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Talk to Me: How Voice Computing Will Transform the Way We Live, Work, and Think by James Vlahos
Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, backpropagation, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, Colossal Cave Adventure, computer age, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jeff Bezos, lateral thinking, Loebner Prize, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
After a colleague shared Colossal Cave Adventure on a computer network, the game was passed around to more and more players. It attained a 1970s sort of virality and inspired other popular interactive text-based adventure games including Zork. In 1981 Crowther’s creation was honored by being the first game available for the original IBM PC. Decades later, the noted technology writer Steven Levy would note, “Playing adventure games without tackling this one is like being an English major who’s never glanced at Shakespeare.” Like Eliza, text-based computer games such as Colossal Cave Adventure were also many people’s first experience of something powerful: communicating with what felt like a sentient machine.
He stopped caving because the two of them couldn’t do that together anymore, and he wound up feeling estranged from his two daughters. But he came up with an unusual way to tackle both problems: He decided to create a caving-themed videogame that both he and his daughters would enjoy. Incorporating Dungeons & Dragons-inspired elements, he named it Colossal Cave Adventure. The object was to explore a labyrinth, which Crowther designed to resemble parts of the real Mammoth Cave, and collect treasures. This being the mid-1970s, the game didn’t have flashy graphics—or any graphics at all, Crowther had decided. Instead, the game consisted entirely of text. Although players were restricted to using one- and two-word commands, the game was revolutionary in that the action unfolded as a conversation.
Like Eliza, text-based computer games such as Colossal Cave Adventure were also many people’s first experience of something powerful: communicating with what felt like a sentient machine. In the 1980s and 1990s, conversational computing would advance significantly beyond the clipped exchanges of Colossal Cave Adventure—until it reached what felt like an unsurmountable wall, one that would require researchers to question core assumptions about how best to teach computers to talk. An excellent case study of how this unfolded comes from another innovator who started out in the realm of text-based games—Michael Loren “Fuzzy” Mauldin. An accomplished and colorful figure in the history of computing, Mauldin is known today for having invented one of the world’s first search engines, Lycos, which, at its peak in 1999, was one of the internet’s most visited destinations.
The Simulation Hypothesis by Rizwan Virk
3D printing, Albert Einstein, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, butterfly effect, Colossal Cave Adventure, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, game design, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Minecraft, natural language processing, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Zeno's paradox
Text adventures such as Colossal Cave Adventure, Zork, and even Dungeons & Dragons (the offline version) used the most powerful graphics engine available—that of our minds. Because these games lacked graphics, they forced players to use their imaginations to visualize these worlds, which could be quite expansive. For example, in Colossal Cave Adventure, there was a map of the different “rooms” or caves you could explore. As players explored the world, they often tried to recreate this map (a famous example of this is shown in Figure 2: ). Figure 2: Map of Colossal Cave Adventure Text games are rarely played by today’s video game generation, although there is a subgenre called “interactive fiction” that keeps this tradition alive.
., 96 classical physics, 29, 125, 161, 166, 283–84, 288 classical vs. relativistic physics, 122–24 Cline, Ernest, 56 clock-speed and quantized time, computer simulations, 171–73 Close Encounters of the Third Kind, 232, 276 cloud of probabilities, 127 collective dream, 187–88 Colossal Cave Adventure, 27–29, 32, 34 Colossal Cave Adventure, map of, 29f computation, 18–19 computation, and other sciences, 287 computation, evidence of, 256–57, 267–68 overview, 246–47 computation in nature, evidence of, 263–66 computational irreducibility, 18, 79, 266 computer simulations clock-speed and quantized time, 171–73 . see also ancestor simulation; Great Simulation; Simulation Argument; simulation hypothesis; Simulation Point computer-generated imagery (CGI) techniques, 64–66 “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” (Turing, 1950), 85 conditional rendering, evidence of, 253–55 conflict resolution, 173 conscious players, people as, 114–15 consciousness, 148 as digital informaion, 17–18 as information and computation, 82 consciousness, defined, 115–16 consciousness, digital vs. spiritual, 116–18 consciousness and metaphysical experiments, 249–250 consciousness as information, 104–5 consciousness transference, 198–99 Constraints on the Universe as a Numerical Simulation (Beane, Davoudi and Savage), 255 Copenhagen interpretation, 131 Cosmos, 251 CPUs (central processing units), 137 . see also GPUs/CPUs Creative Labs, 62 Crichton, Michael, 71–72 Crick, Francis, 116 Crowther, Will, 27 Curry, Adam, 76 D Dalai Lama, 207 Data, Star Trek: The Next Generation, 95–96, 115 Davoudi, Zohreh, 255 deathmatch mode, 43–44 Deep Blue, 86 DeepMind, 86–88, 94, 98 déjà vu, 240–41 delayed-choice double slit experiment, 145f delayed-choice experiment, 143–46 delayed-measurement experiment, 146 DELTA t (T), 174 Department of Defense (DOD), 232 Descartes, René, 11 DeWitt, Bryce, 149 dharma, 191 Dick, Leslie “Tessa” B., 8–9 Dick, Philip K., 274, 289 and alternate realities, 8–9 computer simulations and variables, 19 and implanted memories, 77–78 life as computer-generated simulation, 78–79 Metz Sci-Fi Convention, 1977, 2 question of reality vs. fiction, 71–72 simulated worlds, 80 speculative technologies, 53 digital consciousness, 116–18 digital film resolution, 65 digital immortality, 82, 105 digital psychiatrist, 88–89, 161 directed graph, 153–55 Discrete World, 165–66 Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep, 9 Donkey Kong, 1 Doom, 43–44, 43f, 59–60, 137–38 DOTA 2, 87, 94 dot-matrix printers (2D), 69–71 double slit experiment, 128–29, 129f downloadable consciousness, 54, 101–4, 198, 207, 281 downloadable consciousness and seventh yoga, 197–99 Dr.
Stage 0: Text Adventures and the “Game World” (1970s to mid-1980s) As we look at the early history of video games, Stage 0 (single-player text adventures) actually developed in parallel with Stage 1 (simple graphical arcade games), but I have split them up because of their different characteristics and technical underpinnings. Both represent distinct but necessary steps on the road to the simulation point. The first text adventure game was Colossal Cave Adventure, built by Will Crowther in 1976 on a PDP-10 mainframe computer. This game, whose user interface is shown in Figure 1, was based partly on the Mammoth Caves in Kentucky, where Crowther had spent a lot of time. Many other programmers, including Don Woods from Stanford, took Crowther’s original code and ported it to many different computer systems, adding the many fantasy elements of the game that made it a precursor of the many adventure games to follow.
Broad Band: The Untold Story of the Women Who Made the Internet by Claire L. Evans
"side hustle", 4chan, Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, Colossal Cave Adventure, computer age, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Doomsday Book, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, East Village, Edward Charles Pickering, game design, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mondo 2000, Mother of all demos, Network effects, old-boy network, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pets.com, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, rolodex, San Francisco homelessness, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y2K
This is perhaps why Will Crowther felt compelled to make one last map. This one wasn’t plotted from his wife’s muddy notebooks but rather from his own memories. Translated into seven hundred lines of FORTRAN, they became Colossal Cave Adventure, one of the first computer games, modeled faithfully on the sections of Mammoth Cave he had explored with Patricia and mapped alongside her, on a computer that would form the backbone of the Internet. Colossal Cave Adventure—now more commonly known as Adventure—doesn’t look like a game in the modern sense. There are no images or animations, no joysticks or controllers. Instead, blocks of text describe sections of a cave in the second person, like so: You are in a splendid chamber thirty feet high.
“harrowing of Hell”: Tracy Kidder, The Soul of a New Machine (New York: Back Bay Books, 1981), 88. By the time she encountered: www.legacy.com/obituaries/dispatch/obituary.aspx?n=john-preston-wilcox&pid=145049233. “completely different from the real cave”: Jerz, “Somewhere Nearby Is Colossal Cave.” “Adventure’s Colossal Cave, at least”: Walt Bilofsky, “Adventures in Computing,” Profiles: The Magazine for Kaypro Users 2, no. 1 (1984): 25, https://archive.org/stream/PROFILES_Volume_2_Number_1_1984-07_Kaypro_Corp_US/PROFILES_Volume_2_Number_1_1984-07_Kaypro_Corp_US_djvu.txt. “the deep recesses you explored”: Steven Levy, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, 25th Anniversary Edition (Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, 2010), 113.
Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture by David Kushner
Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, book scanning, Colossal Cave Adventure, Columbine, corporate governance, game design, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Marc Andreessen, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, X Prize
Everyone was playing a game that consisted only of words on the terminal screen: “You are standing at the end of a road before a small brick building. Around you is a forest. A small stream flows out of the building towards a gully. In the distance there is a gleaming white tower.” This was Colossal Cave Adventure, the hottest thing going. Romero knew why: it was like a computer-game version of Dungeons and Dragons. D&D, as it was commonly known, was a pen-and-paper role-playing game that cast players in a Lord of the Rings–like adventure of imagination. Many adults lazily dismissed it as geekish escapism.
If the players chose to pursue the screams, the Dungeon Master would select just what ogre or chimera they would face. His roll of the die determined how they fared; no matter how wild the imaginings, a random burst of data ruled one’s fate. It was not surprising that computer programmers liked the game or that one of the first games they created, Colossal Cave Adventure, was inspired by D&D. The object of Colossal Cave was to fight battles while trying to retrieve treasures within a magical cave. By typing in a direction, say “north” or “south,” or a command, “hit” or “attack,” Romero could explore what felt like a novel in which he was the protagonist. As he chose his actions, he’d go deeper into the woods until the walls of the lab seemed to become trees, the air-conditioning flow a river.
Ten years later, a programmer and amateur cave explorer in Boston, Will Crowther, created textbased spelunking simulation. When a hacker at Stanford named Don Woods saw the game, he contacted Crowther to see if it was okay for him to modify the game to include more fantasy elements. The result was Colossal Cave Adventure. This gave rise to the text-adventure craze, as students and hackers in computer labs across the country began playing and modifying games of their own–often based on Dungeons and Dragons or Star Trek. Romero was growing up in the eighties as a fourth-generation game hacker: the first having been the students who worked on the minicomputers in the fifties and sixties at MIT; the second, the ones who picked up the ball in Silicon Valley and at Stanford University in the seventies; the third being the dawning game companies of the early eighties.
Gamers at Work: Stories Behind the Games People Play by Morgan Ramsay, Peter Molyneux
Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, Bill Atkinson, Bob Noyce, collective bargaining, Colossal Cave Adventure, game design, Ian Bogost, independent contractor, index card, Mark Zuckerberg, oil shock, pirate software, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Von Neumann architecture
The only other company doing language development was a tiny outfit called Microsoft. However, one night I was working late on one of my contract programming projects, doing some development work on a terminal hooked to a mainframe at MIT, when I noticed a computer game. I played it a bit and thought Roberta might like it. The game, called Colossal Cave Adventure, was all text and began just by saying, “You are at the end of a long road, standing in front of a well. What would you like to do?” You then could type in anything you like, such as “look in the well,” and the game would respond. Roberta was captivated and wound up staying up all night to finish the game.
Index 1st Playable Productions, Tobi Saulnier, 261–280 3D gameplay, 302 3D Home Architect, Doug and Gary Carlston, 127, 129 3DO Company, 1, 10–12 989 Studios, 169–170 1830 board game, Avalon Hill, 50 2600 console, 17, 33–34 A Able, Robert, 243 acquisitions of Sierra On-Line, 201–206 by SOE, 191 Activision, 6, 100, 103 Adam, Phil, 96 addiction, to EverQuest game, 177–178 Adventure International, Doug and Gary Carlston, 122–123 advertising, Darkwatch game, 253–254 advisors external, 28, 111 Tobi Saulnier, 266 Age of Empires, Tony Goodman, 67–68, 70–73, 76–77 Air Force Academy, Wild Bill Stealey, 37 Air Warrior, Don Daglow, 157 alarm clock, in EverQuest game, 177 Albanian American Development Foundation, 132 Albanian American Enterprise Fund, 132 algorithms, 40 Alpha Protocol, 87 Altman, Robert, 281, 291 Ampex Corporation, 18, 21 Ancient Art of War, Doug and Gary Carlston, 129 Anderson, Jason, 94–97, 100, 104 Andretti Racing, Don Daglow, 160 anti-indulgence system, 178 Antic Magazine, 41 AOL, Don Daglow, 144, 150 Apple, 258–259 Trip Hawkins' time at, 2, 7–8 users, pirating software, 47 apps, game, 257–259 Appy Entertainment, Chris Ulm, 251–260 arcade games, 13 Arcanum, Tim Cain, 96–100 Archon game, 5 artists, software, 4–5 assets, reusing, 88–89 Atari, 7, 197 acquisition by Warner Communications, 32–35 Bushnell's leaving, 34–35 buying out of Dabney, 32 competition, 31 culture at, 31 Doug and Gary Carlston, 126 growth of, 24–27, 29–30 licensing with Nutting Associates, 22–23 location of, 23 Nolan Bushnell, 17–36 online game business, 31–32 overview, 17 Pong, 27–28 role in market crash, 33 startup of, 18–22 Tim Cain, 100–101 AtariTel, 31–32 Avalon Hill, 50–51 Avellone, Chris, 80, 85, 96 B Baer, Ralph, 28 Bally Manufacturing, 24, 26, 30 Balsam, David, 128 Bank Street Writer, Doug and Gary Carlston, 127, 129 BannerMania, Doug and Gary Carlston, 129 Barnett, Mike, 287 Bayne, Gresham, 316 Becker, Alan, 308 benefits, employee 1st Playable, 264, 280 Naughty Dog, 311 Bennette, David, 154 Bethesda Softworks, 89, 281–295 Bigham, Dane, 129 Billings, Joel, 144 BioWare, 85–86 Black Isle Studios, closure of, 79 Blackley, Seamus, 112 Blair, Gerry, 50 Boog-Scott, John, 61–62, 67 books, written by Ken Williams, 206 The Bourne Conspiracy game, 256 Boyarsky, Leonard, 94–97, 100, 104 brand extension, focus on at Sierra On-Line, 200 Brathwaite, Brenda, 149 Braun, Jeff, 237 Bricklin, Dan, 39 Bröderbund, 6 Don Daglow, 133, 135–137, 144 Doug and Gary Carlston, 122, 132 Brubaker, Lars, 82 Buchignani, Mark, 141 Budge, Bill, 5 budgets, for Sierra On-Line projects, 203–204 building engines, 87 Bunnett, David, 141 Bunten, Dan, 5–6 Burr, Egan, Deleage ' Co, Doug and Gary Carlston, 131 Busch, Kurt, 234 Bushnell, Nolan, 241 business aspects, Verant Interactive, 173–174 business is war philosophy, 196 business planning Atari, 20 Oddworld Inhabitants, 223–225 Verant Interactive, 172 Wild Bill Stealey, 44–45 ByVideo, 17 C CAA (Creative Artists Agency), 109–110 Cabbage Patch Kids, 268–269 Cain, Tim, cofounder of Troika Games, 93–105 Calhoun, John, 62 Call Doctor service, 316 Cameron, James, 216–217, 238 capability, 1st Playable, 277 Capcom, 254 capitalism, Lorne Lanning comments on, 221–222 Carbine Studios, Tim Cain, 105 career path Christopher Weaver, 282–283 Lorne Lanning, 209–218 Ted Price, 316–317 Tobi Saulnier, 261–263 Carlston, Cathy, 125, 130, 133 Carlston, Doug, 132–133, 135–136 Carlston Family Foundation, 132 Carlston, Gary, 132–133 Carmack, John, 149 Carmen Sandiego Don Daglow, 134 Doug and Gary Carlston, 127–128 Case, Steve, 144 cash flow, Don Daglow, 151–153 Catalyst Technologies, 17 CBS Software, 42 Cerny, Mark, 303–304, 306–307, 318–319 Chaimowitz, Ron, 233 Chapman, Thad, 62 The Chicago Coin Speedway, 24 Chicago, manufacturing in, 23 Chopper Rescue, Sid Meier, 42 Christian, Brian, 269 Chuck E. Cheese Pizza Time Theatre, 36 Citizen Siege, 245–247 Civilization, 37, 51 cloud distribution, 190 Cobb, Ron, 226 cofounders lack of at Electronic Arts, 3 of Verant Interactive, 173 collaboration, 1st Playable, 277 Colossal Cave Adventure game, 194 Command Center, Tony Goodman, 62–63 commercial location Bethesda Softworks, 286 Naughty Dog, 307 community, 1st Playable, 277 competition Doug and Gary Carlston, 126, 131 of Electronic Arts, 6–7 faced by High Moon Studios, 254 Computer Quiz, 22 Computer Space, 17, 22 confidentiality, Tobi Saulnier, 273 conservative attitude, of Ken Williams, 200 console games, 186–188 3DO platform development for, 10–12 by Electronic Arts, 8–10 consultants, Wild Bill Stealey, 43 Consumer Electronics Show, 6, 43, 50, 56 consumer retail experience, Apple, 259 contracts Electronic Arts, 5 winning, 84 Cook, Zeb, 96 core businesses, 183 core hours, 310 corporate mindset, at SOE, 178–179 craftsmanship, 1st Playable, 277 Crash 3, 304–305 Crash Bandicoot, 297, 301 Crash Team Racing, 305 Creative Artists Agency (CAA), 109–110 creative directors, Insomniac Games, 327 creativity, stifled by reuse, 88 Cresap McCormick ' Paget, 38 Cresap McCormick, Wild Bill Stealey, 38 criticism dealing with, 180 of games, 89 Croner, Mel, 129 cross-platform online games, 186–188 Crow, Brad, 66–67 CUC International, 202–203 culture at Digital Chocolate, 14 at Electronic Arts, 7–8 at SOE, 180 studio, 31, 117–118 at Verant Interactive, 176 customer relations 1st Playable, 274 focus on at Sierra On-Line, 200 cutouts, Stealey, Wild Bill Stealey, 49 Cyan, 135–136 D D'D (Dungeons ' Dragons) Don Daglow, 144, 149, 151, 158 Tim Cain, 100–101 Dabney, Ted, 17–18, 20, 25, 32 Daglow, Don, 133–168 Daglow Entertainment, Don Daglow, 166 Daly, Ray, 123 Darkwatch game, 252–255 Davidson, Bob, 203 Davidson Software, acquisition of Sierra On-Line, 201–204 DazzleDraw, Doug and Gary Carlston, 129 DC Comics franchise, 185 Dean, Tim, 67 Decker, Tom, 101 Demilt, Eric, 96 Descent to Undermountain, Tim Cain, 94 designers, Sierra On-Line, 203–204 Deus Ex, 108 developers, at Electronic Arts, 4–5 development teams, successful, 255 dial-up time-sharing, invented by Wild Bill Stealey, 38 Digital Chocolate, 1, 12–15 digital distribution, at SOE, 188 Digital Domain, 216–217 digital-state machines, 20 direct distribution, 3 Disney Epic Mickey, 107, 112–115, 119 Disney, Junction Point Studios work with, 112–114 Disruptor, 319 Dombrower, Eddie, 142–143 Dominican University, 132 Doom, Don Daglow, 149 Dott, Eric 1830 board game, 50 Civilization, 51 down-the-barrel perspective, 288 downloadable content, 271 Dream Zone, 299 Dueling Digits, Doug and Gary Carlston, 123 Dungeons ' Dragons (D'D) Don Daglow, 144, 149, 151, 158 Tim Cain, 100–101 E EA (Electronic Arts), 47 Don Daglow, 136, 150, 160–161 Doug and Gary Carlston, 126 founder Trip Hawkins, 1–15 Earl Weaver Baseball, Don Daglow, 142, 145 Edlund, Richard, 216 education, of Ken Williams, 194 Eggs of Steel, 214 Eheler, Brian, 125 Eidos, 108 The Elder Scrolls, 281, 290 Electronic Arts (EA), 47 Don Daglow, 136, 150, 160–161 Doug and Gary Carlston, 126 founder Trip Hawkins, 1–15 Electronic Arts Partners, 324 employees benefits, 1st Playable, 264, 280 early, at Electronic Arts, 3 honesty with, 91 Ensemble Studios, cofounder Tony Goodman, 59–78 Entertainment Software Association (ESA), 183 Entertainment Software Ratings Board (ESRB), 182–183 entrepreneurship, Tony Goodman, 59–65 ESA (Entertainment Software Association), 183 ESRB (Entertainment Software Ratings Board), 182–183 Etak, 17 European operations, Wild Bill Stealey, 48 evergreen games, Doug and Gary Carlston, 127 EverQuest game, 169–178, 185, 187 experience, using at studios, 83 external advisors, 28, 111 F F-15 Strike Eagle, 37 Meier, Sid, 43 Wild Bill Stealey, 44 FaceFighter game, 257 Falcon 3.0, 55 Fallout New Vegas, 89 Tim Cain, 93–96 family life of John Smedley, 172 of Ken Williams, 195–196 of Nolan Bushnell, 23 Family Tree Maker, 127, 129, 131 Fargo, Brian, 94–96 fear-based decisions, danger of making, 244 Feargus Urquhart, 79–91 financial responsibility, Wild Bill Stealey, 45 Fiorito, John, 315 Firaxis Games, 37 Fletcher, Ed, 282, 285 Flight Simulator, Microsoft, 44 Flock, Kelly, 170, 174, 308 Floyd of the Jungle, Sid Meier, 42 Forbes, Walter, 202–203 founding team, lack of at Electronic Arts, 3 franchises Free Realms, 184, 189 overview, 253 SOE, 184–185 free to play Digital Chocolate, 12–13 overview, 188–189 FreeFall Associates, 5 Fries, Ed, 75 funding for Electronic Arts, 3 Juntion Point Studios, 109–110 for Obsidian Entertainment, 81 Oddmob, 249 Oddworld Inhabitants, 225–226, 228–230 for Sierra On-Line, 197–200 G Galactic Saga, Doug and Gary Carlston, 123 garage shop, 23 Garriott, Richard, 111 Garske, Chris, 234 Gates, Bill, 69 Gavin, Andy, 297–298 General Instrument, Wild Bill Stealey, 38 Genesis, Sega, 10 Gibson, Charlie, 211 Girl with a Stick, 322 going public, Doug and Gary Carlston, 131 Gold Box games, Don Daglow, 144, 154, 158 Goldman, Daniel, 248 Goldstein, Jack, 218 Goodman, Rick, 67 Goodman, Tony, 59–78 Granath, Herb, 282 Grant, Ken, 130 graphical massively multiplayer online games, 144–145 Gridiron, 281, 287 GT Interactive, 233–234 H Half-Life 2, Tim Cain, 100, 102–103 Halo, Tony Goodman, 76 Hammond, Eric, 5 hands-on leadership, 83–84 hardware focus on, 20 price of 3DO, 11 Harvard Doug and Gary Carlston, 124 Trip Hawkins, 2 Hasbro Interactive, 51 Hastings, Al, 315, 317–318, 320 Hastings, Brian, 315, 322 Hatch, Fred, 94 Hawkins, Trip, 1–15, 47, 300 Hellcat Ace game, 37 developing, 40 reviewed in Antic Magazine, 41 selling, 40 HessWare, 44 High Moon Studios, 251–256 hiring process at Electronic Arts, 7–8 at High Moon Studios, 252, 254 honesty with employees, 91 Hughes, John, 211 HVAC company, 41 I IBM, funding for Sierra On-Line from, 199 Icewind Dale, 86 iEntertainment Network, 37 independent studio, transforming internal development group into, 252–253 Infinity Engine, BioWare, 86 Insomniac Games, 303, 315–328 intellectual property licensing, 288 intellectual property rights, Tony Goodman, 72–73 interactive games, Digital Chocolate, 13–14 Interactive Magic, 37, 56 internal development group, transforming into independent studio, 252–253 Internews, 132 Interplay overview, 79 Tim Cain, 96 investments, skin in the game, 284 investors Don Daglow, 139–140 Doug and Gary Carlston, 129–130 Tobi Saulnier, 263 Ion Storm, 107 iTunes, 211 J Jack, Katie, 141–142 Jak and Daxter, 306, 308–309 Jensen, Benni, 285 Jochumson, Chris, 125 Jones, Chase, 116 Jones, Chris, 80, 105 Jostens, Inc, Doug and Gary Carlston, 131 Junction Point Studios, 107–119 Disney Epic Mickey, 112–115 funding, 109–110 during independent years, 112–113 mission statement, 117 overview, 107 partners, 111 role of Spector at, 118 startup, 108–109 studio culture, 117–118 K Kahn, Marty, 128 Kassar, Ray, 32 Keef the Thief, 299 Keith, Clinton, 254 Ken Williams, 193–207 Kid Pix, Doug and Gary Carlston, 127 King's Quest game, 199 Kleiner Perkins, 56 Knight Technologies, 170 Kroegel, Chuck, 144 Kung Zhu, 272 Kutaragi, Ken, 215 L La Russa, Tony, 145, 147–149 Landau, Yair, 178 Laudon, Angelo, 66–67 lawsuits, Atari, 28 leaders, cultivating, 116 The Learning Company (SoftKey), Doug and Gary Carlston, 131–132 Lefay, Julian, 285 legitimate software, 81 licenses for massively multiplayer online games, 185–186 middleware, 87 respecting, 84 Tobi Saulnier, 272 Living Books, Doug and Gary Carlston, 127–128 location, of Atari, 23 Lode Runner, Doug and Gary Carlston, 129 The Long Now Foundation, 132, 135 Lord of the Rings, Don Daglow, 158 Lorne Lanning, 209–250 Louie, Gillman, 55 LucasArts, 181–182, 185 Lucasfilm, 84 Lynch, Scott, 98 M M1 Tank Platoon, 48 Madden Football, Don Daglow, 158 Malibu Comics, 251, 256–257 management structure, Insomniac Games, 325–326 managers, at Electronic Arts, 7–8 market crash, Atari's role in, 33 marketing, at Verant Interactive, 176–177 markup method, 184 massively multiplayer online games, 169, 185–186.
Ajax: The Definitive Guide by Anthony T. Holdener
AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, business process, centre right, Colossal Cave Adventure, create, read, update, delete, database schema, David Heinemeier Hansson, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, full text search, game design, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, information retrieval, loose coupling, MVC pattern, Necker cube, p-value, Ruby on Rails, slashdot, sorting algorithm, web application
Though using Ajax for turn-based games is doable, I recommend avoiding this genre—unless you are very ambitious—when developing an Ajax-implemented browser game. Adventure Games Today, adventure games come in a variety of interfaces, subjects, and graphics formats. However, the first adventure games differed only in subject, as they were all text-based games. The first of these games was Colossal Cave Adventure (later simply called Adventure), written by William Crowther in the early 1970s. In this game, the player navigated through a series of rooms, each with its own description, to complete a series of puzzles. This premise was the key to all of the early text-based adventure games: puzzles, objects, swords and magic, and vast realms to explore and navigate. 726 | Chapter 21: Internet Games Without Plug-ins Many future developers of adventure games got their start by playing Adventure.
Its adventure games improved graphically as new technologies became available, and today Sierra is known for its series of adventure games: King’s Quest (1984–1998), Space Quest (1986–1995), Police Quest (1987–1993), Quest for Glory (1989–1998), and Leisure Suit Larry (1987–2004). Adventure games kept the model that Colossal Cave Adventure started—puzzles, objects, areas to explore, combat—and added interaction with nonplayer characters (NPCs) that began to blur the boundaries between adventure games and RPGs. This was especially true of the Quest for Glory series (originally Hero’s Quest), as it offered a good combination of adventure and role playing.
Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System by Nick Montfort, Ian Bogost
Games have moved to 3D and programmers have become more concerned with polygons than pixels, but movement and collision detection remain the primary building blocks of adventure games, and, indeed, of most video games. 3 Adventure  Pac-Man 4 The arcade-inspired Combat was not difﬁcult to ﬁt onto the Atari VCS. It was one of the games developed alongside the console’s hardware, inﬂuencing the latter’s design. Adventure was inspired by Colossal Cave Adventure, but Robinett thoroughly reimagined the text game for the VCS platform, creating something with very different appearance and different gameplay. When Atari acquired the home console rights to Namco’s hit arcade game Pac-Man, the company faced a different problem: that of porting the massively popular and recognizable game from a platform with totally different technical affordances.
Valley of Genius: The Uncensored History of Silicon Valley (As Told by the Hackers, Founders, and Freaks Who Made It Boom) by Adam Fisher
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bill Atkinson, Bob Noyce, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Byte Shop, cognitive dissonance, Colossal Cave Adventure, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Elon Musk, frictionless, glass ceiling, Hacker Conference 1984, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mondo 2000, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, nuclear winter, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, popular electronics, random walk, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, The future is already here, The Hackers Conference, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, tulip mania, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y Combinator
As a kid, it seemed mostly suburban and safe and even dull, except for the fact that there were also a lot of nerdy hacker types around, and they kept things interesting in their own way. The woman who lived next door to us ran the computer center at the local community college. In the late seventies my mom would drop me off there so I could play Colossal Cave Adventure—a text-only choose-your-own-adventure type game: YOU ARE STANDING AT THE END OF A ROAD BEFORE A SMALL BRICK BUILDING. AROUND YOU IS A FOREST. A SMALL STREAM FLOWS OUT OF THE BUILDING AND DOWN A GULLY. WHAT’S NEXT? I never even touched the actual computer, as it was a mainframe and kept safely behind glass.