post-industrial society

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pages: 362 words: 83,464

The New Class Conflict by Joel Kotkin

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bob Noyce, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Graeber, deindustrialization, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, energy security, falling living standards, future of work, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, McJob, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Buchheit, payday loans, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

At the turn of the century, H. G. Wells identified the ascendency of a “primary and initiating nucleus of engineers and skilled mechanics” as a new force in history.18 Over seven decades later, Daniel Bell noted that with the “rise of intellectual technology,” we were witnessing “the pre-eminence of the professional and technical class” over the rest of society.19 The emerging “post-industrial society,” Bell predicted in The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (1973), would mean a decreased reliance on the “mass mobilization of labor,” both unskilled and skilled. These inputs, he reasoned, would be supplanted by mechanization, for the benefit of those who designed and owned the machines.20 In our era, as in the industrial age, we are witnessing the growth of vast new fortunes among a relative handful of companies and individuals.

Wright Mills, The Power Elite (New York: Oxford UP, 1956), p. 49. 18. H. G. Wells, Anticipations of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress Upon Human Life and Thought (Mineola, NY: Dover, 1999), p. 53. 19. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting (New York: Basic Books, 1973), pp. 15–29, 213; International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, “The State of Manufacturing in the United States,” July 2010, http://trade.gov/manufactureamerica/facts/tg_mana_003019.asp. 20. Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, p. 344; International Trade Administration, “The State of Manufacturing in the United States.” 21. Alex Morrell, “Billionaires 2014: Record Number of Newcomers Includes Sheryl Sandberg, Jan Koum, Michael Kors,” Forbes, March 3, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/alexmorrell/2014/03/03/billionaires-2014-record-number-of-newcomers-includes-sheryl-sandberg-jan-koum-michael-kors. 22.

Lessin and Miriam Jordan, “Laurene Powell Jobs Goes Public to Promote Dream Act,” Wall Street Journal, May 16, 2013. 79. Charles M. Blow, “Dinosaurs and Denial,” New York Times, December 8, 2012; Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, p. 308. 80. Bjørn Lomborg, “The Limits of Panic,” Slate, June 26, 2013, http://www.slate.com/articles/business/project_syndicate/2013/06/climate_panic_ecological_collapse_is_not_upon_us_and_we_haven_t_run_out.html; Jeff Jacoby, “Majority Rules on Climate Science?” Boston Globe, December 4, 2013; Paul Ehrlich, The Population Bomb (New York: Ballantine Books, 1968), pp. 15–44, 66–67, 136–37. 81. Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, pp. 168–69, 380, 387. 82. Frank Furedi, “Elevating Environmentalism over ‘Less Worthy’ Lifestyles,” Spiked, November 9, 2009, http://www.spiked-online.com/newsite/article/7684#.U4GA7C8TFsE. 83.


Cultural Backlash: Trump, Brexit, and Authoritarian Populism by Pippa Norris, Ronald Inglehart

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Cass Sunstein, centre right, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, declining real wages, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, job automation, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, liberal world order, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, open borders, open economy, post-industrial society, post-materialism, precariat, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, statistical model, stem cell, War on Poverty, white flight, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

The materialist/post-materialist index is based on 12 value items. Data are from the WVS-­6 (2010–2014) in the following seven post-­industrial societies: Australia, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, and United States. Source: World Values Survey 2010–2014, Wave 6. N. 10,576. LGBTQ rights to employment in the military, adoption, and same sex marriage; civil rights for minorities like the Black Lives Matters movement; feminist networks with global mobilization on behalf of gender quotas in elected office; anti-­domestic violence, and anti-­sexual harassment, international assistance for humanitarian disasters and economic development, and human rights around the world.24 Drawing on data from seven post-­ industrial societies from the World Values Survey (6th wave), Figure 4.2 shows the strong association between socially liberal attitudes, as measured on scales monitoring tolerance of homosexuality, abortion, divorce, and pre-­marital sex, with the 12-­item scale of post-­material values.

The book has analyzed a large body of empirical evidence to understand the impact of different types of threats on authoritarian and populist values and, in turn, how these values lead to support for Authoritarian-­Populist parties. Our theoretical argument is based on the following building blocks, illustrated in Figure 13.1. 1) Social Structural Change in Post-­Industrial Societies Our account starts with long-­term transformations in the social structure of post-­industrial societies arising from processes of economic growth, demographic turnover, the expansion of access to higher education, more egalitarian roles of women and men, and the growing ethnic diversity of large cities combined with processes of urbanization. These processes interact to reinforce the direction of change, with younger generations leaving rural communities to study and then to live and work in ethnically diverse urban and suburban conurbations.

Thus instead of analyzing support for a specific category of Authoritarian-­Populist parties which are classified as belonging to the same family, our models treat adherence to these value scales as matters of degree, where all political parties and voters can be more wing or or less authoritarian–libertarian, populist–pluralist, and left-­ right-wing. II Authoritarian and Populist Values Our backlash thesis builds upon the extensive body of research demonstrating that long-­term social structural developments in post-­industrial societies – growing prosperity, rising access to college education, more egalitarian gender roles, and processes of urbanization – led to the silent materialist values, which first revolution in socially liberal and post-­ became evident at the societal level in the late 1960s and early 1970s. To update the trends, and see whether they are continuing, Chapter 4 presents longitudinal evidence demonstrating the evolving trajectory of value changes during recent decades – the silent revolution shifting the balance between the rising proportion of social liberals and the shrinking proportion of social conservatives in Western societies.


pages: 393 words: 91,257

The Coming of Neo-Feudalism: A Warning to the Global Middle Class by Joel Kotkin

Admiral Zheng, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, don't be evil, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, European colonialism, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google bus, guest worker program, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, liberal capitalism, life extension, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, megacity, Nate Silver, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Parag Khanna, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Satyajit Das, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator

Sternberg, “The European Union’s Democracy Deficit,” Wall Street Journal, February 15, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-european-unions-democracy-deficit-1518739588. 14 Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 15, 51, 213, 387. 15 “An hereditary meritocracy,” Economist, January 22, 2015, https://www.economist.com/briefing/2015/01/22/an-hereditary-meritocracy; Kevin Carey, “‘I Do’ Between Elites Widens Class Gap, Researchers Say,” WRAL, March 31, 2018, https://www.wral.com/-i-do-between-elites-widens-class-gap-researchers-say/17456597/. 16 Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, 427. 17 Michael Lind, “The New Class War,” American Affairs, Summer 2017, https://americanaffairsjournal.org/2017/05/new-class-war; Michael Lind, The New Class War: Saving Democracy from the Managerial Elite (New York: Portfolio, 2020). 18 Charles Murray, Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010 (New York: Crown Forum, 2012), 19–20. 19 Marge Anderson, “The Clergy and the Nobility: The French Revolution,” Big Site of History, June 9, 2008, https://bigsiteofeistory.com/the-clergy-and-the-nobility-the-french-revolution/. 20 Christophe Guilluy, Twilight of the Elites: Prosperity, the Periphery, and the Future of France (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016), 2, 9. 21 U.S.

There are growing calls for regulation of the tech empire, for more antitrust action, or even for nationalization of the tech giants, not only in the United States but also in Canada and Europe.39 In recent years, some once favorable progressives have labeled the tech oligarchs as just the latest purveyors of “predatory capitalism” and a mounting threat to democracy.40 Ultimately, few stand to benefit from the rise of the tech oligarchy. Almost half a century ago, Daniel Bell predicted in his landmark work, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, that technology would enable those who control it to fulfill “a social alchemist’s dream: the dream of ordering mass society.”41 Allowing a small number of technologists and financiers to dominate a huge portion of the economy and the information pipelines, and to monetize every aspect of human behavior, seems incompatible with democratic self-determination.42 Stanley Bing’s novel Immortal Life portrays a society in the near future that is ruled by tech oligarchs.

President Trump Could Change That,” Daily Beast, April 13, 2017, https://www.thedailybeast.com/progressives-have-let-inner-cities-fail-for-decades-president-trump-could-change-that. 24 Michael Lind, “The New Class War,” American Affairs, Summer 2017; Brody Mullins and Jack Nicas, “Paying Professors: Inside Google’s Academic Influence Campaign,” Wall Street Journal, July 14, 2017, https://www.wsj.com/articles/paying-professors-inside-googles-academic-influence-campaign-1499785286; Justin Danhof, “I Confronted Google about Its Liberal Groupthink at a Shareholder Meeting—Here’s What Happened Next,” Investors, August 9, 2017, https://www.investors.com/politics/commentary/i-confronted-google-about-its-liberal-groupthink-at-a-shareholder-meeting-heres-what-happened-next/. 25 Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 391. 26 Bruce Stokes, “Expectations for the Future,” Pew Research Center, September 18, 2018, https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2018/09/18/expectations-for-the-future/. 27 Bruce Stokes and Kat Devlin, “Despite Rising Economic Confidence, Japanese See Best Days Behind Them and Say Children Face a Bleak Future,” Pew Research Center, November 12, 2018, https://www.pewglobal.org/2018/11/12/despite-rising-economic-confidence-japanese-see-best-days-behind-them-and-say-children-face-a-bleak-future/; Ameber Pariona, “The World’s Most Pessimistic Countries,” World Atlas, August 15, 2017, https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/the-world-s-10-most-pessimistic-countries.html. 28 “Employment and Wages,” China Labour Bulletin, July 2019, https://clb.org.hk/content/employment-and-wages. 29 Lyman Stone, “More Thoughts on Falling Fertility,” Medium, December 4, 2017, https://medium.com/migration-issues/more-thoughts-on-falling-fertility-366fd1a84d8; Rich Miller, “Powell’s Puzzling U.S.


pages: 209 words: 80,086

The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes by Phillip Brown, Hugh Lauder, David Ashton

active measures, affirmative action, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, glass ceiling, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market design, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, post-industrial society, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, zero-sum game

The growth of corporate bureaucracies and a burgeoning public sector accelerated the increase in white-collar employment, The False Promise 17 adding support to a model of technological evolution from a low-skill to high-skill economy. The growth of middle-class jobs was assumed to represent an ever-tighter relationship between human capital, jobs, and rewards, as it became more important to get the best minds working on the scientific and technological challenges of the age. In his classic study The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, published in the early 1970s, Daniel Bell highlighted the link between a rising meritocracy and economic efficiency. “The post-industrial society, in its initial logic, is a meritocracy. Differential status and differential income are based on technical skills and higher education. Without these achievements one cannot fulfill the requirements of the new social division of labor which is a feature of that society. And there are few high places open without those skills.”9 Bell’s book appeared to confirm the growing importance of human capital and the need to find new sources of economic competitiveness as American and British manufacturers were struggling to compete with leaner and more flexible competitors from Japan and Asian Tiger economies.

This is assumed to create more inequalities between workers as some contributed, through differences in ability and application, more than others. Moreover, it is not difficult to see how by sleight of hand “learning is earning” eliminated the inconvenient fact that you need to be in a job to earn (unless self-employed) and that some appear to be overpaid for their talents whereas many more are undervalued. 9. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Penguin, 1973), 409. 10. Peter Drucker, Post-Capitalist Society (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), 22. 11. Sumantra Ghoshal and Christopher A. Bartlett, The Individualized Corporation: A Fundamentally New Approach to Management (London: Random House, 2000), 8. 12. Michael B. Arthur and Denise M. Rousseau (eds.), The Boundaryless Career: A New Employment Principle for a New Organizational Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). 13.

Accenture, “The Kindest Cuts: The Vital Role of Cost Optimization in High Performance Financial Services,” The Point, 9, no. 2 (2009): 3. 23. China Today, “Chinese Cities and Provinces”; based on 2005 data from the Ministry of Construction. http://www.chinatoday.com/city/a.htm 24. See Walt Whitman Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1960) and Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Penguin, 1973). 25. Alexander Gerschenkron, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective: A Book of Essays (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962). See also Albert Fishlow’s review of Gerschenkron’s book published through Economic History Services (2003). www.eh.net/bookreviews/library/fishlow. shtml 26. See Oswaldo De Rivero, The Myth of Development: The Non-Viable Economies of the 21st Century (London: Zed Books, 2001). 27.


pages: 446 words: 578

The end of history and the last man by Francis Fukuyama

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, centre right, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Joan Didion, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, life extension, linear programming, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, nuclear winter, old-boy network, open economy, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game

.: Stanford University Press, 1970), pp. 321ff. 2 The term “high mass consumption” was coined by Walt Rostow (in The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto [Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1960]), “technetronic era” by Zbigniew Brzezinski (in Between Two Ages: America’s Role in the Technetronic Era, [New York: Viking Press, 1970)], and “post industrial society” by Daniel Bell. See the latter’s “Notes on the Post-Industrial Society” I and II, The Public Interest 6-7 (Winter 1967a): 24-35 and (Spring 1967b): 102-118, and his description of the origin of the concept of “post-industrial society” in The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1973), pp. 33-40. 3 Bell (1967), p. 25. 4 Figure cited in Lucian W. Pye, “Political Science and the Crisis of Authoritarianism,” American Political Science Review 84, no. 1 (March 1990): 3-17. 5 Even in the case of these older industries, however, socialist economies have fallen considerably behind their capitalist counterparts in modernizing manufacturing processes. 6 Figures given in Hewett (1988), p. 192. 7 Aron quoted in Jeremy Azrael, Managerial Power and Soviet Politics (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1966), p. 4.

Ball, Terence. 1976. “From Paradigms to Research Programs: Toward a Post-Kuhnian Political Science.” American Journal of Political Science 20, no. 1 (February): 151-177. Barros, Robert. 1986. “The Left and Democracy: Recent Debates in Latin America.” Telos 68: 49-70. Bell, Daniel. 1967a. “Notes on the Post-Industrial Society I.” The Public Interest no. 6: 24-35. Bell, Daniel. 1967b. “Notes on the Post-Industrial Society II.” The Public Interest no. 7: 102-118. Bell, Daniel. 1973. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. Basic Books, New York. Bell, Daniel. 1976. The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. Basic Books, New York. Bell, Eric Temple. 1937. Men of Mathematics. Simon & Schuster, New York. Bellah, Robert N. 1957. Tokugawa Religion. Beacon Press, Boston. Beloff, Max. 1990.

Today, they are hallmarks of an intermediate and, for the most advanced countries, long-since-bypassed phase of industrial development. What has replaced it has been given a variety of titles: a “mature industrial society,” the stage of “high mass consumption,” the “technetronic era,” the “information age,” or a “post-industrial society.”2 While specific formulations differ, all stress the vastly increased role of information, technical knowledge, and services at the expense of heavy manufacturing. Modern natural science—in the familiar forms of technological innovation and the rational organization of labor—continues to dictate the character of “post-industrial” societies, much as it did that of societies entering the first stages of industrialization. Writing in 1967, Daniel Bell pointed out that the average time span between the initial discovery of a new technological innovation and recognition of its commercial possibilities fell from 30 years between 1880 and 1919, to 16 between 1919 and 1945, to 9 years from 1945 to 1967.3 This figure has since decreased even further, with product cycles in the most advanced technologies like computers and software now measured in months rather than years.


pages: 365 words: 88,125

23 Things They Don't Tell You About Capitalism by Ha-Joon Chang

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, borderless world, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Myron Scholes, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, post-industrial society, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, rent control, shareholder value, short selling, Skype, structural adjustment programs, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, Toyota Production System, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

However, these distorted perspectives have real impacts, as they result in misguided use of scarce resources. The fascination with the ICT (Information and Communication Technology) revolution, represented by the internet, has made some rich countries – especially the US and Britain – wrongly conclude that making things is so ‘yesterday’ that they should try to live on ideas. And as I explain in Thing 9, this belief in ‘post-industrial society’ has led those countries to unduly neglect their manufacturing sector, with adverse consequences for their economies. Even more worryingly, the fascination with the internet by people in rich countries has moved the international community to worry about the ‘digital divide’ between the rich countries and the poor countries. This has led companies, charitable foundations and individuals to donate money to developing countries to buy computer equipment and internet facilities.

The decline of manufacturing is not only something natural that we needn’t worry about but something that we should really celebrate. With the rise of knowledge-based services, it may be better even for some developing countries to skip those doomed manufacturing activities altogether and leapfrog straight to a service-based post-industrial economy. What they don’t tell you We may be living in a post-industrial society in the sense that most of us work in shops and offices rather than in factories. But we have not entered a post-industrial stage of development in the sense that industry has become unimportant. Most (although not all) of the shrinkage in the share of manufacturing in total output is not due to the fall in the absolute quantity of manufactured goods produced but due to the fall in their prices relative to those for services, which is caused by their faster growth in productivity (output per unit of input).

Shop assistants and some office workers interact directly with customers, whereas factory workers never see their customers. I am not enough of a sociologist or a psychologist to say anything profound in this regard, but all this means that people in today’s rich countries not only work differently from but are different from their parents and grandparents. In this way, today’s rich countries have become post-industrial societies in the social sense. However, they have not become post-industrial in the economic sense. Manufacturing still plays the leading role in their economies. In order to see this point, we first need to understand why de-industrialization has happened in the rich countries. A small, but not negligible, part of de-industrialization is due to optical illusions, in the sense that it reflects changes in statistical classification rather than changes in real activities.


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

For a thorough, critical introduction to the information society debates, see Webster, Theories of the Information Society. 5. Bell, Coming of Post-Industrial Society, 13. 6. Bell himself acknowledged this connection. “One might well say that 1945 to 1950 were the ‘birth-years,’ symbolically, of the post-industrial society,” he wrote (ibid., 346). Yet, subsequent analysts have tended to downplay or ignore the role of cold war military research in shaping the network mode of production. 7. Ibid., 373. See, e.g., Lyon, Information Society; Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine; Castells, Rise of Network Society; DeSanctis and Fulk, Shaping Organization Form. The impact of information technology on productivity per se remains an issue of substantial debate. See Gordon, “Does the ‘New Economy’ Measure Up?” 8. Bateson, Mind and Nature, 7. 9. Bell, Coming of Post-Industrial Society, 478, 480. 10. The classic statement of the power of loose connections to shape employment opportunities can be found in Granovetter, “The Strength of Weak Ties.” 11.

Since the early 1970s, a series of sociologists and geographers have chronicled the growth of a new, knowledge-based form of economic T h e Tr i u m p h o f t h e N e t w o r k M o d e [ 241 ] production.3 Their descriptions of the forces driving this shift and of its likely consequences have varied, largely in synch with technological and economic developments occurring as they wrote. Yet, despite their differences, these scholars have tended to agree that, starting sometime in the late 1960s or early 1970s, a postindustrial mode of development emerged as a dominant force in society.4 Within this mode, as Daniel Bell put it in his early and still-influential 1973 account The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, “theoretical knowledge” would serve as the “axial principle” of production.5 Under the industrial regime, he argued, major technological innovations such as telegraphy and aviation had arisen from individual tinkering. By contrast, under the postindustrial system then emerging, new technologies such as chemical synthesis had come about as a result of systematic scientific research. In the future, he explained, this trend would accelerate.

In part, that structure grew out of the need to take a comprehensive, systemic approach to weapons development, one that could see men and machines as twinned elements of a larger combat apparatus. And in part, that flexible, interdisciplinary mixing helped spawn a rhetoric of systematic knowledge (cybernetics) and the tools with which to model and manage such knowledge (computers). In other words, by the time Daniel Bell wrote The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, theoretical knowledge had already been serving as the central principle of military research and military-industrial production for some [ 242 ] Chapter 8 thirty years. Perhaps partially for this reason, Bell argued that “the decisive social change taking place in our time . . . is the subordination of the economic function to the political order.” As subsequent analysts such as David Harvey and Manuel Castells have convincingly demonstrated, Bell was wrong on this point.


pages: 385 words: 111,807

A Pelican Introduction Economics: A User's Guide by Ha-Joon Chang

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberation theology, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, precariat, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, working-age population, World Values Survey

Even in the agricultural sector, productivity has been raised in some countries, such as the Netherlands (which is the third-largest exporter of agriculture in the world, after the US and France), through the application of manufacturing-style organizational knowledge, such as computer-controlled feeding. The rise of the post-industrial society? It has recently become fashionable to argue that the manufacturing sector does not matter very much any more, as we have entered the era of post-industrial society. In the early days of industrialization, many assumed that the manufacturing sector would keep growing. And for a long time, it looked to be the case. The share of manufacturing both in output and in employment was almost constantly rising in most countries. However, from the 1960s, some countries started experiencing deindustrialization – a fall in the share of manufacturing, and a corresponding rise in the share of services, in both output and employment. This prompted the talk of a post-industrial society. Many economists have argued that, with rising income, we begin to demand services, such as eating out and foreign holidays, relatively more than we demand manufactured goods.

They look to India, which is supposed to have become – through its success in the export of services like software, accountancy and the reading of medical scanning images – ‘the office of the world’ to China’s ‘workshop of the world’ (a title which had originally been conferred on Britain after its Industrial Revolution). Deindustrialization doesn’t mean that we are producing fewer manufactured products While many people, including key policy-makers, have been seduced by it, the discourse of post-industrial society is highly misleading. Most rich countries have indeed become ‘post-industrial’ or ‘deindustrialized’ in terms of employment; a decreasing proportion of the labour force in these countries is working in factories, as opposed to shops and offices. In most, although not all, countries this has been accompanied by a fall in the share of manufacturing in output. But this does not necessarily mean that those countries are producing fewer manufactured goods in absolute terms.

There is little recognition that different types of economic activity may bring different outcomes – not just in terms of how much they produce but more importantly in terms of how they affect the development of the country’s ability to produce, or productive capabilities. And in terms of the latter effect, the importance of the manufacturing sector cannot be over-emphasized, as it has been the main source of new technological and organizational capabilities over the last two centuries. Unfortunately, with the rise of the discourse of post-industrial society in the realm of ideas and the increasing dominance of the financial sector in the real world, indifference to manufacturing has positively turned into contempt. Manufacturing, it is often argued, is, in the new ‘knowledge economy’, a low-grade activity that only low-wage developing countries do. But factories are where the modern world has been made, so to speak, and will keep being remade.


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The Globotics Upheaval: Globalisation, Robotics and the Future of Work by Richard Baldwin

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer vision, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, future of journalism, future of work, George Gilder, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Metcalfe’s law, new economy, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, post-work, profit motive, remote working, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, standardized shipping container, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, universal basic income

This new phase of structural transformation is called the post-industrial transformation, but it is really a second great transformation, call it the Services Transformation.1 New Technological Impulse, New Four-Step Progression The new ICT impulse launched a second great transformation and a second four-step progression (economic transformation, upheaval, backlash, and resolution). This new economic transformation was not as great as the original Great Transformation, but it did disorder the lives of millions and reshape economic social and economic realities into what the sociologist Alain Touraine called the “post-industrial society.”2 Jobs shifted from factories to offices, urbanization continued, many rural communities declined or disappeared, and the fulcrum of value creation shifted from capital to knowledge. The nature of globalization changed, and the unquestioned economic dominance of the West was questioned by facts on the ground. This economic transformation produced upheaval—just as it did in the nineteenth century.

In 2011, Apple was the only one in the top five and in 2006, only Microsoft was a top-fiver; the number one in 2006 and 2011 was Exxon Mobil (Table 3.1).9 Table 3.1 TOP-TEN LARGEST COMPANIES BY MARKET CAPITALIZATION: RECENT DOMINANCE OF KNOWLEDGE-DRIVEN FIRMS Stock Market Rank 2017 2011 2006 1 *Apple Exxon Mobil Exxon Mobil 2 *Alphabet (Google) *Apple General Electric 3 *Microsoft PetroChina *Microsoft 4 *Amazon Royal Dutch Shell Citigroup 5 *Facebook ICBC Gazprom 6 Berkshire Hathaway *Microsoft ICBC 7 Exxon Mobil *IBM Toyota 8 Johnson & Johnson Chevron Bank of America 9 JPMorgan Chase Walmart Royal Dutch Shell 10 *Alibaba Group *China Mobile BP * Data-driven companies SOURCE: Author’s elaboration of data published in BCG Perspectives, 2017. An additional source of fuel for the upheaval came from a shock rise in income inequality. The transformation of advanced economies from industrial to post-industrial societies has not been gentle on the “forgotten men and women.” Economic Inequality In the United States, the pattern is very clear and very pronounced. The well-off did well, the poor did poorly, and the average did awfully. The average US man working full-time got $53,000 in 1973, but only $50,000 in 2014 in inflation-adjusted terms.10 The average American family is sliding backward in terms of earning power—and has been since the early 1970s.

If twenty-three thousand Pennsylvanians, twelve thousand Wisconsinites, and six thousand Michiganders had switched their votes, Hillary Clinton would have been elected president.12 This was not an FDR-like upwelling of discontent. Less than 60 percent of eligible voters even bothered to fill out a ballot. Economic and social calamity had been swirling around the country for years. Many low-skill white men outside of large urban areas have been left behind by the post-industrial society, and this group voted heavily for Trump. People who said their family’s financial situation was worse in 2016 than 2012 voted heavily for Trump (78 percent), while only 39 percent of those who reported things being about the same did.13 Those who thought the nation’s economy was in a poor state voted for Trump, as did 65 percent of those who thought trade takes jobs away. Personal income, however, was not a reliable predictor of Trump voting.


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The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

Wilensky has written that the surveys Inglehart used have technical problems and their results show little significant change. Besides, Wilensky has argued, most of the trends identified by the post-materialists (women's rights, environmentalism) were in motion during the heyday of the industrial economy. Wilensky suggests that we "drop" terms such as "post-materialism" "from our vocabulary."65 Other scholars, however, acknowledge that society has changed focus. Daniel Bell announced the "coming of post-industrial society" in the title of his 1973 book. Working with Ronald Inglehart, the University of Chicago's Terry Nichols Clark has described a "new political culture" born of economic prosperity and a more democratic workplace.*66 Market researchers Paul Ray and Sherry Ruth Anderson have described a growing number of "cultural creatives," people who have many of the same interests and sociabilities as Inglehart's post-materialists and those Clark has identified in his new political culture.67 Ruy Teixeira and John Judis have predicted a new constituency for the Democratic Party in the fast-growing tech cities.

See also Ron Lesthaeghe and Lisa Neidert, "The Second Demographic Transition in the United States: Exception or Textbook Example?" Population and Development Review 32, no. 4 (December 2006): 669–98. 23. Émile Durkheim, Selected Writings, ed. Anthony Giddens (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972), pp. 142–44. 24. Ibid., pp. 186–88. 25. Ibid., p. 175. 26. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1999), pp. 287–88. 10. Choosing a Side 1. Alan Greenblatt, "What Makes ALEC Smart?" Governing, October 2003; Pauline Vu, "How ALEC, CPA Help Shape State Laws," Statehne.org, June 7, 2005, http://www.stateline.org/live/ViewPage.action?siteNodeId = 136 &languageId=1&contentId=35924. 2. Greenblatt, "What Makes ALEC Smart?" 3. Sarah A. Binder, "Elections and Congress's Governing Capacity," Extensions: A journal of the Carl Albert Congressional Research and Studies Center (Fall 2005). 10–14. 4.

News and World Report, November 15, 2004. Bartels, Larry M. "Partisanship and Voting Behavior, 1952–1996." American Journal of Political Science 44, no. 1 (January 2000): 35–50. ———. "What's the Matter with What's the Matter with Kansas?" Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 2004. http://www.princeton.edu/~bartels/kansas.pdf. Bell, Daniel. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books, 1999. Berube, Alan, Audrey Singer, Jill H. Wilson, and William H. Frey. "Finding Exurbia: America's Fast-Growing Communities at the Metropolitan Fringe." Brookings Institution, October 2006. http://www.brookings.edu/rep0rts/2006/10metropolitanpolicy_berube.aspx. Bianco, Anthony. "The Vanishing Mass Market." BusinessWeek, July 12, 2004. Binder, Sarah A. "Elections and Congress's Governing Capacity."


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The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin

banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

The farmer will give way to the 'bio-manager' and observation will be replaced by "software." Biotechnology and information technologies therefore go hand in hand to create the new production process in agriculture. In this perspective, biotechnology and micro-electronics mark the end of the pre-history of the food industry and its incorporation within the broader dynamics of the industrial system and post-industrial society.47 Chemical companies are already investing heavily in indoor tissueculture production in the hope of removing farming from the soil by 124 THE DECLINE OF THE GLOBAL LABOR FORCE the early decades of the twenty-first century. Recently, two U.S.-based biotechnology firms announced they had successfully produced vanilla from plant-cell cultures in the laboratory. Vanilla is the most popular flavor in America.

Krugman, Paul, and Lawrence, Robert, "Trade, Jobs and Wages," Scientific American, April 1994, pp. 46, 47. 19. "The Myth of Manufacturing's Decline," Forbes, January 18,1993, p. 40; Judis, John, "The Jobless Recovery," The New Republic, March 15, 1993, p. 22. 20. Winpisinger, William w., Reclaiming Our Future (Boulder: Westview Press, 1989), pp. 150-151. 21. Masuda, Yoneji, The Information Society as Post-Industrial Society (Washington, D.G: World Future Society, 1980), p. 60. 22. "Price of Progress." 23. Churbuck, David, and Young, Jeffrey, "The Virtual Workplace," Forbes, November 23, 1992, p. 186; "New Hiring Should Follow Productivity Gains," Business Week, June 14,1993. 24. Harrison, Bennett, Lean and Mean: The Changing Landscape of Corporate Powerin the Age of Flexibility (New York: Basic Books, 1994), pp. 45-47, 51. 25.

Noble, David, Forces of Production: A Social History of Industrial Automation (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1984), p. 50; Fjermedal, Grant, The Tomorrow Makers p. 70; Davidow, William, and Malone, Michael, The Virtual Corporation: Restructuring and Revitalizing the Corporation for the 21st Century (New York: HarperColiins, 1992 ), p. 37· 18. Davidow and Malone, p. 37. 19. Masuda, Yoneji, The Information Society as Post-Industrial Society (Bethesda, MD: World Future Society, 1981), p. 49. 20. Kurzweil, p. 186. 21. Ceruzzi, Paul, ''An Unforeseen Revolution: Computers and Expectations, 1935-1985," in Corn, Joseph J., Imagining Tomorrow: History, Technology, and the American Future (Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1986), P·19 0 . 22. Ibid., PP.190-191. 23. Jones, Barry, Sleepers, Wake: Technology and the Future of Work (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 104-105' 24.


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Stuffocation by James Wallman

3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, high net worth, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar

Endnotes INTRODUCTION How We’ve Had Enough of Stuff Ryan Nicodemus and Joshua Fields Millburn The best way to find out about Ryan Nicodemus and Joshua Fields Millburn, their books, their book tour (coming to your city soon), and how they help people get rid of what doesn’t matter, is by visiting their fantastic website www.theminimalists.com. The Story of Stuff Watch the Story of Stuff and read Story of Stuff, Referenced and Annotated Script, which contains evidence for the video’s statements, at www.storyofstuff.org. “Four out of five were materialistic in 1970” Ronald Inglehart, “The Silent Revolution in Europe: Intergenerational Change in Post-Industrial Societies”, American Political Science Review Vol. 65, No. 4, December 1971. For updates since then, see Ronald Inglehart, “Changing Values among Western Publics from 1970 to 2006”, West European Politics Vol. 31, Nos. 1–2, January–March 2008; also, the World Values Survey (www.worldvaluessurvey.org). Many make sense of the shift to less materialistic values by referring to Abraham Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation”, Psychological Review Vol. 50, No. 4, 1943.

Using the Present to Forecast the Future For an excellent introduction to forecasting, read the first chapter of Martin Raymond, The Trend Forecaster’s Handbook (London: Lawrence King, 2010). I have Martin Raymond to thank for introducing me to the field of forecasting, and teaching me a great deal of what I know about it. For good examples of forecasting from the past, take a look at two prescient texts: Alvin Toffler, Future Shock (New York: Random House, 1970), and Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1973). CHAPTER TWO The Original Mad Men and the Job of Creating Desire To understand where the ideas came from that influenced the original Mad Men – people like Edward Bernays and Earnest Elmo Calkins and Christine Frederick – read Wilfred Trotter, Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War (London: Macmillan, 1916); Gustave Le Bon, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (London: Unwin, 1903); Edward Bernays, Propaganda (New York: H Liveright, 1928, IG Publishing, 2005 edition); Edward Bernays, Crystallizing Public Opinion (New York: Liveright, 1923); Stuart Ewen, Captains of Consciousness (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976); Stuart Ewen, PR!

If you compare them you can see how social media is speeding the shift from materialism to experientialism – as people are more able than ever to get status from experiential rather than material goods. My reading, of course, is that conspicuous living is replacing conspicuous consumption in its importance for our status and our lives. Is Experientialism the Answer to Stuffocation? Ron Inglehart Again, Ron Inglehart, “The Silent Revolution in Europe: Intergenerational Change in Post-Industrial Societies”, American Political Science Review Vol. 65, No. 4, December 1971. To see the shift away from materialistic values, see the World Values Survey (www.worldvaluessurvey.org). The changing make-up of our economy Compare the type of items in Simon Kuznets, National Income, 1929-32 (Cambridge, MA: NBER, June 1934) with those in today’s economies. Consider also, Francisco J Buera and Joseph P Kaboski.


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Mythology of Work: How Capitalism Persists Despite Itself by Peter Fleming

1960s counterculture, anti-work, call centre, clockwatching, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, David Graeber, Etonian, future of work, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, Parkinson's law, post-industrial society, post-work, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Results Only Work Environment, shareholder value, social intelligence, The Chicago School, transaction costs, wealth creators, working poor

This is one of the great ruses of neoliberal reason: it is able to impose an artificial regime based upon the pretext of organic self-preservation. And who can argue with that? I hope to demonstrate in the following pages that our workers’ society has little to do with material subsistence, although that doesn’t mean our jobs are any less real in terms of the influence and sway work holds over vast numbers of people around the world. The way work exploits us in post-industrial societies has taken on some specific attributes that this book aims to explore in more depth. Neoliberal class relations are distinct in that they transform exploitation into something that strongly resembles subsidization. We work, pay taxes, take care of the bills and commuting costs for one single reason: not to ‘survive’ but so that the governing elite gains its privileges for nothing. Our labour is designed to provide freedom to the rich.

But the main focus of this book is how we might push back and break the capitalist gridlock that has us hanging between an unliveable life and a future of more of the same. Given the above trends that have generalized some horrible principles in the form of human and social capital, this is more easily said than done. For how might we oppose the ‘I, Job’ function when it is now somehow tied up with our very sense of identity and personal worth? And what would a world without work actually look like? I argue that a new resistance movement is emerging in post-industrial societies and beyond that seeks to put work in its place. Unlike traditional conceptions of employee resistance (such as the strike or sabotage) which often functioned as a platform to demand more, better or fairer work, this novel form of opposition seeks to escape the paradigm of work altogether. It does not view our over-attachment to a job as an inevitable consequence of survival, but as a hypnotic political absurdity that we have come to live as if it has always been so.

This is why the idea of leadership still carries strong fascist connotations, since the call for strong leaders usually coincides with gratuitous acts of disempowerment and overt regulation. 3. Conflict-Seeking Behaviour While it might be tempting to view managerialism as a fundamentally defensive stance given the above analysis, it also displays an extremely strong attraction to conflict. Indeed, I suggest that it literally thrives on antagonism and actively seeks it out or instigates it. One obvious reason for this is the timing of its emergence in post-industrial societies. The birth of managerialism corresponded with the dissolution of labour unions in the 1980s and was crafted as the most suitable social technology for combatting workers and reforming their understanding of the employment relation, especially apropos abandonment, zero-hour contracts, so-called flexible employment arrangements, subcontracting and a stagnating wage packet. Evoking the rather neutral sounding language of ‘change management’, the discourse of managerialism was the second line of attack on the Fordist employment relationship following the state’s use of violence (i.e. the police and the military).


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Global Inequality: A New Approach for the Age of Globalization by Branko Milanovic

"Robert Solow", Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, mittelstand, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, Paul Samuelson, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, stakhanovite, trade route, transfer pricing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

The books of the late 1960s and early 1970s see the world of the future as being ever more dominated by behemoth companies and expanding monopolies, and they predict a widening gulf between shareholders and managers, with the latter having the upper hand (examples are John Kenneth Galbraith’s The New Industrial State [1967], Lester Brown’s The World Without Borders [1972], and Daniel Bell’s The Coming of Post-Industrial Society [1973]). They all note similarities in the primacy of technology in both the United States and the Soviet Union. Gigantism in the USSR seemed to be a response to the same technological requirements that were observed in the United States: management of complex systems needed to be left in the hands of the best and the brightest, with help from the state. Large companies would prevail over small ones because technological progress was seen as involving increased returns to scale and requiring a more educated population, which could only be ensured through a more active state.

Bowley, March 3, 1901, in Marshall (1961, 2:774). 1. Dismal forecasting of the 2008 global financial crisis, even once it had started, is documented in Wieland and Wolters (2012). 2. It is also remarkable that the writers of this period were unable to define the “new society” except negatively, that is, by what it no longer was. Hence, the proliferation of “post” prefixes in Bell’s Coming of Post-Industrial Society (1973): a cursory review reveals “post-industrial,” “post-bourgeois,” “post-Marxist,” “post-capitalist,” and “post-scarcity.” 3. Limits to Growth (1972) was also the first report of the Club of Rome. The second report, Mankind at the Turning Point (1974), by Mihailo Mesarovic and Eduard Pestel, was even more quantitative and ostensibly scientific. 4. Sicco Mansholt, then the president of the European Commission, was a strong proponent of zero growth.

“Economic Inequality and Political Representation.” Unpublished ms. Available at http://www.princeton.edu/~bartels/economic.pdf . Bartels, Larry M. 2010. Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Beitz, Charles. 1999. “International Liberalism and Distributive Justice: A Survey of Recent Thought.” World Politics 51: 269–296. Bell, Daniel. 1973. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books. Beloff, Max. 1984. Wars and Welfare: Britain, 1914–1945. Baltimore: E. Arnold. Bértola, Luis, Cecilia Castelnovo, Javier Rodríguez, and Henry Willebald. 2009. “Income Distribution in the Latin American Southern Cone during the First Globalization Boom and Beyond.” International Journal of Comparative Sociology 50: 452–485. Bilmes, Linda, and Joseph Stiglitz. 2008.


The Ecotechnic Future: Envisioning a Post-Peak World by John Michael Greer

back-to-the-land, Black Swan, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, David Strachan, deindustrialization, European colonialism, Extropian, failed state, feminist movement, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, hydrogen economy, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, mass immigration, McMansion, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, post-industrial society, Project for a New American Century, Ray Kurzweil, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

If corn syrup and artificial flavors could be bought directly from the producers and used by home canners, though, similar economies would likely apply. 10. For the following paragraphs I have drawn extensively on Bryan WardPerkins­, The Fall of Rome: And the End of Civilization, Oxford University Press, 2005. Chapter Eight: Work 1. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review, Energy Information Administration, 2007. 2. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting, Basic Books, 1973. 3. See, for example, Mary Carruthers and Jan M. Ziolkowski, eds., The Medieval Craft of Memory: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures, 2002; and Frances Yates, The Art of Memory, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966. 4. The American Radio Relay League (ARRL) website atarrl.org is the best online introduction to amateur radio. Chapter Nine: Energy 1.

Chapter Twelve: Science 1. James Lovelock “A book for all seasons,”Science 280 (1998), pp. 832–833. 2. Greer, The Long Descent pp. 182–187. 3. See Lewis Mumford, The Myth of the Machine Volume One: Technics and Human Development, 1967 and The Myth of the Machine Volume Two: The Pentagon of Power, 1972, Harcourt, Brace and World; and Theodore ­Roszak, Where the Wasteland Ends: Politics and Transcendence in Post-Industrial ­Society, Doubleday, 1972. 253 254 T he E cotechnic F u t u re 4. See, for example, Derrick Jensen and George Draffan, Welcome to the ­Machine, Chelsea Green, 2004. 5. A standard history is William Kneale and Martha Kneale, The Development of Logic, Oxford University Press, 1962. 6. D. T. Mason, “Appropriate ecology: a modest stress-strain proposal.” Bulletin of Marine Science 31 (1981), pp. 723–729. 7.

Bateson, Gregory, Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity, Bantam, 1979. ——— and Mary Catherine Bateson, Angels Fear: Towards an Epistemology of the Sacred, Macmillan, 1987. Becker, Peter W., “The role of synthetic fuel in World War II Germany,” Air University Review, July-August 1981 (online edition, airpower.maxwell.af.mil). Beckford, James A., New Religious Movements and Rapid Social Change, SAGE Publications, 1986. Bell, Daniel, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting, Basic Books, 1973. Bell, Graham, The Permaculture Garden, Thorsons, 1994. Brand, Stewart, How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They’re Built, Viking, 1994. ——— ed., The Next Whole Earth Catalog, Rand McNally, 1980. Brierley, Corale L., et al., Coal: Research and Development to Support National Energies Policy, National Academies Press, 2007. Brown, Lester, Plan B: Rescuing a Planet Under Stress and a Civilization in ­Trouble, Norton, 2003.


The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling by Arlie Russell Hochschild

affirmative action, airline deregulation, call centre, cognitive dissonance, deskilling, Frederick Winslow Taylor, job satisfaction, late capitalism, longitudinal study, new economy, post-industrial society, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, telemarketer

THE PRIVATE AND PUBLIC FACES OF AN EMOTIONAL SYSTEM Our search for answers to these questions leads to three separate but equally relevant discourses: one concerning labor, one concerning display, and one concerning emotion. Those who discuss labor often comment that nowadays most jobs call for a capacity to deal with people rather than with things, for more interpersonal skills and fewer mechanical skills. In The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (1973), Daniel Bell argues that the growth of the service sector means that "communication" and "encounter" -"the response of ego to alter and back" -is the central work relationship today.* As he puts it, "The fact that individuals now talk to other individuals, rather than interact with a machine, is the fundamental fact about work in the post-industrial society." • Jobs that Bell includes in the service sector are those in transportation and utilities, distribution and trade, finance and insurance, professional and business services, jobs deriving from demands for leisure activities (recreation and travel), and jobs that deal with communal services (health, education, and government).

Norris 1976 "Sexual divisions and the dual labour market." Pp. 47 -69. In Diana Leonard Barker and Sheila Allen (eds.), Dependence and Exploitation in Work and Marriage. London and New York: Longmans. Beck, Aaron 1971 "Cognition, affect, and psychopathology." Archives of General Psychiatry 24:495 - 500. Becker, Howard S. 1953 "Becoming a marihuana user." American Journal of Sociology 59: 235-242. Bell, Daniel 1973 The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books. Bern, Daryl, and Andrea Allen "On predicting some of the people some of the time: 1974 Bibliography 289 the search for cross-situational consistencies in behavior." Psychological Review 81 :506-520. Bendix, Reinhard 1952 "Complaint behavior and individual personality." American Journal of Sociology 58:292 - 303. 1956 Work and Authority in Industry. New York: Wiley.


pages: 450 words: 113,173

The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties by Christopher Caldwell

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, computer age, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, desegregation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, George Gilder, global value chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, libertarian paternalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, new economy, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, pre–internet, profit motive, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

were cabineted in wood: See, e.g., the ads for Motorola and RCA TVs in Jim Heimann, ed., All-American Ads of the 60s (Cologne, Germany: Taschen, 2002), 385. “has been carried largely”: Peter F. Drucker, The Age of Discontinuity: Guidelines to Our Changing Society (New York: Harper & Row, 1968), 3–9. “post-industrial” problems: Theodore Roszak, Where the Wasteland Ends: Politics and Transcendence in Post-Industrial Society (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1972), xxvii. City Hall Plaza: Stephen Carr, Mark Francis, Leanne G. Rivlin, and Andrew M. Stone, Public Space (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 88–90. “Go right to it”: Chalmers M. Roberts, “President Approves D.C. Redevelopment,” Washington Post, March 6, 1952. Cited in Christian James, “Southwest Renewal,” at christianjames.us.

“Management is, in the end”: Phil Rosenzweig, “Robert McNamara and the Evolution of Modern Management,” Harvard Business Review, December 2010. They claimed the percentage: Samuel P. Huntington, “The Bases of Accommodation,” Foreign Affairs, July 1968. “mad rationality”: Theodore Roszak, The Making of a Counter Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995 [1968]), 78. Roszak attributes the phrase to Lewis Mumford. “lunatic realism”: Theodore Roszak, Where the Wasteland Ends: Politics and Transcendence in Post-Industrial Society (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1972), xxix. “We are what went wrong”: Loren Baritz, Backfire: A History of How American Culture Led Us into Vietnam and Made Us Fight the Way We Did (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998 [1983]), 349. “I want to leave”: Lloyd C. Gardner, Pay Any Price: Lyndon Johnson and the Wars for Vietnam (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1995), 197. White House counsel Clark Clifford: Walter A.

New York: Free Press, 2003. Remnick, David. The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010. Rosenblatt, Roger. Coming Apart: A Memoir of the Harvard Wars of 1969. Boston: Little, Brown, 1997. Roszak, Theodore. The Making of a Counter Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995 [1968]. ———. Where the Wasteland Ends: Politics and Transcendence in Post-Industrial Society. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1972. Russell, Bertrand. The Impact of Science on Society. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1952. ———. Marriage and Morals. New York: Horace Liveright, 1929. Salis, J. R. von. Weltgeschichte der neuesten Zeit, vol. 1. Zürich: Orell Füssli Verlag, 1955. Slater, Philip. The Pursuit of Loneliness: American Culture at the Breaking Point. Boston: Beacon Press, 1970.


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Head, Hand, Heart: Why Intelligence Is Over-Rewarded, Manual Workers Matter, and Caregivers Deserve More Respect by David Goodhart

active measures, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, computer age, corporate social responsibility, COVID-19, Covid-19, David Attenborough, David Brooks, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, desegregation, deskilling, different worldview, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postindustrial economy, precariat, reshoring, Richard Florida, Scientific racism, Skype, social intelligence, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thorstein Veblen, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, young professional

Moreover, they may add, the so-called Flynn effect (named after the New Zealand academic James Flynn) shows that everyone is getting brighter—that average IQ levels have been rising throughout the twentieth century as a result of improved living conditions and human minds adapting to a more demanding cognitive environment.1 They argue that as long as the social biases mentioned above are ironed out, through spending on education and a sustained effort to give people of all backgrounds a fair chance at joining the cognitive class, all will be well. This book disagrees. In the tradition of Michael Young’s The Rise of the Meritocracy, his dystopian satire on rule by the cognitive elite, Daniel Bell’s The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting, and Charles Murray’s Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010—a socialist, a centrist, and a conservative—it argues that today’s “achievement society” has replaced one system of domination by another. It is true that the knowledge created by human reason continues to drive civilization, and in our data-based economies this is not about to decline in importance.

Augar Review, “Review of Post-18 Education and Funding” (UK Government report, May 2019). Autor, David, “Work of the Past, Work of the Future,” Richard T Ely Lecture to the annual meeting of the American Economic Association (2019). Baldwin, Richard, The Globotics Upheaval: Globalization, Robotics and the Future of Work (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2019). Bell, Daniel, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting (London: Penguin, 1976). Bishop, Bill, The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2008). Blanden, Jo, Paul Gregg and Stephen Machin, Intergenerational Mobility in Europe and North America: A Report Supported by the Sutton Trust (Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics/Sutton Trust, 2005).

., 135–36, 138 baby boomer generation, 10, 79–80, 198, 222 baccalauréat (France), 35, 117–18 Baldwin, Richard, The Globotics Upheaval, 25, 134–35, 253, 258, 262 Balls, Ed, 174 Bank of England, 255–58, 298 Baumol, William, 25 Baxendale, Toby, 201 BBC/BBC Radio, 31, 110, 166, 174, 178, 191 Beasley, Christine, 147 Becker, Gary, 136 behavioral genetics movement, 72–75, 83, 86, 88 Bell, Daniel, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, 7, 211 Belsky, Daniel, 75 Bentham, Jeremy, 45 Bezos, Jeff, 14 Binet-Simon scale, 64 Blair, Tony, 103, 163, 167, 168 Blinder, Alan S., 166 Bloodworth, James, The Myth of Meritocracy, 75 Bloomsbury Group, 53 Botton, Oli de, 300 Bovens, Mark, Democracy (with Wille), 95, 155–58, 169, 177–78 Boys Smith, Nicholas, 288–89 Breen, Richard, 81 Brexit Britain: alienation and, 276 Anywhere-Somewhere divide, 12–20, 287–88 immigration policy and, 168, 169 job status decline and, 213–14 pushback against cognitive class, 10, 32, 154–55, 160–61, 164–66, 185–86, 213–14 British Cohort Study (1970), 76 British Red Cross, 222–23 British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey, 140, 209–10, 212, 219, 226n, 230 Brooks, David, 276 Brown, Gordon, 25, 174 Brown, Phillip, The Global Auction (with Lauder and Ashton), 23, 144, 258–60 Brown, Tara Tiger, 195–96 Building Beautiful Commission, 289 Bukodi, Erzsébet, 75–76 Bunting, Madeleine, Labours of Love, 27, 217, 225, 227, 233, 246 Burt, Cyril, 100 Butler, Joseph, The Analogy of Religion, 42 Byng, John, 52 Cameron, David, 156, 170 Campbell, Rosie, 171–72 Caplan, Bryan, The Case Against Education, 123, 129 care sector, see Heart (care) work Caregivers UK, 224 Carer’s Allowance (UK), 293 Carl, Noah, 165n Carnegie Mellon University, 282 Carnes, Nicholas, 172 Carr, Nicholas, The Shallows, 22 Case, Anne, 206–7, 220 Cavendish, Camilla, 240, 242 Cavendish Laboratory (UK), 45 CBI/Pearson Education and Skills Survey, 198 CCTV, 185 Centre for Time Use Research, 242–43, 246–47 centrifugal forces, x, 278 centripetal forces, x, 278 Chabris, Christopher, 67, 78–79 Charman, Ken, 253–55 Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (UK), 145–46 Cheese, Peter, 145–46 child-rearing, 224–25, 227, 229–30, 242, 243 China, 39, 85, 259 Churchill, Winston, 194 Cinderella sectors, xii, 162, 241 CIPD, 209 civil service, 31, 41, 43 Clarke, Kenneth, 102 Clinton, Bill, 111, 161–62 Clinton, Hillary, 152, 215 Cobb, Jonathan, The Hidden Injuries of Class (with Sennett), 190 Coe, Robert, 124 Cognitive Abilities Test (CAT), 65 cognitive aptitude, 55–89 assortative mating and, 79–83 behavioral genetics movement and, 72–75, 83, 86, 88 “cognitive elite” and, 78–79 correlation with socioeconomic status, 78–82, 83–84 eleven-plus (UK), 20, 65–66, 82, 100, 196 as gold standard of human esteem, 3–5, 11–12, 28 as innate vs. learned, 55–56, 63, 68, 71–75 measuring, 56, 61–71, see also IQ/IQ-type tests in meritocracy, 75–89 nature of, 55–57, 61, 70–71 need for cognitive diversity and, 88–89, 281–84 selection into cognitive classes, 75–84, 87–88, see also cognitive class social mobility and, 75–84 wisdom and, 283, 302–3 see also intelligence cognitive class, 31–53 assortative mating and, 79–83 cognitive elite (Herrnstein and Murray), 78–79 cognitive entrepreneurs and, 33 creative class cohort, 28, 223–25, 256–58, 270, 299 economic cognitive domination and, see knowledge economy education trends and, 36, 43–53 educational cognitive domination and, see college/university education family background and, 48, 115, 118, 125–26, 156 in future of knowledge economy, 143–44, 253–74 high school graduation (US) and, 14–15, 35, 40, 51, 95–96, 98–99, 116, 118, 124 high-skill occupations, 97, 135–36, 138, 148, 259, 268–71 historical emergence of, 39–53 industrialization and, 32, 33–35, 41–42, 45, 51–52, 253 levels of, 13–15 low-skill occupations, 25–26, 120–21, 135–36, 152, 198, 202–3 methods of entering, 35 middle-skill occupations, 107–11, 129–31, 135–36, 150–52, 198, 209 need for cognitive diversity, 88–89, 281–84 political, see political cognitive domination in postindustrial society, 32, 35–39 professions/professional exams, 39–43, 44, 53 selection into, 75–84, 268–71 shift in cognitive class hegemony, 20–29, 32–33 size in 1930s, 53 social selection based on intelligence, 34–35, 39–41, 46–53 value divide and, 32, 36, 279–84 cognitive sector, see Head (cognitive) work College Board, 66 College of Policing (UK), 148–49 college/university education, 43–53, 93–131 assumptions about, 93–94 brain/gene drain and, 125–26 community colleges (US), 96, 102, 112–13, 115–16 corruption in admissions process, 6n creeping credentialism and, 15, 94–97, 99, 122–24, 130, 271–72 demographic trends and, 131 effectiveness of, 14, 123–25, 129, 130–31, 171–74 era of educational selection, 96–97 expansion of, 99, 100–111, 113–17 family background and, 115, 118, 125–26, 156 funnel for single elite, 5, 36, 52–53, 126, 156 future of, 298 generalist vs. specialized, 38, 47, 49–50, 53, 97–99, 105, 113–17, 272, 299 “genetics of success” and, 75 GI Bill (1944, US), 43–44, 66, 96, 115 globalization and, 259 graduate pay premium, 105, 116–17, 136, 139, 145, 152, 262–64 “graduatization”/income divergence of the labor market, 133–52, 234–39 grandes écoles (France), 44, 48, 81, 102, 118, 141, 156 mass higher education and, 36, 96–98, 100–111, 113–17 meritocracy based on, 6–12 need for cognitive diversity and, 283 overeducation and, 266–67 oversupply of graduates, 94–95, 121–26, 171–72, 268–71 Oxford/Cambridge (UK) and, 41–42, 44–52, 84, 97–98, 101–2, 156, 172–73, 263, 264 political cognitive domination and, 172–74 polytechnics/“new universities” (UK), 98, 100–102, 105–8, 115, 119, 263 postgraduate degrees, 78, 116, 122, 148, 191–92, 212, 258, 266 reversal of trends in, 24, 268–71 Russell Group (UK), 80, 102, 107, 125, 130, 263 SAT (US) and, 20, 52, 64, 65–68, 80, 114–15, 117, 287 signaling effect and, 94–96, 121–26, 267, 271 social mobility and, 6, 103, 105, 125–31, 253–55, 268–71 social selection based on intelligence, 34–35, 39–41, 46–53 student debt and, 14, 104, 115, 116, 268, 297 technician gap and, 107–11, 130–31, 135–36 tuition ceiling in UK, 104, 106–7, 109, 116, 119 in the UK, 41–53, 80–81, 100–107, 116, 262–63 in the US, 48–49, 50, 80, 112–17, 264 see also knowledge economy Collins, Randall, 15 community colleges (US), 96, 102, 112–13, 115–16 Conley, Dalton, 83 construction industry, 197–98, 200–201 Cook, Philip J., The Winner-Take-All Society (with Frank), 142 Corby, Paul, 196–97 Covid-19 crisis, ix–xiii digital giants and, xiii, 16 educational mobility and, 128, 130–31 failure to prepare for, 20 gender division of labor and, xii globalization and, ix–x Hand (manual) work and, 7, 23, 26, 203, 277–78 Head (cognitive) work and, 7, 23, 62, 277–78 Heart (care) work and, 7, 23, 217, 225, 241, 245, 277–78 Internet and, 294, 298–99 lockdown period, xi, 32–33, 298–99 rebalancing of Hand, Head, and Heart work, ix–xiii, 4–5, 20, 21–22, 277–78 Cowen, Tyler, Average Is Over, 273–74 Cowley, Philip, 171–72 Cox, Brian, 299 craft skills, 114, 194, 195, 256–57, 294–96, 299–300, 301–2 Crawford, Matthew B., The Case for Working with Your Hands, 17, 47–48, 114, 189, 195, 275 creative class cohort, 28, 223–25, 256–58, 270, 299 Crosland, Tony, 100, 101 Darwin, Charles, 42 de Gaulle, Charles, 118 Deary, Ian, 165n death penalty, 160–61 deaths of despair (Deaton), 10–11, 136, 206–7, 220, 222 Deaton, Angus, 10–11, 136, 206–7, 220, 222 Dench, Geoff, 164 Dewey, John, 49, 98 Diamond, Jared, 299 digital giants: Covid-19 crisis and, xiii, 16 employment trends and, 25 impact of Internet on intelligence, 22 technology of connection and, 19 “winner-takes-all” markets and, 14, 33, 142, 272, 286 digital Taylorism, 23–25, 144, 258–61 Direct Seafoods, 201 Dodd-Frank Act (2010, US), 284 Duckworth, Angela, 67 Dweck, Carol, 60, 67 early-years education, 15, 73, 217, 218, 242 East India Company, 41 École Nationale d’Administration (ENA, France), 48, 118, 156 economic cognitive domination, see knowledge economy education: college/university, see college/university education early-years, 15, 73, 217, 218, 242 grammar school, 46, 58, 65, 82, 98, 100 lifelong learning, 95, 107–9, 296–301 secondary, see secondary education STEM education, 101–2, 108, 111, 236, 265, 268 vocational, see vocational training Education Acts (UK), 43–44, 46, 98, 100 Educational Testing Service (ETS), 52 Einstein, Albert, 58, 275 elder care, see adult social care eleven-plus (UK), 20, 65–66, 82, 100, 196 Elias, Peter, 266 Eliot, T.


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Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman

autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

Erik Rauch, “Productivity and the Workweek.” http://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/users/rauch/worktime 49. For an overview of attitudes in various countries, see: Robert Skidelsky and Edward Skidelsky, How Much is Enough? The Love of Money and the Case for the Good Life (2012), pp. 29-30. 50. For an overview, see: Jonathan Gershuny and Kimberly Fisher, “Post-Industrious Society: Why Work Time Will Not Disappear for Our Grandchildren.” Sociology Working Papers. http://www.sociology.ox.ac.uk/working-papers/post-industrious-society-why-work-time-will-not-disappear-for-our-grandchildren.html 51. Richard Layard, Happiness (2005), p. 64. See also: Don Peck, “How a New Jobless Era Will Transform America,” The Atlantic (March 2010). http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/03/how-a-new-jobless-era-will-transform-america/307919/ 52. Juliet Schor, “The Triple Dividend,” in: Anna Coote and Jane Franklin (eds), Time on Our Side.


pages: 484 words: 136,735

Capitalism 4.0: The Birth of a New Economy in the Aftermath of Crisis by Anatole Kaletsky

"Robert Solow", bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, buy and hold, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, global rebalancing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, market design, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, statistical model, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

., Sources of Chinese Tradition: From 1600 Through the Twentieth Century, vol. 2, 507-510. 8 The key events in computer technology were the introduction of the first standardized IBM personal computers and Intel microprocessors in 1983, the addition of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to the Apple Macintosh in 1984, the Windows GUI by Microsoft in 1986, and the release in 1990 of Windows 3.0, a much improved GUI developed for the IBM 386 computer. 9 See, for example, Edward Glaeser and Janet Kohlhase, “Cities, Regions and the Decline of Transport Costs,” and Nils-Gustav Lundgren, “Bulk Trade and Maritime Transport Costs: The Evolution of Global Markets,” Resources Policy 22:1-2 (March-June 1996): 5-32. 10 Jeffrey Frankel, “The Japanese Cost of Finance: A Survey,” Financial Management 20:1 (Spring 1991). Chapter Five 1 Quoted in New York Times, October 8, 2006. 2 John Naisbitt, Megatrends. 3 Toffler elaborated and popularized the idea of a post-industrial society. Although this term was invented by the sociologist Daniel Bell in The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society, its relationship to information technology was developed most convincingly by Toffler in his book The Third Wave. Ignored by “serious” academics, Toffler was the only modern Western economist or social scientist to appear in a list of “Fifty foreigners shaping China’s modern development” published by People’s Daily in 2006. http://english.people.com.cn/200608/03/eng20060803_289510.html. 4 Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works.

New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1897. Bank of England. Quarterly Inflation Report, February 11, 2009. Available from http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/inflationreport/conf090211.pdf. Bardo, Michael, and Barry Eichengreen, eds. A Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System: Lessons for International Monetary Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Bell, Daniel. The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books, 1973. Benedick, Richard. Ozone Diplomacy: New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991. Benen, Steve. “What Has Government-run Health Care Ever Done for Us?” Washington Monthly, July 29, 2009. Bernanke, Ben. “Deflation: Making Sure ‘It’ Doesn’t Happen Here.” Remarks before the National Economists Club. Federal Reserve Board.


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Listen, Liberal: Or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People? by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American ideology, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Burning Man, centre right, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, George Gilder, gig economy, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral panic, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, payday loans, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Republic of Letters, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, union organizing, urban decay, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Here, too, Massachusetts is the model. The Boston area has prospered fabulously as knowledge workers have become the country’s dominant cohort. In every sort of lab-coat and starched-shirt pursuit the city is well-represented: it has R&D; it has law firms; it has investment banks; it has management consulting; it has a remarkable concentration of life-science businesses. The coming of post-industrial society* has treated this most ancient of American cities extremely well. Massachusetts routinely occupies the number one spot on the previously mentioned State New Economy Index, a measure of how “knowledge-based, globalized, entrepreneurial, IT-driven and innovation-based” a place happens to be. Massachusetts also ranks high on most of Richard Florida’s statistical indices of approbation—in 2003, it was number one on the “creative class index,” number three in innovation and in high tech8—and his many books marvel at the city’s concentration of venture capital, its allure to young people, or the time it enticed some firm away from some unenlightened locale in the hinterlands.

* Among other things, the Democrat Cuomo has said that his program for teacher evaluation is “the single best thing that I can do as governor that’s going to matter long-term to break what is in essence one of the only remaining public monopolies—and that’s what this is, it’s a public monopoly.” See Valerie Straus, “Cuomo Calls Public School System a ‘Monopoly’ He Wants to Bust,” Washington Post, October 29, 2014. * “The coming of post-industrial society” is a phrase that was coined, incidentally, by Daniel Bell, a professor at Harvard. * In truth, the “first tech president” was surely Herbert Hoover, a Stanford graduate who was one of the world’s most prominent engineers before becoming president. As secretary of commerce in the 1920s, Hoover took an interest not only in radio but in the brand-new technology of television. The venture capitalist who regards Obama so highly is John Doerr of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, according to the Silicon Valley Business Journal, September 22, 2015


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Wealth and Poverty: A New Edition for the Twenty-First Century by George Gilder

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, Gunnar Myrdal, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, medical malpractice, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, non-fiction novel, North Sea oil, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, volatility arbitrage, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, yield curve, zero-sum game

Any definition must be somewhat arbitrary. In a sense all goods are services. When one buys a car or a television set, one could be said to acquire transportation or entertainment services, the rents for which are capitalized in the price. Nonetheless, when the term is used in the social sciences, as in an explanation of declining national rates of productivity or in a prediction of the shape of “post-industrial society,” phrases like “the revolution in services,” “the emerging service economy,” and “the low-productivity, people intensive services” refer to two groups of activities that minister to people’s needs without making anything themselves. Schools, hospitals, museums, retail shops, merchandising chains, restaurants, employment agencies, professions, and the like and unlike, comprise the smaller group.

As Theodore Levitt of the Harvard Business School wrote,Only recently have some of the traditional service industries and service occupations begun to think industrially. Only recently have they begun to look at “service” with the cognitive style of the industrialist instead of the humanist, much as people began, in the latter eighteenth century, to look at work in the style of the manufacturer rather than the craftsman.... The so-called post-industrial society is not industrially “post.” Industrialization is as possible in the service as in the goods producing industries, in the service occupations as in the craft occupations.5 Perhaps the epitome of the service sector as an inflationary problem is the hospital. In 1950 the average cost per patient per day was $16; by 1979 it had exceeded $200. But here, too, the phenomenon of the changing basket of goods arises in acute form.

San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies, 1978. ———. “U.S. Inflation and the Choice of Monetary Standard.” Speech at University of Rochester, April 9, 1980. Bartlett, Bruce. A Walk on the Supply Side. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, Inc., 1981. Becker, Gary. “The Effect of the State on the Family.” Monograph prepared for the Mont Pelerin Society Meetings, September 1978. Bell, Daniel. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1973. ———. The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1975. ———. “The New Class: A Muddled Concept.” Transaction/Society 16 (2) Januray–February 1979. Reprinted in Bruce-Briggs, Barry, ed. The New Class. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1979. Berle, Adolph. American Economic Republic. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1963.


pages: 538 words: 145,243

Behemoth: A History of the Factory and the Making of the Modern World by Joshua B. Freeman

anti-communist, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate raider, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, joint-stock company, knowledge worker, mass immigration, means of production, mittelstand, Naomi Klein, new economy, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Pearl River Delta, post-industrial society, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

Left-wing scholars like Mills and Marcuse and many of their followers in the New Left abandoned the idea that the industrial proletariat would act as an agent for progressive social change. While in 1972 there were 13.5 million manufacturing production workers in the United States (more than two million of them working in facilities with 2,500 or more workers), one-time socialist Daniel Bell, a leading sociologist, announced in a book the next year, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. For Bell and many others, “knowledge workers” or “symbolic analysts” had elbowed aside blue-collar workers to constitute the key economic group. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, there was a brief flurry of political and cultural interest in the discontent of industrial workers—the so-called “blue-collar blues”—but an economic downturn quickly put an end to that. The next time factory workers captured public attention, they did so as a result of deindustrialization and the massive social crisis it brought to the “rust belt.”

See also George Lipsitz, “The Meaning of Memory: Family, Class, and Ethnicity in Early Network Television Programs,” Cultural Anthropology 1 (4) (Nov. 1986), 355–87. 29.Nelson Lichtenstein, State of the Union: A Century of American Labor ([2002] Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013), 148–62, 215–18; U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of Manufactures, 1972, vol. 1, Subject and Special Statistics (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976), 68; Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society; A Venture in Social Forecasting (New York: Basic Books, 1973); Freeman, American Empire, 303–06, 344–49; Metzgar, Striking Steel, 210–23. 30.Anders Åman, Architecture and Ideology in Eastern Europe during the Stalin Era; An Aspect of Cold War History (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992), 76; Sonia Melnikova-Raich, “The Soviet Problem with Two ‘Unknowns’: How an American Architect and a Soviet Negotiator Jump-Started the Industrialization of Russia: Part II: Saul Bron,” Industrial Archeology 37 (1/2) (2011), 21–22; “History—Chelyabinsk tractor plant (ChTZ)” (accessed Jan. 18, 2016), http://chtz-uraltrac.ru/articles/categories/24.php; New York Times, Feb. 25, 2016; Stephen Kotkin, Steeltown, USSR: Soviet Society in the Gorbachev Era (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991), xii–xiii, 2, 5. 31.Kate Brown, Plutopia: Nuclear Families, Atomic Cities, and the Great Soviet and American Plutonium Disasters (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013); Lewis H.

See social status and class Classic Landscape (Sheeler), 152–53 Cleveland, Ohio, 116, 149, 163–64, 238, 242 Coburn, Alvin Langdon, 149 Cold War mass production in Eastern Europe decentralization and downsizing, 264–65 factory construction, 253–54, 257 model industrial cities, 249–57 Nowa Huta steelworks, 249, 251–65, 253, 255, 387n politicized working class, 257–64 shrinkage of workforce, 264–65 urbanism, 250–51, 254 valorization of industry and workers, 249–50 in Egypt, 268–69 in Germany, 265–67 legacy of giant factories, 320 in Soviet Union automotive industry, 246–48 convergence theory, 226–27 post-WWII reconstruction, 245–46 scientific and atomic cities, 246 tractor industry, 246 Western assistance, 247 in United States convergence theory, 226–27 decentralization and downsizing, 227–28, 235–44, 382n loss of interest in industrial workers, 244–45 military giantism, 228–33 post-WWII sale of plants, 238 productivity increases, 243 shrinkage of workforce, 240–41, 243–45 trade unions and labor organization, 233–42 Colt, Samuel, 123 Columbian Exposition (1893), 85 Coming of Post-Industrial Society, The (Bell), 244–45 Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO), 163–68 Commons, John L., 112 Communist Manifesto, The (Marx and Engels), 42 company housing and villages boardinghouse model, 54, 55, 61–62, 65–66, 74–75 in China, 278, 285–87, 300, 304–5 Eastern European model industrial cities, 249–51, 253–56 iron and steel industry, 103–6 in Soviet Union, 192–93, 208–10, 246, 248, 373n, 385n company housing and villages (continued) textile industry, 18, 20, 53–54, 61–62, 65–66, 74–75, 334n WWII era, 230–32 company stores, 18, 46 compensation and wages, xv in China, 271, 286, 301 company store credit, 46 currency shortages, 18, 46 downward pressure on wages and living standards, 37 Ford Motor Company, 129–30, 132, 145–46 piecework, 6, 65, 108, 176, 178–79, 371n post-WWII, 234 productivity vs., 65–66 raising after bad publicity, 271, 389n reductions in, 65–66, 99–100, 163 sliding scale, 90, 100 truck, 18, 36 Waltham-Lowell system, 60 withholding, 308, 335n women and children, 23 Condition of the Working Class in England, The (Engels), 29–30, 41, 112, 337n Connecticut, 46, 68, 240, 347n Cook, Tim, 296 Cooper, Hugh L., 186 cooperatives, 10, 179, 224 Corliss engines, 80, 81, 350n Corn Laws, 31–32, 41 Cotton Factories, Union Street, Manchester (engraving), 28 cotton gin, 5 cotton industry, 4–8 age of workers, 23 architecture and construction of mills, 14–17 early American, 45–46 in Egypt, 268 England compared to New England, 43–44 environmental damage from, 27–28 fire danger, 15, 17 first giant factories, 7–10 import substitution, 5 limit of plant size, 13 living conditions, 29–30 machine wrecking, 35 Marx’s Capital and, 34 mechanization of, 7, 9 radical change in, 6–7 renting space and power to multiple employers, 10 rising demand for goods, 4–5, 46 slavery and, 5 technical demands of, 5–6 theories behind adoption of factory model, 10–13 working conditions, 23–27, 30–32 Cotton States and International Exposition (1895), 85–86 Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 252 Couzens, James, 359n Cowie, Jefferson, 316–17 Coxe, Tench, 82 Criss-Crossed Conveyors—Ford Plant, 1927 (Sheeler), 152 Crockett, Davy, 68–69 Cromford, England, 7–8, 13–15, 17, 23, 36, 314, 333n–34n Crompton, Samuel, 7 croppers, 36–37 Crystal Palace Exhibition (1851), 84–85, 88, 93, 134, 291 Cuba, 161 Curtis-Wright Corporation, 229 Czechoslovakia, 249, 385n Daily Worker (newspaper), 161 Daimler AG, 248 Dalton, Massachusetts, 72 Daqing Oil Field, 277–78 Datang, China, 295 Davies, Stuart, 154 de Gaulle, Charles, 256 Dearborn, Michigan, 122, 137–38, 155, 242.


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Capitalism in America: A History by Adrian Wooldridge, Alan Greenspan

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Airbnb, airline deregulation, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, germ theory of disease, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income per capita, indoor plumbing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Mason jar, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade route, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, white flight, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War, young professional

This was one of only two times in American history when this had happened: the other was the mid-1970s, when a sharp economic downturn coincided with a flood of baby-boom graduates onto the market. And yet this was the manufacturing sector’s swan song: the 1956 census revealed that there were more Americans doing white-collar jobs than blue-collar ones, and the most far-sighted commentators asked whether manual workers would go the way of agricultural workers. Peter Drucker coined the phrase “knowledge worker” to describe the rising class. Daniel Bell spotted a “post-industrial society” emerging in the womb of industrial society. Americans began to regard their prowess in winning Nobel Prizes as a measure of the country’s economic virility—between 1943 and 1969, America won twenty-one Nobel Prizes in Physics, far more than any other country, though eleven of the winners were European refugees. Over the postwar period as a whole, it established a striking and sustained lead over every other country.

The proportion of men aged sixteen to sixty-four engaged in the workforce declined from 91 percent in 1950 to 84 percent in 2000, while the proportion of women rose from 37 percent to 71 percent. One of the most unpleasant side effects of the advance of the cerebral economy was the striking increase in the number of men who dropped out of the labor force entirely and became wards of the state. The era saw what Daniel Bell dubbed the “post-industrial society” emerge from the womb of industrial America. The focus of economic life shifted from making things to irrigating ideas—from factories to office parks and from steel mills to universities. Specialists in IT and finance were in particularly heavy demand. The share of U.S. gross domestic product accruing as income to finance and insurance rose fairly steadily from 2.4 percent in 1947 to 7.6 percent in 2006.

., 48, 73, 98–99, 147 patents, 3, 8–9, 45–46, 48, 73, 98–99, 391, 397 issued for inventions (1901–2000), 148 Patterson, John Henry, 422 PayPal, 423, 439 penicillin, 284 Pennsylvania Railroad, 137, 138, 206 People’s Party, 172–73 per capita income (PCI), 84, 92 Perkins, George, 106–7 Perkins, Jacob, 38 Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR), 346 Perot, Ross, 230, 344 personal computers (PCs), 350–51, 353–54 Pfizer, 312, 324 philanthropy, 126, 164, 357 Philip Crosby Associates, 344–45 Philip Morris, 290–91 Phillips curve, 309 Piggly Wiggly, 215–16 Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth, 67 Pittsburgh Steam Engine Company, 52 plows, 33, 47, 72–73 plutocracy, 3, 169 polio vaccines, 284 politics (politicians), 12, 23–26 cult of government, 176–79 Pollock v. Farmer’s Loan & Trust Company, 159 pollution, 168–69, 427, 429 Pomperipossa effect, 440 Pony Express, 19–20, 49–50 Poor, Henry Varnum, 138 population growth, 11, 40–41, 95, 300 populism, 25, 69, 172–73, 245–46, 297, 344, 415 “post-industrial society,” 360–61 Post Office, U.S., 154, 199–200, 251 post–World War II economic expansion, 270–72, 273–98 potholes vs. progress, 394–98 Potter, David, 295 Pratt, Francis, 72 presidential passivity, 157–59 Prince, Charles, 382 prison labor, 87–88 Procter & Gamble, 118–19, 263, 288, 391 productivity, 12–13, 122, 195, 269, 290–93, 453–54 sources of, 14–21 productivity growth, 4, 273–75, 301, 301, 387, 387, 403 Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO), 327–28 professional managers, 207–9 Progressive Era, 25, 165, 176–79, 182, 188, 189, 240–41, 251 Prohibition, 192, 197, 263 property rights, 8, 159–60 protectionism, 7, 194, 230–31, 232, 343–44 Protestant Reformation, 7, 69 Protestant work ethic, 44 Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, 303 Public Works Administration (PWA), 244 Pujo, Arsène, 185 Pullman Company, 144 Pullman Strike of 1894, 154, 173 Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, 182–83 Puritans, 7, 60 “pursuit of happiness,” 8 pursuit of self-interest, 6–7 Quaker Oats, 92, 320 Quakers, 60 quants, 381–82 racism, 89, 295 radio, 202–4, 316 Radio Corporation of America (RCA), 203–4, 316, 320 “railroaded,” 172 railroads, 53–55, 96–98, 112–15, 121, 136–38, 139, 166–67, 197–98, 265 first refrigerated cars, 119 first transcontinental, 16, 18, 90, 114 miles of railroad built, 96–97, 97 Rand, Ayn, 277–78 Rand, Remington, 350–51 Random House, 320 Ransom, Roger, 85 Raskob, John, 221, 222–23 ratio analysis, 340 Ratzel, Friedrich, 88–89 Raytheon, 283, 349 Reagan, Ronald, 26, 248, 324, 325, 326–31, 344, 391, 406 Reaganomics, 330–31 regulations, 255–58, 328–29, 411–15, 412, 416, 425 resource constraints, 10–11 resource revolution, 48–49 retirement age, 404, 441, 442–43 Revolutionary War, 5–6, 31, 34–35, 38–40, 62, 69, 266, 266 Revson, Charles, 264–65 Riesman, David, 295, 296 Riggio, Leonard, 341 “Rip Van Winkle” (Irving), 40 risk management paradigm, 383–84 Road to Serfdom, The (Hayek), 26, 277 robber barons, 124–33, 167–68, 170–71, 356 Roberts, George, 341 Rockefeller, John D., 17, 103, 124, 125–26, 128–30, 136, 142–43, 164, 167–68, 187, 190 Rockefeller University, 126 Rockoff, Hugh, 186, 187 Roebuck, Alvah, 141–42 Rogers, Will, 239, 243 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 234–35, 237, 239–62 fireside chats, 204, 240, 243, 252 New Deal, 25–26, 225–26, 242–62, 415 wartime renaissance, 266, 268–70 Roosevelt, Theodore, 110, 124, 153, 179, 181–85, 268, 427 “Rosie the Riveter,” 363 rubber, 47, 110, 198–99 Rubin, Robert, 332 Rumsfeld, Donald, 306, 368 russet potato, 118 Rust Belt, 321–23, 366 Sanders, Harland, 197, 443 San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, 90 Santa Clara County v.


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

"Robert Solow", Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

The cultural nationalist regards the nation as the product of its unique history and culture and as a collective solidarity endowed with unique attributes.”32 Calhoun, although rejecting the historical newness of the phenomenon, has also emphasized the decisive role of identity in defining politics in contemporary American society, particularly in the women’s movement, in the gay movement, in the civil rights movement, movements “that sought not only various instrumental goals but the affirmation of excluded identities as publicly good and politically salient.” 33 Alain Touraine goes further, arguing that “in a post-industrial society, in which cultural services have replaced material goods at the core of production, it is the defense of the subject, in its personality and in its culture, against the logic of apparatuses and markets, that replaces the idea of class struggle.”34 Then the key issue becomes, as stated by Calderon and Laserna, in a world characterized by simultaneous globalization and fragmentation, “how to combine new technologies and collective memory, universal science and communitarian cultures, passion and reason?”

Thus, to understand the actual profile of the trans formation of employment in advanced societies we must now turn to the differential evolution of each type of service in the G-7 countries. To do so, I shall first comment on the evolution of each category of service in each country; then I shall compare the relative importance of each type of service vis-à-vis each other in each country; finally, I shall consider the trends of evolution of employment in those services that have been identified in the literature as characteristic of “post-industrial” societies. In proceeding with this analysis I must remind the reader that the further we go into the fine-grain analysis of specific categories of employment, the less solid the database becomes. The inability to obtain reliable data for some categories, countries, and periods will make it difficult to be systematic in our analysis across the board. Yet the observation of the tables presented here still suggests that there are some features that merit closer analysis and further elaboration on country-specific databases.

Downgraded labor, particularly in the entry positions for a new generation of workers made up of women, ethnic minorities, immigrants, and young people, is concentrated in low-skill, low-paid activities, as well as in temporary work and/or miscellaneous services. The resulting bifurcation of work patterns and polarization of labor is not the necessary result of technological progress or of inexorable evolutionary trends (for example, the rise of the “post-industrial society” or of the “service economy”). It is socially determined and managerially designed in the process of the capitalist restructuring taking place at the shopfloor level, within the framework and with the help of the process of technological change at the roots of the informational paradigm. Under these conditions, work, employment, and occupations are transformed, and the very notion of work and working time may be changed for ever.


pages: 332 words: 91,780

Starstruck: The Business of Celebrity by Currid

"Robert Solow", barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Donald Trump, income inequality, index card, industrial cluster, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, place-making, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Florida, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, slashdot, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy

“Celebrity, Culture Production and Public Life.” International Journal of Cultural Studies 11, no. 3 (2008): 251–58. Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation. Trans. Sheila Faria Glaser. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994. Beard, Mary. “Welcome to the Human Zoo, Susan.” Times (London), June 2, 2009. Becker, Howard S. Art Worlds. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982. Bell, Daniel. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books, 1973. Berridge, Kate. Madame Tussaud: A Life in Wax. New York: William Morrow, 2006. Blau, Peter M. “A Theory of Social Integration.” American Journal of Sociology 65, no. 6 (1960): 545–56. ———. “A Macrosociological Theory of Social Structure.” American Journal of Sociology 83 (1977): 26–54. Boorstin, Daniel J. The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America.

These initial events generate increasing returns that enable one place, one technology, or one individual to dominate the market and capture most of its benefits. See Arthur, Ermoliev, and Kaniovski, “Path-Dependent Processes” Arthur, Increasing Returns and Path Dependence; Arthur, “Competing Technologies, Increasing Returns” Arthur, “‘Silicon Valley’ Locational Clusters” Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society; David, “Clio and the Economics of QWERTY” Glaeser, “Urban Colossus” Glaeser and Saiz, “The Rise of the Skilled City” Lucas, “On the Mechanics of Economic Development.” 11. Concentration of human capital is a central explanation for productivity and regional and urban development. Although I am discussing a particular form of human capital, the wider point is that industrial success is predicated on having a critical concentration of the necessary labor force within that industry.


pages: 327 words: 88,121

The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, business cycle, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, different worldview, double helix, Downton Abbey, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

fa=biospartnership. 3Nathan Gardels, “Lunch with the FT: He has seen the future,” Financial Times, August 19, 2006. 4Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave (New York: Bantam Books, 1981), 9–11. 5http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=25958. 6Judis, “Newt’s not-so-weird gurus.” 7Toffler, The Third Wave, 4. 8Toffler, The Third Wave, 14. 9An argument made along similar lines can be found in Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1999). 10Marshall McLuhan and Bruce R. Powers, The Global Village (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970). 11Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005). 12Fareed Zakaria. The Post-American World (New York: W. W. Norton, 2009), 19–21. 13Lee Rainie and Barry Wellman, Networked: The New Social Operating System (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2012), Fig. 2.7, 28. 14http://www.freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/Country%20Status%20%26%20Ratings%20Overview%2C%201973-2012.pdf, accessed November 2, 2012. 15Zakaria, The Post-American World, 3. 16Rainie and Wellman, Networked, Figure 2.5, 26. 17“Social Networking Site and Politics,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, March 12, 2012; “Social Networking Popular Across Globe,” Pew Research Center Global Attitudes Project, December 12, 2012. 18“Social Networking Popular Across Globe.” 19Interview with Eric Schmidt, Charlie Rose, March 6, 2009. 20Rainie and Wellman, Networked, Fig. 2.10, 31; Fig. 2.3, 24. 21Matt Richtel, “Attached to Technology and Paying a Price,” New York Times, June 6, 2010; Robert D.

., 4–5, 19, 48, 84, 149 Chicago, University of, 105 Chicago School, 83, 84, 86, 125 children, 12, 27–30, 70, 84, 101, 214–27 affirmation and, 106 health issues and, 51, 52, 58, 59, 198, 201 poor, 62 shopping and, 38–39, 41 urban, 83–86, 222 see also adolescents China, xiv, xvii, 19, 227, 230 Chinatown Bus effect, 33–49, 62, 73, 75, 101, 108, 126, 138 intimate relations and, 42–46, 49 neighborhoods and, 46–49 shopping and, 38–42, 49 Chinatowns, 33–35 choice, 48, 49, 68, 69, 73 affirmation and, 102, 103, 111, 112 cholera, 158–59 Christakis, Nicholas, 96 Christianity, 71, 147, 238 Cincinnati, Ohio, ix–xi, 38–39, 97, 240 City Year, 212–13 Civilization (Ferguson), 229 civil liberties, 227, 231, 232 civil rights movement, 23–24, 51, 68, 108–9 civil society (nonprofits), 150, 194, 201 Claritas, 41 class, 39, 41, 60, 79, 147, 191, 215, 231, 238 in Europe, 81, 232 Clinton, Bill, 10, 15, 20, 22, 52, 113, 114, 186, 198, 213, 255n Cohen, Lizabeth, 203 Cold War, 3, 6, 15, 56, 113, 141, 233 Coleman, James, 98–100, 170, 173 collaborative community model, xii–xiii, 176 collective efficacy, 149–51 Collins, Gail, 27 colonial period, xii–xiii, 81–82, 127 comfort, 52, 54, 60, 103, 104 Coming Apart (Murray), 45, 238, 250n Coming of Post-Industrial Society, The (Bell), 249n commerce, 18–19, 86, 228 Chinatown Bus effect and, 38–42 commitment, 20, 44, 45, 219, 231, 232, 239 communal narcissism, 111 communication, 18, 24–25, 91 community, 12, 79–89, 193–95 American exceptionalism and, 232–34 bedroom, 40, 129 Chinatown Bus effect and, 44, 45 decay of, 7, 66, 73, 113–19, 137–39, 146, 149 Dunbar’s research and, 94–98 monolithic, 46–47, 135, 147–48, 189, 191 networked, 143–53, 168–76, 191, 194–95, 210–11, 217, 235–41 online, 114–15, 116, 145, 250n politically homogeneous, 184 rebuilding of, 213–14 shifts in social architecture of, xii–xx, 75, 129, 211, 212–13, 217 social capital and, 98–101 traditional vs. modern, 128–29 vitality of, 149–51 competition, 47, 63, 229 foreign, xiv, 20, 236 computers, 18 confidants, 118–19 conformity, 4–7, 63–75, 101 Congress, U.S., xv–xvi, 4, 181–86, 191, 212 see also House of Representatives, U.S.; Senate, U.S.


pages: 1,213 words: 376,284

Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, From the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First by Frank Trentmann

Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial exclusion, fixed income, food miles, full employment, germ theory of disease, global village, haute cuisine, high net worth, income inequality, index card, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, labour mobility, libertarian paternalism, Livingstone, I presume, longitudinal study, mass immigration, McMansion, mega-rich, moral panic, mortgage debt, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, stakhanovite, the built environment, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

Rather than leading to alienation, as the Marxists Lefebvre and Marcuse had it, consumer society lifted individuals out of ignorance and their dependence on Church and elites. Spending on books had tripled in the 1950s. Repression had given way to greater sexual freedom. Saint-Geours’ was a distinctly French way of making peace with affluence. Consumer society was not a social disease. It had not killed culture, he wrote. It had merely democratized it. The creative spirit was alive and well; Saint-Geours was one of the first to imagine a ‘post-industrial society’ where the pleasure and freedom to consume would revolve around new experiences. He could see what Galbraith, fifteen years earlier, could not. Affluent societies were spending more and more on health and education: in the early 1960s, public expenditure was 36 per cent of GDP in France (33 per cent in the UK; 35 per cent in West Germany); by the late 1970s it had reached 46 per cent in all three.

Admittedly, Stevenson managed to combine idle moments with writing thirteen novels, six travel books, collections of essays and poetry, composing – he played the flageolet, a type of flute – and travelling to North America and Samoa, where he cleared land and built a home, all in a life cut short at forty-four. Keynes, too, had a dismal view of work. In his eyes, the rich, if they worked at all, were motivated by avarice, the poor by the need to survive. That work might be a source of pleasure and pride largely eluded him.25 In post-industrial society, managers and professionals are spending longer hours at the office than their counterparts two generations earlier. In part, they do so because their job is more satisfying today – ‘le bonheur du travail ’, as the French say.26 The contrast between hard-working Americans and idle Europeans is almost a cliché today. In 2006, the financial giant UBS pointed to longer work hours to explain why the American economy was growing faster27 – an idea that the recession since has surely put to rest.

It is no coincidence that professional busyness, active leisure and ‘quality time’ have arisen together in the late twentieth century, a period when affluent Western societies began the transition from industrial to knowledge-based societies. After centuries of trying to break free from the world of work, leisure today is close to mimicking its rhythm. It is too early to tell whether in post-industrial society leisure and work will once again fuse into an organic whole; the use of social media points in that direction. If they do, it is unlikely to involve the contemplative, disinterested qualities cherished by the ancients. Slow Food, Cittaslow and similar movements hope to stop the acceleration of life. In the light of the above, their chances of success are slim. The intensification of leisure is the crest of a wave of social, technological and cultural changes.


pages: 538 words: 164,533

1968: The Year That Rocked the World by Mark Kurlansky

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, East Village, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, European colonialism, feminist movement, global village, Haight Ashbury, land reform, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea

American companies, with $14 billion invested in Europe, were taking over. He warned that in the next thirty years they would all be living in what was called “the post-industrial society.” He added, “We should remember this term, for it defines our future.” Among the other prescient predictions: “Time and space will no longer be a problem in communications” and “The gap between high and low salaries in the post-industrial society will be considerably stronger than today.” But he also endorsed the widespread belief in 1968 that by the end of the century Americans would be awash in leisure time. In thirty years, Servan-Schreiber predicted, “America will be a post-industrial society with a per capita income of $7,500. There will be only four work days a week of seven hours per day. The year will be comprised of 39 work weeks and 13 weeks of vacation.”


pages: 289 words: 99,936

Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age by Virginia Eubanks

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, game design, global village, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, race to the bottom, rent control, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban planning, web application, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

All that hardware, now linked from local area networks to the global Internet, along with a political regime of smaller government and lighter regulation, has unleashed forces of innovation and wealth creation like the world has never known before. Flatter hierarchies and more interesting work are the social payoffs; rising incomes and an end to slumps the economic payoffs. Quality replaces quantity, knowledge replaces physical capital, and flexible networks replace rigid organization charts” (Henwood 2003, 3–4). 14. Among the most popular are Daniel Bell’s The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (1976), Alvin Toffler’s The Third Wave (1980), John Naisbett’s Megatrends (1984), Peter Drucker’s Post-Capitalist Society (1993), Bill Gates’s The Road Ahead (1996), Kevin Kelly’s Out of Control (1995) and New Rules for the New Economy (1998), Esther Dyson’s Release 2.0 (1997), Thomas Friedman’s The World Is Flat (2005), and Don Tapscott’s Wikinomics (2006). 15. Volatility is increasingly the topic of policy discussions about inequality and development.

Education and Citizenship in the Digital Age. Techne: Research in Philosophy and Technology 9. Bastian, Michelle. 2006. Haraway’s Lost Cyborg and the Possibilities of Transversalism. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 31:1027–1049. Bastian, Sunil, and Nicola Bastian. 1996. Assessing Participation: A Debate from South Asia. New Delhi: Konark Publishers. Bell, Daniel. 1976. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books. Benhabib, Seyla. 1996. Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Benner, Chris. 2002. Work in the New Economy: Flexible Labor Markets in Silicon Valley. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Berger, Michele Tracy. 2004. Workable Sisterhood: The Political Journey of Stigmatized Women with HIV/AIDS. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


The Future of Money by Bernard Lietaer

agricultural Revolution, banks create money, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, clean water, complexity theory, corporate raider, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, diversification, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, German hyperinflation, global reserve currency, Golden Gate Park, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invention of writing, Lao Tzu, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Norbert Wiener, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, price stability, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Future of Employment, the market place, the payments system, Thomas Davenport, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, working poor

.' - Henry Miller In less than two decades, what Daniel Bell originally called the Post- Industrial Society is now commonly referred to as the Information, Knowledge or Communications Age. As information becomes our critical resource, there are sweeping implications not only for our economy, but also for the very fabric of our society. We saw that our oldest information systems are money systems (chapter 1) remember, even writing was initially invented to record financial transactions. So it is no surprise that money is again in the forefront in computerized cyberspace. We can expect fundamental changes not only in payment systems for conventional currencies, but also the emergence of new types of money. Post Industrial Society = Knowledge Age In the 1940s, IBM's first Chairman, Thomas Watson, predicted a world market for 'maybe five computers'.


pages: 398 words: 111,333

The Einstein of Money: The Life and Timeless Financial Wisdom of Benjamin Graham by Joe Carlen

Albert Einstein, asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business intelligence, discounted cash flows, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, full employment, index card, index fund, intangible asset, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, laissez-faire capitalism, margin call, means of production, Norman Mailer, oil shock, post-industrial society, price anchoring, price stability, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, the scientific method, Vanguard fund, young professional

Notably, Marjorie had married Irving Janis, the acclaimed psychologist who, according to the New York Times, became “best known for coining the term ‘group think’ to describe the sometimes risky way decisions are made in high-powered political and corporate circles.”50 Considering Graham's own intellectualism, it is interesting that Graham's second daughter, the thrice-married Elaine, was also drawn to the intellectual type: her first marriage was to the Harvard sociologist Daniel Bell, the celebrated author of such books as The End of Ideology51 and The Coming of Post-Industrial Society.52 (A 2010 interview of the late academic revealed that Bell's association with his former father-in-law was not only family related: “I worked for Ben, and I made some money with it.”53) Elaine later moved to her father's native England and married yet another acclaimed sociologist, Cyril Sofer—the noted Cambridge professor and author of such books as Men in Mid-Career54 and Organizations in Theory and Practice.55 Elaine had her only two children with Mr.

CFA Institute, https://www.cfainstitute.org/pages/index.aspx (accessed January 10, 2012). 49. Live interview with Dr. Bernard Sarnat and Rhoda Gerard Sarnat, July 18, 2011, Los Angeles, CA. 50. “Irving Janis Dies at 72; Coined ‘Group Think,’” New York Times, November 18, 1990. 51. Daniel Bell, The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962). 52. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting (New York: Basic Books, 1973). 53. Roberto Foa and Thomas Meaney, “The Last Word,” Utopian, February 10, 2011 (interview with Daniel Bell conducted on September 21, 2010). 54. Cyril Sofer, Men in Mid-Career: A Study of British Managers and Technical Specialists (Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1970). 55. Cyril Sofer, Organizations in Theory and Practice (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Educational Publishers, 1973). 56.


pages: 122 words: 38,022

Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan and Tumblr to Trump and the Alt-Right by Angela Nagle

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, citizen journalism, crony capitalism, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, feminist movement, game design, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mass immigration, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, open borders, post-industrial society, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks

They also had libertarian and authoritarian wings of thought, but certainly constituted a break from the decorum of the Burkeans, adopting some of the harder edge of the Thatcher era, even flirting with far-right ideas. The reformist-left writer Christopher Lasch applied the Freudian conception of transgression as anti-civilizational to his critique of the vacuous nihilism and narcissism of post 60s American consumer society. But since the 60s the norm has until now been that critics of transgression have generally come from the right. Theorist of post-industrial society Daniel Bell lamented the transgressive ethos of the 60s and warned of its ‘obsessive preoccupation with homosexuality, transvestism, buggery, and, most pervasive of all, publicly displayed oral-genital intercourse.’ The transgressive irreverent style of the 60s counterculture was everything the right hated in previous culture wars. The ‘adversary culture’ bemoaned by conservative anti-feminists like Phyllis Schlafly and the neocons of Commentary magazine warned against the destructive impulses of the transgressive sensibility.


pages: 429 words: 114,726

The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise by Nathan L. Ensmenger

barriers to entry, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, deskilling, Donald Knuth, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Grace Hopper, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, loose coupling, new economy, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Shoshana Zuboff, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K

By this point the rhetoric of crisis had become so commonplace in the computer industry literature that for many young programmers the software crisis was “less a turning point than a way of life.”16 This comes back to some of the central questions of this book: How can we explain the continued existence of a seemingly perpetual crisis in what is generally considered to be one of the most successful and profitable industries of all time? How can we understand the role of computer specialists—in many respects the paradigmatic “knowledge workers” of post-industrial society—within this troubled framework of crisis, conflict, and contested identity? If, as Shoshona Zuboff has suggested, computer-based technologies are not simply neutral artifacts, but rather “embody essential characteristics that are bound to alter the nature of work within factories and offices, and among workers, professionals, and managers,” then what are the “essential characteristics” of software and software development that shape our understanding of work, identity, and power in the information technology industry (and the many industries that rely on information technology)?

Library Quarterly 32 (1) (1962): 86–88. Beirne, Martin, and Harold Ramsay and Androniki Panteli. “Developments in Computing Work: Control and Contradiction in the Software Labour Process.” In Developments in Computing Work: Control and Contradiction in the Software Labour Process, ed. Paul Thompson and Chris Warhurst, 142–162. New York: Macmillan, 1998. Bell, Daniel. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books, 1973. Bemer, Robert. Computers and Crisis: How Computers Are Shaping Our Future. New York: ACM Press, 1971. Bendix Computer Division. “Is Your Programming Career in a Closed Loop?” (ad). Datamation 8 (9) (1962): 86. Benington, Herbert. “Production of Large Computer Programs” (reprint). IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 5 (4) (1983): 350–361. Berger, Raymond M.


New Localism and Regeneration Management by Jon Coaffee

glass ceiling, Kickstarter, place-making, post-industrial society, the built environment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal

(Eds) (2001), Partnership Working: Policy and Practice, The Policy Press, Bristol. Benson, J.K. (1975), “The interorganizational network as a political economy”, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 20, pp. 229-49. Bingle, P. (2004), “PFI and politics”, speech to the PPC Forum Conference, Birmingham, July. Byrne, D. (2001), “Partnership – participation – power: the meaning of empowerment in post-industrial society”, in Balloch, S. and Taylor, M. (Eds), Partnership Working: Policy and Practice, The Policy Press, Bristol, pp. 243-59. Coote, A., Allen, J. and Woodhead, D. (2004), Building Knowledge about Complex, Community-Based Initiatives, Kings’ Fund, London. Darwin, J. (1992), “The network organisation”, MBA dissertation, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield. DTLR (2001), Strong Local Leadership: Quality Public Services, White Paper, Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions, London, December.


pages: 460 words: 131,579

Masters of Management: How the Business Gurus and Their Ideas Have Changed the World—for Better and for Worse by Adrian Wooldridge

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Black Swan, blood diamonds, borderless world, business climate, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Exxon Valdez, financial deregulation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, George Gilder, global supply chain, industrial cluster, intangible asset, job satisfaction, job-hopping, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, Naomi Klein, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Norman Macrae, patent troll, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, wealth creators, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

In the United States, women make up more than two-thirds of the employees in ten out of the fifteen job categories that the U.S. Census department thinks will grow fastest in the next few years. The growing demand for female labor is a function of economic progress. The landmark book in the rise of feminism was arguably not Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique but Daniel Bell’s The Rise of Post-Industrial Society, an account of the decline of the manufacturing sector (where men had an advantage in terms of brute strength) and the rise of the service sector (where women can compete as well as men). What happened in the developed world over the past fifty years is now being repeated in the developing world. The story of women’s economic empowerment comes with some stings in the tail. Women are still underrepresented in the middle and upper rungs of the occupational ladder.

Business Excellence in a Disruptive Age (Peters), 58, 96, 97 Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector (Osborne and Gaebler), 318 Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy (Lessig), 156–157 Revlon, 172 Rhee, Michelle, 330 Ricardo, David, 22 Richards, Keith, 195 The Rise of Meritocracy (Young), 129, 386 The Rise of Post-Industrial Society (Bell), 345 The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure and Everyday Life (Florida), 129, 130 Robbins, Anthony, 50, 394 Robin Hood Foundation, 47 Roddick, Anita, 33, 36 Rogers, Jay, 242 Romney, Mitt, 53, 316 Rosenzweig, Phil, xiii, 13, 413 Rosling, Alan, 287 Ross Business School, 61 Roux, Geoffrey, 195 Rubin, Robert, 126 Rumsfeld, Donald, 322 Saez, Emmanuel, 382 Said School, 56, 189–190 Sainsbury, 36 Salaries.


The Rise and Fall of the British Nation: A Twentieth-Century History by David Edgerton

active measures, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blue-collar work, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Corn Laws, corporate governance, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, Donald Davies, double helix, endogenous growth, Etonian, European colonialism, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, full employment, imperial preference, James Dyson, knowledge economy, labour mobility, land reform, land value tax, manufacturing employment, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, new economy, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, packet switching, Philip Mirowski, Piper Alpha, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, trade liberalization, union organizing, very high income, wages for housework, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor

Thus it was, as we have seen, that new power stations and motorways were being built in the late 1960s and 1970s, and expansion plans for steel and cars assumed much greater demand in the future. In this it was similar to the 1940s and 1950s, when investing for a richer future was the order of the day. Some, however, called for a new kind of post-industrial society – a radically less industrialized society which would be in better relationship with nature.5 Neither was to be the sort of post-industrial society that would be talked about in the 1980s and neither predicted what happened. Far from continuing to grow apace, British industrial production would stagnate, and employment in industry would fall drastically as imports surged. Demand for energy tailed off. The most obvious feature of the development of the British economy since the 1970s is perhaps the rise of the service economy.

The quadrupling of the oil price by the cartel of oil-producing countries in 1973 and their flexing of political and economic muscle was a new phenomenon in world history, and it led to huge transfers of wealth to them. There was industrial unrest all over the world and in many places revolution too. New ideas were everywhere. EXPECTATIONS DASHED In the late 1960s and early 1970s there was talk of an emerging post-industrial society. It was to be a society with high and increasing industrial output, greater levels of research and development and, because of higher productivity, much more leisure. It was post-industrial not because there would be less industry, but because industry would not need so many people. Indeed, British planners, like their counterparts elsewhere, were looking forward to higher levels of production of all sorts.


pages: 173 words: 52,725

How to Be Right: In a World Gone Wrong by James O'Brien

Boris Johnson, clockwatching, collective bargaining, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, game design, housing crisis, mass immigration, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, QAnon, ride hailing / ride sharing, sexual politics, young professional

As the Conservative politicians they mostly voted for accepted jobs with funds heavily invested in Uber (George Osborne) or hired advisers married to the company’s head of PR (David Cameron), the ‘ordinary working people’ they professed to protect who had borrowed significant sums of money to join the trade after spending several years training found out that their exclusive right to ‘ply for hire’ had effectively been torn up and flushed down the toilet. I often wonder whether sympathy would have been more forthcoming if cabbies hadn’t revelled in a reputation for having no sympathy for other people on the receiving end of right-wing sharp practice. I guess we’ll never know, but Uber taught me two lessons. First, neo-liberal entrepreneurship in a post-industrial society will effectively involve identifying markets where normal people are earning a decent living in the hope of introducing technology that will see some of that money end up with neo-liberal entrepreneurs and their backers. Second, the risk of launching new businesses is being increasingly passed from the owners to their underpaid, over-worked and widely exploited workforce. Because, although I feel genuinely and enduringly sorry for the London cab drivers, I feel a hell of a lot sorrier for the men and women driving under Uber’s auspices.


pages: 171 words: 53,428

On Anarchism by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, crowdsourcing, feminist movement, land reform, means of production, Occupy movement, post-industrial society, profit motive, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

The more so, since now society is such a complicated structure, based on abstract and difficult science, that only the highest intellectual acumen is capable of embracing, grasping and handling it. Should the working masses, from lack of insight, fail to acknowledge this need of superior intellectual lead, should they stupidly try to take the direction into their own hands, chaos and ruin will be the inevitable consequence. 2. See Daniel Bell, “Notes on the Post-Industrial Society: Part I,” Public Interest, no. 6 (1967), pp. 24–35. Albert Parry has suggested that there are important similarities between the emergence of a scientific elite in the Soviet Union and the United States, in their growing role in decision making, citing Bell’s thesis in support. See the New York Times, March 27, 1966, reporting on the Midwest Slavic Conference. 3. Letter to Herzen and Ogareff, 1866, cited in Daniel Guérin, Jeunesse du socialism libertoire (Paris: Librairie Marcel Rivière, 1959), p. 119. 4.


pages: 391 words: 22,799

To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton

affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, liberation theology, longitudinal study, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration

The following very general sketch of management theory draws heavily on Mauro Guillén, Models of Management: Work, Authority, and Organization in a Comparative Perspective (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 30–90; and Waring, Taylorism Transformed. I am indebted to Rakesh Khurana for suggesting these guides. William H. Whyte Jr., The Organization Man (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1956), 37. Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation (New York: Basic Books, 1977), 23–25. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting; Special Anniversary Edition with a New Foreword by the Author (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 17. W. Jack Duncan, Great Ideas in Management: Lessons from the Founders and Foundations of Managerial Practice (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989), 187–89; Waring, Taylorism Transformed, 133–42. Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960).

., 120 Years of American Education: A Statistical Portrait (National Center for Education Statistics, 1993), 65–66, http://nces.ed.gov/ pubs93/93442.pdf. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Profile of the United States: 2000 (InterÂ�net Release) (2001), fig. 8-2, http://www.census.gov/population/ pop-profile/2000/profile2000.pdf. 48. Howard Brick, “Optimism of the Mind: Imagining Postindustrial Society in the 1960s and 1970s,” American Quarterly 44, no. 3 (September 1992): 348–80. 49. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting; Special Anniversary Edition with a New Foreword by the Author (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 269. 50. Bergdahl, What I Learned from Sam Walton, 151. 51. College of the Ozarks, Bulletin (Clarksville, AR, 1969–70), 15. 52. Vernon McDaniel, “Milestone at Ozarks: Arkansas’s Oldest College Marks Its 125th Year This Week; New Era Dawns,” AG, October 25, 1959, 2E. 53.


Crisis and Leviathan: Critical Episodes in the Growth of American Government by Robert Higgs, Arthur A. Ekirch, Jr.

Alistair Cooke, American ideology, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, declining real wages, endowment effect, fiat currency, fixed income, full employment, hiring and firing, income per capita, Jones Act, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, price discrimination, profit motive, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

Browning and Browning, Public Finance, pp. 29-34,42-44, 49-50; joseph P. Kalt, "Public Goods and the Theory of Government," Cato Journal 1 (Fall 1981): 565-584; Russell D. Roberts, "A Taxonomy of Public Provision," Public Choice 47 (1985): 267-303. Compare E. C. Pasour,jr., "The Free Rider as a Basis for Government Intervention," Journal of Libertarian Studies 5 (Fall 1981): 453-464. 21. Victor R. Fuchs, "The Economics of Health in a Post-Industrial Society," Public Interest (Summer 1979): 19, 13. For provocative variations on the theme, see Robert Nisbet, Twilight of Authority (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), esp. pp. 230-287. 22. Wilhelm Ropke, A Humane Economy: The Social Framework of the Free Market, trans. Elizabeth Henderson (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1971), pp. 156, 164-165. Also Mancur Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1982), p. 174. 23.

Keeler, "Theories of Regulation and the Deregulation Movement," Public Choice 44 (1984): 130; Hardin, Collective Action, pp. 35-37. Lately even the mighty Pentagon has suffered defeat at the hands of a determined congressman. John J. Fialka, "Oregon Congressman Outflanks the Pentagon In Single-Minded, Single-Handed Weapon War," Wall Street Journal (Sept. 13, 1985): 54. 29. Victor R. Fuchs, "The Economics of Health in a Post-Industrial Society," Public Interest (Summer 1979): 16; Shultz and Dam, Economic Policy Beyond the Headlines, pp. 51-52; John Mark Hansen, "The Political Economy of Group Membership," American Political Science Review 79 (March 1985): 81. 30. See the related discussions of the "endowment effect" by Richard H. Thaler, "Illusions and Mirages in Public Policy," Public Interest (Fall 1983): 64-65; of "hysteresis" by Hardin, Collective Action, pp. 82-83; of "universalism and reciprocity" by Alt and Chrystal, Political Economics, pp. 196-197. 31.


pages: 219 words: 61,334

Brit-Myth: Who Do the British Think They Are? by Chris Rojek

Bob Geldof, British Empire, business climate, colonial rule, deindustrialization, demand response, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Isaac Newton, Khartoum Gordon, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, post-industrial society, Red Clydeside, sceptred isle, Stephen Hawking, the market place, urban planning, Winter of Discontent

It weakens the hands of states to control information and regulate populations by making national boundaries essentially porous. 31 ‘C O O L BRITANNIA’ AND THE NATION Two main versions of globalization theory have emerged. The first emphasizes the standardization and regimentation of global culture that follows the creation and colonization of the global market by multinational corporations. This is akin to the return of mass society and post-industrial society theories of the 1960s and ’70s that portrayed the future of the world as some sort of global office in the sky. The second stresses the interplay of local conditions and global forces. The term glocalization has been coined to capture this process. Both versions raise a set of questions that cannot be tackled here. The point to emphasize is that globalization is typically associated with reducing the capacity for manoeuvre of national governments and, conversely, increasing the internationalization of social movements, commerce and communication.


pages: 239 words: 62,311

The Next Factory of the World: How Chinese Investment Is Reshaping Africa by Irene Yuan Sun

barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, capital controls, clean water, Computer Numeric Control, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, global supply chain, invisible hand, job automation, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, manufacturing employment, means of production, mobile money, post-industrial society, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population

The hope is that factories can provide jobs not just for rare remarkable individuals like Ahmed, but as in this case, for entire villages. Yet, as we shall see, this possibility feels deeply uncertain, even to some of those closest to the transformation. Throughout Africa, Chinese bosses complain about their African workers; even those who grew up working in factories themselves tend to forget how hard it is to get used to factory work. And it is easy for people in industrial and post-industrial societies, ourselves included, to forget how many profound transitions are unleashed when someone goes to work in a factory. History shows that industrialization has fundamentally transformed every society it has touched. Africa, now feeling the first reverberations of its coming, will be no exception. For the continent, mass employment will involve not simply economics, but also social and political changes that will remake the very underpinnings of society


pages: 1,015 words: 170,908

Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, conceptual framework, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invisible hand, late capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning

See Xudong Zhang, Chinese Modernism in the Era of Reforms (Durham: Duke University Press, 1997). Zhang makes clear the fabulous creativity released during this period. 3 . 4 P O S T M O D E R N I Z A T I O N 1. The texts that set the terms for an enormous literature that debates the periodization ofthe phases ofmodern production are Daniel Bell, Coming of Post-industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1973); and Alain Toura-ine, Post-industrial Society, trans. Leonard Mayhew (New York: Random House, 1971). 2. See Manuel Castells and Yuko Aoyama, ‘‘Paths towards the Informational Society: Employment Structure in G-7 Countries, 1920–90,’’ International Labour Review, 133, no. 1 (1994), 5–33; quotation p. 13. 3. On the false historical analogies that contributed to the debt crisis of Third World countries, see Cheryl Payer, Lent and Lost: Foreign Credit and Third World Development (London: Zed Books, 1991). 4.


pages: 204 words: 67,922

Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley

assortative mating, call centre, clean water, commoditize, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, off grid, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

v=KZASRm fUMOk; accessed August 9, 2003. 3. Rachel Sherman. Class Acts: Service and Inequality in Luxury Hotels (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007). CONVESTMENT 1. Ronald Inglehart, The Silent Revolution: Changing Values and Political Styles Among Western Publics (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1977). See also Ronald Inglehart, “The Silent Revolution in Post-Industrial Societies,” American Political Science Review 65 (1971): 991-1017. Ted Nordhaus and Michael Shellenberger elaborate on Inglehart’s concept in their book Break Through to suggest that we now live in a condition of “insecure affluence.” See, Ted Nordhaus and Michael Shellenberger, Break Through: From the Death of Environmentalism to the Politics of Possibility (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2007). 2.


pages: 208 words: 67,582

What About Me?: The Struggle for Identity in a Market-Based Society by Paul Verhaeghe

Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, deskilling, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, invisible hand, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Louis Pasteur, market fundamentalism, Milgram experiment, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, The Spirit Level, ultimatum game, working poor

In both cases, this requires considerable personal sacrifice. Believers must pray and work hard to attain God’s mercy. The ignorant must study hard, and if necessary seek psychological counselling in order to attain reason through the proper insights. The post-modern scientistic view is more pessimistic: we will have to wait for a genetic modification of the human race that will fit us better for the post-industrial society that we have created.* [* That this idea has become more widespread is evident from the fact that it represents the closest thing to an optimistic notion in the cynical world of The Elementary Particles, the book with which Michel Houellebecq achieved his international breakthrough. His first novel, Whatever, describes with painful beauty the origin of that cynicism.] In both cases, passion is prohibited; either it is sinful and we should resist it, or it is primitive and irrational and we should turn a blind eye to it (if needs be, with a bit of a snigger), but we certainly don’t need to take it seriously.


pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

Whatever high levels of mobility have brought to enrich the lives of children or improve the quality of life of all of us, and the balance sheet is far from positive, it is clear that low mobility was associated with high level of satisfaction, enjoyment and developmental significance. The low mobility world of the 1950s was embedded in a wider life style and societal context that has been largely swept away in so-called developed societies or post-industrial societies. The Oldham of my childhood in the 1950s was characterised by large numbers of local shops within walking distance, a vigorous and enormous open air market and indoor market (Tommyfield) again within walking distance, local parks, a local library, a local swimming pool (Robin Hill Baths) and perhaps even more surprisingly a public wash house where my mother took the family washing and joined in with many other women to do the washing in an enormous, steamy room full of washing and drying facilities (and from the point of view of a 6 year old boy, full of very scary women).


Working the Phones: Control and Resistance in Call Centres by Jamie Woodcock

always be closing, anti-work, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, David Graeber, invention of the telephone, job satisfaction, late capitalism, means of production, millennium bug, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, profit motive, social intelligence, stakhanovite, women in the workforce

Ibid. 119. Hotlines – Call Centre | Inquiry | Communism (Duisburg: Kolinko, 2002). 120. David Harvey, A Brief History of Neoliberalism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 38. 121. Enda Brophy, ‘The Subterranean Stream: Communicative Capitalism and Call Centre Labour’, Ephemera, Vol. 10, No. 3/4 (2010), p. 474. This refers to the utopian perspective of Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting (New York: Basic Books, 1973). 122. Brophy, ‘The Subterranean Stream’ (2010), p. 471. 123. Goodrich, The Frontier of Control (1975). 170 Notes chapter 2 1. See Richard Murphy, ‘Vodafone’s Tax Case Leaves a Sour Taste’, The Guardian, 22 October 2010, www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/ 2010/oct/22/vodafone-tax-case-leaves-sour-taste 2. Glengarry Glen Ross [Drama] Zupnik Cinema Group, 1992. 3.


pages: 309 words: 78,361

Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor

Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Gini coefficient, global village, IKEA effect, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar

.: Stanford University Press. Garment District, The. 2009. Dollar-a-pound clothing. Available from http://www.garmentdistrict.com/dollar_lb/dollar_a_pound.htm (accessed March 17, 2009). Gershenfeld, Neil. 2005. Fab: The coming revolution on your desktop; From personal computers to personal fabrication. New York: Basic Books. Gershuny, Jonathan. 2000. Changing times: Work and leisure in post-industrial society. New York: Oxford University Press. Ghertner, D. Asher, and Matthias Fripp. 2007. Trading away damage: Quantifying environmental leakage through consumption-based, life-cycle analysis. Ecological Economics 63: 563-77. Global Carbon Project. 2008. Carbon budget and trends 2007. Available from http://www.globalcarbonproject.org/carbonbudget/07/index.htm (accessed July 1, 2009). Global Ecovillage Network. 2009.


pages: 232 words: 77,956

Private Island: Why Britain Now Belongs to Someone Else by James Meek

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, business continuity plan, call centre, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, HESCO bastion, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, Mikhail Gorbachev, post-industrial society, pre–internet, price mechanism, Right to Buy, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Washington Consensus, working poor

The heirs of Adam Smith, writes Bell, assumed that the market was a sufficient arbiter of the public weal; there, the differential utilities of individuals and the scarcity of different goods would come to an equilibrium that harmonised the intensity of desires and the willingness to pay the asking price. Classical Marxism had an entirely different answer to the problem of relative justice in society. It assumed that competition, envy, and evil all resulted from scarcity, and that the abundance of goods would make such conflicts unnecessary. But what we have come to realise is that we will never overcome scarcity. In the post-industrial society … there would be new scarcities which nineteenth-century utopians could never envision. The selling off of Britain’s municipal housing without replacing it, which I write about in the last section of this book, was supposed to be a triumphant coming together of the individual and free market principles. It actually ended up as one of the most glaring examples of market failure in postwar history.


pages: 477 words: 75,408

The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism by Calum Chace

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

In his 1962 book, The production and distribution of knowledge in the United States, he introduced the notion of the knowledge industry, by which he meant education, research and development, mass media, information technologies, and information services. He calculated that in 1959, it accounted for almost a third of US GDP, which he felt qualified the US as an information society. Alvin Toffler, author of the visionary books Future Shock (1970) and The Third Wave (1980), argued that the post-industrial society has arrived when the majority of workers are doing brain work rather than personally manipulating physical resources – in other words when they are part of the service sector. Services grew to 50% of US GDP shortly before 1940,[viii] and they first employed the majority of working Americans around 1950. We have seen that the start and end dates of the economic revolutions (agricultural, industrial and information) are unclear.


Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital: The Dynamics of Bubbles and Golden Ages by Carlota Pérez

agricultural Revolution, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, commoditize, Corn Laws, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, distributed generation, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, Hyman Minsky, informal economy, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, late capitalism, market fundamentalism, new economy, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, post-industrial society, profit motive, railway mania, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus

Baran, Paul A. and Sweezy, Paul M. (1966:1968), Monopoly Capital: An Essay on the American Economic and Social Order, New York and London: Modern Reader Paperbacks. Barras, Richard (1986), ‘Towards a Theory of Innovation in Services’, Research Policy, Vol. 15, pp. 161–73. Barras, Richard. (1990), ‘Interactive Innovation in Financial and Business Services: The Vanguard of the Service Revolution’, Research Policy, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 215–39. Bell, Daniel (1973:1976), The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Peregrine/Penguin. Berghahn, Volker R. (1994), Imperial Germany, 1871–1914. Economy, Society, Culture and Politics, Providence, RI and Oxford: Berghahn Books. Beveridge, Sir William (1944:1967), Full Employment in a Free Society, London: George Allen & Unwin (Second impression). Blair, John M. (1972), Economic Concentration: Structure, Behavior and Policy, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.


pages: 265 words: 74,941

The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work by Richard Florida

banking crisis, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial innovation, Ford paid five dollars a day, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, total factor productivity, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

See “Today in Lehman Poaching: Barclays and UBS,” Wall Street Journal, October 8, 2008, retrieved from http://blogs.wsj.com/deals/2008/10/08/today-in-lehman-poaching-barclays-and-ubs; “China’s Sovereign Wealth Fund Seeking Talent,” Reuters, June 17, 2009, retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2009/06/17/news/international/CIC_hiring.reut; “Wall Street’s Job Losses May be Asia’s Gain,” Reuters, Trading Places, September 19, 2008, retrieved from http://blogs.reuters.com/trading-places/2008/09/19/wall-street-job-losses-may-be-asias-gain; Gavin Finch and Poppy Trowbridge, “Nomura, Barclays Lure Bankers as Rivals Cut Jobs, Cap Bonuses,” Bloomberg, November 6, 2009, retrieved from www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aGY5f6XsWveE. 14. Michael Pettis, “Bigger Than Ever: Why the Crisis Will Only Help Ny-Lon,” Newsweek, May 23, 2009, retrieved from www.newsweek.com/id/199100. Chapter 10: Fire Starter 1. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1976); Thierry Noyelle and Thomas Stanback, The Economic Transformation of American Cities (Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Allanheld, 1984). 2. Eric Janszen, “The Next Bubble: Priming the Markets for Tomorrow’s Big Crash,” Harper’s, February 2008, retrieved from www.harpers.org/archive/2008/02/0081908. 3. Analysis by Charlotta Mellander based on Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts, retrieved from www.bea.gov/national/index.htm#gdp. 4.


pages: 287 words: 86,919

Protocol: how control exists after decentralization by Alexander R. Galloway

Ada Lovelace, airport security, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, computer age, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, John Conway, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, linear programming, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, phenotype, post-industrial society, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, semantic web, SETI@home, stem cell, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, the market place, theory of mind, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Review, working poor

But more than being about fashion, the American middle-class youth culture Tron targeted was also one that existed during significant technological transformations, transformations we are still understanding today. The development of the personal computer, along with computer networks, has had a profound, stratified impact on the way in which social, political, and economic life is experienced. Recent discussions of the post-industrial society, the information society, the network society, disciplinary society, control society, informatization, scale-free networks, small worlds, and smart mobs are all ways of attempting to understand how social change is indissociable from technological development (research, design, use, distribution, marketing, naturalization, consumption)—though not determined by it. This last point is crucial.


pages: 361 words: 83,886

Inside the Robot Kingdom: Japan, Mechatronics and the Coming Robotopia by Frederik L. Schodt

carbon-based life, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, factory automation, game design, guest worker program, industrial robot, Jacques de Vaucanson, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce

Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom has in the past heaped scorn on British manufacturers who fail to robotize, contrasting Japan's high number of robots and low unemployment with the opposite situation in Britain and noting that "the people who object to new technology will use their pay packets to buy the products of new technology from other countries."19 The advantages of using robotics are obvious, but why should the advanced nations even bother? Clearly, there are other ways besides manufacturing for nations to earn a living in the world community, whether through agriculture, finance, or the sale of resources. Why not accept the world trend of specialization and international division of labor and become, as many experts suggest, post-industrial societies based on software, design, and the service industries? First, nations with strong manufacturing industries have historically dominated other areas as well. Process and product technology have become much more closely linked today, so that to remain technologically advanced an industry requires a mastery of manufacturing technology equal to or greater than its mastery of design technology.


pages: 297 words: 83,651

The Twittering Machine by Richard Seymour

4chan, anti-communist, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Cal Newport, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Google Chrome, Google Earth, hive mind, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, patent troll, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Rat Park, rent-seeking, replication crisis, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart cities, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, upwardly mobile, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Some postmodern eristic came with emancipatory stylings, as though the collapse of totalizing claims and grand narratives would be innately liberating. For the ex-Marxists among the postmodernists, this was clearly an attempt at sublimating their historical defeat. Nonetheless, the identification of a postmodern era was an attempt to describe something that had happened to capitalism. That something – whether it went under the name of the post-industrial society, the knowledge economy or informational capitalism – was the growing importance of images and signs in everyday life. The rise of information technologies and whole industries based around communications, signs and images, altered not only the economy but the structure of meaning. The growth of information economies fits well with the inherent and ever-increasing celerity of capitalism.


pages: 302 words: 84,881

The Digital Party: Political Organisation and Online Democracy by Paolo Gerbaudo

Airbnb, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, centre right, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, gig economy, industrial robot, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, post-industrial society, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, software studies, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, WikiLeaks

Seymour Martin Lipset and Stein Rokkan, eds, Party systems and voter alignments: cross-national perspectives, Vol. 7 (New York: Free Press, 1967). 35. On left-libertarian parties, see the most influential account by Herbert P. Kitschelt, ‘Left-libertarian parties: explaining innovation in competitive party systems’, World Politics 40, no.2 (1988): 194–234. 36. Here I refer to the famous argument by Ronald Inglehart about the rise of post-materialist values paralleling the transformation from industrial to post-industrial society. See, in particular, Ronald Inglehart, Culture shift in advanced industrial society (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990). 37. Alexis De Tocqueville, Democracy in America and two essays on America (London: Penguin books, 2003); Moisei Ostrogorski, Democracy and the organization of political parties, Vol. 2 (New York: Macmillan, 1902); Maurice Duverger, Political parties: their organization and activity in the modern state (London: Methuen, 1959); Max Weber, Economy and society: an outline of interpretive sociology (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1978); Sigmund Neumann and Frederick C.


pages: 309 words: 91,581

The Great Divergence: America's Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do About It by Timothy Noah

assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, Branko Milanovic, business cycle, call centre, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Erik Brynjolfsson, Everybody Ought to Be Rich, feminist movement, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, lump of labour, manufacturing employment, moral hazard, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, positional goods, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, refrigerator car, rent control, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, upwardly mobile, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War

Schloss, “Why Working-Men Dislike Piece-Work,” Economic Review 1, no. 3 (July 1891), 311–26. 7. A decade after the Nobelists sent their letter, the Harvard sociologist (and onetime Fortune magazine journalist) Daniel Bell observed that it was “one more instance of the penchant for overdramatizing a momentary innovation and blowing it up far out of proportion to its actuality.” See Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting (New York: Basic Books, 1999; originally published in 1973), 463. 8. Frank Levy and Richard J. Murnane, The New Division of Labor: How Computers Are Creating the Next Job Market (Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 2004), 13–25; and Farhad Manjoo, “Will Robots Steal Your Job?,” Slate, Sept. 26–30, 2011, at http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/robot_invasion/2011/09/will_robots_steal_your_job.html.


pages: 209 words: 89,619

The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing

8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, old age dependency ratio, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional

Chellaney, B. (2010), ‘China Now Exports Its Convicts’, Japan Times Online, 5 July. Available at http://search.japantimes.co.jp/print/eo20100705bc.html [accessed 2 December 2010]. Choe, S.-H. (2009), ‘South Korea Fights Slump through Hiring, Not Firing’, International Herald Tribune, 2 April, pp. 1, 4. 184 BIBLIOGRAPHY 185 Coase, R. H. (1937), ‘The Nature of the Firm’, Economica, 4(16): 386–405. Cohen, D. (2009), Three Lectures on Post-Industrial Society, Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. Cohen, N. (2010), ‘Now, More than Ever, the Poor Need a Voice’, Observer, 7 October, p. 33. Coleman, D. (2010), ‘When Britain Becomes “Majority Minority”’, Prospect, 17 November. Collison, M. (1996), ‘In Search of the High Life’, British Journal of Criminology, 36(3): 428–43. Crawford, M. (2009), Shop Class as Soulcraft: An Enquiry into the Value of Work, New York: Penguin.


pages: 353 words: 91,211

The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History Since 1900 by David Edgerton

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, creative destruction, deglobalization, dematerialisation, desegregation, deskilling, endogenous growth, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, interchangeable parts, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

.: Small is beautiful 191 science museums 28, 29, 38, 104 science parks 192 scientific revolution 3 scientists government 192–3 nature of xiii scramjet ix Scud missiles 154–5, 156 sea transport, cheap 115 Second World War 1, 34, 34, 127, 142, 155 artillery-intensive 144 battle of France 150 battleships x, 93, 148–9 casualty rates 146 conquest of Malaya 150–51 conventional and atomic bombing 12–18 dispersal of forces in space 147–8 horsepower x, 34, 35–6 motor torpedo boats 68 a physicist’s war 138 R&D 197 repair organisations 99 transfer machines 85 US atomic bomb project 198, 199 service industries 70–74 extension of 53 IKEA 72 shift from industry 52 Seversky, Alexander de 104 sewing, domestic 81 sewing machines 50, 55, 58–60 sexual revolution 22, 24 Shakuntala Express 96 shanty towns xii, 40–43, 49, 207 Sheffield 173 shellac records 7 Shenzhou-5 capsule 137 shipbreaking 207–8, 208 Shippingport nuclear reactor, Pennsylvania 20 ships container 74 cruise 49–50 efficiency 68 inventive activity in 190–91 lascar employment 135–6 maintenance 91–5 ocean-going x, 28 refits 91–2 reserve technologies 11 sailing 91, 95 world merchant fleet 73–4 Siemens 130, 196 significance 1–27 assessing aviation and nuclear energy 11–19 assessing technologies 4–5 malaria 25–7 small technologies and big effects 22–5 spin-off 19–22 technological choice 8–11 use is not enough 5–8 Silicon Valley, California, USA 133, 186, 195–6 Sinclair, Upton: The Jungle 168–9, 173–4 Singapore 91, 150 Singer Sewing Machine Company 57, 58, 59, 71, 130 Sino–Japanese War, second 140, 179 slaughterhouses 168–73, 171, 175 small arms 143–6, 190 smallpox 163 Smith, Kline French 196 Smithsonian Institution, Washington 104 Sobibor extermination camp, Poland 179 society civil 22 seen as slow to adapt to new technology vii, viii transition from industrial to post-industrial society 3 Soho, London 47 Solvay process 190 sound reproduction 7 South Africa national industrial development 118 output per head 207 petrol production 122 South America guerrilla rebellions 152–3 torture in 157 South Vietnamese army 152 Soviet bloc 118, 126, 129, 133, 145 Soviet Union agriculture 79 car production 69 China produces Soviet technology 44 dams and hydro-electric projects 127 economic growth 110, 112, 206, 207 engineers 102 entry into the Second World War 17 family farms 62–4 foreign technology and socialism 126–9 German invasion of 34, 35–6 Great Terror 179 hydrogenation 121 imitation of foreign technologies 112, 136–7 links with China (1949–60) 131 a multi-national state 131 R&D 110, 128, 137 rifles 144–5 soldiers’ deaths in Second World War 144 television 131 space rockets 1, 2 Spain 122 aviation 125, 126 economic growth 109, 112 executions 176 Francoist 118 imitation of foreign technologies 112 nationalistic and autarchic 131 R&D 109, 121–2 spare parts 79, 96 Speer, Albert 14, 18 spermicides 23, 25 spin-off 19–22, 190 Spin-off magazine (NASA) 21 Spindles Board 38 spinning ‘jenny’ 36 spinning mule 36–8, 47, 60 spinning wheels 54, 60, 63, 107 Sputnik 128, 189 SS 182 Stalin, Joseph 104, 125, 152 Stalinets (tracked Caterpillar 60) 126 Stalingrad tractor factory 126 Stalinism 73, 126, 127 ‘Stalin’s falcons’ 104 Standard Oil 121 Stanford University 186 Star Wars programme 155 state and boundaries 117 and engineers 101–2 funding of big, controversial technologies 22 television 131 statistical offices 5 steam engine 3 reciprocating 3, 29 steam power ix, 2, 3, 29, 105 steam turbine 3 steamships xiv, 113 steel ix, 2, 19, 44, 68, 73, 127, 208–9 sterilisation 23 Stopes, Marie 23–4 Suame Magazine, Ghana 83 Suez Canal 134 suicide, and reserve technologies 11 sulphonamides 163 Swift meat packers 171, 172 Switzerland 80 synthetic ammonia 119 System 360 196 T Ta 183 fighter aircraft 125 Tabun nerve gas 153, 164 Taiwan 45, 109, 136, 177, 207–8 Tamil Tigers 153 Tank, Kurt 125 tanks 159 tank warfare 141–2 tape recorders 7 tariffs 117 Taxol 187 Taylorism 72 TB (tuberculosis) 25 tea-making machines 38 techno-globalism 105, 113–17 techno-nationalism 103–8 Asia and 136–7 technological boosterism 4 technological choice 8–11 ‘technological dualism’ 44 technological futurism vii–viii, xiii–xiv technological importance, assessing 4–5 technological nationalism 117 technological retro x technological revolution 74 technological sharing 111 technology museums 28, 29, 38, 104 technology transfer 111, 127 Tefal 20 Teflon (PTFE) 19–21 Tehran, Iran 154 Telefunken 131 telegraphy xiv, 3, 6, 7, 19, 113, 193 telephone xiv, 6, 7, 55, 193, 195 telephony 3 television ix, 3, 7, 31, 32, 55, 59, 103, 111, 130–31 ‘terotechnology’ 77 Texas Instruments 195 textiles ix, 2, 28, 60, 65, 105 Thailand 177 Thermo-King 170 Three Gorges dam, China 128 tide predictors 7 time 28–51 creole technology 43–5 decline of the ‘mule’ spinning-machine 36–8 horses, mules and oxen 32–6 not Alphaville but bidonville: technology and the poor megacity 39–43 remodelling the boat 47–9 retro and reappearance 49–51 times are changing 31–2 transport 45–7 time between overhaul (TBO) 88, 89 Time magazine 170 timelines, technological vii, ix, x, 29, 31, 212 Tirpitz (battleship) 149 Titanic 50 Togliatti, Palmiro 127 Togliattigrad, Soviet Union 127 Tokaev, Colonel Grigory 125 tools disappearance of 29 Ghananian car repairers 83 of household production 56–7 and small trades 60–62 torture 156–7, 212 Trabant car 10, 129 tractors animal power replaces 36 displacement of horses xiii, 62 Fordson 62, 63, 126 maintenance 79 number on US farms 55 oxen replace 36, 207 USA 62 USSR 63, 126–7 trade global 115 interwar years 115 names 57 ‘traditional technology’ 28–9 trains see railways transfer machines 85–6 transistors 195 Treblinka extermination camp, Poland 179 trucks British truck production 69 Jiefang 126 Model AA 126 number on US farms 55 Tu 4 bombers 123 Tunisia 169 Turkish Navy 92 Tutsis 41–2, 182–3 typhus 26, 162, 163 Tyson Foods 175 U Ukraine: Carpathian foothills 48 Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) 122 Unamuno, Miguel de 133 Unilever 166 Union Cold Storage 172 Union Stockyards, Chicago 168 United Arab Republic (UAR) 125 United Fruit Company 134 United Nations 18, 79, 122, 129 United States agricultural horsepower xiii, 33 attitude to blacks 132–3 aviation 104, 111 car production 111 domination of world production/innovation 112 economic growth 206 energy use levels 209 executions 165, 176, 178, 182 family farms 62 and guerrilla armies 153 horsepower in First World War 35 Korean War 13 mechanised agriculture 34 modification of cars 97–8 the most motorised nation in the world 69 patents 200 post-war atomic programme 18–19 R&D spending 108, 110 railways 5–6 rifles 144 space programme 19, 20 television 131 torture techniques 157 uptake of new technologies 32 wheat and cotton exports 65 universities 185–7, 192 University of Goettingen 186 University of Oxford 186 UNIX operating system 195 uranium bomb 164 urbanisation, new 40, 207 Uruguay 170–71, 171, 172, 173 Uruguay (liner) 124 US Air Force 95 US Army Air Force 12 US Army Corps of Engineers 11–12, 198 US Food and Drug Administration 201 US Navy 68 US Steel Corporation 127 US Strategic Bombing Survey (USSBS) 14–15 USAAF (United States Army Air Forces) 12, 18 use-centred history ix–xii alternatives for technologies x–xi appearance, disappearance and reappearance of technologies x genuinely global ix, xi–xii gives a radically different picture of technology ix involves rethinking of the history of all technology xii the most significant technologies x novel technological worlds xi–xii refutes some conclusions of innovation-centric history xii rethinking of the history of all technology xii V V-2 rocket x, 17–18, 142, 154, 181 V-agents 164 vacuum cleaners xiv, 55 vehicles, electric vs petrol-powered 9–10 Veinticinco de Mayo (aircraft carrier) 94–5 Venerable, HMS 94 Vengeance, HMS 95 Vestey family 172 Vickers 130, 154 video recorders 55 Vietcong 152, 163 Vietnam war 94, 145, 146, 151–2 Vikrant, INS 95 vinyl records 7, 50 Volkswagen Beetle 44, 70 Golf 70 VX agent 164 W Wal-Mart 71–2, 74, 137 Walla Walla County, Washington xiii Walter Rau floating factory 166 Walton, Sam 72 war 138–59, 212 casualty rates 146 civilianisation of 138–9, 145–6 the conventional story 139–42, 140 industrialisation of 138–9 Iraq and the past 153–6 old weapons and killing in war 142–6 paradoxes of lethality 146–8 power and effect – unused and unusable weapons 148–9 technological and economic determinism in war 150–53 torture 156–7 war, technology and the history of the twentieth century 157–9 Warsaw Pact powers 149 washing machines xiv, 4, 32, 55 water ancient dependence on the control of 76 treatment/supply systems 4 wax cylinders 7 Weber, Albert 165 Wehrmacht 35–6 Wellcome 196 Wells, H.


pages: 346 words: 89,180

Capitalism Without Capital: The Rise of the Intangible Economy by Jonathan Haskel, Stian Westlake

"Robert Solow", 23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, business climate, business process, buy and hold, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer age, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial innovation, full employment, fundamental attribution error, future of work, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job automation, Kenneth Arrow, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mother of all demos, Network effects, new economy, open economy, patent troll, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, place-making, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, quantitative hedge fund, rent-seeking, revision control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Vanguard fund, walkable city, X Prize, zero-sum game

The historian James Beniger (1986) argued that modern information technology developed as it did because of an overwhelming need to control production and operations, first on the part of the military, and then in the world of business—by this logic, IT and the research that led to it was shaped by an economy hungry for intangible investment rather than intangible investment happening as a response to the serendipitous invention of various forms of IT.6 Industrial Structure One plausible explanation for the rise in intangible investment is that the balance of what businesses produce has changed. Everyone knows that the output of developed countries, even ones with large manufacturing sectors like Germany or Japan, consists mostly of services. Some of the sociologists and futurists who first heralded the rise of “post-industrial society” were also prophets of what became known as the knowledge economy. Is it true, then, that the modern world is replacing dark satanic mills with service businesses that invest in systems, information, and ideas? It turns out the evidence is not so clear-cut. Figure 2.7 shows that, in all our countries, the service sector was, in the late 1990s, more tangible-intensive, but this has reversed.


pages: 321 words: 89,109

The New Gold Rush: The Riches of Space Beckon! by Joseph N. Pelton

3D printing, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Buckminster Fuller, Carrington event, Colonization of Mars, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, global pandemic, Google Earth, gravity well, Iridium satellite, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John von Neumann, life extension, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, megastructure, new economy, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, post-industrial society, private space industry, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Thomas Malthus, Tim Cook: Apple, Tunguska event, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, wikimedia commons, X Prize

Modern humans have a much higher standard of living today, but one of the prices we pay is almost total dependence on electric power systems, modern transport and distribution systems, banking systems and more. The frightening question raised by this book is, could we survive the loss of our space systems? The Increasing Risks from Cosmic Hazards We humans today are truly more vulnerable as a post-industrial society than we were even in the days of the caveman. It is much easier to find a new cave, and to find a new place to hunt and forage, than to build a new city and a completely new modern infrastructure. And now we learn that the level of threat to humanity from cosmic hazards is greater than previously understood. How is that possible you say? Haven’t the cosmic threats always been there? For the most part the cosmic threats have not changed—although we have managed to invent a new human-created problem of space debris .


pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy and hold, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Marvit, “How Crowdworkers Became the Ghosts in the Digital Machine,” thenation.com, February 4, 2014. 41. Trebor Scholz, “Crowdmilking,” collectivate.net, March 9, 2014. 42. Andrew Keen, The Internet Is Not the Answer (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2015). 43. Vivek Wadhwa, “The End of Chinese Manufacturing and Rebirth of U.S. Industry,” forbes.com, July 23, 2012. 44. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting (New York: Basic Books, 1976). 45. David Rotman, “How Technology Is Destroying Jobs,” technologyreview.com, June, 12, 2013. 46. Ibid. 47. Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 2014). 48. Bernard Lietaer, The Mystery of Money: Beyond Greed and Scarcity, 148 [PDF]. 49. Jeff Tyler, “Banks Demolish Foreclosed Homes, Raise Eyebrows,” Marketplace, American Public Media, October 13, 2011.


pages: 327 words: 97,720

Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection by John T. Cacioppo

Alfred Russel Wallace, biofilm, butterfly effect, Celebration, Florida, corporate governance, delayed gratification, experimental subject, impulse control, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, longitudinal study, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, Rodney Brooks, Ted Kaczynski, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Walter Mischel

In response, a pregnant female learns to solicit and have sex with the new alpha as soon as he takes office, tricking him into thinking that the child she already carries might be his. His reproductive objectives demand that he keep track of all females in the troop, any of whom may sneak away at any time to have sex with a male she prefers over the alpha. Among the !Kung we saw that violations of the pair bond for sexual fidelity were far from unusual within the human environment of evolutionary adaptation. In today’s post-industrial societies, DNA testing to sort out uncertain paternity is a thriving business. To stay on top, the alpha not only needs accurate information; he needs to refine his own manipulative use of it as his physical powers decline with age. On the other side of the equation, an upstart chimp, hoping to rise in status, learns to manipulate by dissembling. After being bested in a contest, the cagiest will engage in melodramatic displays of (sometimes faked) injury to gain sympathy and political support.


pages: 550 words: 89,316

The Sum of Small Things: A Theory of the Aspirational Class by Elizabeth Currid-Halkett

assortative mating, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, discrete time, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, East Village, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, income inequality, iterative process, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, Mason jar, means of production, NetJets, new economy, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, post-industrial society, profit maximization, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the market place, Thorstein Veblen, Tony Hsieh, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Veblen good, women in the workforce

Mythologies. Translated by Annette Lavers. New York: Hill and Wang. Bee, A., Meyer, B., & Sullivan, J. The validity of consumption data: Are the Consumer Expenditure Interview and Diary Surveys informative? In Improving the measurement of consumer expenditures, edited by C. Carroll, T. Crossley, & J. Sabelhaus, 204–240. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015. Bell, D. (1973). The coming of post-industrial society: A venture in social forecasting. New York: Basic Books. ———. (1976). The cultural contradictions of capitalism. New York: Basic Books. Bennhold, K. (2012, April 26). Class war returns in new guises. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/27/world/europe/27iht-letter27.html. Berridge, K. (2007). Madame Tussaud: A life in wax. New York: Harper Perennial. Berry, C.


pages: 299 words: 99,080

The Soul of a New Machine by Tracy Kidder

carbon-based life, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Mason jar, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, silicon-based life

Computers were everywhere, of course — in the cafe's beeping cash registers and the microwave oven and the jukebox, in the traffic lights, under the hoods of the honking cars snarled out there on the street (despite those traffic lights), in the airplanes overhead — but the visible differences somehow seemed insignificant. Computers had become less noticeable as they had become nailer, more reliable, more efficient, and more numerous. Surely this happened by design. Obviously, to sell the devices far and wide, manufacturers had to strive to make them easy to use and, wherever possible, invisible. Were computers a profound, unseen hand? In The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, Daniel Bell asserted that new machines introduced in the nineteenth century, such as the railroad train, made larger changes in "the lives of individuals than computers have. Tom West liked to say: "Let's talk bout bulldozers. Bulldozers have had a hell of a lot bigger effect on people's lives." The latter half of the twentieth century, some say, has witnessed an increase in social scale — in the size of organizations, for instance.


pages: 337 words: 101,440

Revolution Française: Emmanuel Macron and the Quest to Reinvent a Nation by Sophie Pedder

Airbnb, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bike sharing scheme, centre right, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, ghettoisation, haute couture, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, mittelstand, new economy, post-industrial society, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Travis Kalanick, urban planning, éminence grise

Before the 2017 presidential election voters in such metropolitan centres elected moderate mayors with an open outlook, whether from the left (Lyon, Nantes, Rennes), the greens (Grenoble) or the centre-right (Bordeaux). This French pattern matched that noted in America by John Judis and Ruy Teixeira, who showed in 2004 how the socially liberal politics of growing post-industrial big-city America were being shaped by the university-educated voters attracted to their service-based economies: ‘the new professionals who live according to the ethics of post-industrial society’.3 The parallel with France is inexact. But just as America’s fast-growing service-based urban centres voted for Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton, so France’s thriving regional cities, with their uncomplicated links to globalization and technological change, are Macron territory. In the second-round presidential vote Macron scored a massive 90 per cent in Paris, 88 per cent in Rennes and 86 per cent in Bordeaux.


pages: 382 words: 100,127

The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics by David Goodhart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, coherent worldview, corporate governance, credit crunch, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market friction, mass immigration, mittelstand, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, obamacare, old-boy network, open borders, Peter Singer: altruism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Skype, Sloane Ranger, stem cell, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

This is the fate of too many Somewhere children in what economist Bob Rowthorn has called the ‘dual economy’, with about 35 to 40 per cent of people working in high productivity sectors—from the car industry to finance—and another 35 per cent working in low productivity service jobs, mainly in the private sector. The Disappearing Middle As we have evolved from an industrial to a post-industrial society over the past fifty years, most people in Britain have become much richer and generally now lead more comfortable, healthier and freer lives. And in the working life of the average Briton there is less drudgery and physical strain and much greater probability of a career rather than just a job. The world of work for most people has also become more fluid and competitive. At the higher skill, knowledge economy end it is increasingly organised around Anywhere assumptions about cognitive ability, creativity and work as an expression of individual fulfillment.


pages: 349 words: 98,868

Nervous States: Democracy and the Decline of Reason by William Davies

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, citizen journalism, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, Colonization of Mars, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, credit crunch, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, Filter Bubble, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gig economy, housing crisis, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mont Pelerin Society, mutually assured destruction, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, planetary scale, post-industrial society, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, statistical model, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Turing machine, Uber for X, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Valery Gerasimov, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Since the 1980s, policymakers in many countries have deliberately sought to encourage greater commercial applications of scientific knowledge, to develop a “knowledge economy.” Treating knowledge as a private economic asset has led to a vast expansion in consultancy services, such that by the late 1990s, one-sixth of all graduates from American Ivy League universities and Oxford and Cambridge were going into careers in management consultancy.5 In post-industrial societies “creative industries” became viewed as a gold mine, as long as copyright enforcement was strong enough to protect their assets. Universities have been encouraged, and often required, to act more like commercial entities, and to pay more attention to the commercial value of research and education. Commensurately, students are pushed to behave more like consumers or investors, seeking an education so as to maximize their own value in the labor market.


pages: 565 words: 122,605

The Human City: Urbanism for the Rest of Us by Joel Kotkin

autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, British Empire, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Downton Abbey, edge city, Edward Glaeser, financial independence, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, land reform, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pensions crisis, Peter Calthorpe, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Seaside, Florida, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, starchitect, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the built environment, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, young professional

“A Roster of World Cities,” Cities, vol. 16, 445–458. doi: 10.1016/S0264-2751(99)00042-6. BECERRIL, J.E. and B. JIMENEZ. (2007). “Potable water and sanitation in Tenochtitlan: Aztec culture,” IWA Publishing, http://ws.iwaponline.com/content/7/1/147. BECKERT, Sven. (2001). The Monied Metropolis: New York City and the Consolidation of the American Bourgeoisie, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. BELL, Daniel. (1973). The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting, New York: Basic Books. BELL, Daniel A. and Avner DE-SHALIT. (2011). The Spirit of Cities: Why the Identity of a City Matters in a Global Age, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. BELLMAN, Eric. (2010, July 9). “A New Detroit Rises in India’s South,” Wall Street Journal, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704111704575354853980451636.


pages: 440 words: 108,137

The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, old-boy network, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional

The simple fact is that there is far more intelligence, talent, ability, and hard work in the population as a whole than there are people who are lucky enough to find themselves in a position to take advantage of these qualities. References Averitt, Robert T. 1968. Dual Economy. New York: Norton. Barnsley, R., and A. H. Thompson. 1988. “Birthdate and Success in Minor Hockey: Key to NHL.” Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science 20, no. 2: 167–76. Bell, Daniel. 1976. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books. Bernhardt, Annette, Martina Morris, Mark Handcock, and Mark Scott. 2001. Divergent Paths: Economic Mobility in the New American Labor Market. New York: Sage. Blau, Joel. 1999. Illusions of Prosperity: America’s Working Families in an Age of Economic Insecurity. New York: Oxford University Press. Bluestone, Barry, and Bennett Harrison. 2000. Growing Prosperity: The Battle for Growth with Equity in the Twenty-First Century.


pages: 378 words: 110,518

Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future by Paul Mason

Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, capital controls, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Claude Shannon: information theory, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, deglobalization, deindustrialization, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Downton Abbey, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, financial repression, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, means of production, Metcalfe's law, microservices, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, post-industrial society, precariat, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Transnistria, union organizing, universal basic income, urban decay, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, wages for housework, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

It’s not so far from the worker imagined in the Fragment to the ‘universal educated person’ predicted by Peter Drucker. Marx, I think, abandoned this thought experiment because it had scant relevance to the society he lived in. But it has massive relevance for ours. A THIRD KIND OF CAPITALISM? To the neoliberals, the emergence of info-capitalism seemed like their greatest achievement. They could barely conceive that it might contain flaws. Intelligent machines, they believed, would create a post-industrial society in which everybody did high-value, knowledge-based work and in which all the old social conflicts died out.47 Information would enable the idealized capitalism of the textbooks – with transparency, perfect competition and equilibrium – to become reality. In the late 1990s the literature of the mainstream – from Wired magazine to the Harvard Business Review – was filled with celebratory descriptions of the new system.


pages: 390 words: 109,870

Radicals Chasing Utopia: Inside the Rogue Movements Trying to Change the World by Jamie Bartlett

Andrew Keen, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, brain emulation, centre right, clean water, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, energy security, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, failed state, gig economy, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, life extension, Occupy movement, off grid, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, QR code, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rosa Parks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism

Ought we be so sure we’ve got it all figured out? That our way of living is the best one, and that alternatives could never work? It often takes outsiders to suggest that another world is possible. Even if they are not completely right—no single idea ever is—they are often half right. And we only know which half if radical ideas are allowed to flourish. The free-love commune Tamera might not be a plausible model for a complex post-industrial society, but water retention, energy autonomy and switched-off mobile phones are things we could all benefit from. Zoltan might be mostly interested in living forever, but his quixotic pursuit forces us to ponder the implications of technologies—AI and anti-ageing in particular—that are approaching quickly, and will have enormous ramifications. Susanne’s madcap idea for a digital borderless nation is a moon shot: but her immutable blockchain-based records might help millions of people who currently live without adequate records of what they own.2 (In 2016 the governments of Georgia and Honduras decided to develop their own versions of this.)


pages: 424 words: 115,035

How Will Capitalism End? by Wolfgang Streeck

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, market bubble, means of production, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, open borders, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, post-industrial society, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Uber for X, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

Obviously the incumbent management of advanced and not-so-advanced capitalism is uniquely clueless: consider the senseless production of money to stimulate growth in the real economy; the desperate attempts to restore inflation with the help of negative interest rates; and the apparently inexorable coming apart of the modern state system on its periphery.57 But there is also the absence of a vision of a practically possible progressive future, of a renewed industrial or new post-industrial society developing further and at the same time replacing the capitalist society of today. Not just capital and its running dogs but also their various oppositions lack a capacity to act collectively. Just as capitalism’s movers and shakers do not know how to protect their society from decay, and in any case would lack the means to do so, their enemies, when it comes to the crunch, have to admit that they have no idea of how to replace neoliberal capitalism with something else – see the Greek SYRIZA government and its capitulation in 2015 when the ‘Eurogroup’ began to play hardball and SYRIZA, to mix metaphors, was forced to show its hand.


pages: 352 words: 120,202

Tools for Thought: The History and Future of Mind-Expanding Technology by Howard Rheingold

Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, card file, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, popular electronics, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture

Chapter Four: Johnny Builds Bombs and Johnny Builds Brains [1] Steve J. Heims, John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1980), 371. [2] C. Blair, "Passing of a great Mind," Life,, February 25, 1957, 96. [3] Stanislaw Ulam, "John von Neumann, 1903-1957," Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, vol. 64, (1958), 4. [4] Goldstine, The Computer, 182. [5] Daniel Bell, The coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books. 1973), 31. [6] Katherine Fishman, The Computer Establishment (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1981), 22. [7] Ibid., 24. [8] Goldstine, The Computer, 153. [9] Ibid., 149. [10] Heims, von Neumann and Wiener, 186. [11] Goldstine, The Computer, 196. [12] Hodges, Turing, 288. [13] Ibid., 288. [14] Goldstine, The Computer, 196-197


pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, animal electricity, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, millennium bug, Moravec's paradox, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, off grid, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

These ideas of cybernetic disembodiment feed into the contemporary narrative of advertising and media. They may not be discussed as explicitly as I have done here, but implicitly they are everywhere one looks. They inform fashion, military tactics, government policies, corporate cultures, video games and business models on the web. At the same time, social networks erode previous social structures and reintroduce tribalism into our post-industrial societies. Marketers nowadays talk about ‘tribes on the Internet’ when they plan the next marketing strategy using social media. Consumerism is transforming and adapting to this new paradigm, which is reminiscent of pre-industrial epochs. We are all different now and we all have individualised – or tribalised – needs. Accordingly, businesses are shifting from manufacturing massively replicated products and providing services distributed through traditional retail channels to producing personalised products and services distributed directly to customers connected on the web.


pages: 396 words: 117,897

Making the Modern World: Materials and Dematerialization by Vaclav Smil

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, additive manufacturing, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, British Empire, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, global pandemic, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, megacity, megastructure, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, post-industrial society, purchasing power parity, recommendation engine, rolodex, X Prize

At the same time, it must be kept in mind that data for inexpensive, readily available bulk construction materials (particularly for sand and gravel) that are usually sold not far from their points of extraction are generally much less reliable than the statistics for metal ores and industrial nonmetallic minerals that are globally traded. Economic realities dictate that the diffusion of successive changes of human organization – urbanization, industrialization, post-industrial societies characterized by mass consumption – promote, widen, and often also accelerate the use of materials. Although the resulting outcomes must be expected, some of the contrasts still amaze: for example, the world now consumes in one year nearly as much steel as it did during the first post-World War II decade, and (even more incredibly) more cement than it consumed during the first half of the twentieth century.


pages: 414 words: 121,243

What's Left?: How Liberals Lost Their Way by Nick Cohen

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, centre right, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, haute couture, kremlinology, liberal world order, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, profit motive, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, the scientific method, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

But then Bohemia and the universities began to throw out cultural trends that had ‘as brief a shelf-life as stock-exchange trends, and [which] depreciate rapidly if one fails to catch the latest wave in architecture or literary theory. The names that Bohemia adopted for itself – avant-garde, advanced, progressive, le dernier cri, new wave, modernist, postmodernist – reflect the Anxiety of Cool, the relentless struggle to get out in front and control the production of new cultural information.’ Spotting trends and selling them was turning into a big business in post-industrial societies. But each new wave carried high culture further away from the working class. Rose quoted the opinions of young working-class men of theatres and art house cinemas. ‘Theatre goers? Someone well off,’ said one. ‘It’s a class thing.’ Then he searched the Modern Language Association of America’s international database of academic books published between 1991 and 2000. He got 13,820 hits for ‘women’, 4,539 for ‘gender’, 1,826 for ‘race’, 710 for ‘post-colonial’ and a piddling 136 for ‘working class’.


pages: 480 words: 119,407

Invisible Women by Caroline Criado Perez

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, lifelogging, low skilled workers, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, remote working, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, the built environment, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Chapter 4 1 Goldin, Claudia and Rouse, Cecilia (2000), ‘Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of ‘Blind’ Auditions on Female Musicians’, American Economic Review, 90:4, 715–41 2 http://www.stltoday.com/entertainment/arts-and-theatre/in-orchestras-a-sea-change-in-gender-proportions/article_25cd8c54-5ca4-529f-bb98-8c5b08c64434.html 3 https://nyphil.org/about-us/meet/musicians-of-the-orchestra 4 Kunovich, Sheri and Slomczynski, Kazimierz M. (2007), ‘Systems of Distribution and a Sense of Equity: A Multilevel Analysis of Meritocratic Attitudes in Post-industrial Societies’, European Sociological Review, 23:5, 649–63; Castilla., Emilio J. and Benard, Stephen (2010), ‘The Paradox of Meritocracy in Organizations’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 55:4, 543–676 5 Reynolds, Jeremy and Xian, He (2014), ‘Perceptions of meritocracy in the land of opportunity’, Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 36, 121–37 6 Castilla and Benard (2010) 7 http://fortune.com/2014/08/26/performance-review-gender-bias/ 8 Castilla and Benard (2010) 9 http://stateofstartups.firstround.com/2016/#highlights-diversity-prediction 10 Uhlmann, Eric Luis and Cohen, Geoffrey L. (2007), ‘“I think it, therefore it’s true”: Effects of self-perceived objectivity on hiring discrimination’, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 104:2, 207–23; Castilla and Benard (2010) 11 https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/11/20/the-tech-industrys-gender-discrimination-problem 12 https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/11/20/the-tech-industrys-gender-discrimination-problem 13 https://hbr.org/2014/10/hacking-techs-diversity-problem 14 https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/04/why-is-silicon-valley-so-awful-to-women/517788/ 15 http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-women-tech-20150222-story.html#page=1 16 Reynolds and Xian (2014) 17 Handley, Ian M., Brown, Elizabeth R., Moss-Racusin, Corinne A. and Smith, Jessi L. (2015), ‘Quality of evidence revealing subtle gender biases in science is in the eye of the beholder’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112:43, 13201–13206 18 https://erc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/document/file/Gender_statistics_April_2014.pdf; Wenneras, C. and Wold, A. (1997), ‘Nepotism and sexism in peer-review’, Nature, 387:341; Milkman, Katherine L., Akinola, Modupe and Chugh, Dolly (2015), ‘What Happens Before?


pages: 420 words: 126,194

The Strange Death of Europe: Immigration, Identity, Islam by Douglas Murray

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, deindustrialization, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, high net worth, illegal immigration, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, open borders, post-industrial society, white flight

The fact that our country, our state and our city celebrate this holiday around this man who murdered and enslaved and raped indigenous people and decimated an entire population.’14 Of course, none of this had happened in her lifetime, nor the lifetime of anybody who she had ever known. Once again both perpetrators and victims are dead and there are few if any ways to alleviate such sentiments. Although one option is, as in Australia, to play into those agrarian myths and romances that feature around the world but have such a niche in Western post-industrial societies. These see the establishment of modern civilisation as having not merely wrecked once-beautiful landscapes but as having filled hitherto unsullied human beings with the deadliest sins of human greed. It is a vision that was encapsulated, though not invented, by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, but has taken on a particular popularity in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century. According to this reckoning, it is Europeans who, when they travelled and colonised around the world, became the Eden-destroying species.


pages: 494 words: 116,739

Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, liberation theology, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K

Personal Connections in the Digital Age. Polity. Behar, Anurag. (2010). Limits of ICT in education. LiveMint, Dec. 16, 2010, www.livemint.com/Opinion/Y3Rhb5CXMkGuUIyg4nrc3I/Limits-of-ICT-in-education.html. ———. (2012). Silver bullets in education. LiveMint, April 4, 2012, www.livemint.com/Opinion/BPS5faZixFQKrlUFGlivUL/Silver-bullets-in-education.html. Bell, Daniel. (1999). The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. Basic Books. Bell, Genevieve. (2006). The age of the thumb: A cultural reading of mobile technologies from Asia. Knowledge, Technology, & Policy, Summer 2006, 19(2):41–57, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12130-006-1023-5. Bendavid, E., and J. Bhattacharya. (2009). The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in Africa: An evaluation of outcomes.


pages: 497 words: 143,175

Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies by Judith Stein

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, activist lawyer, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War

Cited in Bayard Rustin, “The Blacks and the Unions,” Harper’s Magazine (May, 1971), 81. 57. Karen Orren, “Union Politics and Postwar Liberalism in the United Sates,” Studies in American Political Development 1 (1986), 215–52. 58. U.S. Bureau of Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1976), 382–85. 59. Daniel Bell, “The Post-Industrial Society,” in Technology and Social Change, ed. Eli Ginzberg (New York: Columbia University Press, 1964), 44–49. 60. U.S. Bureau of Census, Labor Force Characteristics (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1970), 217. 61. Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam, 1987), 1–135; James Miller, Democracy Is in the Streets: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987), 1–126. 62.


pages: 436 words: 141,321

Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness by Frederic Laloux, Ken Wilber

Albert Einstein, augmented reality, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, different worldview, failed state, future of work, hiring and firing, index card, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, the market place, the scientific method, Tony Hsieh, zero-sum game

Orange modernity, for instance, has harmed the planet in a way previous stages never could. Another way to avoid attaching judgment to stages is to recognize that each stage is well adapted to certain contexts. If we were caught in a civil war with thugs attacking our house, Impulsive-Red would be the most appropriate paradigm to think and act from so as to defend ourselves. On the other hand, in peaceful times in post-industrial societies, Red is not as functional as some of the later stages. The complexity of human evolution The discussion of stages and colors is only an abstraction of reality, just like a geographical map is only a simplified depiction of a territory; it gives us distinctions that facilitate understanding of a complex underlying reality, but it cannot claim to offer a full portrayal of reality. In the previous chapter, I took you on a whirlwind tour of human evolution, and by describing the stages one after the other, I may have given the impression that people (or even whole societies) operate neatly from just one paradigm.


pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, low earth orbit, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

., Situationist International Anthology, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981, pp. 78–9. 58Brian Dillon, ‘Decline and Fall’, Frieze Magazine 130, April 2010, cited in Beck, ‘Concrete Ambivalence’, p. 87. 59See Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities, London: Random House, 2010; Knabb, Situationist International. 60Situationist International, ‘The Bad Days Will End’, in Knabb, Situationist International, p. 197. 61See McKenzie Wark, The Beach Beneath the Street: The Everyday Life and Glorious Times of the Situationist International, London: Verso, 2011. 62Bradley Garrett, ‘Urban Exploration as Heritage Placemaking’, in Hilary Orange, ed., Reanimating Industrial Spaces: Conducting Memory Work in Post-industrial Societies, Oakland: Left Coast Press, 2013. 63Bradley Garrett, ‘Security Breach: The London Mail Rail’, 24 April 2011, available at placehacking.co.uk. See also Bradley Garrett, Explore Everything: Place-Hacking the City, London: Verso, 2013. 64Bradley Garrett, ‘Undertaking Recreational Trespass: Urban Exploration and Infiltration’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 39:1, 2014, pp. 1–13. 65The UE movement has also been criticised as being overly dominated, not by ideas of resistance, but by an exclusionary notion of ‘exploration’ based on old notions of the heroic male conqueror.


pages: 286 words: 94,017

Future Shock by Alvin Toffler

Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, East Village, global village, Haight Ashbury, information retrieval, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of writing, longitudinal study, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, social intelligence, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

.: World Resources Inventory, Southern Illinois University, 1963.) [147] Gabor, Dennis, Inventing the Future. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969.) [148] Gibson, Tony, Breaking in the Future. (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1965.) [149] Gordon, Theodore J., The Future. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1965.) [150] Gordon, Theodore J., and Helmer, Olaf, Report on a Long-Range Forecasting Study. (Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, September, 1964.) [151] Gross, Bertram M., Space-Time and Post-Industrial Society. (Syracuse, N. Y.: Maxwell Graduate School, Syracuse University. Comparative Administration Group Occasional Paper, May, 1966.) [152] Gumucio, Mariano B., Los Dias Que Vendrán. (Caracas: Monte Avila Editores, 1968.) [153] Heilbroner, Robert, The Future as History. (New York: Grove Press, 1959.) [154] Helmer, Olaf, Gordon, Theodore J., Enzer, Selwyn, De Brigard, Raul, and Rochbert, Richard, Development of Long-Range Forecasting Methods for Connecticut.


pages: 1,132 words: 156,379

The Ape That Understood the Universe: How the Mind and Culture Evolve by Steve Stewart-Williams

Albert Einstein, battle of ideas, carbon-based life, David Attenborough, European colonialism, feminist movement, financial independence, gender pay gap, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, out of africa, Paul Graham, phenotype, post-industrial society, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, twin studies

Just as we haven’t evolved any new bodily organs in the last 10,000 years (a spare pair of hands, say), we haven’t evolved any new psychological adaptations, either: a new emotion, for example, or a new cognitive faculty. It’s very unlikely that we’ve evolved any psychological adaptations specifically for agricultural life. And it’s extremely unlikely that we’ve evolved any psychological adaptations specifically for life in industrial or post-industrial societies: adaptations that fit us to city living, for instance, or capitalism, science, or tech.44 But although evolutionary psychologists don’t deny that we’ve done some evolving since we gave up our hunting and gathering ways, it’s fair to say that they’ve sometimes underestimated quite how much we’ve done. Since the field first coalesced in the late 1980s, biologists have come to realize that evolutionary change can sometimes happen extremely quickly.


pages: 486 words: 150,849

Evil Geniuses: The Unmaking of America: A Recent History by Kurt Andersen

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, always be closing, American ideology, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Burning Man, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, centre right, computer age, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate raider, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, High speed trading, hive mind, income inequality, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jitney, Joan Didion, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, Naomi Klein, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Picturephone, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Seaside, Florida, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, wage slave, Wall-E, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, éminence grise

Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008. Basu, Kaushik, and Joseph E. Stiglitz. Inequality and Growth: Patterns and Policy. 2 vols. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. Baum, Sandy. “The Evolution of Student Debt in the United States.” In Student Loans and the Dynamics of Debt, edited by Brad Hershbein and Kevin M. Hollenbeck. Kalamazoo, Mich.: Upjohn Institute, 2015. Bell, Daniel. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books, 1976. ———. “The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism.” Journal of Aesthetic Education 6, nos. 1–2 (1972): 11–38. ———. Work and Its Discontents: The Cult of Efficiency in America. Boston: Beacon Press, 1956. Berman, Marshall. All That Is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity. New York: Verso, 1983. Berman, Matthew, and Random Reamey.


pages: 571 words: 162,958

Rewired: The Post-Cyberpunk Anthology by James Patrick Kelly, John Kessel

back-to-the-land, Columbine, dark matter, Extropian, Firefox, gravity well, haute couture, Internet Archive, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, price stability, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, technological singularity, telepresence, the scientific method, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Y2K, zero day

Sure, there’s the rage, and It, whatever It is, should indeed pay a terrible price for making us like this… If we were really able to get hold of Whatever-It-Is, we ought to be able to talk intelligibly, at least to our contemporaries, in our own voices, and be heard and understood, and even, possibly, appreciated. I don’t know what that kind of fiction would look like, but it would be the ‘native literature of a post-industrial society,’ and it would look right, and feel natural, and we’d be happy with it.” Kessel to Sterling, 8 May 1987: “I’ve come to feel that wasn’t such a bad fate, to acknowledge that all our ladders start there, in our mundane existence… You talk about just this with your understanding of the rage at the mundane world that lurks behind all our futures, be they brightly painted or grimly sketched….


pages: 632 words: 166,729

Addiction by Design: Machine Gambling in Las Vegas by Natasha Dow Schüll

airport security, Albert Einstein, Build a better mousetrap, business intelligence, capital controls, cashless society, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, game design, impulse control, information asymmetry, inventory management, iterative process, jitney, large denomination, late capitalism, late fees, longitudinal study, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nash equilibrium, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, profit motive, RFID, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, statistical model, the built environment, yield curve, zero-sum game

Theory, Culture, and Society 20 (2): 1–33. Beck, Ulrich, A. Giddens, and S. Lash. 1994. Reflexive Modernism: Politics, Tradition, and Aesthetics in Modern Social Order. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Becker, Howard. 1986. “Consciousness, Power, and Drug Effects.” In Doing Things Together: Selected Papers, edited by H. Becker. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press. Bell, Daniel. 1973. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books. ———. 1976. The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. New York: Basic Books. Benjamin, Walter. 1968 [1939]. “On Some Motifs in Baudelaire.” In Illuminations: Essays and Reflections, edited by H. Arendt, translated by H. Zohn, 155–200. New York: Schocken. ———. 1999. The Arcades Project. Translated by H. Eiland and K. McLaughlin.


In the Age of the Smart Machine by Shoshana Zuboff

affirmative action, American ideology, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, data acquisition, demand response, deskilling, factory automation, Ford paid five dollars a day, fudge factor, future of work, industrial robot, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, job automation, lateral thinking, linked data, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, old-boy network, optical character recognition, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Shoshana Zuboff, social web, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, zero-sum game

It seemed likely that in the apparently maladaptive responses of workers to computer-based technology (what many called "resis- tance to change"), it would be possible to trace a lineage of ordinary assumptions that referred back to the realities of the past and their points of disjuncture with the future. Like many other scholars of my generation, I had been struck by Daniel Bell's formulation of the post- industrial society, but discussions of these social changes were fre- quently limited to sociological abstractions. I wanted to discover the flesh and blood behind the concepts, the interior texture rather than the external form. I wanted to understand the practical problems that would have to be confronted in order to manage the new computerized workplace in ways that would fulfill the lofty promise of a knowledge- based society and to generate knowledge that would be instructive to those charged with that managerial responsibility.


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Gnomon by Nick Harkaway

Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Burning Man, choice architecture, clean water, cognitive dissonance, fault tolerance, fear of failure, gravity well, high net worth, impulse control, Isaac Newton, Khartoum Gordon, lifelogging, neurotypical, pattern recognition, place-making, post-industrial society, Potemkin village, Richard Feynman, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, the market place, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl

The laws of physics are indeed intact, and that is all the reassurance the universe will provide. The other recognisable traits of dreams are more difficult to separate from waking life. The endless re-encountering of the same people, for example, and the echoing restatement of the same conversations, to the point where it seems that only a few humans actually inhabit the earth and all the other billions exist simply as shades and mannequins, is also an experience common to both post-industrial society and the worldview of sociopaths. She looks back queasily at the poem on the wall, taking in the title. ‘Non Sum Qualis Eram Sub Regno Cynarae’ – ‘I am not what I was under the reign of Cynara’. A perfectly innocent example of its type, chosen by a simple software script. Except for that one word, which is now, and for the duration of the case, a name: Regno. So what is she – or what is the world – sub Regno Lönnrot?


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Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of the printing press, iterative process, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour management system, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Politics and in Political Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Baumgartner, Frank R., et al. 2009. Lobbying and Policy Change: Who Wins, Who Loses, and Why. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Beer, Lawrence W., and John M. Maki. 2002. From Imperial Myth to Democracy: Japan’s Two Constitutions, 1889–2002. Boulder: University Press of Colorado. Bell, Daniel. 1973. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books. Berman, Sheri. 2013. “The Promise of the Arab Spring: In Political Development, No Gain Without Pain.” Foreign Affairs 92(1):64–74. Bernhardt, Kathryn, and Philip C. C. Huang, eds. 1994. Civil Law in Qing and Republican China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Berry, Sara. 1993. No Condition Is Permanent: The Social Dynamics of Agrarian Change in Sub-Saharan Africa.