Ayatollah Khomeini

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pages: 780 words: 168,782

Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Pearl River Delta, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War

After the riots in Qom, leading clerics worried that the shah was preparing to have Khomeini executed, and one of their most prestigious members, Grand Ayatollah Mohamed Kazem Shariatmadari, moved to have the title of “Grand Ayatollah” given to Khomeini as a preemptive measure. (Their reasoning was that the shah would never dare to end the life of one of the country’s highest-ranking clerics.) The shah backed down and released Khomeini. In 1964, Khomeini delivered another scorching reproach of the shah over a planned agreement for the stationing of US forces in Iran, which many Iranians regarded as a violation of their country’s sovereignty. Khomeini was arrested again. By now his religious colleagues had tired of their tug-of-war with the shah, and there was little protest when the government sent Khomeini into exile. Most of the religious scholars saw their primary role as helping the faithful to navigate the tremendous moral and social confusion generated by the shah’s program.

Some of them, like Modarres, supported Mossadeq’s plans to nationalize the oil industry and effectively curtail the shah’s powers. Others, like Ayatollah Abol-Ghasem Mostafavi Kashani, ended up siding with the coup plotters who put an end to Mossadeq’s ascendancy and revitalized the rule of the shah. This divided religious establishment—some of them wooed by the shah with money and favors—was in no position to act as an alternate power center. In 1961, Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi died. This gave his pupil Khomeini the freedom to act as he saw fit. He now had no reason to hold back from public attacks against the shah. The shah had not helped matters by acclaiming an ayatollah in Iraq as the preeminent spiritual leader of Iran’s Shiites—a transparent attempt to undermine the authority of politically minded clerics back in Iran like Khomeini and his older (and somewhat more cautious) colleague Ayatollah Mohamed Kazem Shariatmadari.

But to those who were now determined to bring Iran under tight clerical control, the case of Grand Ayatollah Mohamed Kazem Shariatmadari, the country’s top-ranking religious leader, posed a much more serious challenge. Back in 1963, when Khomeini was under intense pressure from the shah, it was Shariatmadari, Khomeini’s senior both literally and clerically, who had seen to it that the younger man received the title of “ayatollah”—a status that made it virtually impossible for the shah to execute him. Some Iranians contend that Shariatmadari deserved the credit for saving Khomeini’s life. By 1979, in any event, Shariatmadari was the highest-ranking cleric in Iran, and second in popularity only to Khomeini. When the revolution broke out, Shariatmadari sided with the religious opposition and supported it.

pages: 1,800 words: 596,972

The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East by Robert Fisk

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Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Farzad Bazoft, friendly fire, Howard Zinn, IFF: identification friend or foe, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, music of the spheres, Ronald Reagan, the market place, Thomas L Friedman, Transnistria, unemployed young men, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

And in so far as it was possible, Tudeh, Iran’s oldest political party, wanted the same things as Ayatollah Khomeini. This was the theory and Kianouri held to it bravely. The truth was that Tudeh’s views on the new Iran were almost exactly the same as those of the Soviet Union—which, for the moment, was in favour of the Ayatollah. “We have criticised the establishment,” Kianouri said. “We have made criticism over the position of liberty in the state and about the rights of women. We have criticised Islamic fanaticism—we are against the non-progressive ideas of those conservative elements. But for us, the positive side of Ayatollah Khomeini is so important that the so-called negative side means nothing. We think he is an obstacle to fanaticism: he is more progressive than other elements.” I interrupted Kianouri. Three months ago, I said, Khomeini condemned Hafizullah Amin’s Soviet-backed government in Afghanistan for struggling against Muslim rebels.

Were the Iranian mullahs in charge of the Iranian army, journalists asked, and the major translated this question as: “Aren’t religious people influencing your officers?” It was true, the prisoner said sullenly. “The spirit of our soldiers is not what it used to be.” And what, the world’s press wanted to know, did the two prisoners think of Ayatollah Khomeini? The major mistranslated the question thus: “Now that things have gone so badly for you, what do you think of Khomeini?” The first prisoner replied that “opinion” of the Ayatollah would not be the same after the war. But the wounded man glanced quickly at us and said that “if Ayatollah Khomeini brought on a war between two Muslim countries, this was wrong.” The conditional clause in this reply was lost on the Iraqi major who then happily ordered the removal of the prisoners. The Iraqi army, it seemed, would go to any lengths to display proof of victory and it spent a further hour showing off Iranian hardware captured in Khorramshahr.

Saddam tolerated the Shah once he withdrew his support for the Kurdish insurgency in the north—the Kurds, like the Shia, were regularly betrayed by both the West and Iraq’s neighbours—and agreed that the Iraqi–Iranian frontier should run down the centre of the Shatt al-Arab River. He had been prepared to allow Ayatollah Khomeini to remain in residence in Najaf where he had moved after his expulsion from Iran. The prelate was forbidden from undertaking any political activity, a prohibition that Khomeini predictably ignored. He gave his followers cassettes on which he expressed his revulsion for the Shah, his determination to lead an Islamic revolution and his support for the Palestinian cause. One of his closest supporters in Najaf was Hojatolislam Ali Akbar Mohtashemi—later to be the Iranian ambassador to Syria who sent Iranian Revolutionary Guards to Lebanon in 1982—who was imprisoned three times by the Iraqi authorities.44 Khomeini’s theological ambassador was Ayatollah Sayed Mohamed Bakr Sadr, one of the most influential and intellectual of the Shia clergy in Najaf, who had written a number of highly respected works on Islamic economy and education.

pages: 273 words: 86,821

Argo: How the CIA and Hollywood Pulled Off the Most Audacious Rescue in History by Antonio J. Mendez, Matt Baglio

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Ronald Reagan

She sat down next to me on the sofa and listened while I rattled on about the job, the office, the Pentagon, everything. It was beginning to look more and more like the crisis was going to drag out indefinitely. On November 5, the Ayatollah Khomeini’s son Ahmad had praised the takeover as being in the name of the people. After that, the entire religious leadership of Iran had thrown its support behind the militants. Mehdi Bazargan, Iran’s prime minister, was forced to resign in protest, and this meant that there was only one person left for President Carter and his administration to deal with: the Ayatollah Khomeini. I paused long enough to take a sip of beer and felt her looking closely at me. Glancing up, I saw that she had been waiting for me to stop talking so that she could tell me something. “What?” I said. I thought on some subconscious level that she was having a problem with one of the kids.

At the time, Iran was a chaotic mess. The Ayatollah Khomeini had returned triumphantly from exile in Paris and the shah’s government had quickly collapsed. The army soon followed suit and in the vacuum the diverse factions who had banded together to oust the shah (leftists, nationalists, Soviet-sponsored communists, hard-line Islamicists) had splintered and were now fighting it out among each other. Armed men roamed the streets and revenge killings were rampant. Small gangs called komiteh (committees) sprang up across the country, carving out territories of control. Beholden to no one except whatever mullah they claimed allegiance to, these gangs amounted to little more than thugs, and began enforcing their own brand of revolutionary justice at the barrel of a gun. Amid this confusion, Khomeini and his inner circle had installed a provisional government to manage the country while the Assembly of Experts worked diligently behind the scenes to draft a new constitution.

Today, the United States and Iran are as far apart as they have ever been, while the population of Iran suffers under a corrupt and ineffective regime. We now know that when the militant students overran the American embassy, they did not expect to stay for any length of time. But as the crisis stretched on, and as Ayatollah Khomeini seemingly endorsed their actions, they discovered that they had invented a new tool of statecraft: hostage taking. In no other civilized country in the world would such an undertaking be tolerated by the host government. And therein lay the power of the technique. Once Khomeini approved of their plan, the students had no need to negotiate. Iran has followed its own example in the interim, taking hostages almost whimsically whenever it felt a need for international attention or had a cause that needed leveraging. In 2007, fifteen British Royal Navy sailors were taken hostage and held for two weeks.

pages: 302 words: 91,517

Baghdad Without a Map and Other Misadventures in Arabia by Tony Horwitz

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Donald Trump, Farzad Bazoft, Khartoum Gordon, Mercator projection, trade route

Returning from the airplane toilet a few hours later, I couldn't find my seat. Which form in this sea of black hoods was my wife? We touched down in Tehran at two in the morning, forty-eight hours after the announcement on Iranian radio that “Imam Khomeini has passed away. From God we come, to God we go.” Or, as an editor in the United States put it in a wake-up call to Cairo shortly after, “Khomeini's finally kicked it. Get up and write something.” The news was oddly surprising, despite the fact that the ayatollah was eighty-six and had reportedly been dying for years. Khomeini's failing health was one of those Middle East stories, like civil war in Beirut and the Arab-Israeli “peace process,” that had dragged on for so long with so little sign of actual movement that an end seemed unimaginable. The bionic madman would simply live forever.

The bionic madman would simply live forever. “I cannot believe he's really dead,” said the Iranian standing beside me in line at Tehran's Mehrabad Airport. He was a businessman returning from Germany and had told me on the plane that he hated Khomeini. “But I fear for the future. It is like your saying: 'The devil you know is better than a Satan you have not met.' ” The known devil scowled from a huge portrait on the wall, wreathed now in black crepe. Staring sleepily at the black-turbaned ayatollah, his eyebrows arched in menacing fury, I wondered aloud if Khomeini had ever smiled. Certainly not in any picture I'd seen. “He is not smiling now,” said the businessman, shuffling slowly toward immigration. “Not in hell.” The officials at the airport, most of them women, weren't smiling either. Their tightly drawn head scarves made them look both plain and severe, like unfriendly nuns.

I like Americans very much. I went to UCLA for four years.” He gestured out at the prayer ground. “Now tell America what you see with your own eyes. Tell America how much we love Imam Khomeini.” The view from the wall caused an odd sort of vertigo. Stretched below us, for a mile in every direction, was a seamless carpet of black tossed over the pink-brown hills. The carpet shifted, rearranging itself, as yet more mourners poured into the prayer ground. A high stand decorated the center of the rug, supporting Khomeini's coffin. The imam's trademark black turban, which denotes descent from the Prophet, rested on his chest. Several other ayatollahs stood beside the dais, and one of them moved to a microphone and shouted, “Allabu Akbar!” Mourners paused where they stood and bowed their heads in prayer. Five syllables had sufficed.

Rethinking Islamism: The Ideology of the New Terror by Meghnad Desai

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Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, illegal immigration, income per capita, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, means of production, oil shock, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yom Kippur War

฀But฀his฀White฀Revolution฀came฀a฀cropper,฀ ฀ ฀ ฀ / and฀he฀was฀thrown฀out฀by฀one฀of฀the฀most฀significant฀Islamic฀personalities฀ of฀ the฀ twentieth฀ century:฀ Ayatollah฀ Ruholla฀ Khomeini.฀ Khomeini฀had฀been฀conducting฀a฀campaign฀against฀the฀Shah฀since฀ the฀ early฀ s฀ from฀ Najaf฀ in฀ Iraq,฀ and฀ later฀ from฀ Paris.฀ He฀ was฀ able฀to฀mobilise฀the฀lower-middle-class฀urban฀population฀who฀resented฀the฀westernised฀secular฀and฀rich฀elite฀surrounding฀the฀Shah.฀ Khomeini’s฀Revolution฀was฀Islamic,฀albeit฀a฀Shi’a฀one.฀It฀was฀total.฀ Just฀ as฀ the฀ October฀ Revolution฀ led฀ to฀ Russia’s฀ withdrawal฀ for฀ a฀ while฀from฀international฀circles,฀Khomeini฀was฀determined฀to฀take฀ Iran฀completely฀out฀of฀any฀Western฀camp฀and฀rebuild฀it฀along฀pure฀ Islamic฀lines.฀Iran฀remains฀today฀a฀theocracy฀which฀overrides฀the฀ civilian฀democratic฀apparatus.

.฀(:฀) The฀ example฀ of฀ the฀ Iranian฀ Revolution฀ and฀ of฀ AyatollahKhomeini฀ has฀ obviously฀ impressed฀ Bin฀ Laden.฀ He฀ does฀ not฀ of฀ course฀ explicitly฀refer฀to฀the฀Ayatollah฀as฀he฀belongs฀to฀the฀dissident฀Shi’a฀ sect.฀But฀the฀similarity฀in฀the฀power฀of฀the฀Shah,฀his฀high฀standing฀ as฀an฀ally฀of฀the฀West,฀his฀powerful฀secret฀service฀Savak฀as฀well฀as฀ the฀suddenness฀of฀his฀collapse฀will฀all฀be฀known฀and฀remembered฀  ฀  by฀ Muslims.฀ The฀ Shah฀ had฀ just฀ invented฀ for฀ himself฀ a฀ ฀ year฀ history฀of฀his฀dynasty฀(which฀in฀reality฀had฀a฀history฀of฀less฀than฀ fifty฀years)฀and฀crowned฀himself฀in฀a฀glamorous฀ceremony฀to฀which฀ many฀Western฀leaders฀and฀media฀were฀lured.฀He฀had฀also฀bought฀ modern฀arms฀from฀the฀West.฀But฀Khomeini฀had฀been฀a฀thorn฀in฀his฀ side฀and฀fought฀him฀over฀twenty฀years,฀first฀from฀Najaf฀and฀then฀ from฀Paris.

.฀ In฀ other฀ countries,฀ the฀ face฀ was฀ of฀ Mao฀ or฀ Pol฀ Pot฀ or฀ Kim฀ Il-Sung.฀ But฀ it฀ was฀ always฀ the฀ face฀ of฀ the฀ Supreme฀ Leader.฀ The฀new฀terror฀also฀has฀a฀face฀–฀Osama฀Bin฀Laden.฀He฀too฀has฀zealous฀ champions฀ and฀ his฀ face฀ appears฀ on฀ T-shirts.฀ He฀ has฀ spawned฀ other฀faces,฀much฀as฀Stalin฀did:฀Ayman฀al-Zawahiri,฀Hambali฀and฀ Abu฀ Musab฀ al-Zarkawi.฀ The฀ face฀ of฀ the฀ Iranian฀ Revolution฀ was฀ Ayatollah฀Ruholla฀Khomeini. Terrorism฀ as฀ a฀ systematic฀ violent฀ assault฀ on฀ innocent฀ civilian฀ populations฀(i.e.฀those฀uninvolved฀with฀or฀unable฀to฀affect฀the฀issue฀ at฀dispute฀between฀the฀terrorists฀and฀their฀avowed฀enemy)฀is฀sadly฀ neither฀unknown฀nor฀infrequent฀in฀modern฀times.฀State฀terrorism฀ is฀older฀and฀more฀systematic฀and฀less฀criticised.฀It฀is฀terrorism฀by฀ groups฀ which฀ are฀ not฀ in฀ power฀ –฀ by฀ non-governmental฀ organisations,฀ so฀ to฀ speak฀ –฀ which฀ is฀ the฀ subject฀ of฀ most฀ debate฀ today.฀ But฀ even฀ to฀ understand฀ this฀ latest฀ brand฀ of฀ violence,฀ a฀ historical฀ perspective฀is฀useful.

The America That Reagan Built by J. David Woodard

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, colonial rule, Columbine, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, friendly fire, glass ceiling, global village, Gordon Gekko, gun show loophole, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Live Aid, Marc Andreessen, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Neil Kinnock, new economy, postindustrial economy, Ralph Nader, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Ted Kaczynski, The Predators' Ball, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional

Daniel Patrick Moynihan, a highly respected Democratic senator, criticized the policy by declaring, ‘‘You don’t negotiate with illegality.’’39 Khomeini ordered the students to release women and black hostages from the embassy, and then 10 THE AMERICA THAT REAGAN BUILT granted interviews to ABC and NBC News. The criminal act of seizing the American hostages at the embassy was multiplied by endless media speculation and the inability of the world’s most powerful military to respond. The Ayatollah Khomeini would not play by the rules. He said the militants occupying the U.S. embassy were expressing the will of the Iranian people. It was as if the holy man was powerless to stop them. The president sent a private letter to the Ayatollah, and Khomeini promptly read it before the assembled press. In the middle of the takeover, Khomeini ignored his country’s disintegration long enough to wage a savage, holy civil war against his own Kurdish citizens, who, he explained, had joined the cults of Satan.

His rise to power capitalized on the centuries-old Sunni-Shia split, the Arab versus Persian religious and ethnic disputes, and the personal animosity Saddam Hussein had for Ayatollah Khomeini in neighboring Iran. While the Iraqis were led by fear, the Iranians had a divine reverence for Khomeini. Khomeini’s ouster of the shah and leadership of the Iranian revolution of 1979 led to a protracted war between the neighboring countries from 1980 to 1988, dubbed the Iran-Iraq War. In the fighting between contiguous states, Baghdad planned for a quick victory over Tehran. Saddam wanted oil, and he expected that when his armies invaded, the people in the Arabic-speaking area of Iran would respond by rising against Khomeini’s fundamental Islamic regime. It did not happen that way, and after a time Iraq found itself bogged down in a stalemate of its own making.

The first revelation was that the Middle Eastern states were not intimidated or understanding of the West. In Jimmy Carter’s mind, knowledge developed through assimilation and reason. ‘‘If an issue was mine,’’ he said, ‘‘I wanted to understand it.’’ The president spent hours poring over briefing books assembled by his staff. His strength was knowability, but the Ayatollah Khomeini was inscrutable. Carter wrote in his diary: ‘‘Every time one of the Iranian government officials shows any sign of rationality, he is immediately incompatible with Khomeini.’’52 The America of incomprehensible military strength was actually weaker for having a modern service economy that was dependent on foreign oil. But it was also weaker for having an inability to understand its opponents. Like Napoleon, who waited in Moscow for the Russians to surrender before realizing he had to retreat, the American president expected Iran to give up when it remained defiant.

pages: 414 words: 121,243

What's Left?: How Liberals Lost Their Way by Nick Cohen

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, centre right, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, haute couture, kremlinology, liberal world order, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, profit motive, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, the scientific method, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

The leaders of the Iranian left assured them that they could safely ignore the black-clad fanatics who were fanning out across the country. ‘We have criticised Islamic fanaticism – we are against the non-progressive ideas of the conservative elements,’ said Noureddin Kianouri, leader of the Marxist Tudeh Party, as he explained how he had weighted the options. ‘But for us, the positive side of Ayatollah Khomeini is so important that the so-called negative side means nothing.’ Later they arrested him along with tens of thousands of his comrades, paralysed his arms, broke his fingers and made him confess on television to being a Soviet spy. The ayatollahs crushed the Left, the liberals and the feminists, and imposed a religious tyranny far more terrible and far harder for women to endure than the Shah’s persecutions. Afsaneh Najmabadi had been far more sceptical about the wisdom of leftists going along with holy misogynists, and had the good sense to leave and get back to Kanan in London.

The people in power in both countries did not want to know about the Iraq Republic of Fear described, and one of the few remarks of Henry Kissinger’s that is worth remembering explains why. ‘It’s a pity they can’t both lose,’ he said of the Iran – Iraq War. When Khomeini’s revolutionary armies looked as if they would win, and seize Iraq’s oil fields and go on to control a large chunk of the world’s oil by seizing the Saudi Arabian oil fields as well, the United States intervened. It helped the Baathists with facts rather than arms sales. What Saddam got out of the approaches first from the Carter administration and then from Donald Rumsfeld for the Reagan administration was an intelligence-sharing agreement. AWACS spy planes recorded Iranian troop deployments so the Iraqi army could concentrate its fire. American jets brought down Iranian civilian and military flights to deter the Ayatollah Khomeini from destroying the Iraqi war economy by sinking Iraqi tankers in the Persian Gulf.

The big daddy of French theory, Michel Foucault, was braver in his way than many of his imitators in that he was prepared to make a commitment to the Ayatollah Khomeini. He went to Iran in 1978 to support the Islamists and drooled that ‘an Islamic movement can set the entire region afire, overturn the most unstable regimes, and disturb the most solid. Islam – which is not simply a religion, but an entire way of life, an adherence to a history and a civilization – has a good chance to become a gigantic powder keg, at the level of hundreds of millions of men.’ With socialist revolutions gone, he was desperate for something new to set the world afire. If that something new was a vicious clerical reaction, then so be it. Notice, though, that the Iranian revolution was a vicious clerical reaction whose persecutions others had to suffer. If the bishops of the French Catholic Church had achieved the theocratic power of the ayatollahs and used it to prescribe what Foucault and his colleagues could teach at the Collège de France in Paris, I’m sure Foucault and all his admirers in the Anglo-American academe would have gone ape and shouted ‘fascism’.

pages: 1,445 words: 469,426

The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power by Daniel Yergin

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, energy security, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, fudge factor, informal economy, joint-stock company, land reform, liberal capitalism, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, postnationalism / post nation state, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Thomas Malthus, Yom Kippur War

Its title gave some idea of the thrust of his political thought: Three Whom God Should Not Have Invented: Persians, Jews, and Flies. Though the Ayatollah Khomeini was expelled from Iraq in 1978, before Hussein's complete acquisition of power, the Ayatollah held Hussein personally responsible for his troubles and ranked him among his preeminent opponents. Once asked to list his enemies, Khomeini replied: "First, the Shah, then the American Satan, then Saddam Hussein and his infidel Ba'th Party." Khomeini and his circle saw the secular, socialist Ba'thists as implacable enemies of their own creed and attacked Ba'thism as "the racist ideology of Arabism." As if all that was not bad enough, Khomeini had even worse to say; he denounced Hussein as a "dwarf Pharaoh." Saddam Hussein had good reason to fear Khomeini's diatribes. Around half of Iraq's population was estimated to be Shia, while the Ba'thist regime was secular and based on the minority Arab Sunnis.

Grasping for some certitude in the melee, they increasingly heeded the call of traditional Islam and of an ever more fervent fundamentalism. The beneficiary was the Ayatollah Khomeini, whose religious rectitude and unyielding resistance made him the embodiment of opposition to the Shah and his regime and indeed to the very character and times of Iran in the mid-1970s. Born around 1900 in a small town 180 miles from Tehran, Khomeini came from a family of religious teachers. His father had died a few months after his birth, killed on the way to a pilgrimage by a government official, it was said by some. His mother died when he was in his teens. Khomeini turned to religious studies and, by the 1930s and 1940s, was a popular lecturer on Islamic philosophy and law, promulgating the concept of an Islamic Republic under the stern control of the clergy. For many years, Khomeini had regarded the Pahlavi regime as both corrupt and illegitimate.

The efforts to construct hastily some new American position were complicated by the fact that the Shah was an object of dislike and criticism in the media in the United States and elsewhere, which resulted in a familiar pattern—moralistic criticism of U.S. policy combined with the projection by some of a romantic and unrealistic view of the Ayatollah Khomeini and his objectives. A prominent professor wrote in the New York Times of Khomeini's tolerance, of how "his entourage of close advisers is uniformly composed of moderate, progressive individuals," and of how Khomeini would provide "a desperately-needed model of humane governance for a third-world country." The American ambassador to the United Nations, Andrew Young, went even further; Khomeini, he said, would eventually be hailed as "a saint." An embarrassed President Carter immediately felt the need to make clear "that the United States is not in the canonization business." So great was the lack of coherence that one senior official, who had been involved in every Middle Eastern crisis since the early 1960s, noted the "extraordinary" fact that the "first systematic meeting" at a high level on Iran was not convened until early November—very late in the day.

pages: 1,016 words: 283,960

Aftermath: Following the Bloodshed of America's Wars in the Muslim World by Nir Rosen

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Ayatollah Khomeini, failed state, glass ceiling, Google Earth, liberal capitalism, Parag Khanna, selection bias, unemployed young men, urban sprawl, éminence grise

The Hakim family was perceived to represent the elite; it also backed Ayatollah Khomeini’s system of clerical rule, known as wilayat al-faqih. Although theological differences existed, the bitter rivalry between followers of Hakim and Sadr can best be seen as both a class conflict and a symptom of the resentment of Iraqi nationalist Shiites who stayed in Iraq toward Hakim and his followers, who were in exile in Iran. The Sadrists are inspired by the example and teachings of Ayatollah Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, arguably the most important Shiite theologian of the twentieth century, who challenged the quietist and traditional role of the Shiite clerical establishment, known as the hawza. He eventually confronted Saddam and was executed by him in 1980. His cousin Ayatollah Muhammad Sadiq al-Sadr inherited his mantle, building an immense following among poor Shiites.

Sayyid Nasr of the Sayyid Haidar Husseiniya—a husseiniya is a Shiite place of worship and communal gathering—also visited the Qiba Mosque to pay respects with thirty friends and relatives. As the honorific title of “sayyid” revealed, he was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad, and thus respected. He was also the oldest and best-known sayyid in Shaab. I visited his large home, which was down the street from a wall with posters of Ayatollahs Khomeini and Khamenei. The walls of his study were decorated with posters of Supreme Council leader Muhammad Bakr al-Hakim, who had been slain six months earlier in Najaf, as well as other ayatollahs. Nasr wore a black turban and thick glasses. “Our good leaders will prevent fitna,” he said. He explained that when he visited the Qiba Mosque, he told the gathered people that “I am Sunni and I am Shiite. We are all Muslims.” He was certain that “there will not be any problems between us,” and blamed Zarqawi for the attacks.

His men had already taken over much of Shiite Iraq, providing social services and security and imposing their strict interpretation of Islam on women and more liberal Muslims. His network of clerics coordinated their sermons, and his bayanat (statements) were posted on mosque walls throughout Iraq. On June 23, 2003, Muqtada, having just returned from a trip to Iran—where he had met with government officials and Ayatollah Haeri, his father’s official successor and intellectual heir, and commemorated the death of Ayatollah Khomeini—visited Baghdad for the first time since his father’s death in 1999. He visited the neighborhoods of Kadhimiya and Shula before arriving in Sadr City, where tens of thousands greeted him with Iraqi flags as well as flags from the Bahadal, Msaare, Al Jazair, and Fawawda tribes. Before Muqtada took the stage, a speaker read the victory verse from the Koran: “If you receive God’s victory and you witness people joining Islam in great numbers, thank your God and ask him to forgive you, for God is very merciful.”

pages: 419 words: 124,522

Shadow of the Silk Road by Colin Thubron

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, invention of gunpowder, invention of the telescope, Lao Tzu, Pax Mongolica, South China Sea, trade route

Arabs defeat the Chinese c 840 The Uighur migrate west to the Tarim 1220–7 Mongols invade under Genghis Khan 1260–1368 The ‘Pax Mongolica’ c. 1300 The Kyrgyz migrate from Siberia into the Tian Shan 1381 Tamerlane invades Afghanistan 1405 Tamerlane dies 1405–1530 Timurids rule at Herat 1500 Uzbek Shaybanids seize Samarkand 1504 Kabul captured by Babur 1747 Foundation of Afghan state 1885 Russians complete the conquest of Central Asia 1917 Soviet power established in Kyrgyz territory 1920 Bolsheviks seize Bukhara; Uzbek and Tajik refugees flee to Afghanistan 1924–7 Stalin defines the borders of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan 1979–80 USSR invades Afghanistan 1989 USSR retreats from Afghanistan 1991 The Central Asian states gain independence from USSR 1994 Rise of the Taliban 1997 Taliban seize Mazar-e-Sharif, then are massacred 2001 US-led invasion of Afghanistan 2004 First free Afghan elections Iran 765 Birth of the Ismaili sect 874 Occultation of the 12th Shia Imam 1020 Death of Firdausi 1037–1220 Seljuk Turkish dynasty 1256–7 Mongols under Hulagu extirpate the Assassins 1256–1335 Ilkhanid Mongol dynasty 1258 The Mongols sack Baghdad 1304–1316 Reign of Oljeitu 1500–1736 Safavid dynasty 1925–1979 Pahlevi dynasty 1979 Islamic revolution under Ayatollah Khomeini. The Shah flees 1980–88 Iran–Iraq war 1989 Death of Ayatollah Khomeini The West 680 Battle of Kerbela 800 Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor 1099 First Crusade captures Jerusalem 1260 Mamelukes turn back the Mongols 1453 Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople 1498 Portuguese pioneer the seaway round Africa 1914–18 First World War 1917 The Russian Revolution 1939–45 Second World War 1984–97 Kurdish rebellions in Turkey 2001 World Trade Center attack 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq Searchable Terms Abbasid Caliphate Abdullah (Kurdish driver) Abdurahman, King Afghanistan journey in Afrasiab Africa, seaway round Aga Khan Ahmadjan Ahuramazda (god) Aimaq (nomads) Ain Jalut, battle of Akayev, President of Kyrgyzstan Akbar Khan al- for names beginning al- see under following element of name Alamut Alamut river Alaric Alexander the Great Alexandria Ali (statistician) Ali, Caliph Alik (ex-policeman) Aloban (Nestorian priest) Altun mountains Amanullah, King America see United States of America Amin, Hafezullah Amirali (artist and poet) Amithaba (Buddha of Infinite Light) Amu Darya/Oxus river Anatolia Ancestors, claimed see also Manas Andijan Andkvoi Annar (Kyrgyz) Ansari Antioch Antiochus IV, King Antoninus Pius, emperor Apak Hoja mausoleum, Kashgar Apollo Arabian Incense Road Arabs Aral Sea Arhun (watchman) Armenia Armenians Aryans Asmu, Imam: tomb Assassins Assyria Assyrian church At-Bashy Athens Ata, Mohammed Attar Augustus Caesar, emperor Aurelian, emperor Azerbaijan Iranian Azeris Babur, emperor Babylon Bacon, Francis Bactria Bactrians Badakshan Baghdad Baisanghur, prince Balkh Barnabas, St Basra ‘Beauty of Kroran, The’ Behesht-e Zahra Beijing see also Tiananmen Square Bethlehem Bibi Khanum mosque Samarkand Bihzad bin Laden, Osama Birecik Bishkek Black Jade river, Khotan Black Mountains Bodh Gaya Bolsheviks Bombyx mori (silk moth) Book of Changes Book of Odes Book of Rites Borders Brazil British, the Buddhism in China Bukhara Byron, Robert Byzantine empire Caesar, Julius Canada Carrhae, battle of (53 BC) Caspian Sea Caucasus, the Central Asia time line see also names of countrie Chaldean Church Changan (Xian) palace ruins see also Xian chariots Charklik (Ruoqiang) Charlemagne, emperor Chatyr lake Chechens Chechnya Cherchen (Qiemo) salt plateau of Chiang Kai-shek Chilamachin China journey in time line Chinese (outside China) Chingiz (builder) Chinon Christianity in Antioch in China in modern Iran and Mongols Chrysostom, St John Chychkan river Cicero Cizre Cleopatra Cologne cathedral Columbus, Christopher Communism compass, the magnetic Confucianism Confucius Conrad of Montferrat Constantine the Great, emperor Constantinople Crassus, triumvir Crete crossbows Crusades Cultural Revolution Cyrus, King of Persia Czechoslovakia Da Qin Dalai Lama Damascus Damghan Daniar (Kyrgyz) Daniel (builder) Daphne, groves of (near Antioch) Dasht-e-Laili Demavend, Mount Deng Xiaoping Deobandi schools, Pakistan Dharamsala Dokuz Khatun Dolkon (Uighur) Dost Mohammed, King Dostum, Abdul Rashid Dowlatabad drugs Dubs, Homer Dudayev, General Dunhuang East Turkestan Islamic Movement Edward I, King of England Egypt Eighth Imam (Shia) Elburz mountains Eleanor of Castile, queen Elnura (Kyrgyz) England English language Euclid Euphrates Europe Fatima (daughter of Mohammed) Feng (Hui) Fergana Fergana valley Firdausi Shahnama tomb First Pass under Heaven, The Fitzgerald, Edward Flanders Fraser, James (British traveller) Friendship Bridge Friday Mosque, Herat Gang of Four Gansu corridor Gate of Sorrows, Jiayuguan Gawhar Shad, queen mausoleum of Gawhad Shah mosque and college, Herat Gawhar Shad mosque, Meshed Gazargah Gazur Khan Gelia (artist’s wife) Genghis Khan Germans Germany al-Ghazali Ghorid dynasty Gobi desert Goes, Bento de Golden Horde ‘Golden House’, Antioch Golmud Goths Great Game Great Leap Forward Great Wall Greece Gromov, General Guanyin (goddess) Guarong (Song Guorong) Gul (Uighur) Gulag Gulja Guma Gumbaz mosque, Namangan gunpowder Gutenberg Gwelin Hafizullah (Afghan) Hairatan Hakkari Hamed Han Hangzhou Hari river Haroun al-Rashid Hasan-i-Sabah Hazara Hazrat Ali shrine, Mazar-e- Sharif Heavenly mountains see Tian Shan mountains Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin Helena, St Herat Herodotus Hindu Kush Hinduism Homs Hongming (film-maker) Horses Hu Ji (historian) Huang Huangling Huatuguo Hui Hulagu, emperor Hunan Huns 70 134 Husain Baiqara, sultan Hussein (Iranian acquaintance) Hussein (son of Caliph Ali) Hussein, Saddam Ibn BattutaId Kah mosque, Kashgar Ilkhanid dynasty India Indians Innocent IV, Pope Inventions, Chinese see also crossbows, stirrups Iran journey in time line see also Iran-Iraq war Iran-Iraq war Iranian Azerbaijan Iraq see also Iran-Iraq war Isfahan, Qadi of Islam/Muslims in China see also Mevlevi sect; Naqshbandi sect; Shia; Sunni Ismail, 281, 282 Ismailis see also Assassins Israelis Italy see also Romans; Rome jade Jade Gate Jade Road Jafar (trainee doctor) Japan Jaxartes (Syr Darya) river Jelaleddin Rumi Jerusalem Crusader king of Patriarch of Jesuit missionaries Jesus Christ Jews Jiahuang (painter) Jiayuguan Jielu Jiuquan Jumgal valley Justinian, emperor Juvenal Kabul Kalan minaret, Bukhara Kanikay Karakoram Karakoram mountains Karakoram Highway Karimov, President of Uzbekistan Karzai, President of Afghanistan Kashgar Kazakhs Kazakhstan Kekemeren river Kenkol ravine Kerbela, battle of (AD 680) Keriya Khameini, Supreme Leader, Iran Khan, Ismail Khan family, Bukhara Khatami, President of Iran Khoja Parsa shrine, Balkh Khomeini, Ayatollah tomb of Khorasan Khotan Kitbogha Kizilkum desert Kiziltepe Kochkor mazar near Kochoi, tomb of Kokand Koran Korea Koreans Kublai Khan, emperor Kuchi Kun Lun mountains Kunduz Kurds Kushans Kyanizyak-khatun, princess Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan journey in Labrang Living Buddha of Lady of the Silk Worms (Lei-tzu) Lanchou University Lanzhou Lao-tzu Lattimore, Owen Lei-tzu see Lady of the Silk Worms Lenin (village) Lenin, V.I.

Government police had moved in to supervise its hundred-million-dollar annual revenue, and a machine-gun perched on a truck looked down on a mob of customs officials. After an hour our bus crept past a last barrier. The way swarmed with money-changers. The red, green and black of the Afghan flag gave way to the red, green and white of Iran, and the photogenic smile of President Karzai was replaced by the painted scowl of Ayatollah Khomeini and the owlish confusion of Supreme Leader Khamenei. The lorries were banked up five abreast for quarter of a mile, heavy with the shipment containers of evil memory, and piled with cement, Mitsubishi trucks, steel rods, Nestlé bottled water… The Iranian police, dapper in bottle green, boarded our bus in twos and threes, glittering with suspicion, hunting for the opium which leaked like bacilli across the border.

Some wore a brazen hint of lipstick or eye-shadow. They might have been naked. It was the eve of the birthday of the Twelfth Imam, venerated in Shia tradition as the coming saviour, and the city was choked with pilgrims. Only after a long time did I find a hotel, above a noisy crossroads. In the foyer hung a trio of photographs: the awkward-looking Supreme Leader Khamenei, the mild reformist president Khatami, and in the centre an angry Ayatollah Khomeini, watching them both. I was shown to a cleanish room. In its bedside drawer were a Koran, a folded prayer-mat and a medallion of clay to which the faithful touch their foreheads in prayer. Meshed enshrines the memory of murder and loss. In 818 the Eighth Imam in the Shia line was poisoned here by the reigning Sunni caliph (say the Shia) with grapes and pomegranate juice. At first he was buried royally beside the great Haroun al-Rashid of ‘The Thousand and One Nights’, father of his murderer, who had died here nine years before.

What Went Wrong? Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response by Bernard Lewis

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, lone genius, spice trade, women in the workforce

In the heartlands of Islam, such progress as was made in women’s rights was due entirely to internal forces and to the unaided efforts of Muslim women and men. 69 WHAT WENT WRONG? Nevertheless the struggle for the emancipation of women made some progress in the socially and economically more advanced parts of the region and has become a major target of different schools of militant Islamic revival. The Ayatollah Khomeini, in particular, gave it a prominent place in his indictment of the misdeeds of the shah and the crimes of his regime. From a traditional point of view, the emancipation of women—specifically, allowing them to reveal their faces, their arms, and their legs, and to mingle socially in the school or the workplace with men—is an incitement to immorality and promiscuity, and a deadly blow to the very heart of Islamic society, the Muslim family and home.

enacting their own laws.10 But in the sense of a state ruled by the church or by priests, Islam was not and indeed could not be a theocracy. In this sense, classical Islam had no priesthood, no prelates who might rule or even decisively influence those who did. The caliph, who was head of a governing institution that was state and church in one, was himself neither a jurist nor a theologian, but a practitioner of the arts of politics and sometimes of war. The office of ayatollah is a creation of the nineteenth century; the rule of Khomeini and of his successor as “supreme jurist” an innovation of the twentieth. In most tests of tolerance, Islam, both in theory and in practice, compares unfavorably with the Western democracies as they have developed during the last two or three centuries, but very favorably with most other Christian and post-Christian societies and regimes. There is nothing in Islamic history to compare with the emancipation, acceptance, and integration of other-believers and non-believers in the West; but equally, there is nothing in Islamic history to compare with the Spanish expulsion of Jews and Muslims, the Inquisition, the Auto da fé’s, the wars of religion, not to speak of more recent crimes of commission and acquiescence.

Such distinctively European vehicles as the novel and the play have become normal forms of literary self-expression in all the literary languages of the Middle East. The ready acceptance of the visual and verbal arts makes the rejection of music the more remarkable. It was not for lack of trying. Sultan Mahmud II was not alone in his experiment with a brass band. Other rulers saw the relevance of Western music to Western drill, and hence to Western warfare. Even the Ayatollah Khomeini, who in general fiercely denounced the sinfulness and corruption of all kinds of music and of Western music in particular, was willing to make an exception for marches and anthems. In Turkey, where Westernization as distinct from modernization has made most progress, Western music has won the widest acceptance and there are Turkish soloists, orchestras, and even composers in the Western style.

pages: 1,208 words: 364,966

Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War by Robert Fisk

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airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, friendly fire, haute couture, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, open economy, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War

In the grey days of Iranian opposition to the Shah, almost all the figures who were, after 1979, to be the kingmakers and spiritual leaders of Iran visited Tyre. To Mousa Sadr’s Jebel Amel college outside the city came Mehdi Bazargan, Khomeini’s future prime minister. Bazargan’s deputy, Sadeq Tabatabai – still one of Khomeini’s closest aides – visited Tyre each year. So did Ayatollah Mohamed Beheshti, who was later to become leader of the Islamic Republican Party and Iranian minister of justice. Sadeq Qotbzadeh, who advised Khomeini in Paris and became his foreign minister, travelled to Tyre each year. Mustapha Chamran, who was to be Khomeini’s minister of defence, was one of the founders of the Jebel Amel college and taught there for several years. One of his pupils, a young electrical engineering student, was Mohamed Sa’ad who, years later, was to be Khalil Jerardi’s leading explosives expert in the resistance movement.

Academics, especially in Israel or the United States, liked to attribute Shia Muslim radicalism in southern Lebanon to some form of revolutionary inspiration from Iran, as if Ayatollah Khomeini exerted a physical power over the region. They ignored the fact that this radicalism was partly created by Israel. Even more seriously, they ignored the fact that the Iranian revolution did not begin in the Iranian city of Qom or in Tehran. It began in southern Lebanon. Mousa Sadr, whose portrait now hung over the ruins of the homes destroyed by Israeli troops, was not just a missing Imam, almost a Twelfth Imam to the Shias of southern Lebanon. He was Iranian. He was born in Qom. Even more crucial, he was the principal link between the Iranian opposition to the Shah and the Ayatollah Khomeini when the latter was enduring his bitter exile in Najaf. Mousa Sadr lived in Tyre. His sister, Rabab, married Hussein Charefiddin, from one of the most prominent Lebanese Shia families in the city.

How could one compare one of the great developments of twentieth-century history with Lebanon’s little wars? I watched Ayatollah Khomeini one day – I sat a few feet from him – lecturing us on the evils of America, the necessity of returning the Shah to Iran for trial and the eternal nature of the Islamic Republic. He stared at the floor as he spoke. Only at the ground; at a tiny spot of light that fell onto the poorly carpeted floor of this crowded room at his home in Qom. Not once did he take his eyes off the emanation. It must have been produced by a crack in the window or a reflection from a mirror, but it was half an hour before it dawned upon us that he would not look at a single human being in the room, not even at his interpreter, Sadeq Qotbzadeh, in whose execution he would later calmly acquiesce. Khomeini could condone the imprisonment of American diplomats in Tehran – the inhabitants of the ‘spy nest’ – and effortlessly prove the United States to be a paper tiger.

pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

See Internet Service Providers Israel Izvestiya Jackson, Michael Japan Javan Jefferson, Thomas Jewish Internet Defense Force (JIDF) JIDF. See Jewish Internet Defense Force Jihad Jane Judt, Tony Kadeer, Rebiya Kadinsky, Wassily Kafka, Franz Kaiser Kuo Kalathil, Shanthi Kapor, Mitch Kaspersky, Yevgeny Kaspersky Lab Kaufman, Ted Keenan, Thomas Kennan, George Kennedy, John F. Kenya Keohane, Robert Kern, Holger Lutz Kerry, John Keyes, David Keyhole Keylogger Keyword filtering KGB Khamenei, Ayatollah Khomeini, Ayatollah Khouri, Rami Kierkegaard, Søren Kill-switch Kimmage, Daniel Kimmelman, Michael Klee, Paul Klein, Naomi Klosterman, Chuck Kohák, Erazim Kononenko, Maksim Kotkin, Stephen Krame, Ghaleb Kristof, Nicholas Krugman, Paul Lacan, Jacques Lake, Eli Lasswell, Harold Law enforcement Lawlessness Lazarsfeld, Paul Learn from Lei Feng (game) Lebedev, Artemy Lessig, Lawrence Lewis, James Li Qiaoming Li Xiaolin Liberation by facts theory Liberation by gadgets theory LinkedIn Lippmann, Walter Literature Liu Xiaobo Liu Zhengrong LiveJournal The Lives of Others (film) Logic The Logic of Failure (Dörner) Lolcats Luna, Riccardo Lynch, Marc MacKinnon, Rebecca Madison, Elliot Malkin, Michelle Mandelson, Peter Manhattan Project Mao Zedong Marconi, Guglielmo Marcuse, Herbert Marketing Marketing Dictatorship: Propaganda and Thought Work in Contemporary China (Brady) Marvin, Simon Marx, Karl Marx, Leo Marxism Masnick, Mike Massage Milk McAffee computer security firm McConnell, Mike McLaughlin, Andrew McLuhan, Marshall McNamara, Robert Mearsheimer, John Medvedev, Dmitry Meet the Press Megaphone Memorial (Russian NGO) Messina, Chris “FactoryJoe,” Metzl, Jamie Mexico Meyen, Michael Microchip Immune Deficiency Syndrome (MIDS) Microsoft Middle class Middle East MIDS.

In December 2009 the pro-Ahmadinejad Raja News website published a batch of thirty-eight photos with sixty-five faces circled in red and a batch of forty-seven photos with about a hundred faces circled in red. According to the Iranian police, public tip-offs helped to identify and arrest at least forty people. Ahmadinejad’s supporters may have also produced a few videos of their own, including a clip—which many in the opposition believed to be a montage—that depicted a group of protesters burning a portrait of Ayatollah Khomeini. If people had believed that the footage was genuine, it could have created a major split in the opposition, alienating vast swathes of the Iranian population. The police or someone acting on their behalf also went searching for personal details—mostly Facebook profiles and email addresses—of Iranians living abroad, sending them threatening messages and urging them not to support the Green Movement unless they wanted to hurt their relatives back in Iran.

This explains how, less than a year after the Iranian protests, a Newsweek writer mustered the courage to proclaim that “the revolts in Ukraine, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Burma, Xinjiang, and Iran could never have happened without the web.” (Newsweek, it must be noted, has been predicting an Internet-led revolution in Iran since 1995, when it published an article pompously titled “Chatrooms and Chadors” which posited that “if the computer geeks are right, Iran is facing the biggest revolution since the Ayatollah Khomeini.”) Unless journalists fully commit themselves to scrutinizing and, if necessary, debunking such myths, the latter risk having a corrosive effect on policymaking. As long as Twitter is presumed to have been instrumental in enabling the Iranian protests, any technologies that would allow Iranians to access Twitter by bypassing their government’s censorship are also presumed to be of exceptional importance.

The Prince of the Marshes: And Other Occupational Hazards of a Year in Iraq by Rory Stewart

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, clean water, Etonian, full employment, Khartoum Gordon, Masdar, microcredit, trade route, unemployed young men, urban planning

A young turbaned cleric came with two hundred men and told me in a high-pitched voice that he had been a leading bomb-maker in the resistance movement; that ninety-seven of his relatives had been killed by the old regime; that the local Saddam hospital, newly named the “Sadr” hospital, was only intact after the looting because he had put guards around it; and that my only choice was to put him on the provincial council. I asked him what he thought about the current situation. He answered that he was sorry that we were not cutting the hands off thieves. It was ordained in the Koran. “But even Imam Khomeini did not encourage people in Iran to cut off hands,” I said. “Imam Khomeini has his opinion and I have mine,” the cleric replied. Young Shia clerics were normally deferential toward the age and wisdom of a Grand Ayatollah like Khomeini. I asked how long he had been in the hawza, the seminary in Najaf. “Two years,” he replied. It was normal to study there for fifteen years or more. I asked which Grand Ayatollah he had followed. “I followed myself,” he replied. This disregard for learning and authority appeared increasingly typical of young Shia politicians and their religious opinions seemed fractured, less controllable, and increasingly militant.

I wondered if he was simply seeing something I was missing. “And who is making trouble at the moment?” I asked. “Everyone including Iran,” he replied. “We want a national government for Iraq.” This was a change for a party that had once aimed to include Iraq in a super state under the Iranian leader Khomeini. “And what kind of government do you wish to establish?” “Wilayat-e-faqih,” he replied, smiling. The government of the jurists—or, in other words, an Islamic theocracy under a senior Ayatollah: the governmental system of Iran. No one in the Coalition wanted to establish an Iranian-style theocracy, and it was clear even in the few days I had been in the province that there was little enthusiasm for it from Iraqis. Was the man naïve, or somehow steps ahead of me? The Prince was wrong. These men were not simply Iranian spies out to destroy the Coalition.

—finance officer Charlotte “Charlie” Morris—social affairs officer IRAQI POLICE Abu Rashid—police chief, Maysan Brigadier General Sabih—acting police chief Seyyed Faqr—police chaplain Nadhem—police chief, Amara MARSH ARABS Seyyed Issa—head of the district council of Beni Hashim The “progressive classes” Ali—a young activist Asad—a middle-aged poet Hussein—director of the Finance Ministry POLITICAL PARTIES “The Prince’s Party” Rural/tribal and relatively secular Karim Mahood Hattab—“Abu Hatim,” “The Prince of the Marshes” Riyadh Mahood Hattab—brother of the Prince—head of the regeneration committee and candidate for governor Shia parties All derived from the original Dawa Party, founded in the late fifties and led by Ayatollah Muhammad Bakr al-Sadr (Sadr I), martyred in 1980 The “Iranian-linked groups” Supreme Committee for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI) Formed by the Marytr Ayatollah Muhammed Bakr Al-Hakim Militia—Badr Brigades and Party of God Abu Ahmed—SCIRI central, candidate for governor Abu Miriam—Movement of the Party of God Abu Maytham—Badr brigades, candidate for police chief Dawa Formed by the Martyr Ayatollah Muhammad Bakr al-Sadr (Sadr I) Abu Muslim—ex-cleric from Dawa movement Abu Akil—national head of Dawa Iraq tendency Abu Mustafa—cleric—independent Dawa Sheikh Rahim—cleric—independent Dawa The Sadrists (Office of the Martyr Sadr and Fodala) Formed by the Martyr Ayatollah Muhammad Sadeq al-Sadr (Sadr II) and led now by his son Muqtada (Sadr III) and Chief of Staff Al-Yakubi Militia—Army of the Imam Mehdi Seyyed Hassan—head of the Sadr Party Seyyed Sattar—head of the Majar branch of Sadr Hassan—head of the “alternative councils” TRIBES Albu Muhammad Beni Lam Al-Azerj Suwaad Beni Kaab Albu Deraaj Abu Ali Sudan Saada Bahadil DHI QAR COALITION PROVISIONAL AUTHORITY John Bourne—governorate coordinator, Dhi Qar Barbara Contini—governorate coordinator, Dhi Qar Jeremy Nathan—deputy governorate coordinator, Dhi Qar Toby Bradley—political officer, Dhi Qar Franco Corbani—special projects, Dhi Qar Sabri Badr Rumaiath—governor of Dhi Qar Abbas—deputy governor, a Danish citizen Adnan Sherife—assistant governor Abdul Amir Al-Hamdani—director of archaeology SADRISTS Sheikh Aws Al-Khafagi—head of the office Sheikh Ali Zeidi—Al Rafai leader Sheikh Muwayad—Nasiriyah leader Asad Al-Ghuzzi—associate and ally AL RAFAI TRIBES Shweilat, Sheikh Arkan Hairullah Beni Rikaab, Shlage Yunus, son of Shlage Ismail Taleb TIMELINE 3000 B.C.

pages: 1,118 words: 309,029

The Wars of Afghanistan by Peter Tomsen

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airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, drone strike, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The Wahhabi establishment considered Shia to be infidels. Shiism was recognized as Iran’s official religion in Khomeini’s new constitution. The Shia devotion of ayatollahs as quasi-deities and the Shia worship of saints and the shrines of holy men violated the Wahhabi tawhid emphasis on the oneness of God. The Saudi government and the Wahhabi ulema interpreted Khomeini’s promise to “export Islam everywhere”—“the same version of Islam which is currently in power in our country”39—as a dangerous Shia assault on Sunni Islam. Iranian Shia pilgrims in Mecca attempting to distribute photos of Ayatollah Khomeini and pamphlets praising the Iranian Revolution fought pitched battles with Saudi security forces. On November 28, 1979, in the midst of the Grand Mosque crisis in Mecca, violent pro-Khomeini demonstrations erupted in the oil-rich, Shia-minority eastern province of Hasa in Saudi Arabia.

The Soviet Union’s attack on its small Muslim neighbor offered the royal family space to project itself as the defender of Islam against a non-Muslim aggressor. The second was Ayatollah Khomeini’s Iranian Revolution. Khomeini charged that the al-Sauds were no less an American implant in the Islamic religious cosmos than the shah he had just overthrown. Shrill Iranian radio broadcasts to Saudi Arabia in Arabic enjoined the “revolutionary masses” in the kingdom to “resist the government” and announced that “the ruling regime in Saudi Arabia wears Muslim clothing, but it actually represents a luxurious, frivolous, shameless way of life, robbing funds from the people and squandering them.”38 Khomeini’s propaganda blitz excoriating the American “Great Satan,” the Soviet “Lesser Satan,” and Israel appealed to many Muslims in Saudi Arabia and the broader Muslim world. But it was Khomeini’s pan-Islamic reach across the ancient Shia-Sunni chasm that most alarmed the Saudi monarch, the Wahhabi clergy, and Saudi Arabia’s conservative Sunni population.

Vance’s and Brzezinski’s contradictory foreign-policy speeches exhibited a zigzag U.S. approach to Soviet expansionism that lasted until Vance’s resignation in 1980. American equivocation was painfully acute in Iran, where America was losing an ally while the USSR was gaining one in next-door Afghanistan. Carter publicly praised the shah in a 1977 state dinner in Tehran, noting the “admiration and love which your people give to you.”20 Less than a year later, on January 16, 1979, revolutionaries led by Ayatollah Khomeini drove the shah into exile. Khomeini-supported students conducted the first (one-day) seizure of the American embassy and its staff, including Ambassador William Sullivan, on February 14. That same day, four gunmen from a small Marxist Shia group snatched the American ambassador to Afghanistan, Adolph Dubs, from his vehicle on a Kabul street, then barricaded themselves with their captive in a room at the downtown Kabul Hotel.

pages: 497 words: 143,175

Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies by Judith Stein

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War

He inserted Iran into the Cold War.18 Schlesinger did too, telling the oil minister of Kuwait that events in Iran “followed recent events in the two Yemens and Afghanistan.”19 At the time, the Western consensus was that religious leaders could not govern, and the Americans concluded that the Soviet Union, seemingly on the move, would reap the fruits of a post-shah Iran, not the Iranian Shiite leader, Ayatollah Khomeini. Liberals, too, misread the Shiite opposition. UN Ambassador Andrew Young predicted that Khomeini “would eventually be hailed a saint.”20 Carter’s press secretary, Jody Powell, quickly informed Young that the “United States is not in the canonization business.”21 Princeton professor Richard Falk took Khomeini at his word when he pledged freedom to Jews and leftists. Falk believed that “Iran may yet provide us with a desperately-needed model of humane governance for a third world country.”22 The American left was prone to see its own aspirations in the new regime. For many, the ayatollah’s vocal anti-imperialism was the only passport he needed to enter progressive circles. Even those in the region were of the mark.

Hamsa Abbas, head of the Central Bank of Kuwait, stated categorically that “Khomeini is not a leftist,” but he also believed that despite the “revolutionary fervor,” Khomeini “would need to get his economy going again, which means he will have to reach some agreement with the U.S.”23 Khomeini was a more interesting and reactionary figure than his detractors and admirers made him out to be. He had some acquaintance with Western philosophy and modeled his ideas of government on Plato’s, with all of the elitism that the choice implied. Forced into exile in Iraq, he was expelled by Saddam Hussein as a favor to the shah in October 1978 and was savvy enough to direct affairs in Iran from Paris. Khomeini was dead set against any compromise with the shah. The ayatollah’s eccentricities, which he exhibited in forms such as making the playing of chess a capital crime because of its monarchical pieces, were irrelevant for Americans.

See also War on Poverty Joint Economic Committee (JEC) Jones, James R. Jones, Reginald Jordan, Hamilton Kahn, Alfred Kaplan, Neal Kaufman, Henry Kazin, Michael Keefe, Robert J. Kemp, Jack Kemp-Roth bill Kempton, Murray Kennedy, David Kennedy, Edward Kennedy, John Kennedy, Robert Kennedy Round Kent State University, student protests at Kerner Commission Kerry, Bob Ketchum, William Keynesianism Keyserling, Leon Khomeini, Ruhollah Killingsworth, C. C. Kimbell, Larry King, C. B. King, Martin Luther, Jr. King, Martin Luther, Sr. Kirkland, Lane Kissinger, Henry Klein, Lawrence Klutznick, Philip Kohl, Helmut Kopkind, Andrew Kreps, Juanita Kristol, Irving Krugman, Paul Kuttner, Robert Kuwait Kuwait Oil Company labor movement. See also AFL-CIO labor unions Lance, Bert Larry, Heath Lasch, Christopher Leahy, Patrick Lengle, James Leontief, Wassily Lesher, Richard T.

pages: 613 words: 151,140

No Such Thing as Society by Andy McSmith

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Brixton riot, call centre, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, F. W. de Klerk, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, greed is good, illegal immigration, index card, John Bercow, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Live Aid, loadsamoney, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, old-boy network, popular capitalism, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Sloane Ranger, South Sea Bubble, spread of share-ownership, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Winter of Discontent, young professional

He had not read the novel, but had heard about the chapter that retold in fictional form an episode from the life of Mohammed, which he denounced as ‘indecent vilification of the Holy Prophet’.39 As a precaution against the possibility of riots, the Indian government banned the book. Several countries with large Muslim populations followed India’s example. Ironically, one of the first countries to ban The Satanic Verses months before the Ayatollah’s fatwa, was South Africa, the land of apartheid. In January 1989, after 1,000 Muslims had taken to Bradford’s streets and burnt copies of the book, WH Smith withdrew it from the shelves. The next month, after a peaceful demonstration by 3,000 people in Birmingham, a violent one outside the American Cultural Centre in Islamabad and a riot in Kashmir, Ayatollah Khomeini, who had now ruled Iran for ten years, issued his infamous fatwa to Muslims worldwide to kill Rushdie and everyone involved in publishing the novel. The death sentence forced Rushdie to go into hiding for almost ten years, with armed bodyguards watching over him each time he ventured out.

When the call was taken up in the House of Lords, the venerable Lord Hailsham, the oldest and most experienced member of cabinet and the only one possibly better known to the country than Margaret Thatcher, was shocked: ‘If I thought the Conservative Party in its manifesto had taken the line that it was going to stop all secondary action, I should certainly not have supported the manifesto myself, and I certainly should not have accepted office in the present government.’51 The most pressing issue was not the trade unions, however, it was the constant decline in the value of money. Inflation had been coming down since 1976, but was still too high and was likely to get worse because the 1979–80 revolution in Iran that brought Ayatollah Khomeini to power had almost tripled the price of oil. Thatcher and Howe set about applying the monetarist remedy with an enthusiasm that was almost masochistic. Howe’s first Budget looked like a wilful application of fuel on the fire. It contained a lavish gift to the rich – a cut in the top rate of income tax from 83 to 60 per cent. To make this giveaway more palatable to those on middle incomes, the standard rate of income tax was also cut, from 33 per cent to 30 per cent.

During the decade, there were three violent incidents involving terrorists who were Muslim, but they were not British Muslims. One of the strangest episodes opened on 30 April 1980, when a group of gunmen burst into the Iranian embassy in London and seized twenty-six hostages, including PC Trevor Lock and two BBC employees. The gunmen were Arabs from Iran (where Arabs were a subdued minority), who opposed Ayatollah Khomeini’s revolutionary government. The Home Office went into its standard, slow procedure for negotiating with hostage-takers. Four hostages were released over the first three days, including a BBC employee, but by Monday, 5 May, which was a bank holiday, the gunmen were exhibiting symptoms of hysteria. They killed the Iranian press attaché, threw his body out of a window and threatened to blow up the building.

pages: 639 words: 212,079

From Beirut to Jerusalem by Thomas L. Friedman

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Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, Unsafe at Any Speed

Pro-Israeli press critics used to complain that the Commodore was a “PLO hotel.” There is no denying that many a Palestinian spokesman hung out there, but when the Israeli army invaded West Beirut, more than a few Israeli officers dined in the Commodore’s restaurant and used it to contact reporters—the exact way the PLO had. The Commodore lived by the motto: The king is dead, long live the king. I would not be surprised if today a poster of Ayatollah Khomeini is hanging over the reception desk. Every serious Beirut militia, whether Christian or Muslim, Palestinian or Lebanese, had a spokesman and a few assistants. The militia spokesmen were the real gatekeepers for Beirut reporters and we all knew it. If you wanted an interview with the big boss, you needed to stay on his spokesman’s good side. Some of the spokesmen developed a reputation for honesty and integrity, and as a reporter you would be willing to give great weight to the information they passed on.

The first to go was the notion that the PLO was still the vanguard of an Arab nationalist revival and the conscience of the Arab world. Arafat had repeated this notion so many times in speeches, he had clearly become convinced of it. What Arafat hadn’t seemed to notice was that in the decade between 1973 and 1982 the Arab world had been broken, either by wealth or by the whip. The wealthier states had grown tired of the PLO’s revolutionary rhetoric, its endless waffling, and its shakedown operations. At the same time, Ayatollah Khomeini’s revolutionary takeover of Iran in 1979 posed a radical Islamic threat that the Arab oil states found far more frightening, both militarily and ideologically, than anything coming out of Israel. Since the Arabs were unwilling to give the Palestinians enough resources or sacrifices to see them through to success, they compensated them instead with money and rhetoric. They adorned all the PLO’s failures, whether in Amman or in Lebanon, with victory bouquets, and indulged them in all their revolutionary bravado, which the Palestinians, as a weak and victimized people, needed as compensation.

The Reagan Administration also took far too long to understand that the United States, in having supported the Israeli invasion and the May 17 peace agreement between Israel and Lebanon, was undercutting Syria, which viewed Lebanon as part of its traditional sphere of influence, and that eventually there would be a price to pay for this as well. Finally, the Reagan team took far too long to understand that back in Teheran, Ayatollah Khomeini was still nursing a grudge against the Americans for having supported the Shah for all those years. Having driven them out of Iran, he wanted to carry on and drive them out of the region altogether. All these aggrieved parties decided to fight the Americans in the only way they knew how, and that was not according to the Geneva Convention. I would never justify what they did, but I cannot say it was without logic.

pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

If the norms for freedom of expression differ starkly between the two places—if, for example, it is normal to question Islam in one place and unacceptable in the other—then violent responses become more likely, in one country or both. Many of the defining free speech moments of our time have precisely this dual, urban-orbal character. In 1989, the novelist Salman Rushdie’s life was endangered because an ayatollah in distant Tehran issued a fatwa (‘what’s a fatwa?’ exclaimed Rushdie’s American publisher, back in those innocent days) and the news travelled rapidly around the world.41 The threat had to be taken seriously, not least because Rushdie lived in a city (London) and a country where many Muslims now also lived, and it would take only one of them to carry out Ayatollah Khomeini’s injunction. A study of the worldwide storm that followed the publication in 2005 of cartoons of Muhammad by the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten—the ‘Danish cartoons’—estimates that more than 240 people died in the course of demonstrations against them.42 None of those deaths was in Denmark, and only one was in Europe; most were in countries such as Nigeria, Pakistan, Libya and Afghanistan.

This book lays out an argument for, and invites a conversation about, free speech in our new cosmopolis. I start from the history of dramatic transformations—technological, commercial, cultural and political—that have occurred since the mid-twentieth century, and with particular intensity since 1989. That year saw no less than four developments that would prove seminal for free speech in the twenty-first century: the fall of the Berlin Wall, the invention of the World Wide Web, the Ayatollah Khomeini’s fatwa on Salman Rushdie and the strange survival of Communist Party rule in China. History’s horse has not stopped galloping since, and I am always conscious of Walter Raleigh’s injunction that ‘who-so-euer in writing a modern Historie, shall follow truth too neare the heeles, it may happily strike out his teeth’.4 Nonetheless, I maintain that the basic character of the challenges we face in this world of neighbours is now clear.

READING JOHN STUART MILL IN BEIJING By this point, some readers will want to object: ‘but in our culture . . .’ Your whole argument, they will say, is built on purely Western intellectual foundations. How can that possibly be the basis for a transcultural debate? This challenge deserves a careful answer. The first and easiest—too easy—part of that answer is to point out that the same judgement grid can be used to present propositions that a Western liberal would abhor. Ayatollah Khomeini’s call for the execution of Salman Rushdie, the Chinese Communist Party’s case for arresting the dissident Liu Xiaobo, a socially conservative father’s argument for locking his daughter in her bedroom to prevent her from going out: all can in principle be presented in the form ‘If someone says X, constraint Y is justified by Z’. All three propositions would be scorned by a liberal, but they can be represented in the same basic schema.

pages: 267 words: 106,340

Europe old and new: transnationalism, belonging, xenophobia by Ray Taras

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey

But if you do the same with Islam, the Koran, the Prophet Muhammad, some son of Allah, you are called a xenophobic blasphemer who has committed an act of racial discrimination.”124 Fallaci was not always logical in her views. One of the many famous political leaders that she interviewed was Iran’s Ayatollah Khomeini. She was barefoot and wearing a chador—quite a compromise for an outspoken feminist—when she met him in Qom. She then described the Ayatollah as the most handsome old man she had ever met. She did reach a breaking point in the interview, however, and tore “this stupid medieval rag” off her face. Khomeini proved understanding and agreed to resume the interview the next day. Fallaci’s Islamophobic statements led to legal charges filed against her. The Federal Office of Justice in Berne asked the Italian government to extradite her so she could be charged under Article 261b of the Swiss Criminal Code.

Chancellor Merkel subsequently complained that “Self-censorship does not help us against people who want to practice violence in the name of Islam.”77 In 2008, a stage adaptation of Salman Rushdie’s novel Satanic Verses in the east German city of Potsdam was seen as a provocative act by some Muslim groups in the country. Shortly after it had been published in 1988, the supposedly blasphemous novel had evoked a fatwah (religious directive) issued by Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini calling for the author’s assassination. The play was put on stage just as the controversy had seemed to be forgotten. In Britain, home secretary John Reid called on Muslim parents to keep a close watch on their children. “There’s no nice way of saying this,” he told a group of Muslims in London. “These fanatics are looking to groom and brainwash children, including your children, for suicide bombing, grooming them to kill themselves to murder others.”78 Former British foreign secretary Jack Straw wrote that he felt uncomfortable addressing women whose faces were covered with a veil—a “visible statement of separation and difference.”79 Even the mythic Dutch reputation for tolerance was tested with the murder of filmmaker Theo van Gogh in 2004 by a Dutch-born Moroccan.

See also anti-Semitism John Paul II (Pope), 36, 107, 152, 216 Joppke, Christian, 156 Judt, Tony, 58 jus sanguini, 130, 132 jus soli, 130, 132, 133 248 Index Kaczyński, Jarosław, 107; defeat of, 111–12, 142–43; on Polish land rights, 110 Kaczyński, Lech, 76, 105, 107, 108; defeat of, 142–43; on German exhibition, 109 Kadare, Ismail, 9, 201, 203; on Balkan history, 208–9; Broken April by, 206; The Concert by, 207; The File on H. by, 202; General of the Dead Army by, 206–7; The Palace of Dreams by, 207–8; Spring Flowers, Spring Frost by, 209; The Three-Arched Bridge by, 204–6 Kant, Immanuel, 13, 15, 17, 108 Kanun, 209 Kapuscinski, Ryszard, 13, 37n2 Katzenstein, Peter, 167–68 Keohane, Robert, 167–68 Kertész, Imre, 4 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 103, 220 Kipketer, Wilson, 230 kitsch, 175 Kjærsgaard, Pia, 102 Klaus, Vaclav, 76 Klein, Naomi, 73–74 Klingemann, Hans-Dieter, 65–66 Kogon, Eugen, 68 Kohl, Helmut, 22; on culture, 62; on German role, 68; immigrant policies of, 131 Kohut, Andrew, 168 Kołodko, Grzegorz, 55n20 Kosovo, 14, 150–51, 178, 207–8 Kremlin, 33, 34 Kroum (Levin), 193 Krzemiński, Adam, 109 Kumar, Krishan, 89–90 Kundera, Milan, 174–75 Künneth, Walter, 68 labor, 73–74, 200 Lacqueur, Walter, 85, 89 Lahav, Gallya, on asylum seekers, 127; on European identity, 91; on immigration, 92, 93, 121 land sales: Denmark’s fear of, 64n7; Polish, 43, 110 language, 86–87 Latvia, 126, 233 Lega Nord.

pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

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agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

From the beginning, as it rose from nothing in 1968 to 10,000 houses in the early 1970s to hundreds of thousands in the 1980s, Eslamshahr has offered a parallel, highly organized but legally clandestine society and government, a model for all future arrival cities, independent from Tehran’s municipal authorities and Iran’s ruling regime—and frequently at war with them. In media accounts, the 1979 revolution’s flashpoints are conventionally identified as the holy city of Qom, where the Ayatollah Khomeini and his circle of clerics delivered their rhetorical barrages against Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi after returning from exile in 1978; or in the bazaars of central Tehran, where the wealthy merchants merged their religious pieties with anti-modernist fury to back the Ayatollah’s movement. Yet these explosions occurred long after the revolution was well under way, and they would not have been society-altering events if this had merely been a revolt of the mosque and the bazaar. The revolution was not, until its final moments, an Islamic movement, and its motives and causes were not religious.

But he knew that his revolution would not succeed unless he won the unqualified support of the slum-dwellers.14 His message was efficiently spread through the mosques, a recruiting network of the sort that the liberal-democratic and Marxist parties did not possess and did not seem capable of replicating. Even as he promised free land and housing, Khomeini kept the Islamic nature of his revolution obscure, couching it in the language of nationalism and democracy, referring to it as an “Iranian revolution” or a “republic” when addressing less religious audiences and avoiding discussion of Islamic policies.15 There is every indication that ordinary Iranians, when they voted overwhelmingly for Khomeini’s government in the referendum of March 1979, believed they were voting for a nationalist, liberal-democratic party that happened to have a mullah for a leader. As the revolution turned theocratic, rejected the republican constitution, expelled the liberal-minded president, executed many of his colleagues, and turned the Ayatollah into a perpetual, all-powerful Supreme Leader, it was safe from the anger and disillusionment of the secular middle classes because it carefully maintained the loyalty of the far larger mass of arrival-city residents.

“The vast majority of participants in the revolutionary uprising,” the most comprehensive study of the revolution’s social origins concludes, “did not indicate in any way that they wanted to establish a society based on fundamentalist principles.”12 According to the sociologist Asef Bayat, who observed the revolution closely, “most of the poor seem to be uninterested in any particular form of ideology and politics.”13 There was every reason to expect this to be a liberal-democratic revolution, a turn to Turkish-style Kemalism or European-style liberalism. But it was the cleric Ruhollah Khomeini who most vocally, and most credibly, promised the rural migrants a place to live—in fact, in his speeches of early 1979, he promised all Tehranis, and all peasants, their own land. “This Islamic revolution is indebted to the efforts of this class, the class of shanty dwellers,” he said that February. “These South Tehranis, these footbearers, as we call them, they are our masters … they were the ones who brought us to where we are.

pages: 392 words: 106,532

The Cold War: A New History by John Lewis Gaddis

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, full employment, land reform, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine

The temptation to exploit this opportunity was too great to resist, and soon the Soviet Union was sending aid to the new regime in Kabul, which undertook an ambitious program to support land reform, women’s rights, and secular education. It did so, however, just as the revolution was brewing in neighboring Iran, which in January, 1979—in a severe setback for the United States—forced its long-time ally Shah Reza Khan Pahlavi into exile, replacing him with the Ayatollah Khomeini. The Russians and their new Afghan clients were no more prepared for this development than the Americans had been, and in mid-March a violent rebellion broke out in Herat, close to the Iranian border, which resulted in the deaths of some 5,000 people including fifty Soviet advisers and their families. The Afghans blamed Khomeini, but from Moscow’s perspective the unpopularity of the Kabul regime was also responsible.32 “Do you have support among the workers, city dwellers, [and] the petty bourgeoisie?” Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin demanded of Afghan Prime Minister Nur Mohammed Taraki in a top-secret telephone conversation.

The unsuccessful Bay of Pigs landing in April, 1961, exposed the most ambitious covert operation the Agency had yet attempted, humiliated the newly installed Kennedy administration, strengthened relations between Moscow and Havana, and set in motion the series of events that would, within a year and a half, bring the world to the brink of nuclear war.29 Meanwhile, the Shah of Iran, restored to power by the Americans in 1953, was consolidating an increasingly repressive regime which Washington found impossible to disavow. Once again, a tail wagged a dog, linking the United States to an authoritarian leader whose only virtues were that he maintained order, kept oil flowing, purchased American arms, and was reliably anti-communist. Iranians were sufficiently fed up by 1979 that they overthrew the Shah, denounced the United States for supporting him, and installed in power under the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini the first radically Islamist government anywhere in the world.30 Not all C.I.A. operations ended this badly. In April, 1956, one of the most successful of them was, quite literally, exposed when the Russians invited reporters to tour a tunnel the Agency had constructed, extending from West Berlin a third of a mile into East Berlin, by which it had intercepted Soviet and East German cable and telephone communications for more than a year.

Jackson-Vanik amendment Japan atomic bombing of and Korea occupation of Jaruzelski, Wojciech Jews Soviet John Paul II, pope attempted assassination of Johnson, Lady Bird Johnson, Lyndon B. Great Society programs of Vietnam War and Johnson administration Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Justice Department, U.S. Kádár, János Kant, Immanuel Katyn Wood massacre Kazakhstan Kennan, George F. “long telegram” of on role of C.I.A. on U.N. Kennedy, John F. Cuban missile crisis and U.S.-Soviet relations and Kennedy, Robert F. Kent State incident K.G.B. Khmer Rouge Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khrushchev, Nikita background and personality of Berlin Wall and Cuban missile crisis and East German alliance and Eisenhower’s meetings with Hungarian uprising and nuclear weapons policy of ouster of rise of Sino-Soviet relations and Stalin denounced by Suez crisis and Tito visited by U.S. visited by U-2 incident and “We will bury you” remark of Khrushchev, Sergei Kim Il-sung King, Martin Luther, Jr.

pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

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Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Woerner, and J. D. Wall, “Sex-Biased Evolutionary Forces Shape Genomic Patterns of Human Diversity,” PLoS Genetics, Vol. 4, No. 9, 2008 (www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1000202, accessed 08/08/2010). The views of David Hume and Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini on polygamy are found in David Hume, Essays Moral, Political and Literary, Part I, Essay XIX, in The Philosophical Works of David Hume, Vol. 3, edited by Adam Black, William Tait, and Charles Tait, 1826; and Oriana Fallaci, “An Interview with Khomeini,” New York Times Magazine, October 7, 1979. Mating strategies of bonobos and birds can be found in Matt Ridley, The Red Queen (London: Penguin Books, 1993), pp. 203-235. Insights on men and women’s adulterous choices can be found in Lena Edlund, “Marriage: Past, Present, Future?”

That fits a typical marker of polygamy: rich men mate a lot with lots of different women; poor men breed very little or not at all. In his essay on polygamy and divorce, the eighteenth-century Scottish Enlightenment philosopher David Hume blasted polygamy as unnatural: “This sovereignty of the male is a real usurpation, and destroys that nearness of rank, not to say equality, which nature has established between the sexes.” But in 1979, more than two hundred years later, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini told the Italian journalist Oriana Fallaci that Iran’s “law of the four wives is a very progressive law, and was written for the good of women since there are more women than men.” Polygamy, he concluded, “is better than monogamy.” IT MIGHT SEEM odd to bring the invisible hand of the market to bear on the most intimate transactions between men and women. But there is an economic rationale for these mating arrangements.

, The (album) infanticide information conflict between makers and consumers of driven off-line free online information technology Inhofe, James ink In Rainbows (album) insurance health social insurance companies Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change International Labour Organization Internet free downloads and internet service providers (ISPs) investment bubbles and in human capital investment banks iPhone Iran Ireland, Irish Isabella, Queen of Spain Israel Italy iTunes Jack Benny Show, The (TV show) Jackson, Michael janitors Japan, Japanese culture in health-related expenditures in Jehovah’s Witnesses Jews, Judaism Orthodox ultra-Orthodox Jigme Singye Wangchuck, King of Bhutan jobs Jobs, Steve John Paul II, Pope Johns, Adrian justice Justice Department, U.S. Justinian, Emperor Kahneman, Daniel Karnataka Katrina, Hurricane Kellner, Jamie Kennedy, Edward Kennedy, John F. Kennedy, Robert Kenya Keynes, John Maynard Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khouri, Saeed kidneys Kimble, George H. T. Kipsigis Kmart Kodachrome Kodak Kolkata Krugman, Paul labor, cost of labor theory of value labor unions Lamalera land, allocation of Langthab lap dancing lawyers Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo legal system, laws Lehman Brothers Lennon, John Leo IX, Pope Lewis, W. Arthur license plates licensing Liebowitz, Stan life, price of health care and 9/11 and life expectancy lighthouses Lincoln, Abraham lobbying London Los Angeles, Calif., housing in Lost Symbol, The (Brown) Louis XVI, King of France Luther, Martin luxury McCain, John McCartney, Paul Machiguenga magazines Magnus, Albertus Maimonides, Moses Maldives Malinowski, Bronislaw Malthus, Rev.

pages: 283 words: 77,272

With Liberty and Justice for Some: How the Law Is Used to Destroy Equality and Protect the Powerful by Glenn Greenwald

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Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Clive Stafford Smith, collateralized debt obligation, Corrections Corporation of America, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Brooks, deskilling, financial deregulation, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Julian Assange, mandatory minimum, nuremberg principles, Ponzi scheme, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

Sure enough, they got it: White House officials who clearly and knowingly broke the law, and then deliberately lied to Congress about what they had done (also a felony), were systematically protected from any consequences for their crimes. The Iran-Contra scandal erupted in 1986, when it was revealed that the Reagan administration had sold arms—anti-tank and antiaircraft missiles—to the Ayatollah Khomeini’s regime in Iran. The purpose of the deal was twofold. Initially, it was meant to help secure the release of six American hostages who were being held by Iranian-backed Shia militants in Lebanon. At the same time, the money received from the sale of these weapons to Iran was used to fund the Contras, a CIA-backed rebel group fighting to overthrow the Sandinista government in Nicaragua. Reagan’s approval of a weapons-for-hostages deal was an astonishing act of hypocrisy for a self-styled tough guy who had boasted that he would never “negotiate with terrorists.”

Morgan JPMorgan Chase Jefferson County case Jurist news service Justice Department (DOJ) detention without trial and fails to investigate Bush crimes financial industry and Iran-Contra and legal access of poor and memos authorizing criminal conduct and Plame outing and as political arm of White House prisons and state secrets and torture and U.S. attorney firings and warrantless eavesdropping and whistle-blowers and Kashkari, Neel Katzenbach, Nicholas Kean, Thomas Kelly, Elisa Kelly, Ian Kendrick, Joh Kennedy, Robert Kenworthy, Lane Kenya Khomeini, Ayatollah King, Martin Luther, Jr. Klein, Joe Klein, Mark Knutson, Harmony Kozinski, Alex Kravis, Henry Kristof, Nicholas Kristol, Bill Krumholz, Sheila Kuwait Lacey, Frederick Lachman, Desmond La Follette, Bob Lammers, Joris Latinos Lebanon Lederman, Marty Legal Service Corporation (LSC) legal services, access to Lehman Brothers Leibowitz, Shamai Libby, Lewis “Scooter” media defense of Plame outing and sentence commuted Libby Defense Fund Liberia Lichtblau, Eric Liddy, Ed Lieberman, Joe Lietzau, William Liptak, Adam lobbying financial industry and prison industry and telecoms and Los Angeles Times Loury, Glenn Macey, Jonathan Madison, James Madoff, Bernie Malaysia Mann, James R.

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Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World's First Digital Weapon by Kim Zetter

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Brian Krebs, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Doomsday Clock, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Earth, information retrieval, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

The revolutionaries who ousted the shah and seized power with the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini took a narrow view of the behemoth reactors being erected at Bushehr, considering them a symbol of the shah’s alliance with the West. The United States, alarmed by the unstable political situation, withdrew support for the project, and the German government eventually forced Kraftwerk Union to pull out of its contract for Bushehr.20 The subsequent Iran–Iraq war wasn’t kind to the abandoned reactors. Throughout the eight-year war, which ran from 1980 to 1988, Iraq bombed the two towers more than half a dozen times, leaving them in ruins.21 During the war, the commander of Iran’s Revolutionary Guard urged the Ayatollah Khomeini to launch a nuclear weapons program to fend off Iraq and its Western allies. But Khomeini refused, believing that nuclear weapons were anathema to Islam and a violation of its basic moral principles.

But Khomeini refused, believing that nuclear weapons were anathema to Islam and a violation of its basic moral principles. He apparently changed his mind, however, after Saddam Hussein unleashed chemical weapons on Iranian troops and civilians, killing about 25,000 and injuring more than 100,000 others. Incensed by the UN’s passive reaction, and alarmed at rumors that Iraq was seeking to build nuclear weapons of its own, Khomeini decided to revive Iran’s nuclear program. This included developing a uranium enrichment program.22 To launch the program, Iran turned to a Pakistani metallurgist named Abdul Qadeer Khan for help. Khan had been instrumental in helping Pakistan build its nuclear weapons program in the mid-1970s, using centrifuge technology he had stolen from Europe. Khan had worked for a Dutch company that conducted centrifuge research and development for Urenco, a consortium formed by Germany, Great Britain, and the Netherlands to develop centrifuges for nuclear power plants in Europe.

Protesters vandalized stores and set fire to trash bins, while police and Basijis, government-loyal militias in plainclothes, tried to disperse them with batons, electric prods, and bullets. That Sunday, Ahmadinejad gave a defiant victory speech, declaring a new era for Iran and dismissing the protesters as nothing more than soccer hooligans soured by the loss of their team. The protests continued throughout the week, though, and on June 19, in an attempt to calm the crowds, the Ayatollah Ali Khamenei sanctioned the election results, insisting that the margin of victory—11 million votes—was too large to have been achieved through fraud. The crowds, however, were not assuaged. The next day, a twenty-six-year-old woman named Neda Agha-Soltan got caught in a traffic jam caused by protesters, and was shot in the chest by a sniper’s bullet after she and her music teacher stepped out of their car to observe.

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Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency by Joshua Green

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate raider, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Fractional reserve banking, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, low skilled workers, Nate Silver, nuclear winter, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, urban planning

During Bannon’s second deployment, when he had become a navigator, the Paul F. Foster was ordered to the North Arabian Sea. Just past midnight on March 21, 1980, he was piloting the destroyer off the southern coast of Iran when it rendezvoused with the supercarrier USS Nimitz, which it was assigned to shadow. The previous November, Iranian revolutionaries belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam’s Line, an Iranian student group that backed the Ayatollah Khomeini, had stormed the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and seized fifty-two American hostages. The crisis dominated American headlines and roiled the latter stages of Jimmy Carter’s troubled presidency. The Paul F. Foster and the Nimitz sailed to the Gulf of Oman, where they began preparations for the secret mission that was to become Carter’s response. The Nimitz carried eight RH-53D Sea Stallion helicopters that were supposed to swoop into Tehran with Delta Force soldiers, who would free the American hostages in a lightning blitz code-named Operation Eagle Claw.

., 174 Johnson, Woody, 197 Jones, Paula, 43, 153, 217 Jordan, Jim, 175–76 junk bonds, 67–68 Kali Yuga, 205, 223 Kaplan, Rob, 65 Kasich, John, 170, 182, 187 Kelly, Megyn, 168–74, 180, 192, 194, 195 Kelly, Michael, 33 Kelly File, The, 168, 173 Kennedy, John F., 50, 196 Kennedy, Kevin, 64 Kennedy, Ted, 90 Kerkorian, Kirk, 75–76 Khan, Khizr and Ghazala, 196, 219 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 56 King, Larry, 38 Koch, Charles and David, 123, 135 Kramer, Jane, 122n Krauthammer, Charles, 189 Krugman, Paul, 148 Kushner, Jared, 3, 12, 17, 193, 200, 201, 203, 215, 218, 219 Kwatinetz, Jeff, 80, 81 Lehane, Chris, 159 Leininger, Eric, 96 Lemon, Don, 171, 228 Le Pen, Marine, 207, 208, 222–23 Lessig, Lawrence, 152 Levin, Mark, 109, 172 Lewandowski, Corey, 3, 162–63, 166, 183, 192–94, 202 Lewinsky, Monica, 43 Lewis, Michael, 70, 88 Liberty Film Festival, 85 Liman, Doug, 80 Limbaugh, Rush, 85 Lindbergh, Charles, 190 Lovett, Jon, 34 Lynch, Loretta, 148 Maddow, Rachel, x Mallaby, Sebastian, 129 Manafort, Paul, 3–4, 193–94, 196, 199–203, 210 Manigault-Stallworth, Omarosa, 97 Maréchal-Le Pen, Marion, 208 Marlow, Alex, 143, 172, 173 McCain, John, ix, 39–40, 99–100 McCain-Feingold Act, 30 McDonald’s, 95, 96 Meadows, Mark, 176 Medallion Fund, 129, 130 Meet the Press, 27–28 Mercer, Rebekah, 122n, 123, 130, 133–35, 197, 199–200, 216 Mercer, Robert, 119–36, 141, 200, 216 Bannon and, 119, 124, 125, 130–31, 134–36, 148 Republican Party and, 120, 121, 134–35 Mercer Family Foundation, 133 Merkel, Angela, 206 Mexican immigrants: border agents and, 6, 108, 110, 163, 164 Breitbart and, 6, 108–10, 164 Trump’s attack on, 6, 161–63, 165–66 and Trump’s visit to border crossing, 6, 164–67 Trump’s wall plan and, 111, 163, 165, 169, 170, 190, 234 Meyers, Seth, 32, 35–36, 42 MGM, 24, 75–78 Mider, Zachary, 122n Milken, Michael, 67–72, 80, 141 Miller, Jason, 18 Miller, Stephen, xii, 14, 17, 183–84 minorities, 226 Republican Party and, 99–100, 102 Trump and, 96–103, 191 see also African Americans; Hispanics Mirage Resorts, Inc., 23–24 Mobile Press-Register, 182 Mook, Robby, 18–19 More Money Than God (Mallaby), 129 Morning Joe, 173 Morris, Dick, 30 Mount, Thom, 74 Murdoch, Rupert, 75, 108–9, 167, 179–80, 184, 194, 195 Muslims, see Islam, Muslims Mussolini, Benito, 205 NAACP, 90 NAFTA, 37, 41 nationalism, 207, 240 Bannon and, xiii, 6, 21, 46, 93, 150, 204, 207, 208, 222, 241 Trump and, xiii, 6, 46, 93, 204, 208, 230, 241, 242 Nazarbayev, Nursultan, 152 Nazi Germany, 205 NBC, 73, 93–95, 97, 101 Nelson, Monique, 96, 97, 103 Nevin, Darrell, 54 New Hampshire Freedom Summit, 117 New Hampshire primary, 182 New Republic, 41 Newsmax, 104–5 New York, 28n, 172, 194, 196, 215 New York Post, 38, 104, 153, 242 New York Times, 26, 40, 69–70, 148, 152–54, 156, 157, 162, 199, 201, 202, 220, 229 Nightline, 27 Nimitz, USS, 56, 57 9/11 terrorist attacks, 84, 85 Nixon, Richard, 41, 99 Nojay, Bill, 112–13 North, Oliver, 33 Nugent, Ted, 233 Nunberg, Sam, 44–46, 105–6, 109, 111–14, 117, 166, 192, 193 Obama, Barack, 15–16, 31–32, 38, 42, 87, 106, 107, 125, 148, 155, 176, 226, 237 birth certificate of, 31–35, 39–40, 42, 45–46, 100–101, 103, 125 college records of, 45 racial issues and, 39–40, 98 at White House Correspondents’ dinner, 33–35, 41 Obama, Michelle, 220 Obamacare, 114, 115, 176, 238, 240 Oczkowski, Matt, 226, 232 O’Donnell, Rosie, 169 O’Keefe, James, 89–90 Orion Pictures, 78 Ornstein, Norman, 28 Overlock, Mike, 70 Ovitz, Michael, 44, 80 Paladino, Carl, 112 Palin, Bristol, 89 Palin, Sarah, ix–xi, xiii, 21, 88–89, 145, 207 Palmieri, Jennifer, 211 Parretti, Giancarlo, 75–77 Passion of the Christ, The, 134 Patriot, 137 Patterson, Nick, 132 Paul, Rand, 45, 116, 117, 170 Paul F.

“One to a hundred, I would say 75 and 80 [percent],” Trump replied. “I want to do it so badly. You know, I have the theme. It’s my theme. It’s ‘Make America Great Again.’ That’s what I want to do.” But Trump didn’t even rate as the day’s most popular reality-TV star—Bannon outdid him. He’d spent the day at CPAC squiring around an unlikely pair of guests: Nigel Farage, the leader of the right-wing UK Independence Party, and Phil Robertson, the bandanna’d, ayatollah-bearded Duck Dynasty patriarch who was accepting a free-speech award. CPAC is a beauty contest for Republican presidential hopefuls. But Robertson, a novelty adornment invited after A&E suspended him for denouncing gays, delivered a wild rant about beatniks and sexually transmitted diseases that had upstaged them all, to Bannon’s evident delight. Afterward, everyone piled into party buses and headed for the Breitbart town house.

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America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy by Francis Fukuyama

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affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Internet Archive, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

It is an attempt to ideologize religion and use it for political purposes, more a Threat, Risk, and Preventive War product of modernity (like communism or fascism) than a re-assertion of traditional religion or culture. The historians Ladan and Roya Boroumand have argued similarly that many radical Islamist ideas are not Islamic but Western in origin. If we go back through the precursor political thinkers who shaped al-Qaida's ideology, such as Hassan al-Banna and Sayyid Qutb of the Muslim Brotherhood, Maulana Mawdudi of the Jamaat-e-Islami movement in Pakistan, or Ayatollah Khomeini, we find a peculiar syncretist doctrine that mixes Islamic ideas with Western ones, borrowed from the extreme left and right of twentieth-century Europe. 5 Concepts like "revolution," "civil society," "state," and the aestheticization of violence come not out of Islam but out of fascism and Marxism-Leninism. Jihadism's purpose is as much political as religious. It is thus a mistake to identify Islamism as an authentic and somehow inevitable expression of Muslim religiosity, though it certainly has the power to reinforce religious identity and spark religious hatred. 6 The implication of this view is that we are not currently engaged in anything that looks like a "clash of civilizations" but rather in something that looks much more familiar to us from the experience of the twentieth century.

"Scoop," 34 Jacksonian nationalists, 7, 8, 183 Jaffa, Harry, 23 Japan, 129,132,175 JDAMs (Joint Direct Attack Munition), 35 Jefferson, Thomas, 2 3 jihadists (radical Islamists), 69-70; cultural background of, 75-78; Iraq as base for, 181; political roots of, 72-74, 2om5; as threat to the United States, 5-6, 70-75, 184-85 Johnson, Lyndon,18 Jowitt, Ken, 54-55, 58, 86 Kagan, Robert, 40-44, 56, 102 Kant, Immanuel, 176 Kay, David, 92 Kelling, George, 19 Kennan, George, 50 Kennedy, John F, 50 Kennedy administration, 83 Kepel, Gilles, 71-72 Khalilzad, Zalmay, 31 Khan, A. Q., 80 221 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 73 Kirkpatrick, Jeane, 41, 43 Kissinger, Henry, 5, 7, 34, 37, 189 Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, 133 Kosovo war, 36, 98, 99, 172, 173 Krasner, Stephen, 178 Krauthammer, Charles, 43, 70-71, 102 Kristol, Irving, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 37, 40, 102 Kristol, William, 40-44, 56 Kristol-Kagan agenda, 40-44, 56, 102, 117 Kuwait, 160 Kyoto Protocol, 65 Laden, Osama bin, 70, 79 LaRouche, Lyndon, 21 Latin America, 109, 205~6ni5 leadership, aspects of, 60-61 League of Nations, 49, 176 leftists (during the 1960s), 18 legitimacy: of American actions against Iraq, 97; international, 96, 97-98, 191; of international institutions, 155, 169, 170-71; of NATO, 172-74; of states, 10 Leninism, 55, 58 Lerner, Daniel, 126 Levine, Ross, 123 Lewinsky, Monica, 43 liberal authoritarianism, 140-41 liberal internationalists, 7 libertarians, 27-28 Ligachev, Yegor, 199-200^2 Lilla, Mark, 21,23 Limongi, Fernando, 128 Lipset, Seymour Martin, 15, 16-17, 128 Loury, Glenn, 18-19 Lukashenko, Alexander, 130 Luther, Martin, 78 MacArthur, Douglas, 30, I97~98ni5 Madrid bombings, 73 Maine, Henry, 125 Mann, James, 14 Manning, David, 195m Marcos, Ferdinand, 135 Mawdudi, Maulana, 73 Mead, Walter Russell, 7, 106, 107 memorandum of understanding (MOU), 166 Metternich, Prince von, 189 Mexico, 148-49 Middle East: democracy in, 177, 186-87, 2I 5 n 4; nuclear proliferation in, 34.

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Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

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agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

Following the 1994 Jewish Community Center attack, pressure to investigate and solve the matter heightened, but high-level interference slowed the process down. In 1998, Argentinian judicial and intelligence officials got a break when an Iranian defector in formal testimony implicated senior members of the Tehran government including the president, the minister of foreign affairs, the head of intelligence, the son of the ayatollah Khomeini and the Iranian ambassador to Argentina at the time of the attacks. Additional information, gathered by Argentinian intelligence, showed Iranian officials FROM TERRORISM TO INSURGENCY I79 leaving and entering Argentina under false names around the time of the bombings (Rother, 2002a). For the first time in this investigation, a geographic connection was made that continues to matter today: the so-called Triple Frontier where Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay converge (Fig. 9-1).

No amount of behavior modification on the part of the Western world or of the United States can undo what history has wrought, and of course there is no way to return the planet to the circumstances represented by Figure 8-2. Not even a complete cessation of oil exports and the total withdrawal of all Westerners and Western interests from Saudi Arabia would be enough to satisfy bin Laden and his Wahhabist associates: they equate the "moderate" wing of the royal family with the former shah of Iran, and nothing short of a theocracy of the Khomeini variety will do. Indeed, Khomeini himself made a move that reveals the intent of those who espouse the true faith: in 1989 he issued a fatwa that reached beyond the world of Islam, the umma, by proclaiming a death sentence against a British author living in the United Kingdom for a work allegedly containing blasphemy. This pronouncement compelled Muslims to attempt to find and kill the offender, who had to go into hiding in his own country.

But in Islamic law— and, among the major religions. Islamic law alone—conversion from Islam is apostasy, punishable by death. Once a Muslim, always a Muslim; attempt to renounce the faith, and both the convert and he who encouraged the conversion are condemned. The Hadith is quite specific on this point: "Whoever changes his religion, kill him" (Hadith, 37). While apostasy and blasphemy (another capital offense, as Khomeini's fatwa against British author Salmon Rushdie reminded the world) may not routinely result in execution, it is noteworthy that reservations against the principle are almost never heard from clerics or commoners, and opposition to condemnations is rare. In Iran in 2002, when a conservative court sentenced a university professor to death for publishing a proposal for an Islamic "enlightenment," thousands of university students did take to the streets in protest.

Interventions by Noam Chomsky

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Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, cuban missile crisis, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, Monroe Doctrine, nuremberg principles, old-boy network, Ralph Nader, Thorstein Veblen, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, éminence grise

Bill Savadove, “President of Iran calls for unity against west,” South China Morning Post, June 16, 2006; “Non-aligned nations back Iran’s nuclear program,” Japan Economic Newswire, May 30, 2006; Edward Cody, “Iran Seeks Aid in Asia In Resisting the West,” Washington Post, June 15, 2006. 2. See, among others, William Lowther and Colin Freeman, “US funds terror groups to sow chaos in Iran,” Sunday Telegraph, February 25, 2007. 3. For Khamenei’s statement, see “Leader Attends Memorial Ceremony Marking the 17th Departure Anniversary of Imam Khomeini,” June 4, 2006. http://www.khamenei.ir/EN/News/detail.jsp?id=20060604A. The Great Soul of Power JULY 13, 2006 It is a challenging task to select a few themes from the remarkable range of the work and life of Edward Said. I will keep to two: the culture of empire, and the responsibility of intellectuals or those whom we call “intellectuals” if they have the privilege and resources to enter the public arena.

The arc of Negroponte’s career ranges from Honduras, where as Reagan’s ambassador he oversaw the Contra terrorist forces’ war against Nicaragua, to Iraq, where as Bush’s ambassador he briefly presided over another exercise in alleged democracy development—experience that can inform his new duties to help combat terror and promote liberty. Orwell would not have known whether to laugh or to weep. In Iraq, the January (2005) elections were successful and praiseworthy. However, the main success is being reported only marginally: The United States was compelled to allow them to take place. That is a real triumph, not of the bombthrowers, but of nonviolent resistance by the people, secular as well as Islamist, for whom Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani is a symbol. Despite U.S.-U.K. foot-dragging, Sistani demanded speedy elections, reflecting popular determination to achieve freedom and independence, and some form of democratic rights. The nonviolent resistance continued until the United States (and the United Kingdom, trailing obediently behind) had no recourse but to allow the elections. The doctrinal machinery then went into high gear to present the elections as a U.S. initiative.

Even apart from the timing, the democratization bandwagon runs up against the fact that the United States has tried, in every possible way, to prevent elections in Iraq. Last January’s (2005) elections came about because of mass nonviolent resistance which U.S. forces could not contain. Few competent observers would disagree with the editors of the Financial Times, who wrote last March (2005) that “the reason [the elections] took place was the insistence of the Grand Ayatollah Ali Sistani, who vetoed three schemes by the U.S.-led occupation authorities to shelve or dilute them.” Elections, if taken seriously, mean you pay some attention to the will of the population. The crucial question for an invading army is: Do they want us to be here? There is no lack of information about the answer. One important source is a poll for the British Ministry of Defense this past August (2005), carried out by Iraqi university researchers and leaked to the British press.

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The Year That Changed the World: The Untold Story Behind the Fall of the Berlin Wall by Michael Meyer

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Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, BRICs, call centre, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, haute couture, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, union organizing

How was it, then, that these dramatic events failed to spark a realization that change was on the march in Eastern Europe, that the Cold War world was profoundly and quickly changing? The answer was Tiananmen Square. The massacre of demonstrating students in China—with its dramatic TV footage of rumbling tanks, riot police firing tear gas, screams, shots and bodies in the streets—occurred on the same day as the Polish election. June 4 also brought news of the death, at eighty-nine, of Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini, the father of the Iranian Revolution. The imagery from China, coupled with the fanatical turmoil of Khomeini’s funeral, thrust Poland’s political transformation to the background of the news. “After that,” one Bush aide later told me, “it was almost impossible to focus on anything else. It was Tiananmen, Tiananmen, Tiananmen. And then Iran. Eastern Europe? Yes, it was on the radar. But not really.” In retrospect, this made Poland’s election all the more remarkable.

Bush, 94–95 as president of Poland, 92, 128, 131–132, 225–226 Round Table (1989), 35, 47, 49, 50–54, 58–63, 80, 82–83, 129, 141 Solidarity elections of 1989, 81 Jefferson, Thomas, 29, 41 Jennings, Peter, 183 John Paul II (pope), 190–191 Johnson, Ben, 39 Johnson, Daniel, 223 Jordan, 106 Jubilee of 1989 (GDR), 66, 115, 135, 147–152 Judt, Tony, 219, 238 Julius Caesar, 131 Kadar, Janos, 84–85, 88 Kagan, Robert, 215, 237 Karl-Marx-Stadt, rise of opposition, 158 Karpati, Ferenc, 57, 68–69 Kat, 52–53, 59, 81 Katowice, 51–52 Keller, Bill, 222 Kennan, George, 61 Kennedy, John F., 3, 10 Kent State University, 225–226 Kessler, Heinz, 68–69, 117 KGB secret police, 11–12, 25, 53, 135–136, 140 Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruholla, 83 Khrushchev, Nikita S., 17 Ki-moon, Ban, 219 Kiss the Hand You Cannot Bite (Behr), 236 Kiszcak, Czeslaw at Round Table (1989), 48, 59, 63, 80, 82–83 Solidarity elections of 1989, 82, 84 Klaus, Vaclav, 184 Kochemasov, Vyacheslav, 154–155, 234 Kohl, Helmut attitudes toward German reunification, 23–28, 127 fall of Berlin Wall and, 9, 72–76, 175, 228–229, 235–236 Gorbachev and, 12 nuclear deterrence and, 74–76 refugees from GDR and, 113–114, 125–127 Korean War, impact of, 23 Kornblum, John, 10 Kosovo, 47 Kovacs, Gyula, 99–100, 102 Kraków, 82 Krauthammer, Charles, 214, 236–237 Krenz, Egon collapse of GDR and, 163, 165–167, 169, 170, 172, 173, 204, 234–235 fall of Berlin Wall and, 7–9, 65, 223, 234 GDR Jubilee of 1989 and, 148, 150 as leader of GDR, 156–161, 175 refugees from GDR and, 133–135 rise of opposition in GDR, 154–156 Kreuzberg, 24 Krol, Marek, 130 Kubek, Tony, 94 Kubisova, Marta, 182 Kulcsar, Kalman, 145, 206 as justice minister of Hungary, 29, 30–31, 33, 36, 41, 55 Kurfurstendamm (West Berlin), 120 Kuron, Jacek, 53–54 Kuwait, 214 Kwiatkowski, Stanislaw, 230 Lake Balaton, 57, 68, 95, 98, 101, 113, 207, 232 Lance missiles, 229 Largo Desolato (Havel), 136 League of Young Democrats (Fidesz), 32 Lebow, Richard, 224 Leipzig fall of Berlin Wall and, 172, 234 refugees from GDR and, 124, 135, 160 rise of opposition, 152, 153, 155, 158–159 Lenin’s Tomb, 65–66 Letna Park (Prague), 188–190 Libby, I.

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Into the Black: The Extraordinary Untold Story of the First Flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia and the Astronauts Who Flew Her by Rowland White, Richard Truly

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Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Maui Hawaii, Mercator projection, Ronald Reagan, V2 rocket, William Langewiesche

In the spring of 1979, a small, chaotic group of Iranian Marxist revolutionaries had managed to seize the US embassy in Tehran. They were quickly thrown out by supporters of the country’s new leader, the radical cleric Ayatollah Khomeini. In the aftermath of the attack, the CIA’s Iran branch chief in Langley contacted the head of the Tehran station to reassure him that another incursion was unlikely. “The only thing that could trigger an attack,” he said, “would be if the shah was let into the United States—and no one in this town is stupid enough to do that.” On October 21, the exiled Shah of Iran was admitted to a New York hospital for cancer treatment. Two weeks later, three thousand angry supporters of the ayatollah swarmed over the walls of the US embassy in the Iranian capital, overpowering the Marine guards to take hostage more than sixty embassy staff. The sight of American diplomats blindfolded and handcuffed while crowds outside burned the Stars and Stripes and chanted for the shah’s return shocked America.

The sight of American diplomats blindfolded and handcuffed while crowds outside burned the Stars and Stripes and chanted for the shah’s return shocked America. Before the end of the month, Ayatollah Khomeini had released all the women and African American hostages, but a warning was to follow: if America attacked his country, the remaining fifty-three hostages would die “on the spot.” Work on a rescue attempt, however, had already begun. The foundation upon which the US Army’s Delta Force planned their operation was overhead photography from the two KH-11 satellites. While a CIA agent on the ground was able to supply detail about what was going on inside the embassy, augmented by increased signals intelligence monitoring Iranian communications, no military option was possible without detailed information about the physical layout of the compound and its surroundings.

See KH-11 KENNEN Kerwin, Joe, 112, 113, 119, 121 KEYHOLE (spy satellite program), 64, 88, 204, 296, 378 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 281–82, 287–90, 296, 301, 310–11, 316–18, 320, 324, 336–37 failings of, 38 MOL program, 33, 39–40, 60 security, 64, 311 Skylab, 298 Vandenberg Air Force Base, 54 See also individual satellites (KH) KGB, 205 KH-4 CORONA (Discoverer), 34–38, 39, 64, 88 CIA develops replacement, 58 Discoverer 0, 35 Discoverer 1, 34–35 Discoverer 2, 35 Discoverer 3, 35 Discoverer 13, 35 Discoverer 14, 35–36 USSR reconnaissance, 52 KH-7 GAMBIT, 37–38 KH-8 GAMBIT, 287, 288 KH-8 GAMBIT-3 (G3), 108, 115 assists Skylab, 1, 113, 115–18 KH-9 HEXAGON, 58–59, 74, 161, 287, 288 cancellation of, 58–60 design, 58, 93, 187 launch, 92, 162–63, 287 KH-10 DORIAN, 31, 32–33, 38–40, 42, 53, 55, 60 KH-11 KENNEN, 86, 161–62, 189, 203–4, 224–25 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 288–90, 296, 301, 310–11, 316–18, 320, 324, 336–37 development of, 162, 188 launch, 203–4, 224–25, 324 KH-12 Advanced KENNEN (CRYSTAL/IKON), 188, 378 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 224–25 Kiker, John, 126–27 Kindley Field Naval Air Station, 183–84 Kissinger, Henry, 55, 86 Kleinknecht, Kenny, 223 Knoche, Hank, 162 Kokee Park tracking station, 293 kosmolyot, 142 Kosygin, Alexei, 107 Kraft, Chris, 151, 152, 248 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 324 and Hans Mark, 256–57 heat shield development, 222, 229, 247 John Houbolt’s concern over Columbia, 247, 250 meets NASA’s TFNGs, 198 Shuttle development, 125, 127, 244 Shuttle Training Aircraft program, 158, 161 state of Shuttle program, 219–20 STS-1 launch, 270 STS-1 reentry and landing, 372 Kranz, Gene, 298, 318 Apollo 3 reentry, 348 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 286–87, 290, 301, 306, 307, 324, 327–29, 333–37, 342, 375 press conferences, 302 Kranz Doctrine, 336, 391 Kubrick, Stanley (2001: A Space Odyssey), 164 Kuiper, Gerard P., 340 Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), 340–41, 342, 343–44, 353–54 STS-1 reentry and landing, 347–48 systems failure, 361 Kulpa, Major-General John, 187, 188–89, 214 Land, Edwin, 35–36 landing Approach and Landing tests, 151, 165–88 landing gear, 125–26 landing simulations, 135–37 Langley Research Center, 126, 127, 245–47 Larsen, Dr., 124 Lawrence, Bob, 30, 42, 44 Lawyer, Dick, 29–30, 42 Learjet, 285 Lee, Dottie Apollo 11, 3 begins work on Space Shuttle concept, 3–4, 48–51 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 6, 279, 294, 300–301 final presentation to Walt Williams, 235 LeMay, General Curtis, 15, 31 Leonov, Alexei, 140 Lewis, Chuck, 298, 333 Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, 75 Liberty Star (recovery ship), 270 Liebergot, Sy, 77 Life magazine, 12, 69 Lindberg, Charles, 10 Ling-Temco-Vought Company, 41 Livermore Laboratory, 87–88, 162 Lockheed Corporation, 49, 53, 103, 104 A-12 OXCART, 102, 103 bids to build Shuttle, 106 C-5A Galaxy, 126, 127 C-130 Hercules, 20, 35 C-141 Starlifter, 116, 340–41, 343–44, 353–54, 361 EC-130, 225 F-104 Starfighter, 18, 20, 25, 27–28, 44, 124, 222, 249 F-117 Nighthawk, 136, 213 heat shield, 133, 185–86 JC-130B, 116 Jetstar, 137 large space telescope (LST), 288 NF-104 AeroSpace Trainer, 18 NT-33, 136 P-80 Shooting Star, 22 Shuttle airframe testing, 208 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, 127 Shuttle Training Aircraft, 137 Skunk Works, 49, 102, 103, 162 SR-1 ejection seat, 259 SR-71 Blackbird, 102, 103, 233, 258 T-33, 20, 136 U-2 (spyplane), 36, 49, 102 Lockheed-Martin F-22 Raptor, 136 Los Alamos Laboratories, 388 Los Angeles Air Force Base, 41, 187 Lousma, Jack, 183, 184–85, 209, 377 Lovell, Jim, 76, 77, 78–80, 348 Lovell, Marilyn, 77 Lozino-Lozinskiy, Gleb, 205 Luftwaffe, 140 Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, 340 lunar landing training vehicle (“Flying Bedstead”), 135 lunar module, 18 Apollo program, 99 Aquarius, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80 Orion, 94–95, 135, 246 simulators, 135 lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR), 245–46 Lunar Rover buggy, 95 Lyulka AL-31 turbofan, 380 M113 tracked armored personnel carrier, 242 MacLean, Alistair (Ice Station Zebra), 34, 35 Macleay, Mac, 29–30, 42, 57, 58 Mahe, Seychelles, 54, 249, 274 Malabar Test Facility, 305, 307, 328 manned maneuvring unit, 234 Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL), 29–33, 38–44, 68, 118, 388 closure of project, 57–58, 60–61 computer systems, 129 costs, 52–53 DORIAN, 32–33, 38–40, 53, 55, 60 launch, 283, 388 “Magnificent Eight,” 29–30, 44 Manned Space Flight Center, Houston (MSFC), 45–51, 61, 63–70, 83–86, 102–38, 151–64, 227–36, 250–58, 281–98, 320–39, 355–62, 369–75 Apollo program, 99 Faget introduces Space Shuttle concept, 3–4 Firing Room 1, 260, 264, 265, 274 Flight Control, 286, 298, 302, 306, 332, 336 Launch Control, 236, 261, 264, 266, 274, 280 Shuttle’s computer systems, 109 Space Shuttle program, 99 Structures and Mechanics Division (Building 13) airframe testing, 207–8 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 6, 283, 294, 301, 324–25, 335 heat shield construction concerns, 211, 218 heat shield testing, 223 See also Astronaut Office (NASA); Johnson Space Center; Mission Control manned spaceflight engineers (MSEs), 214 Mark, Hans, 93, 378, 390 at Ames Research Center, 88, 99–100, 131, 162–63, 189, 229, 340 appointed Air Force Secretary, 219, 220–21 appointed deputy administrator of NASA, 248 appointed director of NRO, 187, 203–4, 219, 281 Columbia’s damaged heat shield, 281–82, 287, 293, 296, 311, 337 Freedom space station, 383 Hans-o-grams, 131 heat shield design concerns, 211 heat shield development, 100, 103, 131, 134, 144, 230 Hubble Telescope, 288 interest in intelligent life, 163–64 interest in space, 87 MSEs, 214 Payload Specialists, 164, 214 seeks extra money and time for Shuttle program, 220–21 Shuttle crew selection, 164 Shuttle’s future under Reagan, 240–41 Shuttle’s launch location, 190 Skylab, 121–22 Space Shuttle program, 86–89, 90, 121–22 spy satellites, 287 STS-1, 248, 256–57, 355, 373–74 USAF and CIA’s resistance to Shuttle, 187–88 “The Utility of Military Man in Space,” 213–14 and Wernher von Braun, 88–89, 163, 376 Mark, Herman, 87 Mark, Marion, 164, 204 Mars, 56, 66–67, 257 Marshall Space Flight Center, 99–100, 110 acoustic stress testing, 209, 229 development of Shuttle’s engines, 85, 144, 207 engine testing, 181, 186, 230 Skylab, 113, 185 Space Simulation Branch, 115 Wernher von Braun at, 88 Martin NB-57 Canberra bomber, 20 WB-57F, 214, 215 Martin-Marietta (manufacturers), 42, 144–46, 185, 223, 229, 234 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 109 Mathematica Inc.

On Power and Ideology by Chomsky, Noam

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, feminist movement, imperial preference, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Stanislav Petrov, union organizing

But, these exercises of state violence are often quite costly to the general population in both material and moral terms—and the latter should not be discounted, as is often done in a display of pretended sophistication that is hardly more than an expression of self-righteous elite contempt for ordinary people, contempt that is as unwarranted as it is uninformed. Domestic policies too are conducted in the interest of dominant elites, but are often quite costly for the general population: militarization of the society, for example. To mobilize the population and recalcitrant allies in support of costly domestic programs and foreign adventures, it is necessary to appeal to the fear of some Great Satan, to adopt the Ayatollah Khomeini’s useful contribution to political rhetoric. The Cold War confrontation provides a useful means. Of course, it is necessary to avoid direct confrontation with the Great Satan himself, this being far too dangerous. It is preferable to confront weak and defenseless powers designated as proxies of the Great Satan. The Reagan Administration has regularly used Libya for this purpose, arranging regular confrontations timed to domestic needs, for example, the need to gain support for the Rapid Deployment Force or for contra aid.

Recall that under the Orwellian principles of Western logic, it is a matter of definition, not of fact, that the United States is never the agent of subversion or aggression; hence by simple logic, enemies of the United States must be guilty of subversion and aggression in their own countries if they act in ways displeasing to the Master and come into conflict with his designs. One might, incidentally, imagine the reaction in the West if some top Soviet military commander, or Moammar Qaddafi or Khomeini, were to issue such pronouncements about the use of nuclear weapons. Some of the 19 incidents when U.S. strategic nuclear forces were involved might surprise you. At least, they surprised me when I learned about them. One such occasion, for example, was an election in Uruguay in 1947. Another was the CIA coup in Guatemala in 1954. As part of the background planning, the U.S. dispatched nuclear-armed bombers to Nicaragua, “meant, it would appear, as a signal of American commitment,” Blechman and Kaplan observe.

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Empire of Illusion: The End of Literacy and the Triumph of Spectacle by Chris Hedges

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Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Cal Newport, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, haute couture, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, statistical model, uranium enrichment

Nikolai Volkoff, who wrestled during these years under the name Boris Breznikoff, used to sing the Soviet National Anthem and wave the Soviet flag before matches to bait the crowd. He eventually teamed up with an Iranian-born wrestler, Hossein Khosrow Ali Vaziri, known as The Iron Sheik. In the midst of the Iranian hostage crisis, the Iron Sheik bragged in the ring about his devotion and friendship with Ayatollah Khomeini. The Iron Sheik was regularly pitted against a wrestler known as Sergeant Slaughter, All-American G. I. During the first Gulf War; the Iron Sheik reinvented himself, as often happens with wrestlers who shed one persona and name for another, as Colonel Mustafa, an Iraqi who was a close confidant of Saddam Hussein. In wrestling, villains were nearly always foreigners. They were people who wanted to destroy “our way of life.”

Morgan Chase Jackson, Randy Jameson, Jenna Japan in the Passing Lane: An Insider’s Account of Life in a Japanese Auto Factory (Kamata) Jaxin, Jersey Jefferson, Thomas Jensen, Robert Jerri (Survivor contestant) The Jerry Springer Show (television show) Jesus Christ JM Productions Job losses See also Unemployment Johnson, Chalmers Johnson, Lyndon Johnston, David Cay Jollee, Ariana Jopling, David Journal of Happiness Studies The Jungle (Lewis) Junk politics Justice Department, U.S. Kamata, Satoshi Kane (wrestler) Kant, Immanuel Keller, Bronwen Keltner, Dacher Kenci (porn actress) Kennedy, John F. Kerbel, Jarrett Kerry, John Khomeini, Ayatollah Khosrow Ali Vaziri, Hossein (Iron Sheik) Klein, Naomi Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) schools Known Unknowns: Unconventional “Strategic Shocks” in Defense Strategy Development (Freier) Korten, David Kristy (The Swan contestant) Krypton, Roger Ku Klux Klan Kucinich, Dennis LA Weekly (newspaper) Labor unions LaFarge, Peter Lahde, Andrew Landay, Jonathan Lane, Robert Lane, Sunny Las Vegas, Nevada described porn expo in Lasch, Christopher The Last Honest Place in America (Cooper) The Last Professors: The Corporate University and the Fate of the Humanities (Donoghue) Law, John Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Layfield, John Bradshaw (JBL) Lazarus, Richard S.

Executive Orders by Tom Clancy

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affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, card file, defense in depth, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, experimental subject, financial independence, friendly fire, Monroe Doctrine, one-China policy, out of africa, Own Your Own Home, Plutocrats, plutocrats, rolodex, South China Sea, trade route

Theirs was a maritime trading culture that predated Islam, a fact remembered in America only in remakes of Sinbad the Sailor movies. In that sense they were very like Americans, despite the difference in language, clothing, and religion, and just like Americans they had trouble understanding people who were not willing to do business, to reach an accommodation, to make some sort of exchange. Iran was such a country, changed from the previous state of affairs under the Shah by the Ayatollah Khomeini into a theocracy. They're not like us was the universal point of concern for any culture. They're not like us ANYMORE would be a very frightening development for Gulf States who'd always known that, despite political differences, there had always been an avenue of commonality and communication. “Tehran?” Jack asked next. Ben Goodley took the question unto himself. “Official news broadcasts welcome the development-the routine offers of peace and renewed friendship, but nothing beyond that at this point,” Goodley said.

“My country wishes no more than peace in this region-throughout the world, for that matter.” “As is indeed the wish of Allah, as revealed to us through the Prophet.” He was sticking to the script, Adler saw. Once upon a time, President Jimmy Carter had dispatched an emissary to visit this man's boss, Khomeini, at his exile home in France. The Shah had been in deep political trouble then, and the opposition had been sounded out, just to hedge America's bets. The emissary had come home after the meeting to tell his President that Khomeini was a “saint.” Carter had accepted the report at face value, and brought about the removal of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, allowing the “saint” to supplant him. Oops. The next administration had dealt with the same man and gotten nothing more for it than a scandal and world ridicule.

President,” the FBI Director said, entering with Inspector O'Day and Andrea Price. “Why do you look so happy?” And then they told him. IT WAS A BRAVE man who awoke the Ayatollah Mahmoud Haji Daryaei before dawn, and since those around him feared his wrath, it took two hours for them to summon the courage to do so. Not that it would help matters. At four in the morning in Tehran, the phone by the side of his bed rang. Ten minutes after that, he was in the sitting room of his private apartment, his dark, sunken eyes waiting to punish those responsible. “We have a report that American ships have entered the Gulf,” the intelligence chief told him. “When and where?” the Ayatollah asked quietly. “It was after midnight at the narrows. One of our missile-patrol boats spotted what it reported to be an American destroyer. It was ordered in to attack by the local naval commander, but we've heard nothing more from the boat.” “That is all?

pages: 441 words: 135,176

The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful--And Their Architects--Shape the World by Deyan Sudjic

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen

However, Attaturk wanted to replace Ottoman Turkey with a westernized, republican system that in theory would embrace democratic government – not an idea that appealed to either of the Shahs. But they adopted the methods that Attaturk had used to build a secular Turkish state, and in particular his cultural strategy to outflank dissenting Islamists, which depended in equal measure on archaeology and architecture. Before the Shah finally took the controls of his personal Boeing 707 in 1979 and flew off to exile and an early death in Egypt, allowing Ayatollah Khomeini to take power in an orgy of revolutionary violence and religious intolerance, he had embarked on a building campaign that was even more ambitious, though in the end manifestly less successful, than Attaturk’s. He wanted to turn Tehran into the capital of a modern, technocratic nation that would reflect his vision of Iran as one of the world’s leading industrial economies. It was a conception that the Shah had inherited from his father, Reza Khan, and it was a project undertaken in the hope that those of his subjects who were not grateful for being transformed from rural peasants living a subsistence existence into prosperous citizens of the modern world would at least be dazzled into silence by the glittering new state taking shape all around them.

Baron Haussmann was luckier than we were; Napoleon III survived just long enough to see his city built, but the Shah did not.’ In the event, of course, the Shah had packed his bags for exile, leaving his airports, his armed forces, and his infrastructure to the Ayatollahs. Even before the Islamic Republic of Iran closed the Shah’s art galleries and abandoned the plan for the library, the mob had swarmed over the site of the square, ransacking the pavilion in which a huge model of the new city had been on show. It had been flown from London in 1977 on a special Iranian Air Force flight. Tehran’s dispossessed destroyed it in moments and went on to try and dig up the gold foundation stone that the Shah had laid four years earlier. Not long after, the Ayatollahs gleefully dynamited Reza Khan’s tomb. After the hiatus of the revolutionary years, the Chinese eventually finished the metro system. But the square, the library, and the new city disappeared, swallowed up in the explosive growth of Tehran.

He is pictured on the title page, in a dapper needle-cord suit and silk tie from Yves St Laurent, standing over a concrete tube onto which a block and tackle has been manoeuvred. Helping the Shah bury the solid gold plaque marking the inauguration of construction on the site is Tehran’s last Pahlavi mayor, G. R. Nikpay. He wears a long black robe, embroidered in gold braid around the collar and cuffs, decked in medals, like a hero of the Soviet Union. Within five years, Nikpay would be dead, executed during Khomeini’s bloody settling of accounts. Haussmann’s Paris, it was constantly repeated, was the source for the reconstruction of Tehran. Llewelyn-Davies himself claimed, with what in retrospect sounds like a stunningly blinkered understanding of the closing years of the Shah’s reign, that ‘since Iran is in a period of national resurgence, it is only natural that the capital should become such a monumental expression of national pride.

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The end of history and the last man by Francis Fukuyama

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, centre right, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, labour mobility, land reform, long peace, Mikhail Gorbachev, nuclear winter, open economy, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game

T h e fan­ tastic economic growth made possible by m o d e r n science had a Our Pessimism 7 dark side, f o r it has led to severe environmental damage to many parts of the planet, and raised the possibility of an eventual global ecological catastrophe. It is frequently asserted that global infor­ mation technology and instant communications have p r o m o t e d democratic ideals, as in the case of CNN's worldwide broadcasting of the occupation of T i e n a n m e n S q u a r e in 1 9 8 9 , o r of the revo­ lutions in Eastern Europe later that year. But communications technology itself is value-neutral. Ayatollah Khomeini's reaction­ ary ideas w e r e imported into Iran p r i o r to the 1 9 7 8 revolution on cassette tape r e c o r d e r s that the Shah's economic modernization of the country had m a d e widely available. If television and instant global communications had existed in the 1 9 3 0 s , they would have been used to great effect by Nazi propagandists like Leni Riefenstahl and J o s e p h Goebbels to p r o m o t e fascist r a t h e r than demo­ cratic ideas.

This problem can be broken 82 No Barbarians at the Gates 83 down into two parts: first, can m o d e r n natural science be delib­ erately rejected by existing societies; and second, can a global cataclysm result in the involuntary loss of m o d e r n natural science? T h e deliberate rejection o f technology and a rationalized so­ ciety has been suggested by any n u m b e r o f groups in m o d e r n times, f r o m the Romantics of the early nineteenth century, to the hippie movement of the 1 9 6 0 s , to Ayatollah Khomeini and Is­ lamic fundamentalism. A t the moment, the most coherent and articulate source of opposition to technological civilization comes from the environmental movement. C o n t e m p o r a r y e n v i r o n m e n talism comprises many different groups and strands o f thought, but the most radical among them have attacked the entire m o d e r n project of mastering n a t u r e t h r o u g h science, and have suggested that man might be happier if n a t u r e w e r e not manipulated but r e t u r n e d to something m o r e closely approximating its original, pre-industrial state.

., 5 Fontenelle, Bernard Le Bovier de, 57, 62, 64, 72 Foreign policy, 8, 2 4 5 - 2 5 2 , 3 1 8 France, 275 centralizing tradition in, 2 1 8 219 democratic transition in, 2 1 2 événements of 1968, 330 nationalism in, 2 7 1 , 272 Franco, Francisco, 13, 1 8 - 1 9 Francoism, 19 Franco-Prussian War, 129 Franklin, Benjamin, 326 Franz Ferdinand, Archduke, 331 Freedom, 5 1 , 58, 60, 64, 65, 132 Christianity and, 1 9 6 - 1 9 8 Hegel on, 1 4 8 - 1 5 2 work as kind of, 194, 195 French Canadians, 1 2 1 , 273 French Revolution, 4, 19, 25, 42, 64, 66, 67, 134, 137, 175, 199, 2 1 6 408 INDEX Freud, Sigmund, 299 Fundamentalist Islam, 46, 83, 2 1 7 , 2 3 5 - 2 3 7 , 243 Fussell, Paul, 5 Galileo, 56 Gambia, 35 Gandhi, Mahatma, 228 GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), 283 Gellner, Ernest, 268, 269 Genocide, 4, 6, 128 Germany, 6, 123, 129, 280, 336 appeal of fascism in, 1 6 - 1 7 nationalism in, 2 1 5 , 267, 2 7 1 , 272 National Socialism in, 6, 7, 16, 48, 128, 129, 220, 333 unification of, 258, 337 World War I and, 5, 3 3 1 - 3 3 2 , 335 Glasnost', 30, 31 Global cataclysm, 83, 8 6 - 8 7 , 127 Global communications, 7 Global culture, 126 Global division of labor, 9 1 , 92 Global warming, 87 Glory, as form of recognition, 162, 183, 184 Gneisenau, August, 75 God's Presence in History (Fackenheim), 3 Goebbels, Joseph, 7 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 26, 29, 40, 47 coup against (1991), 28 glasnost' and perestroika and, 3 1 , 75 "new thinking" and, 263 Great Britain, 44, 2 5 6 - 2 5 8 Great Illusion, The ( Angell), 5 Great Leap Forward, 79, 95 Great Terror, 30 Greece, 13, 1 9 - 2 0 , 55, 1 1 0 , 256 Green movement, 86, 307 Group of Seven, 283 Group recognition, in Asia, 2 3 1 - 2 3 2 , 2 3 8 - 2 4 2 , 325 Guomindang party, 14 Guyana, 14 Hamilton, Alexander, 153, 162, 186, 187, 203 Handicapped, 2 9 4 - 2 9 5 Hapsburg Empire, 267, 269 Havel, Vaclav, 33, 1 6 6 - 1 6 9 , 171, 176, 177, 181, 182, 196,258 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 39, 5 9 - 6 9 , 75, 83, 9 1 , 135, 1 4 3 - 1 5 6 , 1 5 9 161, 165, 176, 182, 185, 191, 1 9 4 - 2 0 0 , 203, 204, 208, 2 1 6 , 223, 224, 288, 296, 3 0 0 - 3 0 2 , 3 1 1 , 322, 3 2 9 - 3 3 0 , 337 Heidegger, Martin, 333 Heller, Mikhail, 24 Hinduism, 2 1 7 economic development and, 228-229 Hippie movement, 83 Hiroshima, 6, 87 Historicism, 6 2 - 6 4 , 83, 137 History directionality of, 7 1 - 8 1 , 89, 126, 127 theories of, 4, 5 5 - 5 7 , 6 8 - 7 0 History of the Peloponnesian War (Thucydides), 245 Hitler, Adolf, 6, 1 5 - 1 7 , 23, 127, 190, 249 Hobbes, Thomas, 1 4 5 - 1 5 0 , 1 5 3 - 1 6 2 , 164, 185, 186, 188, 189, 193, 197-200, 214, 255, 288 Holocaust, 6, 7, 1 2 8 - 1 3 0 Homophobia, 296 INDEX Honecker, Erich, 94, 133, 1 7 8 179 Hong Kong, 107, 278 economic development of, 101, 102 Human nature, 5 1 , 6 3 - 6 4 , 138, 145-152 Human needs, 83, 1 3 2 - 1 3 3 Hume, David, 185 Humiliation, 168 Hungary, 26, 93, 273 democratic transition in, 26, 36,112 Huntington, Samuel, 1 1 , 2 1 6 Hussein, Saddam, 16, 190 Hu Yaobang, 34, 179 Hyksos dynasty, 260 Ibanez, Carlos, 106 Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of View, An (Kant), 5 7 - 5 9 , 281 Ideology, 4 5 - 4 6 , 62, 1 9 5 - 1 9 8 , 205 Immigration, 2 7 7 - 2 7 8 Imperialism, 182, 183, 245, 255, 256, 259, 260, 262, 2 6 5 267, 279 Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism (Lenin), 99 Import substitution, 100, 1 0 1 , 104, 220 Impressment, 261 India, 44, 123, 2 2 1 , 2 2 8 - 2 2 9 Indignation, 165, 172, 176 Individual freedom, 42 Individualism, 240, 295 Industrialization, 76, 84, 8 9 - 9 1 , 96, 2 6 8 - 2 7 0 ; see also Economic development Industrial policies, 1 2 4 - 1 2 5 Industrial Revolution, 6, 134 Inequality, 2 8 9 - 2 9 5 Infant mortality rate, 1 1 5 409 Interest groups, 1 1 7 , 172 International relations, 2 4 5 264, 2 7 9 - 2 8 3 International trade, 92, 9 9 - 1 0 0 Introduction to the Reading of Hegel (Kojève), 192, 287 Iran, 7, 44, 76, 1 1 2 , 123, 127, 137 Iranian revolution ( 1 9 7 8 - 7 9 ) , 236 Iraq, 16, 46, 76, 1 1 2 , 127, 236, 249, 262, 264, 277, 282 Ishihara, Shintaro, 243 Islam, 4 5 - 4 6 , 260 Islamic fundamentalism, 46, 83, 217, 2 3 5 - 2 3 7 , 243 Isothymia, 182, 187, 190, 292, 294, 295, 3 1 4 , 332, 334, 337 Israel, 236, 264 Italy, 2 1 5 Japan, 4 1 , 1 0 1 , 107, 186, 3 1 9 320, 336 American occupation of, 120 democratization of, 1 1 0 group identity in, 2 3 1 - 2 3 2 , 238-241 invasion of Manchuria, 249 Meiji, 7 4 - 7 5 , 1 1 3 , 123, 236 nationalism in, 231 trade disputes with, 233 work ethic in, 2 2 7 - 2 2 8 , 230 Jay, John, 186 Jefferson, Thomas, 153, 159, 326 Jews, 6 Jodo Shinshu, 227, 229 Jones, R. V., 225 Juan Carlos, King of Spain, 19, 47 Judaism, 2 1 7 Junkers, 1 1 3 410 INDEX Kant, Immanuel, 5 7 - 6 0 , 70, 76, 126, 135, 138, 144, 1 5 1 , 160, 163, 252, 262, 2 8 1 283, 296, 297, 302 Kapital, Dos (Marx), 68, 1 3 1 - 1 3 2 Karamanlis, Constantine, 13 Katyn murders, 178 Kazakhstan, 269 Kennan, George, 246, 256 Kesey, Ken, 24 Khmer Rouge, 79, 127, 293 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 7, 83 Khrushchev, Nikita, 26, 28, 32, 40 King, Martin Luther, 1 9 6 - 1 9 7 , 237 Kirkpatrick, Jeanne, 8 - 9 Kissinger, Henry, 8, 68, 246, 2 4 9 - 2 5 2 , 256, 280 Kojève, Alexandre, 6 5 - 6 7 , 139, 143, 144, 147, 150, 192, 193, 203, 2 0 6 - 2 0 7 , 2 8 7 289, 2 9 1 , 3 1 0 - 3 1 2 , 3 1 9 320, 329, 339 Kommunist, 263 Korean War, 263 Krenz, Egon, 178 Kulaks, 6 Kurds, 273 Kuwait, 262, 277, 282 Langer, William, 267 Last man, 300, 3 0 1 , 3 0 5 - 3 0 8 , 312, 336 Late development, 100, 107 Latin America, 10, 16; see also specific countries democratic transitions in, 1 3 14, 1 9 - 2 1 , 1 1 2 , 1 2 1 , 2 1 2 , 220,277 dependencia theory in, 99 economic development in, 4 1 42, 44, 1 0 3 - 1 0 6 , 223 social structure in, 2 1 7 League of Nations, 249, 251, 281, 282 Lebanon, 236 Lee Kuan Yew, 134, 2 4 1 , 243 Legitimacy concepts of, 2 5 7 - 2 5 9 , 279 crisis of, 1 5 - 1 7 definition of, 1 5 - 1 6 Leisure, 225 Lenin, V.

pages: 604 words: 177,329

The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 by Lawrence Wright

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airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, Khyber Pass, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, rolodex, Silicon Valley, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

WHEN ZAWAHIRI RETURNED to his medical practice in Maadi, the Islamic world was still trembling from the political earthquakes of 1979, which included not only the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan but also the return of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini to Iran and the toppling of the Peacock Throne—the first successful Islamist takeover of a major country. When Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, the exiled Shah of Iran, sought treatment for cancer in the United States, the Ayatollah incited student mobs to attack the American Embassy in Tehran. Sadat regarded Khomeini as a “lunatic madman…who has turned Islam into a mockery.” He invited the ailing Shah to take up residence in Egypt, and the Shah died there the following year. For Muslims everywhere, Khomeini reframed the debate with the West. Instead of conceding the future of Islam to a secular, democratic model, he imposed a stunning reversal.

Writing to his mother: interview with Omar Azzam; Robert Marquand, “The Tenets of Terror,” Christian Science Monitor, October 18, 2001. Through his connection: interview with Omar Azzam. recruiting for jihad: interview with Mahmoun Fandy. 46 “a training course”: al-Zawahiri, “Knights Under the Prophet’s Banner,” part 2. 47 “lunatic madman”: Ibrahim, Egypt Islam and Democracy, 30 n. “Yes we are reactionaries”: Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, “Speech at Feyziyeh Theological School,” August 24, 1979; reproduced in Rubin and Rubin, Anti-American Terrorism, 34. “Islam says”: Taheri, Holy Terror, 226–27. Iranian revolution: Abdelnasser, Islamic Movement, 73. 48 five hundred Quranic verses: Roy Mottahedeh, personal communication. final speech: Guenena, “‘Jihad’ an ‘Islamic Alternative,’” 80–81. 49 Sadat dissolved: Kepel, Jihad, 85.

“You, who want freedom, freedom for everything, the freedom of parties, you who want all the freedoms, you intellectuals: freedom that will corrupt our youth, freedom that will pave the way for the oppressor, freedom that will drag our nation to the bottom.” As early as the 1940s, Khomeini had signaled his readiness to use terror to humiliate the perceived enemies of Islam, providing theological cover as well as material support. “Islam says: Whatever good there is exists thanks to the sword and in the shadow of the sword! People cannot be made obedient except with the sword! The sword is the key to paradise, which can be opened only for holy warriors!” The fact that Khomeini came from the Shiite branch of Islam, rather than the Sunni, which predominates in the Muslim world outside of Iraq and Iran, made him a complicated figure among Sunni radicals.* Nonetheless, Zawahiri’s organization, al-Jihad, supported the Iranian revolution with leaflets and cassette tapes urging all Islamic groups in Egypt to follow the Iranian example.

pages: 478 words: 142,608

The God Delusion by Richard Dawkins

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Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Ayatollah Khomeini, Brownian motion, cosmological principle, David Attenborough, Desert Island Discs, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, gravity well, invisible hand, John von Neumann, luminiferous ether, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Murray Gell-Mann, Necker cube, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, placebo effect, planetary scale, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, unbiased observer

If only such subtle, nuanced religion predominated, the world would surely be a better place, and I would have written a different book. The melancholy truth is that this kind of understated, decent, revisionist religion is numerically negligible. To the vast majority of believers around the world, religion all too closely resembles what you hear from the likes of Robertson, Falwell or Haggard, Osama bin Laden or the Ayatollah Khomeini. These are not straw men, they are all too influential, and everybody in the modern world has to deal with them. I’m an atheist, but I wish to dissociate myself from your shrill, strident, intemperate, intolerant, ranting language. Actually, if you look at the language of The God Delusion, it is rather less shrill or intemperate than we regularly take in our stride – when listening to political commentators for example, or theatre, art or book critics.

Almost unbelievably, the crime of blasphemy is still on the statute book in Britain,118 and in 2005 a Christian group tried to bring a private prosecution for blasphemy against the BBC for broadcasting Jerry Springer, the Opera. In the United States of recent years the phrase ‘American Taliban’ was begging to be coined, and a swift Google search nets more than a dozen websites that have done so. The quotations that they anthologize, from American religious leaders and faith-based politicians, chillingly recall the narrow bigotry, heartless cruelty and sheer nastiness of the Afghan Taliban, the Ayatollah Khomeini and the Wahhabi authorities of Saudi Arabia. The web page called ‘The American Taliban’ is a particularly rich source of obnoxiously barmy quotations, beginning with a prize one from somebody called Ann Coulter who, American colleagues have persuaded me, is not a spoof, invented by The Onion: ‘We should invade their countries, kill their leaders and convert them to Christianity.’119 Other gems include Congressman Bob Dornan’s ‘Don’t use the word “gay” unless it’s an acronym for “Got Aids Yet?”’

Religious memes of this kind don’t necessarily have any absolute aptitude for survival; nevertheless, they are good in the sense that they flourish in the presence of other memes of their own religion, but not in the presence of memes of the other religion. On this model, Roman Catholicism and Islam, say, were not necessarily designed by individual people, but evolved separately as alternative collections of memes that flourish in the presence of other members of the same memeplex. Organized religions are organized by people: by priests and bishops, rabbis, imams and ayatollahs. But, to reiterate the point I made with respect to Martin Luther, that doesn’t mean they were conceived and designed by people. Even where religions have been exploited and manipulated to the benefit of powerful individuals, the strong possibility remains that the detailed form of each religion has been largely shaped by unconscious evolution. Not by genetic natural selection, which is too slow to account for the rapid evolution and divergence of religions.

pages: 956 words: 288,981

Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2011 by Steve Coll

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airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, centre right, colonial rule, computer age, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, index card, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

Clandestine, informal, transnational religious networks such as the Muslim Brotherhood reinforced the gathering strength of old-line religious parties such as Jamaat. This was especially true on university campuses, where radical Islamic student wings competed for influence from Cairo to Amman to Kuala Lumpur.5 When Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran and forced the American-backed monarch Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi to flee early in 1979, his fire-breathing triumph jolted these parties and their youth wings, igniting campuses in fevered agitation. Khomeini’s minority Shiite creed was anathema to many conservative Sunni Islamists, especially those in Saudi Arabia, but his audacious achievements inspired Muslims everywhere. On November 5, 1979, Iranian students stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran, sacked its offices, and captured hostages.

Prince Turki al-Faisal, the Saudi intelligence chief, concluded that the Mecca uprising was a protest against the conduct of all Saudis—the sheikhs, the government, and the people in general. There should be no future danger or conflict between social progress and traditional religious practices, Turki told visitors, as long as the Saudi royal family reduced corruption and created economic opportunities for the public. In Tehran, the Ayatollah Khomeini said it was “a great joy for us to learn about the uprising in Pakistan against the U.S.A. It is good news for our oppressed nation. Borders should not separate hearts.” Khomeini theorized that “because of propaganda, people are afraid of superpowers, and they think that the superpowers cannot be touched.” This, he predicted, would be proven false.14 The riot had sketched a pattern that would recur for years. For reasons of his own, the Pakistani dictator, General Zia, had sponsored and strengthened a radical Islamic partner—in this case, Jamaat and its student wing—that had a virulently anti-American outlook.

Like the Americans, the Soviets had directed most of their resources and talent toward the ideological battlefields of Europe and Asia during the previous two decades. In the early spring of 1979 religious activists inspired by Khomeini’s triumphant return carried their defiant gospel across Iran’s open desert border with Afghanistan, particularly to Herat, an ancient crossroads on an open plain long bound to Iran by trade and politics. A Persian-accented desert town watered by the Hari Rud River, Herat’s traditional cultures and schools of Islam—which included prominent strains of mysticism—were not as severe toward women as in some rural areas of Afghanistan to the east. Yet it was a pious city. Its population included many followers of Shiism, Iran’s dominant Islamic sect. And as elsewhere, even non-Shias found themselves energized in early 1979 by Khomeini’s religious-political revival. Oblivious, Kabul’s communists and their Soviet advisers pressed secular reforms prescribed in Marxist texts.

pages: 385 words: 103,561

Pinpoint: How GPS Is Changing Our World by Greg Milner

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, creative destruction, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, digital map, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, Flash crash, friendly fire, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, land tenure, lone genius, Mars Rover, Mercator projection, place-making, polynesian navigation, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, smart grid, the map is not the territory

One day in 1981, Javad Ashjaee had arrived at his office at Aryamehr University, in Tehran, and heard the unsettling news that a fellow professor had been murdered. Like Ashjaee, this man was one of four faculty members serving on the university’s senate. A young chair of the Aryamehr’s computer science department, and the driving force behind the school’s first microprocessor lab, Ashjaee was also an outspoken critic of the Ayatollah Khomeini and the chilling effect the Islamic Revolution was having on academic freedom. He had assumed that he was under surveillance by the Revolutionary Guards, the new government’s internal security force, but the death of his colleague confirmed that his own life was in danger. He decided he had no choice but to flee the country immediately, leaving behind his wife, two young daughters, and a comfortable middle-class existence.

., 35, 51, 64 Johnston, Roger, 146–50, 167–68 Joint Chiefs of Staff, 44 Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), 71–72 Jones, Antoine, 188–90 Jones Live Map, 120 Journal of the Polynesian Society, 12 JPL Rogue, 213–14 Judeo-Christian tradition, 64 Juneau, Alaska, landing aircraft at, 138–40, 171 juvenile delinquents, 173–77 monitoring experiments with, 174–77 Kamehameha, king of Hawai’i, 107 Kansas City, Mo., 126 Kansas State University, 102 Kao, Min, 126–27, 242 Kaplan, Joseph, 29, 30 Karzai, Hamid, 72 Kashiwa, 128 Kashmar, 151 Katz v. United States, 178 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 84 Kind and Usual Punishment (Mitford), 177 Kitchin, Rob, 118 Kittredge Hall, 31 KLM Airlines, 229 Kon-Tiki, 12 Korean Air Lines Boeing 747, 81–82, 140 Korean War, 89 Korzybski, Alfred, 117–18 Kosovo, Serbian aggression in, 71 Kremlin, 75 Krull, Jay Dee, 126 Kuipers, Benjamin, 123–24 Kuwait, Iraqi invasion of, 62–63, 96 Kuwait City, 63 Kwajalein Atoll, xiv L1, 76, 91, 97–98 L2, 91, 92, 97–98 LaGuardia Airport, 170 Lake, Philip, 206 Lamarck, Chevalier de, 27 Lamarr, Hedy, 54 Landers, Calif., 215 land surveying, 245–51 modern history of, 248–51, 254–55 triangulation used in, 245–49, 251–54 Lang, John, 12 Laos, 51 Larson, Kristine, 217, 228–29 Last, David, 166–67 Las Vegas, Nev., 111, 135, 175 Laufenberg, 158 Leary, Timothy, 172–73, 174 Leclerc, George-Louis, 204 Levine, Judah, 154–55, 166 Lewis, David, 11–14, 18–22 Liang, Sam, 193–94, 200 Libya, 60–61 Lichten, Stephen, 261 Life, 210, 251 light, 156 speed of, xix, 40 Linz, 239–40 Livermore, Calif., 142–43 Locata company, 164, 165–66 London, xv, 25, 44, 55, 67 cab and bus drivers in, 133 Earl’s Court, 156 Hammersmith borough, 156 Long Island, N.Y., 243 LORAN (long-range radio navigation), 27, 37, 76, 81, 166 Loran-C, 76, 81, 85, 86, 157 Los Alamos National Laboratory, 146 Los Angeles, Calif., 141, 202, 203, 210 Northridge earthquake in, 215 Los Angeles Air Force Base, 53, 58 Louisiana, 69 Louisville, Ky., 143 Love, Jack, 194–95 Lowe, Fritz, 233 Machiavelli, Niccolò, 7 machine guns, 49 Macrometers, 213 Madrid, 192 Magellan, Ferdinand, 6, 7 Magellan GPS units, 111–12, 135, 136–37 Magellan Navigation, Inc., 89–90, 96, 98, 100, 126 Magnavox, 55–56, 58, 77, 78–79, 93 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 133 Maine, 249 Maloof, Matt, 42 Malys, Steve, 255–56 Mandalay, 251 Manpacks, 92–94, 95 maps, 127, 252–55 city, 130 cognitive, 115–20, 128, 130, 132, 133, 238 comprehensive, 116, 117–18, 128 computer, 241 digital, 122 downloading of, 126 hastily sketched, 124 moving, 122, 123 Pacific Ocean, 10, 13, 14, 263–64 reading and interpreting of, 126 reality, 117–18 strip, 116, 118, 128 territories vs., 117–18 see also Google Maps marine biology, 15 Marine Corps, U.S., 46 Mark, David, 124, 125 Marquesas, 4, 9, 265 Mars, 20 atmosphere on, 258, 262 exploration of, 258–62 Mars Climate orbiter, 259 Marseille, 263 Marshall Islands, 251, 265 Mars Odyssey mission, 259–60 Mars Polar Lander, 259 Mars rovers, 203, 258–59 Mars Science Laboratory, 258, 262 Marston, Glenn, 237 Martin Company, 34 Martinez, Bob, 196 Martínez de Zúñiga, Joaquín, 12 Martin-Mur, Tomas, 258 Maryland, 30, 44, 188 Maskelyne, Nigel, 26 Massachusetts, 184, 208 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 48, 209–10, 212–14, 246 MIT Media Lab, 239 mathematics, 205, 246, 255 “Mau,” see Piailug, Pius McClure, Frank, 37–38, 39 McDonald, Larry, 82 McDonald’s, 123 McGranaghan, Matthew, 124, 125 McHugh, Tom, 142 McNamara, Timothy, 131–32 McNeff, Jules, 47, 97, 99 Meades Ranch, 249 Mediterranean Sea, 113–14 Melanesia, 11 Melville, Herman, ix memory, human, 125, 128–29, 130, 237, 238 memory, solid-state, 126 Memphis, Tenn., 143 Mercator, Gerardus, 240 meteorology, 15, 27–28, 204, 227–28 GPS-enabled, 228 methamphetamine, 179 Mexico, 31, 161, 249 microchips, 87 Micronesia, 265 microprocessors, 79, 84 microwaves, 36–37, 41, 78 Milky Way, 257 Minitrack, 30–32, 35, 39, 57 Minnesota, 155 missiles, 47, 209, 250 Atlas ballistic, 43 CALCM, 69 cruise, 62, 69 guided, 37, 62 Hellfire, 66 long-range, 69–70 nuclear, 62, 69 Russian, 81 Scud, 66 tracking of, 37 Missouri, 71, 89 Missouri, USS, 48 Mitchell, Donald, 88 Mitford, Jessica, 177 Mitre, 139 Moby-Dick (Melville), ix modems, 195 Mojave Desert, 215, 259 Molyneaux, Robert, 9 Monaco, 168 Mona Lisa (Leonardo), 99 moon, 24, 26, 252 craters on, 210 landing of Apollo 11 on, 208 landing of Apollo 15 on, 210 moon rover, 210 Moorman, Thomas, 68 Moscow, 251 Moser, Edvard, 129 Moser, May-Britt, 129 Mosul, 69 Mountain City, Nev., 112, 135, 136 MTSAT Satellite Augmentation System (MSAS), 142 Murray, Sara, 197–98 napalm, 51 National Academy of Science, 31, 256 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 212, 257 Ames Research Center of, 96 Apollo missions of, 208, 210 Communications, Tracking, and Radar Division of, 261 Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of, 203, 210, 213, 214, 222, 231–32, 258, 261 Mars program of, 258–62 space shuttle program of, 61, 88 National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), 255–56, 261 see also Defense Mapping Agency National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 154–55, 166 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory of, 227 National Research Council, 99–100 National Space Policy, 101, 144 Naval Academy, 48 Naval Observatory, U.S., 44, 155 Master Clock at, xv, 154 Naverus, 139 navigation, 6–22, 48, 119–20 Carolinian, 18–21, 118 of carriages, 120 commercial shipping, 38 determining routes in, 17 Doppler-aided, 36–38, 40, 43, 44, 51, 259 estimating distance, speed and time in, 16–17, 19, 22–26, 31, 39, 40, 130 etak compared to, 18–19 experiments in, 127–29 home-centering vs. self-centering systems of, 17, 20, 21–22, 27 improving skills of, 133 inertial, 48, 82 local-reference system of, 17, 20, 21, 22 loss of environmental engagement in, 119, 129, 134 modern technologies of, 27 orientation in, 130–33 passive ranging in, 40–42, 44, 45, 53, 101–2 Polynesian, 6, 8–18 space, 30–45 by sun and stars, 4, 6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 86 tools of, 5, 6, 13, 25, 26–27, 38–39 see also GPS auto navigation units NAVSPASUR (Navy Space Surveillance System), 39–40 Navstar Global Positioning System, 54 Navy, U.S., 37, 40, 42, 46, 56, 251 Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) of, 29, 30, 31, 39, 42–43, 47, 57, 252 Ordnance Bureau of, 38 Navy Navigation Satellite System, 38 Navy Seals, 93 Nellis, Mike, 195, 197, 283 nervous system, 118 Netherlands, 166 neurological pathologies, 118 neutrinos, 155–56 Nevada, 111 Newark Liberty International Airport, 170, 171–72, 181–82 GPS jamming incident at, 200–201, 283–84 Newell, Homer, 29, 35 New England Datum, 249 New Guinea, 4, 86 New Haven, Conn., 184 New Jersey, 170–72, 249 New Jersey Turnpike, 170–71, 172, 181–82, 200, 281 New Mexico, 44, 146, 151 New Mexico penitentiary, 195 New Orleans, La., 192, 249 Newton, Isaac, 246 New York, N.Y., xv, 81, 164, 239–40, 245, 251 Coney Island, 249 distinguishing uptown from downtown in, 17 Greenwich Village, 17 Kips Bay, 236 Manhattan, 236 Queens, 243 Staten Island, 220 Times Square, 167 traffic patterns in, 192 transportation in, 17, 145, 192 World Trade Center in, 17, 170 New York City Marathon, 220–21 New York Herald Tribune, 34 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), 34 New York Times, 173 New York Times Magazine, 86 New York World-Telegram and Sun, 35 New Zealand, 4, 12 NextGen, 142 NextNav company, 192 Nighthawk stealth aircraft, 66 NIMCOS company, 195 Nimer, Richard, 195 Nixon, Richard M., 51 North America, 25, 142, 215, 230, 242, 250, 254 electrical grid of, 158, 160 North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), xiii North American Datum of 1927 (NAD27), 249–51 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 71 North Korea, 166 North Stradbroke Island, Australia, 113 North Vietnam, bombing of, 51, 70 Norway, 251 NTS-2 satellite, 58–59 nuclear waste, 146 Oakland, Calif., 203 Obama, Barack, 255 oceanography, 15, 38 oceans: positional awareness on, 24–27 shipwrecks on, 26 see also specific oceans Odishaw, Hugh, 29 odometers, 120, 121, 243 Oetting, Valerie, 90 O’Hare Airport, 141 Ohio, 158, 164 Ohio State University, Mapping and Charting Research Laboratory of, 250–51 O’Keefe, John, 129, 252 Omega, 27 Omnitracs system, 182 Operation Allied Force, 71 Operation Desert Storm, see Gulf War Operation Eagle Claw, 77 Operation El Dorado Canyon, 61–62 Oregon, 111, 112, 202, 225 Origin of Continents and Oceans, The (Wegener), 205, 206 O-rings, 92–93 ornithology, 15 Oro worship, 7–8 Ortelius, Abraham, 204 Orwell, George, 177 oscillators, 41, 43, 77 oscilloscopes, 59, 79 Owens Valley, 214 Pace, Scott, 46, 68, 97–98 Pacific Ocean, xiv, 18–20, 26, 106–8, 122, 183, 218, 221–22, 229, 249 canoe travel on, 5, 9, 11, 14–15, 18–19, 264, 268 currents and winds of, 13, 14–15 exploration of, 4–10, 26, 27, 106–7 first detailed map of, 7 islands of, 4–13, 22, 27, 106–8, 251 maps of, 10, 13, 14, 263–64 ring of fire in, 221, 229 seismic disturbances in, 202 shipping charts of, 27 swell patterns of, 13, 14 Pacific Plate, 208 Pacific Rim, 4, 12 Palatucci, Joe, 242–43 Palo Alto, Calif., 77 Pangea, 3–4, 205 Pangea Ultima, 3 Papeete, 265 Paris, xv, 24, 154, 155, 167, 246 Eiffel Tower in, 167 Park Avenue Audio, 236–38 Parkinson, Brad, 45, 48, 50, 52–54, 56–58, 60–61, 65, 70, 81, 100, 140, 153, 165–66, 185, 230, 250, 272 particle accelerators, xix Pasadena, Calif., 203, 226 passive positioning systems, satellite-based, 40 passive ranging, 40–42, 44, 45, 53, 101–2 Pattabiraman, Ganesh, 192–93 Pave Low III helicopters, 65–66 PCM signals, 156 Pearl Harbor, bombing of, 34 Penn Station (New York City), 237 Penticton, 111 peregrine falcons, 237 Permanent GPS Geodetic Array, 214, 215 Permilab particle physics facility, 155 Persian Gulf, 63, 96 Peru, 12 Peterson Air Force Base, xiii Phasor measurement units (PMU), 159–61 Philippines, 12 photogrammetry, 251 photography, 235–39, 243 physics, 15, 28, 155, 204 Piailug, Pius “Mau,” 265–66 Picard, Jean, 245–46 pigeons, 174 PlaceMe, 193 planets, 24–27, 259 Plate Boundary Observatory, 215, 218 plates, tectonic, 215, 253, 258 continental, 207–8 movement of, 3–4, 202–8, 209, 214, 216, 232, 255 North American, 208, 221, 222 oceanic, 207, 208 Okhotsk, 221n Pacific, 208, 215, 221 Philippine Sea, 221 Point Arena, Calif., 249 Poland, 244 Polaris nuclear submarines, 37 police, 178–79, 181–82 British, 187–88, 197–98 German, 185–87 Irish, 187–88 Polynesia, 18, 21, 106, 264 Polynesians, 4–18 migration of, 11, 12–13, 21, 106, 264, 268 navigation of, 6, 8–18 origins of, 12 Polynesian Triangle, 264 Pong (video game), 121 Port Elizabeth, N.J., 170 Portis, Charles, 3 Precision Market Insights, 192 prime meridian, 25 prisons, 195, 197 privacy, xx, 177, 186–87, 190–91, 192–94, 200 Probation (magazine), 177 Project Moonbeam, 31 Project Moonwatch, 31 Project Vanguard, 29–35, 252 Pro Tech company, 196 proximity beacons, 121 psilocybin, 173 psychology, 116–18, 119, 131–32, 172–77 experiments in, 125, 127–29, 173–77, 277 psychotherapy, 173 Puea, 8 Pueblo, Colo., 75 Pullen, Sam, 181 Pyrenees Mountains, 246 Qihoo 360, 153 quadrants, 13 Qualcomm, 182 quasars, 209, 257, 261 radar, 27, 51, 66–67, 122, 142, 168, 229 GPS-assisted, 67 radiation, 43, 214, 258 radioactive materials, 146, 207 radio signals, xviii, 27, 30–31, 39, 54, 71, 91, 138, 171, 195 of celestial objects, 209 ham, 31 software vs. hardware components of, 149 transmission of, 210 Ra’iatea, 7, 9, 106 range measuring, 40 Rapa Nui, 4 rat experiments, 115–17, 118–19, 129, 133 Rea, Don, 90 Reagan, Ronald, 82, 140 Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM), 139–40 Red Army, 250 Red Army Faction, 185 Redoubt, Mount, 229–30 Regensburg, 49 Rehnquist, William, 180 relativity, xix, 267 Remote Oceania, 4 Resolution, HMS, 106–7 Rhodes, 168 Richmond Times, 34 Ring of Fire, 4 Rio Grande Valley, 40 Riyadh, 63–64 rockets, 28–29, 32–35 failure of, 33–35 Rockwell Collins, 58–60, 72, 78–79, 92, 93, 97 Rocky Mountains, 73 Rome, 55, 158–59, 164 Rosen, Milt, 252 Rotuma, 10 route discs, 120 Royal Institute of Navigation, 166 Royal Observatory, 25, 44 Royal Society, 7 Russia, xvii, 144, 166 Russian space agency, 88 Rutan 76 Voyager aircraft, 126 Saarbrücken, 127 Sahul, 4 Saigon, 64 St.

Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

To be sure, Israel faces the “existential threat” of Iranian pronouncements: Supreme Leader Khamenei and former president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad famously threatened it with destruction. Except that they didn’t—and if they had, it would have been of little moment.18 They predicted that “under God’s grace [the Zionist regime] will be wiped off the map” (according to another translation, Ahmadinejad says Israel “must vanish from the page of time,” citing a statement by the Ayatollah Khomeini during the period when Israel and Iran were tacitly allied). In other words, they hope that regime change will someday take place. Even that falls far short of the direct calls in both Washington and Tel Aviv for regime change in Iran, not to speak of the actions taken to implement regime change. These, of course, go back to the actual “regime change” of 1953, when the United States and Britain organized a military coup to overthrow Iran’s parliamentary government and install the dictatorship of the shah, who proceeded to amass one of the world’s worst human rights records.

(Dhanapala and Duarte) Jabari, Ahmed Japan Jefferson, Thomas Jeju Island Jenin refugee camp Jerusalem East Greater Jervis, Robert jihadi movements Jobbik party (Hungary) Johnson, Lyndon B. Johnson, Samuel John XXIII, Pope Jomini, Henry Jones, Clive Jordan Jordan Valley Journal of Strategic Studies Justice Department Kapeliouk, Ammon Kayani, Ashfaq Parvez Keller, Bill Kennan, George Kennedy, John F. Kennedy, Robert Kern, Montague Kerry, John KGB Khamenei, Sayyed Ali Khamvongsa, Channapha Khomeini, Ayatollah Khrushchev, Nikita Kill Chain (Cockburn) Kimmerling, Baruch King, Martin Luther, Jr. Kinsley, Michael Kissinger, Henry Kivimäki, Timo Klinghoffer, Leon Knox, Henry Korean War Kornbluh, Peter Krähenbühl, Pierre Krugman, Paul Kull, Steven Küng, Hans Kuperman, Alan Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) Kurds Kuwait labor movement Labor Party (Israel) Laden, Osama bin assassination of Lansdale, Edward Laos Latin America Lawson, Dominic Leahy, Patrick Lebanon Leffler, Melvyn LeoGrande, William Le Pen, Marine Levy, Gideon Lewis, Anthony liberal internationalists liberation theology Liberty, USS, attack Libya Liebknecht, Karl Likud party (Israel) Lincoln, Abraham Linebaugh, Peter Lippmann, Walter Locke, John Lodge, Henry Cabot London Review of Books Luftwaffe Lukes, Steven Luxemburg, Rosa Madison, James Madison, Wisconsin, uprising Madrid negotiations Maechling, Charles, Jr.

pages: 624 words: 189,582

The Black Banners: The Inside Story of 9/11 and the War Against Al-Qaeda by Ali H. Soufan, Daniel Freedman

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airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, call centre, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, Ronald Reagan

They all happened in 1979.” With the Iranian revolution and the overthrow of the shah, an Islamic state was established under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. It was the first success of a political Islamic movement in modern history, and its effect was felt across the Muslim world: Shiite communities elsewhere now had a protector as well as a similar goal to aim toward, and Sunnis—especially the more radical groups in Egypt and Saudi Arabia—dreamed of repeating the revolution within their own framework. Other Sunnis saw a Shiite theocracy as a threat to Sunni Islam’s dominance in the region and were motivated to try to counter it and strengthen their own influence. Khomeini’s seizure of power was itself a revolution in Shiite political thought. The traditional view is that an Islamic regime can’t be established until the return of the twelfth, “missing” imam.

Beforehand, the regime offered him mercy on the condition that he recant his views, but he refused, allegedly telling his sister, “My words will be stronger if they kill me.” He surely was right in that sense, as his ideas have been used by everyone from Khomeini to bin Laden. Khomeini was fond of employing Qutb’s imagery and conceptual arguments: just as Qutb, for example, compared Nasser (whom he viewed as a tyrant) to Pharaoh, Khomeini likened the shah to the biblical Pharaoh, and by his logic whoever challenged the Pharaoh took on the role of Moses. Given Khomeini’s international prominence as the leader of Iran, his use of Qutb’s ideas and arguments gave them wide circulation in the Muslim world. In March 1979, one month after the Iranian revolution, Egypt and Israel signed the peace treaty that formally completed the Camp David Accords of the previous year.

The traditional view is that an Islamic regime can’t be established until the return of the twelfth, “missing” imam. Until then the ideas of Islam can be used to bring about a just society, but not an Islamic state. Khomeini broke with this traditional view, and he justified his actions—over the objections of dissenting clerics—by advocating the doctrine of Velayat-e faqih, or rule of jurisprudence. He argued that religious leaders can be ambassadors of the twelfth imam and therefore can establish an Islamic regime prior to his return. Of course, modern political Islam wasn’t created by Khomeini alone. He drew many of his ideas and religious justifications from Sunni Islamic thinkers, chief among them the Egyptian author and intellectual Sayyid Qutb (1906 –1966). Qutb was a member of the Muslim Brotherhood, an organization founded by Hassan al-Banna in 1928, when Banna was a twenty-two-year-old teacher of Arabic.

Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians (Updated Edition) (South End Press Classics Series) by Noam Chomsky

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active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, centre right, colonial rule, David Brooks, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, the market place, Thomas L Friedman

Again, it does not follow from the fact that the threat was fabricated that it was not believed in some planning circles; in public as in personal life, it is easy to come to believe what it is convenient to believe. The exaggeration of the Russian threat should be understood as an early example of the functioning of the Cold War system by which each superpower exploits the threat of the great enemy (its “Great Satan,” to borrow Ayatollah Khomeini’s term) to mobilize support for actions it intends to undertake in its own domains. The success of the Greek counterinsurgency campaign, both at the military and ideological level, left its stamp on future U.S. policymaking. Since that time there has been recurrent talk about Russia’s attempts to gain control of Middle East oil, the Soviet drive to the Gulf, etc. But no serious case has been made that the USSR would risk nuclear war—for that would be the likely consequence—by pursuing any Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky The Origins of the “Special Relationship” 65 such objective.

Since Israeli troops pulled out of West Beirut at the end of September, 17 Israelis had been killed and more than 90 wounded (not considering the building collapse in Tyre in which 76 Israelis were killed, allegedly as a result of a gas leak). The incidents are increasing in intensity, with half of the casualties since December 1, and 13 incidents in the first week of January 1983. “The perpetrators are reportedly Palestinians infiltrating back into south Lebanon, Lebanese leftists, as well as, in one case, Lebanese Shiite Muslim adherents of Iranian leader Ayatollah Khomeini.”286 Hirsh Goodman reports that “the IDF is conducting live fire patrols…to ensure that no terrorists are waiting in ruins or in orchards along the way”—that is, shooting randomly as they drive along Lebanese roads in what is called “defense against terrorism” by occupying armies.287 The U.S. marine commander in Lebanon criticized this “reconnaissance by fire” in the southern Beirut sector patrolled by his troops.

In an interview with the Boston Globe, Israeli Ambassador Moshe Arens, now Sharon’s replacement as Defense Minister, stated that Israel had provided arms to the Khomeini regime “in coordination with the U.S. government…at almost the highest of levels.” “The objective,” he stated, “was to see if we could not find some areas of contact with the Iranian military, to bring down the Khomeini regime.” Publication of this report elicited official U.S. government denials, and as Arens told the Globe: “I caught a little flack from the State Department.” Arens then reiterated his statement about coordination with the U.S. government, but qualified the account of the “objective”: the arms flow was too small to bring down the Khomeini regime; rather, “The purpose was to make contact with some military officers who some day might be in a position of power in Iran.”22 More information on Israeli ideas with regard to Iran was presented in a BBC program of February 1982 concerned with Israel’s arms shipments to Iran and what the moderator, Philip Tibenham, calls “one of the most closely-guarded secrets in the Middle East—Israel’s attempt to trigger a military coup in Iran.”23 The first person interviewed was Jacob nature of this alliance was revealed in part after the Shah’s fall by discussion in the Israeli press, particularly, the account by former Israeli Ambassador Uri Lubrani, who reports that “the entire upper echelon of the Israeli political leadership” visited the Shah’s Iran, including David Ben-Gurion, Golda Meir, Abba Eban, Yitzhak Rabin, Yigal Allon, Moshe Dayan, and Menachem Begin, and who describes the warm relations that developed between Israel’s Labor leaders and the Shah’s secret police (SAVAK), who hosted these visits, taking time off from torturing prisoners.24 Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky The Road to Armageddon 771 Nimrodi, head of Mossad (the Israeli CIA, in effect) in Iran under cover as Israeli military attaché under the Shah.

Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, business climate, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global reserve currency, Howard Zinn, labour market flexibility, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage tax deduction, Paul Samuelson, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce

The Boston Globe had an editorial in which they praised the jury for having the courage, finally, to shut these guys up—by enforcing a law that gives the state the power to determine truth, and to punish deviation from it. 12 When the Globe started screaming about the Rushdie affair, I sent the editors a copy of that editorial and asked them if they would like to rethink it; well, I haven’t heard anything yet. … And you know, you didn’t have Susan Sontag [American writer] getting up in public and saying, “I am Ernst Zundel,” all this kind of thing. The point is, you defend freedom of speech when it’s speech you like, and when you’re sure there’s a half-billion Western Europeans out there between you and the Ayatollah Khomeini so you can be courageous [the Iranian leader put a $6 million price on Rushdie’s head in 1989]. But when you get to a case where nobody likes what’s being said, then somehow defense of freedom of speech disappears. Well, you couldn’t have a law like that in the United States anymore, but you can have it in Canada—and American intellectuals basically support it, like the liberal Boston Globe, the New York Times, the P.E.N, writers [an organization that promotes free expression for writers] who don’t get excited.

The big industrialists in Germany did not want a war with the West—but by then it was too late. Now, I don’t want to say that this is Nazi Germany, but there is a similarity—just as there’s a similarity to post-Khomeini Iran. I mean, Iranian business strongly opposed the Shah [the Iranian monarch who ruled the country until 1979], because they didn’t like the fact that he controlled the state monopolies, especially the National Iranian Oil Company—and as a result they wanted to see him overthrown, and they needed somebody to do it. Well, the only forces they could appeal to were the movements in the streets, and those guys were being organized by fundamentalist clerics. So as a result they overthrew the Shah alright, but they also got Khomeini and all these fundamentalist maniacs running around, which they didn’t like. Well, something similar has been happening in the United States and people are worried about it.

The only question you can’t answer is how the population is going to react as they get slammed in the face—and they are getting slammed in the face. One way it could go would be like the building of the C.I.O. [an integrated mass union formed in 1935], or the Civil Rights and feminist movements, or the Freedom Rides [whites and blacks rode buses together into the American South in 1961 to challenge segregation laws]. Other ways it could go would be Nazism, Khomeini’s Iran, Islamic fundamentalism in Algeria—those are all ways people could go too. But the country is very disturbed. You can see it in polls, and you can certainly see it traveling around—and I travel around a lot. There’s complete disaffection about everything. People don’t trust anyone, they think everyone’s lying to them, everyone’s working for somebody else. The whole civil society has completely broken down.

pages: 489 words: 111,305

How the World Works by Noam Chomsky, Arthur Naiman, David Barsamian

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, capital controls, clean water, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Howard Zinn, income inequality, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, labour market flexibility, land reform, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, transfer pricing, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor

The press also began passionately denouncing human rights violations that previously didn’t reach the threshold of their attention. By the time we invaded Panama in December 1989, the press had demonized Noriega, turning him into the worst monster since Attila the Hun. (It was basically a replay of the demonization of Qaddafi of Libya.) Ted Koppel was orating that “Noriega belongs to that special fraternity of international villains, men like Qaddafi, Idi Amin and the Ayatollah Khomeini, whom Americans just love to hate.” Dan Rather placed him “at the top of the list of the world’s drug thieves and scums.” In fact, Noriega remained a very minor thug—exactly what he was when he was on the CIA payroll. In 1988, for example, Americas Watch [a US-based human-rights monitoring organization] published a report on human rights in Panama, giving an unpleasant picture. But as their reports—and other inquiries—make clear, Noriega’s human rights record was nothing remotely like that of other US clients in the region, and no worse than in the days when Noriega was still a favorite, following orders.

By 1982, it was public knowledge that Israel was providing a large part of the arms for Iran—you could read it on the front page of the New York Times. In February 1982, the main Israeli figures whose names later appeared in the Iran/Contra hearings appeared on BBC television [the British Broadcasting Company, Britain’s national broadcasting service] and described how they had helped organize an arms flow to the Khomeini regime. In October 1982, the Israeli ambassador to the US stated publicly that Israel was sending arms to the Khomeini regime, “with the cooperation of the United States…at almost the highest level.” The high Israeli officials involved also gave the reasons: to establish links with elements of the military in Iran who might overthrow the regime, restoring the arrangements that prevailed under the Shah—standard operating procedure. As for the Contra war, the basic facts of the illegal North-CIA operations were known by 1985 (over a year before the story broke, when a US supply plane was shot down and a US agent, Eugene Hasenfus, was captured).

See also India Kennan, George on exploiting Africa on Indonesia Niebuhr revered by on police repression in the Third World on post-WWII foreign policy on Russian political power Kennedy administration Alliance for Progress Cuba campaign of Latin American policy of Vietnam War escalation during Kennedy, John F. business supported by CIA and as cult figure policy not affected by assassination of South Vietnam bombed by Kennedy liberals Kentucky Fried Chicken Kenya Kerala. See also India Kerry, John Keynesian economics Keynes, John Maynard Khiyam Khmer Rouge Khomeini regime Killing Fields Kirkpatrick, Jean Kissinger, Henry as “aristocrat,” on Chile as a “virus,” Chile destroyed by CIA and speaking truth to, as senseless Vietnam War and Knesset Knox, Henry Kofsky, Frank Kohen, Arnold Kolb, Eugene Kolko, Gabriel Koop, Everett Koppel, Ted Korea, US intervention after WWII. See also South Korea Korry, Edward Korsch, Karl Kosovo KPFA (radio, Berkeley) Krugman, Paul Kurds Kuwait invasion of Iraqi issues with labor.

pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

Because we have not increased the nuclear component of our energy mix for more than thirty years, as our total energy demand grew we came to rely all the more heavily on fossil fuels—coal, crude oil, and natural gas. The year 1979 proved crucial for energy and the environment for other reasons as well. The cost of oil skyrocketed that year as did oil’s toxic geopolitical consequences. The sequence of events began in January 1979, with the overthrow of the shah of Iran and the subsequent takeover in Tehran by Ayatollah Khomeini and his followers. Months later, on November 20, 1979, the Grand Mosque in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, was seized by violent Sunni Muslim extremists, who challenged the religious credentials of the Saudi ruling family. After retaking the mosque, the panicked Saudi rulers responded by forging a new bargain with their own Muslim fundamentalists, which went like this: “Let us stay in power and we will give you a free hand in setting social norms, veiling women, curtailing music, restricting relations between the sexes, and imposing religious education.

Johnson, Scott Johnston, Michael Joint Chiefs of Staff Joint U.S.-China Collaboration on Clean Energy Jordan, Michael JPMorgan Chase Justice Department, U.S. K Kaiser, Robert G. Kaiser Family Foundation Kannan Katz, Lawrence Keillor, Garrison Kelley, General James Kendrick, Anna Kennan, George Kennedy, David Kennedy, John F. Kennedy Center Honors Kerry, John Kessler, Andy Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah Kindle Kinwar, Jishnu Kopp, Wendy Korean War Kosovo Krupp, Fred Kullman, Ellen Kurds Kyl, Jon L Labor Statistics, Bureau of Lamar University Land, Edwin Lane, Anthony Lazer, Hank Learning to Innovate, Innovating to Learn (Wagner) Lee Myung-bak Lehman Brothers Lemmon, Jack Lenin, V. I. Leonhardt, David Lesk, Jeff Lett, Lanair Amaad Levin, Carl Li, Yifan Libya Lieberman, Joseph Li & Fung Limbaugh, Rush Lin, Elisa Bisi Lincoln, Abraham Linux Litan, Robert Liu, David Chienyun Liu, Peggy Liu Xiaobo Liverpool Lizza, Ryan lobbying Long, Russell Long Telegram Los Angeles; public school system Los Angeles International Airport Loveless, Tom Lovins, Amory Lovins, L.

pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

The veil, they say, is just another form of feminine attire, available in Istanbul stores in all kinds of colours and styles, with diamanté for the more flamboyantly inclined. The reality, of course, is that promoting the headscarf is part of a wider agenda to limit women’s rights by introducing sharia law in Turkey, achieving gradually what was achieved much more suddenly in Iran after the 1979 Revolution – a backlash against the Shah’s ‘Westoxification’ (gharbzadegi) of Iran, which the Ayatollah Khomeini converted into a drastic sexual counter-revolution.112 Already you can see burqas in the streets of Istanbul, covering their wearers in black from head to foot, leaving them with only a tiny slit to see out of – concealing their identities so totally that in 2010 the French National Assembly voted to prohibit such garments altogether. It is no accident that this sartorial shift has been accompanied by a change in Turkish foreign policy.

H. 103–4 empires see imperialism; individual empires Encümen-i Daniş (Assembly of Knowledge), Ottoman empire 89 Engels, Friedrich 207, 209, 210–11, 228 England 4, 18, 37 China and 47–9 exploration, voyages of 36 France and 23, 24, 39 Industrial Revolution 10, 13, 21, 28–9, 70 Ireland and 24, 105, 203n London see London slavery (chattel slavery) in 130, 132 see also Britain; British empire English Civil Wars 104, 105, 106, 107, 115, 150, 152 the Enlightenment 76–9, 81 environmental issues 17, 293–4, 299 Epp, Franz Xavier Ritter von 188–9 Erasmus, Desiderius xxiii Erdely, Eugene 190 Eugene of Savoy, Prince 56 eugenics 176–7 in Germany 176–81, 189–90, 191; in German Namibia 176–81; genocide in 179–80, 188 Euler, Leonard 84 Euphrates river/valley 17 Europe competition between states 36–42 geography 36–7 Islamic envoys to 86–7 US and 16 see also individual countries European integration 14–15, 239 Everett, Edward 137 exploration, voyages of 9, 23, 38 Chinese 28–33, 48 English 36 marine chronometers for 70 as missionary endeavours 39 Portuguese 33–5, 39, 53, 130 Spanish 35–6 Faidherbe, Louis, governor of Senegal 164, 165, 166 fashion/clothing 197–8, 219–20, 225, 237, 246, 255 communist attitude to 249–50 in Japan 220–21, 222, 223, 225 jeans 240–44, 246–9, 250 machine made 217–18, 237 for men 216, 220–21, 230 military uniforms 215–16, 229, 233, 234, 237 for women 216, 220, 246; Islamic 253–5, 253n see also consumerism Fashoda incident, Sudan (1898) 173 Feng Youlan: History of Chinese Philosophy 27 Feraios, Rigas 213 Fermat, Pierre de 66 Ferrier, Thomas 121, 122 Ferry, Jules, Prime Minister of France 172 Fertile Crescent concept 17 film industry 230, 231 Filmer, Sir Robert: Patriarcha 108 financial systems 7, 14, 139 in Asia 7, 252–3, 277–8 banking 230–31 capitalism see capitalism cash nexus concept 206–7 consumer credit 238 in Europe 106–7, 161 markets/market economy 205–6, 276–7 money supply 38 monopolies 38 taxation 38, 44, 106, 107, 117, 210–11, 288 see also economic …; Great Depression First World War (1914–18) 16, 92, 148–9, 181, 182, 227 African colonial troops in 181–9; French 183–7; German 182 casualty figures 181, 183, 186, 187 Dardanelles 85 Gallipoli 91, 182 Rudyard Kipling on 187–8 Fischer, Eugen 180–81, 189 Human Heredity … 189 food see diet food supplies 22, 200–201 famine 44, 46 see also agriculture foreign aid, to Africa 145–6 France 4, 16, 36, 37, 83, 85 American Revolution and 117 Britain and 140, 160, 161, 173 economic crises 149–50, 161 England and 23, 24, 39 the Enlightenment 77–8 in First World War 182–3, 185–7 Huguenots 39, 41, 76 Italy and 159 literacy rates 77 living standards 24–5 the Marseillaise 156, 156n under Napoleon Bonaparte 119, 142, 156–61 Paris 5, 77, 215 property rights 152 Russia and 160 Spain and 119 student unrest 245 see also French … Frauenfeld, Alfred 193 Frederick the Great of Prussia 73–4 The Anti-Machiavel 75, 79–80 as an intellectual 79–80 Political Testaments 73, 80 as a scientific patron 71, 79–80, 84 French army, in First World War 182–3, 185–7 mutiny in 186–7 French empire 148, 159, 160, 195 in Africa 163–75, 176, 188, 190–91; segregation in 174–5 colonial armies 164; in First World War 183–7 Ecole Coloniale 165, 166–7, 172 extent of 144 institutional structure 172–3 legal system 165–6 male suffrage in 163 in North America (Louisiana Purchase) 163, 160–61 slavery, abolition of 163–4 unrest in 163, 175 French Revolution 119, 142, 149–57, 161–2 Edmund Burke on 149, 150–52, 152n, 155, 156 causes of 149–50, 153 Declaration of the Rights of Man 150, 151 executions during 152–3 political system during 152–3 as a religious conflict 151, 152, 153, 154 Rousseau and 151–2 the Terror 153, 155–6 Alexis de Tocqueville on 153–4 see also France … French West Africa 170–71, 174, 191 Freud, Sigmund 16 on civilization 272–3 on religion 270–71, 272 Frisch, Otto 235 Galileo Galilei 65, 66, 83, 84 Galton, Francis 176–7 Kantsaywhere 177n Gandhi, Mahatma 217 on Western civilization 141, 144, 171, 195 on Western medicine 146, 149 Garibaldi, Giuseppe 229 Le Gazetier Cuirassé 79 genocide 179–80, 188, 193, 194, 234 see also eugenics German army, in First World War 182–3, 185–7 colonial troops 182 German empire 144 in Africa 176–81, 188–90, 191; legal system 177, racial issues 176, 177–81; rebellion in 178–9 Nazi, in Eastern Europe 189–90, 191–5 German nationalism 213, 214 Germany 11, 16, 38, 159 division of, post-1945 243; Berlin Wall 249, 251 economic growth/output 231, 232–3 eugenics in 176–81 living standards 232–3 Nazi regime 189–90, 191–5, 231–4; see also Hitler, Adolf as a printing centre 61 Reformation 38 Russia and 192, 194, 231–2 as a scientific centre 175–6 Gibbon, Edward 78 The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 257–9, 291–2 Gide, André 174 Gilbert, William 65 Ginsburg, Allen 247 globalization 239 gold, from South America 99, 101–2, 130 golf 28 Goltz, Colmar Freiherr von de (Goltz Pasha) 91 Gorbachev, Mikhail 250 Göring, Heinrich (father of Hermann Göring) 176, 189 Göring, Hermann 176, 189, 193 Graham, Billy 273–4 Great Britain see Britain Great Depression 229–31 Greece 15, 17, 21 Greek nationalism 213, 228 Greer, Germaine 246 Gregory VII, Pope 60 Grijns, Gerrit 170 Grimm, Hans: People without Space 189 Grosseteste, Robert 60 Guettard, Jean-Etienne 66 Guizot, François xxvii Gutenberg, Johann 60–61 Habsburg empire 8–9, 53, 144 Ottoman empire’s invasion of (1683) 52, 54–7 Vienna, siege of (1683) 52, 53, 55, 57 see also Austria Haiti 120, 128, 160 Hamakari, battle of (1904) 179 Hammond, Mac 275 Hardy, Georges 166 Hargreaves, James 200 Harrison, John 70 Harvey, William 66 Haussmann, Baron Georges 215 Havel, Václav 248–9 Hawaii 144 Hayek, Friedrich von 301 Road to Serfdom 237 health issues 7, 12, 14, 44, 68, 175–6 antibiotics 148 Black Death/plague 4, 23, 25, 54, 169, 175 death 25–6 definition 13 diet and 170 eugenics see eugenics European diseases, spread of 99, 101 hospitals: Islamic 51 medical schools 53 native medicine/healers 171–2 public health 147, 148, 171–2, 177, 205 sanitation 23, 147, 179 tropical diseases 148, 168–70, 173; mortality rate from 168; research on 169–70, 174 vaccination 14, 147, 148, 170, 173, 175 Western medicine, benefits of 146–8, 168–75, 191 witch doctors 171, 172 health transition concept 147–8 Heck, Walter 233 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 159, 207, 212 Helvétius, Adrien 78 Hempel, Carl xx Hendel, Ann Katrin 250 Henry V, King of England 23, 24, 39 Henry VIII, King of England 72, 103–4 Henry the Navigator, King of Portugal 39 Himmler, Heinrich 190, 192, 193–4 Hirohito, Crown Prince of Japan 220, 225–6 Hispaniola (island) 101–2 history teaching of xviii–xx limitations of xx–xxii Hitler, Adolf 189–90, 194, 231 Hossbach memorandum 233 see also Germany, Nazi regime Ho Chi Minh 167 Hobbes, Thomas 24, 73 on liberty 107–8 Hoffmann, Erich 175–6 Hogg, James xxvi Holbach, baron Paul-Henri Thiry d’ 79 homicide rates 24, 25, 105 Hong Kong 105, 169 Hong Xiuquan 279–80 Hooke, Thomas 67, 70 Micrographia 64 How, Millicent (English migrant to South Carolina) 103, 106, 111–12 Hu Jintao 287–8 Huguenots 39, 41, 76 human rights 8 Hume, David 77, 78 Hungary 251 Huntington, Samuel, on Western civilization 15, 16, 312–13 Hus, Jan 61 Hussein, Saddam xvi Hutton, James 66 Ibrahim, Muktar Said 288–9 illiteracy see literacy rates imperialism 8–10, 13, 14, 15, 142–95, 302–3 in Africa 14, 139, 145, 146, 148, 163–75; see also individual countries in America see America … colonial armies/troops 164, 181–9 communications, difficulty of 170–71, 181–2 as conquest 99–102 European diseases spread by 99, 101 growth/decline of 3, 4, 5, 13, 38, 142, 144–5 impact of 8, 45, 46, 144–6, 173–4, 190–95 institutional structures and 103–5 Lenin on 144 as a term of abuse 144, 145 Mark Twain on 144 Western 14, 15, 96–140, 142–95 Western medicine, benefits of to overseas colonies 146–8, 168–75, 191 see also individual empires Inca empire, Spanish conquest of 98, 99–102 income levels see living standards; wages India 5, 9, 17, 36 as British colony 144, 264 China and 29, 32 as independent state 224–5 Portugal and 34, 35, 39 science/technology 11 textile industry 2245 Indian Medical Service 169–70 Indian Ocean 29, 32, 33 Indo-China, as a French colony 167, 191 Indonesia 240 Industrial Revolution 13, 21, 28–9, 70, 198–205 in Britain 10, 13, 21, 28–9, 70, 199–200, 203–5 consumerism, increase caused by 201–2 definition 198–9 spread of 204–5, 225, 264 industrialization 10, 14, 216–18 in China 225, 284, 285 inequality see living standards infant mortality see life expectancy Inoue Kaoru 226 institutional structures 11–14 cultural 77 financial/economic see financial systems imperialism and 103–5, 112, 172–3, 287 of Islamic fundamentalism 288, 289, 290n Islamic 289, 290, 290n Iran 94–5, 255 Ireland 11, 227, 203n England and 24, 105 iron/steel industry 200–201 Islam 3, 8, 9, 16, 60 calligraphy, importance of 68 Europe, envoys sent to 86–7 health issues: hospitals 51; medical schools 53 the Koran 63 population figures 290 printing, attitude to 68, 86 religious conflict 71 in Turkey 253–5 the West and 39, 50–57, 63, 85–90, 255 women’s clothing 253–5, 254n see also Ottoman empire; religious issues Islamic education 51 Islamic fundamentalism 93–5, 93n, 255, 258, 288–91 institutional structure 288, 289, 290n Islamic migration 290, 290n Islamic science/technology 51–7, 264 astronomy 68–9 attitudes to 67–9 Roger Bacon on 52 modernization of 88–9, 92, 94–5 optics 51–2 Israel 92–5, 246–7 Jerusalem 93, 93n, 94 science/technology in 93–4 see also Jews Italian city-states/Italy 4, 25, 28, 159, 182 France and 159 Under Mussolini 228 Naples 26, 159 as a printing centre 63 Rome 17; March on (1922) 228–9 in Second World War 233–4 Venice 38–9 see also Roman empire Italian colonies 144 Italian unification 212–13, 214–15, 228 Iwakura Tomomi 221 Jamaica 120, 123 as a British colony 148 Jansen, Zacharias 65 Japan 5, 9, 42 China and 226, 233, 234 fashion/clothing 220–21, 222, 223, 225 living standards 45–6 modernization of 90, 218, 221–5, 226, 239, 257; internal opposition to 222 Russia and 226 textile industry 223–4 US and 221; in Second World War 233–5 Western influence on 5, 7, 15, 221–5 women in 222 Japanese armed forces 226, 234 Java 170 jeans, as a symbol of consumerism 240–49, 250 Jefferson, Thomas 134 Jerusalem 93, 93n, 94 Jews 3, 76 as entrepreneurs 216–17, 217n, 262n as intellectuals 235, 235n in Palestine 92–3 persecution of 38–9; in Germany 92, 214, 234, 235 Max Weber on 262 see also Israel Jiang Zemin 287 Jiao Yu and Liu Ji: Huolongjing 28 Jirous, Ivan 248 John Paul II, Pope 252 Johnson, Blind Willie 18 Johnson, Samuel 2, 10 Kahn, Albert 196, 196n Kamen, Dean 145n Kant, Immanuel 76, 79, 80–81 Critique of Pure Reason 76 Kara Mustafa Köprülü (‘the black’), Grand Vizier 52, 54–5, 56, 71, 86 Karaca, Nihal Bengisu 254 Kaufman, Henry xvi Kemal, Mustafa see Atatürk, Kemal Kennedy, Paul: The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers 298 Keynes, John Maynard 7, 230, 231, 237 Khan, Dr A. Q. 95 Khomeini, Ayatollah 255 Khrushchev, Nikita 243, 250 King, Jonathan 273n Kipling, Rudyard, on First World War 187–8 Kirsch, Wilhelm 90 Kissinger, Henry 16 Kitchener, Sir Horatio 173 Koch, Erich 193 Koch, Robert 169, 175 the Koran 63 see also Islam Korea 11 Korea, South 239, 240, 306–7 Korean War (1950–53) 235–6, 239 Kraus, Karl 273 Kuhlman, August 179–80 labour market 203, 232, 265 migrant workers 219 trade unions 238–9, 245 unemployment 230–31, 232, 265, 265n women in 224 working hours 265, 277 Labouret, Henri 166 Lafayette, marquis Gilbert de 150 Laigret, Jean 170 land ownership see property rights Landes, David, on Western ascendancy 11 Langton, Christopher 299 Laplace, Pierre-Simon 158n Larkin, Philip 270 Latin America see South America Laud, Archbishop William 106, 107 Lavoisier, Antoine 66 Leeuwenhoek, Antoni van 66 legal systems 8, 12, 124 in Britain 202–3 definition 13 in French colonies 165–6 in German colonies 177 Napoleonic 159–60 property rights see property rights racial laws 134–6 in Russia 244 Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 65, 66, 70, 78, 80 on China 46 Leipzig, battle of (1813) 160 Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich 227, 228 on imperialism 144 Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor 54, 55 Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor 155 Lettow-Vorbeck, General Paul Emil von 188 Leuthen, battle of (1757) 82–3 Leutwein, Theodor 176 Levi jeans 241–3, 244 Lewis, C.

pages: 458 words: 134,028

Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white picket fence, women in the workforce, Y2K

“Right” means “just” in English. Droit is “law” in French. Recht is “authority” in German and Dutch. Diestro is “skillful” in Spanish.) The anti-left bias comes from, or is reflected in, the fact that in the New Testament, the devil sits at God’s left hand, whereas the blessed sit to His right. In Islam, too, left-handedness is a curse—just before the Islamist revolution in Iran in 1979, the Ayatollah Khomeini “proved” that the Shah was cursed by pointing out that his firstborn son was a lefty. And so left-handedness has been routinely discouraged, or even beaten out of people. China and the Netherlands were particularly aggressive in “hand reorientation” until the twentieth century, and until the 1960s in the U.S., elementary school teachers—most famously in Catholic schools—slapped left-handed children for trying to write with their left hands.

For more on the disputed effects of left-handedness on human health, see Nicole Frehsee, “All Is Not Right in the World of the Lefty,” Fort Lauderdale Sun Sentinel, October 29, 2005. For more on Southpaw earnings, see Joel Waldfogel, “Sinister and Rich,” Slate, August 16, 2006. The discussion of lateralization of the brain among animals comes from Amanda Onion, “The Left-Handed Advantage,” ABC News, February 17, 2005. For more on the religious heritage of left-handedness as sin, including the Ayatollah Khomeini reference, see “All Is Not Right in the World of the Lefty,” cited above; and Kathleen Laufenberg, “For Centuries, Being Left-Handed Was More than Just Inconvenient,” Tallahassee Democrat, January 29, 2002. The UCLA study is K. Hugdahl, et al., “Left-Handedness and Old Age: Do Left-Handers Die Earlier?,” Neuropsychologia, Vol. 4, 1993, pp. 325–33, cited in Thomas H. Maugh II, “Lefties Don’t Die Young After All, Study Reports,” Los Angeles Times, April 4, 1993.

pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

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3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Of course, virtual governance done remotely would never be anything but a last resort (surely, the distance would alter how accountable and credible the government would appear to its citizens), and certain preconditions must be in place for such a system to work, including fast, reliable and secure networks; sophisticated platforms; and a fully connected population. No state would be ready to do this today—Somalia least of all—but if countries can begin building such systems now, they will be ready when they are needed. The potential for remote virtual governance might well affect political exiles. Whereas public figures living outside their homelands once had to rely on back channels to stay connected—the Ayatollah Khomeini famously relied on audiocassette tapes recorded in Paris and smuggled into Iran to spread his message in the 1970s—there are a range of faster, safer and more effective alternatives today. In the future, political exiles will have the ability to form powerful and competent virtual institutions, and thus entire shadow governments, that could interact with and meet the needs of the population at home.

Hormuud https encryption protocols Huawei human rights, 1.1, 3.1 humiliation Hussein, Saddam, itr.1, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4 Hutus Identity Cards Act identity theft identity-theft protection, 2.1, 2.2 IEDs (improvised explosive devices), 5.1, 6.1 IEEE Spectrum, 107n income inequality, 1.1, 4.1 India, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1 individuals, transfer of power to Indonesia infiltration information blackouts of exchange of free movement of see also specific information technologies Information and Communications Technologies Authority Information Awareness Office information-technology (IT) security experts infrastructure, 2.1, 7.1 Innocence of Muslims (video), 4.1, 6.1 innovation Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, n insurance, for online reputation integrated clothing machine intellectual property, 2.1, 3.1 intelligence intelligent pills internally displaced persons (IDP), 7.1, 7.2 International Criminal Court, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2 internationalized domain names (IDN) International Telecommunications Union Internet, 2.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 Balkanization of as becoming cheaper and changing understanding of life impact of as network of networks Internet asylum seekers Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) internet protocol (IP) activity logs internet protocol (IP) address, 3.1, 3.2, 6.1 Internet service provider (ISP), 3.1, 3.2, 6.1, 7.1 Iran, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.1 cyber warfare on “halal Internet” in Iraq, itr.1, 3.1, 4.1, 6.1, 6.2 reconstruction of, 7.1, 7.2 Ireland iRobot Islam Israel, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 iTunes Japan, 3.1, 6.1n, 246 earthquake in Jasmine Revolution JavaOne Conference Jebali, Hamadi Jibril, Mahmoud Jim’ale, Ali Ahmed Nur Join the Club: How Peer Pressure Can Transform the World (Rosenberg), 4.1 Joint Tactical Networking Center Joint Tactical Radio System Julius Caesar justice system Kabul Kagame, Paul, 7.1, 7.2 Kansas State University Karzai, Hamid Kashgari, Hamza Kaspersky Lab Kenya, 3.1, 7.1, 7.2 Khan Academy Khartoum Khodorkovsky, Mikhail Khomeini, Ayatollah Kickstarter kidnapping, 2.1, 5.1 virtual Kinect Kissinger, Henry, 4.1, 4.2 Kiva, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Klein, Naomi, n Kony 2012, 7.1 Koran Koryolink “kosher Internet,” 187 Kosovo Kurds, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1 Kurzweil, Ray Kyrgyzstan Laârayedh, Ali Lagos language translation, 1.1, 4.1, 4.2 laptops Latin America, 3.1, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1 law enforcement Law of Accelerating Returns Lebanon, 5.1, 7.1, 7.2 Lee Hsien Loong legal options, coping strategies for privacy and security concerns legal prosecution Lenin, Vladimir Levitt, Steven D.

pages: 466 words: 127,728

The Death of Money: The Coming Collapse of the International Monetary System by James Rickards

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, complexity theory, computer age, credit crunch, currency peg, David Graeber, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, G4S, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, jitney, John Meriwether, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market design, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, risk-adjusted returns, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, working-age population, yield curve

As typically happens at such gatherings, there was downtime for drinks and getting to know the other guests. During one such break, I chatted with the head of one of the largest institutional portfolios in the world. He asked me about my career, and I recounted my early days at Citibank on assignment in Karachi. That had been in the 1980s, not long after the shah of Iran had been deposed in the Iranian Revolution. Grand Ayatollah Khomeini became Supreme Leader and declared Iran to be an Islamic Republic guided by principles of sharia or Islamic law. This shift in Iranian governance placed pressure on Pakistan to burnish its own Islamic credentials. Pakistani president Zia-ul-Haq issued religious ordinances, including one that prohibited banks from charging interest on loans, something forbidden by sharia. Citibank had major operations in Pakistan.

-Iran financial war, 54–58 Iraq, 153 Ireland, 128, 200 iron rice bowl principle, 93 “Irreversibility, Uncertainty, and Cyclical Investment” (Bernanke), 84, 85 ISI (Pakistani intelligence), 36–37 Israel, 156 Italy, 128 Jamaica compromise, 235–36 Japan, 82, 157–62 debt-to-GDP ratio of, 159, 259, 261 deflation in, 160–61, 260–62, 264 Federal Reserve’s easy-money policy and, 157–59 gold-to-GDP ratio of, 157, 281 IMF commitment of, 202 quantitative easing in, 160–61 secret gold acquisitions by, 273–74 Jin Dynasty, 90 Johnson, Lyndon, 7–8, 209 Jordan, 152, 153 JPMorgan Chase, 205 Kazakhstan, 151 Kelton, Stephanie, 168 Keynes, John Maynard, 7, 131, 134, 168, 207, 244 Keynesianism, 69, 124, 130–31, 193–94 Khan, Kublai, 90 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 30 Kindleberger, Charles, 84 King Dollar (sound-dollar) policy, 118, 176–77, 210, 211 Knight, Frank H., 85, 268, 269 Knight Capital computer debacle, 60, 63, 296–97 Knot, Klaas, 233 Korea, 202 Kos, Dino, 272–73 Kosovo, 136 Krugman, Paul, 117–18 on myth of Chinese growth, 94, 95, 96 myth that gold caused market panics and, 224 sticky-wage theory and, 124, 131, 134 Kuroda, Haruhiko, 161 Kuwait, 152, 153 Kyrgyzstan, 151 labor-capital factor input model of economic growth, 94–95 labor-management relations, 123–24 labor mobility, 125 Lagarde, Christine, 144, 148, 191, 192, 194–95, 198, 205, 206 land, as investment, 299 Lao Tzu, 90 Latvia, 136.

Necessary Illusions by Noam Chomsky

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, full employment, Howard Zinn, Khyber Pass, land reform, long peace, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, union organizing

Reviewing media coverage of the Kurds, Vera Beaudin Saeedpour observes that “beginning in 1979, the Kurds of Iran captured the attention of the Times” as they took up arms against the Khomeini regime.55 Subsequent press coverage treated the Kurdish problem as “a variable in the power struggle.” The basic question was whether whether U.S. interests would benefit or suffer if Iran were to be dismembered; coverage of the rights and travail of the Kurdish people rose or fell according to this criterion. There is, however, another condition under which repression of the Kurds becomes a legitimate issue of concern: if it can be exploited to support Israeli power. Thus, Times columnist William Satire has written favorably of Kurdish aspirations for autonomy and respect for their culture, then coming to the point: “PLO leader, Yasir Arafat, who wants not only sovereignty in the West Bank but claims all of Israel, has embraced the Ayatollah in Iran” and does not defend the Kurds; and the “Soviet-backed” Iraqis are equally hypocritical, attacking the “non-Arab Kurds” but calling for independence for Palestinian Arabs.

., 189, 266 Jonas, Susanne, 228 Jordan, 289, 290, 297, 306, 311, 339 Judis, John, 317 K Kahan Commission, 382n.21 Kahane, Rabbi Meir, 291, 296, 316 Kairys, David, 346, 348–49 Kalb, Marvin, 168 Kalven, Harry, 346 Kamm, Henry, 109 Kapeliouk, Amnon, 38, 118 Kempton, Murray, 123 Kennan, George, 40 Kennedy, John F., 28, 58, 67–68, 70, 115, 135, 189, 266 Kennedy, William V., 184 Kenworthy, E.W., 143 Kern, Montague, 122–23 Kerry, John, 58, 259 Key, V.O., 358n. l6 KGB, 167–68 Khalil, Samikha, 339 Khmer Rouge, 28, 37, 109, 156–55, 159 Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah, 134, 285–86 Kifner, John, 207, 403n.70 King, Martin Luther, 46 Kinsley, Michael, 61 Kinzer, Stephen, 56, 83, 126, 141, 147, 225, 231, 235, 239–40, 248, 250–51, 258–59, 315, 328, 329, 331–35, 337, 344, 407n.l33 Kipper, Judith, 300 Kirkpatrick, Jeane, 94, 100, 103, 219, 246, 326 Kissinger, Henry, 4, 21, 25, 47, 286, 289, 307 Klein, Joe, 315 Klinghoffer, Leon, 118 Knight-Ridder, 179 Koch, Edward, 232 Kondracke, Morton, 167–68, 171–72, 369n.57 Kook, Rabbi A.I., 214 Krauthammer, Charles, 171 Ku Klux Klan, 318 Kupperman, Robert, 270 Kurds, 286 L Lacouture, Jean, 156, 159 La Crónica del Pueblo, 41, 42 La Epoca, 124, 125, 332 LaFeber, Walter, 111–12, 148–50 La Follette Committee, 30 La Nación, 33l Lane, Charles, 388n.17 Lane, Mark, 159 Laos, 35, 38, 81, 106, 133, 205, 280 La Prensa, 42, 62, 78, 123–28, 165, 166, 230, 233, 324–32 Laqueur, Walter, 113, 171, 277–82 Larouche, Lyndon, 353 La Semana Cómica, 250 Lasswell, Harold, 17 Latin American Studies Association (LASA), 140–41, 147 Lau, Ricardo, 205 Law, Richard, 181 Law in the Service of Man (Al-Haq), 338 Lebanon, 12, 52–54, 80–89, 117, 118, 156, 161, 166–68, 170–73, 175, 192–95, 218, 272, 274–78, 294, 304, 319, 343, 405n.l00 Leiken, Robert, 164, 333, 372n.l9 Lelyveld, Joseph, 199, 409n.159 Lemann, Nicolas, 145–48, 360n.32 LeMoyne, James, 42, 56, 63, 66, 70, 81, 94, 95, 97, 102, 134, 205, 199–202, 223, 228–32, 235, 237–38, 248, 329, 333–37, 360n.46, 407n.l33, 409n.l59 Lenin, Vladimir, 45, 347 LeoGrande, William, 164 Leumi, Irgun Zvai, 114–15 Levi, Edward H., 351 Levin, Marcus, 211 Levin, Murray, 188 Lewis, Anthony, 2, 6–7, 13, 87, 143, 300 Lewis, Flora, 323 Lewis, Neil, 49, 106 Lewy, Guenter, 350–55 Libya, 9, 39, 49, 70, 77, 113, 271–73, 277, 319 Lichtenstein, David, 175 Lie, Trygvie, 220 Lippmann, Walter, 16, 26 Locke, John, 132 London Times, 275, 319, 320 López Contreras, Carlos, 222 Los Angeles Times, 121, 300, 319 Lovestone, Jay, 266 Luard, Evan, 220 Luxembourg, 55 Lybia, 271 M Ma’ariv, 293 MacMichael, David, 58, 200, 354 Magana, Alvaro, 239 Majano, Adolfo, 230–31, 249 Mansour, Attallah, 174 Manuel, Anne, 255 Manufacturing Consent, 12, 145, 148 Marcos, Ferdinand, 107 Markham, James, 107 May Day, 29 McCain, John, 37, 96 McCann, Thomas, 323 McCarthy witchhunt, 217 McGovern, George, 157 McHorn, Robert, 204 McKinley, William, 186 Media Alliance, San Francisco, 235 Medrano, Imelda, 255 Meese, Edwin, 271 Mein Kampf, 72 Meir, Golda, 360n.33 Melton, Richard H., 250, 252–53 Merz, Charles, 26 Mesoamerica, 268 Metternich, 72 Mexico, 41, 84, 202 Miami Herald, 228, 256 Middle East Studies Association, 317 Mill, James, 13 Mill, John Stuart, 132 Milo, Roni, 297 Milton, John, 105 Miranda, Roger, 199, 200, 203, 205 Miskito, 66, 92, 204, 225 Mission of Peace, 57 Mitchell, George, 58 Mitterand, François, 117 Mitzna, Amram, 338 Molina, Rev.

It is important to stay away from camps on the Honduran border, where refugees report “without exception” that they were “all fleeing from the army that we are supporting” and “every person had a tale of atrocity by government forces, the same ones we are again outfitting with weapons” as they conduct “a systematic campaign of terrorism” with “a combination of murder, torture, rape, the burning of crops in order to create starvation conditions,” and vicious atrocities; the report of the congressional delegation that reached these conclusions after their first-hand investigation in early 1981 was excluded from the media, which were avoiding this primary source of evidence on rural El Salvador.72 It would be bad form to arouse public awareness of Nicaragua’s “noteworthy progress in the social sector, which is laying a solid foundation for long-term socio-economic development,” reported in 1983 by the Inter-American Development Bank, barred by U.S. pressure from contributing to these achievements.73 Correspondingly, it is improper to set forth the achievements of the Reagan administration in reversing these early successes, to record the return of disease and malnutrition, illiteracy and dying infants, while the country is driven to the zero grade of life to pay for the sin of independent development. In contrast, it is responsible journalism for James LeMoyne to denounce the Sandinistas for the “bitterness and apathy” he finds in Managua.74 Those who hope to enter the system must learn that terror traceable to the PLO, Qaddafi, or Khomeini leaves worthy victims who merit compassion and concern; but those targeted by the United States and its allies do not fall within this category. Responsible journalists must understand that a grenade attack on Israeli Army recruits and their families leaving one killed and many wounded deserves a front-page photograph of the victims and a substantial story, while a contra attack on a passenger bus the day before with two killed, two kidnapped, and many wounded merits no report at all.75 Category by category, the same lessons hold.

pages: 851 words: 247,711

The Atlantic and Its Enemies: A History of the Cold War by Norman Stone

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, central bank independence, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, illegal immigration, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, long peace, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, V2 rocket, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, éminence grise

Persuaded that the Shah’s regime was too oppressive, that America’s mistake in the past had been to alienate the Castros and Allendes through CIA action, he encouraged the Shah to hold back. In the same way, his official representative at a human rights gathering had solemnly stood up and apologized for his country’s handling of Allende and Chile. And so the Shah was overthrown. But his successors were not Communist at all. Over the turn of 1978-9, after various governments had passed in and out, the Ayatollah Khomeini took over, a grim, elderly figure whose prescription was theocracy, the Rule of Saints. The Saints manifested themselves in mobs of students, in gruesome executions, in parades of black-garbed women vociferously demanding that Westernization, in particular the ways of ‘satanic’ America, should be put down. This left the Communists nowhere: they - who after all did represent women’s rights and much else that Islam did not wish to see - received as much persecution as the rest, if not more.

., Jr Kennedy, Joseph Kennedy, Robert Kent State University shootings (1970) Kerr, Clark Keyder, Çağlar Keynes, John Maynard, 1st Baron: Galbraith and on government spending homosexuality hopes for German bombing on paper money and Roosevelt Keynesianism KGB: and coup of August 1991 and Cuban crisis of 1962 and dissidents and Gorbachev network of informers relationship with Party and revolutions of 1989 and war in Afghanistan and Western anti-missile demonstrations see also Cheka KHAD (Afghan secret police) Khanin, G. I. Khariton, Yuli Khe Sanh, battle of (1968) Khmer Rouge Khomeini, Ayatollah Khrushchev, Nikita: agricultural reform background and character and Berlin crisis of 1961 and China and Cuban crisis of 1962 cultural liberalization policies and de-Stalinization of Soviet satellite states defeat of old guard denunciation of Stalin and Eisenhower and Hungarian uprising of 1956 megalomania and Molotov Moscow Party head and nationalism and Orthodox Church overthrow of Beria overthrown (1964) ‘peaceful coexistence’ doctrine and Poland political reforms relations with China relations with West release of political prisoners reputation and popularity rise to power row with Nixon over culture at Stalin’s seventieth birthday transfer of Crimea to Ukraine 20th Party Congress speech (1956) Ukraine Party head Vienna conference (1961) Kiesinger, Kurt Georg Kiev Rosa Luxemburg knitwear factory Killing Fields, The (film) KimSung King’s College, Cambridge Kırbaşi Kirikkale Kirkpatrick, Jeane Kisielewski, Stefan Kissinger, Henry: background and character and Chile and Cyprus and EEC and Helskinki conference (1975) and Middle East military adviser to Kennedy and OPEC and ‘Pentagon Papers’ reputation and SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) and Vietnam Koç, Vehbi Koestler, Arthur Kohl, Helmut Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.

The Poles in a sense did both, because they did develop a first-rate intelligentsia, but instead of being loyal Communists, or even, like Czechs or Slovenes, just progressives of the sort that Communists could use, they marched off in a different direction altogether and produced the most vibrant political Catholicism in the world. Frenchmen, trained from earliest infancy in anti-clericalism, could not believe the crowds they saw in Poland welcoming the Pope. ‘Like the Ayatollah,’ sniffed one of those Frenchmen. There were great differences between Poland and the other ‘bloc’ countries. In the first place she had a ‘mass of manoeuvre’, a population coming on for 40 million, and still, in the 1960s, expanding, and that because of a second considerable difference: a large peasant population, still set in the old days, with hay-carts trundling along on the roads. That in turn reflected another great difference, that the Western Allies had had some sort of formal rights as regards Poland, and even Stalin shrank from applying the full-scale Soviet formula there.

pages: 299 words: 89,342

The Places in Between by Rory Stewart

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Ayatollah Khomeini, clean water, Khyber Pass, out of africa, trade route, upwardly mobile

Zia, the twenty-year-old nephew of the feudal lord Mir Ali Hussein Beg, apologized and said it was only because his castle was unheated, but it seemed to me that visitors usually slept in the mosque. The mosque functioned not only as a chapel and a guesthouse but also as a dining hall, a conference room, and a school. The walls were of scratched mud, stained with grease, dimpled with worm casts and moth holes, and hung with a blackboard and a small embroidery of the Kabaa at Mecca. In Iran there would have been posters of Ayatollah Khomeini, but here there was no government figure to idolize, no father of the nation, no king. Nevertheless, the Beg had clearly spent money on the mosque—it had a felt carpet, three full-length windows, and plaster flowers on the ceiling. As if to confirm the building's secular aspect, three ibex heads with curling three-foot horns hung in the atrium. The ibex, a very large mountain goat, is with the snow leopard the most revered of the Asian mountain animals.

[back] *** 51 It is difficult to generalize about either Shia or Sunni Islam. The dispute was originally over who had been the legitimate successor of the Prophet Muhammad in the seventh century. But each sect had gathered its own collection of traditions and practices over fourteen centuries. Some Christian observers saw the Sunnis as the Protestant and the Shia as the Catholic sections of Islam. They pointed to the authority of the ayatollah priests in the Shia tradition and their emotional and colorful penances, their incorporation of local traditions, and their concern with saints and miracles. But others saw the Shia as Protestants: reformers who had returned to the original religion of the Prophet when the earlier Sunni tradition had been corrupted by power. This conflict between the two sects, whatever its theological basis, is an old theme in Afghan history.

pages: 740 words: 217,139

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Powerful, modern states that are not offset by rule of law or accountability simply succeed in being more perfect tyrannies.22 Whether modern Islamists can achieve a democratic regime limited by a rule of law is a delicate question. The experience of the Islamic Republic of Iran after the 1979 revolution is not encouraging. Since the nineteenth century, Shia Iran has had a better-organized clerical hierarchy than anything existing in the Sunni world. This hierarchy, led by Ayatollah Khomeini, took control of the Iranian state and turned it into a genuine theocracy in which the clerical hierarchy controlled the state apparatus. That state developed into a clerical dictatorship that routinely jailed and killed opponents and has been willing to bend the law to suit its purposes as it went along. In theory, the Iranian Republic’s 1979 constitution could be the basis for a moderate, democratic, law-governed state.

Hitler, Adolph Hobbes, Thomas Holland, see Netherlands Holstein Holy Roman Empire Homo erectus Homo ergaster Homo heidelbergensis Homo sapiens, evolution of Hopi Indians House of Commons, English Huan, Emperor of China Huguenots Hui, Victoria Hulagu Khan Humbert of Moyenmoutier, Cardinal Hume, David Humphrey, Nicolas Hundred, Court of the Hundred Schools of Thought period Hungary; accountability in; Diet of; Golden Bull in; maps of; military expenditures in; Ottoman conquest of Huns hunter-gatherers Huntington, Samuel Hunyadi, János Hunyadi, Mátyás Huo Xian Husain Hussein, Saddam Iceland I Jing (Book of Changes) Iliad (Homer) Ilkhanid dynasty Imperial Academy, Chinese Inden, Ronald India; accountability in; agnatic lineages in; agrarian society in; British rule in; comparison of China and; corruption in; democracy in; divergence from Chinese development of; economic growth of; film industry in; kinship structures in; Mongols in; Muslim nation building in; political consequences of ideas in; rationality of religion in; religion in (see also Brahmanism); rule of law in; transition to statehood in; tribalism in; victory of society over politics in Indians: American (see also Native Americans); Amazonian individualism; English; modern; primordial Indo-Aryans Indo-Europeans Indo-Gangetic Plain Indonesia Industrial Revolution; economic growth and productivity gains in; interaction of dimension of development during; kinship patterns and; Protestant work ethic and information technology Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional; PRI), Mexican International Criminal Court International Monetary Fund (IMF) Internet Iran; Islamic Republic of Iraq; tribalism in; U.S. invasion of Iraq-Iran War Ireland Irnerius Iron Age Iroquois Indians Isabella, Queen of Castile Islam; conversion to; in India; religious law of; see also Muslims Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, Iranian Islamism; radical Israel, ancient István, King of Hungary Italy; Catholic church in; colonies of; Normans in; rise of capitalism in; serfdom abolished in; urban bourgeoisie in Ivan I, Prince of Moscow Ivan III, Tsar of Russia Ivan IV (the Terrible), Tsar of Russia Ivan the Terrible (film) Jainism James I, King of England James II, King of England Janissaries Japan Jefferson, Thomas Jena-Auerstadt, Battle of Jesus Jews; in England; in Hungary; in Ottoman Empire; see also Judaism Jim Crow laws Jin Dynasty Jing, Emperor of China Jin state Joanna, Queen of Spain John, King of England John II, King of France Johnson, Simon Jordan Judaism; see also Jews Junkers Justinian Code Jutes Kaikolar weaver caste Kalahari Desert, Bushmen of Kalenjin people Kalmar Union Karakhanids Karbala, Battle of Kashi Kashmir Kautilya Kaviraj, Sudipta Kazakhstan Keeley, Lawrence Kenya Khaldun, Ibn Kharijites Khilnani, Sunil Khitai Khitans Khomeini, Ruhollah Khorasanis Khwarazm empire Kikuyu people kinship; advent of state and exit from; agnatic, see agnation; in China ,; in Europe; fictive; in India; in Latin America; in Muslim state; property rights and; religion and Kipchak Turks Kipling, Rudyard Koguryo Kojève, Alexandre Köprülüs, vizirate of Koran Korea Korean War Kosala Kroeber, Alfred Kshatriyas Kublai Khan Kurds Kushana dynasty Kutadgu Bilig Kwakiutl Indians Kwangju massacre Labour Party, British Laffer curve Laon, Aldabéron de Laos Laslett, Peter latifundia Laud, Archbishop William Law, John Laws of Manu Lebanon LeBlanc, Steven LeDonne, John P.

For an overview of theories of how Islam relates to economic backwardness, see Timur Kuran, Islam and Mammon: The Economic Predicaments of Islamism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), pp. 128–47. 16 Inalcik, The Ottoman Empire, p. 75. 17 Timur Kuran, “The Provision of Public Goods Under Islamic Law: Origins, Impact and Limitations of the Waqf System,” Law and Society 35 (2001): 841–97. 18 Derrett, History of Indian Law, pp. 2–3. 19 Head, “Codes, Cultures, Chaos,” pp. 758–60. 20 Muhammad Qasim Zaman, The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), pp. 21–31. 21 Feldman, The Fall and Rise of the Islamic State, pp. 62–68. 22 See ibid., pp. 111–17. 23 Shaul Bakhash, Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution (New York: Basic Books, 1984). 20: ORIENTAL DESPOTISM 1 Denis Twitchett, ed., The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 3: Sui and T’ang China, 589–906, Part I (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979), pp. 57–58, 150–51. 2 Ibid., pp. 86–87. 3 For intellectual developments during the Song Dynasty, see James T. C. Liu, China Turning Inward: Intellectual-Political Changes in the Early Twelfth Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Council on East Asian Studies, 1988). 4 For an overview, see Anatoly M.

pages: 233 words: 75,477

Surrender or Starve: Travels in Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Eritrea by Robert D. Kaplan

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Ayatollah Khomeini, citizen journalism, European colonialism, facts on the ground, land reform, Live Aid, mass immigration, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, the market place

Although the Reagan administration was more realistic about Ethiopia than was the Carter administration, the former did precious little with its realism. If ever a Third World country were a candidate for the Reagan Doctrine, it was Ethiopia. But Ethiopian politics plays to an empty house in the United States. There is no personality to capture the crowd's attention. Lieutenant Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam has proved himself to be more ruthless and more cunning than either Muammar Gaddafi or Ayatollah Khomeini. By the standards of several human rights reports, Mengistu is the world's cruelest leader. But like many communist rulers, he is a faceless bureaucrat. The vast majority of the U.S. populace wouldn't even recognize him. Mengistu had a predecessor whose face was known throughout the world—Haile Selassie. To many, Ethiopia—a Greek word meaning the land of the “burned faces”—still brings to mind that other image in addition to the one of the starving child: Haile Selassie, the little dark man with the beard, as small as he was larger than life.

pages: 279 words: 72,659

Gaza in Crisis: Reflections on Israel's War Against the Palestinians by Ilan Pappé, Noam Chomsky, Frank Barat

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, desegregation, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Islamic Golden Age, New Journalism, one-state solution, price stability, too big to fail

Jerusalem Demolition,” Reuters, March 4, 2009. 64 Among others, on Hamas see Ismail Haniyeh, “Aggression Under False Pretenses,” Washington Post, July 11, 2006; Khalid Mish’al, “Our Unity Can Now Pave the Way for Peace and Justice,” Guardian, February 13, 2007. Guy Dinmore and Najmeh Bozorgmehr, “Iran ‘Accepts Two-state Answer’ in Mideast,” Financial Times, September 2, 2006; “Leader Attends Memorial Ceremony Marking the 17th Departure Anniversary of Imam Khomeini,” The Center for Preserving and Publishing the Works of Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Khamenei, June 4, 2006, http://english.khamenei.ir/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=442&Itemid=2. See also Iran scholar Ervand Abrahamian, “Khamenei Has Said Iran Would Agree to Whatever the Palestinians Decide,” in David Barsamian, ed., Targeting Iran (San Francisco: City Lights, 2007), 112. Hassan Nasrallah has repeatedly expressed the same position. 65 For brief review of the record, and sources, see Failed States.

pages: 249 words: 79,740

The Next Decade: Where We've Been . . . And Where We're Going by George Friedman

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airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

Over the years, these attempts have always failed. But after the failures in Iraq, and to the extent that the United States could neither revive the balance of power nor leave Iran the dominant power in the Persian Gulf region, it would be natural enough for the Americans to consider some kind of attack to oust the Iranian government. The fact that this regime is split between old clerics who came to power with Ayatollah Khomeini and younger, nonclerical leaders such as Ahmadinejad adds to Iranian worries. But the leaders’ primary concern is that they have seen other U.S.-sponsored uprisings succeed, particularly in the former Soviet Union, and they cannot take the chance that the United States won’t get lucky again. The Iranians noted the manner in which North Korea had managed a similar problem in the 1990s, when its government feared that the collapse of Soviet communism would lead to its own collapse.

pages: 511 words: 148,310

Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide by Joshua S. Goldstein

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Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Doomsday Clock, failed state, immigration reform, income inequality, invention of writing, invisible hand, land reform, long peace, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, selection bias, Steven Pinker, Tobin tax, unemployed young men, Winter of Discontent, Y2K

Those wars generally cause more death and destruction than do the more common civil wars—including all of today’s remaining wars—in which a government army on one side fights rebel militia groups (usually more lightly armed) on the other side. The Iran-Iraq War was massively brutal and futile. Iran’s ayatollahs sent teenagers by the thousands to their deaths, promising them paradise. Iraqis electrified swamps to kill Iranians wholesale. They used chemical weapons—the only such case in recent decades—and found them lethally effective. Both sides rained missiles on each other’s cities. And in the end, hundreds of thousands of the deaths and a wasted decade later, the border was right where it had started, and both regimes were still in power, Saddam Hussein and Ayatollah Khomeini. Within a few years Saddam had invaded another of his neighbors, Kuwait. How does that world of the 1980s compare to today’s world? In Lebanon, the civil war finally ended in 1990.

pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Most of my classmates were young women looking for starting secretarial jobs. There were no cell phones then, either. Because of that I got my first big lesson in journalism. It came on the very first real news story UPI sent me out to cover, after I joined its London bureau. And that lesson was: Never ask your competition to hold the phone for you. The Islamic Revolution in Iran was just unfolding. A group of pro–Ayatollah Khomeini Iranian students in London took over the Iranian Embassy there, ousted the shah’s diplomats, and then locked themselves inside the main embassy building. I managed to talk my way into the building to interview some of the student revolutionaries. I don’t remember what they said, but I was so excited by whatever it was that after filling my notebook I ran directly to the phone booth next to the embassy to call my story in to the bureau.

Jerry Maguire (film) Jersey Boys (musical) Jerusalem Jet (company) Jewish Mafia jihadists, see Islamist terrorism jobs, see workforce, innovation in Jobs, Steve “Jobs Crisis, The: Bigger Than You Think” (Mead) job seekers: credentials and; intelligent algorithms and; intelligent assistants and Johnson, John Johnson, Lyndon Joint IED Defeat Organization journalism: author’s career in; explanatory; opinion writing vs. Journal of History and Theory Kagol, Miriam Kalra, Prem Kalra, Urmila Kanagawa, Treaty of (1854) Kannan, P. V. Kaplan, Fred KARE (TV station) Karp, Alexander Karsner, Andy Kauffman Foundation kayaking Kelly, John E., III Kennedy, David Kennedy, John F. Kernza Khan, Salman “Sal” Khan Academy Khomeini, Ayatollah Kiev Kilby, Jack Kindle King, Jeremy Kissinger, Henry Knight Capital knowledge, stocks vs. flows of knowledge economy Koch, Hannes Kreisky, Bruno Krishna, Arvind Krzanich, Brian Kshirsagar, Alok Kunene River Kurdistan Kurniawan, M. Arie Kurzweil, Ray labor market, see workforce, innovation in Labour Party, British Lahouaiej-Bouhlel, Mohamed Lancet Lanchester, John Land, Edwin Land Institute laser science latency Latin America; emigration from Latinos LaunchCode.org Lavie, Peretz leadership; definition of; ethics and learned behavior Learning by Doing (Bessen) LearnUp.com Lebanese American University Lebanese PTT Lebanon; U.S. educational aid to LED lighting Lee Kuan Yew Leuthardt, Eric C.

When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures by Richard D. Lewis

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, global village, haute cuisine, hiring and firing, invention of writing, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, open borders, profit maximization, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

.; this introduced iron, copper and horses, thereby strengthening the area. These factors, as well as an extreme climate that has engendered a tough, vigorous populace, have enabled Persians to enjoy dominance of the region up to modern times. The Pahlavi monarchy (the Shah) was overthrown in 1979, and the Islamic Republic of Iran was established and endorsed by a universal referendum a month later. Ayatollah Khomeini emerged as the undisputed leader. Rule by religious leaders has continued into the twenty-first century. In economic terms, it is important to understand that currently the Iranians are cautious about signing large new contracts with foreign firms. There are big differences in attitude 396 WHEN CULTURES COLLIDE between the private and the public sectors: whereas trade with the private sector can be fast, mobile and present-oriented, the state has put on the brakes and is more long-term and future-oriented in the types of businesses it will consider.

Islamic faith and values, spirituality new technology, research, invention neighborliness traditional music and literature caution in decision making respect for the wisdom of the old politeness and clemency hospitality family design and pattern seriousness, dignity academic achievement respect for the Islamic role of women their cultural achievements Concepts Leadership and Status In general terms, spiritual leadership is dominant. When the spiritual leader Ayatollah Khomeini decided that it was time for the Shah to step down, support was massive and immediate (over 98 percent). In business, the leader may be identified as the last person to enter the room at a meeting, and he (and it will be a “he”) will sit in the middle. Alternatively, he may show his hospitality by greeting the visitors at the entrance to the room. IRAN 397 Academic achievement is of high importance: in government the Iranian leader must be a “fully qualified theologian,” selected by “experts.”

pages: 422 words: 104,457

Dragnet Nation: A Quest for Privacy, Security, and Freedom in a World of Relentless Surveillance by Julia Angwin

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AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

“It would be possible to make such awards in such a way so that nobody knows who is getting awarded the money, only that the award is being given.” Bell described this death prediction market as a way to punish “violators of rights” by putting a price on their heads. “Consider how history might have changed if we’d been able to ‘bump off’ Lenin, Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, Tojo, Kim Il Sung, Ho Chi Minh, Ayatollah Khomeini, Saddam Hussein, Moammar Khadafi, and various others, along with all of their replacements if necessary, all for a measly few million dollars,” he wrote. Bell’s idea of placing “bounties” on the heads of government officials wasn’t well received. In 1997, IRS agents raided Bell’s home. He was charged with obstruction of justice and using fake social security numbers. He was sentenced to eleven months in prison.

pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The Shah didn’t know that the apparently failed coup had actually rallied key factions of the military to his cause. Faced with an upsurge of support for the Shah, Mossadegh fled, and the younger Pahlavi returned from his brief exile to regain his throne. The Shah protected British and American oil interests in Iran until 1979, when he was overthrown by a popular revolution and replaced by an Islamic fundamentalist regime led by Ayatollah Khomeini. Until his downfall, the Shah’s decades-long rule of Iran was marked by the same brutality that defined Moammar Gadhafi’s regime in Libya and Hosni Mubarak’s years in Egypt. Now deposed, these three rulers also shared another trait: each made sure the oil kept flowing into world markets. For years, these regimes counted on steady oil production to bring cash into the country and keep Western powers so happy that they would tolerate what these men were doing to their own citizens.

pages: 311 words: 94,732

The Rapture of the Nerds by Cory Doctorow, Charles Stross

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3D printing, Ayatollah Khomeini, butterfly effect, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, Drosophila, epigenetics, Extropian, gravity well, greed is good, haute couture, hive mind, margin call, negative equity, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, telepresence, Turing machine, Turing test, union organizing

Fourthly, you split into two teams: advocates and prosecution. Your task is to convince the members of the other team to join you. Finally, you deliver your majority verdict to me and I check it for procedural compliance. Then if I’m lucky, I get to hang someone. Are there any questions?” Doc Dagbjört is already waving a hand in the air, eager to please. The judge turns a black gaze on her that reminds Huw of historical documentaries about the Ayatollah Khomeini. Dagbjört refuses to wilt. “What,” says Giuliani, “is it?” “About this Exhibit? Is it the box, in? And if so, how secure the containment is? I would hate for your worries to depart the abstract and concretize themselves, as it were.” “Huh.” The judge stalks out from behind her lectern and kicks the box, hard. Going by the resulting noise, she’s wearing steel toe-caps. Huw whimpers faintly, envisaging imminent post-singularity gray goop catalyzed nano-annihilation, beyond any hope of resurrection.

pages: 241 words: 90,538

Unequal Britain: Equalities in Britain Since 1945 by Pat Thane

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, equal pay for equal work, full employment, gender pay gap, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, old-boy network, pensions crisis, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, unpaid internship, women in the workforce

For example, the application of a White English Muslim woman to adopt a Muslim Somali baby could be rejected in preference to a non-Muslim African family. THE 1980s: BRITAIN’S ISLAMIC COMMUNITY RAISES ITS VOICE The Satanic Verses controversy in 1988 projected Britain’s Muslim population into popular consciousness. Salman Rushdie’s book precipitated widespread rioting in Pakistan and India and was quickly banned in all Muslim countries, as well as in South Africa, Sri Lanka, China and India. Tensions were heightened when the Iranian leader, Ayatollah Khomeini, issued a fatwa sentencing Rushdie to death. In Britain, the controversy sparked widespread demonstrations and even book burnings, particularly in Bradford and Bolton. To alleviate the situation, Muslim groups, supported by some Christian leaders, advocated the banning of the publication and distribution of the book under the Blasphemy Act 1838. This had no effect. The demand for the extension of the Blasphemy Act to protect Islamic sensibilities was RELIGION AND BELIEF 61 rejected by the then-Conservative government.

pages: 371 words: 101,792

Skygods: The Fall of Pan Am by Robert Gandt

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Airbus A320, airline deregulation, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Maui Hawaii, RAND corporation, Tenerife airport disaster, yield management, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

Why had the Shah changed his mind? No one knew for sure. The palace of the Shah was a place of puzzles. The dream deal, had it come true, would have metamorphosed into a nightmare. Less than four years later, the Shah was overthrown. America’s bedrock ally in the Middle East became, overnight, a mortal enemy. Policymakers speculated grimly about a Pan American World Airways whose principal owner was the Ayatollah Khomeini. Chapter Eighteen The Children’s Crusade Pan Am does a lot more than compete with other airlines. We compete with whole countries, sometimes even our own. —New York Times advertisement, September 23, 1974, placed by Pan Am employees The Pan Am mystique was slipping away. And damn, it was painful, like a smoldering ember in the gut, to see the domestic airlines—the bus drivers—swarming over what had been Pan Am country.

Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower by William Blum

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, collective bargaining, Columbine, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

Rafael Trujillo, leader of Dominican Republic 1963 Ngo Dinh Diem, President of South Vietnam 1960s Fidel Castro, President of Cuba, many attempts and plots on his life 1960s Raul Castro, high official in government of Cuba 1965 Francisco Caamano, Dominican Republic opposition leader 1965-6 Charles de Gaulle, President of France 1967 Che Guevara, Cuban leader 1970 Salvador Allende, President of Chile 1970 Gen. Rene Schneider, C-in-C of Army, Chile 1970s, 1981 General Omar Torrijos, leader of Panama 1972 General Manuel Noriega, Chief of Panama Intelligence 1975 Mobutu Sese Seko, President of Zaire 1976 Michael Manley, Prime Minister of Jamaica 1980-1986 Moammar Qaddafi, leader of Libya, several plots and attempts upon his life 1982 Ayatollah Khomeini, leader of Iran 1983 Gen. Ahmed Dlimi, Moroccan Army commander 1983 Miguel d'Escoto, Foreign Minister of Nicaragua 1984 The nine comandantes of the Sandinista National Directorate 1985 Sheikh Mohammed Hussein Fadlallah, Lebanese Shiite leader (see note below) 1991 Saddam Hussein, leader of Iraq 1998 Osama bin Laden, leading Islamic militant 1999 Slobodan Milosevic, President of Yugoslavia In case they run short of assassins In 1975, a US Navy psychologist, Lt.

pages: 1,364 words: 272,257

Jerusalem: The Biography by Simon Sebag-Montefiore

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, California gold rush, Etonian, facts on the ground, haute couture, Khartoum Gordon, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, sexual politics, spice trade, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, Yom Kippur War

America's exuberant democracy is raucously diverse and secular yet it is simultaneously the last and the probably the greatest ever Christian power - and its evangelicals continue to look to the End Days in Jerusalem, just as US governments see a calm Jerusalem as key to any Middle Eastern peace and strategically vital for relations with their Arab allies. Meanwhile Israel's rule over al-Quds has intensified Muslim reverence: on Iran's annual Jerusalem Day, inaugurated by Ayatollah Khomeini in 1979, the city is presented as more than an Islamic shrine and Palestinian capital. In Tehran's bid for regional hegemony backed by nuclear weapons, and its cold war with America, Jerusalem is a cause that conveniently unites Iranian Shiites with Sunni Arabs sceptical of the ambitions of the Islamic Republic. Whether for Shiite Hezbollah in Lebanon or Sunni Hamas in Gaza, the city now serves as the rallying totem of anti-Zionism, anti-Americanism and Iranian leadership.

* An imam is the leader of a mosque or community but in Shia, imams can be spiritual leaders, chosen by God and blessed with infallibility. The Twelver Shiites of Iran believe in the first twelve imams descended from Muhammad's son-in-law Ali and his daughter Fatima and that the Twelfth Imam was 'occulted' - hidden by God - and will return as the Madhi, the Chosen messianic redeemer of Judgement Day. The Islamic Republic of Iran was founded by Ayatollah Khomeini on this millenarian expectation: the clergy rule only until the Imam's return. * Jerusalem's importance lessened as Mecca's grew: if Jerusalem had perhaps at one point approached Mecca and Medina as part of the haj -'You shall only set out for the three mosques Mecca,Medina, and al-Aqsa,' declared one of the hadith of al-Khidri - now under the Abbasids,Jerusalem was reduced to a ziyara, a pious visit

Jerusalemites looked back at this time as a golden age ruled by the ideal high priest who, they said, resembled 'the morning star in the midst of a cloud'.28 SIMON THE JUST: THE MORNING STAR When Simon* emerged from the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement, the High Priest 'was clothed in the perfection of glory, when he went up to the holy altar'. He was the paragon of the high priests who ruled Judah as anointed princes, a combination of monarch, pope and ayatollah: he wore gilded robes, a gleaming breastplate and a crown-like turban on which he sported the nezer, a golden flower, the symbol of life and salvation, a relic of the headdress of the kings of Judah. Jesus Ben Sira, the author of Ecclesiasticus and the first writer to capture the sacred drama of the flourishing city, described Simon as 'a cypress tree which groweth up to the clouds'. Jerusalem had become a theocracy - the very word was invented by the historian Josephus to describe this statelet with its 'entire sovereignty and all authority in the hands of God'.

pages: 670 words: 169,815

Ghosts of Empire: Britain's Legacies in the Modern World by Kwasi Kwarteng

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Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Etonian, illegal immigration, imperial preference, invisible hand, Khartoum Gordon, land reform, sceptred isle, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

In his pomp and vanity, Saddam saw himself as a ‘new Saladdin’, a Nebuchadnezzar or a Sargon the Great.44 The cult of Saddam began in those years, and he would enter the Guinness Book of Records as the world’s most frequently painted head of state.45 The vast increase in oil revenues, the new possibilities which wealth offered the Iraqi people, stirred Saddam’s ambition. On 17 September 1980, fully resplendent in the uniform of the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, Saddam stood before the National Assembly of Iraq. He renounced the 6 March 1975 agreement which he had signed with the Shah relating to border and other disputes between the two countries. The Iranian revolution of 1979 had put into power a radical Shi’ite cleric, the Ayatollah Khomeini, a religious figure totally opposed to the secular Arab nationalism that Saddam and, before him, Nasser had espoused. Saddam denounced the Iranians as ‘racist’ and ‘Persian’ and launched a war against them.46 The Iran–Iraq conflict was a new manifestation of the age-old conflict between Ottomans and Safavids, between Arabs and Persians, which had shaped the region for many centuries. But in this act of aggression Saddam badly miscalculated.

More than a year before the Agreement had been signed, Sheikh Muhammad Shirazi, a Shia cleric, had issued a fatwa, in January 1919, proclaiming that ‘a non-Muslim could not be allowed by Muslims to rule over the followers of the Prophet’. In March 1920 he was even more explicit, promulgating another fatwa forbidding Muslims to accept any office in the heart of the British administration.30 Later that month, Ayatollah Shirazi took the decision to launch a general uprising against the British. The revolt of 1920 has taken on a mythic status among Iraqis. Even foreigners, who have tried to compare the events of that long hot summer with subsequent occupations, have misunderstood it. To the British, it was often depicted as a case of ungrateful, ill-disciplined natives exploiting imperial weakness. To Wilson, the revolt was a typical example of the Arab ‘kicking a man when he is down’, which he believed was the ‘most popular pastime in the East’.31 Too often British and American historians, often Middle East specialists, have focused exclusively on the Iraqi angle of the revolt.

The fact that both Sunni and Shia had combined during the revolt surprised British officials like General Haldane and Arnold Wilson, who had clearly underestimated ‘the strength of the nationalist movement’.34 Wilson himself, in his memoirs, readily admitted that the ‘deep prejudices which separate the Sunni and Shi’ah sects’ had been ‘temporarily overcome’ during the revolt.35 Despite the overt nationalism, which we, influenced by President Nasser and the Ba’athists of the 1950s, anachronistically regard as a largely secular movement, there was a strong religious element to the uprising. The Ayatollah Shirazi, the Shia cleric whose fatwa had started the trouble, ‘enjoyed unprecedented prestige’ among the Shia community, while his fellow Shia clerics clearly saw their struggle as a holy war.36 Gertrude Bell agreed. Writing to her stepmother in September 1920, she remarked that the British were ‘now in the middle of a full-blown Jihad’, a term we translate as ‘holy war’. She added that this meant that ‘we have against us the fiercest prejudices of a people in a primeval state of civilisation’.37 Of course, the revolt was both religious and nationalistic.

pages: 1,744 words: 458,385

The Defence of the Realm by Christopher Andrew

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active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Clive Stafford Smith, collective bargaining, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Desert Island Discs, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, large denomination, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, Red Clydeside, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, strikebreaker, Torches of Freedom, traveling salesman, union organizing, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Winter of Discontent

The highest-profile victim of MOIS foreign operations, assassinated in Paris in 1991, was the Shah’s last Prime Minister, Shahpur Bakhtiar, an outspoken critic of the Islamic Republic established by the Ayatollah Khomeini twelve years before.7 The fact that none of the killings took place in the UK8 probably owed much to successful Security Service and Special Branch surveillance and periodic disruption of MOIS operations against dissidents. The main target of MOIS UK operations during the 1990s, some of them assisted by its Lebanese Shia ally, Hizballah (‘Party of God’),9 was one of Britain’s best-known writers, the Indian-born Salman Rushdie, author of the novel The Satanic Verses, whose title referred to the medieval legend (deeply insulting to most Muslims), retold by Rushdie, that some of the Quran’s original verses originated with Satan and were later deleted by Muhammad. In February 1989, four months before his death, Ayatollah Khomeini issued a fatwa condemning Rushdie and his publishers to death for blasphemy: ‘I call on zealous Muslims to execute them quickly, wherever they find them, so that no one will dare to insult Islam again.’

M. 378, 428 Jones, Sir Elwyn 525, 530, 543 Jones, Jack 379, 535–6, 587, 588–9, 657, 711 Jones, Sir John: Deputy Director General 552, 555; appointment as DG (1981) 555–6; background and character 556, 696; management style 556–7, 688, 696, 721; reputation as DG 556; and Massiter case 559; on industrial subversion 591, 658–9, 854; and counterterrorism 613, 616–17, 621, 696, 701–2, 734; and alleged plot against Wilson 640; and peace movement 674, 676; and Bettaney case 720; and Spycatcher affair 761, 762 Jordan 607–8, 609, 808 Joseph, Sir Keith 671, 672 Joyce, William 193–4, 225 Joynson-Hicks, Sir William 154, 155–6 July 2005 terrorist attacks (London) 821–3, 858 K Branch 548, 584, 713, 745; KI0B 788; K3 708; K4 714, 715, 716; K6 441, 710, 718, 731; K7 571; K8 731, 732; see also Appendix 3 Kagan, Sir Joseph 627–30, 631, 639 Kapitsa, Pyotr 167–8, 172, 854 Kaufman, Sir Gerald 756–7, 758 Keeler, Christine 494–5, 496, 497–8, 499, 500 Kell, Constance, Lady 23, 108; ‘Secret Well Kept’ 41, 42, 50, 56, 66, 71–2, 98, 113–14, 218 Kell, Sir Vernon: recruitment 3, 21, 22, 24, 25–8; and Cumming 3, 25–6, 27–8, 96, 97; and Haldane 15; background and character 21–3, 29, 82, 120; development of MO5(g) 28, 29–30, 31, 48–9, 52, 58; and Churchill 29–30, 37, 88, 239; contacts with chief constables 29–30, 31, 35, 48, 50–51, 191, 239, 861, 858; pre-First World War German espionage investigations 30–52, 861; and Defence of the Realm Act 53, 142; division of MO5(g) 56–8; and counter-subversion 65–6, 95, 96–7, 103, 129, 140, 142, 185, 268; and opposition to First World War 66; and First World War German espionage and sabotage attempts 67, 70–72, 77, 861; and forensic science 70–71; and censorship 71; rivalry with Thomson 81–3, 106–7, 108, 115; domestic life 97–8, 108, 132–3; health problems 97–8, 108, 219; quarrel with Drake 98; knighthood 109; fights for survival of MI5 114–16, 117, 121–2; and Makgill 122–3; founds Intelligence and Police dining club 125; and General Strike 125–6; management style 133; and recruitment of staff 133, 135; relations with Whitehall officials 136–7, 154; and classification of subjects by race 143; and Labour Party 146; and Zinoviev letter 149, 154; and ARCOS raid 154; and dockyard sabotage 177–8; reports on Fascist movement 191, 192, 193; and Ustinov 196; and investigation of Auslands Organisation 197; on Hitler 198; memorandum on Nazi Germany (1936) 198; and Munich crisis 203, 206, 853; and outbreak of Second World War 207; wartime economy measures 217–18; question of succession as head 218–19, 228, 237; wartime shortcomings 219, 222–3, 227, 855, 859; dismissal as director (1940) 227, 237; on Kenyatta’s time in Moscow 455; views on recruitment 549 Kellar, Alex 350–51, 448–9, 450, 456, 468–9, 478–9 Kennedy, John F. 477, 478, 490, 493, 494, 497, 500, 504, 509, 532 Kennedy, Joseph 225, 226 Kennedy, Robert 500, 509 Kent, Bruce 673, 675 Kent, Tyler 224–5, 226, 230 Kenya 454, 456–8, 466–8, 472–3, 474, 475, 803, 808, 809, 856 Kenyatta, Jomo 176, 454–7, 466, 467–8 Kerrigan, Peter 386, 410, 853 KGB (Soviet intelligence agency): disinformation department 90; use of forgery 90; Second World War codenames 349; and American Communist Party 366; Wilson and 417, 418–19; mishandling of Cambridge Five 420–21, 426, 433, 434, 856–7; African operations 452, 470; growth of London residency 491, 565–7; contacts with British trade union movement 536, 589, 657; mass expulsion of London personnel (Operation FOOT) 565–7, 571–3, 574–5, 576, 579, 585–6, 732, 859; Department V (sabotage and covert attack) 567–9, 573–4, 605; resumes operations after expulsions 579–86; ‘psycho-physiological’ testing of agents 585; supply of arms to PFLP and IRA 605–6, 622; and Middle Eastern terrorism 648; and peace movement 673, 674–5, 675–6; and Libyan terrorism 701; Operation RYAN 709, 722–3, 861; Lines in KGB residencies 710; First Chief Directorate 713; Third Directorate 713; recall of illegals from Britain 726, 727; expulsion of agents following Gordievsky defection 727, 730, 736; return of illegals to Britain 727–8; monitoring of Jewish dissidents 728; effect of British visarefusal policy 732, 733 Khan, Mohammed Siddique 822–3 Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruhollah 685, 800 Khrushchev, Nikita 326, 327, 404, 417, 445, 497 King, John 174, 263–6, 268, 854 Kinnock, Neil 642, 663, 664, 667, 681, 766 Kipling, Rudyard 855; Kim 4, 401 Kirby Greene, Philip 463, 464 Kirke, Sir Walter 25, 71 Klugmann, James 404, 438, 538–9 Knight, (Charles Henry) Maxwell: background and character 123, 132; eccentricities 123; exotic pets 123; infiltration of Fascist movement 123–4, 132, 191, 193; member of IIB 123–4; penetration of Right Club 124, 221, 224–7; political views 124; Communist subversion investigations 128–9, 132, 165, 179–80, 221, 401; recruited by SIS 128–9; Special Branch surveillance of 129; transferred to MI5 131–2; working methods 132, 179; women agents 221, 401; recruitment of Himsworth 273 Knightsbridge bombing (1982) 697, 699 Knouth, Betty (Gilberte/ Elizabeth Lazarus) 355–7 Kollek, Teddy 353, 354 Korean War 388, 407, 488, 489 Korovin (Nikolai Rodin; KGB resident) 520 Kriegsnachrichtenstelle (German war intelligence centre) 66–8, 72–3, 76 Krivitsky, Walter 180, 220, 263–8, 272, 341 Kroger, Peter and Helen see Cohen, Morris and Lona Krüger, Otto 245, 246 Labouchere, Frank 96, 97 Labour Party: suspicions about Security Service 116, 146, 522, 525–6, 531, 758, 793, 847; control of Daily Herald 125; Conservative agents in Labour HQ 126; first Labour government (1924) 146–9, 159, 186, 319, 847; 1924 election 150, 151; 1929 election 160; 1945 election landslide 319, 411, 847; and extension of vetting system 380, 381–2, 392, 393; 1950 and 1951 elections 391, 412; International Department 407; NEC 411, 536, 577–8, 660–61, 663–4; search for crypto-Communist MPs 411–15, 522, 526, 531, 660, 847–8, 84; 1964 election 480, 520; 1966 election 527; Communists’ attempts to penetrate NEC 577–8; 1974 elections 578, 627, 633; Communists’ influence on left wing 656, 657, 668–9; Militant Tendency 660–64, 667, 680, 681–2; 1979 election 667; 1987 election 681; policy for establishment of intelligence and security committee 755; and Interception of Communications Act (1985) 756–7; 1997 election landslide 791, 797 Labour Party Young Socialists (LPYS) 661–2, 664 labour unrest 65–6, 95–7, 107, 122–3, 125–6, 147–8, 588–99, 594, 656, 664–7, 670–73; see also strikes; trade unions Lakey, Arthur see Allen, Albert Lamphere, Robert 372, 387 Lander, Sir Stephen: background and character 561, 789–90, 811; training reforms 561; on John Jones 696; on European security and intelligence collaboration 748; and Irish Republican terrorism investigations 751, 773, 775–6; on Rimington 774; on budget and staffing cuts 781, 786–7; installation of new computer systems 781; and Northern Ireland peace process 783, 795, 797; and acquisition of new work 787, 788, 794; apppointed DG 788–9; and recruitment advertising 791; and Shayler affair 792–3; on counter-terrorism and terrorism threat 797, 855–6; and Islamist terrorism 807, 809–12, 814; relations with Blair 811–12; retirement (2002) 814 Landman, Samuel 359–61 LARGE, Operation 806–7 Lazarus, Gilberte/Elizabeth (Betty Knouth) 355–7 le Carré, John (David Cornwell) 131, 350 Le Queux, William 4, 8–9, 13–14, 18, 20–21, 23, 47, 54–5 Leander, Torsten 759–60, 766, 767 Lenin, Vladimir 99–100, 139, 141, 144, 147, 853 Libya: support for PIRA 622–3, 649, 699, 703, 737–8; funding for NUM 679, 680; Qaddafi’s assassination campaigns against émigre´s 688–90, 700–702; sponsorship of Abu Nidal 691, 734, 735; Britain breaks off diplomatic relations with 701; US air-raid on (1986) 735; Lockerbie (PanAm 103 bombing) 746–8 Libyan embassy/People’s Bureau (London) 689; siege (1984) 700–701, 702 Liddell, Guy: early career 118, 130; joins MI5 118, 120, 130; background and character 130–31, 190, 229; private life 131; management style 133, 323; and Zinoviev letter 158; and Kapitsa investigation 168; visits Berlin (1933) 189–90; recruitment of agents 190, 219, 329; and Munich crisis 206; and outbreak of war 213; and wartime aliens’ investigations 222; on ‘fifth column’ fears 224, 229–30; and Kent–Wolkoff case 225, 226; establishment of RSLOs 230; made head of B Division 236–7, 255; wins respect of wartime recruits 238; on Putlitz 242; on interrogation of TATE 251–2; and GARBO 254, 310; member of Twenty Committee 255, 256; on Krivitsky’s interrogation 264, 265; offers job to Blunt 269; and recruitment of Burgess 270, 272, 856; and wartime Soviet espionage 277, 278, 280, 856; and Churchill 287, 289, 308; on threat of V-weapons 313–14; onVE Day 316–17; and postwar double agents 317–18; on Sillitoe’s appointment as DG 319–2; on Attlee 321–2; and Sir Norman Brook 322; retirement from Security Service 323; and Gouzenko defection 340, 345–6, 347–8; and Volkov attempted defection 343; and Zionist extremists 353–4, 358; and Special Relationship 365–6; and VENONA 366, 371, 372; and vetting system 381–2; and atom spies 383–4, 385, 387, 389; and investigations into CPGB 401; and crypto-Communists on Labour’s backbenches 411; on Burgess’s behaviour 422; refuses Philby’s approach to become Washington SLO 423; establishment of SLO in India 442, 443; and Malayan Emergency 448; on African nationalist movements 452, 453; double-agent allegations 706 Lines (departments) of Soviet residencies 710; Line F 569, 574; Line KR 714–15; Line PR 675, 679, 709, 710–12, 730; Line X 579–86, 710, 730, 732 Litvinov, Maksim 95, 145, 175, 281 Lloyd George, David 37, 96, 98, 99, 101, 106, 139, 144, 145, 147 Lockerbie (PanAm 103 bombing; 1988) 746–8 Lod Airport massacre (1972) 609–10, 613, 614 Lody, Carl 64–5, 67, 68, 89 London Controlling Section (LCS) 284, 318 London Reception Centre (LRC) 250–51 Long, Leo 269, 280, 348–9 Long, Walter 107, 109 Lonsdale, Gordon (Konon Trofimovich Molody) 485–8, 520, 728 LORELEI, Operation 553 ‘Lost Sheep’ 411–15, 522, 847–8 Loyalist paramilitaries 600, 619, 624, 653–4, 683–4, 738, 852 LUCKY ALPHONSE, Operation 463 Lyalin, Oleg 567–71 573–4, 584, 605, 627, 710 Lynskey Tribunal (1948–9) 361–2 Lyttelton, Oliver 449, 454, 460 M Section 131–2, 134; see also Appendix 3 Macassey, Sir Lynden 9, 96 McCann, Danny 739, 740, 741, 742–3, 744–5 McCarthy, Joseph 393, 440, 460 MacDonald, A.

On 30 April 1980 six armed terrorists burst into the Iranian embassy at Prince’s Gate in Knightsbridge and seized twenty-six hostages, one of whom was a member of the Metropolitan Police’s Diplomatic Protection Group.13 The terrorists, who called themselves the ‘Group of the Martyr’ and supported the movement for autonomy in Iranian ‘Arabistan’, demanded that ninety-one members of the movement imprisoned by the Khomeini regime (which had taken power in Iran after the fall of the Shah) should be released, that the regime should recognize the ‘legitimate rights of the Iranian peoples’, and that a special plane should be provided to carry the terrorists and their hostages to an unspecified Middle East country. If their demands were rejected, they threatened to destroy the Iranian embassy and kill the hostages. According to Margaret Thatcher’s memoirs, she and the Home Secretary, Willie Whitelaw, were agreed from the outset on their counterterrorist strategy: ‘We would try patient negotiation; but if any hostages were wounded we would consider an attack on the embassy; and if a hostage were killed we would definitely send in the Special Air Service (SAS).’14 During the eighteen months before the hostage crisis there had been increasing contact between the Security Service and SAS, due in part to the personal friendship between David Sutherland, head of a C Branch section, and Brigadier (later General Sir) Peter de la Billière, the SAS director.15 After the terrorist attack on the Iranian embassy, Security Service officers took part, as usual, in the COBR crisis-management group in the Cabinet Office, chaired by the Home Secretary, which was manned around the clock throughout the hostage crisis.16 COBR was told there was reliable intelligence that the terrorists had been recruited and trained by the Saddam Hussein regime in Iraq, then at war with Iran.17 Though the regime, unsurprisingly, did not admit responsibility for the operation, the terrorists’ demands were publicly supported by the government-controlled Iraqi press.18 Following the Service’s well-rehearsed procedures for dealing with terrorist hostage-taking, an intelligence team together with a large A Branch technical support group was quickly deployed to the scene of the embassy siege to support the Metropolitan Police and to obtain intelligence to help plan an assault on the Iranian embassy.19 A variety of ingenious eavesdropping devices were used to gather intelligence on the state of mind of the terrorists and their captives, as well as to identify their precise locations in a six-floor embassy with over fifty rooms.20 The Arabic- and Farsi-speaking transcribers who listened in to the conversations inside the embassy were asked to work long and exhausting shifts in the belief that ‘it was preferable for a small number of linguists to build up a detailed mental picture of the gunmen and their hostages, their attitudes and actions, rather than a larger number of linguists being deployed with a resulting loss of continuity’.21 A Branch deployed a total of thirty-five staff in its technical support team, supplemented by sixteen staff seconded from other parts of the intelligence community.22 Thanks to astute negotiation by the police, assisted by intelligence from the Security Service, a series of deadlines set by the terrorists came and went without incident.

pages: 613 words: 200,826

Unreal Estate: Money, Ambition, and the Lust for Land in Los Angeles by Michael Gross

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Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Bernie Madoff, California gold rush, clean water, corporate raider, Donald Trump, estate planning, family office, financial independence, Irwin Jacobs, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, mortgage debt, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, oil rush, passive investing, pension reform, Ponzi scheme, Right to Buy, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Predators' Ball, transcontinental railway, yellow journalism

Though they came from the same general region around the same time and have, particularly since the Iranian hostage crisis of 1979, been ignorantly lumped together with Muslim Arabs, newcomers like the Mehdizadehs were Iranian Jews (though they often describe themselves as Persian). Beginning as early as the late 1940s, they came to Beverly Hills in a trickle that turned into a torrent after their country was taken over in the radical Islamist revolution led by the Ayatollah Khomeini. They were the most significant wave of Jewish immigration to west Los Angeles since the arrival of the movie moguls of the early twentieth century. Persian Jews now “own a significant percentage of the property in Beverly Hills,” says realtor John Bruce Nelson, who adds that Farsi is used as a second language in local public schools and one Presbyterian church in the city has a regular Farsi service.

., bought five lots fronting on Rodeo Drive and six more on Cañon Drive once owned by Will Rogers’s family; a year later, they bought a Rodeo restaurant and three adjacent parking lots, and a few years after that, opened the Rodeo Collection, a $35 million retail complex selling brands like Louis Vuitton, Yves Saint Laurent, and Gianni Versace. By then, Trousdale Estates was being called the new Persian Gulf. Between 1976 and 1978, Persians were estimated to have spent close to $200 million on local real estate. “They bought and bought,” says Nourmand, “and when the Persians started buying, prices went up, and Americans were resentful, even though they were the beneficiaries.… The problems really started when Khomeini came to power and the hostage crisis [and seizure of the American Embassy in Tehran] caused a backlash. Irrespective of who we were, why we were here, what we believed in, we were all the people in the embassy. Before 1979, I was welcome, desirable. Then, I became the worst thing walking the face of the earth.” It was then that the Iranians of Beverly Hills began calling themselves Persians. Still, the community continued to grow.

pages: 205 words: 18,208

The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose Between Privacy and Freedom? by David Brin

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affirmative action, airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, data acquisition, death of newspapers, Extropian, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, informal economy, information asymmetry, Iridium satellite, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, means of production, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, open economy, packet switching, pattern recognition, pirate software, placebo effect, Plutocrats, plutocrats, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Robert Bork, Saturday Night Live, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telepresence, trade route, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP

Nazis went around the press, reaching vastly greater masses with the hypnotizing power of radio and loudspeakers. To people freshly exposed, without the technological immunization that often comes with familiarity, these new media seemed to amplify a skilled user like Hitler, making him appear larger than life. New communications technologies also have the potential to undermine authority. In prerevolutionary Iran, followers of the Ayatollah Khomeini bypassed the shahʼs monopoly over radio and television by smuggling into the country one audiocassette per week. Khomeiniʼs sermon, soon duplicated a thousandfold, was played at Friday services in countless mosques, preparing for the storm to come. Fax machines came close to serving the same insurrectionary function in China, during the Tian An Men uprising. A few years later, fax and Internet connections helped foil the 1991 attempted coup in the last days of the Soviet Union.

pages: 514 words: 153,274

The Cobweb by Neal Stephenson, J. Frederick George

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Ayatollah Khomeini, computer age, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, illegal immigration, industrial robot, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, uranium enrichment, éminence grise

The assistants were introduced, the Iraqi bodyguard was ignored, and Touvain, after a few minutes, was politely told to beat it. On the small table was a tray laid to Millikan’s specifications with a bottle of iced Stolichnaya, beluga caviar, and plates of black bread, butter, onions, chopped hard-boiled eggs. “I thought that you might have had too much champagne by this time, old friend,” Millikan explained, knowing the contempt in which Aziz held the French for, among other things, their sheltering of the Ayatollah Khomeini in the1970s. “You couldn’t be more correct, Jim,” Aziz responded. Millikan hated to be called Jim, had got into fights as a child when somebody had called him Jim, but Aziz had called him Jim for the past twenty years, and he was not about to ask him to change. “A toast,” Millikan said when the shot glasses were filled with the vodka, syrupy in its subzero cold. “To diplomacy.” The four clinked their glasses and downed the Stoli in a single gulp.

pages: 470 words: 144,455

Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World by Bruce Schneier

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Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, business process, butterfly effect, cashless society, Columbine, defense in depth, double entry bookkeeping, fault tolerance, game design, IFF: identification friend or foe, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, pez dispenser, pirate software, profit motive, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, slashdot, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, the payments system, Y2K, Yogi Berra

“Just punch these seven digits into your remote control, and you never have to pay for cable TV again.” That would increase the number of nonpaying customers to the millions, and could significantly affect the company’s profitability. Physical counterfeiting is a problem, but it’s a manageable problem. Over two decades ago, we sold the Shah of Iran some of our old intaglio printing presses. When Ayatollah Khomeini took over, he realized that it was more profitable to mint $100 bills than Iranian rials. The FBI calls them supernotes, and they’re near perfect. (This is why the United States redesigned its currency.) At the same time the FBI and the Secret Service were throwing up their hands, the Department of the Treasury did some calculating:The Iranian presses can only print so much money a minute, there are only so many minutes in a year, so there’s a maximum to the amount of counterfeit money they can manufacture.

pages: 476 words: 144,288

1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, land reform, long peace, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip

It had taken less than six months for wartime partners in the most destructive conflict in history to become enemies – as they were to remain for the next four decades.11 * Reza Pahlavi was taken prisoner by British troops and kept under house arrest, initially in Mauritius and then in Johannesburg. He died in July 1944 in South Africa from a heart attack, aged sixty-six. His son remained on the throne until he was overthrown in the Islamic Revolution of 1979 led by the Ayatollah Khomeini. He died in 1980. 2 The American Century ‘War is hell . . . but America had a hell of a War,’ the astute columnist Walter Lippmann said soon after VJ Day. The US experience of World War Two was entirely different from that of every other combatant nation. There was much hardship, to be sure, and loss of lives. But America was the only country to emerge from the conflict better off than when it entered it in 1941.

pages: 391 words: 117,984

The Blue Sweater: Bridging the Gap Between Rich and Poor in an Interconnected World by Jacqueline Novogratz

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access to a mobile phone, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, business process, business process outsourcing, clean water, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Hernando de Soto, Kibera, Lao Tzu, market design, microcredit, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, transaction costs, zero-sum game

We also needed to think of a way we ourselves could contribute. The team decided to reach out and convene a roundtable to try and make sense of what was happening. We gathered our community of partners, team members, and experts, including a White House advisor on terrorism and a former Wall Street Journal writer who had covered the Middle East for years and had interviewed every jihadist from Ayatollah Khomeini to Osama bin Laden himself. The experts told us that the White House was already linking Saddam Hussein to the tragedy and predicted we would be at war with Iraq the following year. After hours of discussing fundamentalism, terrorism, poverty, and possible solutions that focused on “soft power” rather than on forceful retaliation, I asked what an organization like Acumen Fund might do to contribute.

pages: 392 words: 122,282

Generation Kill by Evan Wright

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Columbine, friendly fire, oil shale / tar sands, working poor

Meesh enters the mosque early in the afternoon. Several young men who serve as the imam’s bodyguards train their AKs on him the moment Meesh sets foot in the gloomy anteroom. After twenty minutes of negotiating with these characters, one of them leads him into the imam’s office in the back. The imam, a man in his early fifties who studied in Iran, looks to Meesh almost exactly like a younger version of the late Ayatollah Khomeini, with a long, pointed white beard and dark-black eyebrows. Though Meesh is a Sunni—as well as a beer-drinking dope smoker—he and the imam kneel and perform a prayer together. Then, according to Meesh, the imam tells him he welcomes the Americans, so long as they don’t expose the Iraqi people to corrupting Western influences. Meesh tells the imam the Marines will try to bring some water the next day to distribute from the grounds of the mosque.

pages: 387 words: 120,092

The Idea of Israel: A History of Power and Knowledge by Ilan Pappe

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affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, double helix, facts on the ground, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, mass immigration, New Journalism, one-state solution, postnationalism / post nation state, stem cell, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

The optimistic mood of the 1990s meant that Mizrachi scholars regarded the growing popularity of such music as an indication that Israel was slowly integrating into the Arab world around it. They saw the musicians – especially the early ones who, since they did not have the money or connections to employ established studios, had to produce music on illegal audio cassettes – not only as subversive activists against the law or challengers to hegemonic Western music, but also as harbingers of a new age in Israel. Their cassettes were even compared with those used by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini in Iran, since cassettes were the medium through which his revolutionary words were spread (other political Islamic movements, too, have relied on cassette tapes). Post-Zionist music tended to be more Arabic in style and dotted with lyrics that conveyed some sort of challenge to basic Zionist truths. But in the domain of mainstream music, few of Israel’s pop singers who imitated Western models were willing to risk their relationship with the wider public by being ‘political’.

pages: 461 words: 125,845

This Machine Kills Secrets: Julian Assange, the Cypherpunks, and Their Fight to Empower Whistleblowers by Andy Greenberg

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Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, computerized markets, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, domain-specific language, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, hive mind, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammed Bouazizi, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Richard Stallman, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social graph, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Vernor Vinge, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, X Prize, Zimmermann PGP

Bell described global crypto-anarchy in rosy terms: Sure, there would be no government to protect American borders or punish crime. But the military would be unnecessary in a world where no foreign government would be able to form a military, either, and all aggressive dictators would be immediately eliminated by crypto-funded assassins. “Consider how history might have changed if we’d been able to ‘bump off’ Lenin, Stalin, Hitler, Mussolini, Tojo, Kim Il Sung, Ho Chi Minh, Ayatollah Khomeini, Saddam Hussein, Moammar Khadafi and various others,” Bell wrote. As for fighting crime, he explained, citizens could pool together money to put out anonymous hits on criminals just as easily as politicians. “Assassination Politics” inflamed the Cypherpunk Mailing List almost as much as the defunct Clipper Chip had. “You gleefully propose to let us all in on the immoral game of murdering those who annoy us sufficiently,” wrote one user through an anonymous remailer.

pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, old-boy network, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

But in countries lacking political freedoms, economic opportunities are constrained by capricious leaders and a culture of corruption that makes life miserable for anyone trying to start or run a business on any scale. That means hundreds of millions of potential inventors, managers, engineers, educators, thinkers, and investors around the world are handicapped in their pursuit of opportunities that should be every citizen’s birthright. “But hold on,” you say, “aren’t people in countries like Iran, Russia, and China enjoying far more freedom than those who lived under the likes of Khomeini, Stalin, and Mao?” In many respects that is true. Ordinary citizens in these countries can access far more information than their parents ever could. Their growing middle classes can travel abroad for holidays, purchase a plethora of consumer goods, and enjoy other personal freedoms. Moreover, to varying degrees all three countries have joined the global trading system, and international commercial relationships are flourishing.

He was a key person in the clerical establishment, and his main base is among the Muslim clergy. The fact that he now finds himself leading the charge against the very system that he helped create is ironic to say the least. Ahmadinejad, on the other hand, is more republican oriented, and has a stronger base among the military and the oil-sector bourgeoisie than among the clergy, despite the support from the leading ayatollah. Both represent different layers and sectors of the Iranian elite, but have different international connections and allegiances. And, if the more cynical elements of the reform movement are to be believed, both stand as obstacles to genuine democratic rights for the mass of the population, and both are happy to leave the clergy in control of social norms. 9. “Tehran voices: ‘I was out in the streets 30 years ago and today I’m out again,’” The Guardian (December 11, 2009). 10.

pages: 554 words: 168,114

Oil: Money, Politics, and Power in the 21st Century by Tom Bower

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Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, bonus culture, corporate governance, credit crunch, energy security, Exxon Valdez, falling living standards, fear of failure, forensic accounting, index fund, interest rate swap, kremlinology, LNG terminal, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, passive investing, peak oil, Piper Alpha, price mechanism, price stability, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, transaction costs, transfer pricing, zero-sum game, éminence grise

Oil prices in Rotterdam rose by 150 percent, the harbinger of what would be called the second oil shock. Anticipating the shortage, Rich had again purchased oil for storage from corrupt Iranian officials. Among his customers was BP, the former owner of the Iranian oilfields, which was anxious to keep its refineries operating. BP’s reliance on Rich increased after the Shah was ousted from Tehran in January 1979 and replaced by the Islamic fundamentalist Ayatollah Khomeini. Fears of an oil embargo pushed prices further up. On BP’s trading floor in London, Andy Hall watched Chris Moorhouse, the lead trader, regularly run up a flight of stairs to ask Bryan Sanderson, the director responsible for the supply department, to approve contracts to buy oil at increasingly higher prices. Over those weeks Rich resold oil that had cost between $1 and $2 a barrel for around $30.

pages: 1,590 words: 353,834

God's Bankers: A History of Money and Power at the Vatican by Gerald Posner

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, central bank independence, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, credit crunch, dividend-yielding stocks, European colonialism, forensic accounting, God and Mammon, Index librorum prohibitorum, liberation theology, medical malpractice, Murano, Venice glass, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

Italian prosecutors charged the three Bulgarians and four others, including Turkish ultranationalists, but failed to convict any. Ağca was mentally unstable, often claiming he was the world’s messiah. Later he dropped the Bulgarians from his story and said instead he got weapons training in Syria at a Soviet-sponsored camp for the terror group the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. After his release from a Turkish prison in 2010, he announced that he shot the Pope because Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the father of Iran’s fundamentalist revolution, had told him, “You have to kill the Pope in the name of Allah. You have to kill the devil’s mouthpiece on earth.”9 II. John Paul believed that delivering the note to Brezhnev was a critical intervention in the standoff over Solidarity. The Pope considered several emissaries, including Secretary of State Cardinal Casaroli, Vienna’s Cardinal König, and John Paul’s private secretary, Monsignor Stanislaw Dziwisz.

,” Newsweek, September 25, 2006, 36. 44 See, for example, James Mills, “Pope’s Criticism of the Prophet Inflames Muslims Worldwide,” The Evening Standard, September 15, 2006, 7, “Muslims in Pope Rage,” Evening Gazette, September 15, 2006, 6; Michael Valpy, “Pope’s Quote Kindles Islamic Rage; Fury Compared to That over Danish Cartoons,” The Globe and Mail (Canada), September 16, A1; Geraint Jones, Gordon Thomas, and Julia Hartley-Brewer, “Pope ‘Sorry’ as Churches Are Bombed by Muslims,” Sunday Express, September 17, 2006, 7. 45 Alex Jolly and Jack Lefley, “ ‘Execute the Pope’ call at Westminster Protest,” The Evening Standard, September 18, 2006, 6. 46 Malcolm Moore, “Security Around the Pope Is Stepped up; Six Churches Burned in Weekend of Protests as Muslims Condemn Pontiff’s Unflattering Reference to Mohammed,” The Daily Telegraph, September 18, 2006, 4; James Wickham, “Nun Is Shot Dead in Pope Backlash,” Daily Star (UK), September 18, 2006. See also Simon Caldwell, “24 Catholic Missionaries Killed in 2006,” Daily Mail, January 2, 2007, 19. Iran’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, said the Pope was trying to kick off a “chain of conspiracy to set off a crusade.” Ian Fisher and Sebnem Arsu with reporting from Istanbul, Raymond Bonner from Jakarta, Indonesia, and Mona el-Naggar from Cairo, “Pope’s Regrets over Statement Fail to Quiet a Storm of Protests,” The New York Times, September 19, 2006, 15 47 Ağca quoted in Patsy McGarry, “Man Who Tried to Kill Pope Warns Against Trip,” The Irish Times, September 21, 2006, 12. 48 Nick Pisa, “Pope in Flak Jacket Visit Plea,” The Mirror, November 27, 2006.

pages: 1,336 words: 415,037

The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life by Alice Schroeder

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, card file, centralized clearinghouse, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index fund, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, moral hazard, NetJets, new economy, New Journalism, North Sea oil, paper trading, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, yellow journalism, zero-coupon bond

By mid-1979, the stock market was sunk in gloom, and orders for stocks, Buffett said, were placed “with an eyedropper.”35 The Dow had languished for a decade, bucking and stalling in snorts and gasps, like a beat-up car with a faulty carburetor. Its latest stall-out took it back down to the familiar territory of the mid-800s. Gerald Ford’s replacement in Washington, Jimmy Carter, wore Mister Rogers sweaters to promote energy conservation; it backfired, and he seemed to embody the United States’ impotence in dealing with Iran, where the Ayatollah Khomeini had deposed the Shah. The empress would no longer waltz around the dance floor at the Iranian Embassy. A partial meltdown at the Three Mile Island nuclear plant released radioactive material into the atmosphere; inflation galloped at double digits; and lines formed at the gas pumps. BusinessWeek declared “The Death of Equities,” as if no one would ever buy stocks again. A mood of deep pessimism settled on the country.