Larry Wall

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Free as in Freedom by Sam Williams


Asperger Syndrome, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, Debian, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Markoff, Larry Wall, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Murray Gell-Mann, profit motive, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, urban renewal, VA Linux, Y2K

"Up until then, most licenses were very informal," Gilmore recalls. As an example of this informality, Gilmore cites a copyright notice for trn, a Unix utility. Written by Larry Wall, future creator of the Perl programming language, patch made it simple for Unix programmers to insert source-code fixes-" patches" in hacker jargon-into any large program. Recognizing the utility of this feature, Wall put the following copyright notice in the program's accompanying README file: Copyright (c) 1985, Larry Wall You may copy the trn kit in whole or in part as long as you don't try to make money off it, or pretend that you wrote it.See Trn Kit README. Such statements, while reflective of the hacker ethic, also reflected the difficulty of translating the loose, informal nature of that ethic into the rigid, legal language of copyright.

One of the audience members at the Linux Kongress was Tim O'Reilly, publisher of O'Reilly & Associates, a company specializing in software manuals and software-related books (and the publisher of this book). After hearing Raymond's Kongress speech, O'Reilly promptly invited Raymond to deliver it again at the company's inaugural Perl Conference later that year in Monterey, California. Although the conference was supposed to focus on Perl, a scripting language created by Unix hacker Larry Wall, O'Reilly assured Raymond that the conference would address other free software technologies. Given the growing commercial interest in Linux and Apache, a popular free software web server, O'Reilly hoped to use the event to publicize the role of free software in creating the entire infrastructure of the Internet.

Shortly after the summit, O'Reilly shepherded summit attendees to a press conference attended by reporters from the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and other prominent publications. Within a few months, Torvalds' face was appearing on the cover of Forbes magazine, with the faces of Stallman, Perl creator Larry Wall, and Apache team leader Brian Behlendorf featured in the interior spread. Open source was open for business. For summit attendees such as Tiemann, the solidarity message was the most important thing. Although his company had achieved a fair amount of success selling free software tools and services, he sensed the difficulty other programmers and entrepreneurs faced.

pages: 525 words: 149,886

Higher-Order Perl: A Guide to Program Transformation by Mark Jason Dominus


always be closing, Defenestration of Prague, Donald Knuth, Isaac Newton, Larry Wall, P = NP, Paul Graham, Perl 6, slashdot, SpamAssassin

Perl was originally designed as a replacement for C on the one hand and Unix scripting languages like Bourne Shell and awk on the other. Perl’s first major proponents were Unix system administrators, people familiar with C and with Unix scripting languages; they naturally tended to write Perl programs that resembled C and awk programs. Perl’s inventor, Larry Wall, came from this sysadmin community, as did Randal Schwartz, his coauthor on Programming Perl, the first and still the most important Perl reference work. Other important early contributors include Tom Christiansen, also a C-and-Unix expert from way back. Even when Perl programmers didn’t come from the Unix sysadmin community, they were trained by people who did, or by people who were trained by people who did.

If Perl programmers can find out the things that Lisp programmers already know, they will learn a lot of things that will make their Perl programming jobs easier. This is easier said than done. Hardly anyone wants to listen to Lisp programmers. Perl folks have a deep suspicion of Lisp, as demonstrated by Larry Wall’s famous remark that Lisp has all the visual appeal of oatmeal with fingernail clippings mixed in. Lisp programmers go around making funny noises like ‘cons’ and ‘cooder,’ and they talk about things like the PC loser-ing problem, whatever that is. They believe that Lisp is better than other programming languages, and they say so, which is irritating.

Without the timely assistance of Wm Leler, I might still be stuck. Tom Christiansen, Jon Orwant, and Nat Torkington played essential and irreplaceable roles in integrating me into the Perl community. Finally, the list of things “without which this book could not have been written” cannot be complete without thanking Larry Wall for writing Perl and for founding the Perl community, without which this book could not have been written. 1. Recursion and Callbacks The first “advanced” technique we’ll see is recursion. Recursion is a method of solving a problem by reducing it to a simpler problem of the same type. Unlike most of the techniques in this book, recursion is already well known and widely understood.

pages: 496 words: 174,084

Masterminds of Programming: Conversations With the Creators of Major Programming Languages by Federico Biancuzzi, Shane Warden


Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, cloud computing, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, continuous integration, data acquisition, domain-specific language, Douglas Hofstadter, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, Firefox, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, iterative process, John von Neumann, Larry Wall, linear programming, loose coupling, Mars Rover, millennium bug, NP-complete, Paul Graham, performance metric, Perl 6, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Renaissance Technologies, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, Valgrind, Von Neumann architecture, web application

Perl Perl fans call it the “Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister” and the “Swiss-Army Chainsaw”, flaunting the motto, “There’s More Than One Way to Do It!” Creator Larry Wall sometimes describes it as a kind of glue language, originally intended as a sweet spot between the Unix shell and C to help people get things done. It incorporates linguistic principles and design decisions from Unix (and sports perhaps the largest repository of libraries of any language in the CPAN). Many programmers anxiously await the long-developed revision of Perl 6, a language designed to last at least 20 years. The Language of Revolutions How do you define Perl? Larry Wall: Perl is an ongoing experiment in how best to incorporate some of the principles of natural language into computer language, not at a shallow syntactic level like COBOL, but at a much deeper pragmatic level.

Chapter 10, SQL, interviews Don Chamberlin. Chapter 11, Objective-C, interviews Tom Love and Brad Cox. Chapter 12, Java, interviews James Gosling. Chapter 13, C#, interviews Anders Hejlsberg. Chapter 14, UML, interviews Ivar Jacobson, James Rumbaugh, and Grady Booch. Chapter 15, Perl, interviews Larry Wall. Chapter 16, PostScript, interviews Charles Geschke and John Warnock. Chapter 17, Eiffel, interviews Bertrand Meyer. Contributors lists the biographies of all the contributors. Conventions Used in This Book The following typographical conventions are used in this book: Italic Indicates new terms, URLs, filenames, and utilities.

Certainly in the early days of Unix, pipes facilitated function composition on the command line. You could take an input, perform some transformation on it, and then pipe the output into another program. This provided a very powerful way of quickly creating new functionality with simple compositions of programs. People started thinking how to solve problems along these lines. Larry Wall’s language Perl, which I think of as a descendant of AWK and other Unix tools, combined many aspects of this kind of program composition into a single language. When you say “function composition,” that brings to mind the mathematical approach of function composition. Al: That’s exactly what I mean.

pages: 394 words: 118,929

Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg


A Pattern Language, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall,, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook,, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Larry Wall, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

The spirit of the Monty Python fan slips into his conversation only rarely, as when he introduces himself to an audience of programmers with a biographical slide that reads: Age 4: First Lego kit Age 10: first electronics kit Age 18: first computer program (on punched cards) Age 21: First girlfriend:-) Just as dogs often come to resemble their owners, it seems that programming languages end up reflecting the temperaments and personalities of their creators in some subtle ways. For instance, Larry Wall, the linguist who is the father of Perl, is a droll spirit enamored of verbal and visual puns. At a conclave for open source programmers in 2004, delivering an annual review of new Perl developments, he found a way to connect a meditation on the mutating visual geometries of screensavers with an account of his recent battle with a stomach tumor, then tied it all together with a vision of the community of Perl programmers “performing random acts of beauty for each other.”

Moore’s Law is outlined at Intel’s Web site: Quotations from Guido van Rossum are from a talk given February 17, 2005, at the Software Development Forum in Palo Alto, California. Audio is available at Larry Wall’s talk was at the O’Reilly Open Source Conference, Portland, Oregon, July 2004. Text is available at one observer’s characterization: The observer is Danny O’Brien in his NTK newsletter from August 6, 2004, at “I spent a few weeks trying”: Benjamin Pierce in a June 2001 message on a private mailing list; full quote confirmed in email to author.

name=News&file=article&sid=145 and can be found via the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine at CHAPTER 7 DETAIL VIEW Simple things should be simple: This quotation is widely attributed to Alan Kay. I have been unable to trace its original source. It is also occasionally attributed to Larry Wall. Clay Shirky wrote about Christopher Alexander’s “A City Is Not a Tree” in the Many to Many blog on April 26, 2004, at city_is_not_a_tree.php. Alexander’s article was originally published in Architectural Forum, April–May 1965. It is available online at index.cfm.

pages: 786 words: 195,810

NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman


Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, assortative mating, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart,, epigenetics, experimental subject, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Larry Wall, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mother of all demos, neurotypical, New Journalism, pattern recognition, placebo effect, scientific mainstream, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

INTRODUCTION: BEYOND THE GEEK SYNDROME to cover the maiden voyage for Wired magazine: “Scripting on the Lido Deck,” Steve Silberman. Wired, 8.10, Oct. 2000. “Swiss Army chainsaw”: “Beginner’s Introduction to Perl,” Doug Sheppard., 2000. he derived it from the parable of the “pearl of great price”: Larry Wall, interview with the author, 2000. laziness, impatience, and hubris: Programming Perl, Larry Wall, Jon Orwant, and Tom Christiansen. O’Reilly Media, 3rd ed., 2000, p. xix. she helped Vint Cerf develop the TCP/IP protocols: Closing the Innovation Gap: Reigniting the Spark of Creativity in a Global Economy, Judy Estrin. McGraw-Hill, 2008. “No two people with autism are the same”: An Anthropologist on Mars, Oliver Sacks.

It is fascinating reading; it will change how you think of autism, and it belongs alongside the works of Temple Grandin and Clara Claiborne Park, on the bookshelf of anyone interested in autism and the workings of the human brain. Hans Asperger and children at the University of Vienna, 1930s. Introduction: Beyond the Geek Syndrome There is more than one way to do it. —LARRY WALL On a bright May morning in 2000, I was standing on the deck of a ship churning toward Alaska’s Inside Passage with more than a hundred computer programmers. The glittering towers of Vancouver receded behind us as we slipped under the Lions Gate Bridge heading out to the Salish Sea. The occasion was the first “Geek Cruise”—an entrepreneur’s bid to replace technology conferences in lifeless convention centers with oceangoing trips to exotic destinations.

The occasion was the first “Geek Cruise”—an entrepreneur’s bid to replace technology conferences in lifeless convention centers with oceangoing trips to exotic destinations. I booked passage on the ship, a Holland America liner called the Volendam, to cover the maiden voyage for Wired magazine. Of the many legendary coders on board, the uncontested geek star was Larry Wall, creator of Perl, one of the first and most widely used open-source programming languages in the world. Thousands of websites we rely on daily—including Amazon, Craigslist, and the Internet Movie Database—would never have gotten off the ground without Perl, the beloved “Swiss Army chainsaw” of harried systems administrators everywhere.

pages: 1,201 words: 233,519

Coders at Work by Peter Seibel


Ada Lovelace, bioinformatics, cloud computing, Conway's Game of Life, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fault tolerance, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, Larry Wall, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Perl 6, premature optimization, publish or perish, random walk, revision control, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, side project, slashdot, speech recognition, the scientific method, Therac-25, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, type inference, Valgrind, web application

In that respect they are actually more verbose than Lisp. But that brings me to the other half, the other reason why I like Python syntax better, which is that Lisp is lexically pretty monotonous. Seibel: I think Larry Wall described it as a bowl of oatmeal with fingernail clippings in it. Deutsch: Well, my description of Perl is something that looks like it came out of the wrong end of a dog. I think Larry Wall has a lot of nerve talking about language design—Perl is an abomination as a language. But let's not go there. If you look at a piece of Lisp code, in order to extract its meaning there are two things that you have to do that you don't have to do in a language like Python.

Of course, we need researchers who are inclined that way, but we also need programmers who do research. We need to have the programming discipline not be just this sort of blue-collar thing that's cut off from the people in the ivory towers. Seibel: How do you feel about proofs? Eich: Proofs are hard. Most people are lazy. Larry Wall is right. Laziness should be a virtue. So that's why I prefer automation. Proofs are something that academics love and most programmers hate. Writing assertions can be useful. In spite of bad assertions that should've been warnings, we've had more good assertions over time in Mozilla. From that we've had some illumination on what the invariants are that you'd like to express in some dream type system.

pages: 754 words: 48,930

Programming in Scala by Martin Odersky, Lex Spoon, Bill Venners


domain-specific language, Guido van Rossum, Larry Wall, Silicon Valley, sorting algorithm, type inference, web application

For example, consider this list: scala> val people = List( new Person("Larry", "Wall"), new Person("Anders", "Hejlsberg"), new Person("Guido", "van Rossum"), new Person("Alan", "Kay"), new Person("Yukihiro", "Matsumoto") ) people: List[Person] = List(Larry Wall, Anders Hejlsberg, Guido van Rossum, Alan Kay, Yukihiro Matsumoto) Because the element type of this list, Person, mixes in (and is therefore a subtype of) Ordered[People], you can pass the list to orderedMergeSort: scala> val sortedPeople = orderedMergeSort(people) sortedPeople: List[Person] = List(Anders Hejlsberg, Alan Kay, Yukihiro Matsumoto, Guido van Rossum, Larry Wall) Now, although the sort function shown in Listing 19.12 serves as a useful illustration of upper bounds, it isn’t actually the most general way in Scala to design a sort function that takes advantage the Ordered trait.

pages: 706 words: 120,784

The Joy of Clojure by Michael Fogus, Chris Houser


cloud computing, domain-specific language, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter,, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, haute couture, Larry Wall, Paul Graham, rolodex, traveling salesman

Ritchie, The C Programming Language (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988). 1972 Prolog Alain Colmerauer Ivan Bratko, PROLOG: Programming for Artificial Intelligence (New York: Addison-Wesley, 2000). 1975 Scheme Guy Steele and Gerald Sussman Guy Steele and Gerald Sussman, the “Lambda Papers,” 1983 C++ Bjarne Stroustrup Bjarne Stroustrup, The Design and Evolution of C++ (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1994). 1986 Erlang Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson Joe Armstrong, “A History of Erlang,” Proceedings of the Third ACM SIGPLAN Conference on History of Programming Languages (2007). 1987 Perl Larry Wall Larry Wall, Tom Christiansen, and Jon Orwant, Programming Perl (Cambridge, MA: O’Reilly, 2000). 1990 Haskell Simon Peyton Jones Miran Lipovača, “Learn You a Haskell for Great Good!” 1995 Java Sun Microsystems David Bank, “The Java Saga,” Wired 3.12 (1995). 2007 Clojure?

pages: 274 words: 58,675

Puppet 3 Cookbook by John Arundel


Amazon Web Services, cloud computing, continuous integration, Debian, defense in depth, don't repeat yourself, GnuPG, Larry Wall, place-making, Ruby on Rails, web application

Run the following command: ubuntu@cookbook:~/puppet$ rake add_check ln -s /home/ubuntu/puppet/hooks/ /home/ubuntu/puppet/.git/hooks/pre-commit Puppet syntax check hook added 31 Puppet Infrastructure How it works… The script will prevent you from committing any files with syntax errors: ubuntu@cookbook:~/puppet$ git commit -m "test commit" Error: Could not parse for environment production: Syntax error at '}' at line 3 Error: Try 'puppet help parser validate' for usage manifests/nodes.pp: Error: 1 syntax errors found, aborting commit. If you add the hooks directory to your Git repo, anyone who has a checkout can run the rake add_check task and get this syntax checking behavior. 32 2 Puppet Language and Style Computer language design is just like a stroll in the park. Jurassic Park, that is. —Larry Wall In this chapter we will cover: ff Using community Puppet style ff Checking your manifests with puppet-lint ff Using modules ff Using standard naming conventions ff Using inline templates ff Iterating over multiple items ff Writing powerful conditional statements ff Using regular expressions in if statements ff Using selectors and case statements ff Using the in operator ff Using regular expression substitutions Puppet Language and Style Introduction In this chapter you'll learn to write elegant Puppet manifests.

pages: 241 words: 43,073

Puppet 3 Beginner's Guide by John Arundel


cloud computing, Debian, job automation, job satisfaction, Lao Tzu, Larry Wall, Network effects, SpamAssassin

Herman Indexer Monica Ajmera Mehta Graphics Ronak Dhruv Aditi Gajjar Production Coordinator Melwyn D'sa Cover Work Melwyn D'sa About the Author John Arundel is an infrastructure consultant who helps people make their computer systems more reliable, useful, and cost-effective and has fun doing it. He has what Larry Wall describes as the three great virtues of a programmer: laziness, impatience, and hubris. Laziness, because he doesn't like doing work that a computer could do instead. Impatience, because he wants to get stuff done right away. Hubris, because he likes building systems that are as good as he can make them.

pages: 224 words: 48,804

The Productive Programmer by Neal Ford


anti-pattern, business process,, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Firefox, general-purpose programming language, knowledge worker, Larry Wall, Ruby on Rails, side project, type inference, web application, William of Occam

At the time I credited my increased productivity to the acceleration I experienced using the bash shell, but it was more than that—it was my increasing familiarity with that tool as I stopped having to struggle to do things and could just get them done. We spent some time discussing that hyperproductivity and how to bottle it. Several years, untold conversations, and a series of lectures later, Neal has produced a definitive work on the subject. In his book Programming Perl (O’Reilly), Larry Wall describes the three virtues of a programmer as “laziness, impatience, and hubris.” Laziness, because you will expend effort to reduce the amount of overall work necessary. Impatience, because it will anger you if you are wasting time doing something the computer could do faster for you. And hubris, because excessive pride will make you write programs that other people won’t say bad things about.

pages: 260 words: 40,943

Hacking Exposed: Network Security Secrets and Solutions by Stuart McClure, Joel Scambray, George Kurtz


AltaVista, bash_history, Larry Wall, peer-to-peer, remote working, web application

This program subjects user passwords to stringent checks to decrease the likelihood that users will choose weak passwords. It is a commercial-grade solution that greatly enhances password security. Anlpasswd This Perl program was written at Argone National Laboratories (hence, anl). It is an improvement upon a program originally written by Larry Wall (Larry is the creator of Perl). It can be found at It is a good proactive password checker that uses a dictionary file of your choice and allows you to create custom rules. Also, it is a well-written Perl program that can give the reader some insight into password checking strategies.

pages: 471 words: 94,519

Managing Projects With GNU Make by Robert Mecklenburg, Andrew Oram


bioinformatics, general-purpose programming language, Larry Wall, Richard Stallman

This allowed me to select a trivial format, such as literal, and change it later to whatever the production department preferred without having to perform a global search and replace. I'm sure the XML aficionados will probably send me boat loads of email telling me how to do this with entities or some such, but remember Unix is about getting the job done now with the tools at hand, and as Larry Wall loves to say, "there's more than one way to do it." Besides, I'm afraid learning too much XML will rot my brain. The second task for m4 was handling the XML identifiers used for cross-referencing. Each chapter, section, example, and table is labeled with an identifier: <sect1 id="MPWM-CH-7-SECT-1"> References to a chapter must use this identifier.

pages: 398 words: 107,788

Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking by E. Gabriella Coleman


Benjamin Mako Hill, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Debian, Donald Knuth, dumpster diving,, financial independence, ghettoisation, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jason Scott:, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Larry Wall, Louis Pasteur, means of production, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, software patent, software studies, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, web application, web of trust

In having to read and parse other people’s codes, programmers routinely encounter what has been depicted aptly as a “twisting maze of corridors, a bottomless pit” (Ullman 2003, 262). In the second extract, we have DMH, also a San Francisco hacker, but unlike Espe, a self-styled Perl alchemist. Perl’s creator, a linguist and programmer named Larry Wall, intended the code to embody the flexible and often-irrational properties of a natural language. As noted by DMH, Perl’s aesthetic and technical features are opaqueness, complexity, and flexibility. Also run as an open-source project, Perl is incorporated into the identity of many of its supporters, who call themselves Perl Monks, underscoring the single-minded dedication they have for what is considered a language that can produce poetic (or highly unreadable code) that is creatively displayed during obfuscated code contests, which are usually held for Perl, C, and C++.3 While DMH respects Perl for what it is most famous for—its cryptic nature and poetic elegance—he is drawn to Perl for pragmatic reasons.

pages: 292 words: 81,699

More Joel on Software by Joel Spolsky


a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, barriers to entry, Black Swan, Build a better mousetrap, business process, call centre, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, George Gilder, Larry Wall, low cost carrier, Mars Rover, Network effects, Paul Graham, performance metric, place-making, price discrimination, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Oldenburg, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, The Great Good Place, type inference, unpaid internship, wage slave, web application, Y Combinator

I am pragmatic and understand that a totally uncensored world just looks like your inbox: 80% spam, advertising, and fraud, rapidly driving away the few interesting people. 118 More from Joel on Software If you are looking for a place to express yourself in which there will be no moderation, my advice to you would be to (a) create a new forum and (b) make it popular. (Apologies to Larry Wall.) Q. How do you decide what to delete? A. First of all, I remove radically off-topic posts or posts that, in my opinion, are only of interest to a very small number of people. If something is not about the same general topics as Joel on Software is about, it may be interesting as all heck to certain people, but it’s not likely to interest the majority of people who came to my site to hear about software development.

Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy by Lawrence Lessig


Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Benjamin Mako Hill, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, collaborative editing, commoditize, disintermediation, don't be evil, Erik Brynjolfsson, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Larry Wall, late fees, Mark Shuttleworth, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, PageRank, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, revision control, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Saturday Night Live, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, transaction costs, VA Linux, yellow journalism

It is currently still maintained by thousands of online programmers via In addition, Allman started Sendmail Inc. as a business in November 1998. For a profit, he sells easy-to-use versions of the open source software, along with support and service, to corporations. Another important force in the open source world is Perl. It was created by 43-year-old Larry Wall, a former linguist who created Perl while at Burroughs Corp. on a government-funded project. The software is free, although Wall has sold 500,000 copies of his Perl manuals. Another open source program, BIND, was originally developed at the University of California at Berkeley as freeware. It allows domain names like to be entered as textual name addresses instead of machine numbers (called IP addresses, for example,, making it much easier for ordinary people to surf the Internet.

Multitool Linux: Practical Uses for Open Source Software by Michael Schwarz, Jeremy Anderson, Peter Curtis


business process, Debian, defense in depth, GnuPG, index card, indoor plumbing, Larry Wall, optical character recognition, publish or perish, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, slashdot, web application, x509 certificate

Covers: Apache Web server Question: I want my Web server to do something unusual, like authenticate against a proprietary data store, log to a relational database, or provide real-time statistics about the machine it's on. I've looked for packages to do these things, but I can't find anything that will work to my satisfaction. What can I do? Answer: Consider building an Apache module. I admit this violates one of Larry Wall's three great virtues of a programmer, namely, Laziness. But sometimes nothing else will get the job done, and writing a CGI is not an option. You'll have to hold your breath and dive into the world of Apache server extensions. Apache is the most popular Web server in the world! There, I said it.

Version Control With Git: Powerful Tools and Techniques for Collaborative Software Development by Jon Loeliger, Matthew McCullough


continuous integration, Debian, distributed revision control, GnuPG, Larry Wall, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pull request, revision control, web application, web of trust

The higher level porcelain command, git am, is partially implemented in terms of the plumbing command git apply. The command git apply is the workhorse of the patch application procedure. It accepts git diff or diff style outputs and applies it to the files in your current working directory. Though different in some key respects, it performs essentially the same role as Larry Wall’s patch command. Because a diff contains only line-by-line edits and no other information (such as author, date, or log message), it cannot perform a commit and log the change in your repository. Thus, when git apply is finished, the files in your working directory are left modified. (In special cases, it can use or modify the index as well.)

pages: 494 words: 142,285

The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World by Lawrence Lessig


AltaVista, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, business process, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Erik Brynjolfsson, George Gilder, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, invention of hypertext, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Larry Wall, Leonard Kleinrock, linked data, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, smart grid, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, transaction costs, zero-sum game

One of the leaders of the project, Net wizard Brian Behlendorf, says this “essential volunteerism” was crucial for the project. The work done for the project had to come from people who were motivated to help the project, not from people just paid to code from nine to five. Linux and Apache are the two most prominent open code projects. But there are others still. Perl, developed by Larry Wall, is a programming language that enables high-power manipulation of text. It is the glue that makes most Web sites run. It too was developed as an open source project, and it is by far the dominant language of its class, ported to every important operating system. And deeper in the guts of the Internet's code are other systems that are even more crucial to the Net.

pages: 468 words: 233,091

Founders at Work: Stories of Startups' Early Days by Jessica Livingston


8-hour work day, affirmative action, AltaVista, Apple II, Brewster Kahle, business process, Byte Shop, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, don't be evil, fear of failure, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, game design, Googley, HyperCard, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos,, Larry Wall, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, nuclear winter, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, software patent, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web application, Y Combinator

Livingston: Is there any advice you would give a programmer who wanted to start a startup who wants to avoid having to take any outside investment? Spolsky: It’s totally possible. I would recommend that you create a weblog and have millions of readers every month from around the world that read it. That’s not really necessarily followable. Step two is a little bit hard. I think it’s Larry Wall who used to have this saying about Perl that, “Well, if you don’t like it, just make your own language and then make it popular.” That was his way of refuting any and all complaints about the Perl syntax or whatever. So the reason I’m saying this, even though it’s tongue-in-cheek, is that we definitely got a lot of publicity—what a traditional company would call PR— through Joel on Software.

pages: 1,065 words: 229,099

Real World Haskell by Bryan O'Sullivan, John Goerzen, Donald Stewart, Donald Bruce Stewart


bash_history, database schema, Debian, digital map, distributed revision control, domain-specific language,, Firefox, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, job automation, Larry Wall, p-value, Plutocrats, plutocrats, revision control, sorting algorithm, transfer pricing, type inference, web application, Y Combinator

Indeed, functional programming as a field was quite obscure. During this time, the mainstream programming world experimented with relatively small tweaks, from programming in C, to C++, to Java. Meanwhile, on the fringes, programmers were beginning to tinker with new, more dynamic languages. Guido van Rossum designed Python; Larry Wall created Perl; and Yukihiro Matsumoto developed Ruby. As these newer languages began to seep into wider use, they spread some crucial ideas. The first was that programmers are not merely capable of working in expressive languages; in fact, they flourish. The second was in part a byproduct of the rapid growth in raw computing power of that era: it’s often smart to sacrifice some execution performance in exchange for a big increase in programmer productivity.

pages: 999 words: 194,942

Clojure Programming by Chas Emerick, Brian Carper, Christophe Grand


Amazon Web Services, Benoit Mandelbrot, cloud computing, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself,, failed state, finite state, Firefox, game design, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, Larry Wall, mandelbrot fractal, Paul Graham, platform as a service, premature optimization, random walk, Ruby on Rails, Schrödinger's Cat, semantic web, software as a service, sorting algorithm, Turing complete, type inference, web application

If your organization starts using Clojure, it will have good company. * * * [437] The Eclipse Public License, which allows for free commercial use and redistribution: [438] In Clojure’s case, Rich Hickey, who has a role similar to Python’s Guido Van Rossum, Ruby’s Yukihiro Matsumoto, Perl’s Larry Wall, and C++’s Bjarne Stroustrup. [439] All recognized contributors are listed at [440] irc:// or in your browser at [441] One of us has run a community-wide survey for the past two years to gauge the origins, mood, and priorities of the Clojure community; full results of the last editing of that survey are available at

pages: 924 words: 241,081

The Art of Community by Jono Bacon


barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), collaborative editing, crowdsourcing, Debian, DevOps,, Firefox, game design, Guido van Rossum, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Jono Bacon, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, openstreetmap, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, software as a service, telemarketer, union organizing, VA Linux, web application

When I organized the Freeware Summit (later known as the Open Source Summit) in 1998, it was because I recognized that there were multiple communities like that, that their leaders had never met in person, and would benefit from talking about common problems and shaping a common story. And being a media company, we organized a press conference at the end of the day to get that story out. And sure enough, two months later, Linus Torvalds was on the cover of Forbes, with full-page pictures inside of Larry Wall, Richard Stallman, Brian Behlendorf, and others. Social media is about community, about the stories that tie those communities together, and about tools to amplify the connections between them. I was doing that long before I got on Twitter or Facebook. Which social media networks really captured your interest first?

pages: 602 words: 207,965

Practical Ext JS Projects With Gears by Frank Zammetti


a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Albert Einstein, corporate raider, create, read, update, delete, database schema,, Firefox, full text search, Gordon Gekko, Larry Wall, loose coupling, Ronald Reagan, web application

You will learn how to build some cool applications with very little effort. 127 P A R T 2 The Projects The Internet is the most important single development in the history of human communication since the invention of call waiting. —Dave Barry Real programmers can write assembly code in any language. —Larry Wall You have that vacant look in your eyes that says “Hold my head to your ear, you’ll hear the sea!” —Londo Mollari (Babylon 5) Well, believe me, Mike, I calculated the odds of this succeeding versus the odds I was doing something incredibly stupid . . . and I went ahead anyway. —Crow (Mystery Science Theater 3000) They’ve finally come up with the perfect office computer.

pages: 726 words: 172,988

The Bankers' New Clothes: What's Wrong With Banking and What to Do About It by Anat Admati, Martin Hellwig


Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, bonus culture, break the buck, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centralized clearinghouse, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, diversified portfolio,, Exxon Valdez, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, George Akerlof, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Rogoff, Larry Wall, light touch regulation, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, regulatory arbitrage, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra

We thank Viral Acharya, Philippe Aghion, Sheila Bair, Mary Barth, Nadine Baudot-Trajtenberg, Jane Baxter, Lawrence Baxter, Urs Birchler, Niklaus Blattner, Jürg Blum, Arnoud Boot, Claudio Borio, Michael Boskin, John Boyd, Dick Brealey, Claudia Buch, Charles Calomiris, John Cochrane, Peter DeMarzo, Thomas Gehrig, Hans Gersbach, Hendrik Hakenes, Andy Haldane, Ian Harrison, Richard Herring, Tom Hoenig, Rob Johnson, Ed Kane, Dennis Kelleher, Mervyn King, David Kreps, Sebastian Mallaby, Maureen McNichols, Hamid Mehran, Allan Meltzer, David Miles, Chuck Morris, Manfred J. M. Neumann, George Parker, Francisco Perez-Gonzalez, Thierry Philipponnat, John Plender, Barbara Rehm, Isabel Schnabel, David Skeel, Chester Spatt, Ilya Strebulaev, Martin Summer, Elu von Thadden, Adair Turner, Jim Van Horne, Larry Wall, Beatrice Weder di Mauro, Juli Weiss, Mark Whitehouse, Martin Wolf, Daniel Zimmer, and Jeff Zwiebel. Some of them may disagree with our views, but all of them have contributed to the book with their insights. In the book we are critical of politicians and regulators, but many do not fit our characterizations.

pages: 1,758 words: 342,766

Code Complete (Developer Best Practices) by Steve McConnell


Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, choice architecture, continuous integration, data acquisition, database schema, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fault tolerance, Grace Hopper, haute cuisine, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, index card, inventory management, iterative process, Larry Wall, late fees, loose coupling, Menlo Park, Perl 6, place-making, premature optimization, revision control, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, slashdot, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing machine, web application

Laziness Laziness manifests itself in several ways: Laziness: The quality that makes you go to great effort to reduce overall energy expenditure. It makes you write labor-saving programs that other people will find useful, and document what you wrote so that you don't have to answer so many questions about it. —Larry Wall Deferring an unpleasant task Doing an unpleasant task quickly to get it out of the way Writing a tool to do the unpleasant task so that you never have to do the task again Some of these manifestations of laziness are better than others. The first is hardly ever beneficial. You've probably had the experience of spending several hours futzing with jobs that didn't really need to be done so that you wouldn't have to face a relatively minor job that you couldn't avoid.