18 results back to index
Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, flex fuel, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Menlo Park, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog
Those releases, amounting to some 2.6 billion tons per year, made Indonesia the third-largest emitter of carbon dioxide on the planet, behind China and the United States.16 Although the gorillas, tigers, and apes are important, the most important beneficiaries of more widespread use of oil would be humans. And, to be more specific, it would be the millions of young children and women who are sickened or who die prematurely every year from indoor air pollution caused by the burning of biomass. In 2007, the World Health Organization estimated that indoor air pollution was killing about 500,000 people in India every year, most of them women and children. The agency also found that air pollution levels in some kitchens in rural India were thirty times higher than recommended and that the pollution was six times as bad as that found in New Delhi. Worldwide, as many as 1.6 million people per year are dying premature deaths due to indoor air pollution.17 About 37 percent of the world’s population relies on solid fuels, such as straw, wood, dung, or coal, to cook their meals.18 These low-quality fuels, combined with inadequate ventilation when the cooking is done inside, often results in the living areas being filled with a variety of noxious pollutants, including soot particles, carbon monoxide, benzene, formaldehyde, and even dioxin.19 Continued exposure to polluted indoor air can result in numerous illnesses, ranging from relatively minor problems such as headaches and eye irritation to deadly conditions such as asthma, pneumonia, blindness, lung cancer, tuberculosis, and low birth weight in children born to mothers who were exposed to indoor air pollution during pregnancy.20 Despite these numbers, the problem of indoor air pollution doesn’t get nearly as much attention as other public health issues, such as vaccination or safe drinking water.
For more information, see Gorillacd.org. 14 Tom Knudson, “The Cost of the Biofuel Boom on Indonesia’s Forests,” The Guardian, January 21, 2009, http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/jan/21/network-biofuels. 15 Ibid. 16 Ibid. 17 Kounteya Sinha, “‘Indoor’ Air Pollution Is the Biggest Killer,” Times of India, March 22, 2007, http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1790711.cms. 18 Fatih Birol, “Energy Economics: A Place for Energy Poverty in the Agenda?” The Energy Journal 28, no. 3 (2007): 3, 4. 19 Kirk R. Smith, “Wood: The Fuel That Warms You Thrice,” Human Health and Forests (2008): 99, http://ehs.sph.berkeley.edu/krsmith/publications/2008%20pubs/Colfer%20book%20chapter.pdf. 20 Sinha, “‘Indoor’ Air Pollution.” 21 “Viewpoints: An Interview with Professor Kirk R. Smith.” 22 Kirk R. Smith, “Editorial: In Praise of Petroleum?” Science, December 6, 2002, http://ehs.sph.berkeley.edu/krsmith/publications/02_smith_3.pdf, 1847. 23 Robert Bryce, “An Interview with Kirk R. Smith on Indoor Air Pollution and Why the Rural Poor Need Propane and Butane,” July 23, 2009, http://www.energytribune.com/articles.cfm?
Worldwide, as many as 1.6 million people per year are dying premature deaths due to indoor air pollution.17 About 37 percent of the world’s population relies on solid fuels, such as straw, wood, dung, or coal, to cook their meals.18 These low-quality fuels, combined with inadequate ventilation when the cooking is done inside, often results in the living areas being filled with a variety of noxious pollutants, including soot particles, carbon monoxide, benzene, formaldehyde, and even dioxin.19 Continued exposure to polluted indoor air can result in numerous illnesses, ranging from relatively minor problems such as headaches and eye irritation to deadly conditions such as asthma, pneumonia, blindness, lung cancer, tuberculosis, and low birth weight in children born to mothers who were exposed to indoor air pollution during pregnancy.20 Despite these numbers, the problem of indoor air pollution doesn’t get nearly as much attention as other public health issues, such as vaccination or safe drinking water. One of the most passionate voices proclaiming the need for more hydrocarbon use among the world’s poor is that of Kirk R. Smith, a professor of global environmental health at the University of California, Berkeley.21 In 2002, Smith wrote a piece for Science magazine entitled “In Praise of Petroleum?”
The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot
active measures, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor
Sanitation, vitamin A and zinc deficiency and unimproved water bring up the rear of the list. Childhood underweight, which makes children more vulnerable to infection, comes in at rank 8, after high body mass index, i.e. overweight. Today, considering all countries, high-, middle- and low-income, the major diseases affecting people are similar – so-called non-communicable diseases: heart disease, lung disease – note the importance of indoor air pollution, a cause of chronic lung disease in low-income countries – cancers, diabetes. AIDS, Ebola, TB and malaria remind us that there is still a long distance to go in eradicating major infectious disease epidemics. That said, already in middle-income countries, and increasingly in low-income countries, the causes of suffering and death are similar to those in high-income countries. Second, the list contains a mix of physiological risk factors: high blood pressure, high blood glucose, high total cholesterol; behaviours: smoking, diet and alcohol consumption; and environmental exposures: air pollution, lead.
The pharmaceutical industry may not like me for saying it, but my preference is for seeing how we could deal with the causes of high blood pressure, high cholesterol and high blood sugar, rather than simply wait for them to get raised and then treat. Third, and related to the last point, there is no social analysis. Overwhelmingly, most of these risk factors are related to people’s social circumstances. We might call these the ‘causes of the causes’. Diet, indoor air pollution and high blood pressure are potent causes of disease globally. We need to ask why, increasingly, these risk factors are linked to social disadvantage. Remember the discussion of maternal mortality? We may call lack of access to medical care a cause of a mother dying in childbirth. We need to look at the causes of lack of access – the causes of the causes. My argument is that tackling disempowerment is crucial for improving health and improving health equity.
Picture Indian women going further and further from home to gather what fuel they can. In addition to the physical burden of carrying wood or manure, they are at increased risk of sexual violence. Cooking over open fires, and indoors in smoky badly ventilated dwellings, is also bad for health. The World Health Organisation estimates that in 2012, globally, 4.3 million deaths were attributable to indoor air pollution, almost all of them in low- and middle-income countries. We have, then, a significant contributor to health inequities between countries. The pity of this problem is that it is soluble, and quickly. Global poverty is soluble too, but will take a little longer. The Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves is one among many organisations that are committed to helping hundreds of millions of families escape the unnecessary toil of having no cooking stove or only a rudimentary one.
Home Comforts: The Art and Science of Keeping House by Cheryl Mendelson
biofilm, Broken windows theory, clean water, deskilling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Indoor air pollution, indoor plumbing, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Own Your Own Home, sensible shoes, spice trade, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer
CLEANLINESS The Air in Your Castle Effects of inadequate ventilation, signs of inadequate ventilation, desirable levels of ventilation … Desirable indoor temperatures, indoor and outdoor methods of cooling using air conditioners, shade trees, awnings, window shades, blinds, solar shades and screens, and other means … Desirable indoor humidity levels, effects of excess and insufficient humidity … How to measure and control indoor humidity … Indoor air pollution caused by household chemicals used for cleaning and other purposes, chemicals used in hobbies and work, pesticides, ozone, formaldehyde, asbestos, radon, lead, off-gassing and fumes produced by fabrics and carpets, microorganisms, house dust … Indoor pollution caused by furnaces, stoves, heaters, and fireplaces; combustion by-products, carbon monoxide; unvented heaters, wood stoves, gas stoves … Tobacco smoke … Air-cleaning devices such as filters and air-cleaning machines; effect of houseplants Dr.
As a result, nontight, uninsulated homes in years past had one or more—some say as many as three or four—complete changes of air each hour. Because all that fresh air requires heating in winter, those who have high air-exchange rates (the rates at which outside air replaces indoor air) have heating bills to match. By having your house weatherized and tightened, you can significantly decrease both. (You can never render a home completely airtight.) But indoor air pollution increases—and available oxygen decreases—as the air-exchange rate goes down. Thus, although weatherizing usually allows enough fresh air to enter for adequate ventilation, and weatherizing your home is almost always safe and beneficial, authorities recommend against tightening homes with inadequate ventilation or specific pollution problems such as unvented gas cooking stoves, unvented heating stoves, potential radon accumulations, or urea-formaldehyde foam insulation or other significant formaldehyde-emitting sources.
You can dehumidify closets, cupboards, cabinets, and other small, enclosed areas with silica gel crystals or other moisture-absorbent materials or desiccants. See chapter 58, “Closets for Clothes and Linens.” Home centers and hardware stores sell bags of absorbent crystals you can hang in closets or other problem areas. A lightbulb left burning in a damp closet will help dry it out. But don’t create a fire hazard; be sure nothing is left touching or near the bulb. Exhaust fans vented to the outdoors effectively remove excess humidity and indoor air pollutants in bathrooms and kitchens. Every home should have these, but many do not. Ventilating or placing moisture barriers in crawl spaces, basements, and attics can prevent excessive humidity buildup. Dehumidifiers are said to help significantly anywhere in the home, including the basement. Like most other air-treating machines, dehumidifiers have trays that must be emptied and cleaned at recommended intervals to prevent molds and microorganisms from growing.
Business Lessons From a Radical Industrialist by Ray C. Anderson
Albert Einstein, banking crisis, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, cleantech, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invisible hand, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, music of the spheres, Negawatt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, peak oil, renewable energy credits, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, supply-chain management, urban renewal, Y2K
Here’s what we found coming from them: • carbon monoxide, generated by the incomplete burning of fossil fuels; • carbon dioxide, the greenhouse gas that helps make Venus an oven; • sulfur dioxide, the poisonous precursor to acid rain; • nitrous oxides, potent greenhouse gases in their own right that react with volatile organic compounds and hydrocarbons on hot, humid days to create ground-level ozone (the bad ozone) and smog, and also contribute to acid rain; • particulate matter, tiny specks of “ash” ten microns or less in diameter and able to penetrate lung tissue; • volatile organic compounds, “escape artist” chemicals that are released during the manufacturing process and from the product itself, contributing to indoor air pollution, “sick building” syndrome, and ground level ozone. That is quite a list. And the survey of our nineteen wastewater effluent pipes was also very revealing. We were legally flushing into the rivers: • dyes (sulfonated mono-alkyl glyceride and di-azo aromatics, benzene and ammonium derivatives); • maintenance chemicals (surfactants, butyl cellusolve); • softeners (sulfonated hydrocarbons, fatty amine ethoxylates); • buffers (inorganic phosphates); • pH control agents (ammonium sulfate, ammonia, sodium hydroxide, acetic and citric acids); • chelating agents (ethylene diamine, tetra acetic acid); • stain-resistant additives (sulfonated alkyl succinate).
It’s really that simple. Here’s another example of biomimicry-assisted design. Have you ever wondered how a gecko lizard can cling upside down to the ceiling? It can even hang from a glass surface, using just a single toe. That is one powerful adhesive! Could we use something similar to hold our carpet tiles in place? After all, carpet adhesives can be nasty chemicals that contribute to indoor air pollution, and we have vowed to rid our product line of them. Is there something we can learn from a lizard? These questions were posed at an out-of-the-box brainstorming session at InterfaceFLOR in 2006. It turned out that a gecko makes use of a powerful adhering mode known as van der Waals forces, a kind of intermolecular bonding that happens between microscopic hairs on the gecko’s feet and the molecular layer of water that’s present on nearly everything.
The Orbital Perspective: Lessons in Seeing the Big Picture From a Journey of 71 Million Miles by Astronaut Ron Garan, Muhammad Yunus
Airbnb, barriers to entry, book scanning, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, global village, Google Earth, Indoor air pollution, jimmy wales, optical character recognition, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, Stephen Hawking, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber for X, web of trust
Manna Energy Ltd. installed a large-capacity water purification system that utilizes gravel and sand filters and solar-powered ultraviolet purification, ensuring that all the children are drinking safe water. Engineers Without Borders also has worked with the community to construct open-air kitchens that use high-efficiency cookstoves, reducing wood use and the respiratory illnesses caused by indoor air pollution. These are just a few of the interventions that have improved the orphanage’s ability to care for the children. The first step toward effecting this kind of real change is to believe that real change is possible, and I believe it is possible 8â•… I n t r o d u c t io n because we already have accomplished some things that were once thought impossible. In the first part of this book, for instance, we will look at the historic U.S.
The Art of Profitability by Adrian Slywotzky
“Would it be possible to upgrade them?” Zhao wondered. “I’m not sure.” Steve sat up straight. “Wait, I think it could be. Just yesterday I was reading a report about some of the new products we’ve been bringing out. Non-allergenic air filters. Eco-friendly supplies for heaters and furnaces. Screens and insulating materials that cut heating and cooling costs as soon as you install them and also reduce indoor air pollution.” “Have you been marketing these products aggressively?” Steve shook his head. “Not really. We let our dealer network know what’s available. Then it’s up to them to move the stuff. Most people still buy the traditional supplies, at one third the price.” A strange look crossed his face. “You know what, there might be the makings of something here.” “A Pyramid?” “Yes, I think so.” Steve looked excited.
air freight, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, corporate raider, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, family office, feminist movement, full employment, ghettoisation, Indoor air pollution, medical malpractice, Mikhail Gorbachev, Plutocrats, plutocrats, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transaction costs, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty
Yet a month later, EPA sent industry lawyers the draft of a handbook the agency was drawing up for employers and institutional administrators entitled “Understanding Indoor Air Pollution”—a curious procedure in view of the agency’s own concurrent risk assessment of ETS; why not wait for the completion of the latter before undertaking the former? The industry lawyers’ reply to the invitation to review the handbook gave EPA officials a clearer understanding of what they were in for. Many of the assertions in the draft of the booklet were unfounded, the tobacco people said, and the suggestion that eliminating ETS will “get rid of relevant pollutants is simply wrong.” On the contrary, a large number of studies “show that poor ventilation is by far the most important cause of indoor air pollution,” the industry spokesman added, and the 1986 Surgeon General’s report had not coneluded eluded that ETS was “a leading cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers,” as the EPA booklet said, and because of all the foregoing inaccuracies, it “seriously misrepresents the consensus of the scientific community.”
Repace persuasively answered these charges, contending that they were largely beside the point—that the “aging” rate of ETS, for instance, could be calculated as a constant value since it took about three hours to clear 95 percent of the ETS from a room, during which time the smokers in it collectively lighted, smoked, and discarded cigarettes in a more or less continuous process. To the claim that the ETS level could not be inferred from RSP readings because other airborne pollutants were also present, he responded that the indoor pollution level is ten to one hundred times higher when people are smoking, by far the most significant source of respirable indoor air pollution. Published in Science in May 1980, Repace’s article—his first in a major journal—asserted that the RSP levels generated by smokers overwhelmed the effects of existing ventilation systems and that ETS “presents a serious risk to the health of nonsmokers. Since this risk is involuntary, it deserves as much attention as outdoor air pollution.” The authors received 200 reprint requests almost at once, signaling that a new era of findings on smoking and health had opened.
But CIAR also sponsored studies of authentic value by reputable investigators, such as the American Health Foundation report “Determination of Nicotine Metabolites by Immunochemical Methods,” a step toward measuring ETS dosages. The industry, though, also crossed to the shady side of the street by contributing millions of dollars, according to reports by NBC News and The New York Times, to a Fairfax County, Virginia-based private company called Healthy Buildings International, which ostensibly conducted objective indoor air pollution tests and reported their findings to owners or tenants. A number of whistle-blowers once employed by the company charged that the data gathered during its inspections, which almost never faulted ETS as a major pollutant, were routinely doctored to reduce the measured level of ambient smoke and that its representatives, coached by tobacco industry personnel, made frequent public appearances during which they downplayed ETS as a serious health threat.
Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition by Robert N. Proctor
bioinformatics, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, index card, Indoor air pollution, information retrieval, invention of gunpowder, John Snow's cholera map, language of flowers, life extension, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, speech recognition, stem cell, telemarketer, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra
And the sums involved were often substantial. Theodor D. Sterling, for example, a professor of applied mathematics at Washington University in St. Louis, testified before this same House committee, opining that the conclusions drawn by the Surgeon General about smoking and cancer were “probably invalid.” In the 1960s and early 1970s Sterling received about $4 million to conduct research for the industry, mainly on indoor air pollution but also to develop statistical methods useful for challenging the smoking–cancer link. As late as the 1990s Sterling was ridiculing calculations of hundreds of thousands of U.S. deaths from smoking as “exaggerated propaganda” bordering on “the ludicrous”; he also accused health authorities of “resorting to misinformation to encourage people to stop smoking.” Sterling was one of the Special Projects operatives exposed by Stanton Glantz and colleagues in their 1995 Cigarette Papers, though Sterling earned substantially more even than was realized in this early exposé.
Philip Morris distinguishes screamers “soft” and “hard”: “soft” screamers are simply people who request being removed from such lists, whereas “hard” screamers (also known as “mass mob screamers”) include direct mail targets who are underage or otherwise troublesome from a legal point of view. sick building syndrome (SBS) Concept created by Gray Robertson of Healthy Buildings International—a tobacco industry front—to distract from the hazards of secondhand smoke in indoor spaces. The idea was that buildings suffering from indoor air pollution (from carpet fumes and the like) could be healed by proper ventilation—rather than bans on smoking. SBS becomes a centerpiece of tobacco industry effort to minimize and/or deny the reality of harms caused by breathing indoor smoke. statistics Generally suspect, or “mere.” Invectives against statistics appear by the thousands in tobacco industry propaganda. Darrell Huff, author of How to Lie with Statistics (1954), was employed by the industry to present confounding testimony before the U.S.
ventilation Also referred to as “dilution,” “shunting,” “freshing,” “air suction,” or “smoke bypass.” A technique to lower machine-measured tar and nicotine deliveries by cutting tiny slits in the mouth end of a cigarette. Ventilation slits were strategically placed so that while smoking robots would record lower yields, smokers could cover them to obtain their requisite dosages (“self-titration”). “Ventilation” was also a term used to distract from cigarettes as a cause of indoor air pollution: rooms had not “too much smoke” but rather “too little ventilation.” virile market Term for military and/or macho market targets. “Virile females” included female soldiers but also “NASCAR girls.” weaning Big Tobacco term for withdrawal from nicotine—smoking cessation—and something to be feared. Tobacco companies worry that if nicotine levels drop significantly below some threshold level, smokers will be “weaned” from the habit.
Unhealthy societies: the afflictions of inequality by Richard G. Wilkinson
attribution theory, clean water, correlation coefficient, experimental subject, full employment, fundamental attribution error, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, land reform, means of production, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, upwardly mobile
For countries on the horizontal part of the curves in figure 3.1 (which becomes more horizontal in the light of the inadequate quality adjustments), the onus for explaining the upward shift of the life expectancy curve is on the qualitative improvements in living standards which take place over time. If one were to suggest ways in which qualitative change might improve health, one might point to cleaner central heating, which avoids the problems of indoor air pollution and fire hazards associated with open fires; 42 The health of societies freezers which enable people to eat food with less bacterial contamination; a whole host of developments (including washing machines, electric kettles and disposable nappies) which have made baby and childcare not only easier but also more hygienic and safe; lead-free petrol which reduces environmental pollution; increases in car safety, which have reduced road deaths despite increased car ownership; and the wider provision of phones, which enables families and friends to overcome some of the social dislocation caused by geographical separation (relevant to the powerful influence of social support on health).
The new village green: living light, living local, living large by Stephen Morris
back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cleantech, collective bargaining, Columbine, Community Supported Agriculture, computer age, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Firefox, index card, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, Menlo Park, Negawatt, off grid, peak oil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review
From Naturally Clean A critical epicenter of activity in our kitchens is the dishwasher. Fifty-one percent 168 chapter 7 : Whole Earth Catalog of all American homes have one of these time- and labor-saving devices, yet it surprises many to learn that they’re the most toxic appliance in the modern home. Over the course of approximately 30 experiments, researchers at the EPA and the University of Texas recently documented the dishwasher’s role as a leading cause of indoor air pollution. Pollutants released by dishwashers include the chlorine added to both public water supplies and dishwasher detergents, volatile organic compounds like chloroform, radioactive radon naturally present in some water sources, and other volatile contaminants that have worked their way into public water supplies. When these materials are exposed to the piping hot water that circulates through your dishwasher as it cleans, they are easily “stripped out” and evaporated into the air.
Ultimate Sales Machine by Chet Holmes
Here's what you say: "Did you receive our press release about the amazing amount of pollutants in the home? We were wondering if there was anything we could do to help with that story." Often at that point, you'll be asked to resend your press release. Or you'll be bmshed off, but the following month, when you call about the five million dust mites in everyone's living room, the editor will start to remember: you're the guy who knows about indoor air pollution. If a story comes up along those lines, guess who they are going to call first? Also, editors are just like anyone else. They respect someone who continues to call them with story ideas on a regular basis. Earlier I mentioned American Art Resources (AAR), the people who sell art to hospitals. If they targeted the press for hospitals with pieces like 'Why AAR is great" or "AAR gets another major hospital client," how effective do you think they'd be?
The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves by Matt Ridley
23andMe, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, food miles, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, packet switching, patent troll, Pax Mongolica, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, working poor, working-age population, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
But even if you accept these guesses, the WHO’s own figures showed that climate change was dwarfed as a cause of death by iron deficiency, cholesterol, unsafe sex, tobacco, traffic accidents and other things, not to mention ‘ordinary’ diarrhoea and malaria. Even obesity, according to the same report, was killing more than twice as many people as climate change. Nor was any attempt made to estimate the number of lives saved by carbon emissions – by the provision of electric power to a village where people suffer from ill health due to indoor air pollution from cooking over open fires, say, or the deaths from malnutrition prevented by the higher productivity of agriculture using fertiliser made from natural gas. In 2009 Kofi Annan’s Global Humanitarian Forum doubled the number of climate deaths to 315,000 a year, but only by ignoring these points, arbitrarily doubling the diarrhoea deaths caused by climate, and adding in ludicrous assumptions about how climate change was responsible for ‘inter-clan fighting in Somalia’, Hurricane Katrina and other disasters.
Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham
1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche
‘The risks from air pollution are now far greater than previously thought or understood, particularly for heart disease and strokes’, argued the WHO’s Maria Neira. ‘Few risks have a greater impact on global health today than air pollution; the evidence signals the need for concerted action to clean up the air we all breathe.’25 The WHO estimated that 4.3 million of total deaths were due to indoor air pollution (mainly from lit stoves), and 3.7 million were due to bad external air tainted by fossil fuel combustion. The most lethal aspects of the latter involves sulphur and nitrogen dioxide (major causes of chronic respiratory and cardiovascular ailments); poisonous ozone (formed when sunlight reacts with pollutants); carbon monoxide (which prevents the blood from transporting oxygen properly); various forms of airborne particulate matter (from diesel engines and coal fired power stations); carcinogens such as benzene and lead; and airborne dust created by construction work.
Making Globalization Work by Joseph E. Stiglitz
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, capital controls, central bank independence, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, invisible hand, John Markoff, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, microcredit, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil rush, open borders, open economy, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, race to the bottom, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, statistical model, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game
Education had been viewed as a way out, an opportunity to get a better job in the cities. Now it is also being viewed as a way up, enhancing income even for those who remain in the rural sector. Education can be used to promote health and the environment as well as to impart technical skills. Students can learn in school the dangers of locating latrines uphill from their source of drinking water, or the dangers of indoor air pollution—the choking smoke in huts without ventilation—and what can be done about it. With education, a broad approach is important. Too often, international development institutions such as the World Bank focused narrowly on primary education. This was understandable: the returns are high, and many countries were spending a disproportionate part of their education The Promise of Development 51 budgets on university education for children of the elite.
airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, end world poverty, European colonialism, failed state, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, George Akerlof, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Live Aid, microcredit, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, publication bias, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers
SNAPSHOT: THE SHELL FOUNDATION’S BUSINESSLIKE APPROACH TO POVERTY ONE OF THE LEAST known problems of poverty is indoor smoke from cooking. During a recent trip to Africa, I saw a young girl cooking in an unventilated hut all day long, in smoke so thick I could not stand to stay in the hut for more than a few seconds. This scene is common in homes throughout Africa, multiplying many times children’s chances of dying from respiratory infections. The World Health Organization estimates that indoor air pollution in a smoky hut exceeds by a factor of sixty the European Union’s standard maximum for outdoor air pollution.57 The sufferings from acute respiratory infections are hard to convey to people in rich societies, who no longer experience them. The lungs fill with pus, some of which the patient coughs out. The infection causes chills, fever, shaking, sharp pains in the chest, nausea, and vomiting.
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Here are just a few highlights: In July 2009, we reached 387.81 parts per million (ppm) of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Leading scientists around the world have identified 350 ppm as the maximum level that the atmosphere can contain for the planet to remain as we know it.6 Toxic industrial and agricultural chemicals now show up in every body tested anywhere in the world, including in newborn babies.7 Source: W. Steffen at al, Global Change and the Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure, 2005. Indoor air pollution kills 1.6 million people per year, with outdoor air pollution taking another 800,000 lives each year.8 About one-fifth of the world’s population—more than 1.2 billion people—experience water scarcity, and this resource is becoming increasingly scarce.9 Global income inequality is staggering. Currently, the richest 1 percent of people in the world have as much wealth and Stuff as the bottom 57 percent.10 So what happens when there’s a subsystem like the economy that keeps growing inside of a system of a fixed size?
India's Long Road by Vijay Joshi
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Property tax reform is a first- order requirement for financing urban infrastructure. 28. See Ahluwalia, Kanbur, and Mohanty (2014). 29. See Tables 3.16 and 3.17 of Planning Commission (2013a). 30. See Yale Centre for Environmental Law & Policy (2014). 31. See World Health Organization (2014). Delhi’s measured PM2.5 levels are 15 times the WHO guideline. PM2.5 pollution can lead to life-threatening heart and lung conditions. 32. Indoor air pollution due to the burning of solid fuels for cooking, especially prevalent in India’s rural areas, is also enormously harmful and accounts for a million premature deaths a year in the country. 33. See Greenstone and Jack (2015), Figures 1 and 2, and the sources therein, for the much of the data referred to in this paragraph. 34. See Greenstone and Hanna (2014). 35. Australia and Singapore are examples to follow.
Albert Einstein, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Gary Taubes, Indoor air pollution, meta analysis, meta-analysis, phenotype, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, Robert Gordon, selection bias, the scientific method, Upton Sinclair
Zarkovic, Neven. “4-Hydroxynonenal as a Bioactive Marker of Pathophysiological Processes.” Molecular Aspects of Medicine 24, no. 4–5 (August–October 2003): 281–291. Zhang, Quing, Ahmed S. M. Saleh, Jing Chen, and Qun Shen. “Chemical Alterations Taken Place During Deep-Fat Frying Based on Certain Reaction Products: A Review.” Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 165, no. 6 (September 2012): 662–681. Zhong, Lijie, Mark S. Goldberg, Yu-Tang Gao, and Fan Jin. “Lung Cancer and Indoor Air Pollution Arising from Chinese-Style Cooking among Nonsmoking Women Living in Shanghai, China.” Epidemiology 10, no. 5 (September 1999): 488–494. Zhong, Lijie, Mark S. Goldberg, Marie-Élise Parent, and James A. Hanley. “Risk of Developing Lung Cancer in Relation to Exposure to Fumes from Chinese-Style Cooking.” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 25, no. 4 (August 1999): 309–316.