Howard Zinn

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pages: 75 words: 22,220

Occupy by Noam Chomsky


corporate governance, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, Martin Wolf, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, union organizing

. †† Bailey McCann, “Cities, states pass resolutions against corporate personhood,” January 4, 2012, CivSource. ‡‡ Emily Ramshaw and Jay Root, “A New Rick Perry Shows Up to GOP Debate,” The Texas Tribune, October 18, 2011. Occupy Howard Zinn Memorial Lecture Occupy Boston, MA, Dewey Square, October 22, 2011 It’s a little hard to give a Howard Zinn memorial lecture at an Occupy meeting. There are mixed feelings, necessarily, that go along with it. First of all, there’s regret that Howard is not here to take part in and invigorate it in his inimitable way, something that would have been the dream of his life. Secondly, there is excitement that the dream is actually being fulfilled.

If that were to be enacted, it would be a pretty significant move. It would undo a century of court decisions. It’s not just Citizens United. It goes back a century. And that’s against the will of about two-thirds of the population. Well, all these things offer plenty of opportunities for discussion, interchange, education, organizing and activism. The opportunities are all there. Remembering Howard Zinn It is not easy for me to write a few words about Howard Zinn, the great American activist and historian. He was a very close friend for forty-five years. The families were very close, too. His wife, Roz, who died of cancer not long before, was also a marvelous person and close friend. Also somber is the realization that a whole generation seems to be disappearing, including several other old friends: Edward Said, Eqbal Ahmed and others, who were not only astute and productive scholars, but also dedicated and courageous militants, always on call when needed—which was constant.

Black This publication is a joint project of Adelante Alliance and Essential Information Archived by the Tamiment Collection at New York University eISBN: 978-1-884519-10-9 Occupied Media Pamphlet Series | Zuccotti Park Press 405 61 Street | Brooklyn, New York 11220 Facebook Twitter Editor’s Note Occupy After Thirty Years of Class War InterOccupy Occupying Foreign Policy Remembering Howard Zinn Occupy Protest Support About the Author About Zuccotti Park Press and the Occupied Media Pamphlet Series Dedicated to the 6,705 people who have been arrested supporting Occupy to date, from the first 80 arrested marching in New York on September 24, 2011, to the woman arrested in Sacramento on March 6, 2012, for throwing flower petals.* May our numbers swell and increase

Power Systems: Conversations on Global Democratic Uprisings and the New Challenges to U.S. Empire by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate personhood, David Brooks, discovery of DNA, double helix, drone strike, failed state, Howard Zinn, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, land reform, Martin Wolf, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, Powell Memorandum, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, single-payer health, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tobin tax, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

Jones, “Unemployment Re-Emerges as Most Important Problem in the U.S.,” Gallup, 15 September 2011. 18. Immanuel Wallerstein, interview with Sophie Shevardnadze, Russia Today, 4 October 2011. 19. Martin Wolf, “The Big Question Raised by Anti-Capitalist Protests,” Financial Times (London), 28 October 2011. 20. See also Richard Wolff, Democracy at Work (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2012). 21. Howard Zinn, “A Chorus Against War,” The Progressive 67, no. 3 (March 2003), pp. 19–21. 22. Howard Zinn, “Operation Enduring War,” The Progressive 66, no. 3 (March 2002), pp. 12–13. 23. David Hume, “Of the First Principles of Government,” in Selected Essays, ed. Stephen Copley and Andrew Edgar (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), p. 24. 24. Edward Bernays, Propaganda (Brooklyn: Ig Publishing, 2005), p. 127. 25. Clinton Rossiter and James Lare, The Essential Lippmann: A Political Philosophy for Liberal Democracy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965), p.91. 26.

Contents 1. The New American Imperialism 2. Chains of Submission and Subservience 3. Uprisings 4. Domestic Disturbances 5. Unconventional Wisdom 6. Mental Slavery 7. Learning How to Discover 8. Aristocrats and Democrats Notes Acknowledgments Index About the Authors 1 The New American Imperialism CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS (APRIL 2, 2010) One of the themes that Howard Zinn tried to address during his long career was the lack of historical memory. The facts of history are scrupulously ignored and/or distorted. I was wondering if you could comment on imperialism then and now, interventions then and now. Specifically about Saigon in 1963 and 1964 and Kabul today? What happened in Vietnam in the early 1960s is gone from history. It was barely discussed at the time, and it’s essentially disappeared.

It’s now moving to develop a port system in Karachi and Gwadar, which would be a way for China to get access to the South Asian seas and also key for importing oil and even minerals from Africa.49 Actually, the same thing is going on in Latin America. China is now probably the leading trading partner of Brazil. It has surpassed the United States and Europe.50 We were both at a talk that Arundhati Roy gave at Harvard describing the rather extraordinary amount of resistance to neoliberal policies in India.51 There is a tremendous amount of push-back. I wrote to Howard Zinn about her talk. He wrote back to me, in one of the last e-mails I received from him, “Compared to India, the United States seems like a desert.” It wasn’t at one time. If you go back to the nineteenth century, the indigenous population of the United States resisted. In this respect, the United States is a desert because we exterminated the native people. The United States won that war. By the end of the nineteenth century, the indigenous people were essentially gone.

Imperial Ambitions: Conversations on the Post-9/11 World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian


British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Westphalian system

Take a look at SNCC, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, which was at the leading edge of the civil rights movement—the people who were really on the line, not the ones who showed up for a demonstration now and then but the ones out there every day, sitting at lunch counters, traveling on freedom buses, getting beaten up or in some cases killed. For the most part, the students in SNCC came from the elite colleges, like the college where Howard Zinn was teaching, Spelman, and where he was kicked out because he supported the students in their efforts.11 Spelman was a black college, but an elite black college. Obviously not all the students in the movement came from privileged backgrounds, but they were certainly a leading part of this struggle. And the same is true if you look at other movements. It’s a mixture of privileged and oppressed coming to consciousness.

David Ricardo, The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation (Dover, 2004), pp. 83–84. 7. Lord Hutton, “Report of the Inquiry into the Circumstances Surrounding the Death of Dr. David Kelly C.M.G.,” 28 January 2004. 8. Noam Chomsky, Necessary Illusions (South End Press, 1989), p. viii. 9. David Hume, Of the First Principles of Government (Longmanns, Green, and Company, 1882), chap. 1. 10. KidsPost, Washington Post, 12 November 2004. 11. See Howard Zinn, SNCC, updated ed. (South End Press, 2002); and Zinn, You Can’t Be Neutral on a Moving Train, updated ed. (Beacon, 2002). 12. Ralph Atkins et al., Financial Times, 22 November 2004. 13. For details, see Roger Morris, New York Times, 14 March 2003; and Said K. Aburish, Saddam Hussein (Bloomsbury, 2000). 14. Reginald Dale, Financial Times, 1 March 1982. See also Reginald Dale, Financial Times, 28 November 1984. 15.

A professor of Linguistics and Philosophy at MIT, he is widely credited with having revolutionized modern linguistics. He lives outside Boston, Massachusetts. DAVID BARSAMIAN, founder and director of an award-winning and widely syndicated weekly show, Alternative Radio ( has authored several books of interviews with leading political thinkers, including Arundhati Roy, Howard Zinn, Edward Said, and especially Noam Chomsky. He lives in Boulder, Colorado. THE AMERICAN EMPIRE PROJECT In an era of unprecedented military strength, leaders of the United States, the global hyperpower, have increasingly embraced imperial ambitions. How did this significant shift in purpose and policy come about? And what lies down the road? The American Empire Project is a response to the changes that have occurred in America’s strategic thinking as well as in its military and economic posture.

pages: 56 words: 17,340

Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda by Noam Chomsky


British Empire, declining real wages, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker

ABOUT SEVEN STORIES PRESS SEVEN STORIES PRESS is an independent book publisher based in New York City, with distribution throughout the United States, Canada, England, and Australia. We publish works of the imagination by such writers as Nelson Algren, Octavia E. Butler, Assia Djebar, Ariel Dorfman, Lee Stringer, and Kurt Vonnegut, to name a few, together with political titles by voices of conscience, including the Boston Women's Health Book Collective, Noam Chomsky, Ralph Nader, Gary Null, Project Censored, Barbara Seaman, Gary Webb, and Howard Zinn, among many others. Our books appear in hardcover, paperback, pamphlet, and e-book formats, in English and in Spanish. We believe publishers have a special responsibility to defend free speech and human rights wherever we can. For more information about us, visit our Web site at or write for a free catalogue to Seven Stories Press, 140 Watts Street, New York, NY 10013. ABOUT OPEN MEDIA PAMPHLETS AND BOOKS OPEN MEDIA is a movement-oriented publishing project committed to the vision of "one world in which many worlds fit"a world with social justice, democracy, and human rights for all people.

Said Bin Laden, Islam, and America's New "War on Terrorism" by As'ad AbuKhalil Islands of Resistance: Puerto Rico, Vieques, and U.S. Policy by Mario Murillo IsraellPalestine: How to End the War of 1948 by Tanya Reinhart Media Control: The Spectacular Achievements of Propaganda by Noam Chomsky Propaganda, Inc. by Nancy Snow Secret Trials and Executions by Barbara Olshansky Sent by Earth by Alice Walker Silencing Political Dissent by Nancy Chang Terrorism: Theirs and Ours by Equal Ahmad Terrorism and War by Howard Zinn The Umbrella of U.S. Power by Noam Chomsky Weapons in Space by Karl Grossman Visit the Seven Stories Press web site for updated information and a complete list of all available Open Media books and pamphlets. I AVAILABLE OCTOBER 2002 FROM THE OPEN MEDIA SERIES OUR MEDIA, NOT THEIRS The Democratic Struggle Against Corporate Media by Robert W.

pages: 357 words: 94,852

No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein

Airbnb, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collective bargaining, Corrections Corporation of America, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, financial deregulation, greed is good, high net worth, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, women in the workforce, working poor

Laura Small, Environmental and Energy Study Institute, December 23, 2014,​papers/​view/​fact-sheet-jobs-in-renewable-energy-and-energy-efficiency-2014. Germany: 30 percent of energy comes from renewables US Energy Information Administration, “Germany’s Renewables Electricity Generation Grows in 2015, but Coal Still Dominant,” Today in Energy, May 24, 2016,​todayinenergy/​detail.php?id=26372. Howard Zinn: “The really critical thing isn’t…” Howard Zinn, Terrorism and War (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2002), 110. Remembering When We Leapt 1911 fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City: death toll “The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire,” Occupational Safety and Health Administration website, accessed April 18, 2017,​oas/​trianglefactoryfire-account.html. When Utopia Lends a Hand Gilded Age strikers: “cooperative commonwealth” Alex Gourevitch, From Slavery to the Cooperative Commonwealth: Labor and Republican Liberty in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015),​files/​history-culture-society-workshop/​files/​introduction_and_chapter_4.pdf.

So before we focus on how to win the world we want and need, we first have to get ready for the next wave of crises coming from the Trump White House, shocks that could well reverberate the world over. PART III HOW IT COULD GET WORSE: THE SHOCKS TO COME History is important. If you don’t know history it’s as if you were born yesterday. And if you were born yesterday, anybody up there in a position of power can tell you anything, and you have no way of checking up on it. —HOWARD ZINN You Can’t Be Neutral on a Moving Train, 2004 documentary CHAPTER EIGHT MASTERS OF DISASTER DOING AN END RUN AROUND DEMOCRACY There have been times in my reporting from disaster zones when I have had the unsettling feeling that I was seeing not just a crisis in the here and now, but a glimpse of our collective future—a preview of where the road we are all on is headed unless we somehow grab the wheel and swerve.

As a result, the kind of outside pressure that has leveraged major policy victories in the past was largely MIA during Obama’s first term. Despite some valiant attempts, there was no united progressive coalition pressuring Obama to make more of his unique moment in history, pushing him to deliver big on jobs, racial justice, clean air, clean water, and better services. That was a mistake. As the great (and much-missed) historian Howard Zinn once wrote, “The really critical thing isn’t who is sitting in the White House, but who is sitting in—in the streets, in the cafeterias, in the halls of government, in the factories. Who is protesting, who is occupying offices and demonstrating. Those are the things that determine what happens.” The bottom line is that in 2009, as theorists and organizers, we weren’t ready—too many of us were waiting for change to be delivered from on high.

pages: 468 words: 123,823

A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare


affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Table of Contents Title Page Dedication Epigraph Preface Introduction Chapter 1 - Survive: My Brother’s Keeper The Pathology of the Ghetto Another Side of the Slum Kin and Kinship The Political Economy of the Ghetto Communities of Support Chapter 2 - Sleep: A Place to Call Home Life Inside On the Streets Homelessness and Veterans On the Road Women on the Road The Anomaly of National Aid The Kindness of Strangers Chapter 3 - Eat: Dumpster Diving There Is No Hunger Here Faith and Food Eating Trash Chapter 4 - Work: (In) Dependence Work and Welfare Other Dependencies Chapter 5 - Love: Women and Children First Rethinking Responsibility Motherhood Fathers Sex, Power, Poverty Children Chapter 6 - Respect: The Price of Relief More Than It’s Worth A Last Resort Chapter 7 - Escape: Black and Blue Redefining the Scope of Welfare State Analysis Slavery and the Welfare State A Brief Reprieve Jim Crow and the Black New Deal Poverty, Labor, and the Prison Chapter 8 - Surrender: A Culture of Poverty? No City on a Hill A Rational Surrender Chapter 9 - Resist: Bread or Blood Passive Resistance Active Resistance Welfare Rights Embracing Indignation EPILOGUE Notes Index Copyright Page The New Press People’s History Series Howard Zinn, Series Editor A People’s History of the United States: The Wall Charts Howard Zinn and George Kirschner A People’s History of the United States: Abridged Teaching Edition Howard Zinn A People’s History of the American Revolution: How Common People Shaped the Fight for Independence Ray Raphael A People’s History of the Vietnam War Jonathan Neale The Mexican Revolution Adolfo Gilly A People’s History of the Civil War: Struggles for the Meaning of Freedom David Williams The Darker Nations: A People’s History of the Third World Vijay Prashad A People’s History of Poverty in America Stephen Pimpare A People’s History of Sports in the United States: 250 Years of Politics, Protest, People, and Play Dave Zirin for Kathleen Bergeron and JoAnn McGravey Stop a moment.

Taking the lives and viewpoints of common people as its point of departure, the series reexamines subjects as different as the American Revolution, the history of sports, the history of American art, the Mexican Revolution, and the rise of the Third World. A people’s history does more than add to the catalogue of what we already know. These books will shake up readers’ understanding of the past—just as common people throughout history have shaken up their always changeable worlds. Howard Zinn Boston, 2000 INTRODUCTION The Indignant Poor and the Constants of Relief I am reminded of the old lady who went from the interior to the sea. She had lived a life of poverty. She had never had enough of anything. All the food that went upon her table, all the clothing she wore, had to be carefully considered. One day, she was taken by some kind relatives to the seaside. There she sat in silence, and not a word was to be had from her at first; and, when they looked at her, the tears were rolling down her cheeks.

More to the point, my decisions about what to include of the accounts I have gathered are, inescapably, biased, although they are intended to be not just revealing but representative. Perhaps this is best thought of not as the culmination of a project, but as the beginning of one, especially given that I have relied here mostly upon previously published letters, diaries, journals, and interviews. The narrative is also distorted, much like its inspiration, Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States, by the nature of the project itself.45 I set out consciously to offer a history of American poverty and welfare unlike the traditional ones. So, just as Zinn tells the story of Columbus’s arrival in the Bahamas through the eyes of the Arawak Indians, showing us the communities destroyed and the families slaughtered by the Great Discoverer, I’ll let the residents of Five Points, our most notorious slum, give us a glimpse into the dense, close-knit, and often joyous communities they formed there, or allow women on welfare to explain how their supposed “dependence” has made it possible for them to raise their children and behave, as they have seen it, responsibly.

What We Say Goes: Conversations on U.S. Power in a Changing World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian


banking crisis, British Empire, Doomsday Clock, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, informal economy, liberation theology, mass immigration, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

.: South End Press, 2002), p. vii. 3 Editorial, “Straight Talk Needed on Pakistan,” New York Times, 28 January 2006. 4 Judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Trial of German Major War Criminals, Nuremberg, Germany, 30 September and 1 October 1946. 5 Howard Friel and Richard Falk, The Record of the Paper: How the New York Times Misreports U.S. Foreign Policy (New York: Verso, 2004). See also Friel and Falk, Israel-Palestine on the Record: How the New York Times Misreports Conflict in the Middle East (New York: Verso, 2007). 6 Falk and Friel, Record of the Paper, p. 15. 7 Martin Luther King Jr., “Beyond Vietnam,” in Voices of a People’s History of the United States, ed. Howard Zinn and Anthony Arnove (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004), p. 423. 8 Howard Zinn, “The Problem Is Civil Obedience,” in ibid., pp. 483–84. 9 See, for example, editorial, “Dr. King’s Error,” New York Times, 7 April 1967, written three days after King’s “Beyond Vietnam” speech. 2. LEBANON AND THE CRISIS IN THE MIDDLE EAST 1 Greg Myre and Steven Erlanger, “Clashes Spread to Lebanon as Hezbollah Raids Israel,” New York Times, 13 July 2006. 2 Alec Russell, “Bush Lays the Blame on Hizbollah Aggression,” Daily Telegraph (London), 14 July 2006. 3 See, among other reports, Human Rights Watch, “Release All Fifteen Lebanese Hostages,” 18 April 2000, online at 4 Kerem Shalom, “2 Israeli Troops Killed in Attack,” Los Angeles Times, 26 June 2006. 5 United Nations, “Statement on Gaza by United Nations Humanitarian Agencies Working in the Occupied Palestinian Territory,” media release, 3 August 2006; United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Humanitarian Monitor: Occupied Palestinian Territory, no. 2 (June 2006). 6 On June 24, 2006, Osama and Mustafa Abu Muamar were abducted by the Israel Defense Forces in Al Shouka, near Rafah.

., in his April 4, 1967, Riverside Church speech, said, “Even when pressed by the demands of inner truth, men do not easily assume the task of opposing their government’s policy, especially in time of war.”7 Is that true? You see that anywhere you look. It’s obviously true in the United States. But was the United States “at war” in 1967? King suggests it was. It’s an odd sense of being at war. The United States was attacking another country—in fact, it was attacking all of Indochina—but had not been attacked by anybody. So what’s the war? It was just plain, outright aggression. Howard Zinn, in his speech “The Problem Is Civil Obedience,” says civil disobedience is “not our problem … . Our problem is civil obedience,” people taking orders and not questioning. How do we confront that?8 Howard is quite right. Obedience and subordination to power are the major problem, not just here but everywhere. It’s much more important here because the state is so powerful, so it matters more here than in Luxembourg, for example.

Rethinking Camelot by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, Howard Zinn, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, Norman Mailer, Paul Samuelson, Ronald Reagan

Similarly, in November 1967, General Westmoreland announced that with victory imminent, US troops could begin to withdraw in 1969 (as happened, though under circumstances that he did not anticipate); that recommendation does not show that he was a secret dove.42 Advocacy of withdrawal after assurance of victory was not a controversial stand. In contrast, withdrawal without victory would have been highly controversial. Within the domestic mainstream, that position received scant support: the first timid editorial advocacy of it, to my knowledge, was in late 1969, well after corporate and political elites had determined that the operation should be liquidated as too costly. When Howard Zinn published a book in 1967 calling for US withdrawal, the idea was considered too outlandish even to discuss.43 The question to be considered, then, is whether JFK, despite his 1961-1962 escalation and his militant public stand, planned to withdraw without victory, a plan aborted by the assassination, which cleared the way for Lyndon Johnson and his fellow-warmongers to bring on a major war. 6.

Giglio, Presidency, 254; Schlesinger, RFK, 727, 713, 715, 730, 733-4. 4. Hilsman, To Move a Nation, 580, 537, 411. 5. Ibid., 531n., 536f., 510f. 6. Ibid., 527ff. FRUSV-64, 179-82. 7. Schlesinger, Bitter Heritage; see APNM, ch. 4. On the PR function of staged elections in Vietnam and elsewhere, see Herman and Brodhead, Demonstration Elections; MC, ch. 3. 8. Schlesinger, RFK, 734, 739. 9. See FRS, 25. 10. Howard Zinn and I were the applicants; the chapter was Arlington, near Cambridge. The details are not without interest. 11. On media coverage of the war from the early 1950s through 1985, see MC, 169-296 and App. 3. 12. Lewis and others, see MC, 170f. Kann, WSJ, Sept. 9, 1992. Michael Elliott, BG, Oct. 27, 1991. G&M, Feb. 27, 1992. 13. See MC, ch. 5.5.2, App. 3. 14. Brown, JFK, 34ff. 15. O’Donnell, Johnny, cited by Newman, JFK and Vietnam, 322f.

Turning the Tide (South End Press, 1985) [TIT] ———. Necessary Illusions (South End Press, 1989) [NI] ———. Deterring Democracy (Verso, 1991; updated edition, Hill &Wang, 1992) [DO] ———. Year 501 (South End Press, 1993) [501] ———. Letters from Lexington: Reflections on Propaganda (Common Courage, 1993) [LL] ———, and Edward Herman. Political Economy of Human Rights (South End Press, 1979) [PEHR] ———, and Howard Zinn, eds. Pentagon Papers, vol. 5, Analytic Essays and Index (Beacon Press, 1972) [PP V] Cooper, Chester. The Lost Crusade (Dodd, Mead, 1970) Cumings, Bruce. The Origins of the Korean War, vol. II (Princeton, 1990) Drinnon, Richard. Facing West: The Metaphysics of Indian-Hating and Empire-Building (Minnesota, 1980) Du Boff, Richard. Accumulation and Power (ME Sharpe, 1989) Duffy, Dan, ed. Informed Dissent (Vietnam Generation, Burning Cities Press, 1992) Duncanson, Denis.

Propaganda and the Public Mind by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian


Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, deindustrialization, European colonialism, experimental subject, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, interchangeable parts, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, one-state solution, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, Washington Consensus

-The Guardian “Chomsky’s work is neither theoretical, nor ideological: it is passionate and righteous. It has some of the qualities of Revelations, the Old Testament prophets and Blake.” —Times Literary Supplement “Noam Chomsky is like a medic attempting to cure a national epidemic of selective amnesia.” —Village Voice Praise for David Barsamian “David Barsamian is the Studs Terkel of our generation.” —Howard Zinn, author, A People’s History of the United States “In conversation [with David Barsamian], Chomsky is more relaxed, tentative, and discursive than he is in his books or his public speaking engagements.” —Vancouver Sun Copyright ©2001 by Noam Chomsky and David Barsamian. First published in 2001 by South End Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts This edition published in 2015 by Haymarket Books P.O.

Is there anything constructive that the U.S. can do? After all, it has a lot of power. And there may well be. One could think about that. Iraqi opposition groups have made proposals. They should be considered. Whether they should be implemented or not is a decision. But the assumption right off that we have to “go in” and “do something” should be questioned. Who gave us that right? You, Edward Said, Howard Zinn, and Ed Herman recently issued a statement on Iraq.21 You say, “The time has come for a call to action to people of conscience.... [W]e must organize and make this issue a priority, just as Americans organized to stop the war in Vietnam....We need a national campaign to lift the sanctions.” I know you’re not against sanctions in all instances, for example, you cite South Africa as quite a separate case.

Richard Lawrence, “US Will Snub WTO Panel on Anti-Cuba Law,” Journal of Commerce, February 21, 1997, p. 1A. 19. William Preston, Jr., Edward S. Herman, and Herbert I. Schiller, Hope and Folly: The Unitd States and Unesco, 1945-1985 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989). 20. Serge Schmemann, “The Critics Now Ask: After Missiles, What?” New York Times, December 18, 1998, p. A23. 21. Noam Chomsky, Edward S. Herman, Edward Said, and Howard Zinn, “A Call to Action on Sanctions and the U.S. War Against the People of Iraq.” On-line at http:/ / /callaction.htm. See also, Noam Chomsky et al., “Sanctions Are a Weapon of Mass Destruction,” in Arnove ed., Iraq Under Siege, pp. 1 81-3. Initial Statement drafted by Robert Jensen. 22. Barbara Crossette, “U.S. Plans to Sharpen Focus of Its Sanctions Against Haiti,” New York Times, February 5, 1992, p.

pages: 403 words: 111,119

Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist by Kate Raworth

3D printing, Asian financial crisis, bank run, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart,, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, global supply chain, global village, Henri Poincaré, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, loss aversion, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, megacity, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Myron Scholes, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, Occupy movement, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, price mechanism, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, smart meter, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, wikimedia commons

Contributions of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 25. Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster, p. 19. 26. Putnam, R. (2000) Bowling Alone, p. 290. 27. ‘Election day will not be enough’: an interview with Howard Zinn, by Lee, J. and Tarleton, J. The Indypendent, 14 November 2008, available at: 28. Marçal, K. (2015) Who Cooked Adam Smith’s Dinner? London: Portobello. 29. Folbre, N. (1994) Who Pays for the Kids? London: Routledge. 30. Coote, A. and Goodwin,. N. (2010) The Great Transition: Social Justice and the Core Economy. nef working paper 1. London: New Economics Foundation. 31. Coote, A. and Franklin, J. (2013) Time On Our Side: Why We All Need a Shorter Working Week.

A thriving society, in addition, is more likely to build strong political engagement, starting with community meetings, grassroots organising, voting in elections, and joining social and political movements that hold political representatives to account. ‘Significant changes occur when social movements reach a critical point of power capable of moving cautious politicians beyond their tendency to keep things as they are,’ writes the American historian Howard Zinn, pointing to his own country’s nineteenth-century anti-slavery movement and twentieth-century civil rights movement.27 Democratic governance of society and the economy rests on the right and capacity of citizens to engage in public debate – hence the importance of ‘political voice’ within the Doughnut’s social foundation. THE ECONOMY, which is diverse – so support all of its systems Embedded within this rich web of society is the economy itself, the realm in which people produce, distribute and consume products and services that meet their wants and needs.

pages: 258 words: 63,367

Making the Future: The Unipolar Imperial Moment by Noam Chomsky


Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, full employment, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, liberation theology, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, precariat, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor

Gangjeong villagers know full well what their future holds if their cry for peace is not heeded: an influx of South Korean and foreign military personnel, advanced armaments, and a world of suffering delivered to a small island that has already endured enough. The irony is that the seeds for future superpower conflict are being sown on an ecological preserve and island of peace. Occupy the Future October 31, 2011 This article is adapted from Noam Chomsky’s talk at the Occupy Boston encampment on Dewey Square on October 22, 2011. He spoke as part of the Howard Zinn Memorial Lecture Series held by Occupy Boston’s on-site Free University. Delivering a Howard Zinn lecture is a bittersweet experience for me. I can’t help but regret that he’s not here to take part in and invigorate a movement that would have been the dream of his life, and for which he laid a lot of the groundwork. The Occupy movements are exciting, inspiring. If the bonds and associations being established in these remarkable events can be sustained and carried forward through a long, hard period ahead—victories don’t come quickly—the Occupy protests could mark a truly significant moment in American history.

pages: 181 words: 50,196

The Rich and the Rest of Us by Tavis Smiley

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Corrections Corporation of America, Credit Default Swap, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, ending welfare as we know it, F. W. de Klerk, fixed income, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, job automation, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, mega-rich, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, traffic fines, trickle-down economics, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

Europe was forced to concede its territory after a bloody eight-year war that seeded democracy and formed a core set of values that would continue to challenge and shape economic, political, and social life in America for centuries to come. What’s missing in most American history books is the extent to which this country amassed its riches from free, Black slave labor. In his book, A People’s History of the United States, 1492–Present (New York: Harper, 2003), professor, activist, and author Howard Zinn defines the cruelty of human bondage aggravated by “the frenzy for limitless profit that comes from capitalistic agriculture.”60 Academy Award–winning filmmaker, best-selling author, and social critic Michael Moore elaborated on this theme during the “Remaking America” symposium: “This is a nation founded on genocide and built on the backs of slaves,” Moore said. “We tried to actually eliminate one entire race.

Divided Into ‘Haves,’ ‘Have-Nots,’”, December 15, 2011, retrieved from 57 “45% Say Government Programs Increase Poverty in America,” Rasmussen Report, April 6, 2011, retrieved from 58 “Bill O’Reilly, Tavis Smiley, and Cornel West Have Fiery Clash Over Wall Street, Poverty” (video), Roland Martin Reports, October 12, 2011, retrieved from 59 Bruce Watson, “It’s Official: Weath Gap Has Turned America Into a Seething Pit of Class Resentment,” Daily 13, 2012, retrieved from 60 Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the United States: 1492–Present (New York: Harper Perennial, 2003). 61 The Industrial Revolution,, retrieved from and 62 Andrew Gavin Marshall, Robber Barons, Revolution, and Social Control: The Century of Social Engineering, Part I, Global, March 10, 2011, retrieved from

pages: 278 words: 82,069

Meltdown: How Greed and Corruption Shattered Our Financial System and How We Can Recover by Katrina Vanden Heuvel, William Greider


Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Exxon Valdez, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, John Meriwether, kremlinology, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, McMansion, money market fund, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, payday loans,, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, pushing on a string, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

Stiglitiz 191 View from Asia by Walden Bello 196 Born-Again Democracy by William Greider 199 The Suicide Solution by Barbara Ehrenreich 207 The Great Depression II by Nicholas von Hoffman 210 We’re All Minskyites Now by Robert Pollin 213 The Bailout: Bush’s Final Pillage by Naomi Klein 217 Part Four: The Road to Recovery How to Fix Our Broken Economy by Jeffrey Madrick 225 Ending Plutocracy: A 12-Step Program by Sarah Anderson and Sam Pizzigati 234 Trust but Verify by James K. Galbraith and William K. Black 244 King George and Comrade Paulson by Ralph Nader 247 A Big Government Bailout by Howard Zinn 249 Water the Roots by Rev. Jesse L. Jackson 253 America Needs a New New Deal by Katrina vanden Heuvel and Eric Schlosser 255 What Do We Want? An Emergency Town Hall Featuring William Greider, Francis Fox Piven, Doug Henwood, Arun Gupta and Naomi Klein. Moderated by Christopher Hayes 260 The Global Perspective by Will Hutton 270 How to End the Recession by Robert Pollin 287 In Praise of a Rocky Transition by Naomi Klein 297 Acknowledgments 301 List of Contributors 303 Preface The year 2008 will live in infamy in the annals of American economic history.

She is the co-editor of Taking Back America—And Taking Down the Radical Right and editor of The Dictionary of Republicanisms. She is a frequent com-mentator on American and international politics on MSNBC, CNN and PBS. Her articles have appeared in the Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, the New York Times and the Boston Globe. Kai Wright, a writer in Brooklyn, New York, is the author of Drifting Toward Love: Black, Brown, Gay and Coming of Age on the Streets of New York. He is a columnist for Howard Zinn is the author of A People’s History of the United States, A Power Governments Cannot Suppress and most recently, A People’s History of American Empire. Meltdown.qxd 11/21/08 1:20 PM Page 311 Document Outline Contents Preface Introduction Part One: Seeds of Disaster Wall Street and Washington: How the Rules of the Game Have Changed The Looting Decade (Excerpt) Democratize the Fed? For Starters Breaking Glass-Steagall The Rise of Market Populism: America's New Secular Religion Hunting the Predators The One-Eyed Chairman Part Two: Alarm Bells Why the Bubble Popped Bush's House of Cards Leaking Bubble Show Me the Money Monetary Zombies Henry Paulson's Treasury Born-Again Rubinomics The Loan Shark Lobby Hedging Bets Smashing Capitalism The Housing Bubble The Coming Foreclosure Tsunami The Subprime Swindle Lawyers for the Poor Muzzled in Subprime Mess Youth Surviving Subprime Is This the Big One?

Chomsky on Mis-Education by Noam Chomsky


deindustrialization, deskilling, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, means of production, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, union organizing, Washington Consensus

Teachers who are paid to safeguard the ideological doctrinal system have little interest or incentive to teach students that the United States has systematically violated the Pledge of Allegiance, from the legalization of slavery, the denial of women’s rights, and the near-genocide of Native Americans to the contemporary discriminatory practices against people who, by virtue of their race, ethnicity, or gender, are not treated with the dignity and respect called for in the Pledge. These teachers also have little incentive to teach Howard Zinn’s People’s History of the United States, from which students could learn that, once upon a time, the Massachusetts legislature promulgated a law that provided monetary rewards for dead Indians: “For every scalp of a male Indian brought in . . . forty pounds. For every scalp of such female Indian or male Indian under the age of twelve years that shall be killed . . . twenty pounds.”21 They also have little interest in teaching students that even antislavery President Abraham Lincoln did not truly uphold the U.S.

(ASCAP). 17. James W. Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me (New York: The New Press, 1945), 3. 18. Loewen, Lies My Teacher Told Me. 19. Pink Floyd, “Another Brick in the Wall,” copyright 1979 Pink Floyd Music Limited. 20. Barbara Flores, “Language Interference on Influence: Toward a Theory for Hispanic Bilingualism” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona at Tuscon, 1982), 131. 21. Cited in Howard Zinn, Declarations of Independence: Now Examining American Ideology (New York: HarperCollins, 1990), 234-35. 22. Zinn, Declarations of Independence. 23. Cited in Noam Chomsky, Towards a New Cold War (New York: Pantheon, 1982), 339-40. 24. Chomsky, Towards a New Cold War. 25. Cited in Paulo Freire and Donaldo Macedo, Literacy: Reading the Word and the World (South Hadley, Mass.: Bergin & Garvey, 1987), 130. 26.

pages: 91 words: 26,009

Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy


activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Bretton Woods, corporate governance, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, informal economy, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, megacity, microcredit, neoliberal agenda, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, reserve currency, special economic zone, spectrum auction, stem cell, The Chicago School, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

Chapter 3 DEAD MEN TALKING On September 23, 2011, at about three o’clock in the morning, within hours of his arrival at the Delhi airport, the US radio-journalist David Barsamian was deported.1 This dangerous man, who produces independent, free-to-air programs for public radio, has been visiting India for forty years, doing dangerous things like learning Urdu and playing the sitar. He has published book-length interviews with Edward Said, Noam Chomsky, Howard Zinn, Ejaz Ahmed, and Tariq Ali. (He even makes an appearance as a young, bell-bottom-wearing interviewer in Peter Wintonik’s documentary film based on Chomsky and Edward S. Herman’s Manufacturing Consent.) On his more recent trips to India he has done a series of radio interviews with activists, academics, filmmakers, journalists, and writers (including me). Barsamian’s work has taken him to Turkey, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, and Pakistan.

pages: 489 words: 111,305

How the World Works by Noam Chomsky, Arthur Naiman, David Barsamian


affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, capital controls, clean water, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Howard Zinn, income inequality, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, labour market flexibility, land reform, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, transfer pricing, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor

As a result, the number of industrial accidents went up rather dramatically. Business Week reported that working days lost to injury almost doubled from 1983 to 1986, in part because “under Reagan and [Vice-President] Bush, [OSHA] was a hands-off agency.” The same is true of the environmental issues—toxic waste disposal, say. Sure, they’re killing people, but is it criminal? Well, it should be. Howard Zinn and I visited a brand-new maximum-security federal prison in Florence, Colorado. The lobby has high ceilings, tile floors, glass everywhere. Around the same time, I read that New York City schools are so overcrowded that students are meeting in cafeterias, gyms and locker rooms. I found that quite a juxtaposition. They’re certainly related. Both prisons and inner-city schools target a kind of superfluous population that there’s no point educating because there’s nothing for them to do.

If something grows out of popular action and participation, it can be healthy. Maybe it won’t, but at least it can be. There’s no other way. You’ve always seen top-down strategies and movements as inherently doomed. They can succeed very well at exactly what they’re designed to do—maintain top-down leadership, control and authority. It shouldn’t have come as a tremendous surprise to anyone that a vanguard party would end up running a totalitarian state. Howard Zinn suggests that we need to recognize that real social change takes time. We need to be long-distance runners, not sprinters. What do you think of that? He’s right. It was very striking in parts of the student movement in the 1960s. There wasn’t an organized, well-established, popular-based left for the students to join, so their leaders were sometimes very young people. They were often very good and decent people, but the perception of many—not all—of them was quite short-range.

But privileged audiences often don’t want to hear that. They want a quick answer that will get the job done fast. Manufacturing dissent Michael Moore made a documentary film called Roger and Me and produced a television series called TV Nation. In his book Downsize This!, he says that what turns people off about the left is that it’s boring, it whines too much, it’s too negative. Anything to that? I don’t think Howard Zinn, say, whines too much and turns people off, but there are probably other people who do. To the extent that that’s true, it’s a problem they should overcome. Take the example of the media group in Brazil we discussed earlier, which presented television skits that turned people off because they were boring and full of jargon. This group went back to the people and let them produce the stuff themselves, simply providing technical assistance.

pages: 913 words: 299,770

A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn


active measures, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, God and Mammon, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, jobless men, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

To Esta Seaton, for her poem “Her Life,” which first appeared in The Ethnic American Woman by Edith Blicksilver, Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1978. To Warner Bros., for the excerpt from “Brother Can You Spare a Dime?” Lyric by Jay Gomey, Music by E. Y. Harburg. © 1932 Warner Bros. Inc. Copyright Renewed. All Rights Reserved. Used By Permission. About the Author HOWARD ZINN is a historian, playwright, and social activist. He lives with his wife, painter Roslyn Zinn, in Auburndale, Massachusetts. Visit for exclusive information on your favorite HarperCollins author. Other Books by Howard Zinn La Guardia in Congress 1959 The Southern Mystique 1964 SNCC: The New Abolitionists 1964 New Deal Thought (editor) 1965 Vietnam: The Logic of Withdrawal 1967 Disobedience and Democracy 1968 The Politics of History 1970 The Pentagon Papers: Critical Essays 1972 (editor, with Noam Chomsky) Postwar America 1973 Justice in Everyday Life (editor) 1974 Declarations of Independence: Cross-Examining American Ideology 1991 Failure to Quit: Reflections of an Optimistic Historian 1993 You Can’t Be Neutral on a Moving Train 1994 The Zinn Reader 1997 The Future of History 1999 Marx in Soho: A Play on History 1999 On War 2001 On History 2001 Terrorism and War 2002 Emma: A Play 2002 Copyright A PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES.

A PEOPLE’S HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES 1492—PRESENT HOWARD ZINN To Noah, Georgia, Serena, Naushon, Will—and their generation Contents Cover Title Page Chapter 1 – Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress Chapter 2 – Drawing the Color Line Chapter 3 – Persons of Mean and Vile Condition Chapter 4 – Tyranny Is Tyranny Chapter 5 – A Kind of Revolution Chapter 6 – The Intimately Oppressed Chapter 7 – As Long as Grass Grows or Water Runs Chapter 8 – We Take Nothing by Conquest, Thank God Chapter 9 – Slavery Without Submission, Emancipation Without Freedom Chapter 10 – The Other Civil War Chapter 11 – Robber Barons and Rebels Chapter 12 – The Empire and The People Chapter 13 – The Socialist Challenge Chapter 14 – War is the Health of the State Chapter 15 – Self-Help in Hard Times Chapter 16 – A People’s War?

Chapter 18 – The Impossible Victory: Vietnam Chapter 19 – Surprises Chapter 20 – The Seventies: Under Control? Chapter 21 – Carter-Reagan-Bush: The Bipartisan Consensus Chapter 22 – The Unreported Resistance Chapter 23 – The Coming Revolt of the Guards Chapter 24 – The Clinton Presidency Chapter 25 – The 2000 Election and the “War on Terrorism” Afterword Bibliography Index Acknowledgments About the Author Other Books by Howard Zinn Copyright About the Publisher Chapter 1 Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island’s beaches and swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat. When Columbus and his sailors came ashore, carrying swords, speaking oddly, the Arawaks ran to greet them, brought them food, water, gifts.

pages: 364 words: 99,613

Servant Economy: Where America's Elite Is Sending the Middle Class by Jeff Faux


back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, medical malpractice, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, new economy, oil shock, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working poor, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

With the introduction of the steamship, immigration accelerated, and the cities of the Northeast filled up with large numbers of non-English-speaking poor. In 1845, the country’s population was roughly twenty million people. Throughout the next ten years, approximately three million immigrants arrived. Most were stuffed into vastly overcrowded city slums, where they and their children suffered brutal working conditions and a life of squalor and disease. Howard Zinn, who told the story of the United States from the perspective of the poor and the working class, wrote, “In Philadelphia, working-class families lived fifty-five to a tenement, usually one room per family, with no garbage removal, no toilets, no fresh air or water. . . . In New York . . . filthy water drained into yards and alleys, into the cellars where the poorest of the poor lived, bringing with it a typhoid epidemic in 1837, typhus in 1842.

Jeff Madrick,Why Economies Grow:The Forces That Shape Prosperity and How We Can Get Them Working Again (New York: Basic Books, 2002), 9. 2. Benjamin Franklin, “Observations concerning the Peopling of Countries, Philadelphia, 1751,” cited in Joseph Schaefer, “Was the West a Safety Valve for Labor?” Mississippi Historical Review 24, no. 3 (December 1937): 299–314. 3. Quoted in Schaefer, “Was the West a Safety Valve for Labor?,” 311. 4. Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the United States, rev. ed. (New York: HarperPerennial, 1995), 213. 5. Ibid., 222. 6. Quoted in ibid., 276. 7. Stuart Bruchey, Enterprise: The Dynamic Economy of a Free People (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990), 270. 8. Mario Cuomo, Keynote Address to the Democratic Convention, San Francisco, CA, July 16, 1984, 9.

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Death of the Liberal Class by Chris Hedges


1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate governance, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hive mind, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Lao Tzu, Pearl River Delta, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

By contrast, as long as illegalities and violations of democratic substance are confined to marginal groups or dissident victims of U.S. military attack, or result in a diffused cost imposed on the general population, media opposition is muted and absent altogether. This is why Nixon could go so far, lulled into a false sense of security precisely because the watchdog only barked when he began to threaten the privileged.25 Howard Zinn in the People’s History of the United States examined history through the eyes of Native Americans, immigrants, slaves, women, union leaders, persecuted socialists, anarchists and communists, abolitionists, antiwar activists, civil rights leaders, and the poor. Zinn’s work has been castigated by many academic historians, largely because he broke with the mold of writing about the great and the powerful.

The FBI spent years following Zinn, and carefully cutting out newspaper articles about their suspect, to amass the inane and the banal. One of Zinn’s neighbors, Mrs. Matthew Grell, on February 22, 1952, told agents that she considered Zinn and another neighbor, Mrs. Julius Scheiman, “to be either communists or communist sympathizers” because, the agents wrote, Grell “had observed copies of the Daily Workers in Mrs. Scheiman’s apartment and noted that Mrs. Scheiman was a good friend of Howard Zinn.” The FBI, which describes Zinn as a former member of the Communist Party, something Zinn repeatedly denied, appears to have picked up its surveillance when Zinn, who was teaching at Spelman, a historically black women’s college, became involved in the civil rights movement. Zinn served on the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. He took his students out of the classroom to march for civil rights.

Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky


Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden,, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

Fiona Harvey, “World Headed for Irreversible Climate Change in Five Years, IEA Warns,” Guardian (London), 9 November 2011. 14. “‘Monster’ Greenhouse Gas Levels Seen,” Associated Press, 3 November 2011. 15. Noam Chomsky, Powers and Prospects (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2015), 220. 16. John W. Dower, “The Superdomino In and Out of the Pentagon Papers,” in The Pentagon Papers: The Senator Gravel Edition, Volume 5, eds. Noam Chomsky and Howard Zinn (Boston: Beacon Press, 1972), 101–42. 17. Seymour Topping, “Slaughter of Reds Gives Indonesia a Grim Legacy,” New York Times, 24 August 1966. 18. James Reston, “A Gleam of Light in Asia,” New York Times, 19 June 1966. 19. David Sanger, “Why Suharto Is In and Castro Is Out,” New York Times, 31 October 1995. 20. Noam Chomsky, Hegemony or Survival (New York: Henry Holt, 2003), 150. 21.

The project was conceived by Tom Engelhardt and Steve Fraser, editors who are themselves historians and writers. Published by Metropolitan Books, an imprint of Henry Holt and Company, its titles include Hegemony or Survival and Failed States by Noam Chomsky, The Limits of Power and Washington Rules by Andrew J. Bacevich, Blood and Oil by Michael T. Klare, Kill Anything That Moves by Nick Turse, A People’s History of American Empire by Howard Zinn, and Empire’s Workshop by Greg Grandin. For more information about the American Empire Project and for a list of forthcoming titles, please visit Thank you for buying this Henry Holt and Company ebook. To receive special offers, bonus content, and info on new releases and other great reads, sign up for our newsletters. Or visit us online at For email updates on the author, click here.

9-11 by Noam Chomsky


Berlin Wall, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, War on Poverty

We publish works of the imagination by such writers as Nelson Algren, Russell Banks, Octavia E. Butler, Ani DiFranco, Assia Djebar, Ariel Dorfman, Coco Fusco, Barry Gifford, Lee Stringer, and Kurt Vonnegut, to name a few, together with political titles by voices of conscience, including the Boston Women’s Health Collective, Noam Chomsky, Angela Y. Davis, Human Rights Watch, Derrick Jensen, Ralph Nader, Gary Null, Project Censored, Barbara Seaman, Gary Webb, and Howard Zinn, among many others. Seven Stories Press believes publishers have a special responsibility to defend free speech and human rights, and to celebrate the gifts of the human imagination, wherever we can. For additional information, visit In 9-11, published in November 2001 and arguably the single most influential post-9-11 book, internationally renowned thinker Noam Chomsky bridged the information gap around the World Trade Center attacks, cutting through the tangle of political opportunism, expedient patriotism, and general conformity that choked off American discourse in the months immediately following.

Nuclear War and Environmental Catastrophe by Noam Chomksy


American Legislative Exchange Council, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, energy security, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

Butler, Ani DiFranco, Assia Djebar, Ariel Dorfman, Coco Fusco, Barry Gifford, Martha Long, Luis Negrón, Hwang Sok-yong, Lee Stringer, and Kurt Vonnegut, to name a few, together with political titles by voices of conscience, including Subhankar Banerjee, the Boston Women’s Health Collective, Noam Chomsky, Angela Y. Davis, Human Rights Watch, Derrick Jensen, Ralph Nader, Loretta Napoleoni, Gary Null, Greg Palast, Project Censored, Barbara Seaman, Alice Walker, Gary Webb, and Howard Zinn, among many others. Seven Stories Press believes publishers have a special responsibility to defend free speech and human rights, and to celebrate the gifts of the human imagination, wherever we can. In 2012 we launched Triangle Square books for young readers with strong social justice and narrative components, telling personal stories of courage and commitment. For additional information, visit

The Chomsky Reader by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, business climate, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, land reform, land tenure, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, War on Poverty, zero-sum game, éminence grise

They might react differently if they were to visit Auschwitz or Dachau and find a gravestone reading: “Here lies a woman, a Jew, whose family and people gave of themselves and their possessions that this great nation might grow and prosper.” The truth is not entirely suppressed. The distinguished Harvard historian and Columbus biographer Samuel Eliot Morrison does comment that “the cruel policy initiated by Columbus and pursued by his successors resulted in complete genocide.” This statement is “buried halfway into the telling of a grand romance,” Howard Zinn observes in his People’s History of the United States, noting that in the book’s last paragraph, Morrison sums up his view of Columbus as follows: He had his faults and his defects, but they were largely the defects of the qualities that made him great—his indomitable will, his superb faith in God and in his own mission as the Christ-bearer to lands beyond the seas, his stubborn persistence despite neglect, poverty and discouragement.

Cf. in particular Gabriel Kolko, The Roots of American Foreign Policy, (Boston: Beacon Press, 1969); the discussion in Gabriel and Joyce Kolko, The Limits of Power: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945–1954 (New York: Harper & Row, 1972); my At War with Asia (New York: Pantheon Books, 1970), chap. 1; and Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars, The Indochina Story (New York: Pantheon Books, 1970), pt. 3. See also the articles by John Dower, Richard Du Boff, and Gabriel Kolko in Noam Chomsky and Howard Zinn, eds., Critical Essays (Boston: Beacon Press, 1972), vol. 5 of the Pentagon Papers; see note 5, below. 2. See Walt W. Rostow and Richard W. Hatch, An American Policy in Asia, (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1955), p. 7. In Rostow’s view, this “ideological threat to our interest … is as great as the military threat” posed by Communist China and the Soviet Union. It is essential, Rostow notes, “to emphasize … especially the close link between Japan’s dangerous foreign trade problem and the requirements of growth in Southeast Asia” (p. 12), and to remove the “illusory glamor” of trade with the Communist bloc, which “represent[s] a powerful attraction” (though an unreal one), particularly to Japan (pp. 46–47).

Elizabeth Pond, Christian Science Monitor, November 8, 1969. 3. New York Times, November 26, 1969. 4. In Pfeffer, ed., No More Vietnams?, p. 18. On the widely noted analogy between Vietnam and the Indian wars, see my American Power and the New Mandarins, pp. 279–80, n. 42. 5. Harold B. Clifford, Exploring New England (New Unified Social Studies; Chicago: Follett Publishing Co., 1961). 6. See Howard Zinn, “Violence and Social Change,” Boston University Graduate Journal, Fall 1968. When disease decimated the Indians, Mather said: “The woods were almost cleared of those pernicious creatures, to make room for a better growth.” 7. On November 24, 1969. Attention, Mr. Agnew. 8. Christian Science Monitor, November 29, 1969. 9. Henry Kamm, New York Times, November 15, 1969. 10. J. Robinson and S.

pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham


1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

Mainly, though you saw a glowing light in the smoke. Then searchlights above and ack-ack [anti-aircraft shells] around you. There was always a weird feeling of unreality in Bomber Command. You were living in, say, Cambridgeshire or Norfolk; you were thinking of friends, pubs, girls, even intellectual pursuits. Then you launched for 8 hours into a different world at 20,000 ft. over Germany.28 Historian Howard Zinn, prompted by Elin O’Hara Slavick’s extraordinary artworks mapping the diverse sites and cities across the world bombed by the US Air Force over the last century,29 comments on how darkly ironic it is that her abstract and ‘God’s-eye’ maps – so apparently similar to the aerial surveys and photographs that sustained bombing campaigns – should powerfully evoke the visceral and bloody horror at ground level.

., Cities, War, and Terrorism: Towards an Urban Geopolitics, London: Wiley & Sons, 2004, pp. 58–62. 23Timothy Luke, ‘Displaying the “Enola Gay’’: Hiding Hiroshima’, Arena Journal 22, 2004, pp. 73–81. 24The latter have been justified, paradoxically, by huge efforts to memorialise and sanctify victims of nonstate bombing using civilian airliners at a newer ‘ground zero’ at the World Trade Center. 25Quoted in Robert Newman, Enola Gay and the Court of History, New York: Peter Lang, 2004, p. 109. 26Lisa Parks, ‘Insecure Airwaves: US bombings of Al Jazeera’, Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies 4:2, 2007, pp. 226–31. 27Wadah Kanfer, ‘They Bombed Al Jazeera’s Reporters: Now the US Is After Our Integrity’, Guardian, 10 December 2010. 28Both quotes from Alexander McKee, Dresden 1945: The Devil’s Tinderbox, London: Souvenir Press, 1982, p. 234. Cited in Derek Gregory ‘War and Peace’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 35:2, 2010, pp. 154–86. 29See Elin O’Hara Slavick and Carol Mavor, Bomb after Bomb: A Violent Cartography, New York: Charta, 2007. 30Howard Zinn, foreword to Slavick et al., Bomb after Bomb, p. 9. 31Wilbur Morrison, Point of No Return: The Story of the Twentieth Air Force, New York: Times Books, 1979. 32Le Corbusier, Aircraft, Barcelona: Abada Editores, 2003 [1935], pp. 8–9. 33Ibid., pp. 60–1. 34Le Corbusier, La Ville Radieuse, Paris: Vincent, Freal & Cie, 1964 [1924]. 35See chapter 8. 36Siegfried Gideon, Space, Time and Architecture, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1941, p. 543. 37See chapter 8. 38Cited in Christopher Woodward, In Ruins, London: Chatto and Windus, 2002, p. 212. 39Nick Tiratsoo, Junichi Hasegawa, Tony Mason, and Takao Matsumura, Urban Reconstruction in Britain and Japan, 1945–1955: Dreams, Plans, Realities, Luton, UK: University of Luton Press, 2002. 40Kenneth Hewitt, ‘Place Annihilation: Area Bombing and the Fate of Urban Places’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 73:2, 1983, p. 278.

Turning the Tide by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, land reform, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Paul Samuelson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

In Contempt of Congress; Ray Bonner, Weakness and Deceit (Times Books, 1984), 353; Australian Labor MP Joan Coxsedge, Melbourne Sun (April20, 1985), reporting on the first Human Rights Congress in El Salvador. 58. Draining the Sea...; the reporter cited is Chris Hedges, Dallas Morning News, Jan.21, 1985; Chris Norton, CSM, March 21, 1985; two of the few US journalists in Central America who merit the title. 59. James LeMoyne, NYT, Sept. 9, 1984. 60. Testimony before the Subcommittee on the Western Hemisphere, Feb. 2, 1984; released by Americas Watch. 61. Quoted by Howard Zinn, Disobedience and Democracy (Vintage, 1968), 75. 62. Julia Preston, BG, Aug. 15, 1985. 63. COHA News Release, Aug. 3,1985. 64. Cynthia Brown, ed., With Friends Like These, Americas Watch Report on Human Rights and US Policy in Latin America (Pantheon, 1985), 194, 180ff. 65. AI News release, 11 October, 1982, cited by Lars Schoultz, in Martin Diskin, ed., Trouble in Our Backyard (Pantheon, 1983), 186. 66.

Minutes summarizing PPS 51, April 1949, cited by Michael Schaller, “Securing the Great Crescent: Occupied Japan and the Origins of Containment in Southeast Asia,” J. of American History, Sept. 1982; the study also suggested that “some diversification of their economies” should be permitted. For fuller development of this topic, see Schaller; essays by John Dower and Richard Du Boff in Chomsky and Howard Zinn, eds., Critical Essays, vol. 5 of the Pentagon Papers (Beacon, 1972); For Reasons of State, chapter 1, V, 63. Perkins, I, 131, 167, 176f. The last phrase is Perkins’s summary of “a widespread, nay, almost general, viewpoint” among European statesmen. 64. See For Reasons of State, 37; PEHR, II; TNCW; Joel Charny and John Spragens, Obstacles to Recovery in Vietnam and Kampuchea: U.S. Embargo of Humanitarian Aid (Oxfam America, 1984). 65.

The Great Turning: From Empire to Earth Community by David C. Korten


Albert Einstein, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, death of newspapers, declining real wages, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, God and Mammon, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, new economy, peak oil, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, source of truth, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, trade route, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, World Values Survey

.… As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in these parts.9 Similar reports of the generosity and egalitarianism of the Natives of North America from early European visitors and settlers were commonplace.10 Columbus responded by taking what gold he could find, killing those Natives who displeased him, and abducting others as specimens of the slaves he later promised to deliver to the Spanish crown in return for further support. 166 PART III: AMERIC A, THE UNFINISHED PROJECT It is instructive in light of the discussion of pre-Empire civilizations in chapter 5 that in this initial encounter between the “civilized” men of Europe and the “savages” of the pre-imperial tribes of the New World, the latter thought first of sharing their abundance. The former thought only of subjugating and enslaving the innocents and confiscating their gold by force of arms. According to the historian Howard Zinn, Columbus arrived in a world that in places “was as densely populated as Europe itself, where the culture was complex, where human relations were more egalitarian than in Europe, and where the relations among men, women, children, and nature were more beautifully worked out than perhaps any place in the world.”11 In many tribes, the systems of governance were more democratic than any encountered in the five-thousand-year experience of the empires that historians equate with civilization.

The Reader’s Companion to American History, s.v, “America in the British Empire” (see chap. 7, n. 4); and Paul Boyer, “Apocalypticism Explained: The Puritans,” Frontline, Public Broadcasting Service, frontline/shows/apocalypse/ explanation/puritans.html. 5. Ibid. 6. Frank Lambert, The Founding Fathers and the Place of Religion in America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003), presents a detailed study of these early dynamics. NOTES 7. John Cotton in “Letter to Lord Say and Sele,” 1636, http://www LordSay&Sele.htm. 8. Lambert, Founding Fathers and Religion, 92. 9. As quoted by Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the United States 1492–Present (New York: HarperPerennial, 1995), 1, 3. 10. Numerous such accounts are cited by Zinn, People’s History; Thom Hartmann, What Would Jefferson Do? A Return to Democracy (New York: Harmony Books, 2004); and Wasserman, America Born and Reborn. 11. Zinn, People’s History, 21. 12. Jack Weatherford, “The Untold Story of America’s Democracy,” YES!

pages: 373 words: 80,248

Empire of Illusion: The End of Literacy and the Triumph of Spectacle by Chris Hedges


Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Cal Newport, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, haute couture, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, statistical model, uranium enrichment

It keeps the uninitiated from asking unpleasant questions. It destroys the search for the common good. It dices disciplines, faculty, students, and finally experts into tiny, specialized fragments. It allows students and faculty to retreat into these self-imposed fiefdoms and neglect the most pressing moral, political, and cultural questions. Those who critique the system itself—people such as Noam Chomsky, Howard Zinn, Dennis Kucinich, or Ralph Nader—are marginalized and shut out of the mainstream debate. These elite universities have banished self-criticism. They refuse to question a self-justifying system. Organization, technology, self-advancement, and information systems are the only things that matter. In 1967, Theodor Adorno wrote an essay titled “Education After Auschwitz.” He argued that the moral corruption that made the Holocaust possible remained “largely unchanged” and that “the mechanisms that render people capable of such deeds” must be uncovered, examined, and critiqued through education.

pages: 302 words: 74,878

A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life by Brian Grazer, Charles Fishman


4chan, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Asperger Syndrome, Bonfire of the Vanities,, game design, Google Chrome, Howard Zinn, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Norman Mailer, out of africa, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple

Wren: president and CEO of marketing and communications company Omnicom Will Wright: game designer, creator of Sim City and The Sims Steve Wynn: businessman, Las Vegas casino magnate Gideon Yago: writer, former correspondent for MTV News Eitan Yardeni: teacher and spiritual counselor at the Kabbalah Centre Daniel Yergin: economist, author of The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power, winner of the Pulitzer Prize Dan York: chief content officer at DirecTV, former president of content and advertising sales, AT&T Michael W. Young: geneticist, professor at The Rockefeller University, specializing in the biological clock and circadian rhythms Shinzen Young: meditation teacher Eran Zaidel: neuropsychologist, professor at UCLA, expert in hemispheric interaction in the human brain Howard Zinn: historian, political scientist, professor at Boston University, author of A People’s History of the United States Appendix: How to Have a Curiosity Conversation * * * We’ve talked throughout A Curious Mind about how to use questions, how to use curiosity, to make your daily life better. But maybe you want to try what I did: Maybe you want to have some curiosity conversations, to sit down with a few really interesting people and try to understand how they see the world differently than you do.

pages: 263 words: 81,542

Drinking in America: Our Secret History by Susan Cheever


British Empire, George Santayana, Howard Zinn, nuclear winter, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, trade route, white picket fence

President Washington, who had apparently come to his senses, quickly pardoned them. In spite of Hamilton’s tantrum politics, the story had a happy ending except for those who had been killed or wounded or permanently traumatized by fear. “The new government had displayed both its resolution and its capacity for mercy,” writes Smith.84 Other historians are not so forgiving about the Whiskey Rebellion and its aftermath. “We see then,” writes historian Howard Zinn, “in the first years of the Constitution, that some of its provisions—even those paraded most flamboyantly (like the First Amendment)—might be treated lightly. Others (like the power to tax) would be powerfully enforced.”85 Thomas Jefferson, who ran for election in 1800 using the repeal of the whiskey tax as a campaign platform, was slightly more scathing in a letter to James Monroe. “An insurrection was announced and proclaimed and armed against, but could never be found,” he said.86 Whiskey, even taxed as it was, became the drink of the future.

pages: 246 words: 74,341

Financial Fiasco: How America's Infatuation With Homeownership and Easy Money Created the Economic Crisis by Johan Norberg


accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Brooks, diversification, financial deregulation, financial innovation, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, millennium bug, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, Northern Rock, Own Your Own Home, price stability, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail

Deal journal blog/Wall Street Journal, March 14, 2008. 14 /where-in-the-world-is-bears-jimmny-cayne-playing-bridge. Kennedy, David. Freedom from Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Keynes, John Maynard. The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. 1935. http:/ / Interest-and-Money. . "The Maintenance of Prosperity Is Extremely Difficult." In New Deal Thought, edited by Howard Zinn, pp. 403-9. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966. Keys, Benjamin, Tanmoy Mukherjee, Amit Seru, and Vikrant Vig. "Did Securitization Lead to Lax Screening? Evidence from Subprime Loans." European Finance Association 2008 Athens meetings paper, April 2008. Kindleberger, Charles, and Robert Z. Aliber. Manias, Panics and Crashes: A History of Financial Crises. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Klein, Naomi.

pages: 281 words: 78,317

But What if We're Wrong? Thinking About the Present as if It Were the Past by Chuck Klosterman


a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, citizen journalism, cosmological constant, dark matter, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, George Santayana, Gerolamo Cardano, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, Isaac Newton, non-fiction novel, obamacare, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Y2K

Things that seem obvious now—the conscious racism of Nixon’s “Southern Strategy,” the role the CIA played in the destabilization of Iran, how payola controlled what was on FM radio, the explanation behind America’s reliance on privately owned cars instead of public transportation, et al.—were all discussed while they were happening . . . but only on the marginalized periphery. They were not taken that seriously. Over time, these shadow ideas—or at least the ones that proved factually irrefutable—slowly became the mainstream view. Howard Zinn’s 1980 depiction of how America was built in A People’s History of the United States is no longer a counterbalance to a conventional high school history text; in many cases, it is the text. This kind of transition has become a normal part of learning about anything. In literature, there were the established (white, male) classics that everyone was forced to identify as a senior in high school.

pages: 387 words: 110,820

Cheap: The High Cost of Discount Culture by Ellen Ruppel Shell


barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, cognitive dissonance, computer age, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, deskilling, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, fear of failure, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, greed is good, Howard Zinn, income inequality, interchangeable parts, inventory management, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge economy, loss aversion, market design, means of production, mental accounting, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price discrimination, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, washing machines reduced drudgery, working poor, yield management, zero-sum game

Engels was grappling with the growing conservatism of the organized sectors of the British working class. He argued that those British workers who had been able to establish unions and secure stable employment—skilled workers in the iron, steel, and machine making-industries and most workers in the cotton textile mills—constituted a privileged and “bourgeoisified” layer of the working class, a “labor aristocracy.” 161 cheap goods cannot be had without “cheap help”: Howard Zinn, Dana Frank, and Robin D. G. Kelly, Three Strikes, Miners, Musicians, Salesgirls, and the Fighting Spirit of Labor’s Last Century (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001), 70. 161 “Does Wal-Mart Sell Inferior Goods?”: Emek Basker, “Does Wal-Mart Sell Inferior Goods?” University of Missouri Department of Economics Working Paper 08-05, April 2008. 161 beating Wall Street estimates: “Wal-Mart June Sales up; Raises Earnings Forecast,” Reuters, July 10, 2008. 161 also enjoyed sales growth: Michael Barbaro, “Discounters Fared Well in Quarter,” New York Times, May 14, 2008. 162 benefit both its workers and its core clientele: Interview with Nelson Lichtenstein, July 2006. 162 “is market potential unrealized”: Larry Copeland, “Wal-Mart’s Hired Advocate Takes Flak,” USA Today, March 15, 2006.

pages: 377 words: 110,427

The Boy Who Could Change the World: The Writings of Aaron Swartz by Aaron Swartz, Lawrence Lessig


affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Benjamin Mako Hill, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, deliberate practice, Donald Knuth, Donald Trump, failed state, fear of failure, Firefox, full employment, Howard Zinn, index card, invisible hand, John Gruber, Lean Startup, More Guns, Less Crime, peer-to-peer, post scarcity, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, semantic web, single-payer health, SpamAssassin, SPARQL, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, unbiased observer, wage slave, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game

She “burned with shame” at how he (in her view) distorted the facts, quoted out of context, pursued a “Marxist-based agenda” which, although she could apparently discover it, remained “subterranean” to everyone else. And then, to top it all off, he said he didn’t believe in objective truth! Teaching one point of view, the lady concludes, is like a pedophile giving advance warning: it’s not OK. (In reality, it’s pretty obvious the guy simply gave a partway accurate description of Palestinian history and then probably echoed Howard Zinn’s comment that “any chosen emphasis supports [whether the historian means to or not] some kind of interest.” So did she just compare all mainstream historians to pedophiles?) An actual student follows the lady and thanks all the funding groups: the Stanford Jewish-American Alliance, Hillel, Chabad, Young America’s Foundation. According to the bio he reads, Horowitz was once a “civil rights activist” (this is apparently referring to Horowitz’s association with the Black Panther Party) who now runs a popular conservative website which gets 1 million readers a month.

pages: 602 words: 120,848

Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer-And Turned Its Back on the Middle Class by Paul Pierson, Jacob S. Hacker


accounting loophole / creative accounting, active measures, affirmative action, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, business climate, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, desegregation, employer provided health coverage, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, moral hazard, Nate Silver, new economy, night-watchman state, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce

See also Andrew Rich, Think Tanks, Public Policy, and the Politics of Expertise (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004). 16 Judis, Paradox of American Democracy, 135. 17 Blumenthal, Rise of the Counter-Establishment, 80. 18 “Carter Dealt Major Defeat on Consumer Bills,” Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, February 11, 1978. 19 Edsall, New Politics of Inequality, 152. 20 “House Rejects Labor-Backed Picketing Bill,” CQ Almanac 1977 (Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1978). 21 Ibid. 22 Ibid. 23 Richard B. Freeman and James L. Medoff, What Do Unions Do? (New York: Basic Books, 1985), 203. 24 “Filibuster Kills Labor Law ‘Reform’ Bill,” CQ Almanac 1978 (Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1979). 25 Freeman and Medoff, What Do Unions Do?, 203. 26 “Filibuster Kills Labor Law ‘Reform’ Bill,” CQ Almanac 1978. 27 Edsall, New Politics of Inequality, 125. 28 Quoted in Howard Zinn and Anthony Arnove, Voices of a People’s History of the United States, 2nd ed. (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2009), 530–33. 29 Frank Levy and Peter Temin, “Inequality and Institutions in Twentieth Century America,” NBER Working Paper No. 13106 (May 2007). 30 Thomas Ferguson and Joel Rogers, Right Turn: The Decline of the Democrats and the Future of American Politics (New York: Hill and Wang, 1986), 109. 31 Blumenthal, Rise of the Counter-Establishment, 81. 32 David O.

pages: 590 words: 153,208

Wealth and Poverty: A New Edition for the Twenty-First Century by George Gilder


affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, capital controls, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, Gunnar Myrdal, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, medical malpractice, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, non-fiction novel, North Sea oil, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, volatility arbitrage, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, yield curve, zero-sum game

Most of the world, then as now, was engaged in one of its periodic revulsions against capitalist “greed” and waste. Lester Thurow of MIT was proclaiming a Zero-Sum Society, where henceforth any gains for the rich must be extracted from the poor and middle classes. William Sloane Coffin, the formidable Yale chaplain, was inveighing against capitalist orgies of greed and environmental devastation. Howard Zinn and Noam Chomsky were denouncing Western capitalism for displacing American Indians and condemning Israel for displacing Palestinians. Edward Said was conducting his Columbia classes (fatefully introducing the works of Frantz Fanon to future President Barack Obama) on Western psychological colonization and hegemonic evisceration of the entire Third World. Even beyond the precincts of the elite literary and academic Left, the global intelligentsia widely imagined that the long siege of beneficent capitalist abundance had come to an end.

Year 501 by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, land reform, land tenure, long peace, mass incarceration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor

American Power and the New Mandarins (Pantheon, 1969) [APNW] —At War With Asia (Pantheon, 1970) [AWWA] —For Reasons of State (Pantheon, 1973) [FRS] —Towards a New Cold War (Pantheon, 1982) [TNCW] —Fateful Triangle (South End, 1983) [FT] —Turning the Tide (South End, 1985) [TTT] —Pirates and Emperors (Claremont, Black Rose, 1986; Amana, 1988) [P&E] —On Power and Ideology (South End, 1986) [PI] —Culture of Terrorism (South End, 1988) [CT] —Necessary Illusions (South End, 1989) [NI] —Deterring Democracy (Verso, 1990; updated edition, Hill & Wang, 1991) [DD] —Rethinking Camelot, (South End Press, 1993) [RC] —, and Edward Herman. Political Economy of Human Rights (South End, 1979) [PEHR] —and Howard Zinn, eds. Pentagon Papers, vol. 5, Analytic Essays and Index (Beacon, 1972) [PPV] Clairmonte, Frederick. Economic Liberalism and Underdevelopment (Asia Publishing House, 1960) Cooper, Chester. The Lost Crusade (Dodd, Mead, 1970) Cumings, Bruce. The Origins of the Korean War, vol. II (Princeton, 1990) Daws, Gavan, Shoal of Time (Macmillan, 1968) Debo, Angie. And Still the Waters Run (1940; Princeton, 1991, updated) Deere, Carmen Diana, et al.

pages: 1,205 words: 308,891

Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, endogenous growth, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, greed is good, Howard Zinn, income per capita, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, long peace, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Economic Geography, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, V2 rocket, very high income, working poor, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

Leavis, Karl Polanyi, Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir, Simone Weil, Dorothy Day, Woody Guthrie (whose singing made me for a while a Joan-Baez socialist: the leftish opponents of bourgeois dignity and liberty, alas, have all the best songs), Pete Seeger, (ditto), Lewis Mumford, Hannah Arendt, Herbert Marcuse, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, J. K. Galbraith, Louis Althusser, Allan Bloom, Frederic Jameson, Saul Bellow, Howard Zinn, Noam Chomsky, Paul 48 Ehrlich, Stuart Hall, George Steiner, Jacques Lacan, Stanley Hauerwas, Terry Eagleton, Alain Badiou, Slavoj Žižek, Charles Sellers, Barbara Ehrenreich, Nancy Folbre, and Naomi Klein. Few people have defended commerce from this magnificent flood of eloquence from the pens of left progressives and right reactionaries — jeremiads which indeed stretch from the Hebrew prophets through Plato and the Analects of Confucius and down to the present — except on the economist’s prudence-only grounds that after all a great deal of money is made there.

The Science of Language by Noam Chomsky


Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, Brownian motion, dark matter, Drosophila, epigenetics, finite state, Howard Zinn, phenotype, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Pinker, theory of mind

It works in other things too. There are styles of walking. If you go to Finland – Carol and I noticed as soon as we were there – they just walk differently. These older women carrying shopping bags racing down the streets; we could barely keep up. It's just the way they walk. People just pick that up. I remember once when Carol and I were walking down the streets in Wellfleet [Massachusetts] one summer and Howard Zinn was walking in front of us, and right next to him was his son, Jeff Zinn. And the two of them had exactly the same posture. Children just pick these things up. If people really studied things like styles of walking, I'm sure that they'd find something like dialect variation. Think about it: you can identify somebody who grew up in England just by mannerisms. JM: Assume so, then what gets put into the lexicon in the way of phonological features?

Hopes and Prospects by Noam Chomsky


Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate personhood, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling,, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, invisible hand, liberation theology, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, nuremberg principles, one-state solution, open borders, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

Attitudes toward the war at the liberal extreme were well illustrated by the concerns of the Massachusetts branch of Americans for Democratic Action. In late 1967, when opposition to the war was finally becoming a mass popular movement, the ADA leadership undertook considerable (and quite comical) efforts to prevent applications for membership from people they feared would speak in favor of an antiwar resolution sponsored by a local chapter that had fallen out of control (Howard Zinn and I were the terrifying applicants). A few months later came the Tet offensive, leading the business world to turn against the war because of its costs to us, while the more perceptive were coming to realize that Washington had already achieved its major war aims: destroying the “virus” of successful independent development that might “spread contagion” throughout the region, to borrow Kissingerian rhetoric, and inoculating the potential victims by imposing vicious dictatorships.4 It soon turned out that everyone had always been a strong opponent of the war (in deep silence).

pages: 475 words: 149,310

Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri


affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, David Graeber, Defenestration of Prague, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global village, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, late capitalism, liberation theology, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Paul Samuelson, private military company, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Richard Stallman, Slavoj Žižek, The Chicago School, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

For a brief account in English, see America Vera-Zavala, “Orçamento participativo in Porto Alegre,” Znet commentary, January 22, 2003. 30The Adams-Jefferson Letters, 2 vols. Lester Cappon, ed. (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1959), 1: 168, 173. 31Jefferson’s Letters, ed. Willson Whitman (Eau Claire, WI: Hale and Company, nd), 83. David McCullough recounts Abigail Adams’s displeasure with Thomas Jefferson over Shays’ Rebellion in John Adams (New York: Touchstone, 2001), 368-71. For a brief, useful historial analysis of Shays’ Rebellion, see Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the United States (New York: HarperCollins, 1980), 92-93. 32 See Charles Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (New York: Macmillan, 1914). 33 Karl Marx, Civil War in France: The Paris Commune (New York: International Publishers), 57-58. 34 Karl Marx, Civil War in France, 65; and Lenin, State and Revolution (New York: International Publishers, 1988), 37, 41. 35 On the experiences of the Russian Soviets, see Oskar Anweiler, Die Rätebewegung in Russland, 1905-1932 (Leiden, Holland: Brill, 1958).

pages: 598 words: 172,137

Who Stole the American Dream? by Hedrick Smith


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbus A320, airline deregulation, anti-communist, asset allocation, banking crisis, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business process, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, family office, full employment, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, index fund, industrial cluster, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, mega-rich, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Occupy movement, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ponzi scheme, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Vanguard fund, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

Treasury Department, “Capital Gains and Taxes Paid on Capital Gains for Returns with Positive Net Capital Gains, 1954–2008,” http://​www.​ustreas.​gov/​offices/​tax-​policy/​library/​capgain1–​2010.​pdf. 36 Garner roughly half of all capital gains Robert Lenzner, “The Top 0.1% of the Nation Earn Half of All Capital Gains,” Forbes, November 20, 2011. 37 “If you make money with money” “Warren Buffett Tells Charlie Rose Why Congress Should Stop ‘Coddling’ the Super-Rich,” transcript, PBS, Charlie Rose, August 17, 2011, http://​www.​cnbc.​com. 38 Personally, Buffett admitted Ibid.; and Warren Buffett, “Stop Coddling the Rich,” The New York Times, August 14, 2011. 39 The Forbes 400 Richest Americans Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the United States, 1492–Present (New York: HarperCollins, 1999), 580; see also Conor Dougherty, “Income Slides to 1996 Levels,” The Wall Street Journal, September 13, 2011; Census Bureau, “Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010.” 40 The Bush tax cuts Internal Revenue Service, U.S. Individual Income Tax: Personal Exemptions and Lowest and Highest Bracket Tax Rates, and Tax Base for Regular Tax: Tax Years 1913–2008, http://​www.​irs.​gov/​taxstats/​article/​0,,​id=​175910,00.​html. 41 The top 1 percent bracket reaped Edmund L.

pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss


Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

(Ron Chernow), How to Live: Or a Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer (Sarah Bakewell), The Fish that Ate the Whale: The Life and Times of America’s Banana King; Tough Jews (Rich Cohen), Edison: A Biography (Matthew Josephson), Ulysses S. Grant: Triumph over Adversity (Brooks Simpson), Fahrenheit 451 (Ray Bradbury) Honnold, Alex: A People’s History of the United States (Howard Zinn), Sacred Economics: Money, Gift, and Society in the Age of Transition (Charles Eisenstein) Jarvis, Chase: Steal Like an Artist; Show Your Work! (Austin Kleon), The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing (Al Ries and Jack Trout), Trust Me, I’m Lying: Confessions of a Media Manipulator (Ryan Holiday), The Rise of Superman (Steven Kotler), Daring Greatly (Brené Brown), Unlabel: Selling You Without Selling Out (Marc Eckō), Play It Away: A Workaholic’s Cure for Anxiety (Charlie Hoehn), Jab, Jab, Jab, Right Hook (Gary Vaynerchuk) John, Daymond: Think & Grow Rich (Napoleon Hill), Who Moved My Cheese?

Necessary Illusions by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, full employment, Howard Zinn, Khyber Pass, land reform, long peace, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, union organizing

By the late 1960s, it was already clear that these were the basic factors behind the U.S. intervention in Southeast Asia, which, in U.S. global planning, was to be reconstituted as a “co-prosperity sphere” for Japan, within the U.S.-dominated Grand Area, while also serving as a market and source of raw materials and recycled dollars for the reconstruction of Western European capitalism. See my At War with Asia (Pantheon, 1970, introduction); For Reasons of State (Pantheon, 1973); Chomsky and Howard Zinn, eds., Critical Essays, vol. 5 of the Pentagon Papers (Beacon, 1972); and other work of the period. See also, among others, Borden, Pacific Alliance; Michael Schaller, The American Occupation of Japan (Oxford, 1985); Rotter, Path to Vietnam. 14. Acheson, Present at the Creation (Norton, 1969, 374, 489); Borden, op. cit, 44, 144. 15. See appendix II, section 2. 16. Carey, “Managing Public Opinion.” 17.

Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, business climate, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global reserve currency, Howard Zinn, labour market flexibility, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage tax deduction, Paul Samuelson, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce

I mean, huge crowds come out to listen to your talks all around the country, those people might support something like that and want to begin getting involved with it. Well, it’s true about the audiences—but I don’t think that has to do with name-recognition or anything like that. See, there are only about ten people in the country, literally, who do this kind of thing—John Stockwell, Alex Cockburn, Dan Ellsberg, Howard Zinn, Holly Sklar, only a couple others—and we all get the same reaction. I think it’s just a matter of people all over the country being hungry to hear a different viewpoint. And what’s more, we all get the same reaction wherever we go—it’s the same in towns where nobody’s ever heard of me. Like, I was in central Michigan last week, they didn’t know who I was from Adam, but it was the same kind of crowd.

pages: 1,327 words: 360,897

Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall


agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Graeber, feminist movement, garden city movement, hive mind, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, liberation theology, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Naomi Klein, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the market place, union organizing, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

—NAT HENTOFF, The Village Voice FOR ALL THE PEOPLE Uncovering the Hidden History of Cooperation, Cooperative Movements, and Communalism in America Paperback | 6″ × 9″ | 506 pages | $28.95 | ISBN: 978–1–60486–072–6 “It is indeed inspiring, in the face of all the misguided praise of ‘the market’, to be reminded by John Curl’s new book of the noble history of cooperative work in the United States.” —HOWARD ZINN, author of A People’s History of the United States The survival of indigenous communities and the first European settlers alike depended on a deeply cooperative style of living and working, based around common lands, shared food and labor. Cooperative movements proved integral to the grassroots organizations and struggles challenging the domination of unbridled capitalism in America’s formative years.

pages: 1,800 words: 596,972

The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East by Robert Fisk


Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Farzad Bazoft, friendly fire, Howard Zinn, IFF: identification friend or foe, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, music of the spheres, Ronald Reagan, the market place, Thomas L Friedman, Transnistria, unemployed young men, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

The University of California at Los Angeles had the courage to turn down a chair. All holders, of course, believe that “historians” must primarily decide the truth, an expression that precludes evidence from the dwindling survivors of the massacres. All this prompted 150 Holocaust scholars and historians to call upon Turkey to end its campaign of denial; they included Lifton, Israel Charny, Yehuda Bauer, Howard Zinn and Deborah Lipstadt. They failed. It was Elie Wiesel who first said that denial of genocide was a “double killing.” First the victims are slaughtered— and then their deaths are turned into a non-event, an “un-fact.” The dead die twice. The survivors suffer and are then told they did not suffer, that they are lying. And big guns are brought into action—almost literally—to ensure that this remains the case.

USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

In 1607, English noblemen established North America’s first permanent European settlement in Jamestown (Click here). Earlier settlements had ended badly, and Jamestown almost did too: the English chose a swamp, planted their crops late and died from disease and starvation. Some despairing colonists ran off to live with the local tribes, who provided the settlement with enough aid to survive. If history is a partisan affair, Howard Zinn makes his allegiance clear in A People ’ s History of the United States (1980 & 2005), which tells the often-overlooked stories about laborers, minorities, immigrants, women and radicals. For Jamestown and America, 1619 proved a pivotal year: the colony established the House of Burgesses, a representative assembly of citizens to decide local laws, and it received its first boatload of 20 African slaves.