guest worker program

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pages: 196 words: 53,627

Let Them In: The Case for Open Borders by Jason L. Riley


affirmative action, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, lump of labour, mass immigration, open borders, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

“But even if we maximize the defense approach as best we can, there will still be an economic incentive to get across the border. I don’t see how you can have a good security policy without a good guest-worker program.” As globalization continues, our relationship with Canada and Mexico will be even more important, he said. “And at the end of the day, both a defensive posture along the border and a means to legitimize those who seek to work here is . . . in our economic interests, our security interests, and our global interests.” Chertoff told me he was astonished by the arguments he heard coming from the political right during the 2007 debate over the Senate immigration bill, which would have created a path to legal status for illegal immigrants already in the country and a guest-worker program for future labor flows. “I’ve been surprised at how many conservatives don’t really believe in the free market when it comes to immigration, ” he said.

That, in turn, would go a long way toward reducing illegal entries. It would also alleviate pressure on the border and free up our overburdened patrols to track down terrorists, drug dealers, and other serious threats to our welfare. Unfortunately, as things stand, our border security officers spend most of their time chasing migrants who come north to mow our lawns and burp our babies. A guest-worker program for such individuals would help regulate the labor flow and isolate the criminals, thus making us much safer than any wall along the Rio Grande. CHAPTER ONE POPULATION: DOOM AND DEMOGRAPHY Perhaps this is the first instance in which those with their pants up are going to be caught by those with their pants down! —JOHN TANTON Odd political bedfellows are nothing new in the nation’s capital, but a House Judiciary Subcommittee hearing held on March 24, 2004, was remarkable all the same.

In late 2005, the House had passed immigration legislation that, among other things, expanded physical barriers along the Mexican border, made unlawful presence in the United States a felony, and increased sanctions on businesses who hire illegal workers. The following spring, the Senate passed its own bill, which was more to Bush’s liking because it included not only more enforcement measures but also a guest-worker program for future cross-border labor flows. In addition, the Senate bill allowed illegal aliens in the United States to earn legal status without first returning to their home countries if they met certain requirements—a provision that got the entire Senate bill denounced by opponents as an offer of “amnesty.” Normally, the next step would have been a House- Senate conference to hash out a compromise bill for the president to sign.

pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan


Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

Millions more, particularly from Africa, were forced to move under the tyranny of slavery or indentured labor. In this new era of globalization, free and forced migrants were the causes and consequences of economic growth. The twentieth century has witnessed the proliferation of states and the extension of government bureaucracies into the management of migration. The introduction of passports, strict border controls, immigration quotas, guest-worker programs, and the distribution of rights on the basis of nationality are all features of the new era of highly managed migration. Passports and border controls are relatively new innovations, and their increasingly strict enforcement in the twentieth century dramatically changed the dynamics of migration. International migration became regulated at the level of the nation-state. Apart from measures to protect refugees, international cooperation has largely neglected the vital dimension of migration.

A similar number of Africans moved to France from its former colonies by 1972.88 The United States also loosened it national origins immigration restrictions in 1965, leading to a surge in migration to the United States from Asia and Latin America.89 In the United States, the need for additional labor to produce “food to win the war” during World War II led Congress to introduce the Bracero guest-worker program to bring in migrants from Mexico and Central America to work as temporary agricultural laborers. During the period from 1943-1965, 4.6 million “braceros” from Mexico were admitted on temporary work permits to do farm work, many of them returning year after year.90 Britain required foreign migrants to fill labor shortages after the war, and as early as 1946, it had identified displaced persons as a possible solution.

Initially, Britain recruited about 90,000 (primarily male) workers from refugee camps and Italy through a European Voluntary Worker scheme. 91 Workers were tied to a specific job, they could not bring their families to join them, and they could face summary deportation in cases of indiscipline.92 Over 345,000 Europeans were ultimately recruited on restricted work permits, but the continued shortage of labor meant that British recruiters searched farther afield. By 1958, 115,000 West Indians, 55,000 Indians, 25,000 West Africans, and 10,000 Cypriots had been brought to the UK. West Germany's temporary guest-worker program, called Gastarbeiter, became one of Europe's largest and most sophisticated. Germany signed bilateral agreements with Italy (1955), Greece (1960), Turkey (1961), Portugal (1964), and Yugoslavia (1968) to recruit unskilled labor for jobs in the rapidly growing industrial sector. The Federal Labour Office set up recruitment offices in these countries, and they would test occupational skills, provide medical examinations, screen police records, and transport groups to Germany—after which, employers would provide initial accommodation.93 Stephen Castles and Mark Miller comment that under the Gastarbeiter program, “German policies conceived migrant workers as temporary labour units, which could be recruited, utilized and sent away again as employers required.”94 Like other European guest-worker programs, however, many of the initially “temporary” migrants eventually had families and established roots in Germany.

pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders


agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

Immigration Reform and Control Act, or IRCA, which began in 1986 as a congressional effort to stop, once and for all, the movement of Latin American villagers across the southern border. And yet, by the time it was passed, pressure from the Chamber of Commerce and agriculture lobbies had transformed it into a mass amnesty that provided legal citizenship to almost three million “illegals,” combined with a new program allowing low-skill migrants to enter under a guest-worker program demanded by agricultural industries in the western states. This guest-worker program eventually led to its own mass amnesty. An effort in the next decade by the conservative House of Representatives, led by Newt Gingrich, to reverse the effects of the IRCA, this time backed by widespread public pressure against “illegals,” had a similar result: The 1990s saw more immigration to the United States from Latin America than in any other decade in U.S. history, a surge of legal and illegal migration totalling 31 million people.

Such restrictions failed partly for the economic and political reasons described above, but also for a third reason: When immigrants are brought over without their networks of relatives and village neighbors, they are more likely to become isolated and unsocialized, to fall into criminality or social conservatism. This happens when family-reunification migration is restricted or when countries rely on temporary guest-worker programs to attract low-skilled workers without their families, as Germany did in the 1970s and Canada and Australia are attempting today. When settlement of families is restricted, arrival cities and their supportive networks are unable to take shape, and behavior changes. A study by Dennis Broeders and Godfried Engbersen at Erasmus University, in Rotterdam, examined immigrants forbidden to bring over relatives: Without family networks to support them, the migrants were forced into a “dependence on informal, and increasingly criminal, networks and institutions.”19 Arranged marriages, often to a cousin from a distant village whom the primary-immigrant spouse hadn’t met, became commonplace, even when the migrants are from countries such as Bangladesh or Turkey, where these practices are dying out.

pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas


affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling,, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

The President and Congress determine the annual ceiling and country distributions (ceilings have ranged from 50,000–90,000). 1986: The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) legalized several undocumented immigrants but made it unlawful to hire undocumented workers. 1990: The Immigration Act of 1990 increased the annual immigrant limit to 700,000 and established the Immigrant Investor Program. 1996: Welfare Reform ended many cash and medical assistance programs for most legal immigrants. 1996: The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) expanded enforcement operations of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. 2001: The USA Patriot Act, in response to the September 11, 2001, terror attacks on New York and Washington, DC, gives federal officials greater power to intercept national and international communications. The Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 was a bill that focused on managing unauthorized migration, but failed to pass the House. Its primary components were increased border security, creation of a guest worker program, a path to citizenship for undocumented workers, worksite enforcement, and criminal penalties for those continuing to reside illegally in the country. While the bill did not pass, the issues remain in the forefront of concern. Demographic Trends Newcomers to the United States enter under a variety of conditions. Early migrants of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries came as volunteer immigrants, indentured laborers, or as slaves.

Finally, the mail-order bride market is burgeoning, and a ‘‘Google’’ search results in over 3 million internet websites catering to a growing clientele. Mail-order brides are usually women from developing countries who register with a catalog or website their intent to marry foreign men. Usually there is no period of courtship, and marriages take place in absentia, with the man having ‘‘shopped’’ for the wife who best fits his needs. These women can enter the country legally as wives of U.S. citizens. Under continuing discussion is a guest worker program that will allow temporary workers to enter the country for a period to assume jobs for which U.S. employers are unable to find native employees. While this may appear to be a novel idea, it has long been a part of the cross-border movement for Mexican workers who have entered the United States for seasonal work and returned home at the end of the season. Known as circular migration, this pattern is evidenced regularly and increasingly both in the United States and internationally (Hugo, 2003; Zuniga, 2006).

Economic Impact of Immigration Many deliberations in the United States revolve around the economic impact of migration. The ongoing immigration debate juggles arguments regarding the assets newcomers bring to the country with those about the drains they place on the infrastructure, and the country is divided on the current net worth of immigration in the twenty-first century. The Immigrant Workforce Recent foci on immigration reform and the guest worker program have drawn attention to undocumented workers. One must bear in mind in all deliberations that of the 34 million documented immigrants in the United States in 2004, over 27 million were between the ages of 16 and 65 years, and the majority of them were in the workforce and across the occupational structure (Table 3-6). A significant proportion of the legitimate workforce, they have the appropriate documentation and are essential to the functioning of the country.

pages: 501 words: 134,867

A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice by Tony Weis, Joshua Kahn Russell


Bakken shale, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial exploitation, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, Deep Water Horizon,, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, global village, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, LNG terminal, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, race to the bottom, smart grid, special economic zone, working poor

For the past few years, Canada has accepted more migrant workers than permanent residents. This shift is most pronounced in resource-extractive economies, such as in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta, where an entire petro-economy relies on the exploitable labour of migrant workers both in oil fields and in the associated service sector. Temporary workers are therefore a state-sanctioned federal program of indentured labour. They are similar to the US’s “guest worker programs.” In a number of bilateral meetings, US representatives have looked to Canada’s long-standing migrant worker program as the model to follow because it is a perfect way to contain and manage migration—commodify a certain class of migrants for their labour, use them, exploit them, bleed them, grant them no basic services, enforce conditions of servitude, and then remove them. And because the workers are essentially tied to and tracked by their employer, there is less chance of mobility, and of building community and resistance.

See also Keystone XL pipeline “transit justice,” 307 Trans Mountain pipeline, 11, 91, 95 transnational corporations (TNCs), 23, 27, 114, 272; in United States, 30 Transport Workers Union (TWU), 220 treaties, 256, 258, 260–61 Treaty 6: 119, 123, 125, 268 Treaty 8: 114, 125, 268 treaty rights, 75, 81, 122–23, 271, 274, 277 treaty violations, 139–40, 260 tribal sovereignty, 243 Trinidad and Tobago, “extreme” tar sands extraction in, 103–4 Trumka, Richard, 218, 223–24, 225 Tutu, Archbishop Desmond, 56 Tyee, The, 60 UK Tar Sands Network (UKTSN), 207–16, 292 unemployment, 125, 233, 303, 305 Unifor, 79 Unist’ot’en people, 16, 158–59, 260, 293 United Arab Emirates (UAE), 29 United Church of Christ: Fauntroy report, 67; Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States, 67 United Kingdom: Canada House protest, 208–9; Canadian embassy in, 57; grassroots activism opposing tar sands in, 55; oil imports from, 31; opposition to tar sands in, 207–16; unbuilt wind farms in, 269 United Mine Workers of America (UMW), 218 United Nations, 42, 114, 248, 267; Convention on Biological Diversity, 121; Copenhagen ministerial negotiations (2009), 167–68, 171, 209, 310–12; Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 12, 122, 251, 257, 268; Green Jobs report, 302; Human Rights Committee, 114; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 114; Working Towards a Balanced and Inclusive Green Economy, 300–301 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 302, 353n10; Towards a Green Economy, 300 United States, 6, 42, 78; as “addicted to oil,” 181; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 200; Bureau of Land Management, 315; Canadian lobbying of tar sands in, 59–63; Canadian oil as part of solution to energy security in, 30; civil rights movement, 75, 251; Clean Air Act, 283; climate movement in, 167–69, 243, 311; climate policy in, 244–45, 318; domestic gas prices in, 233; Endangered Species Act, 283; Energy Information Administration, 47; energy market, 24; ENGOs in, 310; Environmental Defense Fund, 283; Environmental Protection Agency (EP A), 198, 203; fight over Keystone XL in, 78, 166–80; forced migration to, 89; guest worker programs in, 85; Indian Energy Title V campaign, 242–43; labour movement and climate change in, 217–25; military industrial complex, 336n8; National Energy Policy Development Group, 30; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 202; National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), 198–99; Natural Resources Defense Council, 175, 221, 230, 242, 283; as net exporter of refined petroleum, 314; Oil Protection Act, 199; Oil Sands Advocacy Strategy, 59; oil shale exploration and experimentation in, 100; Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), 190, 198–99, 205; refining capacity of West Coast of, 95; tribal comtar munities in, 230–31, 243, 246; unemployment in, 233 uranium, 125, 241, 315–16 Urbaniak, Darek, 59 US Public Interest Research Group, 244 Utah, 315, 325n46 Utica shale formation, 283 Valero Energy Corporation, 210, 234 Velshi, Alykhan, 50–51 Venezuela, 6, 33; Bolivarian Revolution, 101–2; “extreme” tar sands extraction in, 101–2 Vermont, 315 Victims of Chemical Valley, 144 violence: against Indigenous women, 255; against land, 96, 252, 255; increases in rates of, 255; symbolic vs. real, 44; systemic, 263 volatile organic compounds, emissions of, 32 Walpole Island Native reserve (Bkejwanong First Nation), 145, 241 “war in the woods,” 70–71 “war of position,” 39 Warren County (North Carolina), 66–67 water: diversion of, 9, 129; pollution, 9, 51, 114, 116, 119–20, 128, 136, 181, 196, 255, 268, 315; use of in extraction, 9, 32, 33, 100, 230, 281 Wawanosh, Joshua, 139 Waxman, Henry, 60, 62 Waxman-Markey climate legislation, 224 wealth accumulation, vs. environmental and social protection, 38 wealth polarization, 73 web-based resources, list of, 19 “Week of Action to Stop Tar Sands Profiteers,” 189 West, Ben, 164 Western Mining Action Network, 168 West Virginia, 314 wetland, destruction of, 9 Wet’suwet’en Nation, 157, 260, 293; C’ihlts’ehkhyu (Big Frog Clan), 158 white supremacy, 96, 265 Whitley, David, 192 Wikileaks, 56 Wildfire Project, 322n3 wildlife, declines in and threats to, 116, 120–21, 254, 295, 300 wind-powered generation, 314 Winnsboro Tree Blockade, 186–88 Wisconsin: Clean Energy Jobs Act, 61–62 women: grassroots, 192, 277; Indigenous, 193, 209, 213, 242, 246, 251–52, 255, 261–63 Wong, Kent, 97 Wood Buffalo National Park, 130 Woodward, Ron, 130 workers’ rights, 303, 306 World Bank, 90, 303 World Trade Organization, 311 Worldwatch Institute, 353n10 World Wildlife Fund, 270 xenophobia, 92–93 Yearwood Jr., Rev.

pages: 361 words: 83,886

Inside the Robot Kingdom: Japan, Mechatronics and the Coming Robotopia by Frederik L. Schodt


carbon-based life, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, factory automation, game design, guest worker program, industrial robot, Jacques de Vaucanson, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce

Speaking slightly more elegantly and to the point, Waseda University scientist Ichiro Kato elaborated, "We have an unwritten law that only allows Japanese residents to work here. But this is not the case in other countries, which gives them access to far more plentiful human resources."13 Unlike the United States, Europe, or even the oil nations of the Middle East, postwar Japan has never resorted to foreign "guest worker" programs, immigration programs, or the use of illegal aliens to solve its labor shortages. Prior to 1945, it is true that thousands of Koreans were brought to Japan, often as forced labor, but their descendants (who form nearly 80 percent of Japan's less-than-1-percent minority population) are still victims of discrimination and regarded by some as a blemish on an otherwise pure racial complexion.

pages: 284 words: 79,265

The Half-Life of Facts: Why Everything We Know Has an Expiration Date by Samuel Arbesman


Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Wiles, bioinformatics, British Empire, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Chelsea Manning, Clayton Christensen, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Galaxy Zoo, guest worker program, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index fund, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, life extension, Marc Andreessen, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nicholas Carr, p-value, Paul Erdős, Pluto: dwarf planet, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, social graph, social web, text mining, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation

But eventually, in the face of overwhelming evidence, the majority will generally accept the new theory, before their recalcitrance becomes too counterproductive. Lant Pritchett, a professor of international development at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government, is all too aware of this. In the field of international development there are many sacred cows, and challenges to them are not met with as much cool and calculating logic as one might wish. Pritchett recently proposed an intriguing idea to help developing countries: create lots of guest worker programs. But is everyone simply weighing its merits? Not exactly. Pritchett argues that a more apt way to describe how these ideas are adopted is that they often follow this trajectory: “Crazy. Crazy. Crazy. Obvious.” Plot that on a graph, and you’ve got a phase transition, but this time it’s one about how ideas are accepted and adopted. Thomas Kuhn, a physicist turned historian of science, also discussed how such rapid transitions occur in his celebrated book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

pages: 296 words: 78,112

Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency by Joshua Green

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate raider, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Fractional reserve banking, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, low skilled workers, Nate Silver, nuclear winter, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, urban planning

Stunned by a loss few of them had anticipated, most prominent Republicans concluded that passing comprehensive immigration reform was an existential imperative for the party. In early 2013, the vehicle to do so took shape in what became known as the “Gang of Eight” bill, a bipartisan reform measure led by eight senators that would provide a path to citizenship for the now 11 million immigrants living illegally in the United States, while enlarging guest-worker programs for low-skilled jobs in industries such as agriculture. In what seemed a positive omen, the Gang of Eight bill had the added designation of being a vehicle for the presidential ambitions of Senator Marco Rubio of Florida, the telegenic young Cuban American then considered to be the GOP’s brightest rising star. With Rubio, the darling of Fox News, leading the charge, the bill appeared to have unstoppable momentum.

pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter


Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism,, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

In 2006, as the United States Congress debated an overhaul of immigration law, I met Faylene Whitaker, a farmer who grew tobacco, tomatoes, and other crops in the Piedmont area of North Carolina. Whitaker was concerned about the high cost of employing immigrant workers through the prevailing legal channels and wanted a better deal. “We would rather use legal workers,” she said. But “if we don’t get a reasonable guest worker program, we are going to hire illegals.” The visa set a minimum wage by comparison with other farm wages in the area. At the time it was about to rise to about $8.51 an hour from $8.24. Illegal workers, by contrast, could be had for less than $6.50. ILLEGAL IMMIGRANTS, OF course, want the $6.50-an-hour jobs. That’s why they risk life and limb to come across the border to get them, evading Border Patrol agents, criminal gangs, and snakes.

pages: 364 words: 102,528

An Economist Gets Lunch: New Rules for Everyday Foodies by Tyler Cowen


agricultural Revolution, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cognitive bias, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, East Village,, food miles, guest worker program, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, informal economy, iterative process, mass immigration, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, price discrimination, refrigerator car, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce

Beware: Most of the Chinese restaurants in Germany are too influenced by the blandness and starchiness of a lot of German food. Turkish food in Germany is overrated, and it is a partial exception to the principle that you should look for lots of competition in an ethnic cuisine. There are a lot of Turkish restaurants in Germany, in part because the Turks are Germany’s largest ethnic minority, due to decades of guest-worker programs. Some of the Turkish restaurants are quite good, but I don’t recommend random selection. You need to know where you are going. The underlying problem has to do with dysfunctional German fast food. McDonald’s never achieved the foothold in Germany that it has in the United States, in part because Germans are skeptical about the quality of the cuisine, in part because many Germans view it as a symbol of Americanization, and also, in part, because compared to the United States, German family eating is less centered around the child.

pages: 356 words: 103,944

The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Dani Rodrik


affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round,, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, George Akerlof, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, night-watchman state, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, savings glut, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey

And they fail to recognize that workers from developing nations would queue up in droves for temporary jobs abroad, given their alternatives. However, two of the objections deserve closer scrutiny. The first is that it will be difficult, if not impossible, to enforce the return of foreign workers to their home countries after their permits expire. This is a legitimate concern since many “guest worker” programs have in practice produced permanent immigrants, sometimes creating a large underclass of foreign-born residents left in ambiguous status (as in Germany and many other countries of Europe). On the other hand, past programs typically have offered few incentives for “temporary” workers to return, relying on little more than their willingness to abide by the terms of their visa. It comes as no surprise that many do not go home, given the huge wage gaps between home and host countries.

Gaming the Vote: Why Elections Aren't Fair (And What We Can Do About It) by William Poundstone

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump,, Everything should be made as simple as possible, global village, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, invisible hand, jimmy wales, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, manufacturing employment, Nash equilibrium, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, slashdot, the map is not the territory, Thomas Bayes, transcontinental railway, Unsafe at Any Speed, Y2K

But, he admitted, "I don't know if they're doing it for me or as a tactic against Bilbray:' The mystery was solved when ads touting Griffith began running on conservative talk radio, saying in part: Think lobbyist Brian Bilbray's a conservative when it comes to immigration? Think again ... Lobbyist Bilbray isn't the candidate to secure our borders. You have a choice. Independent William Griffith is en- 121 GAMING THE VOTE dorsed by the San Diego Minutemen and San Diego Border Alert because he opposes guest worker programs, amnesty, and the hiring of illegal immigrants. Francine Busby supports John McCain's position on immigration-stronger enforcement at the border, better support for border agents, and no amnesty. When it comes to immigration, don't expect lobbyist Brian Bilbray to fix Washington, or fix our borders. I'm Francine Busby, candidate for Congress, and I approve this message. Paid for by Francine Busby for Congress.

pages: 421 words: 120,332

The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith


Bretton Woods, BRICs, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K

French and British trappers and traders arrived in the New World; Russian Cossacks surged east through Siberia all the way to the Pacific Ocean. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries almost three million Scandinavians emigrated to the American Midwest and rural Canada. Today, there are Nigerians moving to Fort McMurray, Iraqis to Stockholm, Filipinos to Yellowknife, and Azerbaijanis to Noril’sk. There are growing cities, guest-worker programs, and multinational corporations. As I drove across the Arctic Circle in my rental car, just a few hours north of Fairbanks, it was with a Starbucks Venti latte still clutched in my hand. The latest invasions have begun. So, unlike the Arctic Ocean seafloor, even our northernmost landmasses are hardly a vacant frontier. Siberia has thirty-five million people, most living in million-plus cities.

pages: 482 words: 122,497

The Wrecking Crew: How Conservatives Rule by Thomas Frank


affirmative action, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, edge city, financial deregulation, full employment, George Gilder, guest worker program, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, P = NP, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, War on Poverty

Thus did a hired gun for apartheid South Africa remake himself as a hair-trigger antiracist, fighting colonialism and deploring bigotry in places where most people saw only disputes over treaties and concerns about low-wage workers. Every defense of the CNMI followed the same script. First, to enforce U.S. labor and immigration laws on this U.S. commonwealth, as liberals wanted to do, was an act of colonialism, if not racism or genocidal fascism. Second, low taxes, low wages, and an unrestricted guest-worker program were the true components of “freedom” and also, between them, the policies that brought independence from colonial powers. Abramoff’s comments to the press about the CNMI’s cause were a fine example of the strategy. Leaving aside the denials that are a routine part of a lobbyist’s business—nope, no sweatshops here—he repeatedly flashed the anticolonialism card. “You know what all this fuss is really about?”

pages: 598 words: 172,137

Who Stole the American Dream? by Hedrick Smith


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbus A320, airline deregulation, anti-communist, asset allocation, banking crisis, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business process, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, family office, full employment, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, index fund, industrial cluster, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, mega-rich, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Occupy movement, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ponzi scheme, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Vanguard fund, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

Competitiveness,” National Venture Capital Association, 2006, http://​www.​nvca.​org. 5 “It makes no sense to” “Bill Gates to Congress: Let Us Hire More Foreigners,” CNET News, March 12, 2006, http://​news.​cnet.​com. 6 No ironclad protections for Americans Morrison, interview, January 24, 2011. 7 Senior AIG executives summoned 250 Linda Kilcrease, “Problems with the H-1B Visa Expansion and T-Visas,” web post, January 8, 2008, accessed January 17, 2011. http://​www.​zazona.​comLibrary/​BrainSavers/​Problems_​Kilcrease.​htm, and Kilcrease, letter to editor, “H-1B Visa: A Bad Idea,” Cnet, 2009, accessed April 21, 2012. 8 “After we were seated” Douglas Crouse, “Competition from Abroad,” The Daily Record, Morris County, New Jersey, May 2, 2000. http://​www.​programmers​guild.​org/​archives/​lib/​abuse/​drm20000502aig.​htm. 9 Americans were being replaced by H-1B Kilcrease, “Problems with the H-1B Visa Expansion.” 10 Did not bring in any special skills William Branigan, “White Collar Visas: Back Door for Cheap Labor,” The Washington Post, October 21, 1995. 11 “This profitable company boasted Kilcrease, “Problems with the H-1B Visa Expansion.” 12 One-third of its 46,000-member workforce “Quota Quickly Filled on Visas for High-Tech Guest Workers,” The New York Times, April 5, 2007. 13 Foreign worker tide kept rising “Flaws in Guest Worker Programs Add to US Unemployment Misery,” International Business Times News, November 21, 2010. 14 Or multinational temp agencies Ron Hira and Anil Hira, Outsourcing America: The True Cost of Shipping Jobs Overseas and What Can Be Done About It, 2nd. ed. (New York: Amacom, 2008) 54–59, 158–160. “Outsourcers Are Criticized on Visa Use,” The New York Times, March 31, 2011. 15 “Tata has about 18,000 people in the U.S.”

pages: 823 words: 206,070

The Making of Global Capitalism by Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin


accounting loophole / creative accounting, active measures, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, continuous integration, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global value chain, guest worker program, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, oil shock, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game

See also Jessica Gordon Nembrand, Capital Controls, Financial Regulation, and Industrial Policy in South Korea and Brazil, London: Praeger, 1996; and Peter Evans, Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995. 92 Even by 1980, the 120,000 jobs in the maquiladoras corresponded to less than a quarter of the half-million Mexicans that had been repatriated from the US in 1965 when it terminated its guest-worker program and began encouraging cross-border production instead. See William I. Robinson, Latin America and Global Capitalism: A Critical Globalization Perspective, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008, pp. 96–101, esp. Table 2.9. Indeed, by the late 1970s the core of Mexico’s export-oriented auto industry had shifted to new assembly and engine plants built outside the maquila zones. These plants were the Mexican nodes of regionally integrated auto production under NAFTA.