operation paperclip

8 results back to index

pages: 612 words: 181,985

Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program That Brought Nazi Scientists to America by Annie Jacobsen

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, experimental subject, operation paperclip, Ronald Reagan, V2 rocket, éminence grise

“I also know that he strictly refused to take part [in] or permit scientific research work which was damaging to human health,” Schäfer wrote. The following year, Dr. Konrad Schäfer would be on a boat headed for America, an Operation Paperclip contract in hand. As for Dr. Blome, he was seen as a highly desirable recruit for Operation Paperclip. Blome allegedly knew more about bubonic plague research than anyone else in the world. But, given his former position in Hitler’s inner circle, coupled with the fact that Blome had worn the Golden Party Badge, bringing him to America as part of Operation Paperclip remained too difficult for the U.S. Army to justify. But as the Cold War gained momentum and intense suspicion of the Soviets increased, even someone like Kurt Blome would eventually be deemed eligible for Operation Paperclip. PART IV “Only the commander understands the importance of certain things, and he alone conquers and surmounts all difficulties.

Disguise, distortion, and deception were accepted as reality. Truth was promised in a serum. And Operation Paperclip, born of the ashes of World War II, was the inciting incident in this hall of mirrors. But in 1952, the heedless momentum of Operation Paperclip began to slow as conflicts emerged between the JIOA and the CIA over policies with the new West German government. German officials warned High Commissioner John J. McCloy that Operation Paperclip violated NATO regulations and even America’s own policies for governance in Germany. On February 21, 1952, McCloy sent a memo to the U.S. Secretary of State expressing his concern that if Paperclip was not curtailed, it could result in a “violent reaction” from officials in West Germany. With McCloy no longer expressing unbridled enthusiasm for Operation Paperclip, the JIOA began to lose its once indomitable grip on the program.

Major General Hugh Knerr: Post-war commanding general at Air Technical Service Command, Wright Field. An early advocate of Operation Paperclip, he sent a memo to the War Department encouraging them to overlook German scientists’ Nazi pasts. “Pride and face saving have no place in national insurance,” he said. Karl Krauch: Chairman of IG Farben board of directors and Göring’s Plenipotentiary for Special Questions of Chemical Production. Courted for Operation Paperclip while incarcerated at Nuremberg, he was convicted alongside colleague Otto Ambros. Richard Kuhn: Nobel Prize–winning organic chemist who developed soman nerve agent for the Reich and was known to begin his classes at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute with “Sieg Heil.” Under Operation Paperclip he worked for the U.S. Army Air Forces Aero Medical Center in Heidelberg, and also privately for General Loucks’s Heidelberg working group on sarin production.

pages: 476 words: 144,288

1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, land reform, long peace, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip

This devalued the de-Nazification process more profoundly than the lack of zeal shown by the local German tribunals. If the Allies, with their judges’ courts and fine rhetoric about punishing the guilty, found pragmatic reasons to let some Nazis thrive, why should the Germans be more rigorous about prosecuting less serious malefactors? This was a question that informed Germans repeatedly asked Allied officials. They never received convincing answers. In the US Army’s highly efficient Operation Paperclip, around four hundred scientists and technicians were arrested, interrogated and, if they were of any potential use, shipped out of Germany, whatever their political beliefs or human-rights records might have been. The Third Reich’s top technical brains were plundered and shared out between the US and Britain – partly as war booty, but just as important, to keep them and their work out of the hands of the Russians.

Annan, Changing Enemies, p. 187. 17. Cordell Hull, The Memoirs of Cordell Hull, Macmillan, 1948; Churchill quoted by Moran, Winston Churchill, p. 399; Cadogan memo, TNA: CAB 122. 65. 53. 18. Kennan, Memoirs, p. 465. 19. TNA: PREM 4. 109. 102. 28. 20. Shawcross to Attlee, 20 January 1946, TNA: PREM 4 108. 203.34; Attlee to Shawcross, 22 January 1946, TNA: PREM 4 108. 203. 63. 21. Report about Operation Paperclip, FRUS, 1945, vol. 4, p. 455; quote about Rudolph, OMGUS Intelligence Department, RG 19.357. 22. OMGUS Intelligence Department, RG 16. 454. 23. Applebaum, Iron Curtain, p. 279. 24. Ibid., p. 242. 25. Andreas-Friedrich, Battleground Berlin, 26 April 1946. 26. Zubok, Inside the Kremlin, p. 312. 20. A Greek Tragedy 1. André Gerolymatos, Red Acropolis, Black Terror: the Greek Civil War and the Origins of Soviet–American Rivalry, 1943–1949, Basic Books, 2004, p. 114. 2.

K. ref1 Azerbaijan Democratic Party (ADP) ref1 Azerbaijan–Iran conflict ref1, ref2, ref3 Bagirov, Mir ref1 Bagramyan, Ivan ref1 Balfour Declaration (1917) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Barker, Evelyn ref1 Barraclough, Brigadier John ref1 Bavaria ref1 Bednarczuk, Wincenty ref1 Begin, Menachem ref1, ref2, ref3 Belsen camp ref1 Ben Gurion, David ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Beneš, Edvard ref1, ref2 Bengal famine (1943–4) ref1 Beria, Lavrenti ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Beria, Sergo ref1 Berlin ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 black market ref1 crime in post-war ref1 Berman, Jakob ref1 Bernard, Henri ref1 Betar movement ref1 Bevan, Aneurin ref1 Bevin, Ernest ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 Big Freeze ref1 Biriya, Mohammed ref1, ref2 black market France ref1 Germany ref1 Japan ref1 Blankenhorn, Herbert ref1 Błaszczyk, Henryk ref1 Bohlen, Charles ‘Chips’ ref1 Bohr, Niels ref1 Böll, Heinrich Kreuz ohne Liebe ref1 Boris Godunov (opera) ref1 Botting, Bernhard ref1 Bowers, Faubion ref1, ref2 Bracken, Brendan ref1 Brecht, Bertolt The Threepenny Opera ref1 Britain ref1 anti-Semitist attacks in ref1 and atomic bomb ref1 Attlee’s reforms and social provisions ref1 campaign to help Germans by public and press ref1 and de-Nazification ref1 economic problems and debts ref1, ref2 election (1945) ref1 food rationing ref1, ref2 and forced repatriation of Soviet citizens ref1 and German occupation zone ref1 see also Germany: Western Zone and Greece ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and India ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and Iran ref1 and Jewish immigration to Palestine issue ref1, ref2 loan negotiations with United States ref1 and Palestine ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and Poland ref1, ref2 post-war military force ref1 relationship with United States ref1, ref2, ref3 ‘shrinking loaf’ scandal ref1 view of Russian threat ref1 wanting Jewish refugees to return to Eastern Europe ref1 and war-crime trials ref1 withdrawal from India ref1, ref2 see also Attlee, Clement; Churchill, Winston Brooke, Sir Alan ref1 Brooks, Louise ref1 Buck, Pearl S. ref1 Bulgaria ref1, ref2 Bullard, Sir Reader ref1, ref2 Burrows, Sir Frederick ref1 Bush, Vannever ref1 Byrnes, James ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Cadogan, Sir Alexander ref1, ref2, ref3 Caffery, Jefferson ref1 Cairncross, John ref1 Calcutta riots ref1 Callaghan, James ref1 Cameron, James ref1 Camus, Albert ref1, ref2 Caro, Robert ref1 Castle, Barbara ref1 Catholic Church ref1 Cavan, Frederick Lambart, Earl of ref1 Cavendish-Bentinck, Victor ref1, ref2 Celler, Emmanuel ref1 Channon, Henry ‘Chips’ ref1n Chaudhuri, Nirad ref1 Chiang Kai-shek ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Chiang Mei-ling ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 China ref1, ref2 corruption of Nationalist government ref1, ref2 economy ref1 Mao’s rectification campaigns ref1 occupation of by Japan ref1, ref2 opium trade ref1 poverty ref1 Chinese Civil War ref1, ref2, ref3 communist victory (1949) ref1 peace negotiations and cease-fires ref1, ref2, ref3 and Soviet Union ref1, ref2 and United States ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Chinese People’s Liberation Army ref1, ref2 Christian Democratic Union ref1 Churchill, Winston ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and Atlantic Charter ref1 and Big Freeze ref1 and French ref1 Fulton (‘Iron Curtain’) speech ref1, ref2, ref3 and Gandhi ref1 and Greece ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and India ref1, ref2 loss of 1945 election ref1 opposition to war-crimes trials ref1 and Palestine ref1 and ‘percentages deal’ ref1, ref2, ref3 and Poland ref1, ref2, ref3 relations with Eleanor Roosevelt ref1n Stalin’s view of ref1 view of Molotov ref1 view of Soviet Union ref1 view of Stalin ref1 CIA ref1 Clare, George ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Clark Kerr, Sir Archibald ref1, ref2 Clarke, Frank ref1 Clay, General Lucius ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Cold War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and Long Telegram ref1 origins of phrase ref1 Colmer, William ref1 communism in France ref1 and Jewish–Bolshevik conspiracy ref1 support of in Czechoslovakia ref1 United States anti-communist stance ref1, ref2, ref3 Conant, Professor James ref1 Connolly, Cyril ref1 Control Commission Germany ref1 Cooper, Duff ref1, ref2 Cooper, Susan ref1 Coward, Noël ref1 ‘Don’t Let’s Be Beastly to the Germans’ ref1 Cowles, Gardner ref1n Cripps, Sir Stafford ref1, ref2 Croats forced repatriation of and killing of by Tito ref1 Crosland, Anthony ref1 Crossman, Richard ref1, ref2 CROWCASS (Central Registry of War Criminals and Security Suspects) ref1, ref2 Cunningham, Sir George ref1 Curzon, Lord ref1 Curzon Line ref1 Czechoslovakia ref1, ref2 expulsion and internment of Germans ref1 and Soviet Union ref1 support of communism in ref1 Daily Mirror ref1 Dalton, Hugh ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 de Beauvoir, Simone ref1, ref2, ref3 de Gaulle, General Charles ref1, ref2, ref3 Dean, Patrick ref1 Debus, Kurt ref1 Decembrist rising (1825) ref1 Democratic League ref1 de-Nazification ref1 and Britain ref1 and clergy ref1 criticism of ref1 and Fragebogen questionnaire ref1, ref2 and German institutions ref1 and Nuremberg trials ref1, ref2 and Operation Paperclip ref1 and Persilschein certificates ref1, ref2 and the police ref1 problems facing Allies ref1, ref2 scientists and business leaders escaping ref1 Spruchkammer tribunals ref1, ref2, ref3 Dimitrov, Georgi ref1 displaced persons (DPs) camps ref1, ref2 Djilas, Milovan ref1, ref2, ref3 Dönhoff, Marion, Countess von ref1 Dorman, Baruch ref1 Dos Passos, John ref1, ref2 Douglas, Air Marshal Sir Sholto ref1 Drtina, Prokop ref1 Dwarkadas, Kanji ref1 EAM (National Liberation Front) ref1, ref2, ref3 East Germany see Germany Eastern Europe ref1 anti-Jewish massacres ref1 and Soviet Union ref1, ref2 Economist, The ref1 Eden, Anthony ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 EDES (National Republican League) ref1 Edward VIII, King ref1 Edwards, Corwin D. ref1 Ehrenberg, Ilya ref1 Eisenhower, Dwight D. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Eisenstein, Sergei ref1 ELAS (Greek People’s Liberation Army) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Ertegün, Mehmet Münir ref1 Etzel see Irgun European Union ref1 Fellers, Brigadier-General Bonner ref1 Fish, Hamilton ref1 Flanner, Janet ref1, ref2, ref3 Flerov, Georgi ref1 food rationing Britain ref1, ref2 France ref1 Germany ref1, ref2 Japan ref1 United States ref1 Foot, Michael ref1 Foreign Ministers’ Conference (Moscow) (1945) ref1 Forrestal, James ref1 Fragebogen ref1, ref2 France ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 anti-Americanism ref1 black market ref1 communism in ref1 food rationing ref1 loan from United States ref1 Nazi-occupied ref1 occupation zone in Germany ref1 post-war conditions ref1 revenge taken out on collaborators (savage purge) ref1 French Communist Party ref1 Frick, Wilhelm ref1 Frings, Joseph ref1 Fuchs, Klaus ref1 Fuhrman, Johan ref1 Galbraith, J.

pages: 288 words: 92,175

Rise of the Rocket Girls: The Women Who Propelled Us, From Missiles to the Moon to Mars by Nathalia Holt

Bill Gates: Altair 8800, British Empire, computer age, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, financial independence, Grace Hopper, Isaac Newton, labor-force participation, Mars Rover, music of the spheres, new economy, operation paperclip, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Steve Jobs, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra

Like Frank Malina, JPL’s acting director, he’d received his PhD at Caltech, and almost immediately was attracted to the Suicide Squad. Though he was a quiet man, something about the audacious group drew him in. He’d been involved with JPL since its inception, playing a key role in its success before serving in the U.S. Army. It was in the army, while serving as an honorary colonel, that Tsien consulted for Operation Paperclip, which aimed to capture key Nazi scientists after the war before Russia could get hold of them. The United States was desperate to get their hands on Nazi rocket technology, whose sophistication far outstripped that of the Allies’. Tsien, an accomplished, well-respected rocket scientist, was a natural choice to interview the enemy scientists. When Wernher von Braun and Rudolf Hermann, both notorious for their expertise in rocketry, were captured, Tsien was one of the first to talk to them.

But the sleek power of the Baby Sergeant, made at JPL, would also have to be combined with the massive strength of the Redstone rocket, made by von Braun’s team at the Redstone Arsenal. Originally a chemical weapons–manufacturing facility, producing such toxic products as mustard gas, the Redstone army post in Huntsville, Alabama, became home to von Braun and 126 other German scientists in 1950. They were sent there from Fort Bliss, Texas, the former base of operations for Operation Paperclip, the program that brought Nazi scientists to the United States after the war. Nestled in the Tennessee Valley, the lab was fertile soil for rocket research. By 1956, von Braun’s contributions were appreciated, and he was made director of the development operations program at the new Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone. With his new position he was ready for collaboration with JPL. The Redstone rocket was the spitting image of von Braun’s V-2 missile.

pages: 523 words: 143,639

Red November: Inside the Secret U.S.-Soviet Submarine War by W. Craig Reed

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, cable laying ship, centre right, cuban missile crisis, en.wikipedia.org, nuclear winter, operation paperclip, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, upwardly mobile

The massive antenna array spanned a diameter of more than a half mile. The Soviets built nineteen more sites throughout the 1950s, with many installed in pairs within a few miles of one another for navigation purposes. Four Krugs were installed near Moscow, and some were used to track Sputnik satellites via 10 and 20 MHz beacons. Although the Allies snatched up their own Wullenweber engineers after the war under Operation Paperclip, they were slow to the game. Antenna researcher Dr. Rolf Wundt, along with his wife and parents, arrived in New York City on the same ship as Wernher von Braun in March 1947, but he did not work on this technology until many years later. The Air Force, and later GT&E Sylvania Electronics Systems, made some progress on Wullenweber antenna technology, but more than a decade passed before the first site became operational.

., 351n Murray, USS, 150 Mystic, 229–30 Naftali, Timothy, 157 Napier, Russ, 159 National Photographic Interpretation Center, 86–87 National Press Club, 157 National Security Council (NSC), 118 National Security Operations Center (NSOC), 62 Naumov, Sergei, 75, 85, 97, 108–9, 113, 166 Nautilus, USS, 8–10, 13–14, 15, 20–21, 62–63, 180, 193, 231, 351n Naval Electronics Laboratory, 185 Naval Reactors Branch, 9–10 Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), 40–45, 50, 145, 147, 191, 253 Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC), 11 Naval Scientific and Technical Intelligence Center (NAVSTIC), 20 Naval Security Group (NSG), 22, 146, 232 Navy Expeditionary Medal, 9, 338 Navy SEALs, 234, 296–99, 338–39, 340 Nea Makri Station, 212–13 Nelson, Elroy, 163, 168 Net Control (NC), 29–30 New York Herald Tribune, 157 New York Times, 227 New York Yankees, 100 Nicholson, Jack, 264 Niebuhr, Reinhold, 318 Nissho Maru, 316–17 Nitrogen narcosis, 229 Nitze, Paul, 216 Nixon, Richard, 80, 217, 225, 352n Noisemaker torpedoes, 163, 164 Norfolk Naval Communications Area Master Station, 199–200 North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), 191 North Korea, and USS Pueblo, 200–205 North Pole, 15, 193 Novaya Zemlya, 62–63, 139, 231 November–class subs, 188, 193 Nuclear Non–Proliferation Treaty, 277 Nuclear–powered submarines, 8–10, 13, 14, 20–21, 180 Odell, Carl, 81–82, 141–45 Office of Collection and Signals Analysis, 40–44 Office of Undersea Warfare, 215 “Off–line,” 255 Ohio, USS, 340 Okinawa Bulls Eye, 48–49 Oliver, Michael, 295–96, 302, 307–16 Omnidirectional sound viewpoint, 142, 253–54 One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (movie), 264 One Hell of a Gamble (Fursenko and Naftali), 157 Onslow Beach, North Carolina, 176 OP–20–G (Office of Chief of Naval Operations), 45 Operational Reactor Safeguard Exam (ORSE), 304 Operation Anadyr, 58–61. See also Operation Kama Operation Eagle Claw, 319 Operation Falling Leaves, 118 Operation ICEX, 254 Operation Kama, 57–77, 82–86, 88–100, 107–15, 118–21, 130–34, 148, 149–55, 157–78. See also B-4; B-36; B-59; B-130 Operation Paperclip, 46 Operation Sand Dollar, 216 Operations specialists (O-Branchers), 29 Orel, Vice Admiral, 66 Orestes, 200 Orlov, Pavel, 150–55 Ortolan, USS, 237 Orwell, George, 332 OSNAZ, 77, 94, 121, 133 Oxford, USS, 61–62, 63, 86, 101, 106 Packard, David, 221 Palm Beach International Airport, 115 Pancho Villa, 265 Pankov, Lieutenant avoiding detection, 108–15, 161, 170–71 operation onboard, 82–84, 90–91 Parangosky, John, 217, 220–23 Parche, USS, 289–93 cable–tapping missions, 248–49, 288, 291–93, 319–22, 333–34, 338, 372–74n Parshin, Viktor, 131–33 Pasha (cat), 72–73 Passive sonar systems, 16–21, 272–73 Patton, George, 188 PCS–1380, 139–40 Pearlman, Stanley, 357n Pearson, J.

pages: 589 words: 197,971

A Fiery Peace in a Cold War: Bernard Schriever and the Ultimate Weapon by Neil Sheehan

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, double helix, European colonialism, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, operation paperclip, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, uranium enrichment

In March 1955, as soon as Quarles was willing to part with him, he shifted back to California to confront the first great challenge of his career in Thor. Mettler was fortunate to have someone experienced in rocketry to serve as his deputy—a forty-year-old Austro-German aeronautical engineer named Adolf Thiel, another veteran of the V-2 program and a refugee from the Redstone Arsenal. Although “Dolf” Thiel had come to the United States in 1946 with the original group of German rocketeers under the clandestine Operation Paperclip, he had never been part of the von Braun coterie. A slender man of medium height, with a prominent nose and thinning brown hair, Thiel had a friendly if intense manner that hid a quick temper. He had been born in Vienna and grew up there, but went to Darmstadt, just south of Frankfurt, for his higher education, because Darmstadt’s university offered courses in aeronautical engineering. In 1940, right after he received his master’s degree, he was put to work on the V-2 project.

The trains hauling these had to negotiate their way along the blasted and broken German railway network to the Belgian port of Antwerp, where the rocket components were shifted into the holds of sixteen freighters for transfer to the United States. The work went on into June. That month, just twenty-four hours before the Soviets were due to move into the Nordhausen area as part of their occupation zone, the five trunks filled with Dornberger’s plans and research were retrieved from the abandoned salt mine and sent off to Antwerp. Toftoy then instigated a clandestine project code-named Operation Paperclip. He and his team drafted a cable to Washington, which General Eisenhower signed, recommending that “100 of the very best men of this research organization be evacuated to US immediately.” Cordell Hull, the secretary of state, whose consent was necessary under the law, approved. The number grew to 127 rocket specialists when Toftoy and von Braun selected those who were to come. By the end of 1945, all, including von Braun, were in the United States.

pages: 370 words: 97,138

Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, V2 rocket, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

He left Shanghai to study at MIT at the same time that Mao Zedong began the Long March, a bloody retreat from the Nationalist forces that helped cement his grip on the Communist Party. Qian then worked at Caltech, where he helped famed rocket scientist Theodore von Kármán found the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. At the end of World War II, Qian and von Kármán went to Germany and helped coordinate “Operation Paperclip,” which brought Wernher von Braun and other Nazi rocket experts to the United States. Qian became the foremost theorist on rocket propulsion in the country. Then seismic forces of politics intervened. In 1950, Korea became a bloody battleground, with the United Nations and the United States supporting the South and China and the Soviet Union supporting the North. Mao felt that the world’s superpowers didn’t respect him, and he was convinced that only a nuclear deterrent would guarantee the security of the new People’s Republic of China.

pages: 338 words: 112,127

Leaving Orbit: Notes From the Last Days of American Spaceflight by Margaret Lazarus Dean

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, Elon Musk, helicopter parent, index card, Mars Rover, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, operation paperclip, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, sensible shoes, V2 rocket

Entering the race would mean a justification for a huge upsurge in government spending, some for new projects, some for existing but underfunded ones. Public education was one of the first areas to feel the effects—high schools revamped their curricula to include more math and science, as well as Russian-language instruction. At the end of World War II, the best of Germany’s rocket designers had been recruited to the United States by a covert government group that later became the CIA. The project was called Operation Paperclip because the Germans’ affiliation with the Nazi party and/or the SS had to be covered up through fake documents, which were paperclipped to their files. The most important German rocket expert was Wernher von Braun, who had been responsible for the development of the V-2 rocket used to bomb Allied cities. Now an American citizen, von Braun had been working to develop rockets for the US Army since 1945 and had been finding the support and funding offered him and his staff at Fort Bliss to be insultingly inadequate.

pages: 1,590 words: 353,834

God's Bankers: A History of Money and Power at the Vatican by Gerald Posner

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, central bank independence, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, credit crunch, dividend-yielding stocks, European colonialism, forensic accounting, God and Mammon, Index librorum prohibitorum, liberation theology, medical malpractice, Murano, Venice glass, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

“Klaus Barbie and the United States Government,” A Report to the Attorney General of the United States, August 1983, Office of Special Investigations, U.S. Department of Justice, 136; see also Mark Fritz, “The Secret History of World War II: From Hot Conflict to Cold War; US Made Moral Compromises in Using Former Nazi Spy Network Against Soviet Threat,” The Boston Globe, Part 9 of 9, December 26, 2001, 1. 97 Operations Paperclip and Overcast were OSS programs that recruited 765 Nazi rocket scientists and engineers in the decade following the war. The recruits ranged from Wernher von Braun, the “father of rocket science,” to Hubertus Strughold, who was involved in medical experiments at the Dachau concentration camp. Reinhard Gehlen, a Catholic and Wehrmacht officer, was put in charge of an eponymously named counterintelligence group that spied on the East Germans and the Soviets.