A. Roger Ekirch

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pages: 238 words: 75,994

A Burglar's Guide to the City by Geoff Manaugh

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A. Roger Ekirch, big-box store, card file, dark matter, game design, index card, megacity, megastructure, Minecraft, off grid, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, smart cities, statistical model, the built environment, urban planning

This was not motivated by aesthetics, however, but was explicitly a police project, a deliberate—and quite successful—effort to redesign the city so that the streets would be too wide to barricade, the back alleys no longer winding or confusing enough for insurgents and revolutionaries to disappear or get away. The urban landscape of Paris became a police tool, its urban core reorganized so aggressively that popular uprisings would henceforth be spatially impossible. This is not the only police project for which Paris is widely known. As historian A. Roger Ekirch explains in his 2005 book, At Day’s Close, the idea of lighting the streets of Paris back in the 1600s originally came from the police. Streetlights were one of many new patrol tools implemented by Louis XIV’s lieutenant general of police, Gabriel Nicolas de la Reynie. De la Reynie’s plan ordered that lanterns be hung over the streets every sixty feet—with the unintended side effect that Paris soon gained its popular moniker, the City of Light.

In his book The Insurgent Barricade (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), historian Mark Traugott disputes the notion that Haussmann’s renovations were explicitly directed at preventing street barricades, claiming that their counterrevolutionary effects simply came from pushing the working class out of central Paris. For more on the history of urban lighting programs, see A. Roger Ekirch, At Day’s Close: Night in Times Past (New York: W. W. Norton, 2005). For more on predictive policing, see, among other articles, “Predicting Crime, L.A.P.D.-Style” (Nate Berg, Guardian, June 2014). The “Lamm technique” seems to be a favorite topic of crime writers; references to it are legion.

pages: 709 words: 191,147

White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg

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A. Roger Ekirch, back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Hutchinson, The Population Debate: The Development of Conflicting Theories up to 1900 (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967), 37, 44, 52, 123–24; Timothy Raylor, “Samuel Hartlib and the Commonwealth of Bees,” in Culture and Cultivation in Early Modern England, eds. Michael Leslie and Timothy Raylor (New York: St. Martin’s, 1992), 106. 19. Abbot Emerson Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labor in America, 1607–1776 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1947): 5, 7, 12, 20, 67–85, 136–51; A. Roger Ekirch, “Bound for America: A Profile of British Convicts Transported to the Colonies, 1718–1775,” William and Mary Quarterly 42, no. 2 (April 1985): 184–222; Abbott Emerson Smith, “Indentured Servants: New Light on Some of America’s ‘First’ Families,” Journal of Economic History 2, no. 1 (May 1942): 40–53; A.

Noeleen McIlvenna, A Very Mutinous People: The Struggle for North Carolina, 1660–1713 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009), 1, 13, 162; Kirsten Fischer, Suspect Relations: Sex, Race, and Resistance in Colonial North Carolina (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002), 24; A. Roger Ekirch, “Poor Carolina”: Politics and Society in Colonial North Carolina, 1729–1776 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981), xviii–xix, 24. For “useless lubbers,” see Hugh Talmage Lefler, ed., A New Voyage to Carolina by John Lawson (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1967), 40. 15.

pages: 423 words: 126,096

Our Own Devices: How Technology Remakes Humanity by Edward Tenner

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A. Roger Ekirch, Bonfire of the Vanities, card file, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, John Markoff, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Network effects, optical character recognition, QWERTY keyboard, Shoshana Zuboff, Stewart Brand, women in the workforce

Chair,” Grand Rapids Press, June 13, 1999. 54. Sue Emily Martin, Flexible Bodies: Tracking Immunity in American Culture from the Days of Polio to the Age of AIDS (Boston: Beacon Press, 1994). 55. Dan Logan, “Home Office Thrones,” Los Angeles Times, January 9, 1999. 56. “Science of Easy Chairs,” 638. CHAPTER SIX 1. A. Roger Ekirch, “Sleep We Have Lost: Preindustrial Slumber in the British Isles,” American Historical Review, vol. 105, no. 2 (April 2000), 343–87; Peter N. Stearns et al., “Children’s Sleep: Sketching Historical Change,” Journal of Social History, vol. 30, no. 2 (Winter 1996), 345–66; Jerome A. Hirschfeld, “The ‘Back-to-Sleep’ Campaign Against SIDS,” American Family Physician, vol. 51, no. 3 (February 15, 1995), 622ff.; Bruce Bower, “Slumber’s Unexplored Landscape,” Science News, vol. 156, no. 13 (September 25, 1999), 205. 2.

pages: 505 words: 137,572

Dr. Johnson's London: Coffee-Houses and Climbing Boys, Medicine, Toothpaste and Gin, Poverty and Press-Gangs, Freakshows and Female Education by Liza Picard

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A. Roger Ekirch, clean water, double entry bookkeeping, joint-stock company, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, South Sea Bubble

The Gentleman’s Magazine, September 1764. 54. The Gentleman’s Magazine, January 1765. 55. London Evening Post, 23 October 1764. 56. The Gentleman’s Magazine, July 1763. 57. The Gentleman’s Magazine, July 1771. 58. William Alexander, The History of Women, London, 1779. 59. Radzinowicz, op. cit. 60. A. Roger Ekirch, Bound for America: The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies 1718–1775, Oxford, 1987, on which the following section is based. 61. This word is not in Johnson’s Dictionary. It means ‘a line of animals, slaves, etc. fastened together’ (Concise Oxford Dictionary). It is startling to find it used of English men in London. 62.

pages: 267 words: 78,857

Discardia: More Life, Less Stuff by Dinah Sanders

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A. Roger Ekirch, Atul Gawande, big-box store, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwatching, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, credit crunch, endowment effect, Firefox, game design, Inbox Zero, income per capita, index card, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Kevin Kelly, late fees, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Merlin Mann, side project, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand

Compare how you feel, physically and mentally, at the beginning and end of the month. You may never go back to cutting short your zzzs again! While you’re at it, though, don’t stress too much about nighttime wakefulness. It’s totally normal for humans, according to Virginia Tech University sleep historian Roger Ekirch (as cited by Natalie Wolchover in LifeScience). Regard it as “segmented sleep” instead of “insomnia.” Relax, and use those moments for quiet activities: think deep thoughts, fantasize, meditate, and enjoy doing nothing for a bit until your body is ready for sleep again. You have permission not to run yourself into the ground Go slow.