19 results back to index

pages: 251 words: 63,630

The End of Cheap China: Economic and Cultural Trends That Will Disrupt the World by Shaun Rein


business climate, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, glass ceiling, high net worth, illegal immigration, income per capita, indoor plumbing, job-hopping, Maui Hawaii, price stability, quantitative easing, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trade route, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional, zero-sum game

One of the main goals of Chinese firms is to buy Western companies to learn from them. When Chinese firms complete acquisitions, not only are most foreign management structures left untouched, but their best practices are often exported to China. China is constantly seeking to improve existing operations in the home market. Take, for instance, when Chinese computer maker Lenovo acquired IBM’s ThinkPad laptop line. There were few layoffs, and Lenovo actually poached senior executives from Dell to run their operations. They did not install senior Chinese officials until the business lost market share in the domestic Chinese market and the founder of Lenovo took back the helm, much as Michael Dell did when Dell’s business faced headwinds. In other words, America should welcome investment from Chinese companies instead of fearing it.

Chinese firms tend to acquire companies to buy brands for introduction into China, to cut the time needed for building brands, and to import technological know-how and management expertise. Unlike Japanese firms, they are less likely to cut the senior management of acquired companies or block the advancement of executives who are not native Chinese. For instance, when Chinese computer maker Lenovo acquired the IBM ThinkPad line, it installed an American chief executive officer. The chairman of Bright Food, which has bought stakes in companies such as Australia’s Manassen, announced that they would keep senior management in place to learn from them. Similarly, when Chinese auto manufacturer Geely bought the Swedish Volvo brand, it also retained senior management and took a comparatively hands-off approach to Volvo’s operations.

Paul’s School stability in Africa, lack of China’s economic growth and Chinese government, emphasis on Chinese government security spending gender equality and housing, lack of instability, China’s reaction to renminbi appreciation and Standard & Poor Standing Committee of the Politburo Starbucks students, in China academic research and exchange, need for funding African students, China’s desire for Chinese students, descriptions of Chinese students on American way of life exams and testing, emphasis on extra training taken by foreign students in foreign students in, benefits for international support for Taiwanese support for studying abroad Chinese government support of Chinese students, rise in Chinese students’ desire for subway construction Subway sandwich shop Sudan sugar industry Suning Super Girl (TV show) Suzhou, China Suzuki, Akira T Tabor Academy Taiwan China, diplomatic problems with foreign students in vs. China Foxconn Mandarin language programs in Taobao Target tariffs on Chinese imports by U.S. on luxury goods reduction of for free trade technology companies Tele2 Telenor Tencent Terex test scores, emphasis on ThinkPad 3Leaf Systems Three Tenors concert Tianamen Square protests Tianjin, China TIME magazine Times Square Titanic (film) tourists, Chinese catering and preparing for rates of travel for spending habits of Toyota traffic problems, in China travel Chinese restrictions on Chinese tourists, rates of travel for See also studying abroad Trudeau, Garry Trump, Donald trust, building consumer Tunisia Tushna (friend) Tutsi people Twitter Chinese government blocking of Sina Weibo vs.

pages: 342 words: 95,013

The Zenith Angle by Bruce Sterling


airport security, Burning Man, cuban missile crisis, digital map, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Iridium satellite, market bubble, new economy, packet switching, pirate software, profit motive, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, V2 rocket, Y2K

Van had bought the two of them a house in Merwinster because it seemed wrong to Van for his baby, their new third party, to have no home. Besides, Van had to do something practical with his money. Van was making money, and not just a lot of money. Van was the VP for Research and Development at Mondiale. Van was making a weird amount of money. The TV muttered through a headache commercial, obscuring baby Ted’s eager slurps from Dottie’s rubber spoon. Van tapped at his trusty ThinkPad and checked the titles of the 117 pieces of e-mail piled up for him behind Mondiale’s corporate firewall. With an effort, Van decided to ignore his e-mail, at least until noon. Because Dottie was home with him. Dottie was sleeping with him, and lavishing her sweet attentions on him. Dottie was cooking and cleaning and changing diapers. Dottie was wandering from room to dark decaying room inside the Vandeveer mansion, and wrinkling her brow with a judgmental, wifely look.

Baby Ted packed a scream that could pierce like an ice pick. However, Ted changed his mind about howling for his mother. Instead, he picked intently at four loose Cheerios with his thumb and forefinger. Van sensed that picking up and eating a Cheerio was a major achievement for Ted. It was the baby equivalent of an adult landing a job. Van ran his fingers through his thick sandy beard, still wet from the morning shower. He set his ThinkPad firmly aside to confront an unsteady heap of magazines. Junk-mail catalog people had gotten wind of Van’s huge paycheck. For them, a computer geek with a new house and new baby was a gold mine. Van didn’t enjoy shopping, generally. Van enjoyed mathematics, tech hardware, cool sci-fi movies, his wife’s company, and bowling. However, shopping had one great advantage for Van. Shopping made Van stop thinking about Nash equilibria and latency functions.

Van turned up the TV’s volume. An announcer was filling dead air. Some big jet had collided with the World Trade Center. Van scowled. “Hey, that place has the worst luck in the world.” Dottie looked puzzled and upset. Even Ted looked morose. “I mean that crowd of bad guys with the big truck bomb,” Van explained. “They tried to blow that place up once.” Dottie winced. It was not her kind of topic. Van fetched up his ThinkPad from the floor. He figured he had better surf some Web news. These local TV guys had a lousy news budget. Covertly, Van examined his e-mail. Thirty-four messages had arrived for him in the past two minutes. Van flicked through the titles. Security freaks from the cyberwar crowd. Discussion groups, Web updates. They were watching TV right at their computers, and instantly, they had gone nuts. Van was embarrassed to think that he knew so many of these people.

pages: 238 words: 77,730

Final Jeopardy: Man vs. Machine and the Quest to Know Everything by Stephen Baker


23andMe, AI winter, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, business process, call centre, clean water, commoditize, computer age, Frank Gehry, information retrieval, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, job automation, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, statistical model, theory of mind, thinkpad, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

If Harry Friedman didn’t see a viable machine by 2009, he would never green-light the man-machine match for late 2010 or early 2011. This deadline compelled Ferrucci and his team to assemble their machine with existing technology—the familiar silicon-based semiconductors, servers whirring through billions of calculations and following instructions from lots of software programs that already existed. In its guts, Blue J would not be so different from the ThinkPad Ferrucci lugged from one meeting to the next. Its magic would have to come from its massive scale, inspired design, and carefully tuned algorithms. In other words, if Blue J became a great Jeopardy player, it would be less a breakthrough in cognitive science than a triumph of engineering. Every computing technology Ferrucci had ever touched, from the first computer he saw at Iona to the Brutus machine that spit out story plots, had a clueless side to it.

The following month, as Lehman Brothers imploded, car companies crashed, and the world’s financial system appeared to teeter on the verge of collapse, IBM’s branding and marketing team worked to develop the personality and message of the Jeopardy-playing machine. It would need a face of some sort and a voice. And it had to have a name. An entire corporate identity unit at IBM specialized in naming products and services. A generation earlier, when the company still sold machines to consumers, some of the names this division dreamed up became iconic. “PC” quickly became a broad term for personal computers (at least those that weren’t made by Apple). ThinkPad was the marquee brand for top-of-the-line business laptops. And for a few decades before the PC, the Selectric, the electric typewriter with a single rotating type ball (which could “erase” typos with space-age precision) epitomized quality for anyone creating documents. With IBM’s turn toward services, the company risked losing its contact with the popular mind—and its identity as a hotbed of innovation.

pages: 458 words: 135,206

CTOs at Work by Scott Donaldson, Stanley Siegel, Gary Donaldson


Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, centre right, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, distributed generation, domain-specific language, glass ceiling, pattern recognition, Pluto: dwarf planet, QR code, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ruby on Rails, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, thinkpad, web application, zero day, zero-sum game

When I became an IBM Fellow, I moved up and was the chief architect for the IBM Software Group as a whole. About two days after that, I get called in to review a project to build a B2B (business to business) system based on WebSphere and Software Group products. It took 14 physical machines to build and run the “Hello World” business process. I didn't know what the right answer was, but I knew it was less than 14. When I left, it would all run on a ThinkPad. It was a big ThinkPad, but it would all run on a ThinkPad. And that was all just advice and consent, and the fact that when I gave advice and consent, my technical colleagues would hash it out and figure out how to do it; then it was game time. Let's go and let's do it. S. Donaldson: Right. Ferguson: In the entire time I was the chief architect for Software Group, I only once in four years had to say the words, “I've heard all the people, but we're going to do it this way.”

pages: 308 words: 98,729

Garbage Land: On the Secret Trail of Trash by Elizabeth Royte


clean water, Maui Hawaii, Norman Mailer, Parkinson's law, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, working poor

Printed circuit boards are dotted with antimony, silver, chromium, zinc, lead, tin, and copper. Cell phones have their own periodic arsenal: arsenic, antimony, beryllium, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. Exposure to these metals has been shown to cause abnormal brain development in children and nerve damage, endocrine disruption, and organ damage in adults. Tapping away at my keyboard was probably doing me little harm, I figured, but it wouldn’t take much for my sleek little ThinkPad to morph into a corrosive contaminant. Crushed in a landfill, it would leach metals into soil and water (remember, all landfills eventually leak); in an incinerator, it would exhale noxious fumes, including dioxins and furans, that would taint both fly and bottom ash. Everything must to go somewhere—the environmental scientist Barry Commoner said it long ago, and I understood it implicitly now.

Hewlett-Packard’s take-back program is friendly to individuals (the company even accepts computers and peripherals it didn’t manufacture), but it is pricey. To mail my laptop, dead router, and one printer would cost me sixty-four dollars, minus the box and packing materials. (The company puts postage-paid labels and envelopes in some printer cartridge boxes.) When I asked staffers at one of the largest computer merchants in New York City about taking back my gently used IBM ThinkPad, they said they didn’t do it, didn’t know anything about it, and had never before been asked about it. For its part, Massachusetts bans televisions and computers from landfills. Instead, it contracts with a company called ElectroniCycle, based in Gardner, Massachusetts, to process its e-waste. Harvesting material from drop-off events and retailers, ElectroniCycle recovers ten million pounds of electronics a year: technicians refurbish between 5 and 10 percent of their computers for resale; send another 5 to 10 percent to specialty repair houses; and smash the rest into fifty different categories of scrap, including plastic, copper, aluminum, barium glass, and leaded and mixed glass (which is recycled back into cathode-ray tubes).

pages: 340 words: 91,387

Stealth of Nations by Robert Neuwirth


accounting loophole / creative accounting, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, full employment, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, pirate software, profit motive, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, yellow journalism

Smugglers came to the rescue, and police have uncovered tunnels under the Sham Chun where products moved across the border with no control. Another aspect of Hong Kong–to–China smuggling involves laptop computers. Students and professionals who want good machines report that some major-brand laptops—particularly HP, Sony, and ThinkPad—sell lower-quality machines in China than are available in Hong Kong and the West. And these machines are also more expensive in the People’s Republic. For instance, ThinkPad computers, which were once part of the IBM empire and are now manufactured by the Chinese firm Lenovo, are generally one-third cheaper in the United States and Hong Kong than they are in China. This price and quality differential has made smuggling a new distribution channel. Inside China, there are two ways of getting your hands on a smuggled laptop—and both of them are quite open. The first involves going to a store.

., 12.1 Stiglitz, Joseph, 2.1, 7.1 Strand bookstore, 8.1 street markets, 1.1–1.2, 2.1, 9.1 conflict resolution in, 12.1–12.2 history of, 1.1, 2.1, 3.1–3.2, 5.1, 8.1–8.2, 12.1 see also Alaba International Market; Ikeja Computer Village; Ladipo Market; Maxwell Street Market; Oshodi; Rua 25 de Março; umbrella stands street peddling criticism of, 8.1–8.2, 10.1, 12.1–12.2 in food industry, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 3.1, 3.2, 8.1–8.2, 8.3–8.4 hardware for, 1.1, 1.2 in India, 10.1 Nigerian crackdown on, 10.1 rewards of, 1.1–1.2, 9.1 in United States, 8.1–8.2 worker exploitation in, 8.1–8.2 Street Vendor Project, 12.1 Stroessner, Alfredo, 6.1 swap meets, 8.1, 8.2 Swissinfo, 8.1 Switzerland, System D in, 8.1, 8.2 System D advancement in, 3.1–3.2 American tradition in, 8.1–8.2 banks’ relations with, 3.1, 7.1–7.2, 11.1, 12.1, 12.2–12.3 benefits of, 2.1–2.2, 8.1, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5–9.6 business interaction with, 1.1, 1.2–1.3, 1.4, 2.1–2.2, 2.3, 4.1, 5.1, 7.1–7.2, 8.1–8.2, 11.1–11.2, 12.1–12.2 business investment in, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3–7.4 business model in, 7.1, 9.1–9.2, 10.1, 11.1 cash basis of, 1.1, 4.1, 5.1, 7.1, 12.1, 12.2 children in, 2.1, 8.1, 12.1–12.2, 12.3 class-based bias against, 8.1–8.2 crime and, 2.1, 2.2, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7 criticism of, 1.1, 2.1, 2.2–2.3, 7.1–7.2, 8.1–8.2, 9.1–9.2, 9.3, 10.1–10.2, 10.3, 10.4–10.5, 10.6 definition of, 2.1–2.2, 2.3, 2.4 distribution chains in, 7.1–7.2, 7.3, 7.4 formalization of, 8.1, 8.2–8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 11.1–11.2, 12.1–12.2 global exchange rates’ effect on, 4.1–4.2 global trade in, 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.1–4.2, 5.1–5.2, 5.3, 5.4–5.5, 10.1–10.2, 12.1, 12.2–12.3; see also smuggling government crackdowns on, 6.1, 10.1–10.2, 10.3–10.4, 10.5–10.6 government interaction with, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 4.1–4.2, 4.3–4.4, 5.1–5.2, 6.1, 6.2, 10.1–10.2, 11.1, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6, 12.7, 12.8, 12.9–12.10, 12.11–12.12 government investment in, 12.1–12.2 government regulation of, 12.1–12.2, 12.3–12.4 growth in, 3.1–3.2, 3.3–3.4, 3.5, 3.6–3.7, 4.1, 9.1–9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 10.1–10.2, 10.3, 11.1, 12.1–12.2 ideological neutrality of, 9.1–9.2 immigrants in, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3–8.4, 8.5, 8.6–8.7 innovation and risk taking in, 10.1–10.2, 12.1 internal view of, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3–2.4 labor issues in, 4.1, 7.1, 7.2, 8.1, 8.2, 10.1–10.2, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4–12.5, 12.6–12.7 monetary value of, 1.1, 2.1, 2.2–2.3, 3.1, 7.1, 8.1–8.2, 8.3, 12.1 organization in, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 9.1, 9.2, 10.1, 12.1, 12.2–12.3, 12.4, 12.5–12.6, 12.7, 12.8–12.9, 12.10, 12.11, 12.12 political involvement of, 2.1, 12.1, 12.2 poor workmanship in, 4.1, 4.2 postcolonial emergence of, 9.1–9.2 profitability of, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 3.1, 3.2–3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8–3.9, 3.10, 4.1–4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, 5.6, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3–6.4, 7.1, 7.2, 8.1, 8.2–8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 9.1, 10.1–10.2, 10.3, 11.1, 12.1–12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5 public services provided by, 2.1, 3.1–3.2, 9.1, 10.1 recognition of, 9.1–9.2, 12.1, 12.2–12.3 size of, 1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 9.1, 12.1, 12.2, 12.3–12.4 tax evasion in, 1.1, 1.2, 4.1, 4.2–4.3, 4.4, 5.1, 6.1–6.2, 8.1, 10.1, 10.2, 12.1 tax revenue lost to, 8.1, 8.2, 12.1 2008/2009 financial crisis resilience of, 2.1–2.2 women in, 12.1 see also Ciudad del Este, Paraguay; Guangzhou, China; Lagos, Nigeria; street markets; specific industries taxation relationship to smuggling, 6.1–6.2 social contract implicit in, 4.1–4.2, 10.1–10.2 tax breaks for developers similar to System D tax avoidance, 10.1–10.2 Tech Data Worldwide, 11.1 technology Chinese retailing of, 6.1 global impact of, 9.1, 9.2 System D in spread of, 2.1, 3.1–3.2, 3.3, 9.1–9.2, 12.1 see also electronics industry Tehelka, 12.1 Tein, Michael, 12.1–12.2 Temple, Peacemaker, 3.1 terrorism, accusations of funding through System D, 12.1–12.2 Thebes, 5.1 Theory of Moral Sentiments, The (Smith), 5.1, 9.1–9.2 ThinkPad, 6.1 3+1 Group on Tri-Border Area Security, 12.1 Tijuana, Mexico, discount drug market in, 6.1–6.2 Tinubu, Bola, 10.1 Tokyo, Japan, fish market in, 12.1 Tonel Franklyn Limited, 3.1 Tonson, Jacob, 5.1–5.2 trade Aristotle’s view on, 5.1 in Muslim thought, 5.1 transportation industry, 3.1–3.2, 3.3–3.4, 4.1, 10.1–10.2, 12.1 Tsukiji market, 12.1 UAC of Nigeria, 7.1–7.2 Uche, Emanuel, 3.1 umbrella stands, 7.1, 7.2–7.3 Unger, Roberto Mangabeira, 9.1–9.2, 9.3, 12.1 Unilever, 7.1 United Citizen Peddlers’ Association, 8.1 United Independent Vendors Movement, 10.1 United Kingdom, see Great Britain United Nations’ Inter Press Service, 10.1 United Nations’ World Institute for Development Economics Research, 9.1 United States big-box retailing in, 7.1 Chinese trade with, 4.1 GDP of, 2.1 low-income consumers in, 7.1 Nigerian used car imports from, 4.1–4.2 post–World War II economic development in, 11.1–11.2 sales tax avoidance in, 8.1 small business in, 2.1, 7.1 smuggling in, 6.1–6.2, 6.3, 6.4 software piracy in, 5.1 street peddling in, 8.1–8.2, 12.1–12.2 System D in, 8.1–8.2, 8.3–8.4 terrorism allegations by, 12.1–12.2 2008/2009 financial crisis in, 8.1, 8.2 undeclared income figures for, 8.1–8.2 workforce in, 8.1 World War II profiteering in, 6.1 Univinco, 1.1, 10.1–10.2 urbanization, 3.1–3.2 Urias, Claudia, 1.1, 1.2, 9.1 Van Heusen, 8.1 Vectro, 5.1 Vicks VapoRub, 12.1 Vietnam, 4.1 visas, 4.1, 12.1–12.2 Walker, Robert, 5.1–5.2 Walker, Stanley, 8.1 Walmart, 7.1, 10.1, 10.2–10.3 war, smuggling during, 6.1–6.2 Ward, Ned, 5.1 Washington, D.C., System D income in, 8.1 watches, counterfeit, 5.1 water system, Lagos government monitoring of, 12.1 lack of municipal supply, 3.1–3.2 wealth gap, 9.1–9.2, 9.3, 12.1 Wealth of Nations, The (Smith), 1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, 8.1, 9.1, 9.2, 10.1, 11.1, 12.1 Weber, Max, 3.1 Wei, Alex, 2.1, 10.1, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4 Wen, 4.1–4.2 Whimzies: or, a New Cast of Characters (Braithwaite), 8.1 Whole Foods, 8.1 wholesalers, 7.1 Wholesome Bakery, 8.1 Windows, 5.1 Winstanley, Gerrard, 9.1 women, 12.1 Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO), 11.1, 12.1 World Bank, 9.1 World War II, profiteering in, 6.1 XYG (Xinyi Glass), 3.1 Zara, 7.1–7.2 see also Inditex Zeltner, Louis, 8.1 Zhang, Ethan, 2.1–2.2, 4.1–4.2, 5.1–5.2 Zigas, Caleb, 8.1, 8.2 Zulehner, Carl, 5.1 ABOUT THE AUTHOR ROBERT NEUWIRTH is the author of Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, a New Urban World.

pages: 506 words: 146,607

Confessions of a Wall Street Analyst: A True Story of Inside Information and Corruption in the Stock Market by Daniel Reingold, Jennifer Reingold


barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, corporate governance, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fixed income, George Gilder, high net worth, informal economy, margin call, mass immigration, new economy,, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, thinkpad, traveling salesman

I was also considering upgrading AT&T, because I was impressed with recent strategic moves undertaken by its new CEO, Mike Armstrong. I needed some time away from the hubbub to look closely at our models, sketch out a mock report, and decide whether it was the right time for an upgrade. On Thursday morning, New Year’s Eve day, we were sitting in the living room of my parents’ home. Paula was talking to my mom, and my daughters were out on the patio reading, while I outlined an AT&T report on my parents’ old IBM ThinkPad. CNBC was blaring on the television, because my dad watched it all day every day, as so many retirees do. Suddenly reporter David Faber came on with breaking news: According to his sources, Bell Atlantic, one of the Baby Bells, was bidding for AirTouch, the wireless division of Pacific Telesis that had been spun off in an IPO in December 1993. Oh, boy, I thought. There goes this vacation. About 10 minutes later, my cell phone rang.

They’d always wanted to ride in a limousine, and I explained that this was even better: it was an air limousine. The kids got their first corporate jet ride, and my parents and brother got to think I was a big deal. After BEL 005 touched ground at Teterboro Airport in New Jersey, I said good-bye to Paula and the girls, and hopped into one of the waiting cars and went straight to Bell Atlantic’s headquarters at Forty-second and Sixth. En route, I pulled out the rusty ThinkPad that I had commandeered from my parents, and continued writing my AT&T upgrade. I had been thinking about it the entire week and had outlined the logic in my head. I wrote in a stream-of-consciousness manner, leaving blanks for data and tables, and e-mailed it to Megan and Ehud Gelblum, an engineer I had recently recruited from AT&T Labs. I told them it was uncertain whether we would go with it, but they should assume yes for now and thus get all the tables and models ready to go.

pages: 229 words: 67,599

The Logician and the Engineer: How George Boole and Claude Shannon Created the Information Age by Paul J. Nahin


Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, four colour theorem, Georg Cantor, Grace Hopper, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, New Journalism, Pierre-Simon Laplace, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, thinkpad, Thomas Bayes, Turing machine, Turing test, V2 rocket

For example, a 1 MHz (megahertz) clock would have a one-microsecond (1,000 nanoseconds) spacing between consecutive leading (trailing) edges, with (perhaps) a 20 to 50 nanosecond spacing between the leading and trailing edges of a given clock pulse. My 1963 machine (see note 1 again) had a clock frequency of 250 KHz (that’s right, just MHz!). A fast commercial mainframe computer of that day probably had a 3 to 5 MHz clock. The 1970s CRAY-1, one of the early supercomputers, had an 80 MHz clock. By 1998, when I wrote my first book for Princeton, my everyday word processing laptop (an IBM ThinkPad 365ED) was nearly as fast, with a 75 MHz clock. The four-year-old (in 2011) PC I am typing this book on (a Dell Dimension 5150) has a 3 GHz clock (that is, 3,000 MHz). The fastest commercial mainframe computer in 2011 (the IBM zEnterprise 196) has a 5.2 GHz clock. That’s nearly 21,000 times faster (more than fourteen doublings in speed!) than my 1963 machine. Figure 8.3.4. The RS flip-flop.

pages: 370 words: 105,085

Joel on Software by Joel Spolsky


barriers to entry,, commoditize, George Gilder, index card, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Metcalfe's law, Network effects, new economy, PageRank, Paul Graham, profit motive, Robert X Cringely, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, slashdot, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, thinkpad, VA Linux, web application

"I think I can still spend about 85 percent of my time coding, and only a little bit of my time managing." What Nigel really wanted to say was, "I have no bloody idea whatsoever how to manage this project and hopefully if I just keep coding like I did before I was put in charge, somehow everything will work itself out." It didn't, of course, which goes quite a long way to explaining exactly why Nigel was bungee-jumping with an IBM ThinkPad on that fateful day. Anyway, Nigel has really made a surprising recovery, considering, and is now working as the CTO of a small company he started with his bungee buddies,, and he's only got six months to deliver an entirely new system from scratch, and he can't fake it any more either. Managing software projects is not a well-known art. Nobody has a degree in Managing Software Projects, and there are very few books on the subject.

pages: 385 words: 101,761

Creative Intelligence: Harnessing the Power to Create, Connect, and Inspire by Bruce Nussbaum


3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, declining real wages, demographic dividend, Elon Musk,, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, game design, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, invisible hand, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Gruber, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QR code, race to the bottom, reshoring, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, Tesla Model S, The Chicago School, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The Myth of the Rational Market, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, tulip mania, We are the 99%, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

In the end, Lenovo used the understanding that came with immersion to make three new products—a desktop PC for Deep Immersers, a notebook/tablet PC for Relationship Builders, and a cell phone for Upward Maximizers—that addressed the unique needs of these new customer tribes. The knowledge gained allowed Lenovo to push back its foreign rivals and increase market share in the Chinese market. In 2012, Lenovo had about 30 percent of the Chinese PC market, ahead of Acer, Dell, HP, and Asustek. ZIBA’s immersion in the Chinese market was also important in Lenovo’s decision to purchase IBM’s ThinkPad division in 2005, bringing it neck and neck with HP in the world PC market. Immersion is the kind of Knowledge Mining that we are most familiar with. As students, we immersed ourselves in history and literature and science in order to understand them. But rarely do we view immersion as a creative competence. We don’t always see the knowledge we’ve gained as the result of deep study or practice as a resource that can be mined to generate creativity.

pages: 363 words: 94,139

Jony Ive: The Genius Behind Apple's Greatest Products by Leander Kahney


Apple II, banking crisis, British Empire, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Computer Numeric Control, Dynabook, global supply chain, interchangeable parts, John Markoff, Jony Ive, race to the bottom, RFID, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the built environment, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple

Bajarin had another recollection: “I also remember telling the people I was with that you can never underestimate Steve Jobs and that if anybody can save Apple, it would be Jobs.”14 Despite his talk about returning Apple to a design-led company, Jobs didn’t immediately visit the ID studio. Brunner’s strategy of putting the studio off campus almost backfired, because, unaware of what he already had, Jobs went to look for a world-class designer from outside the company. He thought seriously about bringing back his old design partner, Hartmut Esslinger of Frog Design, who had been working with NeXT. He called on Richard Sapper, who did the IBM ThinkPad laptop, and, incredibly, the car designer Giorgetto Giugiaro, whose run with Apple a few years before had produced nothing. Jobs also considered the famous Italian architect and designer Ettore Sotsass, who had catapulted Olivetti to the forefront of ID in the sixties.15 Across the road, Jony Ive realized his team was in jeopardy and that he had to demonstrate to his new boss what his shop could do.

Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy by Lawrence Lessig


Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Benjamin Mako Hill, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, collaborative editing, commoditize, disintermediation, don't be evil, Erik Brynjolfsson, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Larry Wall, late fees, Mark Shuttleworth, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, PageRank, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, revision control, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Saturday Night Live, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, transaction costs, VA Linux, yellow journalism

As Jenkins describes: “The studio had a long-standing practice of seeking out Web sites whose domain names used copyrighted 80706 i-xxiv 001-328 r4nk.indd 206 8/12/08 1:55:46 AM H Y BRID EC O NO MIE S 207 or trademarked phrases. . . . Warner felt it had a legal obligation to police sites that emerged around their properties.”39 “Police” in this context means firing off angry letters written by entry-level lawyers who always wanted a gun, but instead were issued IBM Thinkpads. Lawver learned of these threats in December 2000. They transformed her into an activist. (Why? I asked her. “I think it just kind of came from a common sense point of view, and, also . . . I grew up in a household with three brothers, and they were all Weird Al fans. And so I was really familiar with his various battles against other artists.”) 40 Two months later, she had organized a boycott of Harry Potter products.

pages: 386 words: 91,913

The Elements of Power: Gadgets, Guns, and the Struggle for a Sustainable Future in the Rare Metal Age by David S. Abraham


3D printing, Airbus A320, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, commoditize, Deng Xiaoping, Elon Musk,, glass ceiling, global supply chain, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, reshoring, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, Tesla Model S, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, Y2K

Often, the first obstacle to recycling involves getting the product to the recycler.30 Ken Deckinger is like most Americans, except that he started several successful Internet companies. When the tech entrepreneur went to upgrade his iPhone, he had no idea his phone carrier would give him more than $200 for his old one. Previously, Deckinger just threw them in the trash along with most of his other electronic equipment, save an old MacBook and even older ThinkPad that he meant to donate. The truth is that even the most savvy tech folks do not reuse or recycle outdated electronics because they do not know where or how to do so. In 2014, a survey by EcoATM showed that only 22 percent of Americans surveyed recycled their old mobile phones or tablets. Even though most Americans believe that recycling is good for the environment, less than half would consider recycling these gadgets.

pages: 386 words: 91,913

The Elements of Power: Gadgets, Guns, and the Struggle for a Sustainable Future in the Rare Metal Age by David S. Abraham

3D printing, Airbus A320, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, commoditize, Deng Xiaoping, Elon Musk,, glass ceiling, global supply chain, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, reshoring, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, Tesla Model S, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, Y2K

Often, the first obstacle to recycling involves getting the product to the recycler.30 Ken Deckinger is like most Americans, except that he started several successful Internet companies. When the tech entrepreneur went to upgrade his iPhone, he had no idea his phone carrier would give him more than $200 for his old one. Previously, Deckinger just threw them in the trash along with most of his other electronic equipment, save an old MacBook and even older ThinkPad that he meant to donate. The truth is that even the most savvy tech folks do not reuse or recycle outdated electronics because they do not know where or how to do so. In 2014, a survey by EcoATM showed that only 22 percent of Americans surveyed recycled their old mobile phones or tablets. Even though most Americans believe that recycling is good for the environment, less than half would consider recycling these gadgets.

pages: 493 words: 139,845

Women Leaders at Work: Untold Tales of Women Achieving Their Ambitions by Elizabeth Ghaffari


Albert Einstein, AltaVista, business process, cloud computing, Columbine, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, follow your passion, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, high net worth, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, performance metric, pink-collar, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

One of the things that the CIO does is not just manage data centers and the technology, but at IBM, we actually call it business transformation and information technology. That role requires working with both operations and the business to understand what the corporate strategy is and how we will implement the IT systems and the business processes supported by the IT systems. When I moved into that role, our corporate strategy was evolving quite a bit. IBM had divested itself of commodity products, such as the ThinkPads and PCs, in order to move forward. We acquired a lot more software companies. We'd bought PricewaterhouseCooper's Consulting, which took us into a whole new services business. There was a genuine need to make changes to our business processes to be able to support that new corporate strategy. So my role, first, was to help our senior executives understand our current limitations and why we needed to make a change.

pages: 394 words: 118,929

Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg


A Pattern Language, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall,, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook,, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Larry Wall, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

“So you originally estimated four hours on this bug. You now have eight hours.” “Sometimes,” Anderson offers philosophically, “you just wake up in the morning, an idea pops into your head, and it’s done—like that.” Mitchell Kapor has been sitting quietly during the exchange. Kapor is the founder and funder of the Open Source Applications Foundation, and Chandler is his baby. Now he looks up from his black Thinkpad. “Would it be useful to identify issues that have this treasure-hunt aspect? Is there a certain class of task that has this uncertainty?” “Within the first hour of working on the bug,” Burgess volunteers, “you know which it’s going to be.” So it is agreed: Bugs that have a black hole–like quality—bugs that you couldn’t even begin to say for sure how long they would take to fix—would be tagged in Bugzilla with a special warning label.

pages: 444 words: 138,781

Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City by Matthew Desmond


affirmative action, Cass Sunstein, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, desegregation, dumpster diving, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jobless men, late fees, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, payday loans, price discrimination, profit motive, rent control, statistical model, superstar cities, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, working poor, young professional

I called it the Milwaukee Area Renters Study, MARS for short. From 2009 to 2011, roughly 1,100 tenants were interviewed in their homes by professional interviewers trained and supervised by the University of Wisconsin Survey Center, which reported to me. To facilitate estimates generalizable to Milwaukee’s entire rental population, households from across the city were interviewed. Clipboards and portable Lenovo ThinkPad computers in hand, interviewers ventured into some of the city’s worst neighborhoods. One was bitten by a dog and, later, mugged. Thanks to the heroic efforts of the Survey Center, MARS had an extraordinarily high response rate for a survey of such a highly mobile and poor population (84 percent). What I was learning during my fieldwork deeply informed MARS’s 250 questions: not only what I asked but how I asked it.

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay


3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel,, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

The park opened in 1959 as a magnet for high-tech talent, which was then in short supply. A few years later, IBM arrived with the first group of some eleven thousand employees. Monsanto, GlaxoSmithKline, and dozens of other companies followed, sloughing off pieces of themselves to Tobacco Road, a five-hour drive from Washington, six hours from Atlanta, but only an hour’s flight from Manhattan. When Lenovo bought IBM’s ThinkPad line six years ago, it moved its headquarters there from China. The CEO’s office is exactly three minutes from the airport (I’ve timed it), and needs to be, considering how often he flies to Singapore and Beijing. “Despite all the talk of the service economy, of health care and software as our national industries, ours is still a goods economy,” Kasarda once explained to me. “Even most services are concerned with paying for goods.

Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques: Concepts and Techniques by Jiawei Han, Micheline Kamber, Jian Pei


bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation coefficient, cyber-physical system, database schema, discrete time, distributed generation, finite state, information retrieval, iterative process, knowledge worker, linked data, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Occam's razor, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, speech recognition, statistical model, stochastic process, supply-chain management, text mining, thinkpad, Thomas Bayes, web application

Data can be generalized by replacing low-level concepts within the data by their corresponding higher-level concepts, or ancestors, from a concept hierarchy. Table 7.1 Task-Relevant Data, D TIDItems Purchased T100 Apple 17″ MacBook Pro Notebook, HP Photosmart Pro b9180 T200 Microsoft Office Professional 2010, MicrosoftWireless Optical Mouse 5000 T300 Logitech VX Nano Cordless Laser Mouse, Fellowes GEL Wrist Rest T400 Dell Studio XPS 16 Notebook, Canon PowerShot SD1400 T500 Lenovo ThinkPad X200 Tablet PC, Symantec Norton Antivirus 2010 … … Figure 7.2 Concept hierarchy for AllElectronics computer items. Figure 7.2's concept hierarchy has five levels, respectively referred to as levels 0 through 4, starting with level 0 at the root node for all (the most general abstraction level). Here, level 1 includes computer, software, printer and camera, and computer accessory; level 2 includes laptop computer, desktop computer, office software, antivirus software, etc.; and level 3 includes Dell desktop computer, …, Microsoft office software, etc.