of laboratory manager.

A New Science Says Yes” (Playboy), 124 ducks, mallard, 130 Dyble, Mark, 116–17 Eddy, Sarah, 5–6 education, sexism in, 8 Ehrenberg, Israel, 177 Eliot, Lise, 85 empathizing-systemizing theory (Baron-Cohen): critiques, 63, 67–70; supporting evidence, popularity, 52–55, 57, 63 endocrinology. See estrogen; hormone therapy for menopause; sex hormones; testosterone Engels, Friedrich, 146 the Enlightenment, view of science during, 16 Equal Pay Act, UK, and the gender pay gap, 5 The Essential Difference (Baron-Cohen), 54–55 essentialism, 93 Estioko-Griffin, Agnes, 114–15 estrogen: loss of, and menopausal symptoms, 159–60; in men, discovery of and implications, 25–26. See also hormone replacement therapy for menopause; menopause; sex hormones Eté, Democratic Republic of the Congo, alloparenting among, 102 Evans, Herbert, 26 Eve, as subservient woman, 19 evolutionary biology: data on sex differences, 94–95; and the development of language and intelligence, 112–13; explanations for female orgasm, 145; explanations for menopause and postmenopausal survival, 161–63, 165, 168–69; and the importance of primate research, 98–99, 154; sexist assumptions, 19, 14–22, 98–99, 116–17, 134, 136; and sexual selection theory, 121–25 evolutionary psychology, and gender-based concepts of monogamy and polygamy, 125–26 The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating (Buss), 126 The Evolution of Human Sexuality (Symons), 125 The Evolution of Sex (Geddes and Thomson), 17 The Evolution of Woman, an Inquiry into the Dogma of Her Inferiority to Man (Gamble), 20 extended families, and the grandmother hypothesis, 163 extended longevity hypothesis, 165, 168 Facts and Fictions of Life (Gardener), 74 fathers, fathering, 103, 106–7.

See also alloparents; partible patrimony Fausto-Sterling, Anne: on fetal sex hormones and brain development, 70; on human beings as developmental systems, 70; newborn and baby research, 55, 71–72; on Victorian concepts of femininity, 25; on Wilson’s sexist language, 160 female dominance, animals that show, 151–53 female genital mutilation (FGM), 139–41 females, women: and alloparents, 101–2; biases against in high-achieving disciplines, 2–5, 66; as biologically predetermined, 3, 120–21, 131, 133, 143; childcare role, and development of language, 112–13; and choice of mate, benefits to children, 130; and concepts of femaleness, femininity, 16, 23–28, 90; cooperation among, 156; disease incidence and virulence in, 36–37, 40–41; economic limitations and restrictions, 17–18; educational limitations and restrictions, 8; endurance and strength, 31–33, 113–14, 177; experience of, brain effects, 89; as gatherers, work involved in, 109–10; and the gender pay gap, 5; as hunters, 110, 114–15; intelligence and skill acquisition, 63–65, 72–76, 84, 90, 110; and the maternal instinct, 103–4; and mate selectivity, 133; monthly cycles, physiology of, 159; as natural leaders, 177–78; as naturally monogamous, 121–26; pro-male gender bias shown by, 5; sexual assertiveness, 128; sex-related response to medications, 44–45; unique characteristics, 61–62; unpaid labor performed by, 4–5; violence against, 178–79.


pages: 471 words: 109,267

The Verdict: Did Labour Change Britain? by Polly Toynbee, David Walker

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banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, call centre, central bank independence, congestion charging, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Etonian, failed state, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, market bubble, mass immigration, millennium bug, moral panic, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Right to Buy, shareholder value, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, working-age population, Y2K

Towards the end, equalities – the era preferred the plural – came together as the party’s deputy leader Harriet Harman brought in an omnibus Act putting inequality based on class and material deprivation on the same footing as that related to gender and race. It imposed new duties on public bodies over pregnancy and maternity, sexual orientation, gender reassignment and religion and belief. In a contested move, it required big private-sector employers (a tiny proportion of firms) to audit their gender pay gap. As if to acknowledge all that Labour had failed to do and say, the Act required all public authorities to act to reduce class inequality. Passed in Labour’s last week, the Act was a mocking afterthought, a ghost of all that might have been. The inequality that hardly dared speak its name was social class. On their deathbed Labour recognized that society was closed: 45 per cent of senior civil servants, 70 per cent of finance directors and 75 per cent of judges were privately educated – as were the victorious Tory prime minister and his Liberal Democrat deputy after the election.

., 1 Gallagher, Liam, 1 Gallagher, Noel, 1 gambling, 1 gangmasters, 1, 2 gas, 1 Gates, Bill, 1 Gateshead, 1 Gaza, 1 GCHQ, 1 GCSEs, 1, 2, 3, 4 Gehry, Frank, 1 Geldof, Bob, 1 gender reassignment, 1 General Teaching Council, 1 genetically modified crops, 1 Germany, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 economy and business, 1, 2, 3, 4 and education, 1, 2 and health, 1, 2 Ghana, 1 Ghandi’s curry house, 1 Ghent, 1 Gladstone, William Ewart, 1, 2 Glaister, Professor Stephen, 1 Glasgow, 1, 2, 3, 4 Gleneagles summit, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 globalization, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and crime, 1 and foreign policy, 1, 2, 3 and inequality, 1 and migration, 1, 2 Gloucester, 1 Goldacre, Ben, 1 Good Friday agreement, 1 Goodwin, Sir Fred, 1 Goody, Jade, 1 Gormley, Antony, 1 Gould, Philip, 1 grandparents, and childcare, 1 Gray, Simon, 1 Great Yarmouth, 1 Greater London Authority, 1, 2 Greater London Council, 1 green spaces, 1 Greenberg, Stan, 1 Greengrass, Paul, 1 Greenspan, Alan, 1, 2 Greenwich, 1 Gregg, Paul, 1 Guardian, 1, 2, 3 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Hospital, 1 homosexuality, 1, 2, 3 ‘honour’ killings, 1 Hoon, Geoff, 1 hospital-acquired infections, 1 hospitals and clinics, 1, 2, 3, 4 A&E units, 1, 2 closures, 1, 2, 3 foundation trusts, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and PFI, 1 House of Commons reforms, 1, 2 House of Lords reforms, 1, 2, 3, 4 housing market, 1, 2, 3 housing policies, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Howe, Elspeth, 1 Hoxton, 1 Huddersfield, 1 Hudson, Joseph, 1 Hull, 1, 2, 3 Human Rights Act, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Humber Bridge, 1 hunting ban, 1 Hussein, Saddam, 1, 2, 3, 4 Hutton, John, 1 Hutton, Will, 1, 2 identity cards, 1, 2 If (Kipling), 1 Imperial War Museum North, 1 income inequalities, 1, 2, 3 gender pay gap, 1, 2 and high earners, 1 and social class, 1 Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC), 1 Independent Safeguarding Authority, 1 independent-sector treatment centres (ISTCs), 1 Index of Multiple Deprivation, 1 India, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 individual learning accounts, 1 inflation, 1 and housing market, 1, 2 International Criminal 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Deal, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 New Deal for Communities, 1, 2 New Forest, 1 Newcastle upon Tyne, 1, 2 Newham, 1, 2 newspapers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Nigeria, 1 Nightingale, Florence, 1 non-doms, 1 North Korea, 1 North Middlesex Hospital, 1 North Sea oil and gas, 1 Northern Ireland, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Northern Rock, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Norway, 1 Nottingham, 1, 2 NSPCC, 1 nuclear power, 1 Number Ten Delivery Unit, 1 nurses, 1, 2, 3, 4 Nutt, Professor David, 1 NVQs, 1 O2 arena, 1 Oakthorpe primary school, 1, 2 Oates, Tim, 1 Obama, Barack, 1, 2 obesity, 1, 2 Octagon consortium, 1 Office for National Statistics, 1, 2 Office of Security and Counter Terrorism, 1 Ofsted, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Ofwat, 1 Oldham, 1, 2, 3, 4 O’Leary, Michael, 1 Oliver, Jamie, 1, 2 Olympic Games, 1, 2, 3 Open University, 1 O’Reilly, Damien, 1, 2 orthopaedics, 1 Orwell, George, 1, 2 outsourcing, 1, 2, 3, 4 overseas aid, 1, 2 Oxford University, 1 paedophiles, 1, 2, 3 Page, Ben, 1, 2 Pakistan, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Palestine, 1, 2 parenting, 1 absent parents, 1 lone parents, 1, 2 teenage parents, 1 Paris, 1, 2 Park Lane, 1 Parkinson, Professor Michael, 1 particle physics, 1 party funding, 1, 2, 3 passport fraud, 1 Passport Office, 1 Patch, Harry, 1 Payne, Sarah, 1, 2 Peach, Blair, 1 Pearce, Nick, 1 Peckham, 1, 2 Aylesbury estate, 1 Peel, Sir Robert, 1 pensioner poverty, 1, 2 pensions, 1, 2 occupational pensions, 1, 2 pension funds, 1, 2 private pensions, 1 public-sector pensions, 1 state pension, 1, 2 Persian Gulf, 1 personal, social and health education, 1 Peterborough, 1 Peugeot, 1 Philips, Helen, 1 Phillips, Lord (Nicholas), 1, 2 Phillips, Trevor, 1 Pilkington, Fiona, 1 Pimlico, 1 Pinochet, Augusto, 1 Plymouth, 1, 2 Poland, 1, 2 police, 1 and demonstrations, 1 numbers, 1, 2, 3 in schools, 1, 2, 3 pornography, 1 Portsmouth FC, 1, 2 Portugal, 1 post offices, 1 Postlethwaite, Pete, 1 poverty, 1, 2, 3 see also child poverty; pensioner poverty Premier League, 1 Prescott, John, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 press officers, 1 Preston, 1 Prevent strategy, 1 Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), 1, 2 prisons, 1, 2 Private Finance Initiative (PFI), 1, 2 probation, 1, 2 property ownership, 1 prostitution, 1, 2, 3 Public Accounts Committee, 1 public sector reform, 1, 2 public service agreements, 1 public spending, 1, 2, 3 and the arts, 1 and science, 1 Pugh, Martin, 1 Pullman, Philip, 1 QinetiQ, 1 Quality and Outcomes Framework, 1 quangos, 1, 2 Queen, The, 1 Quentin, Lieutenant Pete, 1, 2 race relations legislation, 1 racism, 1, 2 RAF, 1, 2, 3 RAF Brize Norton, 1 railways, 1 Rand, Ayn, 1 Rawmarsh School, 1 Raynsford, Nick, 1 Reckitt Benckiser, 1 recycling, 1 Redcar, 1 regional assemblies, 1, 2 regional development agencies (RDAs), 1, 2, 3 regional policy, 1 Reid, John, 1 Reid, Richard, 1 religion, 1, 2 retirement age, 1, 2 right to roam, 1 Rimington, Stella, 1 Rio Earth summit, 1 road transport, 1 Rochdale, 1, 2 Roche, Barbara, 1 Rogers, Richard, 1 Romania, 1, 2 Rome, 1 Rooney, Wayne, 1 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 1 Rosetta Stone, 1 Rosyth, 1 Rotherham, 1, 2, 3 Royal Opera House, 1 Royal Shakespeare Company, 1 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, 1 Rugby, 1 rugby union, 1 Rumsfeld, Donald, 1 rural affairs, 1, 2 Rushdie, Salman, 1 Russia, 1, 2 Rwanda, 1 Ryanair, 1, 2 Sainsbury, Lord David, 1 St Austell, 1 St Bartholomew’s Hospital, 1, 2 St Pancras International station, 1 Salford, 1, 2, 3, 4 Sanchez, Tia, 1 Sandwell, 1 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 1, 2 Savill, Superintendent Paul, 1 Saville, Lord, 1 savings ratio, 1 Scandinavia, 1, 2, 3 Scholar, Sir Michael, 1 school meals, 1, 2 school uniforms, 1 school-leaving age, 1 schools academies, 1, 2, 3, 4 building, 1 class sizes, 1 comprehensive schools, 1, 2 faith schools, 1, 2, 3, 4 grammar schools, 1, 2, 3 and inequality, 1 nursery schools, 1 and PFI, 1, 2, 3 police in, 1, 2, 3 primary schools, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 private schools, 1, 2 secondary schools, 1, 2, 3 in special measures, 1 special schools, 1 specialist schools, 1 and sport, 1 science, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Scotland, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and children, 1 devolution, 1 electricity generation, 1 and health, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Scottish parliament, 1, 2 Section 1, 2 security services, 1 MI5, 1, 2, 3 Sedley, Stephen, 1 segregation, 1 self-employment, 1 Sellafield, 1 Serious Organized Crime Agency, 1 sex crimes, 1 Sex Discrimination Act, 1 Shankly, Bill, 1 Sharkey, Feargal, 1 Shaw, Liz, 1 Sheen, Michael, 1 Sheffield, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Sheringham, 1 Shetty, Shilpa, 1 Shipman, Harold, 1 shopping, 1 Short, Clare, 1 Siemens, 1 Siena, 1 Sierra Leone, 1, 2 Skeet, Mavis, 1 skills councils, 1 slavery, 1 Slough, 1 Smith, Adam, 1 Smith, Chris, 1 Smith, Jacqui, 1, 2 Smith, John, 1, 2 Smithers, Professor Alan, 1, 2 smoking ban, 1, 2 Snowden, Philip, 1 social care, 1, 2, 3 Social Chapter opt-out, 1 social exclusion, 1, 2 Social Fund, 1 social mobility, 1, 2 social sciences, 1 social workers, 1 Soham murders, 1, 2, 3, 4 Solihull, 1, 2 Somalia, 1, 2 Souter, Brian, 1 South Africa, 1 South Downs, 1 Spain, 1, 2, 3 special advisers, 1 speed cameras, 1 Speenhamland, 1 Spelman, Caroline, 1 Spence, Laura, 1 sport, 1, 2 see also football; Olympic Games Sri Lanka, 1, 2 Stafford Hospital, 1 Staffordshire University, 1 Standard Assessment Tests (Sats), 1, 2, 3 Standards Board for England, 1 statins, 1, 2, 3 stem cell research, 1 STEM subjects, 1 Stephenson, Sir Paul, 1 Stern, Sir Nicholas, 1, 2 Stevenson, Lord (Dennis), 1 Stevenson, Wilf, 1 Steyn, Lord, 1 Stiglitz, Joseph, 1 Stockport, 1 Stonehenge, 1 Stoppard, Tom, 1 Straw, Jack, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 student fees, 1 Stuff Happens, 1 Sudan, 1, 2 Sugar, Alan, 1 suicide bombing, 1 suicides, 1 Sun, 1, 2 Sunday Times, 1, 2 Sunderland, 1, 2 supermarkets, 1, 2 Supreme Court, 1, 2 Sure Start, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 surveillance, 1, 2 Sutherland, Lord (Stewart), 1 Swansea, 1 Sweden, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Swindon, 1 Taliban, 1, 2 Tallinn, 1 Tanzania, 1 Tate Modern, 1 Taunton, 1 tax avoidance, 1, 2, 3 tax credits, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 council tax credit, 1 pension credit, 1, 2, 3 R&D credits, 1 taxation, 1, 2 10p tax rate, 1 capital gains tax, 1, 2 corporation tax, 1, 2, 3, 4 council tax, 1, 2 fuel duty, 1, 2, 3 green taxes, 1, 2 and income inequalities, 1 income tax, 1, 2, 3, 4 inheritance tax, 1, 2 poll tax, 1 stamp duty, 1, 2, 3 vehicle excise duty, 1 windfall tax, 1, 2, 3 see also National Insurance; VAT Taylor, Damilola, 1 Taylor, Robert, 1 teachers, 1, 2, 3 head teachers, 1, 2 salaries, 1, 2 teaching assistants, 1, 2 teenage pregnancy, 1, 2, 3 Teesside University, 1 television and crime, 1 and gambling, 1 talent shows, 1 television licence, 1, 2, 3 Territorial Army, 1 terrorism, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Terry, John, 1 Tesco, 1, 2, 3, 4 Tewkesbury, 1 Thames Gateway, 1 Thameswey, 1 Thatcher, Margaret, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 Thatcherism, 1, 2, 3 theatre, 1 Thornhill, Dorothy, 1 Thorp, John, 1 Tibet, 1 Tilbury, 1 Times, The, 1 Times Educational Supplement, 1, 2 Timmins, Nick, 1 Titanic, 1 Tomlinson, Mike, 1 Topman, Simon, 1, 2 torture, 1, 2 trade unions, 1, 2, 3 Trades Union Congress (TUC), 1, 2, 3 tramways, 1 transport policies, 1, 2 Trident missiles, 1, 2, 3 Triesman, Lord, 1 Turkey, 1, 2 Turnbull, Lord (Andrew), 1 Turner, Lord (Adair), 1, 2, 3 Tweedy, Colin, 1 Tyneside Metro, 1 Uganda, 1 UK Film Council, 1 UK Sport, 1 UK Statistics Authority, 1 unemployment, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 United Nations, 1, 2, 3 United States of America, 1, 2 Anglo-American relationship, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and child poverty, 1 and clean technologies, 1 economy and business, 1, 2, 3 and education, 1, 2, 3 and healthcare, 1, 2 and income inequalities, 1 and internet gambling, 1 and minimum wage, 1 universities, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and migration, 1 and terrorism, 1 tuition fees, 1 University College London Hospitals, 1 University for Industry, 1 University of East Anglia, 1 University of Lincoln, 1 Urban Splash, 1, 2 Vanity Fair, 1 VAT, 1, 2, 3 Vauxhall, 1 Venables, Jon, 1 Vestas wind turbines, 1 Victoria and Albert Museum, 1 Waitrose, 1 Waldfogel, Jane, 1 Wales, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and children, 1 devolution, 1 Walker, Sir David, 1 walking, 1, 2 Walsall, 1 Wanless, Sir Derek, 1 Wanstead, 1 Warm Front scheme, 1 Warner, Lord Norman, 1 Warsaw, 1 Warwick accord, 1 water utilities, 1 Watford, 1 welfare benefits child benefit, 1, 2 Employment Support Allowance, 1 and fraud, 1, 2, 3, 4 housing benefit, 1 incapacity benefit, 1, 2 Income Support, 1 Jobseeker’s Allowance, 1, 2, 3 and work, 1, 2 Welsh assembly, 1, 2 Wembley Stadium, 1 Westfield shopping mall, 1 Wetherspoons, 1 White, Marco Pierre, 1 Whittington Hospital, 1 Wiles, Paul, 1 Wilkinson, Richard, and Kate Pickett, 1 Williams, Professor Karel, 1 Williams, Raymond, 1 Williams, Rowan, 1 Wilson, Harold, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Wilson, Sir Richard, 1 wind turbines, 1, 2 Winslet, Kate, 1 winter fuel payments, 1 Wire, The, 1 Woking, 1, 2 Wolverhampton, 1 Woolf, Lord, 1 Wootton Bassett, 1, 2 working-class culture, 1 working hours, 1, 2 World Bank, 1 Wrexham, 1 Wright Robinson School, 1, 2, 3 xenophobia, 1 Y2K millennium bug, 1 Yarlswood detention centre, 1 Yeovil, 1 Yiewsley, 1 York, 1, 2, 3, 4 Young Person’s Guarantee, 1 Youth Justice Board, 1 Zimbabwe, 1, 2 About the Author Polly Toynbee is the Guardian’s social and political commentator.


pages: 221 words: 55,901

The Globalization of Inequality by François Bourguignon

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Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, minimum wage unemployment, offshore financial centre, open economy, Pareto efficiency, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Robert Gordon, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, very high income, Washington Consensus

As with the gap between men and women, the rate of the reduction of racial inequality in wages has slowed since the mid-­1980s, as differences in educational levels between blacks and whites have progressively declined. More generally, see the survey by Dominique Meurs and Sophie Ponthieux, “Gender Inequality” in Atkinson and Bourguignon (eds.), Handbook of Income Distribution, vol. 2, chapter 12. For the United States, see Francine Blau and Lawrence Kahn, “The U.S. Gender Pay Gap in the 1990s: Slowing Convergence,” Industrial & Labor Relations Review 60, no. 1 (2006): 45–66. 13  66 Chapter 2 Discrimination against migrants can be observed in most countries, even after controlling for differences in age, education, and occupation with respect to the native population or the dominant race or ethnicity. However, it is difficult to track discrimination against migrants over the long term.


pages: 306 words: 78,893

After the New Economy: The Binge . . . And the Hangover That Won't Go Away by Doug Henwood

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, feminist movement, full employment, gender pay gap, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet Archive, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, occupational segregation, pets.com, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K, zero-sum game

"'Lousy' Sales Forecasts Helped Fuel the Telecom Mess," Wall Street Journal,]vly 9, p. Bl. Bjorhus,Jermifer (2000). "Productivity Is at Center of New Economy Debate," San Jose Mercury Neu/5,July3,2000. Blanchflower, David G., and Andrew J. Oswald, "Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 7487, January <www.nber.org/papers/w7487>. Blau, Francine D. (1996)."Where Are We In the Economics of Gender? The Gender Pay Gap," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 5664, July <www.nber.org/ papers/w5664>. Blau, Francine D, and Lawrence M. Kahn (1992). "Race and Gender Pay Differentials," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 4120, July <www.nber.org/ papers/w4120>. (2000). "Gender Differences in Pay," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 7732,June <www.nber.org/papers/w7732>.

The Economic Singularity: Artificial intelligence and the death of capitalism by Calum Chace

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

The two systems can be set up to produce the same financial results, but they appeal to different economic and political instincts. UBI involves payments to people who really don't need them, while NIT could stigmatise recipients. The benefits claimed for UBI address issues which concern both the political left and right. Left-wing proponents see it as a mechanism to eradicate poverty and redress what they view as growing inequality within societies. They sometimes argue that it tackles the alleged gender pay gap, and redistributes income away from capital and towards labour. It has also been held out as a partial solution to the alleged generational theft whereby relatively wealthy pensioners are receiving income generated by taxes on young workers who have no assets, and who may not themselves receive similar benefits in later life because the welfare system looks increasingly unaffordable.[ccxcvii] Right-wing advocates see UBI as a way to remove swathes of government bureaucracy: abolishing means testing removes the need for the battalions of civil servants who devise and implement it.


pages: 279 words: 76,796

The Unbanking of America: How the New Middle Class Survives by Lisa Servon

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, basic income, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, employer provided health coverage, financial exclusion, financial independence, financial innovation, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, gig economy, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, late fees, Lyft, M-Pesa, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, Occupy movement, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, precariat, Ralph Nader, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, too big to fail, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor, Zipcar

Kendra has all but given up on the notion that she can plan for her future. Other members of her generation are beset by worry: 39 percent of millennials say they worry once a week or more about their financial future, and women worry more than men. Only 2 percent of millennial women claim that they never worry about money, whereas 20 percent of men say they’re worry-free. This is at least partially financial; while millennial women are making gains in closing the gender pay gap, they still earn about eighty-five cents to the millennial man’s dollar. Most millennials have savings accounts but there’s not much in them. They want to save but there’s nothing left over after paying the bills. More than three-quarters of adults under the age of thirty worry that they aren’t saving or investing enough. Very often, college debt makes saving a distant goal. We’ve always been told that investment in assets like education is okay, assigning student loans to the category of “good debt.”


pages: 241 words: 90,538

Unequal Britain: Equalities in Britain Since 1945 by Pat Thane

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, equal pay for equal work, full employment, gender pay gap, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, old-boy network, pensions crisis, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, unpaid internship, women in the workforce

The comparable figures for other occupations are: local authority chief executives, 13.1/19.5; senior ranks in the armed services, 0.6/0/9; senior police officers, 7.5/11/9; senior judges, 6.8/9.6; civil service top management, 22.9/26.6; head teachers in secondary schools, 30.1 in 2003 and 34.1 in 2006 (2007/8 figures are not available for this group).52 There has been progress, but it is very slow. There is also a continuing gender pay gap at all levels of employment, currently 17 per cent, on average, in the United Kingdom. This is comparable with Denmark (also 17 per cent), Norway (16 per cent) and Sweden (16 per cent), and better than the United States (22.4 per cent), but worse than Australia (14.1 per cent).53 The gaps at specific levels of employment in 2003 are shown in the table below: Table 5.1 Average hourly earnings of full-time employees: 2003 Occupation Managers and senior officials Professionals Administrative and secretarial Skilled trades Personal service Sales and customer service Women (£) Men (£) 15.60 17.47 8.91 7.71 7.19 6.99 21.00 19.12 9.99 9.80 7.90 8.03 Source: Interim Update of Key Indicators of Women’s Position in Britain, Women and Equality Unit (London, Department of Trade and Industry, 2004).


pages: 297 words: 89,206

Social Class in the 21st Century by Mike Savage

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call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clapham omnibus, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, deskilling, Downton Abbey, financial independence, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, moral panic, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, old-boy network, precariat, psychological pricing, Sloane Ranger, The Spirit Level, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, very high income, winner-take-all economy, young professional

Meritocratic recruitment does not eradicate the advantages which are enjoyed by those who come into these occupations from privileged backgrounds. Those occupations directly associated with finance see especially marked differences. Financial intermediaries from higher managerial and traditional professional backgrounds earn on average £24,000, nearly 40 per cent, more than those from routine and semi-routine backgrounds. Let us reflect further on this. We are quite rightly troubled by the existence of a gender pay gap within many occupations, which can be as much as 50 per cent in some managerial occupations. But it also appears that there is a ‘social class background pay gap’. Those who are best paid in many elite occupations are those who come from the most advantaged backgrounds. This ‘class salary gap’ regularly reaches 25 per cent in many of the more affluent occupations, but this has never previously come to light and should also be a cause for concern.


pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

More contemporary forms of this imperative have taken on a liberal-humanist character, portraying work as the central means of self-expression.129 Work has come to be driven into our identity, portrayed as the only means for true self-fulfilment.130 In a job interview, for instance, everyone knows the worst answer to ‘Why do you want this job?’ is to say ‘Money’, even as it remains the repressed truth. Contemporary service work heightens this phenomenon. In the absence of clear metrics for productivity, workers instead put on performances of productivity – pretending to enjoy their job or smiling while being yelled at by a customer. Working long hours has become a sign of devotion to the job, even as it perpetuates the gender pay gap.131 With work tied so tightly into our identities, overcoming the work ethic will require us overcoming ourselves. The central ideological support for the work ethic is that remuneration be tied to suffering. Everywhere one looks, there is a drive to make people suffer before they can receive a reward. The epithets thrown at homeless beggars, the demonization of those on the dole, the labyrinthine system of bureaucracy set up to receive benefits, the unpaid ‘job experience’ imposed upon the unemployed, the sadistic penalisation of those who are seen as getting something for free – all reveal the truth that for our societies, remuneration requires work and suffering.


pages: 344 words: 94,332

The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott

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3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, Lyft, Network effects, New Economic Geography, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, women in the workforce, young professional

We can also imagine that, as the acceptance and technological sophistication of virtual work increases, she will be able to join a virtual law firm and work from home.23 The trade-offs she faces are clear: as flexibility and autonomy increases, so remuneration decreases (and possibly the work has less variety and excitement). Or Jane could choose another career all together, one that has greater time flexibility, fewer clients and contact hours, more independence in determining tasks, and more projects with discretion over them. These are jobs that have what Goldin calls elasticity and her analysis shows that they are more likely to be found in technology and science, where the gender pay gap is small and does not widen over time. It is interesting, of course, that these are not the occupations to which women are currently flocking. One example would be the profession of pharmacy. Goldin’s analysis shows this is an occupation where there is currently a high degree of substitution, so that if one pharmacist is away, then another can take their place with ease. Of course, this is a profession that is paid significantly less than lawyers, consultants or investment bankers.


pages: 440 words: 108,137

The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, old-boy network, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional

Burton, and Douglas E. Hyatt, chap. 2. Madison: University of Wisconsin, Industrial Relations Research Association. Blau, Francine D. 2012. “The Sources of the Pay Gap.” In The New Gilded Age: The Critical Inequality Debates of Our Time, ed. David B. Grusky and Tamar Kricheli-Katz, 189–208. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Blau, Francine D., and Lawrence M. Kahn. 2006. “The Gender Pay Gap: Going, Going . . . but Not Gone.” In The Declining Significance of Gender?, ed. Francine D. Blau, Mary C. Brinton, and David B. Grusky, 37–66. New York: Sage. Bocian, Debbie Gruenstein, Wei Li, and Keith S. Ernst. 2010. Foreclosures by Race and Ethnicity: The Demographics of a Crisis. Durham, NC: Center for Responsible Lending. Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2003. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States.


pages: 436 words: 125,809

The Way of the Gun: A Bloody Journey Into the World of Firearms by Iain Overton

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air freight, airport security, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, clean water, Columbine, David Attenborough, Etonian, Ferguson, Missouri, gender pay gap, gun show loophole, illegal immigration, interchangeable parts, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, More Guns, Less Crime, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Data from the National Department of Arms and Explosives on applications for firearms licences, 2008–09; http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/A-Yearbook/2013/en/Small-Arms-Survey-2013-Chapter-2-EN.pdf 8. http://www.theguardian.com/money/2013/dec/18/what-are-the-best-paid-jobs-uk-2013 9. Lawrence Mishel, Josh Bivens, Elise Gould, Heidi Shierholz, The State of Working America, 12th edition (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2012). 10. http://www.aauw.org/research/the-simple-truth-about-the-gender-pay-gap/ 11. http://youliveyourlife.com 12. http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/154225 13. http://store.waltherarms.com/very-tough-ppx-shirt.html 14. http://www.salon.com/2012/12/17/bushmasters_horrible_ad_campaign/ 15. Small Arms Survey, Unfinished Business (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 317; http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/A-Yearbook/2006/en/Small-Arms-Survey-2006-Chapter-12-EN.pdf 16. http://kdvr.com/2012/12/28/colorado-columnist-assault-rifle-owners-have-tiny-penises/ 17. http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2013-03-08/how-brazil-exploited-sexual-insecurity-to-curb-guns-an-interview-with-antonio-bandeira 18.