urban planning

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Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer

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affirmative action, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional

Thus, cultural differences in urban planning largely are expressed in group facilities and services. This observation brings up the question of how ethno-racial equity is incorporated in urban planning programs and policies. This question calls for examining both the theories and practice of planning. Multicultural Practice and Planning Theory There are two distinct views of how urban planning responds to the demands of diversity and equality. Planning theory, by and large, views urban planning as relatively unresponsive to people’s rights to differences, and the recognition of their cultural needs thereby overlooks their entitlement to equality.8 Planning practice points, as proof of its responsiveness, to the vibrant multiculturalism of North American cities, a Urban Planning for Cultural Diversity 219 thriving ethno-racial diversity in both public and private spheres, and accommodations of socio-cultural differences in policies and programs.

Domenic Vitiello observes that “planners and community development practitioners have incrementally addressed many problems immigrants face.”22 It might be also noted that in the roster of immigrants’ and minorities’ discontents with “the system,” planning policies seldom appear, except in terms of neighbourhood issues or disagreement about the use of a site. What has been happening in practice in multicultural cities to incorporate diversity is the test of the responsiveness of urban planning. The Planning System and Multiculturalism Contemporary urban planning, particularly in the United States, has been influenced by the long struggle of American Blacks for fair housing, community control, equitable services, and citizen participation in decision making. Paul Davidoff’s seminal article “Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning” transformed the conception of urban planning.23 Appearing in the midst of the civil rights movement, it presented a Urban Planning for Cultural Diversity 221 planning model that acknowledged the diversity of community interests. It put forth two ideas: (1) multiple (pluralistic) plans, each prepared from the perspective of a particular group or interest, and (2) public advocacy of plural plans and negotiations among competing interests on the bases of their plans to forge a balanced proposal.

The responsiveness of urban planning to diversity has to be assessed within the scope of this institutional framework. One cannot assess urban planning on the basis of objectives that are not part of its institutional mandate, such as being an “insurgent planner.” My focus here is on the institutionalized but comprehensive practice of area-wide planning. Yet there is community planning outside the institutionalized activity of urban planning. It occurs in neighbourhood associations, community agencies, and other non-governmental organizations for particular functions (such as neighbourhood improvement, business development, or protecting tenants’ rights) and the advocacy of community goals. I will refer to this level of planning practice later. For now, the focus of discussion is on how urban planning accommodates diversity.

pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

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active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

The heart of the city should be served chiefly by rapid transit, buses, taxis and above all the human foot. The choice is clear and urgent: Does the city exist for people, or for motorcars?31 Jane Jacobs brought a similar set of questions to bear on the issue of transportation, but unlike Mumford, she did not see cars as the primary impediment to sound urban planning or a more orderly public sphere. rather, she posed the problem in terms of the urban planning paradigm itself, specifically the assumption that cities could, or should, be designed in accordance with a grand plan or master narrative: automobiles are often conveniently tagged as the villains responsible for the ills of cities and the disappointments and futilities of city planning. But the destructive effects of automobiles are much less a cause than a symptom of our incompetence at city building.

For better or worse, the aT movement directed attention to issues of scale, specifically the correlation between the size of technological systems and their effects on societies, which Schumacher describes as inversely proportional, hence smaller being beautiful. This line of inquiry is significant because it closely paralleled critiques of urban planning and transportation in the same general period. Jane Jacobs was among those who challenged not only the size and scale implicit to orthodox urban planning but also the spatial tensions between the needs of pedestrians and those required of automobiles. ivan illich similarly bemoaned modern transportation, though his critique dealt less with the size and scale of auto-mobility than its high energy demands and its speed: “a true choice among practical policies and of desirable social relations is possible only where speed is restrained. participatory democracy demands low-energy technology, and free people must travel the road to productive social relations at the speed of a bicycle.”97 Schumacher, Jacobs, and illich formed something of a holy trinity for bicycle advocates who used their theories to create a more philosophically informed analysis of cycling in the 1970s. illich’s ideas understandably took on a prominent role because he mapped an entire politics of technology around the bicycle itself, writing in Energy and Equity: Bicycles let people move with greater speed without taking up significant amounts of scarce space, energy, or time.

While it is debatable whether the construction of an expansive cycling infrastructure would have necessarily encouraged more people in the United States to ride bikes (though studies point to this correlation), vC proponents helped to ensure the suppression of this possibility for more than two decades.116 Forester’s hands-off approach to transportation planning and government intervention broke with the model of advocacy pioneered on the East and West coasts in the early 1970s, and the ensuing controversy over bicycle infrastructure largely divided advocates into two main camps: (1) those who conceptualized everyday cycling within the framework of environmentalism, urban planning, and the energy crisis—all of which required a revaluation of automobility and/or the establishment of a dedicated cycling infrastructure— and (2) those who supported John Forester’s paradigm and saw proper training and education (rather than infrastructure, political activism, or impediments to automobility) as the sole ingredients for promoting bicycle transportation. not surprisingly, Forester’s ilk held sway throughout much of the late 1970s and 1980s because city officials found in vC advocates the cheapest and easiest course of action to pursue. Given the choice between spending money on urban planning projects or not spending it, an official’s decision is somewhat easy to predict, particularly when infrastructure budgets began to decline in 1970, following a twenty-year growth trend.

pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

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1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

Flood puts the tally of persons displaced by the fires at more than a half-million.66 By the mid-1970s, in every domain of urban planning and management to which computer modeling had been applied—generic system models like Forester’s, land use and transportation models like Pittsburgh’s, and even relatively narrowly focused operational models like the one built by RAND for the New York City Fire Department—serious doubts about its effectiveness had been raised. By the mid-1970s, planning scholars moved swiftly away from their earlier embrace of such all-encompassing, predictive city simulators. In 1973 Douglass Lee’s “Requiem for Large-Scale Urban Models” sounded their death knell in the pages of the Journal of the American Institute of Planners. Then a professor of urban planning at the University of California, Berkeley (today he still works on models for the US Department of Transportation’s Volpe National Transportation Systems Center), Lee had studied the Pittsburgh model up close while working there.67 The article was a scathing indictment, calling out “seven sins” of large-scale models—hypercomprehensiveness, grossness, hungriness, wrongheadedness, complicatedness, mechanicalness, and expensiveness.

Shirky’s essay echoes Jane Jacobs’s observations on great cities. “Situated software isn’t a technological strategy,” he writes, “so much as an attitude about closeness of fit between software and its group of users, and a refusal to embrace scale, generality or completeness as unqualified virtues.” The grassroots revolution that transformed urban planning in Jacobs’s era took on similar assumptions when it came to city design. It was a response to the excesses of urban planning’s own “Web School,” the large-scale reshaping of the city practiced by power brokers like Robert Moses with little regard for the street life of the city. But for all his enthusiasm, Shirky was deeply skeptical of situated software’s ability to scale beyond small social groups like his students. “By relying on existing social fabric”—the casual face-to-face encounters with fellow users—“situated software is guaranteed not to work at the scale Web School apps do.”

Huang, “Jana, Formerly Txteagle, Unveils Strategy for ‘Giving 2 Billion People a Raise’—A Talk with CEO Nathan Eagle,” Xconomy, blog, last modified October 11, 2011, http://www.xconomy.com/boston/2011/10/11/jana-formerly-txteagle-unveils-strategy-for-giving-2-billion-people-a-raise-a-talk-with-ceo-nathan-eagle/. 33“Global Snapshot of Well-Being—Mobile Survey,” UN Global Pulse project website, n.d., http://www.unglobalpulse.org/projects/global-snapshot-wellbeing-mobile-survey. 34Megan Lane, “As Asbo in 14th Century Britain,” BBC News Magazine, April 5, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-12847529. 35Martin Daunton, “London’s ‘Great Stink’ and Victorian Urban Planning,” BBC History, November 4, 2004, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/victorian_britain/social_conditions/ victorian_urban_planning_04.shtml. 36C. Creighton, A History of Epidemics in Britain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1894), 858. 37While the official 2009 Kenya census tallied Kibera’s population at 170,070, two other estimates put the figure closer to 250,000. One extrapolated from a door-to-door survey in one of the slum’s districts, the other used satellite imagery to count structures.

pages: 441 words: 96,534

Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan, Seth Solomonow

autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

The bridge, known as the Bridge of the People, was designed to carry trains for Portland’s light rail MAX system, streetcars, buses, bikes, pedestrians, ambulances, and fire trucks, but no private cars. In other American cities, by contrast, urban planning is often absent from agendas. Houston, Texas, is renowned for having no long-term plan or even a unified zoning code that spells out what kinds of buildings can be built where. The result, predictably, is that Houston’s population of 2.2 million is sprawled over more than 625 square miles, or about one tenth of the people in Mexico City spread throughout a slightly smaller area. Comprehensive urban planning is a productive exercise in itself. PlaNYC reframed the idea of the city and repudiated the idea that cities (not just New York) are environmental, social, and economic lost causes. “We went from cities being a problem to density being the solution,” said Rit Aggarwala, the sustainability guru Doctoroff brought in to manage the development of the report.

., 4. 6,300 miles of streets . . . 22 million: “About DOT,” New York City Department of Transportation, accessed August 4, 2015, www.nyc.gov/html/dot/html/about/about.shtml. 25 percent of the city’s landmass: New York City Department of Transportation, Street Design Manual (New York, 2009), 21.5 around 4,500 employees: “About DOT.” “to implement, divine”: Jerold S. Kayden, “What’s the Mission of Harvard’s Urban Planning Program?,” Harvard Design Magazine 22 (2005), accessed August 5, 2015, www.gsd.harvard.edu/images/content/5/3/538187/Kayden-Mission-Urban-Planning.pdf. INTRODUCTION: A NEW STREET CODE 1.24 million traffic deaths: World Health Organization, Global Status Report on Road Safety 2013: Supporting a Decade of Action (Geneva, Switzerland, 2013), v. 22 million miles of road worldwide: Central Intelligence Agency, “Country Comparison: Roadways,” World Factbook, accessed August 5, 2015, www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2085rank.html.

As our cities grow, leaders and the people they serve cannot accept dysfunctional streets; they must fight to change them. The fight for these changes—well, that’s just part of the job. More than policy or ideas themselves, the most valuable lessons for any city involve the on-the-ground, practical experience of connecting vision to plans and then executing projects that produce positive change. Pinned above my desk during my six and a half years as commissioner was an adage from Harvard urban planning and design professor Jerold Kayden: “To plan is human, to implement, divine.” Based on real-world practice, not ivory-tower idealism, this book deconstructs, reassembles, and reinvents the street. We invite you to view something you experience every day in ways that you might never have imagined. We hope it inspires city officials, planners, and all other city residents to initiate changes in their cities around the world.

pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

Thus, the leaflet continued, modernist reconstruction could now be delivered to sustain ‘the swift flow of modern traffic; for the play of light and air’.39 Illustrations from John Mansbridge’s 1943 British pamphlet Here Comes Tomorrow celebrating both the modernism of aircraft and the ‘new chance’ that bombing offered British cities to rebuild along modernist lines The aerial annihilation of total war – an unprecedented act of planned urban devastation in its own right – thus served as a massive accelerator of comprehensive urban planning, architecture and urbanism along vertically stratified, modernist lines. The tabula rasa that every devoted modernist craved suddenly became the norm rather than the exception, particularly in the city centres of postwar Europe and Japan. As a result, in a very real sense, ‘the ghosts of the architects of urban bombing – Douhet, Mitchell, Trenchard, Lindemann – and the praxis of airmen like Harris and LeMay, still stalk the streets of our cities’.40 Perhaps urban planning and history teaching should focus on these luminaries of twentieth-century bombing theory as much as their more usual cast of iconic architects and planners. 3.

(See the 1928 example from New York planner Harvey Wiley Corbett on p. viii.) The Great Depression prevented the widespread realisation of such imaginaries. It was not until the 1960s that vertically segregated circulation became a dominant theme of post-war urban planning. Influenced by architectural radicalism such as the ‘plug-in’ city from the Archigram group,5 the huge raised megastructures proposed for Tokyo by a group of Japanese architectural futurists known as the Metabolists,6 and the one-square-kilometre ‘artificial platform city’ imagined by the Obayashi Corporation in the same city,7 vertically segregated circulation became an obsession in urbanism and urban planning.8 ‘It is only logical to conceive of multi-level cities’, the Archigram group argued. ‘The organisation of, say, New York, which tolerates multi-level components, connected by only two horizontal levels (street and subway) and both of those at the base, is archaic.’9 The widespread destruction of cities through strategic bombing in World War II created opportunities for planners to realise such dreams in practice.

Military GPS systems, used to drop lethal ordnance on any point on Earth, have been opened up to civilian uses. They now organise the global measurement of time as well as the navigation of children to school, yachts to harbours, cars into supermarkets, farmers around fields, runners and cyclists along paths and roads and hikers up to mountaintops. Widened access to powerful imaging satellites, similarly, has allowed high-resolution images to transform urban planning, agriculture, forestry, environmental management and efforts to NGOs to track human rights abuses.6 Digital photography from many of the prosthetic eyes above the Earth, meanwhile, offers resolutions that Cold War military strategists could only dream of – delivered via the satellite and optic fibre channels of the Internet to anyone with a laptop or smartphone. A cornucopia of distant TV stations are also now accessible through the most basic aerial or broadband TV or Internet connection.

pages: 83 words: 23,805

City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar

Strength in numbers All of these models — alongside many others such as co-working spaces and shared nannies — at the end of the day are about efficiency, even if they also speak to altruism. Ownership, by definition, implies idleness. Whatever you own that you’re not using right this second may be going to waste. Or worse, you’re wasting scarce money on it. Viewed through that lens, the sharing economy has the potential to address some of the biggest problems of cities. It’s not just a survival strategy for low-wage workers living in a costly metropolis. It’s a strategy for urban planning. “It changes everything,” says Janelle Orsi, executive director of the Sustainable Economies Law Center and a sharing economy lawyer. Bike and car sharing will influence municipal policies for improving transportation flow. Getaround will contribute to reducing carbon emissions (studies suggest that one shared car can take 13 or 14 others off the road). Airbnb will help provide housing flexibility in cities that now have a severe mismatch in supply (of outdated, oversized housing) and demand.

Eight lanes of Interstate 95, elevated like a viaduct, sat beside six lanes of a heavily trafficked boulevard and collectively blocked Philadelphia’s vibrant downtown from the Delaware. More than just an eyesore, the highway served as a physical and mental barrier, preventing most Philadelphians from ever experiencing the river. Straddling nearly 100 acres of prime real estate in downtown Philadelphia that presented an enormous opportunity cost to the city’s tax base, I-95 was a symbol of misbegotten 20th-century urban planning that lingered into the present. When I mentioned what a shame the highway was, Harris told me offhandedly that all 51 miles of I-95 in Pennsylvania were undergoing phased replacement. The last portion of I-95 to be replaced would be the three-mile stretch along Philadelphia’s waterfront. Even though the construction wasn’t slated to begin for another 20 years, the state’s Department of Transportation was already planning the replacement highway.

But it was carefully planned: Community activists recognized the spot as a critical piece of a walking path that could direct thousands of tourists from a renowned museum to the struggling storefronts on the city’s Main Street. Rather than hire a design firm to spend thousands of dollars on site plans, they quickly and cheaply tested one way to liven up downtown. And, as writer Mike Lydon reported on the urban planning website Planetizen, it worked: Owners of a nearby bar quickly saw the potential to draw in new customers, so they planned to organize similar activities in the future. It’s too early to tell, but that one-night sit-down could well prove to be the tipping point in revitalizing an underpass, then a block, and eventually a local economy. This gathering is just one example of a movement happening all over the country: tactical urbanism.

pages: 489 words: 132,734

A History of Future Cities by Daniel Brook

Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, joint-stock company, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pearl River Delta, Potemkin village, profit motive, rent control, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

One of the recruits was a recent university graduate from the Philippines named Jun Palafox. While eager to put his urban planning education to use, Palafox had never heard of the city-state that was recruiting him. Before his job interview, he pulled out a reasonably up-to-date reference book with basic information on every country in the world and saw that its listing for Dubai included the statistic “Kilometers of Paved Road: 0.” What does a city planner do in a city with no paved roads? he wondered. Is it even a city? Perhaps in an effort to find out, Palafox moved to Dubai in the 1970s. The sheikhdom was small enough that Palafox met the sheikh himself, who personally explained the urban planning office’s mandate. “The marching orders,” Palafox recalled, were “bring Dubai from the third world—or fourth world—into the first world in fifteen years.

Derived from the Chinese words li (neighborhoods) and long (lanes), each development was a block, walled off from the main city streets, composed of lines of identical row houses extending along pedestrian alleyways. Lilongs were made of stone, like Western buildings, rather than wood, in the Chinese manner, and used an English row-house structure rather than a Chinese courtyard plan. But their urban planning, with the housing colony built behind walls and closed to through-traffic, was characteristically Chinese, reminiscent of the hutong neighborhoods of Beijing and other historic Chinese cities. By 1860, the British and American Settlements contained 8,740 lilongs compared with just 269 Western-style houses. As the homes and the gardens that once dominated the foreign settlements were razed to build dense lilong compounds, the concessions lost the feel of a gracious colonial town.

But even as craftsmen poured their souls into the buildings and residents kept their traditions alive in the courtyards, the structures’ overcrowding smothered their nods to humanity. Often compared to an army barracks, the chawl was closer to a human beehive, with single men literally packed on top of each other. Five to ten people shared each room with just a small basin for washing clothes and cooking utensils, and often nothing but wooden planks for sleeping. Common toilets were provided at a rate of one per story at best. As a Scottish urban planning professor at Bombay University aptly put it, chawls were not “housing, but warehousing people!” Some fared even worse. For those who could not afford even a bed slat in a chawl, there were the streets. As American writer Mark Twain recorded on his 1896 visit to Bombay, “Everywhere on the ground lay sleeping natives—hundreds and hundreds. They lay stretched at full length and tightly wrapped in blankets, heads and all.

pages: 293 words: 97,431

You Are Here: Why We Can Find Our Way to the Moon, but Get Lost in the Mall by Colin Ellard

A Pattern Language, call centre, car-free, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Frank Gehry, global village, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job satisfaction, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, New Urbanism, peak oil, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban sprawl

Nico Oved’s description of his photographic exposition of housing in les banlieues is described at his website, www.nicooved.com. 2. Although Le Corbusier’s urban planning principles caused much damage both overseas and at home (largely because of his failure to understand the psychology of space), he is still widely respected as an artist and architect. A sympathetic and interesting book is W. Boesiger and H. Girsberger’s Le Corbusier 1910-65 (Birkhäuser: Basel, 1999), which contains photographs of his works along with captions in three languages explaining his intentions. 3. Jane Jacobs condemns Le Corbusier’s mathematics, and some other aspects of his urban-planning principles, in the introductory chapter of her opus The Death and Life of Great American Cities, revised edition (Vintage: New York, 1992). 4.

But it isn’t just the construction of our minds that has enabled us to slip off the mantle of the geometry of space. Our soaring ability to harness energy and technology has allowed us to construct our physical environment in almost any way we please. Hand in glove with our spatial mind, we have used our abilities as toolmakers to design environments that support and extend our mental penchant to transcend physical space. Everything from architectural design through urban planning to modern light-speed communication technologies has been designed to reflect, support, and extend our mastery of physical space. PART II MAKING YOUR WAY IN THE WORLD TODAY HOW OUR MIND SHAPES THE PLACES WHERE WE WORK, LIVE, AND PLAY CHAPTER 7 HOUSE SPACE HOW OUR MENTAL MAPS INFLUENCE OUR BEHAVIOR INSIDE OUR HOMES When the peaks of our sky come together, my house will have a roof.

The Space Syntax Laboratory, a part of the Bartlett School of Planning at University College, London, has had marked success in predicting how people move through spaces on the basis of the graphical tools I have been describing.3 Because most of the work of this group is concerned with the influence of spatial configuration in larger urban settings, we will deal with it more extensively in the next chapter, on city space, but many of the principles used to steer urban planning apply equally well to interior spaces. For example, an analysis of intervisibility and shortest path length values for the Tate Gallery in London has been used successfully to predict where visitors will congregate in the gallery. The Space Syntax Laboratory has used these kinds of analyses to advise the gallery on the effective placement of exhibits to encourage the flow of people and avoid pedestrian gridlock.

pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

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active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

In the remainder of this book I will attempt to demonstrate that mobility is a chaotic concept already in a state of collapse as a result of internal contradictions. The elevation of mobility to a central position in political, economic, architectural and planning discourse represents a significant error in those areas and social science discourse in general. The time is now right to correct that error. Mobility as a goal or a central organising principle is irrelevant and should be deleted from the transport and urban planning lexicon. Other things matter much more including time budgets, fiscal prudence, equality, accessibility, and health and all these dimensions of everyday life can be enriched within a low mobility framework and will remain unobtainable if we continue to pursue high mobility goals. 1. How mobile are we and how did we get here? The mobility growth paradigm Mobility is most commonly measured, if at all, as total distance travelled per annum per capita in kilometres and/or total distance travelled per day per capita.

The document is an undiluted manifesto accepting and promoting the growth of mobility and advocating the importance of this growth for the success of wider economic policy objectives, asserting the unquestioned importance of endless economic growth and ignoring the voluminous literature on the impossibility of endless economic growth and of ecological and resource limits to growth (Douthwaite, 1992, Schneidewind, 2014). The European Commission document contains no recognition whatsoever of the well-developed sustainable transport discourse with its emphasis on traffic reduction, demand management, urban planning in favour of the “city of short distances” and modal shift from the car to walking, cycling and public transport or from the aircraft to electronic substitution e.g. videoconferencing. Similarly it airbrushes out of the picture the need to de-carbonise transport and link something called “mobility for growth” to the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. There is no suggestion that spatial planning has a role to play.

The language and rhetoric of road safety plays a significant part in promoting motorised mobility. It downplays the progressive withdrawal of people from public space and it airbrushes out of the picture the social class discrimination that produces disproportionately larger numbers of deaths amongst the poor and disadvantaged. It is an important agent of legitimation and collaboration with a policing, judicial and urban planning system that blames victims and shapes the built environment in favour of the car and to the detriment of the pedestrian, cyclist and public transport user. The Swedish Vision Zero policy is not without faults but it sets out a clear ambition that is so much better than the lack of a clear vision. Reducing deaths and serious injuries to zero is possible and leads inexorably to a fundamental re-engineering of the mobility paradigm.

pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Despite the fact that the poor would benefit enormously from more open streets, I suspect the city would lack the political will to fine drivers who violate the rules. Mumbai’s traffic problems reflect not just poor transportation policy, but a deeper and more fundamental failure of urban planning. In 1964, Mumbai fixed a maximum floor area ratio of 1.33 in most of the city. In those years, India was enthusiastic about all sorts of regulation, and limiting building heights seemed to offer a way to limit urban growth that was in keeping with fashionable ideas of English urban planning. But Mumbai’s height restrictions meant that, in one of the most densely populated places on earth, buildings could have an average height of only one-and-a-third stories. People still came; Mumbai’s economic energy drew them even when living conditions were awful.

Bangalore is simply the latest venue for that age-old dance. In the sixth century B.C., Athens was hardly the intellectual center of the world. The most exciting Greek thinkers lived on the edges of the Greek diaspora in Asia Minor, where they learned from the older civilizations of the Near East. Miletus, a wool-making port in western Turkey, produced the first philosopher, Thales, and the father of European urban planning, Hippodamus, whose gridlike plans provided a model for the Romans and countless cities since then. Athens grew by trading wine, olive oil, spices, and papyrus. The city cemented its power by leading the Greek resistance to the Persian invasions that had already ravaged places like Miletus. Just as rich, ebullient post-World War II New York attracted writers and painters from battle-scarred Europe, fifth-century-B.C.

She married an architect, Robert Jacobs, and chose to raise a family on Hudson Street in the West Village. Her remarkable intellect, which still sparkled well into her eighties, and her New York City experiences led her to many profound and prescient insights. In the 1950s, she saw clearly the folly of those efforts of urban renewal, which replaced well-functioning neighborhoods with immense towers that were isolated from the streets that surrounded them. She opposed the accepted wisdom of urban planning, with its penchant for single-use neighborhoods; she advocated diversity. In the 1960s, she grasped the role that cities play in spreading knowledge and ideas and creating economic growth. In the 1970s, she understood that cities were actually better for the environment than leafy suburbs. Her insights came from her enormous gifts as an observer living and working in New York. Her knowledge came from walking around with her eyes open, which is still the best way to learn how a city works.

The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler

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A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

Ch apter Seven TH E EVI L E M P I R E A merkan, have been living orr-rentered liv,," for ", long that the collective memory of what used to make a landscape or a townscape or even a suburb humanly rewarding has nearly been erased. The culture of good place-making, like the culture of farming, or agriculture, is a body of knowledge and acquired skills. It is not bred in the bone, and if it is not transmitted from one generation to the next, it is lost. Does the modern profession called urban planning have anything to do with making good places anymore ? Planners no longer employ the vocabulary of civic art, nor do they find the opportunity to practice it-the term civic art itself has nearly vanished in common usage. In some universities, urban-planning departments have been booted out of the architecture schools and into the schools of public administration. Not surprisingly, planners are now chiefly preoccupied with adminis­ trative procedure: issuing permits, filling out forms, and shuffling pa­ pers-in short, bureaucracy.

Despite Sullivan, the idea of civic art really did catch on briefly in America at the turn of the twentieth century. A remarkable series of expositions followed the Chicago fair-the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo in 1901 (where President McKinley was shot), the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis in 1904, the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition at Seattle in 1910, and the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco in 1915, among others. They served as demonstration projects for a manner of heroic urban planning that would evolve into the City Beautiful movement in America, a concerted effort to bring focus and unity where chaos, visual squalor, or monotony had reigned, and to do it on a scale not seen since the Baroque period. The City Beautiful movement might be viewed as just another architectural fad. And given its rather short life span of two decades, it probably was, though it left us with some of our most beautiful and enduring public monuments. lVorld Wall. effectively swept it away.

And so my argument throughout this book has been that the city in some form, and at some scale, is necessary. In this chapter I have selected three cities that are strikingly different from one another, and yet all, I believe, represent a type. I have picked Detroit because it is the worst case of an old industrial metropolis gone to hell. Portland, Oregon, in contrast, embodies the most hopeful and progressive trends in American city life and especially in urban plan­ ning. Los Angeles, the quintessential city of the twentieth century, wholeheartedly dedicated to cars, is the most problematic place to in­ terpret. The form it has assumed may not allow it to function in the century to come, and so this most modern of places has, paradoxically, the most dubious future. T H E G E O G R A P H Y O F N O W H E R E Detroit ... The city that spawned the auto age is the place where everything that could go wrong with a city, did go wrong, in large part because of the car.

pages: 261 words: 57,595

China's Future by David Shambaugh

Berlin Wall, capital controls, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, facts on the ground, financial intermediation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, high net worth, knowledge economy, labour mobility, low skilled workers, market bubble, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, Pearl River Delta, rent-seeking, secular stagnation, short selling, South China Sea, special drawing rights, too big to fail, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional

Urbanization Another significant future challenge for China is increasing urbanization (), which is a very high priority of the government and particularly of Premier Li Keqiang during his tenure in office (which ends in 2022). In March 2014 Li unveiled the “National New-Type Urbanization Plan,” the nation’s first-ever official urbanization blueprint.29 Probably no government in history has devised such a comprehensive orchestrated urbanization scheme on such a grand scale—involving issues of land and buildings, public and private transportation, communications, public services, finances, ecology, food, labor, governance, and other facets of urban planning.30 China spends up to $400 billion a year on buildings, putting up 28 billion square feet of new residential property annually. It is forecast to account for 40 percent of global construction in the next ten years.31 The government’s goal is to have 60 percent of the population living in urban areas by 2020—requiring the relocation of 260 million rural inhabitants, creating 110 million new jobs, permanently absorbing 150 million migrants already living in metropolitan areas and providing them with legitimate rights for dwelling, education, healthcare, and other basic social services.

See Edward Wong, “Chinese Leaders Approve Sweeping National Security Law, Bolstering Communist Rule,” New York Times, July 1, 2015; Chun Han Wong, “China Imposes Sweeping National Security Law,” Wall Street Journal, July 2, 2015; N.A., “National Security: Everything Xi Wants,” The Economist, July 4, 2015. 29. See Jon R. Taylor, “The China Dream Is an Urban Dream: Assessing the CPC’s National New-Type Urbanization Plan,” Journal of Chinese Political Science 20 (2015), pp. 107–20. The Plan was jointly issued by the CCP Central Committee and State Council. 30. The Chinese government has had the benefit of working closely with The World Bank, Asian Development Bank, and other international organizations in preparing its urbanization plan. See, for example, The World Bank and Development Research Center of the State Council, Urban China: Toward Efficient, Inclusive, and Sustainable Urbanization (Washington, DC: The World Bank Group, 2014). 31. Jonathan Fenby, Tiger Head, Snake Tails: China Today, How It Got There and Where It Is Heading (New York: The Overlook Press, 2012), p. 50. 32.

Another growing concern is the relative decline in foreign inbound investment, which is related to the increased costs and difficulties of operation for foreign multinationals in China. What other time bombs lurk waiting to burst in China’s opaque economy? Socially, there are multiple variables to monitor. The facilitation or repression of civil society (by the government) is one. The government’s urbanization plans are another, as the scheme will involve the largest population movement in human history. Rising unrest in Tibet, Xinjiang, and across China is a major challenge. Reform or abolition of the household registration (hukou) system is critical to managing China’s massive internal migration problem. Meeting the ever-expanding aspirations of China’s burgeoning middle class will also be a central challenge, as the nation’s currently estimated 300 million citizens in this category will at least double and possibly triple by .

pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher

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Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar

In 2002 a report: Reid Ewing, Rolf Pendall, and Don Chen, Measuring Sprawl and Its Impact, Smart Growth America, 2002. “There is no ‘there’ there”: Gold and Ritsch, “Swallowed by Urban Sprawl.” The historian Lewis Mumford: Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier, pp. 237, 244; Lewis Mumford, The Culture of Cities (Mariner Books, 1970). Her influential 1961 book: Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Random House, 1961). The definitive critique of twentieth-century urban planning. It’s hard to overstate Jacobs’s role in urban planning, and her own artful explanation of the “sidewalk ballet” is worth citing in full here. She wrote that under the seeming disorder of cities, there was a “marvelous order for maintaining the safety of the streets and the freedom of the city.” This order, she wrote, is “composed of movement and change, and although it is life, not art, we may fancifully call it the art form of the city and liken it to the dance—not to a simple-minded precision dance with everyone kicking up at the same time, twirling in unison and bowing off en masse, but to an intricate ballet in which the individual dancers and ensembles all have distinctive parts which miraculously reinforce each other and compose an orderly whole.

Department of Agriculture financed at below-market rates over a forty-year time period. Marohn was hailed a hero. “Everybody was super thrilled with me because I got this project approved out of nowhere,” he says. And since the project would connect more homes, it would allow the town to promote the fact that it was creating capacity for the city to grow. But over the next several years, as Marohn went back to Remer to do additional work—he had by then gotten a degree in urban planning—and saw that the town was in the process of doing a similar project with their water system, he realized he had created an unsustainable financial situation. Thanks to the leaky pipe he fixed, the town now had to bear the maintenance costs of a system that was double the size of the one it had before. “I bought them time,” he says, “but I gave them a giant unfunded liability.” Marohn started questioning the rationale of this kind of system.

“There is a connection . . . between the fact that the urban sprawl we live with daily makes no room for sidewalks or bike paths and the fact that we are an overweight, heart disease-ridden society,” wrote the report’s author, Richard Jackson, MD, a pediatrician, chair of Environmental and Health Sciences at UCLA, and former director of the CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health. Jackson has been tracking the impact of environment on health for his entire career, in recent years focusing specifically on the influence of urban planning, including sprawl, on our overall well-being. Jackson has become a fierce advocate for the design of what he calls “healthier” communities—those that have safer places to walk, designated bike lanes, green spaces, better air quality, and the like—elements that draw people out into the environment and get them walking and exercising naturally. “We have built America,” he says, “in a way that is fundamentally unhealthy.”

pages: 313 words: 92,907

Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen

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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game

See also automobiles anti-jaywalking rules commute time congestion, environmental benefit of congestion pricing engineering for High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) programs idling cars induced traffic parking ramp metering real-time traffic signals traffic-calming devices trucks Traffic (Vanderbilt) transit. See public transit trees absorption of atmospheric carbon in dense urban areas reforestation Trillin, Calvin Udall, Randy United States oil consumption oil reserves and production population increase urban planning failures withdrawal from Kyoto Protocol urban areas. See also New York City; specific cities; specific issues drawbacks and vulnerabilities as ecological disasters heat-island effect outdoor activity planning failures quality-of-life concerns as role models self-sufficiency of aging residents urban planning for economic efficiency failures recreational areas Washington.C. zoning regulations urbanization trend Urbina, Ian U.S. Bureau of Mines U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Environmental Protection Agency U.S. Green Building Council .

Many more acres of upstate pastoral paradise were destroyed by the steady spread of towns like hers than by the creation of the water supply system that makes it possible for New York City to exist. Building the city didn’t fill the Hudson Valley with parking lots; fleeing the city did. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF POPULATION DENSITY WAS ELUCIDATED brilliantly in 1961 in a landmark book called The Death and Life of Great American Cities, by Jane Jacobs.35 Jacobs upended many widely held ideas about how cities ought to be put together, and she has been celebrated ever since as an urban-planning iconoclast and visionary, but she could be viewed just as easily as a pioneering environmentalist. Indeed, Jacobs’s book may be most valuable today as a guide to reducing the ecological damage caused by human beings, even though it scarcely mentions the environment, other than by making a couple of passing references to smog. The central idea of Jacobs’s book is that density and diversity are the engines that make human communities work.

Spread people too thinly and sort them too finely, and they cease to interact; move them and their daily activities closer together, and the benefits cascade: their neighborhoods grow safer, they become more attuned to one another’s needs, they have more restaurants and movie theaters and museums to choose from, and their lives, generally, become more varied and engaging. Jacobs’s focus was on the vibrancy of city life, but the same urban qualities that she identified as enhancing human interaction also dramatically reduce energy consumption and waste. Placing people and their daily activities close together doesn’t just make the people more interesting; it also makes them greener. Unfortunately, her catalogue of the failures of modern urban planning also still applies, almost fifty years later, with little modification, all across America: “Low-income projects that become worse centers of delinquency, vandalism and general social hopelessness than the slums they were supposed to replace. Middle-income housing projects which are truly marvels of dullness and regimentation, sealed against any buoyancy or vitality of city life. Luxury housing projects that mitigate their inanity, or try to, with a vapid vulgarity.

pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis

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barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, jitney, jobless men, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, liberation theology, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

After a final defiance — the bulldozing of Colonia Santa Ursula in Ajusco in 29 Young and Turner, The Rise and Decline of the Zairian State, p. 98; Deborah Posel, "Curbing African Urbanization in the 1950s and 1960s," in Mark Swilling, Richard Humphries, and Khehla Shubane (eds), Apartheid City in Transition, Cape Town 1991, pp. 29-30. 30 Carole Rakodi, "Global Forces, Urban Change, and Urban Management in Africa," in Rakodi, The Urban Challenge in Africa, pp. 32-39. 31 Urban Planning Studio, Columbia University, Disaster-Resistant Caracas, New York 2001, p. 25. September 1966 - he was deposed by President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, a politician notorious f or his many ties to foreign capital and land speculators. A fast-growth agenda that included tolerance for pirate urbanization on the periphery in return for urban renewal in the center became the PRI policy in La Capital.32 A generation after the removal of barriers to influx and informal urbanization elsewhere, China began to relax its controls on urban growth in the early 1980s.

"Indeed some residents are required to climb up the equivalent of 25 stories to reach their rancho houses and the average barrio dweller needs almost 30 minutes on foot to reach public transportation."84 In Bogota the southward expansion of the zone of poverty has preserved high density despite increasing household size toward the periphery.85 Lagos's greatest slum, Ajegunle, exemplifies the worst of worlds: overcrowding coupled with extreme peripherality. In 1972, Ajegunle contained 90,000 people on 8 square kilometers of swampy land; today 1.5 million people reside on an only slightly larger surface area, and 81 Sharma, Rediscovering Dbaravi, pp. xx, xxvii, 18. 82 James Drummond, "Providing Collateral for a Better Future," Financial Times, 18 October 2001. 83 Suzana Taschner, "Squatter Settlements and Slums in Brazil," pp. 196, 219. 84 Urban Planning Studio, Disaster Resistant Caracas, p. 27. 85 Mohan, Understandingthe DevelopingMetropolis, p. 55. they spend a hellish average of three hours each day commuting to their workplaces.86 Likewise in supercrowded Kibera in Nairobi, where more than 800,000 people struggle for dignity amidst mud and sewage, slum-dwellers are caught in the vise of soaring rents (for chicken-cooplike shacks) and rising transport costs.

neighborhoods for fantasy-themed walled subdivisions on the periphery. Certainly the old gold coasts remain — like Zamalek in Cairo, Riviera in Abidjan, Victoria Island in Lagos, and so on — but the novel global trend since the early 1990s has been the explosive growth of exclusive, closed suburbs on the peripheries of Third World cities. Even (or especially) in China, the gated community has been called the "most significant development in recent urban planning and design.'"58 These "off worlds" — to use the terminology of Blade Runner — are often imagineered as replica Southern Californias. Thus, "Beverly Hills" does not exist only in the 90210 zip code; it is also, with Utopia and Dreamland, a suburb of Cairo, an affluent private city "whose inhabitants can keep their distance from the sight and severity of poverty and the violence and political Islam which is seemingly permeating the localities.'"59 Likewise, "Orange County" is a gated estate of sprawling million-dollar California-style homes, designed by a Newport Beach architect and with Martha Stewart decor, on the northern outskirts of Beijing.

pages: 578 words: 168,350

Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West

Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor

But some of it must have unsuspectingly remained buried deep in my unconscious waiting to emerge forty years later when I began to speculate that networks form the fundamental scaffolding for understanding how our bodies, our cities, and our companies work. 4. INTERMEDIATE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION My aim in this brief and somewhat personal digression is not to give a comprehensive critique or balanced overview of urban planning and design but rather to highlight some of its specific characteristics relevant for setting the scene and providing a natural segue into the possibility of developing a science of cities. I am not an expert, nor do I have credentials in urban planning, design, or architecture, so my observations are necessarily incomplete. One important insight that resulted from these observations was that most urban development and renewal—and in particular almost all newly created planned cities such as Washington, D.C., Canberra, Brasilia, and Islamabad—has not been very successful.

An example of this is the number of patents produced in a city shown in Figure 3. Thus, on a per capita basis, all of these quantities systematically increase to the same degree as city size increases and, at the same time, there are equivalent savings from economies of scale in all infrastructural quantities. Despite their amazing diversity and complexity across the globe, and despite localized urban planning, cities manifest a surprising coarse-grained simplicity, regularity, and predictability.15 To put it in simple terms, scaling implies that if a city is twice the size of another city in the same country (whether 40,000 vs. 20,000 or 4 million vs. 2 million), then its wages, wealth, number of patents, AIDS cases, violent crime, and educational institutions all increase by approximately the same degree (by about 15 percent above mere doubling), with similar savings in all of its infrastructure.

Many of us blithely use phrases like the “metabolism of a city,” the “ecology of the marketplace,” the “DNA of a company,” and so on, as if cities and companies were biological. Even as far back as Aristotle we find him continually referring to the city (the polis) as a “natural” organic autonomous entity. In more recent times an influential movement in architecture has arisen called Metabolism, which was explicitly inspired by analogy with the idea of biological regeneration driven by metabolic processes. This views architecture as an integral component of urban planning and development and as a continually evolving process, implying that buildings should be designed ab initio with change in mind. One of its original proponents was the well-known Japanese architect Kenzo Tange, the 1987 winner of the Pritzker Prize, considered to be the Nobel Prize of architecture. I find his designs, however, to be surprisingly inorganic, dominated by right angles and concrete and somewhat soulless, rather than having the curvaceous, softer qualities of an organism.

pages: 239 words: 56,531

The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

She went to jail twice for defending her neighborhood, and was able to work with a large group of people who questioned why cars and commuters were more important than parks, communities, and pedestrians. The woman decided to write down the record of her experiences and thoughts about cities and urban planning, and the field of urban planning was changed forever. She was Jane Jacobs, the year was 1961, and her book was The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Jacobs was our preeminent urban anthropologist—a person who could look at a city block, and through building up the details, show exactly how it worked. An associate editor of Architectural Forum in the 1950s, she became more and more concerned with the deadening effects of urban planning on cities. She went over the whole sad history of those influential thinkers who saw 84 WEB n.0 cities as horrid, dirty, overcrowded places filled with the dregs of humanity who needed planners to come in and rationalize, de-densify, and order their spaces for them.

., 39 Simulation, xvi, 2, 11 affordances and, 16–17 bespoke futures and, 98, 121, 124, 126–127 buttons/knobs and, 16 communication devices and, 15–16 culture machine and, 143–144, 147– 152, 156–160, 166–168, 175–178 downloading and, 143, 168 emulation and, 183n3 213 INDEX Social issues (continued) figure/ground and, xvi, 42–43, 46, 102 folksonomies and, 80–81 hackers and, 22–23, 54, 67, 69, 162, 170–173 Holocaust and, 107 Hosts and, xv, 144, 167, 175 hypercontexts and, xvi, 7, 48, 76–77 information overload and, 22, 149 MaSAI and, xvi, 112, 120–123, 127, 193nn32 meaningfulness and, xvi, 14, 17, 20, 23–29, 42, 67, 77, 79, 119, 123, 128–129, 133, 173 narrative and, xv, 2, 7–8, 58–59, 67, 71, 76, 108, 110, 130–132, 143– 145, 174, 178, 180n4, 188n25, 193n34 personal grounding and, xiv–xv play and, xvi, 13, 15, 32–34, 39, 53, 55, 62, 64, 67–77, 85, 88, 110–111, 130–131, 143, 153, 160–163, 185n22, 188n25 Plutocrats and, xv, 144, 152–159, 163–166, 170 plutopian meliorism and, xvi, 127–129, 133, 137–138 power and, xvi, 8, 13, 17, 22 (see also Power) relationship with data and, 32 religion and, xi, 1, 13, 76, 130–135, 138 R-PR (Really Public Relations) and, xvi, 123–127 Searchers and, xv–xvi, 144, 167, 174–178 suburbs and, 3, 8 television and, xii (see also Television) terrorism and, 99–101, 130–131, 134, 137 unfinish and, xvi, 34–37, 51, 67, 70, 76–79, 92, 127–129, 136 urban planning and, 84–86 utopia and, 36, 73, 97, 101, 104, 108, 110, 120, 127–129, 138 wants vs. needs and, 13, 37, 57 wicked problems and, 158 World War I era and, 21, 107, 123, 146, 190n1 World War II era and, xi, 18, 25, 32, 47, 73, 107–108, 144–150, 157, 170 Socialists, 102–105 Software platforms, 15, 164, 170 Sontag, Susan, 135 Sopranos, The (TV show), 7 Soundscapes, 53–55 Soviet Union, 31, 85, 88, 146 Berlin Wall and, 85, 97, 99, 104 Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi Exhibition of the Achievement of the Soviet People’s Economy (VDNX) and, 102–105 fall of, 104 gulags of, 107 samizdat and, 59 unimodernism and, 49–52, 73 Space Invaders, 71 Spacewar!

, 71 Spielraum (play space), 75 Spin, 124 Stallman, Richard, 170–171 Stanford, 144, 149, 158–159, 162, 175 Stardust@home, 122–123 Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC), 193n33 Sterling, Bruce, 101–102 Stewart, Jimmy, 44 Stickiness defining, 28, 184n15 downloading and, 13–17, 20–23, 27–29, 184n15 duration and, 28 fan culture and, 28–32, 48, 49, 87 gaming and, 70–74 214 INDEX Systems theory, 151 Stickiness (continued) information and, 22–23, 32–35 markets and, 13, 16, 24, 30–33, 37 modernism and, 36 networks and, 16–17, 22, 24, 29–36 obsessiveness and, 28 play and, 32–34, 70–74 power and, 32–34 simulation and, 15–19, 27, 32, 35 Teflon objects and, 28–32, 49, 87 toggling and, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 tweaking and, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 unfinish and, 34–37, 76–77 unimodernism and, 70–74 uploading and, 13–17, 20, 23–24, 27–29 Web n.0 and, 79, 87 Stock options, 98 Stone, Linda, 34 Storage, 47, 60, 153, 196n17 Strachey, Christopher, 18–19 Strachey, Lytton, 19 Strange attractors, xvi, 117–120, 192n27 Sturges, Preston, 88 Stutzman, Fred, 22 Stewart, Martha, 49 Suburbs, 3, 8 Suicide bombers, 100–101 Sullivan’s Travels (Sturges), 88 Sun Microsystems, 172, 176 Superflat art, xi, 49 Supersizing, 3–4 Suprematism, 117 Surfing, 20, 80, 180n2 Surrealism, 31 Sutherland, Ivan, 160–161 Swiss Army Knife theory, 17 Symbiosis, 151–152 Synthetism, 117 Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics (Jacobs), 85–86 Take-home consumption, 3 Tarantino, Quentin, 49 Taxonomies, 80–83 Technology analog, 18, 53, 150 anticipated, 108–110 bespoke futures and, 98–104, 107–113, 116, 119, 125–127, 131– 133, 136–139 broadband, 9, 57 cell phones, xiii, xvii, 17, 23, 42, 53, 56, 76, 101 commercial networks and, 4–5 compact discs (CDs), 2, 48, 53 computer mouse, 158–159 culture machine and, 143–163, 173–174 cyberpunk maxim on, 87 determinism and, 131–132 difference engine, 149 digital video discs (DVDs), 2, 7–8, 15, 58 dot-com bubble and, 79, 174 Dynabook, 161–162, 196n17 Ethernet, 161 Exhibition of the Achievement of the Soviet People’s Economy (VDNX) and, 102–105 film cameras, 15 Gutenberg press, 11, 137–138 hierarchical structures and, 123, 155, 175–176, 189n8 historical perspective on computer, 143–178 hypertext and, 158 information overload and, 22, 149 Jacquard loom, 11 mechanical calculator, 149 Metcalfe’s corollary and, 86–87 microfilm, 149–150 215 INDEX Technology (continued) Moore’s law and, 156, 195n13 New Economy and, 97, 99, 104, 131, 138, 144–145, 190n3 personal digital assistants (PDAs), 17 Photoshop, 131 progress and, 132 RFID, 65 secular culture and, 133–139 storage, 47, 60, 153, 196n17 technofabulism and, 99–100 teleconferencing, 158–159 3–D tracking, 39 tweaking and, 32–35, 185nn22,23 videocassette recorders (VCRs), 15, 23 wants vs. needs and, 4 woven books, 10–11 Teflon objects, 28–32, 49, 87 Teleconferencing, 158–159 Television as defining Western culture, 2 aversion to, xii bespoke futures and, 101, 108, 124, 127–129, 133–137 delivery methods for, 2 dominance of, xii, 2–10 downloading and, 2 as drug, xii, 7–9 general audiences and, 8–9 habits of mind and, 9–10 Internet, 9 junk culture and, 5–10 Kennedy and, xi macro, 56–60 marketing fear and, xvii overusage of, 7–9 as pedagogical boon, 14 quality shows and, 7 rejuveniles and, 67 Slow Food and, 6–7 spin-offs and, 48 as time filler, 67 U.S. ownership data on, 180n2 Telnet, 169 “Ten Tips for Successful Scenarios” (Schwartz and Ogilvy), 113 Terrorism, 99–101, 130–131, 134, 137 Textiles, 11 Text-messaging, 82 3COM, 86 3–D tracking, 39 Tiananmen Square, 104 Timecode (Figgis), 58 Time magazine, xii, 145 Time Warner, 63, 91 Tin Pan Alley, 28, 63 Tintin, 90 Toggling, xvi, 33–34, 43, 102, 197n30 Tools for Thought (Rheingold), 145 Torvalds, Linus, 144, 167–173 Tracy, Dick, 108 Traitorous Eight, 156 Trilling, Lionel, 79 Turing, Alan, 17–20, 52, 148 Turing Award, 17, 156 Tweaking, xvi, 32–35, 185nn22,23 20,000 Leagues beneath the Sea (Verne), 108 Twins paradox, 49–50 Twitter, 34, 180n2 2001 (film), 107 Ubiquity, xiii bespoke futures and, 125, 128 culture machine and, 144, 166, 177–178 folksonomies and, 80–81 Freedom software and, 22–23 hotspots and, xiv information overload and, 22, 149 isotypes and, 125 stickiness and, 22–23 unimodernism and, 39, 53, 57–59, 62, 74 216 INDEX simulation and, 39, 49, 53–54, 57, 71–76 soundscape and, 53–55 stickiness and, 70–74 twins paradox and, 49–50 unconscious and, 43–44 unfinish and, 51, 67, 70, 76–78 unimedia and, 39–40 uploading and, 42, 49, 53, 57, 67, 77 WYMIWYM (What You Model Is What You Manufacture) and, 64–67 WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) and, 55–56, 64–65 United States Cuban Missile Crisis and, xi September 11, 2001 and, 99–101, 130 television’s dominance and, 2, 180n2 Universal Resource Locator (URL), 168–169 Universal Turing Machine, 18–19 University of Pennsylvania, 148 University of Utah, 160 UNIX, 170–171 “Untitled (After Walker Evans)” (Levine), 41 Uploading, xiii–xiv, 180nn1,2 activity levels and, 5 animal kingdom and, 1 bespoke futures and, 97, 120–123, 128–129, 132 commercial networks and, 4–5 communication devices and, 15–16 conversation and, 13 cultural hierarchy of, 1–2 culture machine and, 143, 168, 173, 175 disproportionate amount of to downloading, 13 humans and, 1–2 information and, 1, 4, 11 meaningfulness and, xvi, 29 stickiness and, 13–17, 20, 23–24, 27–29 Ubiquity (continued) Web n.0 and, 79–95 Ublopia, 101 Ulysses (Joyce), 94–95 Uncertainty principle, 37 Unfinish, xvi bespoke futures and, 127–129, 136 continuous partical attention and, 34 perpetual beta and, 36 stickiness and, 34–37, 76–77 unimodernism and, 51, 67, 70, 76–78 Web n.0 and, 79, 92 Unimedia, 39–40 Unimodernism Burroughs and, 40–42 common sense and, 44–45 DIY movements and, 67–70 downloading and, 41–42, 49, 54–57, 66–67, 76–77 figure/ground and, 42–43, 46 gaming and, 70–74 hypertextuality and, 51–53 images and, 55–56 information and, 45–49, 55, 60, 65–66, 74 Krikalev and, 50–51 macrotelevision and, 56–60 markets and, 45, 48, 58–59, 71, 75 mashing and, 25, 54–55, 57, 74 mechanization and, 44–45 microcinema and, 56–60 modders and, 69–70 Moulin Rouge and, 60–63 narrative and, 58–59, 67, 71, 76 networks and, 39, 47–48, 54–57, 60, 64–65, 68–69, 73–74 participation and, 54, 66–67, 74–77 perception pops and, 43–49 play and, 67–77 postmodernism and, 39–41, 74 remixing and, 39, 53–54, 62–63, 70 running room and, 74–77 217 INDEX Uploading (continued) unimodernism and, 42, 49, 53, 57, 67, 77 Web n.0 and, 79–83, 86–87, 91 Urban planning, 84–86 U.S. Congress, 90 U.S. Department of Defense, 152 Utopia bespoke futures and, 97, 101, 104, 108, 110, 120, 127–129, 138 stickiness and, 36 unimodernism and, 73 Valéry, Paul, 136 Velvet Revolution, 104 Verne, Jules, 108 Vertigo (film), 44 Vertov, Dziga, 31, 44 Victorian aesthetics, 14, 19, 44, 46 Videocassette recorders (VCRs), 15, 23 Video games, 188n25 arcades and, 15, 71 first, 71 stickiness and, 15, 23, 33–34, 70–74 unimodernism and, 57, 67, 70–74 Wii system and, 72 Vinyl records, 2 Viral distribution, 30, 56, 169 Vodaphone, 116 Von Neumann, John, 148 Wachowski Brothers, 39 Wack, Pierre, 112 Walt Disney Company, 65, 88–89 “Want It!”

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Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

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airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence

Smith eventually resigned in June 2009. 2 Mark Mills and Peter Huber, ‘How Technology Will Defeat Terrorism,’ City Journal, Winter 2002. 3 Mills and Huber, ‘How Technology Will Defeat Terrorism’. 4 See Tim Blackmore, War X: Human Extensions in Battlespace, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005. 5 See www.northcom.mil/. 6 Lorenzo Veracini, ‘Colonialism Brought Home: On the Colonization of the Metropolitan Space,’ Borderlands, 4:1, 2005, available at www.borderlands.net.au. 7 See Derek Gregory, The Colonial Present, Oxford: Blackwell, 2004; David Harvey, The New Imperialism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. 8 Michel Foucault, Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975–6, London: Allen Lane, 2003, 103. On the panopticon, see Tim Mitchell, ‘The stage of modernity’, in Tim Mitchell (ed), Questions of Modernity, Minneapolis; University of Minnesota Press, 2000, 1–34. On Hausmannian planning, see Eyal Weizman, interview with Phil Misselwitz, ‘Military Operations as Urban Planning’, Mute Magazine, August 2003 at www.metamute.org. And, on fingerprinting, see Chan dak Sengoopta, Imprint of the Raj: How Fingerprinting Was Born in Colonial India, London: Pan Books, 2003. 9 Foucault, Society Must Be Defended, ibid. 10 See Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Simon and Schuster: New York, 1998. 11 See Sally Howell and Andrew Shryock, ‘Cracking Down on Diaspora: Arab Detroit and America’s “War on Terror’’ ’, Anthropological Quarterly 76, 443–62. 12 Stefan Kipfer and with Kanishka Goonewardena, ‘Colonization and the New Imperialism: On the Meaning of Urbicide Today’, Theory and Event 10: 2, 2007, 1–39. 13 Kristin Ross, Fast Cars, Clean Bodies: Decolonization and the Reordering of French Culture, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. 12. 14 Mustafa Dikeç, Badlands of the Republic: Space, Politics and Urban Policy, Oxford: Blackwell, 2007.

If historical siege warfare ended when the envelope of the city was broken and entered, urban warfare started at the point of entering the city.44 Such colonial urban wars and boomerang effects provide contemporary reminders about the perils of attempting to placate guerilla resistance in occupied cities through superior military power, acts of brutal, urbicidal violence, or aggressive physical restructuring. Spatial experiments in the laboratory of the colonial city have often set the stage for the replanning of the colonial metropole. In the 1840s, for instance, after Marshall Thomas Robert Bugeaud45 succeeded in quelling the insurrection in Algiers through the combination of atrocities and the destruction of entire neighbourhoods to make way for modern roads, his techniques of ‘urban planning skipped over the Mediterranean, from the Algerian countryside, where they were experimented with, to the streets and alleyways of Paris.’46 To undermine the revolutionary ferment of the poor of Paris, Bugeaud devised a plan for the violent reorganization of the city through the construction of wide military highways – a plan later implemented by his avid reader Baron Haussmann.47 By the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, industrial cities in the global North had grown in synchrony with the killing power of technology.

Right up to the start of the twenty-first century, the capture of strategic and politically important cities has remained ‘the ultimate symbol of conquest and national survival’.52 Moreover, ever since the demise of obvious systems of urban fortifications, the design, planning and organization of cities has been shaped by strategic and geopolitical concerns – a topic neglected in mainstream urban studies.53 In addition to providing the famous ‘machine for living’ and bringing light and air to the urban masses, modernist planners and architects envisaged the situating of housing towers within parks as a means of reducing the vulnerability of cities to aerial bombing. Such towers were also designed to raise urbanites above the killer gas then expected to lie within the bombs.54 Along with the ‘white flight’ to the suburbs, early Cold War urban planning in the US sought to see US cities ‘through the bombardier’s eye’,55 and actively tried to stimulate decentralization and sprawl as means of reducing the nation’s vulnerability to a pre-emptive Soviet nuclear attack.56 And it is often forgotten that the massive US interstate highway system was initially labelled a ‘defense highway’ system and was partly designed to sustain military mobilization and evacuation in the event of global nuclear war.

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Emergence by Steven Johnson

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

For five hundred years, Manchester had technically been considered a “manor,” which meant, in the eyes of the law, it was run like a feudal estate, with no local government to speak of—no city planners, police, or public health authorities. Manchester didn’t even send representatives to Parliament until 1832, and it wasn’t incorporated for another six years. By the early 1840s, the newly formed borough council finally began to institute public health reforms and urban planning, but the British government didn’t officially recognize Manchester as a city until 1853. This constitutes one of the great ironies of the industrial revolution, and it captures just how dramatic the rate of change really was: the city that most defined the future of urban life for the first half of the nineteenth century didn’t legally become a city until the great explosion had run its course.

The sidewalk carnivalesque that had so vividly been captured by Wordsworth and Baudelaire in the previous century seemed headed the way of the horse and buggy, and in each case, the culprit turned out to be the same: the automobile, which necessitated all the injuries of sprawl—mixed-use zoning, gated communities, deserted or nonexistent sidewalks. At the core of this lamentable transformation was the street itself, and the interactions between strangers that once took place on it. The brilliance of Death and Life was that Jacobs understood—before the sciences had even developed a vocabulary to describe it—that those interactions enabled cities to create emergent systems. She fought so passionately against urban planning that got people “off the streets” because she recognized that both the order and the vitality of working cities came from the loose, improvised assemblages of individuals who inhabited those streets. Cities, Jacobs understood, were created not by central planning commissions, but by the low-level actions of borderline strangers going about their business in public life. Metropolitan space may habitually be pictured in the form of skylines, but the real magic of city living comes from below.

But the book she eventually wrote attacked Mumford’s much-beloved Ebenezer Howard and his “garden cities,” and so Mumford struck back at his onetime protégé with full fury. At over ten thousand words, Mumford’s critique was extensive and wide-ranging, but the central message came down to the potential of metropolitan centers to self-regulate. Jacobs had argued that large cities can achieve a kind of homeostasis through the interactions generated by lively sidewalks; urban planning that attempted to keep people off the streets was effectively destroying the lifeblood of the urban system. Without the open, feedback-heavy connections of street culture, cities quickly became dangerous and anarchic places. Building a city without sidewalks, Jacobs argued, was like building a brain without axons or dendrites. A city without connections was no city at all, at least in the traditional sense of organic city life.

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Arrival City by Doug Saunders

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agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

The African American ghettos of the United States in the twentieth century began as classic arrival cities, as the U.S. post-slavery exodus known as the Great Migration sent hundreds of thousands of southern rural ex-slaves in an optimistic search for the center of American society. But their arrival cities failed—because property ownership was unattainable in urban districts owned by indifferent or intolerant outsiders, because arrival-city residents were excluded from the economic and political mainstream by racism and bad urban planning, and because of the absence of government support and institutions. They turned into something else, places of failed arrival—a threat that hangs over many arrival cities today. Nor do all rural-urban migrations create arrival cities. Emergency migrations, caused by war or famine, lack careful investment and planning among villagers and the tightly woven networks of support and linkage that characterize normal village-arrival patterns.

“The migrants from the villages come with very high expectations, often higher than those of the native-born city dwellers,” says Patricia Mota Guedes, a Brazilian scholar who studies schools and social conditions in favelas. “They always have the choice to move out and go back to the village, and more than half of them do. Those who stay are the toughest and smartest ones, and they can take a lot of change.” Or, as one Kenyan urban-planning administrator concluded, “slum dwellers are generally more robust than the rest of the urban population.”8 THE BIRTH PANGS: AN ARRIVAL CITY TAKES SHAPE Kamrangirchar, Dhaka, Bangladesh First come the men with saws and machetes, clearing the swampy, low-lying land on the edge of town. Then come the families, carting piles of bricks and wood down mud pathways, staking out rudimentary foundations on the small plots they have purchased.

This leads to an odd paradox: The downward trend for the place is the opposite indicator of the upward trend enjoyed by the residents themselves.”5 This paradox has created a sense among outsiders that the city’s immigrant districts are poorer or more desperate than they really are, which leads to a misunderstanding of the forms of government investment they really need—a serious policy problem in many migrant-based cities around the world. Rather than getting the tools of ownership, education, security, business creation, and connection to the wider economy, they are too often treated as destitute places that need non-solutions, such as social workers, public-housing blocks, and urban-planned redevelopments. Yet, it is clear to anyone who visits them that these neighborhoods are not on a downward spiral, but rather are becoming platforms for personal, family, and village transformation. The amount of investment in these urban tracts is formidable. In the 1990s, home ownership levels among Latino immigrants in the city reached 45.3 percent, a particularly amazing figure given the comparatively high prices of L.A. property and the very low neighborhood incomes.

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Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

If all the energy and goodwill of the environmental movement can now be applied within the urban boundary, the results will be dramatic. 9 THE INNER CITY THINKING OF THE CITY IN TERMS OF ITS SUBURBAN COMPETITION; CATEGORIES IN WHICH THE SUBURBS TYPICALLY OUTPERFORM THE CITY: THE AMENITY PACKAGE, CIVIC DECORUM, PHYSICAL HEALTH, RETAIL MANAGEMENT, MARKETING, INVESTMENT SECURITY, AND THE PERMITTING PROCESS Anybody who travels back and forth across the Atlantic has to be impressed with the differences between European cities and ours, which make it appear as if World War Two actually took place in Detroit and Washington rather than Berlin and Rotterdam. —JAMES HOWARD KUNSTLER, HOME FROM NOWHERE (1996) In turning from the region to the city, it is important to remember that America’s inner cities did not wither all at once, or by chance. For much of the twentieth century, they have suffered from the unanticipated consequences of government policy and urban planning. The availability of the massive interstate system for daily commuting made it easy to abandon the city for houses on the periphery. The widespread construction of parking lots downtown further eased the automotive commute while turning the city into a paved no-man’s-land. Racism, redlining, and the concentration of subsidized housing projects destabilized and isolated the poor, while federal home-loan programs, targeting new construction exclusively, encouraged the deterioration and abandonment of urban housing.

This discipline is especially important in areas of mixed use, as it is a consistent streetscape that makes different uses compatible. Such a code is not difficult to write, but it requires an approach to city planning that has fallen out of use in recent years. Rather than specifying what it doesn’t want, this code specifies what it does want, which implies a degree of proactive physical vision that is currently rare among urban planning and zoning boards.cq One such urban code is the Traditional Neighborhood Development Ordinance, described later, which is currently being used and imitated by municipalities nationwide. In certain instances, it makes sense to complement the urban code with a second document, an architectural code. Cities and neighborhoods hoping to achieve a high degree of harmony in building style—either to protect and enhance their historic character or to develop a new character of their own—can benefit from a code that addresses building materials, proportions, colors, and other surface design issues.

In contrast, the structure of the traditional neighborhood offers the possibility of a transit experience that is both comfortable and civilized. When the transit stop is located at the neighborhood center, next to the corner store or the café, the commuter has the opportunity to wait for the bus or trolley indoors with a cup of coffee and a newspaper, with some measure of comfort and dignity. For this condition to occur with regularity, transit routes and urban plans must be developed in concert. Ideally, transit authorities should also work directly with shop owners, who typically welcome the extra business that a transit stop can generate. THE STREETS We have already discussed pavement width, but we must be more specific. On well-traveled streets within a neighborhood, there is no justification for travel lanes wider than ten feet and parking lanes wider than seven feet.

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Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

He tried to relate her plight to his own work as an epidemiologist: If that poor woman had collapsed from heat stroke, we docs would have written the cause of death as heat stroke and not lack of trees and public transportation, poor urban form, and heat-island effects. If she had been killed by a truck going by, the cause of death would have been “motor-vehicle trauma,” and not lack of sidewalks and transit, poor urban planning, and failed political leadership. That was the “aha!” moment for me. Here I was focusing on remote disease risks when the biggest risks that people faced were coming from the built environment.3 Jackson, who has more recently served as California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger’s state public health adviser, spent the next five years quantifying how so much of what ails us can be attributed directly to the demise of walkability in the auto age.

STEP 3: GET THE PARKING RIGHT What parking costs and what it costs us; Induced demand redux; Addiction made law; The cost of required parking; Some smarter places; The problem with cheap curbside parking; The right price; A tale of two cities; What should we do with all this money?; A bargain at $1.2 billion This chapter exists because of one man. He is in his mid-seventies, green-eyed, gray-bearded, and often pictured riding a bicycle. He holds four degrees from Yale in engineering and economics, and teaches at UCLA, where he was chair of the Department of Urban Planning and ran the Institute of Transportation Studies. His name is Donald Shoup and, inside an admittedly small circle, he is a rock star. He is alternately hailed as the “Jane Jacobs of parking policy” and the “prophet of parking.” There is even a Facebook group called “The Shoupistas.”1 Shoup has earned his exalted status by being perhaps the first person to really think about how parking works in cities.

District Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. “Capital Bikeshare Expansion Planned in the New Year,” December 23, 2010. Doherty, Patrick C., and Christopher B. Leinberger. “The Next Real Estate Boom.” The Washington Monthly, November/December 2010. Doig, Will. “Are Freeways Doomed?” salon.com, December 1, 2011. Donovan, Geoffrey, and David Butry. “Trees in the City: Valuing Trees in Portland, Oregon.” Landscape and Urban Planning 94 (2010): 77–83. Dorner, Josh. “NBC Confirms That ‘Clean Coal’ Is an Oxymoron.” Huffington Post, November 18, 2008. Duhigg, Charles. “Saving US Water and Sewer Systems Would Be Costly.” The New York Times, March 14, 2010. Dumbaugh, Eric. “Safe Streets, Livable Streets.” Journal of the American Planning Association 71, no. 3 (2005): 283–300. Duranton, Gilles, and Matthew Turner. “The Fundamental Law of Road Congestion: Evidence from U.S.

The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape by Brian Ladd

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, full employment, New Urbanism, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, urban planning, urban renewal

The application of asbestos during the building's construction had in fact been carried out according to procedures imported from the West, and experts put forward by the building's supporters argued that the contamination was no worse than in West Berlin's convention center, another 1970s building whose architecture was not widely admiredbut a building that remained in use. Other proponents of rebuilding the royal palace employed the language of urban planning and architecture to present their interpretation of Berlin's history and identity. For them, the Palace of the Republic had to go because its mediocre architecture was unworthy of its prominent site. This crucial point in the German capital, where Unter den Linden and the grid of Friedrichstadt are melded into old Berlin-Cölln and points east, held the key to the city's very identity. A city's identity is something that develops through history, and the importance of this site was stamped by the city's rulers and reinforced by its greatest architects and planners.

Plans for the new capital in the 1990s again foresee a centralization of rail lines along a north-south corridor. A north-south rail tunnel under the Tiergarten, first proposed by Speer, will finally be built. In short, much of the planning for Nazi Berlin shared the technocratic rationality of all modern urban societies. The Third Reich differed from its predecessorsand perhaps its successorsin having the power to impose its plans on a large and complicated city. All urban planning contains an authoritarian element; planning and architecture are always linked closely to power. The opportunity for the ruthless exercise of power made the Third Reich a dream come true for an ambitious architect like Speer as well as a megalomaniac dreamer like Hitler. Few students of Speer's architecture have failed to reflect on the affinities between it and the new job Speer took on in 1942, when his organizational skill was put in charge of wartime industrial production.

Critical Reconstruction The Berlin government had insisted that the guidelines for the "Spree Arc" competition require a "city-compatible" mixture of functions. In other words, government was not to be isolated from commerce, culture, and residence, as it was in Bonna demand that Schultes's plan fulfilled at both ends of his east-west band and also along the banks of the Spree arc to the north. The goal was diversity, which became the watchword of Berlin urban planning in the 1990s. The roots of this policy lay in the 1980s, when the International Building Exhibition (IBA) had changed official policy toward inner-city districts near the Wall. IBA was a multiyear project of urban redevelopment, lavishly funded in the days when West Berlin was still the subsidized showcase of the West. It brought prominent architects to Berlin to design new apartment buildings that complemented their nineteenth-century neighborhoods.

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

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3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

The aerotropolis offers a new transportation paradigm powerful and compelling enough to assert itself as the bustling center of commerce within a city whose hinterlands lie a continent away. “Look for yesterday’s busiest train terminals and you will find today’s great urban centers. Look for today’s busiest airports and you will find the great urban centers of tomorrow. This is the union of urban planning, airport planning, and business strategy,” Kasarda told me. “And the whole will be something altogether different than the sum of its parts.” But what if the center cannot hold? What if globalism falls apart? There is a growing Greek chorus warning us the age of air travel is over, undone by the twin calamities of peak oil and climate change. They point to oil prices tripling over the last decade, while noting that a flight from New York to London releases more greenhouse gases into the upper reaches of the stratosphere than the thirstiest Hummer when driven for a year.

Webber’s point about such communities is that they are more vivid, more intense—more authentically who we are—than the ones composed of neighbors we’ve never met. In this sense, wholesalers, mall developers, Vegas visitors, and nerds all compose their own communities too, and it wasn’t until the jet brought them together that they could function as one. In light of this, Webber wanted to throw out the old models of urban planning and start over. A city’s space-time continuum was relative, he asserted, but planners acted as if it were absolute. He meant to correct them with his notion of the “elastic mile,” a more pliable way of thinking about space. Where you are matters less than how far you move; location is trumped by access, as the latter expands the scope and opportunities of daily life. The first step to addressing inequality, therefore, was increasing mobility, preferably in the form of cars and wide-open freeways.

The answer will determine whether the hub deserves a say in its own aerotropolis. Having enriched the surrounding region, is it entitled to build on its own success? As the airport’s CEO, Jeff Fegan, phrased it, “It’s a public-policy concern. Should an airport be allowed to pursue tenants who could exist outside it?” In other words, is it in the aviation business, the real estate business, or the urban planning business? The answer is all three. Ben Carpenter and Trammel Crow weren’t alone in grasping the implications of DFW. The announcement of its location in 1965 touched off a frenzy of speculation in the pastureland of Southlake, Euless, Grapevine, Irving, and half a dozen other farm towns. Today these communities have a population of a million. The remaining acreage at Las Colinas has been sold; the Metroplex has run out of room.

pages: 777 words: 186,993

Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani

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affirmative action, Airbus A320, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, land reform, light touch regulation, LNG terminal, load shedding, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

One Indian observer remarked on the British parts, and their “spaciousness, wealth of color, peace, restfulness and beauty . . . none of this belonged to us.”3 Many of the buildings in these areas were in fact faithful imitations of what the British had left behind—English-style homes were built with large verandas and windows, which had to then be shuttered and draped with thick curtains to keep the heat and insects out.4 The government buildings were similarly meant to remind the officers of those back home.5bn Britain’s urban planning had little role in the cities beyond distancing the rulers from their festering colony. Indian cities were segregated to the point of having separate railway stations, such as in Bangalore, where a vast patch of grass set apart the “native” City and the “European” Cantonment stations.6 Nehru made an attempt to phase out these urban divides during his tumultuous stint as chairman of the Allahabad Municipality between 1921 and 1923.

And in tandem with Bhilai, the industrial centers of Durgapur, Barauni and Sindri were also being built.15 But India’s dismal reality—of a poor, struggling, rural economy—would soon render this vision threadbare. By the early 1960s, driven to the trenches and addressing basic food and security concerns, we saw our plan of building a modern, urban India fade. But one wonders how much of the dream would have been realized, even without the crises. For the Indian state was busy committing a laundry list of missteps in the name of urban planning. The cities in independent India were still essentially symbols, as they were for the British—Chandigarh was the sparkling spire on the hill for Indian socialism, “a city of government rather than of industry, meant for politicians, bureaucrats, administrators.” The industrial cities too were weighted with symbolism.16 The Indian government had missed the essential relevance of the city in the context of the market—failing to see them as vibrant, living systems that sustained economies by becoming centers of large-scale, efficient production, and that, as people coalesced in large numbers, also became spaces for innovation.

The disconnect was well captured in the 1951 census report, which stated that India’s towns and cities were “accidents of history and geography.”17 Swati Ramanathan—who with her husband, Ramesh, forms the passionate, reformist team that heads Janaagraha, an NGO emerging as a think-tank on urban policy—tells me, “Our first Town and Country Planning Act was based on Britain’s Town and Country Planning Act of 1909. But while they have revised their act and urban planning laws over eight times, we have held on to ours as if they have been carved in stone.” But while the concerns of urban India may have held little interest for Indian legislators, the city lights were beacons of hope and promise for the masses of India’s rural poor, the dispossessed and the unemployed. As agriculture stagnated, people left the countryside in droves. It was migration as escape—for many people, it meant leaving behind lives that entailed “three months of work per year and then hunger, terrible hunger . . . it was like a heavy hand on my heart.”18 The surging crowds were soon choking the cities and towns, wearing their resources thin.

pages: 267 words: 79,905

Creating Unequal Futures?: Rethinking Poverty, Inequality and Disadvantage by Ruth Fincher, Peter Saunders

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barriers to entry, ending welfare as we know it, financial independence, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open economy, pink-collar, positional goods, purchasing power parity, shareholder value, spread of share-ownership, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

Prior to taking up this position he was Director of Policy Research in the Commonwealth Department of Industrial Relations. He was a member of the team that undertook the first Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey between 1989 and 1991. His primary research interests are the employer determinants of labour productivity and the role of the state in nurturing new forms of multi-employer co-ordination. RUTH FINCHER is Professor of Urban Planning at the University of Melbourne. An urban and social geographer by training, she holds a PhD from Clark University (USA). She taught in Canada for six years, at McGill, and then McMaster Universities. Since returning to Australia from North America in 1986, she has been Reader in Geography and Director of the Australian Centre at the University of Melbourne, and a Research Manager in the federal government’s Bureau of Immigration Research.

Many contributors to Australian Poverty: Then and Now (Fincher and Nieuwenhuysen 1998) expressed despair at the loss of government services, like adequate legal aid provisions and dental care, that are cruelly affecting the lives of the disadvantaged. On the other hand, government is proceeding in other ways most actively, and is spending much time defending its decisions about new forms of regulation (called deregulation) in the courts. This is evident in industrial relations matters, at the State and federal levels, and in policies like urban planning at the State level. Neoliberal governments are also pursuing public–private partnerships—for example in secondary and tertiary education, in 23 PDF OUTPUT c: ALLEN & UNWIN r: DP2\BP4401W\MAIN p: (02) 6232 5991 f: (02) 6232 4995 36 DAGLISH STREET CURTIN ACT 2605 23 CREATING UNEQUAL FUTURES? infrastructure provision for cities—and altering taxation systems for individuals and firms to the greater benefit of business investors and the wealthy.

Of course, the underpinning by governments of commercial law continues to provide advantages like limited liability to corporations and businesses which have never been available to wage earners and other citizens. What is being developed in Australia is a change in style and substance of governance. The adoption in government of neoliberal economic philosophies directs our national and sub-national involvement in globalisation to take particular forms. Gleeson and Low (2000), in their account of urban planning in Australia—an activity at the local level that is defined and regulated by State governments—describe this as replacing the social democratic aims of the manageralism of the 1980s and before, by what they term ‘corporate liberalism’ in the 1990s. Though their presentation is about State governments in Australia, the defining features they list of corporate liberalism in those governments characterise other governments as well.

pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Aside from creating a huge burden for the building’s tenant, the Los Angeles Philharmonic (which is contractually bound to put on an astounding 128 concerts each winter season in order to pay the debt service on the garage), the structure has utterly failed to revive area streets. This is because people who drive to the Disney Hall never actually leave the building, noted Donald Shoup, a professor of urban planning at the University of California, Los Angeles, and the world’s foremost expert on the effects of parking. “The full experience of an iconic Los Angeles building begins and ends in its parking garage, not in the city itself,” Shoup and his graduate student Michael Manville wrote in a damning analysis. The typical concertgoer now parks underground, rides a series of cascading escalators up into the Disney Hall foyer, and leaves the same way.

He had codesigned a swimming pool to sit in the inner harbor so that citizens could do laps in the clean waters. And he had tried to sate Copenhageners’ desire to bike absolutely everywhere by creating an apartment building whose figure-eight shape allowed residents to cycle a gentle promenade all the way up to their tenth-floor apartments. Much of Ingels’s previous work had broken down the separation of uses that so often characterizes architecture and urban planning. The power plant would take this theme further. As per the brief, the facility would create heat and electricity by burning the city’s garbage. But rather than letting the new waste-to-energy facility stand alone, Ingels proposed wrapping the giant structure in an exoskeleton whose winding roof would serve as an artificial ski slope the size of seven football fields (333,700 square feet). Suddenly the city’s industrial district would be transformed into a shining fun zone, and Copenhageners would not have to travel to Sweden to have a mountain adventure.

“There’s no center—no place for people to gather and have all the sorts of things that communities are supposed to have,” she said. She didn’t want anything radical. Just a village where she could park her car, walk around and do a few errands, and feel as though she were someplace. Meyer could see the outlines of that place as she squinted out across the collage of asphalt and lawn. The two architects who stood with us could see it too. “The town square could be right here,” offered Galina Tachieva, a partner at the urban planning firm Duany Plater-Zyberk (DPZ). She pulled off her bug-eye sunglasses and swept a hand across the scene. “And there could be a row of shops or live-work studios lining it. And this disastrous road needs to be slowed down so that old people and children can actually walk across it. We might add parking along the curbs, or split the road in half, like a zipper.” That was a beginning. But why stop there?

pages: 422 words: 131,666

Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff

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affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game

Many of these academics, like James Burnham, professed the benefits of an industry-led “American Empire,” which, like the Roman Empire that conquered Greece, would “be, if not literally worldwide in formal boundaries, capable of exercising decisive world control.” Freshly graduated psychologists, now willingly in the service of marketers, conducted the first “focus groups” to determine how and why people buy things. Slowly but surely a new definition of self as “consumer” penetrated the mass psyche. The scores of economic, management, urban-planning, and marketing theories to emerge from this effort were almost invariably geared toward making one part or another of the industrial machine work more efficiently: motivate production, stimulate consumption, assimilate impediments. No matter how humanistic in their wording, or how focused on giving people what they really wanted or needed, these techniques were only “creative” in their ability to tweak the great engine of commerce.

Neighborhoods were uprooted, divided, and demolished. Local governments that attempted to resist were quickly and decisively neutralized by the courts. The resulting highways displaced hundreds of thousands of people and further drove down property values in the cities. According to Senator Gaylord Nelson, 75 percent of federal transportation spending has gone toward highways, while 1 percent has been spent on mass transit. Urban-planning masters such as Robert Moses developed highway schemes intended to keep undesirable people from traveling into desirable neighborhoods. In just one of many examples, Moses built highway overpasses with only nine feet of clearance in order to prevent buses from getting through. This was intended to keep poor black people from traveling from the city to the new suburbs, while also making the purchase of a car a prerequisite for residence.

I launched the blog with four goals in mind: First, I aimed to create a new journalistic beat covering a range of stories from the intense neighborhood-level battles over new bike lanes and parking spaces to the big questions around how New York City planned to address the challenge of peak oil and climate change. Second, I wanted Streetsblog to serve as a watchdog for the New York City Department of Transportation, an agency that no one was holding to account. Third, Streetsblog would educate New York City’s policy makers, press, and regular citizens about urban planning and transportation best practices that were emerging in other cities. Finally, the blog would function as a gathering place and discussion forum for livable-streets advocates. If it succeeded, I figured, Streetsblog would, at best, help get New York City moving slowly in the right direction. Streetsblog succeeded beyond my wildest expectations. It quickly emerged as a daily must-read among advocates, the press, policy wonks, and City Hall insiders.

pages: 423 words: 115,336

This Is Only a Test: How Washington D.C. Prepared for Nuclear War by David F. Krugler

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Berlin Wall, City Beautiful movement, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Frank Gehry, full employment, glass ceiling, index card, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, urban planning, Victor Gruen, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Throughout American history, political leaders and groups have used Washington, as both city and capital, to fulfill national goals, set an example, provide a prototype.7 Americans have marched in Washington seeking women’s suffrage, veterans’ bonuses, and to stop the Vietnam War.8 Southern members of Congress correctly recognized that intense efforts to abolish slavery in the District signified a national struggle, prompting them to redouble efforts to protect slavery in the border states.9 During Reconstruction, Congress used the District as a “proving ground” for national legislation.10 After World War II, the District’s racial segregation tarnished America’s democratic ideals, and Presidents Truman and Eisenhower both regarded desegregation of the District as a Cold War necessity.11 Washington has also served as a model and laboratory for urban planning and practices. After the Civil War, the city’s business elite tapped Congressional interest in creating a world-class capital to modernize the city’s infrastructure.12 In 1902, Washington became a showcase for the City Beautiful movement through the McMillan Plan, which sought to create “the capital of a new kind of America—clean, efficient, orderly and, above all, powerful.” In 1926, Congress created the National Capital Park and Planning Commission.

Highways, utilities, and commercial districts would follow as dispersal of Washington’s key industry, government, gained momentum. Washington’s dispersal would then lay down a stepping stone for national dispersal. If the future could happen in the nation’s city, then the government would wield the moral authority to promote or even force dispersal elsewhere. No one was more qualified to plan Washington’s dispersal than Augur. In 1949, the Federal Works Agency hired him as an Urban Planning Officer, and, acting under the authority of the NSRB, instructed him to find dispersed sites for wartime essential government offices.11 Planning to Plan Augur didn’t have to begin from scratch. On October 27, 1948, Arthur Hill had submitted his panel’s report on Washington to the President. “Security for the Nation’s Capital” began by explaining, without a trace of whimsy, why Washington had to remain the national capital.

In a note thanking Holland for his efforts, Truman remarked, “[h]ow anybody could oppose a national defense project as important as that [dispersal] to the capital of the United States I can’t understand.”18 In January 1952, the President once more asked for dispersal in his budget message. In a bid to win over suburban residents and Rep. Smith, Truman promised that only government-owned land would be used.19 It wasn’t enough to change Congressional minds, however, and Truman didn’t press the issue. By this date, Tracy Augur had quit his job as Urban Planning Officer. Few had worked as hard as Augur to disperse the capital, making the ignominious outcome not just a professional blow, but a personal one, too. The Mysterious Mountain Throughout 1951, Blue Ridge Summit, a small Pennsylvania town close to the Maryland border, was enjoying an economic boom as workers for the P.J. Healy Co. filled the town’s restaurants and businesses during their off-hours.

pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

Our team was made up of twenty-five high-level experts from some of the leading Third Industrial Revolution companies in the world—IBM, Philips, Schneider, GE, CH2M Hill, Siemens, Q-Cells, Hydrogenics, KEMA, and others. Our global policy team included Alan Lloyd, the former secretary of the California Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and current president of the International Council on Clean Transportation; Byron McCormick, former executive director for hydrogen car development at GM; and world-renowned green architects and urban planning companies, such as Boeri Studio of Italy, Acciona, and Cloud9 of Spain. Seated on the other side of the table was an equally esteemed group of experts: engineers, department heads of city agencies, representatives from the mayor’s office, and the management team of CPS energy. Our Third Industrial Revolution Global CEO Business Roundtable had found its mission. In the next twelve months, our policy team would create master plans for Prince Albert II and the principality of Monaco, Mayor Gianni Alemanno and the city of Rome, and Vice Governor Wouter de Jong and the Province of Utrecht in the Netherlands.

How does a jurisdiction decide which buildings to retrofit first? Weatherizing single homes is a great idea and can have a significant impact on energy use, but retrofitting the Willis Tower in Chicago, for example, will save enough electricity to power 2,500 homes. It became clear that the province of Utrecht would need a plan that is inclusive and makes sense financially. Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture, an urban planning firm out of Chicago and a member of our global development team, proposed a software solution for Utrecht that would involve the entire community in reaching its zero-emissions goal. The plan involves building a virtual 3-D model of the city. The first step would be to work with students and professors at the local university to conduct comprehensive energy audits of all buildings in Utrecht.

Yet in these climax ecosystems that have developed over millions of years, the consumption of energy and matter does not significantly exceed the ecosystems’ ability to absorb and recycle the waste and replenish the stock. The synergies, symbiotic relationships, and feedback loops are finely calibrated to ensure the system’s ability to maintain a continuous balance of supply and demand. I note that biomimicry—the idea of studying how nature operates and borrowing best practices—is becoming an increasingly fashionable pursuit in product research and development, economic modeling, and urban planning. We’d be well-served by studying how climax ecosystems balance their budgets, and applying the lessons to balancing our own budgets within society and between society and nature. All of this is painfully obvious, which makes one wonder whether economists might be better served by being trained in thermodynamics before they take up their discipline. Frederick Soddy, Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen, Herman Daly, and I previously emphasized the role that thermodynamic efficiencies play in determining productivity and managing sustainability in our own books on the subject, backing it up with anecdotal evidence from across the supply chain throughout history.

pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Recasting all complex social situations either as neatly defined problems with definite, computable solutions or as transparent and self-evident processes that can be easily optimized—if only the right algorithms are in place!—this quest is likely to have unexpected consequences that could eventually cause more damage than the problems they seek to address. I call the ideology that legitimizes and sanctions such aspirations “solutionism.” I borrow this unabashedly pejorative term from the world of architecture and urban planning, where it has come to refer to an unhealthy preoccupation with sexy, monumental, and narrow-minded solutions—the kind of stuff that wows audiences at TED Conferences—to problems that are extremely complex, fluid, and contentious. These are the kinds of problems that, on careful examination, do not have to be defined in the singular and all-encompassing ways that “solutionists” have defined them; what’s contentious, then, is not their proposed solution but their very definition of the problem itself.

The paradox is that, while technocracy itself is an ideology, most technocrats try their best to distance themselves from any insinuation that they might be driven by anything other than pragmatism and the pursuit of efficiency. Unfortunately, Crick’s attack on technological thinking has received less attention than several other similar attacks by his contemporaries: Jane Jacobs’s attack on unimaginative urban planning, Isaiah Berlin’s attack on “procrusteanism,” Friedrich Hayek’s attack on central planning, Karl Popper’s attack on historicism, and Michael Oakeshott’s attack on rationalism come to mind. Most of these important critiques of the arrogance and self-conceit of the planner and the reformer are united by a common theme: something about the experience of living in the polis with other human beings is essentially irreducible to formulaic expression and optimization techniques.

Second, a driver would have no way to overstay the posted time limit by paying several times: the sensors would identify each car and, once the permitted time was up, tell the meter not to accept further payments. Many would welcome even these two changes. Why not block those who want to trick the system and overstay the limit? After all, free parking is anything but free. As Donald Shoup, professor of urban planning at the University of California, Los Angeles, shows in his The High Cost of Free Parking, if people paid the fair market price for parking, they might drive less, and the perpetually cash-deprived cities might raise more money too. Seems like a win-win. But ought we to consider other aspects of the Santa Monica initiative? To return to Albert Hirschman’s futility-perversity-jeopardy triad, the first of those concerns doesn’t seem to be a problem.

pages: 142 words: 18,753

Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There by David Brooks

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Community Supported Agriculture, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Silicon Valley, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

Jane Jacobs was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, in 1916, the daughter of a doctor and a teacher. After high school she went to work as a reporter for the Scranton Tribune. She lasted a year, then ventured to New York and worked in a series of jobs as a stenographer and freelance writer before landing a junior editorial position at Architectural Forum. In 1956 she gave a talk at Harvard expressing her skepticism about the High Modernist urban-planning philosophy that was sweeping away entire neighborhoods and replacing them with rows and rows of symmetrical apartment buildings, each surrounded by a windswept and usually deserted park. William H. Whyte invited her to turn her lecture into an article for Fortune, which, after some internal nervousness from the executives at Time Inc., was published as the essay “Downtown Is for People.” Jacobs then extended her argument in her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities.

Jacobs utterly rejects the utopianism and extremism that were an integral part of romanticism. She rejects the notion of the intellectual who is removed from the everyday world and lives instead in a world of ideas. As a result, she is relaxed and conversational. She is looking at things with an eye for down-to-earth details (it may be no accident that it was a woman who could exemplify this way of observing reality). The urban planning of the epoch may make Jacobs indignant, but she does not rain thunderbolts down upon her enemies. She suggests the answer is not to theorize or to rebel, but simply to sit quietly and be sensitive to our surroundings. The bourgeois epistemology often appealed to reason. The bohemian epistemology to imagination. Jacobs asks us to appreciate a mode of perception that requires both sense and sensibility.

The entire second section of the book is called “The Conditions for City Diversity.” It is complexity she admires, the small unplanned niches where specialized activities can thrive. These are places whose use is not determined from above but grows up from small particularized needs. In the years since The Death and Life of Great American Cities was published, Jacobs’s way of seeing has been vindicated again and again. The urban plans she criticized are now universally reviled. The disastrous failure of social-engineering projects across the developing world have exposed the hubris of technocrats who thought they could reshape reality. The failure of the Communist planned economies has taught us that the world is too complicated to be organized and centrally directed. We are, with Jane Jacobs, more modest about what we can know, more skeptical of planners and bureaucrats.

pages: 364 words: 102,225

Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep

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battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, creative destruction, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal

Los Angeles made almost anything that was wanted for a comfortable life in suburban cold war America: “furnaces, sliding doors, mechanical saws, shoes, bathing suits, underwear, china, furniture, cameras, hand tools, hospital equipment, scientific instruments, engineering services and hundreds of other things.” The city expanded as entrepreneurs produced all the things that were needed for a growing Los Angeles. Growth fed upon itself; a city grew because it grew. This was also an era of grand urban plans around the world. Whole sections of New York and Chicago were flattened to make room for towering redbrick housing projects. In Brazil, engineers and construction crews were in the midst of building a new national capital where no such city had existed before. Brasília would be inaugurated on April 21, 1960. Some plans worked, and some didn’t. Many of the new public housing projects in America destroyed intricate communities to make room for buildings designed on an inhuman scale.

In Tokyo, which was flattened during World War II, planners saw a chance to erase the ancient and convoluted street grid and build what one scholar called “an entirely new urban form,” with a series of dense downtowns “nestled against a background of green space, green corridors and broad tree-lined boulevards.” It didn’t happen. American bombs destroyed buildings, but didn’t destroy the claims of property owners, who resisted giving up their land. It was quicker and easier to build along the old streets. A glance at history might have shown this would happen; the world’s most famous example of urban planning, Sir Christopher Wren’s redesign of central London after a great fire in 1666, was never put in place. Landowners rebuilt on the same properties as before. So it was with Tokyo: partly planned but also partly organic, it was swiftly growing into the largest city on earth. This was the historic moment in which Pakistan’s new ruler Mohammad Ayub Khan plunged his ceremonial shovel into the earth in December 1958.

At the ribbon-cutting for a renovated community center, he sat down for a slideshow presentation by a center official, but quickly lost patience. “I would just like to interrupt. I know who you are,” he said, begging the man to skip the introductory slides. “Please. I know everything. Show us the place where you’re sitting right now, and how is it going to be tomorrow.” As I rode with him from stop to stop, I was aware that the mayor’s construction projects drew criticism from urban planning professionals. His flyovers, they said, were merely doing what new roads have done the world over: they encouraged more traffic, and shifted tie-ups to new locations instead of addressing the fundamental problems of a city that was growing overly dependent on cars. (By 2007 the city’s auto fleet was increasing by an average of 545 cars per day, about two hundred thousand additional cars in a single year.)

pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt

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anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

Others will be in neighborhoods on the fringe of downtown, in close-in suburbs on the city border, or even in more distant suburbs trying to create an urban ambience of some sort. But the crucial component will be the desire for an atmosphere of urbanism, with the opportunity to walk between living space and commercial and recreational opportunities. Christopher Leinberger, the real estate developer and urban planning scholar, believes that a dramatic increase in middle-class central-city population will in fact take place throughout America, and today’s tract homes in the far suburbs will deteriorate into the slums of 2030. I don’t think this will happen, at least not in such extreme form; there simply are not enough lofts and townhouses to double or triple the number of people living in the center of most large American cities.

The question is: Why do some inner suburbs make it over the hump while others struggle and some fail utterly? Nobody in local government predicted Clarendon’s comeback as a restaurant, nightclub, and condominium district. That would have seemed ludicrous as late as the mid-1990s. But even had someone on the county planning staff conceived such an idea, it’s difficult to see what they could have done to bring it about. The recent history of urban planning is dotted with examples of places that have created formal “entertainment districts,” and sometimes backed that decision up with generous subsidies to entrepreneurs. The number of proven long-term successes remains small. Clarendon, on the other hand, didn’t declare itself to be anything in particular. It became an entertainment district without really trying, and certainly without spending a fortune in public money to become one.

Nelson, “The New Urbanity: The Rise of a New America,” Annals, American Academy of Political and Social Science, November 2009. 8 If you were part of the servant class: Frederic Morton, A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888/1889 (New York: Penguin, 1980), p. 58. 9 “an endless succession of factory-town main streets”: A. J. Liebling, Chicago: The Second City (New York: Knopf, 1952), reprinted in Liebling at Home (New York: Wideview Books, 1982), p. 166. 10 Christopher Leinberger, the real estate developer and urban planning scholar: Christopher Leinberger, The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2008). CHAPTER ONE: A BACKWARD GLANCE 1 “If we are to achieve an urban renaissance”: Donald J. Olsen, The City as a Work of Art: London, Paris, Vienna (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1986), p. x. 2 “the nineteenth century invented modernity”: Jean-Christophe Bailly, Preface to François Loyer, Paris Nineteenth Century: Architecture and Urbanism (New York: Abbeville Press, 1988), p. 10. 3 “Apartment houses destroy private life”: Sharon Marcus, Apartment Stories: City and Home in Nineteenth-Century Paris and London (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), p. 57. 4 “as soon as it awakes”: Alfred Delvau, Les Dessous de Paris, 1860, quoted ibid., p. 149. 5 “we find it tiresome”: Alfred Delvau, Histoire anecdotique des cafés et cabarets de Paris, 1862, quoted ibid., p. 148. 6 “the interior is going to die”: Comments by Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, 1861, quoted ibid., p. 139. 7 “Gray does not have a good name”: Bailly, Preface to Loyer, Paris Nineteenth Century, p. 9. 8 “It is not an illumination but a fire”: Edmondo de Amicis, Studies of Paris, 1882, quoted in Norma Evenson, Paris: A Century of Change, 1878–1978 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1981), p. 6. 9 “Everything is neat and fresh”: Ibid., p. 2. 10 “The sidewalks provided”: Evenson, Paris, p. 20. 11 “nothing can more thoroughly demoralize”: Eugene Viollet-le-Duc, quoted in Marcus, Apartment Stories, p. 160. 12 “Montmartre was to become the dynamo”: Nigel Gosling, quoted in Peter Hall, Cities in Civilization (New York: Pantheon, 1998), p. 230. 13 “The young artists”: Hall, Cities in Civilization, p. 237. 14 “the smells from the kitchen”: Fernande Olivier, Picasso and His Friends (New York: Appleton Century, 1965), quoted ibid., p. 227. 15 “the great ordering system”: James Howard Kunstler, The City in Mind: Meditations on the Urban Condition (New York: Free Press, 2002), p. 3. 16 “Second Empire Paris became”: Loyer, Paris Nineteenth Century, p. 232. 17 “For hours I could stand”: Carl Schorske, Fin-de-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture (New York: Vintage, 1981), p. 46. 18 “the Minister-President or the richest magnate”: Stefan Zweig, The World of Yesterday (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1964), p. 15. 19 “The first glance”: Ibid., p. 14. 20 “It is a sort of democratic club”: Ibid., p. 39. 21 “dismal tenement landscape”: Frederic Morton, A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888/1889 (New York: Penguin, 1980), p. 58. 22 “If the British empire was the most powerful”: Jonathan Schneer, London 1900: The Imperial Metropolis (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999), p.19. 23 “a true Londoner”: Ford Madox Ford, quoted in Peter Ackroyd, London: The Biography (New York: Nan A.

pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

Zurich is what it is because it decided, not so very long ago, to end its dependence on, and addiction to, the automobile. Or, more accurately, addiction to parking. Though parking is a lot less flashy than automated electric trains, or interactive signs that help in finding routes, it’s hard to overstate its importance in building a successful multimodal transportation system or, for that matter, turning streets back into livable places. Back in 1997, Donald Shoup, then at the Department of Urban Planning at UCLA, wrote one of the most cited papers in the entire transportation literature, “The High Cost of Free Parking,” which demonstrated the flaws in setting minimum parking requirements for every land use—for every house, or store, or office building—based on peak demand. The problem with such minimal requirements is that the users of (almost) all such parking got all that parking at either zero cost or at well below the price they were willing to pay for it.

The Wasatch Front can’t really sprawl. Basin-and-range geography made building a world-class regional transit system possible in Utah. It didn’t require it, though. That’s something Salt Lake City chose for itself. In 1997, after the city was picked to host the 2002 Winter Olympics, politicians, business leaders, and farmers’ associations from the four-county area surrounding Salt Lake recruited environmental and urban planning experts to host a series of public meetings that they named “Envision Utah.” The idea was to accommodate both the surge associated with the Olympics and the predicted long-term growth of the region, to do so in a way that preserved the natural environment that made it so attractive in the first place, and to keep Salt Lake City attractive to the next generation of transit-happy Millennials.

“Driving in Circles: The Autonomous Google Car May Never Actually Happen.” Slate, October 14, 2014. Grabar, Henry. “Mass-Transit Magic: How America’s Fourth-Largest City Can Abandon Its Addiction to Cars.” Salon, May 25, 2014. Gray, Edward. American Experience: The World That Moses Built. Directed by Edward Gray. 1989. Green, Christine Godward, and Elizabeth G. Klein. “Promoting Active Transportation as a Partnership Between Urban Planning and Public Health: The Columbus Healthy Places Program.” Public Health Reports (Association of Schools of Public Health) 126, no. Supp 1 (2011): 41–49. Guevara, Carlos. “Bajar tasa de homicidios en Bogotá a un dígito es viable: expertos.” El Tiempo, January 8, 2013. Guevara-Stone, Laurie. “How Bogota Creates Social Equality Through Sustainable Transit.” GreenBiz.com, July 21, 2014. Haidt, Jonathan.

pages: 302 words: 83,116

SuperFreakonomics by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner

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agricultural Revolution, airport security, Andrei Shleifer, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, call centre, clean water, cognitive bias, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, Did the Death of Australian Inheritance Taxes Affect Deaths, disintermediation, endowment effect, experimental economics, food miles, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Nash: game theory, Joseph Schumpeter, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, market design, microcredit, Milgram experiment, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, presumed consent, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, selection bias, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, urban planning, William Langewiesche, women in the workforce, young professional

Rats and other vermin swarmed the mountains of manure to pick out undigested oats and other horse feed—crops that were becoming more costly for human consumption thanks to higher horse demand. No one at the time was worried about global warming, but if they had been, the horse would have been Public Enemy No. 1, for its manure emits methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. In 1898, New York hosted the first international urban planning conference. The agenda was dominated by horse manure, because cities around the world were experiencing the same crisis. But no solution could be found. “Stumped by the crisis,” writes Eric Morris, “the urban planning conference declared its work fruitless and broke up in three days instead of the scheduled ten.” The world had seemingly reached the point where its largest cities could not survive without the horse but couldn’t survive with it, either. And then the problem vanished. It was neither government fiat nor divine intervention that did the trick.

., 16 Teller, Edward, 181 terrorism aftereffects of, 66 and banks, 89–95 bio-, 74 costs of, 65–66, 87 definitions of, 63–64 effectiveness of, 65 prevention of, 87–92 purpose of, 64 terrorists biographical background of, 62–63 goals of, 63–64 identification of possible, 90–95 and life insurance, 94 methods used by, 88 and profiles of, 90–95 revolutionaries as different from, 63–64 See also September 11, 2001 Thirty-Eight Witnesses (Rosenthal), 126 Thomas, Frank, 116 Time magazine, shark story in, 14 Title IX, 22 “To Err Is Human” (Institute of Medicine report), 204 “too big to fail,” 143 traffic deaths, 65–66, 87 trash-pickup fees, 139 trees, and climate, 186 trimmers, price of, 35 trophy wives, 52–53 Trotsky, Leon, 63 trust and altruism, 116,117 and baseball card experiment, 116,117 typical behavior, 13–14,15–16 Uganda, babies in, 57–58 Ultimatum (game), 108–9, 110, 113 unintended consequences, law of, 6–8, 12, 138–41 United Kingdom banks in, 89–95 climate change in, 166 University of Chicago List appointment at, 118 MBA study of graduates of, 45–46 urban planning conference, and horse problem, 10 users versus sellers, 25–26 Variable X, 95 Vaux, Calvert, 42 Venkatesh, Sudhir, 26, 28, 29, 30, 32–37, 38, 40–42, 70–71 Vice Commission, Chicago, 23–24, 26 Vienna General Hospital (Austria), 137–38, 203–4 Vietnam War, 146 violence and prostitutes, 38 visas, 66 volcanic eruptions, 176–77, 188–90, 192 volunteers, in experiments, 121 Vonnegut, Bernard, 191 Vonnegut, Kurt, 191 wages and gender issues, 21–22, 44, 45–47 as incentives, 46–47 and sex-change operations, 47–48 teachers and, 44 walking, drunk, 2–3, 12, 14, 96 “war on drugs,” 25 warm-glow altruism, 124 washing hands, 203–8, 209 Washington, D.C., shootings in, 64, 66 Washington Hospital Center emergency medicine at, 66–73, 75, 81 and September 11, 66–67, 68 Weber, Christopher, 167 Weitzman, Martin, 11, 12, 169 welfare program, data about, 27–28 whaling, 142–43 white slavery, 23 wind farms, 187 wind-powered fiberglass boats, 202 Wiswall, Matthew, 48 women as CEOs, 44–45 difficulties of, 20–22 discrimination against, 21–22, 45 as doctors, 80–81 as dominant in prostitution, 23–26, 40 and feminist revolution, 43–44 in India, 3–8, 14 men compared with, 20–21 as prostitutes, 54–55 shift in role of, 43–44 in sports, 22 as teachers, 43, 44 wages for, 21–22, 44, 45–46 Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA), 22 Wood, Lowell, 181,182,184–85,186, 192,194,197,198–99 World Health Organization (WHO), 5 World Trade Center, 15 World War II, use of data in, 147 Yale-New Haven Hospital, monkey experiment at, 212–16 Zelizer, Viviana, 200 Zimbardo, Philip, 123 Zyzmor, Albert, 59 About the Authors STEVEN D.

pages: 251 words: 63,630

The End of Cheap China: Economic and Cultural Trends That Will Disrupt the World by Shaun Rein

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business climate, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, glass ceiling, high net worth, illegal immigration, income per capita, indoor plumbing, job-hopping, Maui Hawaii, price stability, quantitative easing, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trade route, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional, zero-sum game

Brands that create a comfortable ambiance move to high-priced malls or recently developed zones. Once urban planning gets more settled, Chinese brands will spend more on nicer shopping environments. In the meantime, smart ones save their money. For instance, right now most Chinese buyers of luxury products like to do their shopping abroad. Recent initiatives to make Hainan Island a duty-free zone and to reduce tariffs on imported goods could change the luxury retail landscape overnight. Key Action Item Company executives need to keep abreast of potential new regulations that could severely impact their businesses. If they do not, they could suddenly find that they have invested in the wrong sectors and locations. Real Estate Is Intentionally Ramshackle Many Westerners say Chinese real estate companies exhibit poor urban planning. A common complaint by visiting Westerners is that malls are not built attractively, or that parking lots are constructed in prime building locations, like on a riverside, while shopping complexes and restaurant zones are built across the street without good river views.

pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

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Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Zipcar

All sorts of municipal plans, records and urban modeling are being moved from locked vaults into the open cloud, where citizens can access far more than ever before and they can do it on mobile apps. Compare that with the traditional way of finding public information. Formerly, a citizen had to spend an afternoon entombed in the Hall of Records poring over blueprints, thick manila folders and microfilm. Now, new developments are built in 3D models, where anyone can see an urban plan as it will stand on the ground—and below it. Citizens can see how a new development will impact surrounding areas. They can understand how lowering an elevated stretch of highway into a tunnel will provide new open spaces and let formerly isolated neighborhoods connect and interact. Of course, physical models will still be put on display, but it’s much more convenient to view the renderings online whenever you want.

They make it easy to forecast what will happen if a city is hit by a catastrophic storm, earthquake or flood. These predictive capabilities help first responders plan rescue operations. Educators can see where young families are moving and forecast when and where new schools will be needed. Retailers and healthcare professionals can see where new shops and offices are likely to flourish. These first-ever omnibus views of urban plans provide a path to better communications, collaboration and trust among government officials, contractors and constituents. History shows that relationships between these disparate groups have a great deal of room for improvement. We do not argue that 3D modeling is a panacea, but we do say that it creates a better platform and a more positive starting point. Modeling Cities As New Urbanists increase in number and influence and become civic forces to be reckoned with, the cities they inhabit will continue to face daunting and messy issues worsened by years of neglect.

pages: 184 words: 53,625

Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson

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Airbus A320, airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Donald Davies, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, mega-rich, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche, working poor, X Prize, your tax dollars at work

Even the most adamant libertarian still thinks we need some form of centralized government, of course. But the bureaucracies and Hayekian bottlenecks of the central planners are tolerated as a kind of necessary evil. Even the political Left works within the assumption that the private sector drives change and progress; the public sector, at best, creates safety nets. Yet within a few months of Jacobs’s launching her first volley against the titans of urban planning, a young researcher across the country was sketching a diagram that would ultimately find a way around Hayek’s bottleneck. — In the mid-1950s, a Polish-born engineer named Paul Baran took a job at Hughes Aircraft while working on his graduate degree in engineering through night classes at UCLA. His work at Hughes gave him intimate access to the nascent technology of nuclear war—specifically the control systems that allowed the military to both detect inbound missiles and launch first strikes or retaliations.

The population of decision makers shifts from a small core at the center of a Legrand Star to a much wider network that is itself composed of smaller networks. The sports fans would cluster together, as would the anti-traffic constituency. Local business owners would petition their patrons to transfer their votes to them. If you followed the debate closely, you’d be free to vote directly on the stadium. But if you were busy with other priorities, you could pass your vote along to your friend who is obsessed with urban-planning issues. In fact, your friend might have a standing proxy from you for all urban-development votes—while another friend might represent you on any education initiatives, and another on fiscal reform. The interesting thing about liquid democracies is that we already use this proxy strategy in our more casual lifestyle decisions. When you’re trying to decide where to have dinner, you call up your foodie friend for advice, but there’s another friend whose taste in music has never failed you, and yet another who is always coming up with great new novels to read.

pages: 222 words: 60,207

Circus Maximus: The Economic Gamble Behind Hosting the Olympics and the World Cup by Andrew Zimbalist

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airline deregulation, carbon footprint, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, New Urbanism, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, selection bias, urban planning, young professional

The commitment of billions of dollars to infrastructure for the World Cup and Olympics was an opportunity to address the glaring deficiencies in public transportation; instead, there was investment in the BRT bus system and airport expansion promoting the use of fossil fuels.21 Equally troubling is Brazil's plan to build a golf course in a low-lying, environmentally fragile area of Barra da Tijuca. Golf is returning to the 2016 Olympics for the first time since 1900. In Brazil, golf is exclusively the domain of the wealthy. Of Rio's two golf courses, neither is open to the public. Rather than preserving the natural beauty of the coastal land, the Olympics will yield a legacy of a third golf course for the city's elite. Christopher Gaffney, a mega-event and urban planning expert at Rio's Federal Fluminense University, concludes: “One of the few remaining areas of environmental protection in the Barra da Tijuca region has been appropriated by the government, opened up for toxic land use patterns and handed over to a private development firm for recreational and real-estate purposes.”22 In September 2014 a court in Rio de Janeiro ordered the local organizing body to make changes in their plans for the golf course.

A more pessimistic and critical view is articulated by Christopher Gaffney: Since the announcement of the 2016 host city in October 2009, the Rio de Janeiro city government has pushed through a revised master plan that was adopted to include the multiple Olympic projects…. The improvised revision of the city's master plan has been accompanied by an extensive list of executive decrees that have “flexibilized” urban space in order for Olympic related projects to occur. These measures have undermined Rio's fledgling democratic institutions and reduced public participation in urban planning processes.62 More growth or less? More equity or less? More democracy or less? Time will tell. London The 2012 London Olympic Games distinguished themselves in several ways. Most significant, the legacy planning was more detailed and more ambitious than in any previous Olympics. The central legacy goal was to rejuvenate five depressed boroughs in East London—Newham, Hackney, Tower Hamlets, Waltham Forest, and Greenwich.

pages: 1,797 words: 390,698

Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn

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affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional

FIGURE 6.4 The players at Ground Zero, April 12, 2002: Joseph Seymour, executive director, Port Authority; Peter Kalikow, chairman, Metropolitan Transportation Authority; Marilyn Jordan Taylor and David Childs, architects, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill; John Whitehead, chairman, Lower Manhattan Development Corporation; Monica Iken, founder, September’s Mission; Madelyn Wils, chair, Community Board 1; Larry Silverstein, developer; Robert Yaro, president, Regional Plan Association. Martin Schoeller/August In appointing Burden to chair the City Planning Commission, Mayor Bloomberg chose a top urban planning professional, an established New Yorker known for her meticulous attention to detail and design and careful threading of planning politics. She had been a member of the Planning Commission for more than a decade. She held a graduate degree in urban planning from Columbia University and had managed planning and design for the Battery Park City Authority, where she oversaw the development and implementation of design guidelines for the ninety-two-acre site, as well as the design of all open spaces and parks. When decisions at Ground Zero touched any element of open space or street-facing retail space, she would play a very strong role.

The problem was configuration: Westfield did not like the new arrangement with three or four levels of stacked retail—“It eliminates the ability for consumers to just walk by your store. That’s a very big issue,” said Westfield’s vice chairman.11 That configuration, however, was what the city and community groups had been advocating from the very beginning of the planning process as a means to enliven the street scene around the site. Consistent with his graduate education in urban planning, Seymour personally believed in the street-level retail concept. Street-facing retail was part and parcel of the plan to reinsert the street grid into the superblock, which Westfield also disfavored because, in its view, that too was not in the best interests of retail profitability. The high-grossing retail spaces underground at the original World Trade Center had generated average annual sales of $900 a square foot at the time of the attack, and Westfield was not confident that the current proposal for retail space would meet that benchmark.

The LMDC’s trusted and respected lawyer, Ira Millstein, had told the LMDC board that its mandate, at least on paper, was total planning control over the Trade Center site. Roland Betts, head of the site planning committee, asked himself how the LMDC could actually exercise this control given the fact that the Port Authority owned the site. When on its own the development corporation put out a request for proposals (RFP) for urban planning and transportation consulting services for the site and surrounding areas in April 2002, he found out: Port Authority officials “went crazy,” according to a source for the New York Observer; they were livid. “It’s our site,” PA executive director Seymour told the press; issuing the RFP was “premature.” His chairman, Jack G. Sinagra, said: “We can’t lose sight of the fact that it’s the Port Authority’s property and the Port Authority’s responsibility for what is eventually recreated on the site.’”

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City for Sale: The Transformation of San Francisco by Chester W. Hartman, Sarah Carnochan

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, business climate, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, illegal immigration, John Markoff, Loma Prieta earthquake, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, young professional

The publisher gratefully acknowledges the generous contribution to this book provided by the General Endowment Fund of the Associates of the University of California Press. City for Sale OTHER BOOKS BY CHESTER HARTMAN Between Eminence and Notoriety: Four Decades of Radical Urban Planning Housing: Foundation of a New Social Agenda (with Rachel Bratt and Michael Stone) Challenges to Equality: Poverty and Race in America Double Exposure: Poverty and Race in America Paradigms Lost: The Post Cold War Era (with Pedro Vilanova) Housing Issues of the 1990s (with Sara Rosenberry) Winning America: Ideals and Leadership for the 1990s (with Marcus Raskin) Critical Perspectives on Housing (with Rachel Bratt and Ann Meyerson) The Transformation of San Francisco America’s Housing Crisis: What Is to Be Done?

In a Minneapolis study, for example, 70 to 80 percent of the displacees moved within a one-mile radius, and in a New Jersey study 74 percent of the displacees moved within six blocks. See Chester W. Hartman, “The Housing of Relocated Families,” Journal of the American Institute of Planners (November 1964), 266 – 86, reprinted in Chester Hartman, Between Eminence and Notoriety: Four Decades of Radical Urban Planning (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Center for Urban Policy Research, 2002), 74– 104. The Assault on South of Market / 55 The concern expressed at the public hearings about proper relocation was handled with similar pamphleteering. Several weeks before the January 1966 Planning Commission hearings on the YBC plan, the agency distributed to area residents a brochure headed, “Of course Urban Renewal wants you out, but into safe, decent, comfortable housing you can afford.”

Eric Brazil, “3-Way Compromise on Track to Retain Doggie Diner Head,” San Francisco Examiner, 25 January 2000. 10. Evelyn Nieves, “For Patrons of Prostitutes, Remedial Instruction,” New York Times, 18 March 1999. 11. “Pained by Quotas, Body Piercers Organize,” Washington Post, 17 January 1998. 12. R. B. Cohen, “The New International Division of Labor, Multinational Corporations and Urban Hierarchy,” in Urbanization and Urban Planning in 403 404 / Notes to Pages 3–7 Capitalist Society, ed. Michael Dear and Allen J. Scott (New York: Methuen, 1981), 303. 13. State of California, Employment Development Department, Labor Market Information Division, “Projections—June 1998,” “Occupational Employment Projections, 1995 –2002, San Francisco County,” table 6. 14. Susan S. Fainstein, Norman I. Fainstein, Richard Child Hill, Dennis R.

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The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger

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American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, commoditize, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight

Nationally, there were 233 million people living in metropolitan areas, which would mean that there is a need for about 800 regional-serving walkable places in the 361 metropolitan areas as of 2005.28 There are probably far less than half that number today, and most of those existing today are far from their build-out potential in population or jobs. Another means of tilting the playing field is to provide government assistance in developing the overlay zoning for a walkable urban area. The state or federal government could provide planning incentive grant money to local governments to do the required research, seek community input, and hire the urban planning consultants to create these walkable urban places. This work needs to be done before the private development and finance industry will be attracted to these districts. Very few developers are interested in spending their money and time planning a district, and it is the responsibility of the local government to determine their future land use. Another way of favoring walkable urbanism would be to subsidize its infrastructure, making the assumption that there are societal benefits to more compact development.

Concentrated poverty, discussed in chapter 4, is generally considered the primary culprit in the failure of high rise public housing built following Le Corbusier. The public housing schemes that replaced these troubled high-rise projects in the 1990s are almost all mixed-use, mixed-income walkable urbanism. This approach was pioneered during the Clinton administration under the direction of Henry Cisneros, secretary of housing and urban development. Following the New Urbanism planning approach, many of these Hope VI housing projects were built with sixty percent market-rate housing and forty percent affordable housing in a 192 | NOTES 5. 6. 7. 8. low-rise but high-density plan. As of 2006, these projects have proven to be quite successful in reducing crime and integrating families with different incomes, although management is the key to this experiment, so only time will tell if this is a long-term solution.

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Everything Under the Sun: Toward a Brighter Future on a Small Blue Planet by Ian Hanington

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, Exxon Valdez, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hydraulic fracturing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), oil shale / tar sands, stem cell, sustainable-tourism, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban sprawl

Another report, “Climate Safety,” from the Public Interest Research Centre, shows that the Arctic’s late-summer ice is melting much faster than scientists previously predicted and may soon disappear. The cascading consequences of such an event could be catastrophic. Just think what we could do with $4.1 trillion! Instead of giving companies these huge sums of money so that they can continue business as usual, buying and selling, merging, and paying their executives obscene salaries and bonuses, we could put it toward renewable energy, sustainable urban planning, and research into ways to lessen the impact of climate change—things that really would stimulate economies. But the focus continues to remain on the false dichotomy of economy versus environment. Eminent economist Lord Stern said that meeting the challenge of climate change could cost about 1 per cent of annual GDP, but doing nothing could destroy the global economy. It seems there’s only one thing we can do, and it won’t cost $4.1 trillion.

Politicians need to support local agriculture by implementing policies and laws that protect farmland, ensure that farmers receive a fair price for the food they grow, and remove regulatory barriers that hinder farm-gate sales. The protection of rich agricultural soil from urban sprawl, roads, industrial development, and other land use must be central to any government local food strategy. Study after study has shown that valuable agricultural land around the world is being chewed up and paved over because of poor urban-planning decisions that value parking lots, new highways, and larger strip malls over keeping our precious bank of fertile soil for current and future generations of farmers to steward—for our benefit. A report by the David Suzuki Foundation, “Ontario’s Wealth, Canada’s Future,” found that an alarming 16 per cent of farmland in the Greater Toronto Area was lost to urban encroachment between 1996 and 2001.

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The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work by Richard Florida

banking crisis, big-box store, blue-collar work, car-free, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial innovation, Ford paid five dollars a day, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labour mobility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, total factor productivity, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

But much of that remaining population is stuck—unable to relocate for financial reasons. Greater Detroit has seen a streaming outmigration of its young, talented, and ambitious people. Many of those who remain either lack the skills and resources to move or are trapped by houses that are so far underwater, they’re unable to get out. “If you no longer can sell your property, how can you move elsewhere?” asked Robin Boyle, an urban planning professor at Wayne State University. But then he answered his own question: “Some people just switch out the lights and leave—property values have gone so low, walking away is no longer such a difficult option.”12 As difficult as it is to even imagine, other Rust Belt cities have fared even worse than the Motor City: the greatest pain has been felt in the smaller, second- and third-tier communities in this industrial belt.

“Many say they can’t refinance their mortgages or sell, and they have no equity to leverage for repairs.” Could this be just the tip of the iceberg? Could the once-desirable suburban and exurban communities—with their endless cul-de-sacs and gated McMansions—be on their way to becoming the blighted and abandoned communities of tomorrow? “The future is not likely to wear well on suburban housing,” wrote the urban planning expert Christopher Leinberger in an attention-getting essay in the Atlantic, “The Next Slum?”16 Many of the inner-city neighborhoods that began their decline in the 1960s consisted of sturdily built, turn-of-the-century row houses, tough enough to withstand being broken up into apartments and requiring relatively little upkeep. “By comparison, modern suburban houses, even high-end McMansions, are cheaply built,” he writes.

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Ethics of Big Data: Balancing Risk and Innovation by Kord Davis, Doug Patterson

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4chan, business process, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Occupy movement, performance metric, Robert Bork, side project, smart grid, urban planning

Data Ownership At AT&T Labs in Florham Park, New Jersey, big data is being used to analyze the traffic and movement patterns of people through data generated by their mobile phones, to help improve policymaking and urban and traffic planning. The research team realized they could understand deep patterns of how people moved through urban environments by analyzing the flow of mobile devices from cell tower to cell tower. And they wanted to use those insights to help improve traffic flow and to inform better urban planning, not to improve their marketing. But, of course, AT&T, along with Verizon, Google, TomTom, NAVTEQ, and several companies who help retail malls track the traffic patterns of shoppers, want very much to use that information to generate new streams of revenue. The question of privacy is top of mind (especially as the distinction between anonymized and personally identifying information becomes more difficult to maintain), but the question of ownership is equally compelling.

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The Devil's Playground: A Century of Pleasure and Profit in Times Square by James Traub

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Anton Chekhov, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, fear of failure, intangible asset, Jane Jacobs, jitney, light touch regulation, megastructure, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, rent control, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal

In 1807, the city appealed to the state to settle the issue, and the state agreed to appoint a commission that would have “exclusive power to lay out streets, roads and public squares,” and to “shut up” streets already built by private parties. Whatever the original intention, the commissioners chose to interpret their charge as a mandate to utterly transform the map of the city. In 1811, they published one of the most audacious documents in the history of urban planning. It was a work that bore the stamp of the new republic —though it was Benjamin Franklin’s rationalism and unsentimental materialism, rather than Thomas Jefferson’s sense of romance and grandeur, that infused this extraordinary design. In remarks accompanying the plan, the commissioners noted that they had wondered “whether they should confine themselves to rectilinear and rectangular streets, or whether they should adopt some of those supposed improvements, by circles, ovals and stars, which certainly embellish a plan, whatever may be their effects as to convenience and utility.”

The banks and white-shoe law firms that Klein had carefully cultivated as anchor tenants had long since given up, and the entire project went into the deep freeze. Litigation offered a force majeure of its own. The aesthetic and intellectual critique of the project had hit home, but produced only modest changes, whereas the lawsuits had been shaky, even frivolous; yet the suits had succeeded where criticism had failed. 11. SAVING BILLBOARD HELL THE REDEVELOPMENT OF 42nd STREET, whatever its flaws, was an act of urban planning, a conscious re-creation of a bounded urban space almost from the ground up; but the rest of Times Square, seedy but not pathological, was for many years permitted to develop, or not, according to the fluctuations of the marketplace. No large structure had gone up along the great spillways of Broadway and Seventh Avenue since the 1930s. But the real estate boom of the sixties, which had filled the East Side of midtown Manhattan with big buildings, had made the West Side, with its traditionally low scale, look increasingly appealing as a development site.

New Yorkers have decided, in effect, that they would rather risk getting nothing built at all than to have a vision of the city simply imposed on them. And the process does not inevitably lead either to paralysis or to mediocrity: it was another city-state entity that chose the acclaimed architect Daniel Libeskind to design a new complex on the site of the World Trade Center in 2003. The competition over the rebuilding of the World Trade Center offers a model for urban planning that does not submit to the whim either of the developer or of the government functionary, and that allows the public will to express itself without descending into chaos. Of course, the city-state body overseeing the development process at the World Trade Center site agreed to stage a worldwide architectural competition only after an impassioned public rejected the unimaginative choices that were initially offered.

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The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful--And Their Architects--Shape the World by Deyan Sudjic

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen

The axes would not have been single straight lines, but were to be made up of a series of episodes, hinged around gigantic spaces and vast monumental buildings. Speer and Hitler selected the crossing point between the two axes to position the prodigious new Chancellery, which would have occupied the most privileged site in the whole city. Whether the plan was genuinely an attempt to design a real city, rather than create a parade ground realized on the scale of a city, is open to question. Certainly Speer had no obvious expertise or experience of urban planning before he began the project. The axis would have spanned the Spree, curving around the dome and the old Reichstag with a new bridge. Beyond that was a vast rectangular artificial lake, three-quarters of a mile long, which would have formed a reflecting pool for the dome and the setting for another group of public buildings: the city hall on one side of the water, designed by German Bestelmeyer from Munich in a manner derived from Stockholm’s town hall, the admiralty on the other.

This is ostensibly because it is what the multinationals want to stop them moving to Frankfurt, or New York, but the reality owes more to the unsubtle symbolism of being the biggest or the tallest, and so the most important. The timing of the attacks on the twin towers certainly made it seem as if the terrorists had been listening to the debate and had got the message about the symbolic significance of high-rise architecture. One of the hijackers who led the 11 September attacks, Mohammed Atta, was himself a graduate of Cairo’s school of architecture, and a postgraduate urban planning student in Hamburg. If he had been a lawyer or an engineer, or a software designer, it would simply have suggested that this was another disaffected middle-class radical. But the architectural connection seemed to suggest something else. It was as if he had recognized that the opposite side of the will to build is the attempt to delete. Mohammed Atta was born in 1968 into a middle-class Egyptian family.

The idea of asking a single firm of architects to produce no fewer than six different ways of rebuilding the World Trade Center, then whittling them down to three preferred options, and finally incorporating their least unpopular features into a single master plan, could have come straight from the White House staff’s modus operandi for explaining plans to effect a regime change in Baghdad to a president with a short attention span. As a strategy, it’s bad enough applied to global realpolitik. As an instrument of urban planning for one of the most highly charged sites in the world, it was nothing short of a disaster. Things started badly enough when the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation held a competition to find an architect for the job – not on the basis of their ideas, but on a credentials pitch. They picked Beyer Blinder Belle, a firm best known for its restoration of such nineteenth-century New York landmarks as Grand Central Station but without much of a track record in new thinking.

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Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City by Peter D. Norton

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clean water, Frederick Winslow Taylor, garden city movement, invisible hand, jitney, new economy, New Urbanism, Ralph Nader, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal

Copper, “The Economic Life of the City in Relation to Street Traffic,” AERA 14 (Sept. 1925), 193–200. Copper was director of research for the Los Angeles Railway and takes the street railways’ point of view. 52. Munn v. Illinois (1877); Chief Justice Morrison Waite was quoting Lord Chief Justice Hale, De Portibus Maris (c. 1670, first published 1776). 53. See Keith Revell, “Beyond Efficiency: Experts, Urban Planning, and Civic Culture in New York City, 1898–1933” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, Jan. 1994), chapter 6 (300–377). For a convenient abridgment, see Revell, Building Gotham: Civic Culture and Public Policy in New York City, 1898–1938 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), chapter 5 (185–226). 54. See especially Robert H. Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877–1920 (Hill and Wang, 1967); Alfred D.

It is distinct from planning, which shapes ends as well as means. By “negative regulation” I mean regulation that checks individual abuses but leaves social goals and the means of reaching them to “natural law,” leaving the state in the role of umpire. 57. See Robert M. Fogelson, Downtown: Its Rise and Fall, 1880–1950 (Yale University Press, 2001), esp. chapter 3 (112–182); Keith Revell, “Beyond Efficiency: Experts, Urban Planning, and Civic Culture in New York City, 1898–1933” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Virginia, Jan. 1994), chapter 6 (300–377). Notes to Chapter 4 311 58. Lord Chief Justice Hale introduced the idea of the “public interest” in De Portibus Maris (c. 1670, first published 1776). See also Ford P. Hall, The Concept of a Business Affected with a Public Interest (Principia, 1940), Walton H. Hamilton, “Affectation with a Public Interest,” Yale Law Journal 39 (June 1930), 1089–1112, and Breck P.

See Foster, From Streetcar to Superhighway: American City Planners and Urban Transportation, 1900–1940 (Temple University Press, 1981); Fairfield, The Mysteries of the Great City: The Politics of Urban Design, 1877–1937 (Ohio State University Press, 1993), chapter 4 (119–157); Fairfield, “The Scientific Management of Urban Space: Professional City Planning and the Legacy of Progressive Reform,” Journal of Urban History 20 (Feb. 1994), 179–204. 17. See esp. Fairfield, Mysteries of the Great City, chapter 4 (119–157); Keith Revell, “Beyond Efficiency: Experts, Urban Planning, and Civic Culture in New York City, 1898–1933” (dissertation, University of Virginia, 1994), chapter 5 (235–299); and Revell, Building Gotham: Civic Culture and Public Policy in New York City, 1898–1938 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003), 185–226. 18. Charles B. Ball, Chicago City Club Bulletin; reprinted as “Why Zoning Pays” in American City 26 (March 1922), 279. 320 Notes to Chapter 5 19.

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The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih

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Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Marshall McLuhan, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K

In August 2006 the number of active editors in English Wikipedia had reached a new high of 44,193,33 with 10 percent of these having the distinction of being “very active”34 core editors, who made 96_The_Wikipedia_Revolution more than 100 edits each per month. Serving as “janitors” were roughly 1,000 active administrators, tending to the duties of deleting, blocking, and protecting resources. Urban Jungle The plight of Wikipedia growing from small community to larger digital metropolis is something both Joseph Reagle in his Ph.D. work on Wikipedia and Steven Johnson in Emergence note as being similar to problems of urban planning. There is no better historical example than that explored in Jane Jacobs’s book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, her critique of the modernist planning policies of the 1950s and 1960s, an era when New York City developer Robert Moses was razing entire swaths of neighborhoods for planned housing projects and communities. Jacobs argued for preserving her small neighborhood on Hudson Street and resisting massive urban renewal, because the intimate sidewalks served an important social function.

., 43, 85, 172–73, 175 Nupedia-L, 63 Reagle, Joseph, 82, 96, 112 Nupedia Open Content License, 35, 72 Rec.food.chocolate, 84–85 RickK, 120, 185–88 rings, Web site, 23, 31 objectivism, 32, 36–37 robots, software, 88, 99–106, 145, 147, OCR (optical character recognition), 35 177, 179 Open Directory Project (ODP), 30–31, Rosenfeld, Jeremy, 45 33, 35 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 15 Ota, Takashi, 146 Russell, Bertrand, 13, 81 Oxford English Dictionary (OED), 70–72 Russian language, 152 peer production, 108–9 Sandbox, 97, 115 Pellegrini, Mark (Raul654), 180–81 Sanger, Larry, 6–7, 32–34, 36–38, Perl, 56, 67, 101, 140 40–41, 43–45, 61–65, 67, 88, 89, Peul language, 158 115, 184, 202, 210–11 phantom authority, 175–76 boldness directive and, 91, 113 Philological Society, 70 Citizendium project of, 190, 211–12 PHP, 74, 101 Essjay and, 197 Pike, Rob, 144 memoir of, 174, 190, 225 piranha effect, 83, 106, 109, 113, 120 resignation from Wikipedia, 174–75, Plautus Satire, 181 210 Pliny the Elder, 15 on rules, 76, 112 Poe, Marshall, 171 Spanish Wikipedia and, 9, 136–38 Polish Wikipedia, 146, 147 trolls and, 170–75, 189–90 Popular Science, 126 Wikipedia license and, 72 Portland Pattern Repository, 59 Y2K bug and, 32–33 Portuguese language, 136 San Jose Mercury News, 126 PostScript, 52 Schechter, Danny, 8–9 “Potato chip” article, 136 Schiff, Stacy, 196 Professor and the Madman, The Schlossberg, Edwin, 46 (Winchester), 70, 71 schools, 177–78 Project Gutenberg, 35 Scott, Jason, 131, 189 public domain content, 26, 111 search engines, 11, 22, 34 Pupek, Dan, 58 Google, see Google Seigenthaler, John, 9–10, 191–94, 200, 220 Quickpolls, 126–27 Senegal, 158 Quiz Show, 13 Serbian Wikipedia, 155–56 Index_243 servers, 77–79, 191 Tagalog language, 160 Sethilys (Seth Anthony), 106–11 Taiwan, 150, 151, 154 Shah, Sunir, 59–60, 64 “Talossan language” article, 120 Shaw, George Bernard, 135 Tamil language, 160 Shell, Tim, 21–22, 32, 36, 66, 174, Tawker, 177, 179, 186 184 Tektronix, 46, 47, 50, 55, 56 sidewalks, 96–97 termites, 82 Sieradski, Daniel, 204 Thompson, Ken, 143–44 Signpost, 200 Time, 9, 13 Silsor, 186 Torvalds, Linus, 28–29, 30, 173, 175 Sinitic languages, 159 Tower of Babel, 133–34 see also China tragedy of the commons, 223 Skrenta, Rich, 23, 30 Trench, Chenevix, 70 Slashdot, 67–69, 73, 76, 88, 205, trolls, 170–76, 179, 186, 187, 189–90 207, 216 Truel, Bob, 23, 30 Sanger’s memoir for, 174, 190, 225 2channel, 145 Sneakernet, 50 Snow, Michael, 206–7 Socialtext, 207 “U,” article on, 64 sock puppets, 128, 178–79 Unicode, 142, 144 software, open-source, 5, 23–28, 30, 35, UTF-8, 144–45 62, 67, 79, 216 UTF-32, 142, 143 design patterns and, 55, 59 UNIX, 27, 30–31, 54, 56, 143 Linux, 28–30, 56, 108, 140, 143, 173, Unregistered Words Committee, 70 216, 228 urban planning, 96–97 software robots, 88, 99–106, 145, 147, URL (Uniform Resource Locator), 53, 54 177, 179 USA Today, 9, 191, 220 Souren, Kasper, 158 UseModWiki, 61–63, 66, 73–74, 140–41 South Africa, 157–58 Usenet, 35, 83–88, 114, 170, 190, 223 spam, 11, 87, 220 Usenet Moderation Project (Usemod), 62 Spanish Wikipedia, 9, 136–39, 175, 183, USWeb, 211 215, 226 squid servers, 77–79 Stallman, Richard, 23–32, 74, 86, 217 vandalism: GNU Free Documentation License of, on LA Times Wikitorial, 207–8 72–73, 211–12 on Wikipedia, 6, 93, 95, 125, 128, GNU General Public License of, 27, 72 176–79, 181, 184–88, 194, 195, GNU Manifesto of, 26 202, 220, 227 GNUpedia of, 79 Van Doren, Charles, 13–14 Steele, Guy, 86 verein, 147 Stevertigo, 184 VeryVerily, 128 stigmergy, 82, 89, 92, 109 Vibber, Brion, 76 Sun Microsystems, 23, 27, 29–30, 56 Viola, 54 Sun Tzu, 169 ViolaWWW, 54–55 Swedish language, 140, 152 Voltaire, 15 244_Index WAIS, 34, 53 Wik, 123–25, 170, 180 Wales, Christine, 20–21, 22, 139 Wikia, 196, 197 Wales, Doris, 18, 19 Wiki Base, 62 Wales, Jimmy, 1, 8, 9, 18–22, 44, 76, Wikibooks, 216 88, 115, 131, 184, 196, 213, 215, Wikimania, 1–3, 8, 146, 147–48 220 WikiMarkup, 90 administrators and, 94, 185 Wikimedia Commons, 216 background of, 18–19 Wikimedia Foundation, 146, 157, 183–84, at Chicago Options Associates, 20, 196, 199, 213–15, 225–26, 227 21, 22 Wikipedia: Cunctator essay and, 172 administrators of, 67, 93–96, 119, 121, and deletion of articles, 120 125, 127, 148, 178, 185–86, dispute resolution and, 179–80, 181, 195–96, 224–25 223 advertising and, 9, 11, 136–38, 215, Essjay and, 197, 199 226 languages and, 139, 140, 157–58 amateurs and professionals in, 225 neutrality policy and, 6, 7, 113 Arbitration Committee of, 180–81, 184, objectivism and, 32, 36–37 197, 223 Nupedia and, 32–35, 41, 43–45, “assume good faith” policy in, 114, 187, 61–63 195, 200 on piranha effect, 83 blocking of people from, 93 role of, in Wikipedia community, 174–76, boldness directive in, 8, 91, 102, 179–80, 223 113–14, 115, 122, 221 Seigenthaler incident and, 192, 194 categories in, 97–98, 221 Spanish Wikipedia and, 137, 175 “checkuser” privilege in, 179, 196, 199 Stallman and, 30–32 database for, 73–74, 77, 78, 94 three revert rule and, 127–28 discussions in, 7–8, 65–66, 75–76, 89, Wikimania and, 146 121–22 Wikipedia license and, 72 DMOZ as inspiration for, 23 Wikitorials and, 206–7 five pillars of, 113, 216 Wales, Jimmy, Sr., 18 future of, 213–17, 219–29 Wall Street Journal, 126 growth of, 4, 9, 10, 77, 88–89, 95–97, “War and Consequences” Wikitorial, 99–100, 126, 184, 215, 219, 220 206–7 how it works, 90–96 wasps, 82 influence of, 201–212 Weatherly, Keith, 106 launch of, 64, 69, 139, 171 Web browsers, 51–55 legal issues and, 94, 111, 186, 191–92, Weblogs Inc., 215 227; see also copyright; libel WebShare, 209 linking in, 66–67, 73 Webster, Noah, 70, 133 mailing list for, 89, 95 Web 2.0, 68, 111, 114, 201 main community namespace in, 76 Wei, Pei-Yan, 54–55 main page of, 95 Weinstock, Steven, 202–3 MeatballWiki and, 60, 114, 119, 187–88 “Why Wikipedia Must Jettison Its mediation of disputes in, 180, 181, 195 Anti-Elitism” (Sanger), 189–90 meta pages in, 91 Index_245 name of, 45 “diff” function and, 74, 75, 93, 99 namespaces in, 75–76 edit histories of, 64–65, 71, 82, 91–93 number of editors in, 95–96 editing of, 3–4, 6, 38, 64–66, 69, 73, Nupedia and, 64–65, 88, 136, 171, 172 88, 114–15, 131, 194 openness of, 5–6, 9 edit wars and, 95, 122–31, 136, 146 origins of, 43–60 eventualism and, 120–21, 129, 159 policies and rules of, 76, 112–14, first written, 64 127–28, 170, 171, 192, 221, flagged revisions of, 148–49, 215–16, 224–25 227 popularity of, 4 inclusion of, 115–21 Quickpolls in, 126–27 inverted pyramid formula for, 90 Recent Changes page in, 64–65, 82, license covering content of, 72–73, 98, 104, 109, 176–77 211–12 schools and, 177–78 locking of, 95 servers for, 77–79, 191 maps in, 107, 109–11 Slashdot and, 69, 73, 76, 88 neutral point of view in, 6–7, 82, 89, 111, sock puppets and, 128, 178–79 112–13, 117, 140, 174, 203–4, 217, SOFIXIT directive in, 114–15, 122, 221 228 software robots and, 88, 99–106, 145, news and, 7 147, 177, 179 original research and, 112–13, 117, 174 spam and self-promotion on, 11, 220 protection and semi-protection of, 194, talk pages in, 75–76, 89, 93, 98 216 templates in, 97–98, 113, 221 reverts and, 125, 127–28 trolls and, 170–76, 179, 186, 187, single versions of, 6 189–90 spelling mistakes in, 104–5 user pages in, 76, 89 stability of, 227–28 vandalism and, 6, 93, 95, 125, 128, stub, 92, 97, 101, 104, 148 176–79, 181, 184–88, 194, 195, talk pages for, 75–76, 89, 93, 98 202, 220, 227 test edits of, 176 watchlists in, 74, 82, 98–99, 109 “undo” function and, 93 wiki markup language for, 221–22 uneven development of, 220 wiki software for, 64–67, 73, 77, 90, 93, unusual, 92, 117–18 140–41, 216 verifiability and, 112–13, 117 Wikipedia articles: watchlists for, 74, 82, 98–99, 109 accuracy of, 10, 72, 188–89, 194, 208 Wikipedia community, 7–8, 81–132, 174, attempts to influence, 11–12 175, 183–200, 215–17, 222–23 biographies of living persons, 192, Essjay controversy and, 194–200 220–21 Missing Wikipedians page and, 184–85, census data in, 100–104, 106 188 citations in, 113 partitioning of, 223 consensus and, 7, 94, 95, 119–20, 122, Seigenthaler incident and, 9–10, 222–23 191–94, 220 consistency among, 213 stress in, 184 creation of, 90–93, 130–31, 188–89 trolls and, 170 deletion of, 93–94, 96, 119–21, 174 Wales’s role in, 174–76, 179–80, 223 246_Index Wikipedia international editions, 12, 77, Wikitorials, 205–8 100, 131–32, 133–67 Wikiversity, 216 African, 157–58 WikiWikiWeb, 44–45, 58–60, 61, 62 Chinese, 10, 141–44, 146, 150–55 Willy on Wheels (WoW), 178–79 encoding languages for, 140–45 Winchester, Simon, 70, 71 French, 83, 139, 146, 147 Wizards of OS conference, 211 German, 11, 139, 140, 147–49, 215, Wolof language, 158 220, 227 Wool, Danny, 3, 158, 199 Japanese, 139, 140, 141–42, 144, World Book, 16–19 145–47 World Is Flat, The (Friedman), 11 Kazakh, 155–57 World Wide Web, 34, 35, 47, 51–55 links to, 134–35, 140 Web 2.0, 68, 111, 114, 201 list of languages by size, 160–67 WYSIWYG, 222 Serbian, 155–56 Spanish, 9, 136–39, 175, 183, 215, 226 Yahoo, 4, 22, 23, 30, 191, 214 Wikipedia Watch, 192 “Year zero” article, 117 Wikipedia Weekly, 225 Yeats, William Butler, 183 wikis, 44, 51 Yongle encyclopedia, 15 Cunningham’s creation of, 2, 4, 56–60, “You have two cows” article, 118 62, 65–66, 90 YouTube, 58 MeatballWiki, 59–60, 114, 119, 175, Y2K bug, 32–33 187–88 Nupedia and, 61–65 Wikisource, 216 ZhengZhu, 152–57 About the Author Andrew Lih was an academic for ten years at Columbia University and Hong Kong University in new media and journalism.

pages: 327 words: 103,336

Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts

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active measures, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, industrial cluster, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

People have been fascinated with what sociologists call the small-world problem for nearly a century, since the Hungarian poet Frigyes Karinthy published a short story called “Chains” in which his protagonist boasts that he can connect himself to any other person in the world, whether a Nobel Prize winner or a worker in a Ford Motor factory, through a chain of no more than five acquaintances. Four decades later, in her polemic on urban planning The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the journalist Jane Jacobs described a similar game, called messages, that she used to play with her sister when they first moved to New York: The idea was to pick two wildly dissimilar individuals—say a headhunter in the Solomon Islands and a cobbler in Rock Island, Illinois—and assume that one had to get a message to the other by word of mouth; then we would each silently figure out a plausible, or at least possible, chain of persons through whom the message could go.

For a more hopeful alternative viewpoint see Sachs (2006). 19. See Jacobs (1961, p. 4) 20. See Venkatesh (2002). 21. See Ravitch (2010) for a discussion of how popular, commonsense policies such as increased testing and school choice actually undermined public education. See Cohn (2007) and Reid (2009) for analysis of the cost of health care and possible alternative models. See O’Toole (2007) for a detailed discussion on forestry management, urban planning, and other failures of government planning and regulation. See Howard (1997) for a discussion and numerous anecdotes of the unintended consequences of government regulations. See Easterly (2006) again for some interesting remarks on nation-building and political interference, and Tuchman (1985) for a scathing and detailed account of US involvement in Vietnam. See Gelb (2009) for an alternate view of American foreign policy. 22.

pages: 254 words: 14,795

Poorly Made in China: An Insider's Account of the Tactics Behind China's Production Game by Paul Midler

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barriers to entry, corporate social responsibility, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, full employment, illegal immigration, new economy, out of africa, price discrimination, unpaid internship, urban planning

They guessed that China was uniformly populous, without stepping away from these coastal, dense urban centers. They did not understand how the interior of China was unlivable, that mountainous regions and other geographic barriers did not lend themselves to agricultural or even residential development. They also failed to take into account cultural differences in urban planning. Chinese do not have the same desire for elbowroom but instead had a preference for renao—the hustle and bustle associated with urban living. American urban planning was characterized by suburban sprawl. One neighborhood blended into another. In China, where they built with density in mind, you could drive from downtown Shanghai and, within half an hour, find yourself amid open fields with few signs of actual life. Even in the Chinese countryside, villagers preferred to live in relatively tight quarters, with one residence jammed up against the other.

pages: 289 words: 99,936

Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age by Virginia Eubanks

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affirmative action, Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, game design, global village, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low-wage service sector, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, race to the bottom, rent control, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban planning, web application, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

PD grew out of democratic workers’ movements in Scandinavia, where the high degree Popular Technology 107 of unionization and legislation that requires worker discussion of technological change in the workplace has laid the foundation for the considerable support participatory practices have enjoyed there (Greenbaum 1993, 35).9 Like popular education and PAR, PD places a premium on the active involvement of people who most directly confront problems (Levinger 1998). It draws on a broad understanding of technological and organizational systems as networks of practices, people, and objects embedded in particular contexts. Though PD tends to focus narrowly on information system design, there are many ways that a PD methodology can be used to strengthen community-building efforts and critical citizenship projects. For example, the feminist literature on urban planning, which combines the methodological focus of the field with feminist critical analysis of the gendered structuring of social space,10 broadens the domain of PD to provide a rich source for practicing participatory design outside the workplace. Feminist writers describe strategies that engage stakeholders in technological development, broadly construed: neighborhood revitalization, economic development, and dweller-controlled public housing.

., 169 Tubman, Harriet, 50, 145 2-1-1, 119 Stoeker, Randy, 33 Strauss, Anselm L., 178 Strong objectivity, 146 SUNY, Albany, 83 Surrogate pregnancy, 29 Surveillance technologies, 82 Survival, 140 Systemic inequality, 42 Underground Railroad Conference, 145 Unemployment, 55, 58–61 inequality, 69–70 women, 58, 61, 69–70 Unions, 157–158 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 160 United Way, 119 University of California-Santa Cruz, 83 Urban planning, 107 Use and disclosure statement, 92–93 Technological artifacts, 83–85 Technological Opportunities Program, 166 Technological pessimism, 37 Technology. See also Information technology (IT); Popular technology access to, 4–5, 36, 165–166 definitions of, 25 as dynamic process, 21 existing models of, 154 as legislation, 84 and poverty, 8 real-world, 31 and social change, 31–32, 36, 42, 45 and social justice, 84–85 and women, 6, 9–10, 24, 27–29, 32 Tech Valley, 51–52, 71, 156–157, 159 “Through Harriet’s Eyes,” 145 Tracking behavior, 90 Transparency, 91–92 Troy, NY, 49–53 educational attainment in, 57–58 housing in, 52 inequality in, 57, 67–70 job creation in, 64–66 poverty in, 61–64 public policy in, 52–53 Tech Valley, 51–52, 71, 156–157, 159 unemployment in, 58–61, 69 women in, 71 Troy Female Seminary, 50 Visvanathan, Shiv, 132, 151–152 Volatile continuity, 56–57, 61 Wages, 65–66, 162–163 Welfare, 10–13, 29, 82–83, 86–89.

pages: 341 words: 89,986

Bricks & Mortals: Ten Great Buildings and the People They Made by Tom Wilkinson

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Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, experimental subject, false memory syndrome, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, housing crisis, Kitchen Debate, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, megacity, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

The Letters of Gertrude Bell, vol. 2 (1927). http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks04/0400461h.html 22 Bernhardsson, 105. 23 Ibid. 108. 24 Jean-Claude Maurice, Si vous le répétez, je démentirai: Chirac, Sarkozy, Vilepin (Paris, 2009). 25 Daniel Brook, ‘The Architect of 9/11’, Slate, September 10 2009. http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/dispatches/features/2009/the_architect_of_911/what_can_we_learn_about_mohamed_atta_from_his_work_as_a_student_of_urban_planning.html Chapter 2: The Golden House 1 Wolfgang Kayser, The Grotesque in Art and Literature (Bloomington, IN, 1963) 20. 2 Suetonius, vol. 2, trans. J.C. Rolfe (Cambridge, MA, 1914). http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Nero*.html 3 Tacitus, The Annals, trans. Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb (New York, 1942). http://classics.mit.edu/Tacitus/annals.mb.txt 4 Ibid.# 5 Gustave Flaubert, La danse des morts (1838), 171. 6 The existence of these objects is disputed by mainstream historians. 7 Nikolaus Pevsner, Outline of European Architecture (London, 1962), 411. 8 Edward Champlin, Nero (Cambridge, MA, 2003), 200. 9 Epistle XC.

Michael Jennings, Howard Eiland and Gary Smith (Cambridge, MA, 2004–6) Berman, Marshall, All That is Solid Melts Into Air (New York, 1987) Bernhardsson, Magnus, Reclaiming a Plundered Past: Archaeology and Nation Building in Modern Iraq (Austin, TX, 2005) Bevan, Robert, The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War (London, 2006) Brook, Daniel, ‘The Architect of 9/11’, Slate, September 10 2009, http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/dispatches/features/2009/the_architect_of_911/what_can_we_learn_about_mohamed_atta_from_his_work_as_a_student_of_urban_planning.html Bucci, Federico, Albert Kahn: Architect of Ford (Princeton, 1993) Burgess, Rod, ‘Self-Help Housing Advocacy: A Curious Form of Radicalism’, in Self-Help Housing: A Critique, ed. Peter Ward (London, 1982) Carlson, Marvin, Places of Performance: The Semiotics of Theatre Architecture (Ithaca, NY, 1989) Carlyle, Thomas, The French Revolution (London, 1966 edition) Céline, Louis-Ferdinand, Voyage au bout de la nuit (Paris, 1962 edition) Champlin, Edward, Nero (Cambridge, MA, 2003) Chi, Xiao, The Chinese Garden as Lyric Enclave (Ann Arbor, MI, 2001) Clunas, Craig, Fruitful Sites: Garden Culture in Ming Dynasty China (London, 1996) Colomina, Beatriz, Privacy and Publicity (Cambridge, MA, 1994) Conrad, Joseph, Heart of Darkness (London, 1994 edition) Dacos, Nicole, The Loggia of Raphael: A Vatican Art Treasure (New York, 2008) Darling, Elizabeth, Re-Forming Britain: Narratives of Modernity Before Reconstruction (London, 2007) Davis, Mike, Planet of Slums (London, 2006) de La Grange, Henry-Louis, Gustav Mahler (Oxford, 1995–2008) Forty, Adrian, Words and Buildings (London, 2000) Foucault, Michel, Language, Counter-Memory, Practice, trans.

pages: 352 words: 104,411

Rush Hour by Iain Gately

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Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, blue-collar work, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, connected car, corporate raider, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Dean Kamen, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, extreme commuting, Google bus, Henri Poincaré, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, Marchetti’s constant, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, remote working, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, telepresence, Tesla Model S, urban planning, éminence grise

Instead of being imprisoned on a train and subject to the whims of its operators, each was now the captain of their own little ship and could, in theory, escape from routine whenever they wished by turning off at the next junction. Auto-commuting was encouraged in its early years by America’s cities, which hoped that cars would displace the horse-drawn transport that still formed the majority of their internal traffic and had become a significant sanitary problem. At an international urban planning conference held in New York in 1898, horse pollution was top of the agenda. It was estimated that the host city’s horses deposited ‘2.5 million pounds of manure and 60,000 gallons of urine’ on its streets every day. The problem was especially acute in summer when farmers were occupied with the harvest and couldn’t spare the time to collect the dung for fertilizer, which was piled up in vacant lots and sometimes reached sixty feet in height.

As well as establishing automobiles as the principal form of personal transport, it had committed the country, for better or worse, to a way of life ‘organized predominantly on the basis of the universal availability of motor transportation’. *1 Lloyd Wright thought that the United States of America should be renamed Usonia, to reflect the fact that Canada and Mexico were also ‘American’. He designed cities and suburban houses to suit his vision of a distinctive American style of urban planning. The name survives in Esperanto as Usono. *2 The Levittown team won the Little League World Series in 1960. *3 A second model of Levittown house introduced in 1949. *4 George Romney’s opposition to oversized gas guzzlers didn’t rub off on his son Mitt, the Republican presidential candidate in 2012, who has fought measures to raise the standards for fuel economy in American autos on the grounds that this would ‘limit the choice available to American families’ by forcing them to buy expensive, if more efficient, foreign cars

pages: 327 words: 88,121

The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Nate Silver, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

It was difficult, perhaps impossible, to see from afar, but in the daily interactions of neighborhood life—shopkeepers holding a spare key for the tenants upstairs, mothers keeping an eye on the gaggle of children playing in the alley—a web of social interactions grew organically. And beyond any seeming messiness, the familiarity that arose out of those interactions was the most effective salve for social isolation. Jacobs wasn’t arguing that any mass of people would develop a sense of community naturally; that, she contended, was the problem with bad urban planning. Certain structural elements were necessary, if not sufficient, to cultivate gemeinshaft. At the core, she argued, well-functioning cities needed to be divided organically into internally diverse districts of between eighty thousand and two hundred thousand people. “The chief function of a successful district,” she wrote, “is to mediate between the indispensable, but inherently politically powerless, street neighborhoods, and the inherently powerful city as a whole.”21 The success of each district hinged in turn on its capacity to embrace several axioms of vibrant urban life.

Jamaica, 180–81 shifts in, xii–xx, 75, 129, 134–35, 143–44, 146, 151, 194, 211, 212–13, 217, 247n social brain hypothesis, 91–92 social capital, 98–112, 114, 170, 173 Putnam’s use of term, 115 removed from middle rings, 113–26, 129, 138–39, 143, 145, 148, 189–90, 208, 213, 239 social character, 4–8, 12 social diversity, 79, 81, 86, 232 Chinatown Bus effect and, 38–41, 43–44, 46–48 social ethic, 5 social gaming, 121–22 social mobility, 21–24, 26 social networking, 18, 37–38, 115, 125, 209 Chinatown Bus effect and, 38, 45 social networks, 48, 109–10, 144, 195, 237 brain size and, 91–92 social safety net, xviii, xix, 198, 200–205, 209–10, 227, 234 Social Security, xv, 198, 230 social structure, 11, 92–98 Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 109 Soviet Union, 6, 51, 52, 233 Spanish-American War, 188 special interests, 183, 186, 187, 229 spirituality, 71–72, 74 sports, 8–12, 108 Srivastava, Sameer, 119–20 Stand by Me (film), 123–24, 126 statistics, 7–11, 119 globalization and, 17–18 on organizations, 44–45 Stevenson, Adlai, 190 Stewart, Jon, 232 Stiglitz, Joseph, 22, 23 strangers, x, 11, 107, 134, 135, 142, 150, 188–89, 240 Strauss, Levi, 162–63 subcultural theory of urbanism, 87 suburbs, xiii, 3–5, 17, 39–40, 48, 50, 56, 83, 84, 129, 145, 147, 153 business in, 175–76 flight to, 56, 138 mobility and, 25, 104 success, 215–18, 224, 230 support clique, 96 Survivor (TV show), 64 Swinton, Ernest, 162 sympathy group, 96 teamwork (team chemistry), 9, 164, 165.11–12 Tea Party, 109–10, 182, 228, 230 technology, xi, xv, 8, 10, 25, 173–74, 195, 237 Chinatown Bus effect and, 35–38 First Wave and, 16 gerrymandering and, 183–84 information, see information technology merging of, 160, 162 mobile, 104, 260n Second Wave and, 16 Third Wave and, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21 telephone calls, xi, 7–8, 104, 123 television, 34–37, 54, 60, 148, 152 reality, 63–64 terrorism, 55–56, 227 That Used to Be Us (Friedman), 240 theory, decline of, 6–8 Thiel, Peter, 174 Thinking Fast and Slow (Kahneman), 13 Third Wave society, 16–32, 75, 89, 101, 105, 126, 171 Chinatown Bus effect and, 34–35, 40, 43, 44–45, 48 home life and, 17, 26–31 mobility and, 17, 21–26 This American Life (radio show), 180 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 66, 80, 81, 115, 139, 151, 187, 228, 234, 239, 258n township and, xiii, 80, 88, 127, 142, 176–77, 191, 247n To Dwell Among Friends (Fischer), 128–29 Toffler, Alvin, 14–17, 31–32, 88, 89 Toffler, Heidi, 14–17, 31–32, 88, 89 Tough, Paul, 216, 222 township, xiii, xviii, xix, 79–82, 88–89, 126, 142–49, 174, 176, 194, 195, 213, 217, 232–37, 239, 247n decline of, 127–32, 134–39, 153 durability of, 138, 144, 151, 152, 153 health care and, 201–2, 208, 209, 210 politics of, 189–90, 191 prejudice and, 146, 148 tribes, 93, 95, 96, 97 Truman, Harry, 65 trust, 165 community, 150–51 social, 98–99, 134–35, 173, 193 Turkle, Sherry, 111 Twitter, 45, 108, 110, 114, 143 Unwinding, The (Packer), 235 urbanism, xiii, 4–5, 16, 56, 83–88, 127–29, 222 depravity associated with, 83, 84, 87, 127–28 subcultural theory of, 87 urban planning, bad vs. good, 86 Uzzi, Brian, 165 vaccination, 51, 59, 157–59, 174, 265n “valuable inefficiency,” 168 variolation, 157, 158 video games, 120–22 villages, 92–95, 116, 127, 135, 144, 153, 213, 236 global, 16, 142–43 violence, 55–56, 61, 134 voluntary organizations, 80, 116–18, 130–31, 187, 201, 228, 239 Wachtel, Eleanor, 57 Wade, Dwyane, 8–9 wages, 11, 22, 55, 180 Warren, Rick, 72 Washington, D.C., 3, 19, 113, 188–89 Chinatown in, 33–35 lack of diversity in, 46 see also government, U.S.

pages: 345 words: 86,394

Frequently Asked Questions in Quantitative Finance by Paul Wilmott

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Albert Einstein, asset allocation, beat the dealer, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, butterfly effect, capital asset pricing model, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, delta neutral, discrete time, diversified portfolio, Edward Thorp, Emanuel Derman, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fixed income, fudge factor, implied volatility, incomplete markets, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, iterative process, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, martingale, Myron Scholes, Norbert Wiener, Paul Samuelson, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, risk/return, Sharpe ratio, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, transaction costs, urban planning, value at risk, volatility arbitrage, volatility smile, Wiener process, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

For each throw, if 1 appears you win $1, if 2 appears you win $2, etc. but if 6 appears you lose all your money and the game ends. When is the optimal stopping time and what are your expected winnings? (Thanks to ckc226.) 100 kg of berries You have 100 kg of berries. Ninety-nine percent of the weight of berries is water. Time passes and some amount of water evaporates, so our berries are now 98% water. What is the weight of berries now? Do this one in your head. (Thanks to NoDoubts.) Urban planning There are four towns positioned on the corners of a square. The towns are to be joined by a system of roads such that the total road length is minimized. What is the shape of the road? (Thanks to quantie.) Closer to the edge or the centre? You have a square and a random variable that picks a random point on the square with a uniform distribution. What is the probability that a randomly selected point is closer to the center than to the edge?

Time passes and some amount of water evaporates, so our berries are now 98% water. What is the weight of berries now? Do this one in your head. (Thanks to NoDoubts.) Solution The unexpected, yet correct, answer is 50 kg. It seems like a tiny amount of water has evaporated so how can the weight have changed that much? There is clearly 1 kg of solid matter in the berries. If that makes up two percent (100 less 98%) then the total weight must be 50 kg. Urban planning There are four towns positioned on the corners of a square. The towns are to be joined by a system of roads such that the total road length is minimized. What is the shape of the road? (Thanks to quantie.) Solution One is tempted to join the towns with a simple crossroad shape but this is not optimal. Pythagoras and some basic calculus will show you that the arrangement shown in the figure is better, with the symmetrically placed crosspiece in the middle of the ‘H’ shape having length Obviously there are two such solutions.

pages: 313 words: 92,053

Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard

augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

Perhaps for U.S. visitors the appearance of these streets conjures a vision of a simpler and happier time in the United States than in more recent years. But in addition to the historical associations that might be set into play by the sight of Main Street, there is an appealing order, scale, and structure to the street.6 Just as Koolhaas argues that Coney Island technology of the fantastic had an influence on serious urban planning in Manhattan, the design of Disney’s Main Street can also be said to have had an influence on town planning in the United States. This influence was made explicit in the Disney-designed town of Celebration in Florida, which employs similar principles to those perfected on the Main Street of the nearby theme park DisneyWorld. But unlike a theme park, which must always represent an escape from real life, Celebration was intended to function as an actual town.

There are also some perfectly sensible contextual and individual variables that can influence our feelings of personal risk. We are much more likely to be circumspect at night than we are during the daytime. Women and the elderly have lower thresholds for anxiety or avoidance, and this is perfectly in keeping with their greater vulnerability to threat. The gender difference in both perception of and vulnerability to risk is difficult to overemphasize and should be a key element of successful urban planning. In 1991, A Viennese survey found that the daily routes of men and women through the city was markedly disparate: men tended to drive or take public transit twice a day, once on the way to work and once on the way home again, whereas women took varied routes related to childcare, household shopping, and a variety of other activities. In response, Vienna instituted a policy of “gender mainstreaming” designed to promote equal access and opportunity for both men and women in urban environments.16 Some elements of this policy—improvements in lighting and the design of walkways—were explicitly designed to address gender differences in both fear of crime and victimization.

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The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida

affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional

(“There’s Basically No Way Not to Be a Gentrifier,” is how one 2014 article put it.4) Longtime residents have a strong sense of attachment to the places in which they live; even if they’re not forced to leave, they are understandably upset when newcomers who are very different and much more well-to-do change their neighborhood in ways that make it feel unfamiliar. We all care deeply about where we live and want others to respect our right to be there. When they do not, anger and anxiety mount, and tensions flare. Yet a number of experts who have researched the subject see the standard complaints about gentrification as overblown and inaccurate. Lance Freeman, an urban planning professor at Columbia University who has studied the gentrification of Harlem and other New York neighborhoods extensively, thinks that the concern over the direct displacement of poor residents by wealthy gentrifiers is based more on myth than reality. Douglas Massey, a sociologist at Princeton University and a leading expert on racial and economic segregation, argues that gentrification is a proverbial “drop in the bucket” compared to the broader movement of people into and out of cities.

Data on Ferguson are from Elizabeth Kneebone, “Ferguson, MO, Emblematic of Growing Suburban Poverty,” Brookings Institution, August 15, 2014, www.brookings.edu/blogs/the-avenue/posts/2014/08/15-ferguson-suburban-poverty; James Russell, “Ferguson and Failing Suburbs,” Jamessrussell.net, August 17, 2015, http://jamessrussell.net/ferguson-and-failing-suburbs; Stephen Bronars, “Half of Ferguson’s Young African-American Men Are Missing,” Forbes, March 18, 2015, www.forbes.com/sites/modeledbehavior/2015/03/18/half-of-fergusons-young-african-american-men-are-missing. 13. On the connection between commuting time and economic mobility, see Reid Ewing, Shima Hamidi, James B. Grace, and Yehua Dennis Wei, “Does Urban Sprawl Hold Down Upward Mobility?” Landscape and Urban Planning 148 (April 2016): 80–88. 14. On the delivery of local services to the suburbs, see Arthur Nelson as cited in Leigh Gallagher, The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving (New York: Portfolio Penguin, 2013). For the UCLA study, by the California Center for Sustainable Communities, see Laura Bliss, “L.A.’s New ‘Energy Atlas’ Maps: Who Sucks the Most Off the Grid,” CityLab, October 6, 2015, www.citylab.com/housing/2015/10/las-new-energy-atlas-maps-who-sucks-the-most-off-the-grid/409135.

pages: 651 words: 180,162

Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder by Nassim Nicholas Taleb

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Air France Flight 447, Andrei Shleifer, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discrete time, double entry bookkeeping, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, financial independence, Flash crash, Gary Taubes, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, Henri Poincaré, high net worth, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, informal economy, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, money market fund, moral hazard, mouse model, Myron Scholes, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, selection bias, Silicon Valley, six sigma, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, stochastic volatility, The Great Moderation, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, Yogi Berra, Zipf's Law

Since no intervention implies no iatrogenics, the source of harm lies in the denial of antifragility, and to the impression that we humans are so necessary to making things function. Enforcing consciousness of generalized iatrogenics is a tall order. The very notion of iatrogenics is quite absent from the discourse outside medicine (which, to repeat, has been a rather slow learner). But just as with the color blue, having a word for something helps spread awareness of it. We will push the idea of iatrogenics into political science, economics, urban planning, education, and more domains. Not one of the consultants and academics in these fields with whom I tried discussing it knew what I was talking about—or thought that they could possibly be the source of any damage. In fact, when you approach the players with such skepticism, they tend to say that you are “against scientific progress.” But the concept can be found in some religious texts. The Koran mentions “those who are wrongful while thinking of themselves that they are righteous.”

But alas, some things we wish were a bit more fragile—which brings us to architecture. ARCHITECTURE AND THE IRREVERSIBLE NEOMANIA There is some evolutionary warfare between architects producing a compounded form of neomania. The problem with modernistic—and functional—architecture is that it is not fragile enough to break physically, so these buildings stick out just to torture our consciousness—you cannot exercise your prophetic powers by leaning on their fragility. Urban planning, incidentally, demonstrates the central property of the so-called top-down effect: top-down is usually irreversible, so mistakes tend to stick, whereas bottom-up is gradual and incremental, with creation and destruction along the way, though presumably with a positive slope. Further, things that grow in a natural way, whether cities or individual houses, have a fractal quality to them. Like everything alive, all organisms, like lungs, or trees, grow in some form of self-guided but tame randomness.

In France, some blame the modernistic architecture of housing projects for the immigrant riots. As the journalist Christopher Caldwell wrote about the unnatural living conditions: “Le Corbusier called houses ‘machines for living.’ France’s housing projects, as we now know, became machines for alienation.” Jane Jacobs, the New York urban activist, took a heroic stance as a political-style resistant against neomania in architecture and urban planning, as the modernistic dream was carried by Robert Moses, who wanted to improve New York by razing tenements and installing large roads and highways, committing a greater crime against natural order than Haussmann, who, as we saw in Chapter 7, removed during the nineteenth century entire neighborhoods of Paris to make room for the “Grand Boulevards.” Jacobs stood against tall buildings as they deform the experience of urban living, which is conducted at street level.

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The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

.), and on and on.23 These Moon-bases on Earth are spliced from Soviet science cities, Silicon Valley campuses, Orange County gated communities, and a mutual understanding between political despotism and technological innovation. They are what cities look like in the shadow of airports, Special Economic Zones, and “sustainability mandates.” Some of these would redefine city-states as carefully policed service platforms, and for this, their urban-planning expertise relies on CRM (Customer Relationship Management), DRM (Digital Rights Management), server virtualization, end-User usage metrics, object synchronization across multiple devices and device synchronization across multiple data objects, at least as much as it does on architectural design, and often not at all on things that are normally thought to make interesting cities interesting.24 Like all Ballardesque metropoli, these cities are “post-interesting,” which is itself interesting.

For the latter, logistics is a technical imaginary for the world in choreographic motion, an image that in turn becomes a technique for organizing the world as a distributed, generalized complex of distributed, integrated interfaces. 29.  A possible methodological framework: Interface design is less about the design of a thing than of a condition of transference (that could become a thing) and can take at least three main forms. First-order interface design produces the conditions of interassemblage between people, things, or places—making it good, smart, fast, flexible, sustainable, and so on. This is how urban planning and public policy are also interface design. Second-order interface design produces images of interassemblage that give order, predictability, and clarity to how people use systems. These images are very powerful guides—so powerful that they really are the interfaces to what they represent. This is how graphic designers are interface designers. Third-order interface design produces the image-instruments of interassemblage that allow for the system to be governed, controlled, and optimized according to plan.

The flat earth of digital globalization was nothing if not intensely utopian in its self-image. Cities were adorned with a new brotherhood of obelisks marking this new “postutopian” order, predicated on the cargo cult economics of Bilbao effects and affects and punctuated by the destruction of the World Trade Center towers in New York City by that utopian urbanist, Mohamed Atta. His master's degree in urban planning described the segmentation of Aleppo, Syria, into Islamic and Western zones where immunity of the former could be protected from the dangers of the latter, as well as his mortification at the mistreatment of the twin towers of the Gates of Al-Nasr. His utopian security urbanism was to “sacrifice one set of twin towers to save another.”47 This is the problem with a surplus of utopian ends. What holds for our City layer's urbanism proper?

pages: 423 words: 129,831

The Big Roads: The Untold Story of the Engineers, Visionaries, and Trailblazers Who Created the American Superhighways by Earl Swift

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, big-box store, blue-collar work, Donner party, edge city, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, side project, smart transportation, traveling salesman, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen

The answer: Interregional Highways had made it "perfectly clear" in 1944 "that the Interstate Highway System would penetrate the cities," and the wording of subsequent acts left no doubt that Congress had known what it was approving. Maybe so, Bragdon responded, but the system OK'ed in 1944 had been enlarged by Public Roads; surely Congress never intended urban interstates in the numbers and sizes now contemplated. He convinced commerce secretary Frederick H. Mueller to suspend work on any planned city interstates until the bureau devised a way to incorporate them into formal urban planning efforts. Tallamy and the bureau were deeply unhappy at this. Bragdon was acting in opposition to the will of Congress. Every study on which the program was based had been explicit: the country's highway needs were sharpest in the cities. Congress had read those studies. Congress had seen the Yellow Book's maps. Congress wanted urban routes. The general was just hitting stride. In October 1959, he suggested a few of his own guidelines for urban routes.

In the program's early days, those hearings were often as not used to assuage towns up in arms over not getting an interstate. The 1956 act had intended that officials use what they heard to ensure that they "considered the economic effects of such a location." The 1968 act swapped out that language for "economic and social effects of such a location, its impact on the environment, and its consistency with the goals and objectives of such urban planning as has been promulgated by the community." Instead of addressing people who worried the interstates would bypass them, the new hearings would solicit comments from those who worried they weren't far enough away. This shift in orientation became public in October 1968, when the Federal Highway Administration published the regulations it planned to use to comply with the new act. They called for two public hearings, not one, on every Federal Aid project: the first a corridor hearing at which taxpayers could speak their minds on a highway's location, and the second a design hearing, at which they would have the chance to influence the project's size and style—whether it would be elevated, depressed, or built at street level, how it would be landscaped, that sort of thing.

pages: 414 words: 119,116

The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot

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active measures, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor

In Britain, the nation was diverted for a while by an altercation between a rather posh Conservative government minister with a bicycle, and the police guarding No. 10 Downing Street. The image of a toff on a bicycle is not far from what the evidence shows: the higher the social position, the more likely are people to have used a bicycle in the previous week. People at the top make more trips of all types than those at the bottom and more by walking and cycling.40 Happily, some in urban planning are putting their talents to designing cities with a view to walkability and active transport. I want to highlight two issues. First is the safe journey to school – taking steps to encourage children to walk or cycle to school. To achieve this will take concentration on the second issue: making cycling and walking safe. In Copenhagen, 36 per cent of the journeys to work or education are by bicycle.41 Cycle travel is relatively safe because of the separation of cars, pedestrians and cycles.

., here tuberculosis, here, here, here, here Tunisia, here Turandot, here, here Turkey, here, here Uganda, here, here unemployment, here, here, here, here, here, here, here and mental health, here and suicide, here, here youth unemployment, here, here, here, here UNICEF, here, here United Kingdom alcohol consumption, here capital:income ratio, here and child well-being, here cost of childcare, here and economic recovery, here, here education system, here, here disability-free life expectancy, here founding of welfare state, here health-care system, here income inequalities, here, here literacy levels, here male adult mortality, here PISA score, here politics and economics, here and poverty in work, here, here poverty levels, here, here prison population, here social attitudes, here and social interventions, here social mobility, here ‘strivers and scroungers’ rhetoric, here, here and taxation, here unemployment, here use of tables for meals, here United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), here, here, here, here United States of America air pollution, here, here alcohol consumption, here capital:income ratio, here child poverty, here and child well-being, here cotton subsidies, here and economic recovery, here education system, here, here, here female life expectancy, here and gang violence, here health-care system, here, here income inequalities, here, here, here, here international comparisons, here, here, here lack of paid maternity leave, here life expectancy and education, here male adult mortality, here, here, here maternal mortality, here, here obesity levels, here, here, here, here PISA score, here politics and economics, here and poverty in work, here poverty levels, here prison population, here race and disadvantage, here, here, here, here, here social disadvantage and health, here social mobility, here suicide rate, here and taxation, here US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, here US Department of Justice, here US Federal Reserve Bank, here US National Academy of Science (NAS), here, here, here, here University of Sydney, here urban planning, here Uruguay, here, here, here, here utilitarianism, here, here, here Vågerö, Denny, here valuation of life, here Victoria Longitudinal Study, here Vietnam, here, here violence, here domestic (intimate partner), here, here, here Virchow, Rudolf, here vulture funds, here, here Wales, youth unemployment in, here walking speed, here Washington Consensus, here, here, here welfare spending, here West Arnhem College, here Westminster, life expectancy in, here Whitehall Studies, here, here, here, here, here, here, here wife-beating, here Wilde, Oscar, here, here Wilkinson, Richard, here willingness-to-pay methodology, here, here Wolfe, Tom, here, here women and alcohol use, here and cash-transfer schemes, here A Note on the Author Born in England and educated in Australia, Sir Michael Marmot is Professor of Epidemiology and Public Health at UCL.

pages: 523 words: 143,139

Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions by Brian Christian, Tom Griffiths

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4chan, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, constrained optimization, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, diversification, Donald Knuth, double helix, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, first-price auction, Flash crash, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Henri Poincaré, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, Lao Tzu, Leonard Kleinrock, linear programming, martingale, Nash equilibrium, natural language processing, NP-complete, P = NP, packet switching, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prediction markets, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert X Cringely, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, sorting algorithm, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, stochastic process, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Malthus, traveling salesman, Turing machine, urban planning, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Motorists feature in some of the earliest literature on the secretary problem, and the framework of constant forward motion makes almost every car-trip decision into a stopping problem: the search for a restaurant; the search for a bathroom; and, most acutely for urban drivers, the search for a parking space. Who better to talk to about the ins and outs of parking than the man described by the Los Angeles Times as “the parking rock star,” UCLA Distinguished Professor of Urban Planning Donald Shoup? We drove down from Northern California to visit him, reassuring Shoup that we’d be leaving plenty of time for unexpected traffic. “As for planning on ‘unexpected traffic,’ I think you should plan on expected traffic,” he replied. Shoup is perhaps best known for his book The High Cost of Free Parking, and he has done much to advance the discussion and understanding of what really happens when someone drives to their destination.

Drivers just want to take the fastest route, whatever it is, and routers just want to shuffle along their packets with minimal effort—but in both cases this can result in overcrowding along critical pathways, creating congestion that harms everyone. How much harm, though? Surprisingly, Tim Roughgarden and Cornell’s Éva Tardos proved in 2002 that the “selfish routing” approach has a price of anarchy that’s a mere 4/3. That is, a free-for-all is only 33% worse than perfect top-down coordination. Roughgarden and Tardos’s work has deep implications both for urban planning of physical traffic and for network infrastructure. Selfish routing’s low price of anarchy may explain, for instance, why the Internet works as well as it does without any central authority managing the routing of individual packets. Even if such coordination were possible, it wouldn’t add very much. When it comes to traffic of the human kind, the low price of anarchy cuts both ways. The good news is that the lack of centralized coordination is making your commute at most only 33% worse.

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Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

We should know by now that there are and can be no Pareto-optimal solutions for any system as complex as a city.39 That such a solution, if it even existed, could be arrived at algorithmically is also subject to the starkest doubt. Assume, for the sake of argument, that there did exist a master formula capable of resolving all resource allocation conflicts and balancing the needs of all of a city’s competing constituencies. It certainly would be convenient if this golden mean could be determined automatically and consistently, via the application of a set procedure—in a word, algorithmically. In urban planning, the idea that certain kinds of challenges are susceptible to algorithmic resolution has a long pedigree. It’s present in the Corbusian doctrine that the ideal and correct ratio of spatial provisioning in a city can be calculated from nothing more than an enumeration of the population, it underpins the complex composite indices Jay Forrester devised in his groundbreaking 1969 Urban Dynamics, and it lay at the heart of the RAND Corporation’s (eventually disastrous) intervention in the management of 1970s New York City.40 No doubt part of the idea’s appeal to smart-city advocates, too, is the familial resemblance such an algorithm would bear to the formulae by which commercial real-estate developers calculate air rights, the land area that must be reserved for parking in a community of a given size, and so on.

Should it at all undercut the business model on which retail depends, a good deal of the street frontage our cities now consecrate to that purpose would be freed up to serve other ends. Whether these new uses would attract the continuous, daylong flux of diverse visitors that urban vitality depends on, we can’t yet know.8 But straightforwardly, making things close to where they’re needed opens up the possibility of a denser, more compact and efficient way of living in cities. And with clean, city-center workshops sited cheek-by-jowl with living quarters, even urban planning’s basic distinction between industrial, commercial and residential zones comes into question. Furthermore, the bounding constraints on the human condition would shift, for all of us, in ways we’ve never before even thought to reckon with. Whether or not our experience of everyday life ever scales the heights foreseen by the most ardent prophets of luxury communism, the ability to produce things locally meaningfully concretizes the “right to an adequate standard of living” enunciated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.9 Put simply, an established practice of distributed fabrication is freedom from want.

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In Spite of the Gods: The Rise of Modern India by Edward Luce

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bretton Woods, call centre, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, demographic dividend, energy security, financial independence, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, job-hopping, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, megacity, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban planning, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K

They find it hard to understand why so many Indians would voluntarily want to live in such conditions, when they could be milking the family cow back in the village. But most of the migrants have voted with their feet (some have been involuntarily displaced by natural disasters or dams). In their view even the most squalid slum is better than living in the village. In spite of the inadequacies of India’s urban planning and the absence of secure employment, the city offers economic and social opportunities to the poor and to the lower castes that would be inconceivable in most of rural India. India has more than 100 million rural people who do not own any land. Many more are likely to move to the cities in the years ahead, whether slum conditions have improved or not. “The answer is not to send people back to the village, which anyway you can’t do in a democracy,” says Nilekani.

But to me what is more perplexing is that it is among India’s elites—those who have been the largest beneficiaries of the liberalization of the economy since 1991—that you find the most robust defenders of an old mind-set that could be described as modernity for the privileged, feudalism for the peasantry. It would be unfair to Aruna and Nikhil in Devdoongri, whose vision for India’s villagers is centered on grassroots “participatory democracy,” to class them as defenders of feudalism. They are at the progressive end of a wide spectrum that includes every type of village romantic, from upper-caste civil servants who block attempts at better urban planning, to colleagues of Nilekani in the IT industry who sometimes appear to believe that if only the digital revolution could be extended to the villages then people would not want to move (this is a widespread sentiment).* Meanwhile, most of the evidence suggests that the peasantry—including in north India—does not necessarily acquiesce in this view. Many poor farmers get informal jobs in the city that enable them to remit income to their families back in the village.

pages: 219 words: 61,334

Brit-Myth: Who Do the British Think They Are? by Chris Rojek

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Bob Geldof, British Empire, business climate, colonial rule, deindustrialization, demand response, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Isaac Newton, Khartoum Gordon, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, post-industrial society, Red Clydeside, sceptred isle, Stephen Hawking, the market place, urban planning, Winter of Discontent

It appeared in parliamentary reports, debates, commissions and enquiries where it was associated with plots or stratagems, usually of a covert nature, intended to present as reliable and trustworthy a picture of reality which was, in fact, selective and false. Myths of this sort revealed the extension of politics into all areas of everyday life. For example, the myth that the ‘underclass’ or ‘residuum’ of city populations was beyond redemption and that ‘the national interest’ required strong policies of policing and birth control, figured prominently in nineteenth and early twentieth century civic politics and urban planning, health policy and crime control. It represented the intensification of class politics and the designation by middle-class reformers of the underclass as an inherent threat to respectable values. This precipitated a countermovement by progressive elements to initiate an anthropology of 76 BRIT-MYTH the underclass through which living conditions and ways of life were elucidated and the relationship between these conditions and ways of life and power were documented.

pages: 181 words: 62,775

Half Empty by David Rakoff

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airport security, Buckminster Fuller, dark matter, double helix, Google Earth, phenotype, RFID, urban planning, urban renewal, wage slave, Wall-E, Y2K

It’s a paradoxical feeling to have in the City of the Saints, since the streets of Salt Lake City are a steppe-like 132 feet wide. This breadth was decreed by Brigham Young so that a team of oxen and a covered wagon might be able to turn around in a full circle unimpeded. (An almost identical pronouncement was attributed to Cecil Rhodes when he was overseeing the layout of the city of Bulawayo in Rhodesia. Is this bit of hypertrophic urban planning just a standard issue paleo-Trumpism? One of the Seven Habits of Highly Effective Nineteenth-Century Men with Big Ideas?) The avenues yawn open, human proximity is vanquished, and the nearest people seem alienatingly distant. Such space between souls, such an uninterrupted vista of sky must imbue a populace with a sense of possibility—lebensraum and all that jazz. And yet, walking back to the car from the Castle of Chaos, I think of these teenagers, and they couldn’t look more fettered—a world away from the crowds at the Gateway Mall, a bi-level outdoor shopping center constructed to look like an Umbrian hill town (if Umbrian hill towns had California Pizza Kitchens).

pages: 237 words: 50,758

Obliquity: Why Our Goals Are Best Achieved Indirectly by John Kay

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Andrew Wiles, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, British Empire, business process, Cass Sunstein, computer age, corporate raider, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, discounted cash flows, discovery of penicillin, diversification, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, market fundamentalism, Myron Scholes, Nash equilibrium, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, shareholder value, Simon Singh, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, urban planning, value at risk

root method Rotella, Bob Rousseau, Jean-Jacques rules Saint-Gobain salesmen Salomon Brothers Samuelson, Paul Santa Maria del Fiore cathedral Scholes, Myron science scorecard Scottish Enlightenment Sculley, John Sears securities selfish gene September 11 attacks (2001) shareholder value share options Sieff, Israel Sierra Leone Simon, Herbert simplification Singapore Singer Smith, Adam Smith, Ed Smith, Will SmithKline soccer (English football) social contract socialism social issues socialist realism sociopaths Solon Sony Sony Walkman Soros, George Soviet Union sports Stalin, Joseph “Still Muddling, Not Yet Through” (Lindblom) Stockdale, James Stockdale Paradox stock prices Stone, Oliver successive limited comparison sudoku Sugar, Alan Sunbeam Sunstein, Cass Super Cub motorcycles superstition surgery survival sustainability Taleb, Nassim Nicholas Tankel, Stanley target goals teaching quality assessment technology see also computers teleological fallacy telephones Tellus tennis Tetlock, Philip Tet Offensive (1968) Thales of Miletus Thornton, Charles Bates “Tex” tic-tac-toe Tolstoy, Leo transnational corporations transportation Travelers Treasury, U.S. trials Trump, Donald TRW 2001: A Space Odyssey Typhoon (Conrad) ultimatum games uncertainty United Nations United States Unités d’Habitation unplanned evolution urban planning value at risk (VAR) van Gogh, Vincent van Meegeren, Han Vasari, Giorgio Vermeer, Johannes Victorian era Vietnam War Vioxx volatility Wall Street Walton, Sam Wason, Peter Wason test wealth Wealth of Nations, The (Smith) Weill, Sandy Weir, Peter Welch, Jack Whately, Archbishop What Is to Be Done? (Lenin) Whitehead, John Whitman, Walt Whiz Kids Wilde, Oscar Wild One, The Wiles, Andrew Williams, Robin wind farms Wolfe, James World Bank World Economic Forum World War II Yeats, William Butler Yellowstone National Park Young Hare, The (Dürer) Zaire Zantac Zeneca zero tolerance About the Author John Kay is a visiting professor at the London School of Economics and a fellow of St John’s College, University of Oxford.

pages: 222 words: 53,317

Overcomplicated: Technology at the Limits of Comprehension by Samuel Arbesman

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Anton Chekhov, Apple II, Benoit Mandelbrot, citation needed, combinatorial explosion, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, digital map, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, HyperCard, Inbox Zero, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mandelbrot fractal, Minecraft, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Parkinson's law, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, software studies, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Therac-25, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Just as we have weather models, we can begin to make models of our technological systems, even somewhat simplified ones. Playing with a simulation of the system we’re interested in—testing its limits and fiddling with its parameters, without understanding it completely—can be a powerful path to insight, and is a skill that needs cultivation. For example, the computer game SimCity, a model of sorts, gives its users insights into how a city works. Before SimCity, I doubt many outside the realm of urban planning and civil engineering had a clear mental model of how cities worked, and we weren’t able to twiddle the knobs of urban life to produce counterfactual outcomes. We probably still can’t do that at the level of complexity of an actual city, but those who play these types of games do have a better understanding of the general effects of their actions. We need to get better at “playing” simulations of the technological world more generally, teaching students how to play with some system, examining its limits and how it works, at least “sort of.”

pages: 298 words: 81,200

Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, digital map, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, mass immigration, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning

The modernism of the 1920s exhibited so much cultural innovation in such a short period of time because the writers, poets, artists, and architects were all rubbing shoulders at the same cafés. They weren’t off on separate islands, teaching creative writing seminars or doing design reviews. That physical proximity made the space rich with exaptation: the literary stream of consciousness influencing the dizzying new perspectives of cubism; the futurist embrace of technological speed in poetry shaping new patterns of urban planning. Exaptation also prospers on another scale: the shared media environment of a physical community. In the late 1970s, the British musician and artist Brian Eno moved to New York City for the first time. He took over a flat in a converted town house in the heart of the Village. The city was at the height—or more like the nadir—of its rioting, Son of Sam-fearing, bankruptcy-flirting madness.

pages: 257 words: 72,251

Nothing to Hide: The False Tradeoff Between Privacy and Security by Daniel J. Solove

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Albert Einstein, cloud computing, Columbine, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, invention of the telephone, Marshall McLuhan, national security letter, security theater, the medium is the message, traffic fines, urban planning

But predicting the weather isn’t as easy—and certainly, human behavior is far more unpredictable than the weather. Consider the following profiles: 1. “John” was a young man who was born and raised in Egypt. His parents were Muslim, though not strongly religious. His father was a successful attorney and his mother came from a wealthy family. He had two sisters, one of whom became a doctor, the other a professor. John studied architecture at Cairo University. He later lived in Germany and worked at an urban-planning firm. He had a number of close friends, and he lived with roommates. He increasingly became more religious, eventually founding a prayer group. After five years in Germany, he came to the United States. He decided to enroll in flying school to learn how to fly airplanes.11 2. “Matt” was a young man who was born and raised near Buffalo, New York. His parents were Catholic, but Matt later became an 186 The Government and Data Mining agnostic.

pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

It’s still possible to erect systems that don’t trap us in an endless loop of self-flattery about our own interests or shield us from fields of inquiry that aren’t our own. First, however, we need a vision—a sense of what to aim for. The Mosaic of Subcultures In 1975, architect Christopher Alexander and a team of colleagues began publishing a series of books that would change the face of urban planning, design, and programming. The most famous volume, A Pattern Language, is a guidebook that reads like a religious text. It’s filled with quotes and aphorisms and hand-drawn sketches, a bible guiding devotees toward a new way of thinking about the world. The question that had consumed Alexander and his team during eight years of research was the question of why some places thrived and “worked” while others didn’t—why some cities and neighborhoods and houses flourished, while others were grim and desolate.

pages: 235 words: 65,885

Peak Everything: Waking Up to the Century of Declines by Richard Heinberg, James Howard (frw) Kunstler

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anti-communist, Asilomar, back-to-the-land, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, ending welfare as we know it, energy transition, Fractional reserve banking, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, means of production, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, urban planning

A truly comprehensive historical survey of the usage of the terms sustainable and sustainability is not feasible. A search of Amazon.com for sustainability (January 17, 2007) yielded nearly 25,000 hits — presumably indicating several thousand distinct titles containing the word. Sustainable yielded 62,000 hits, including books on sustainable leadership, communities, energy, design, construction, business, development, urban planning, tourism, and so on. A search of journal articles on Google Scholar turned up 538,000 hits, indicating thousands of scholarly articles or references with the word sustainability in their titles. However, my own admittedly less-than-exhaustive acquaintance with the literature (informed, among other sources, by two books that offer an overview of the history of the concept of sustainability) 7 suggests that much, if not most of this immense body of publications repeats, or is based on, the definitions and conditions described above.

pages: 252 words: 80,636

Bureaucracy by David Graeber

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3D printing, a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, David Graeber, George Gilder, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, means of production, music of the spheres, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Parkinson's law, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, union organizing, urban planning, zero-sum game

Below that came the transnational mega-corporations. (Much of what was being called “international trade” in fact consisted merely of the transfer of materials back and forth between different branches of the same corporation.) Finally, one has to include the NGOs, which in many parts of the world come to provide many of the social services previously provided by government, with the result that urban planning in a city in Nepal, or health policy in a town in Nigeria, might well have been developed in offices in Zurich or Chicago. At the time, we didn’t talk about things in quite these terms—that “free trade” and “the free market” actually meant the creation of global administrative structures mainly aimed at ensuring the extraction of profits for investors, that “globalization” really meant bureaucratization.

pages: 229 words: 67,869

So You've Been Publicly Shamed by Jon Ronson

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4chan, AltaVista, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, Clive Stafford Smith, cognitive dissonance, Desert Island Discs, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Google Hangouts, illegal immigration, Menlo Park, PageRank, Ralph Nader, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, urban planning, WikiLeaks

Only one man has ever tried to piece his life story together - Bob Nye, a professor of European Intellectual History at Oregon State University. ‘Le Bon was from a provincial town in the west of France,’ he told me over the telephone. ‘But he decided he wanted to go to medical school in Paris …’ This was a France so wary of the crowd that in 1853, when Le Bon was twelve, Napoleon III commissioned the town planner Georges-Eugene Haussmann to demolish Paris’s twisted medieval streets and build long wide boulevards instead - urban planning as crowd control. It didn’t work. In 1871, Parisian workers rose up in protest against their conditions. They took hostages - local bureaucrats and police officers - who were summarily tried and executed. The government fled to Versailles. Le Bon was a great admirer of the Parisian elite (even though the Parisian elite didn’t seem the slightest bit interested in him - he was making his living as an ambulance driver at the time), and so he was hugely relieved when two months into the revolution the French army stormed the commune and killed around 25,000 rebels.

pages: 202 words: 8,448

Blueprint for Revolution: How to Use Rice Pudding, Lego Men, and Other Nonviolent Techniques to Galvanize Communities, Overthrow Dictators, or Simply Change the World by Srdja Popovic, Matthew Miller

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, British Empire, corporate governance, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, Rosa Parks, urban planning, urban sprawl

He became the rst openly gay person to be elected to public o ce in California, and he was just a humble shopkeeper from San Francisco before he decided that attitudes about homosexuality needed to change. Harvey was another hobbit. When Jane Jacobs decided to stare down Robert Moses—the most powerful man in New York City, whose insane plan to plow a superhighway through the historic neighborhoods of downtown Manhattan would have destroyed the city—she was derided as a shrill housewife and a crazy dame. That’s because Jacobs, who ended up revolutionizing the eld of urban planning without even having a college degree, was a hobbit too. None of these people came from the elites, and if you were casting for models to pose for bronze statues to put in city squares, you wouldn’t have selected any of them. But these are the people who move the big world forward. It’s not just in Tolkien that the hobbits change the course of the future, I promised the Egyptians. It happened in Belgrade, and it could happen in Egypt as well.

pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

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4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

In September 2014 the National Federation of the Blind sued Uber, claiming that “Uber is violating basic equal-access requirements under both the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) and state law,” and there are also ADA-related cases being pursued in California, Texas, and Arizona. Individual events include drivers refusing to pick up blind customers accompanied by dogs and driving away from riders with wheelchairs without trying to find an alternative.63 The ADA requires vehicles for hire to offer “reasonable accommodations” for wheelchair users, but as urban planning professor Sandra Rosenbloom said when interviewed by Ted Trautman of non-profit publication Next City, “generally that phrase has meant nothing.” Trautman also interviewed a Lyft spokesperson, who acknowledged that it’s a challenge for Lyft and UberX to supply wheelchair-accessible vehicles “because these are people’s own cars that they use in everyday life to drive around.” One effect of the transportation network companies’ rapid rise is that, in some cities, it could remove transit options for wheelchair users.64 If Lyft and Uber claim to provide urban transit then universal access is a challenge they must address, but there is little indication that they are doing so.

pages: 238 words: 75,994

A Burglar's Guide to the City by Geoff Manaugh

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A. Roger Ekirch, big-box store, card file, dark matter, game design, index card, megacity, megastructure, Minecraft, off grid, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, smart cities, statistical model, the built environment, urban planning

They’ll consult old maps and talk to building superintendents. There’ll be a close-up of fingers pointing at plans. People will diagram things. Maybe someone will even build a scale model. Suddenly, architecture itself is deeply suspenseful. It’s as if the heist genre had been invented for no other reason than to dramatize the unveiling of floor plans. In the real-life world of architecture and urban planning, however, altogether too rarely is this point of view—how humans can take advantage of the built environment’s spatial opportunities for crime—taken seriously as a critical perspective on urban form. As we’ll discover time and again in the stories that make up this book, burglars and police officers—that is, cops and robbers, good guys and bad guys, bandits and detectives, that eternal yin and yang of the world, its black and white, its good and evil—pay at least as much attention to the patterns and particularities of built space as architects do, and for far more strategically urgent reasons.

pages: 200 words: 64,050

I See You Made an Effort: Compliments, Indignities, and Survival Stories From the Edge of 50 by Annabelle Gurwitch

McMansion, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, urban planning, zero-sum game

I’m not on the appointment list projected on the Apple screen, but he motions me over to the Genius Bar. I stride ahead, pushing through the pain from a recent tennis injury so my limp will go unnoticed. (“Recent” meaning five years ago, when I twisted my right ankle playing tennis and the orthopedist told me I had “boomeritis.”*) I sit attentively as AuDum resuscitates my hard drive and reveals more about himself. It is our second date, after all. He studied urban planning. He likes to sketch and takes on small graphic-design gigs because there’s a dearth of work in his field. He shares an apartment with two roommates and he is thinking of going to Norway, where there might be better employment opportunities. “You should do that. It’s the perfect time in your life to have an adventure. If it doesn’t work out, you can chalk it up to ‘things I did in my twenties,’” I tell him, his head buried in my device.

pages: 296 words: 78,112

Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency by Joshua Green

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate raider, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Fractional reserve banking, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, low skilled workers, Nate Silver, nuclear winter, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, urban planning

(“Scuffle Occurs at Great Debate” read the headline in the Collegiate Times.) “I was young. I just thought, well, let’s push him off the stage,” Nevin recalled, with some embarrassment. “It was a bitter campaign.” Bitter but, for Bannon, victorious: he carried more than 60 percent of the vote and found himself the insurgent class president. — After graduating from Virginia Tech in 1976 with a degree in urban planning, Bannon was finally ready to join the military. He signed up for the Naval Reserve straightaway. The life that he imagined for himself as a junior naval officer—one that revolved around duty, honor, and patriotism—was nothing like what he encountered when he showed up at the Navy’s training center in Rhode Island in 1977. Bannon, not one given to modest ambitions, had visions of one day becoming secretary of defense.

pages: 2,020 words: 267,411

Lonely Planet Morocco (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Paul Clammer, Paula Hardy

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air freight, Airbnb, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, illegal immigration, Norman Mailer, place-making, Skype, spice trade, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

It may not be as exotic as other Moroccan cities, but it is the country’s economic capital, and it represents Morocco on the move: Casablanca is where the money is being made, where the industry is, where art galleries show the best contemporary art and where fashion designers have a window on the world. The old pirate lair is looking towards the future, showing off its wealth and achievements. The first French resident-general, Louis Hubert Gonzalve Lyautey hired French architect Henri Prost to redesign Casablanca in the early 20th century as the economic centre of the new protectorate and, indeed, as the jewel of the French colonies. His wide boulevards and modern urban planning still survive, and mark the city as more European than Moroccan. However, Lyautey under-estimated the success of his own plans and the city grew far beyond his elaborate schemes. By the end of WWII, Casablanca had a population of 700,000 and was surrounded by heaving shanty towns. Casablancais are cosmopolitan, and are more open to Western ways than other places in Morocco. This is reflected in their dress, and in the way men and women hang out together in restaurants, bars, beaches and hip clubs.

At the age of almost 80, Ben Tachfine launched successful campaigns securing Almoravid control of Andalusia right up to the Barcelona city limits. In Morocco’s second parliamentary elections in 2007, 34 women were elected, representing 10.4% of all seats – that’s just behind the US at 12.5% female representation after 110 elections. Sticks & Stones: The Almohads Youssef ben Tachfine was a tough act to follow. Ali was his son by a Christian woman, and he shared his father’s commitments to prayer and urban planning. But while the reclusive young idealist Ali was diligently working wonders with architecture and irrigation in Marrakesh, a new force beyond the city walls was gathering the strength of an Atlas thunderstorm: the Almohads. Almohad historians would later fault Ali for two supposedly dangerous acts: leaving the women in charge and allowing Christians near drink. While the former was hardly a shortcoming – after all, his stepmother’s counsel had proved instrumental to the Almoravids – there may be some merit in the latter.

Almohad Demolition & Construction Crews A bloody power struggle ensued between the sons of Ibn Tumart and the sons of his generals that wouldn’t be settled definitively until 1185, when Abu Yusuf Yacoub, the young son of the Muslim governor of Seville and Valencia, rode south into Morocco and drove his foes into the desert. But he also kept and expanded his power base in Spain, winning so many victories against the princes of Spain that he earned the moniker El-Mansour, ‘the victorious’. He modelled Seville’s famous La Giralda after Marrakesh’s Koutoubia minaret, and reinvented Marrakesh as an Almohad capital and learning centre to rival Fez. Yacoub el-Mansour’s urban-planning prowess also made Fez arguably the most squeaky-clean city of medieval times, with 93 hammams, 47 soap factories and 785 mosques complete with ablutions facilities. Yacoub el-Mansour was also a patron of great thinkers, including Aristotle scholar Ibn Rashid – whose commentary would help spark a Renaissance among Italian philosophers – and Sufi master Sidi Bel-Abbes. However, Yacoub’s enlightenment and admiration of architecture was apparently not all-encompassing; several synagogues were demolished under his rule.

pages: 859 words: 204,092

When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques

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Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, one-China policy, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

., ‘Civil Society and Min-jian: On Political Society and Popular Democracy’, Cultural Studies, 17:6 (2003) ——‘Notes on Han Chinese Racism’, unpublished paper, 2007 (revised version, 2009, available at www.inter-asia.org/khchen/online/Epilogue.pdf) ——Towards De-Imperialization - Asia as Method (Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press, forthcoming) ——Trajectories: Inter-Asia Cultural Studies (London: Routledge, 1998) Cheng Chin-Chuan, ‘Chinese Varieties of English’, in Braj B. Kachru, ed., The Other Tongue: English Across Cultures (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1992) Cheng Youhua, et al., ‘Urban Planning in Shanghai towards the 21st Century’, Dialogue (Taipei), February/March 1999 Ching, Leo, ‘Yellow Skin, White Mask: Race, Class and Identification in Japanese Cultural Discourse’, in Chen Kuan-Hsing, ed., Trajectories: Inter-Asia Cultural Studies (London: Routledge, 1998) Chow, Kai-wing, ‘Imagining Boundaries of Blood: Zhang Binglin and the Invention of the Han “Race” in Modern China’, in Frank Dikötter, ed., The Construction of Racial Identities in China and Japan: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives (London: Hurst and Company, 1997) Christensen, Thomas J., ‘China, the US- Japan Alliance, and the Security Dilemma in East Asia’, in Michael Brown et al., eds, The Rise of China (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2000) ——Alastair Iain Johnston and Robert S.

Interview with Toshiya Uedo, Tokyo, June 1999. 23 . Anthony Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 105. 24 . Pudong was conceived, in 1992, as a completely new business and financial centre for Shanghai. Across the Huangpu River from the Bund, it represents an extraordinary urban and architectural leap into the new century: Cheng Youhua, et al., ‘Urban Planning in Shanghai towards the 21st Century’, in Dialogue (Taipei), February/March 1999, pp. 48-55. 25 . Interview with Gao Rui-qian, Shanghai, April 1999. 26 . Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity, p. 108. 27 . The literature on the Chinese diaspora, and the role of the family and kinship, is voluminous: see, for example, Lynn Pan, Sons of the Yellow Emperor: The Story of the Overseas Chinese (London: Arrow, 1998); Robin Cohen, Global Diasporas: An Introduction (London: UCLPress, 1997), Chapters 4, 7; Joel Kotkin, Tribes: How Race, Religion, and Identity Determine Success in the New Global Economy (New York: Random House, 1992), Chapter 6. 28 .

pages: 494 words: 28,046

Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

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Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, labour mobility, late capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning, William of Occam

The outside is the place proper to politics, where the action of the individual is exposed in the presence of others and there seeks recognition.7 In the process of postmodernization, however, such public spaces are increasingly becoming privatized. The urban landscape is shifting from the modern focus on the common square and the public encounter to the closed spaces of malls, freeways, and gated communities. The architecture and urban planning of megalopolises such as Los Angeles and São Paolo have tended to limit public access and interaction in such a way as to avoid the chance encounter of diverse populations, creating a series of protected interior and isolated spaces.8 Alternatively, consider how the banlieu of Paris has become a series of amorphous and indefinite spaces that promote isolation rather than any interaction or communication.

Where the extremes of wealth and poverty have increased and the physical distance between rich and poor has decreased in global cities such as Los Angeles, São Paulo, and Singapore, elaborate measures have to be taken to maintain their separation. Los Angeles is perhaps the leader in the trend toward what Mike Davis calls ‘‘fortress architecture,’’ in which not only private homes but also commercial centers and government buildings create open and free environments internally by creating a closed and impenetrable exterior.12 This tendency in urban planning and architecture has established in concrete, physical terms what we called earlier the end of the outside, or rather the decline of public space that had allowed for open and unprogrammed social interaction. Architectural analysis, however, can give only a first introduction to the problematic of the new separations and segmentations. The new lines of division are more clearly defined by the politics of labor.

pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

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1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Moreover, during the same years that our governments failed to enact a tough and binding legal architecture requiring emission reductions, supposedly because cooperation was too complex, they managed to create the World Trade Organization—an intricate global system that regulates the flow of goods and services around the planet, under which the rules are clear and violations are harshly penalized. The assertion that we have been held back by a lack of technological solutions is no more compelling. Power from renewable sources like wind and water predates the use of fossil fuels and is becoming cheaper, more efficient, and easier to store every year. The past two decades have seen an explosion of ingenious zero-waste design, as well as green urban planning. Not only do we have the technical tools to get off fossil fuels, we also have no end of small pockets where these low carbon lifestyles have been tested with tremendous success. And yet the kind of large-scale transition that would give us a collective chance of averting catastrophe eludes us. Is it just human nature that holds us back then? In fact we humans have shown ourselves willing to collectively sacrifice in the face of threats many times, most famously in the embrace of rationing, victory gardens, and victory bonds during World Wars I and II.

., 15 Thoreau, Henry David, 184, 286 350.org, 140, 156, 233n, 353, 356 tidal power, 127 Tiger Management, 208 tight-rock formations, 311; see also shale, fracking of Tillerson, Rex, 111, 314 Time magazine, Planet Earth on cover of, 74, 204 Tiputini oil field, 410 Tjelmeland, Aaron, 192, 195 Tongue River, 389, 390 Tongue River Railroad (proposed), 389 tornados, 406 Toronto, 55, 65, 67, 73, 126 Total, 246 Totnes, England, 364 Toyota, 196 trade, see free trade agreements; international trade trade unions, 81, 83, 177, 204, 454 job creation and, 126–27 job protection by, 126, 178 NAFTA opposed by, 84 transaction tax, 418 TransCanada, 149, 346, 359, 361, 362 see also Keystone XL pipeline Transition Town movement, 364 Transocean, 330 Trans-Pacific Partnership, 78 transportation infrastructure, 85, 90, 127 travel, wealth and, 113 Treaty 6, 372 tree farms, 222 Trenberth, Kevin, 272, 275 Trent River, 300 trickle-down economics, 19 Trinity nuclear test, 277 triumphalism, 205, 465 Tropic of Chaos (Parenti), 49 tropics, techno-fixes and risk to, 49 Trump, Donald, 3 Tschakert, Petra, 269 Tsilhqot’in First Nation, 345 Tsipras, Alexis, 181–82, 466 Tsleil-Waututh First Nation, 323 Tutu, Desmond, 464 Tuvalu, 13 2 degrees Celsius boundary, 87–88, 89, 150, 354, 456 Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, 13, 21, 56, 86–87, 214, 283 typhoons, 107, 175, 406, 465 Uganda, 222 ultra-deepwater “subsalt” drilling, 145 Undesirables (Isaacs), 167 unemployment, 180 unemployment insurance, 454 Unified Campesino Movement of Aguán, 222 Union of Concerned Scientists, 201 Clean Vehicles Program at, 237 United Kingdom, 13, 149, 170, 224, 225 compensation of slave-owners in, 415–16, 457 “dash for cash” in, 299 divestment movement in, 354 flooding in, 7, 54, 106–7 fracking in, 299–300, 313 Industrial Revolution in, 172–73, 410 negatives of privatization in, 128 politics of climate change in, 36, 150 supports for renewable energy cut in, 110 Thatcher government of, 39 World War II rationing in, 115–16 United Nations, 7, 18, 64, 87, 114 Bloomberg as special envoy for cities and climate change of, 236 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 219–20, 224, 226 climate governance and, 280 climate summits of, 5, 11, 65, 150, 165, 200; see also specific summits Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 110 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, see Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) international agreements and, 17 Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, 135 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment of 1972, 202 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 377, 383 United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 180 United Nations Environmental Modification Convention, 278 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 272 United Nations Framework on Climate Change, 200, 410 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 76, 77, 78–79 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 167 United Nations Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992), 55, 293 United Policyholders, 109 United States, 19, 67, 68, 143 carbon emissions from, 409 coal exports from, 320, 322, 346, 349, 374, 376 Copenhagen agreement signed by, 12, 150 energy privatization reversals in, 98 environmental legislation in, 201–2 failure of climate legislation in, 226–27 Kyoto Protocol and, 218–19, 225–26 oil and gas export restrictions in, 71 opposition movement in, 9 solar energy market in, 72 WTO challenges brought against, 65 WTO challenges brought by, 64–65, 68 United States Climate Action Partnership (USCAP), 226–28 University College London, 415–16 uranium, 176 urban planning, green, 16 urban sprawl, 90, 91 US Airways, 1–2 U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 227 utilities, alternative models for, 130–33 U’wa, 376–77 Vagt, Robert F., 217 van Beurden, Ben, 358, 376 Vancouver, Canada, 13 Var, France, 317–18 Vassiliou, Anni, 347 vegetation, carbon and, 14 Venezuela, 179–80 Venkataraman, R., 75 venture capitalists, 252 Vermont: anti-fracking movement in, 348 local agriculture in, 404–5 Vernon, Caitlyn, 365 victory gardens, 16, 17 Vidal, John, 244 Vietnam War, 261 Virgin Earth Challenge, 257, 284–85 Virgin Green Fund, 238, 239, 253 Virgin Group, 230, 237 Virgin Airlines, 231, 238, 241–44, 249–52 Virgin Fuels, 238 Virgin Racing, 243 Virgin Trains, 231, 238, 252–53 Viteri, Franco, 388 volcanic eruptions: droughts and, 272–73 global impact of, 274 weather patterns and, 259, 270, 271–74 Volney, Constantin-François, 273 Vonnegut, Kurt, 286, 287 Vowel, Chelsea, 371 Voynet, Dominique, 218 wage controls, 125 Wallach, Lori, 359–60 Wall Street, 206, 208 in financial crisis of 2008, 9, 44 Wall Street Journal, 207, 312 Walmart, 196, 208–10 Walton, Sam, 209 Walton, Sam Rawlings, 209 Walton Family Foundation, 209 Wang Wenlin, 300 Wania, Frank, 328n Ward, Barbara, 286 Warsaw climate change summit (2013), 200–201, 276 Washington, D.C.: Keystone XL protest in, 139, 301–2 record temperatures in, 73 Washington Consensus, 81 Washington State, 319 Indigenous land rights in, 323, 374–75, 380–81 proposed coal export terminals in, 320, 322, 346, 349, 374, 380–81 Washington, Tracie, 419 water: disruption to supplies of, 14, 165 First Nations and, 384 privatization of, 133 as public utility, 7 water pollution: extractive industry and, 83, 94, 295, 296, 332, 344–47 from fracking, 328–29, 332, 344, 346 water power, 16, 101, 215 of factories, 171 steam engine vs., 171–72 Waters, Donny, 431, 432 Watt, James, 171–75, 204, 266, 394, 410 Waxman-Markey, 227 wealth: concentration of, 154, 155 decentralization of, 131 greenhouse gas emissions and, 113–14 inequality of, 123, 454–55 redistribution of, 40, 42, 453 transfers of, 5 Wealth of Nations (Smith), 173, 462 weapons, climate change and, 9 weather, extreme, 35, 102–10 weather futures, 8–9 weatherization, 93 weather patterns: global warming and, 269 historical record of, 271–76 Pinatubo eruption and, 259, 270, 271–72, 274 variations in, 269 weather patterns, intentional modification of: as weapon, 261, 278 see also Pinatubo Option; Solar Radiation Management Weintrobe, Sally, 12 Werner, Brad, 449–50, 451, 460 West Antarctic ice sheet, 13, 14, 15 West Burton, England, 300 Western Australia, 376 West, Thomas, 365 West Virginia, 332, 357n, 367 wetlands, extractive industry damage to, 425–26 Weyerhaeuser, 369 Where Do We Go from Here (King), 453 Whitehead, Andrew, 432 Whitehorn, Will, 230–31 Whitehouse, Mark, 428 Whiteman, Phillip, Jr., 386 Whole Earth Catalogue, 288 WikiLeaks, 78, 165 wilderness system, federal, 203 wildfires, 14, 52, 108, 446 Wildlife Conservation Society, 221–22 Wildlife Society, 192 Willemse, Oom Johannes, 347 Willett Advisors, 216, 235 Williams, Eric, 415 Willis, Rebecca, 90 wind farms, 110, 223, 287 “Window for Thermal Coal Investment Is Closing” (Goldman Sachs), 352 wind power, 16, 67, 70, 97, 102, 118, 122, 124, 127, 131–32, 147, 215, 237 in combined-cycle plant, 129 fracking’s negative impact on, 129, 144n large offshore, 131 manufacturers in, 68 private sector and, 100–101 Wood, Lowell, 268n, 271, 280, 288 Woolsey, R.

Frommer's Egypt by Matthew Carrington

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airport security, centre right, colonial rule, Internet Archive, land tenure, Maui Hawaii, open economy, rent control, rolodex, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, Yom Kippur War

At the western end of the city lies the harbor, where the famous lighthouse once stood (now the site of the 09_259290-ch06.qxp 7/22/08 12:31 AM Page 130 Alexandria 2 EL-ANFUSHI 4 1 3 5 6 7 8 See ” Central Alexandria” map SID GABIR 11 10 9 Sidi Gabir Station Main Station 14 13 15 SIDI EL MADRA DINING Abu Ashraf 4 Fish Market 6 Grand Café 5 Greek Maritime Club 3 Malak al Mango 8 Qadoura 7 Tikka Grill 6 12 ZOO Gebrial Station ACCOMMODATIONS El Salamlek Palace Hotel 18 Four Seasons Hotel Alexandria 14 Helnan Palestine 17 San Giovanni 12 Qaitbey Fort); at the eastern end are the Montaza Gardens, once a royal hunting ground and now the site of the Helnan Palestine and Salamlek hotels. The two are rather unfortunately linked by an enormous road that runs where you would expect the beach to be and cuts the city off from the sea. Known as the Corniche, it represents one of the biggest failures of urban planning in Egypt. It’s almost completely unbroken by any traffic lights, and only a few of the promised pedestrian tunnels have been built. Locals, let alone tourists, cross with trepidation. Fortunately, there is little to draw you over—the beaches are narrow, rocky, and, in the summer, crowded. The most interesting area of the city, which contains almost all the sites worth visiting, is within a 2km (11⁄4-mile) radius from Saad Zagloul Square.

Daily midday until the last guest leaves. 3 Dahab With a laid-back atmosphere left over from the days when the only restaurant in town was a kiosk on the beach named the Hard Rock Cafe and the nicest hotel for miles had grass walls, Dahab is still the favorite vacation spot of expats and well-off Egyptians looking for something a little more low key than the sun and party scene in Sharm el Sheikh. Even 10 years ago, life was still a little rough around the edges here— unsophisticated food and hard beds were the price visitors paid for the spectacular scenery and even more spectacular diving. Nowadays, however, things are a little different. Not only have the attractions branched out into windsurfing and kitesurfing, but years of investment and some of the better urban planning on the Red Sea coast have paid off in making this town, if not elegant, at least pleasant to walk around. You can get some of the best food in the Sinai here, not to mention a very decent hotel at a good price, all with very little sacrifice in atmosphere and charm. ORIENTATION Dahab is divided into two main parts: new and old. The new part, now referred to as Dahab City, is to the south and is where the high-end hotels are.

pages: 641 words: 182,927

In Pursuit of Privilege: A History of New York City's Upper Class and the Making of a Metropolis by Clifton Hood

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affirmative action, British Empire, David Brooks, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, family office, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, jitney, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Scientific racism, selection bias, Steven Levy, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, urban planning, We are the 99%, white flight

The original complex consisted of fourteen coordinated buildings that were erected on three blocks in Midtown, featuring the seventy-story RCA Building; Radio City Music Hall, a massive Art Deco amphitheater; underground pedestrian concourses; and open spaces like the promenade and the sunken plaza.1 In 1941, Rockefeller Center had five million square feet of office and retail space and a daytime population of around 150,000 people who went there for business or pleasure.2 The 1985 designation report of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission praised it for being “unprecedented in scope, near visionary in its urban planning, and unequaled for its harmonious integration of architecture, art, and landscaping.”3 The Rockefeller family has made many other contributions to New York City—Riverside Church on Morningside Heights in Manhattan; the Museum of Modern Art in Midtown; the Cloisters, a medieval art and architecture branch of the Metropolitan Museum of Art that is housed in parts of five European abbeys that were disassembled and transported to northern Manhattan; Rockefeller University, a leading biomedical research center; and major donations to Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts on the Upper West Side.

The single most divisive issue confronting the clubs involved coeducation and demands that they accept women. In 1990 a federal judge ended a fight over a sexual discrimination suit that had been brought eleven years earlier by ordering the last two all-male eating clubs, the Ivy Club and the Tiger Inn, to admit women.117 For his part, Tom Zacharias compiled a strong academic record, graduating magna cum laude in architecture and urban planning. He took an MBA from the Yale School of Management in 1979. Six years later, he married Clelia LeBoutillier, a vice president of a high-end beauty and fragrance corporation who was an alumna of the Madeira School in northern Virginia and of the University of Pennsylvania. Clelia LeBoutillier brought enormous social capital to their marriage: she had been a debutante in New York City; her father had been the president of Paine, Webber; and her grandfather had been the president of the Bank of America and a founder of a respected Wall Street stockbrokerage firm.

pages: 934 words: 232,651

Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1945-1956 by Anne Applebaum

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active measures, affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, language of flowers, means of production, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Slavoj Žižek, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning

Each new section was opened with great fanfare—the cutting of ribbons, the drinking of toasts—often on July 22, the anniversary of the creation of the Polish United Workers’ Party, or another communist holiday. Photographs of the reconstructed Old Town taken in the 1950s show people strolling and gazing “at the miracle of reconstruction.” What had been a dark, picturesque, decaying part of the city became well lit, open, and full of tourists. As far as urban planning went, the combination of the reconstructed Old Town and the Palace of Culture was never successful, particularly when cheap, prefab apartment blocks were constructed around and in between them in subsequent decades. But in the end, the plan for the reconstruction of Warsaw was defeated not by its aesthetic mistakes but by Stalinist economics. Remarkably, the original plans had been drawn up without any consideration of costs.

In that sense, Nerlinger had a good deal in common with the workers who appeared in his paintings, as well as the workers of Sztálinváros and Nowa Huta. They too were allegedly being re-formed and reshaped by their surroundings—and they too were supposedly going to conform to the spirit of their cities. The dreams of the socialist city planners went far beyond bricks and mortar. From the beginning, their ambitions included not just the transformation of art and urban planning but of human behavior. Sztálinváros, in an early description, was supposed to be a “city without beggars, and with no periphery”—that is, with no slums on the outskirts.42 Inside the socialist city, workers were meant to follow a more “cultured” way of life than they had known in the past—one that bore an overwhelming resemblance to the life of the prewar bourgeoisie. In Sztálinváros, a glimpse of this appealing future finally became available in the summer of 1952, by which time the apartment blocks along May 1 Street were relatively orderly, the street itself was covered in asphalt, and the building debris and rubble had been carried away.

pages: 372 words: 96,474

Dishwasher: One Man's Quest to Wash Dishes in All Fifty States (P.S.) by Pete Jordan

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big-box store, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, Haight Ashbury, index card, Mason jar, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, wage slave

After all the cycling and walking and public transit riding I’d done throughout the nation, it seemed like I could put my knowledge to use to help produce better means of travel. It’d sure beat producing temporarily clean dishes. In order to get the skills to attain some sort of desksitting job in that field, I wanted to return to college and finally pursue a degree in something I was interested in: urban planning. 332 Dishwasher After mulling it over the whole week after my tumble, I told Amy Joy about my idea of returning to college. I’d first pursue a degree and then a desk-sitting job as some sort of transportation planner for a municipal agency or a nonprofit advocacy group. She liked the idea. First though: my mission. When Jess had told Letterman that he (meaning: I) didn’t want to finish the states before he/I was thirty-five, I was only twenty-eight.

pages: 269 words: 104,430

Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez

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barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar

Two decades further along in his own car life, thirty-five-year-old James, like many others, has traveled well past “almost.” A suburban stayat-home dad dismissed out of hand the numerous studies that show that W H AT D R I V E S U S 159 driving is bad for one’s health, on the basis that we “have no choice” but to drive as much as we do. Our landscape, sprawled out as a consequence of poor urban planning, shifting employment opportunities, inadequate public transit options, and rising housing costs, does necessitate much driving. But certainly not all, and perhaps not even most, of these miles we drive are truly unavoidable, a fact visible once we analyze how we choose (albeit to a constant drumbeat of ads) to use our vehicles, to commute alone, to drive when public transport is available, to fill our days with the business of consuming.

pages: 287 words: 86,919

Protocol: how control exists after decentralization by Alexander R. Galloway

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Ada Lovelace, airport security, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, computer age, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, John Conway, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, linear programming, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, packet switching, phenotype, post-industrial society, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, semantic web, SETI@home, stem cell, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, the market place, theory of mind, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Review, working poor

Peter Galison calls this dispersion the “constant vigilance against the re-creation of new centers.”64 These are the same centers that Baran derided as an “Achilles’ heel”65 and that he longed to purge from the telecommunications network. “City by city, country by country, the bomb helped drive dispersion,”66 Galison continues, highlighting the power of the A-bomb to drive the push toward distribution in urban planning. Whereas the destruction of a fleet of Abrams tanks would certainly impinge upon army battlefield maneuvers, the destruction of a rack of Cisco routers would do little to slow down broader network communications. Internet traffic would simply find a new route, thus circumventing the downed machines.67 64. Peter Galison, “War against the Center,” Grey Room 4, Summer 2001, p. 20. 65. Baran writes: “The weakest spot in assuring a second strike capability was in the lack of reliable communications.

pages: 286 words: 87,870

The Pirates of Somalia: Inside Their Hidden World by Jay Bahadur

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collective bargaining, failed state, private military company, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning

Mohamed Mohamud Mohamed and Mahamud Hirad Herzi, Poverty Reduction and Economic Recovery: Feasibility Report on the Fisheries Sector in Puntland (Bossaso: Ocean Training and Promotion/UNDP Somalia, April 2005), http://mirror.undp.org/somalia/publications.htm, 16, xiii, xiv. CHAPTER 2: A SHORT HISTORY OF PIRACY I am indebted to Stig Jarle Hansen for his excellent work on the history and origins of piracy in Somalia, much of which is reproduced in this chapter. 1. Aidan Hartley, The Zanzibar Chest (London: Harper Perennial, 2004), 184. 2. United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), Garowe: First Steps Towards Strategic Urban Planning (Nairobi: UN-Habitat, 2008), http://www.unhabitat.org/pmss, 4. 3. Although cousins on the Somali clan tree, the Majerteen, Dhulbahante, and Warsangali have never been the best of friends. Dating back to before the Majerteen sultanates of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Majerteen have traditionally dominated their Harti kinsmen, a pattern that continues to the present day. There were allegations that, before and during the Garowe conference, Abdullahi Yusuf strong-armed Warsangali and Dhulbahante leaders into supporting the creation of Puntland, which was certain to be controlled primarily by the Majerteen.

pages: 367 words: 99,765

Maphead: Charting the Wide, Weird World of Geography Wonks by Ken Jennings

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Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, David Brooks, digital map, don't be evil, dumpster diving, Eratosthenes, game design, Google Earth, helicopter parent, hive mind, index card, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, Mercator projection, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Journalism, openstreetmap, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Stewart Brand, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, traveling salesman, urban planning

But I didn’t know they were part of the geography department.” “They’re not.” (Long pause.) “So, uh, what is it you do study, then?” And . . . scene. It’s misleading to think of geography as a single discipline at all. Instead it’s the ultimate interdisciplinary study, because it’s made up of every other discipline viewed spatially, through the lens of place. Language, history, biology, public health, paleontology, urban planning—there are geographers studying all these subjects and aspects of geography taught in all of them. In one sense, geography’s ubiquity is an argument for its importance, but it’s also the very thing that makes it so hard to define to administrators and so easy for universities to defund and divvy up into other departments. In fact, the little one-act play above is probably too optimistic. The real cocktail party conversation would probably go something like this: “Actually, I have a degree in geography.”

pages: 370 words: 112,602

Poor Economics: A Radical Rethinking of the Way to Fight Global Poverty by Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo

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Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Cass Sunstein, charter city, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, experimental subject, hiring and firing, land tenure, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, microcredit, moral hazard, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, urban planning

A follow-up experiment that Wantchekon conducted before the 2006 election suggests that voters are indeed prepared to support those politicians who take seriously the job to design and explain social policies. 40 Wantchekon and other civil society leaders in Benin started by organizing a broad consultation: “Election 2006: What Policy Alternative?” There were four panels on education, public health, governance, and urban planning, and four experts (two from Benin and two from neighboring Niger and Nigeria) provided a white paper with policy recommendations. These were all broad proposals, without clientelist appeal. All the parties represented in the National Assembly, as well as representatives from various NGOs, attended the conference. After the conference, several parties volunteered to use the proposals made at the conference as electoral platforms on an experimental basis.

pages: 329 words: 106,831

All Your Base Are Belong to Us: How Fifty Years of Video Games Conquered Pop Culture by Harold Goldberg

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Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, Apple II, cellular automata, Columbine, Conway's Game of Life, game design, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Oldenburg, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning

But with Budge’s game, you could live the dream, at least on your computer screen. For Wright, it was the ultimate model kit. Forget Godzilla and plastic hot rod cars. Figuring out what to do with his life didn’t happen easily for Wright. He didn’t want to take on the family business, which was a dead end to him and entrapping. So his mother sold the company. He didn’t quite finish college, so being an astronaut was out of the question. But he did study urban planning at Louisiana State and at the New School in New York City. Part of him still wanted to get his hands dirty, to make those models real at a real world job, like an architect … maybe. And he wanted to make games … well, maybe. But then again, he liked robots, which he could control with the Apple II computer his mother bought for him. He also loved the idea of racing cars. With a pal, he tricked out a Mazda RX-7 with an extra tank, night vision, two radar detectors, a computer system, a radar jammer, and a refrigerator.

pages: 322 words: 107,576

Bad Science by Ben Goldacre

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Asperger Syndrome, correlation does not imply causation, experimental subject, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, offshore financial centre, p-value, placebo effect, publication bias, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), the scientific method, urban planning

What prime-time TV series looks at food deserts created by giant supermarket chains, the very companies with which these stellar media nutritionists so often have their lucrative commercial contracts? Who puts the issue of social inequality driving health inequality onto our screens? Where’s the human interest in prohibiting the promotion of bad foods, facilitating access to healthier foods by means of taxation, or maintaining a clear labelling system? Where is the spectacle in ‘enabling environments’ that naturally promote exercise, or urban planning that prioritises cyclists, pedestrians and public transport over the car? Or in reducing the ever-increasing inequality between senior executive and shop-floor pay? When did you ever hear about elegant ideas like ‘walking school buses’, or were stories about their benefits crowded out by the latest urgent front-page food fad news? I don’t expect Dr Gillian McKeith, or anyone in the media, to address a single one of these issues, and neither do you: because if we are honest with ourselves we understand that these programmes are only partly about food, and much more about salacious and prurient voyeurism, tears, viewing figures and vaudeville.

Fodor's Dordogne & the Best of Southwest France With Paris by Fodor's Travel Publications Inc.

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call centre, glass ceiling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute couture, haute cuisine, Murano, Venice glass, urban planning, young professional

The opening of the Opéra Bastille in 1989 rejuvenated the area, however, drawing art galleries, bars, and restaurants to the narrow streets, notably along Rue de Lappe—once a haunt of Edith Piaf—and Rue de la Roquette. | Station: Bastille. Fodor’s Choice | Place des Vosges. The oldest square in Paris and—dare we say it?—the most beautiful, the Place des Vosges is one of Europe’s oldest stabs at urban planning. The precise proportions offer a placid symmetry, but things weren’t always so calm. Four centuries ago this was the site of the Palais des Tournelles, home to King Henri II and Queen Catherine de’ Medici. The couple staged regular jousting tournaments, and during one of them, in 1559, Henri was fatally lanced in the eye. Catherine fled for the Louvre, abandoning her palace and ordering it destroyed.

pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

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Alvin Roth, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, Veblen good, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

For all the differences between the configuration of American and Western European cities, they are both strikingly different from development in the Soviet bloc, where market prices played little or no role in allocating land. Seventy years of communist allocation by bureaucratic fiat produced an urban scene pockmarked by old factories decaying on prime locations downtown while residential housing becomes denser farther from the center, through rings of Stalin-era, Khrushchev-era, and Brezhnev-era apartments. A study by World Bank urban planning and housing finance experts after the collapse of the Soviet Union found that 31.5 percent of the built-up area in Moscow was occupied by industries, compared to 6 percent in Seoul and 5 percent in Hong Kong and Paris. In Paris, where people pay a premium price to live near downtown’s amenities, the population density peaks some three kilometers from the center of town. In Moscow it peaked fifteen kilometers away.

pages: 411 words: 108,119

The Irrational Economist: Making Decisions in a Dangerous World by Erwann Michel-Kerjan, Paul Slovic

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Andrei Shleifer, availability heuristic, bank run, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, experimental economics, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, George Akerlof, hindsight bias, incomplete markets, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Kenneth Arrow, Loma Prieta earthquake, London Interbank Offered Rate, market bubble, market clearing, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, source of truth, statistical model, stochastic process, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transaction costs, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto

When close to San Francisco, however, he could commit to a particular landing spot because at this proximity there would be considerably less uncertainty about the specific parameters. In short, the level of commitment should be matched to the level of uncertainty. What are the implications of this pilot metaphor for future-choice decisions? First, many future-choice decisions have a temporal structure—similar to that of the Tokyo-San Francisco flight path—that can be broken down into several segments. Consider, for example, the many scenarios involved in urban planning or career development. However, in contrast to the Tokyo- San Francisco flight, which has a precise goal (i.e., arrival at a specific spot in San Francisco), the end-states of these future-choice decisions are not necessarily well defined. On the other hand, they undoubtedly are driven by a “direction” or values (e.g., creation of a viable city, achievement of personal and professional success).

pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

,” burningman.com/whatisburningman. 70 Nick Bilton, “A Line Is Drawn in the Desert,” New York Times, August 20, 2014. 71 Kevin Roose, “The Government Shutdown Has Revealed Silicon Valley’s Dysfunctional Fetish,” New York, October 16, 2013. 72 Chris Anderson, “Elon Musk’s Mission to Mars,” Wired, October 21, 2010. 73 Peter Delevett, “Tech Investor Tim Draper Launches ‘Six Californias’ Ballot Measure to Divide the Golden State,” San Jose Mercury News, December 23, 2013. 74 Aaron Kinney, “Martins Beach: Lawmaker Proposes Eminent Domain for Access on Khosla’s Property,” San Jose Mercury News, February 6, 2014. 75 Bill Wasik, “Silicon Valley Needs to Lose the Arrogance or Risk Destruction,” Wired, February 2, 2014. 76 Chris Baker, “Live Free or Down: Floating Utopias on the Cheap,” Wired, January 19, 2009. 77 Egan, “Dystopia by the Bay.” 78 Alex Hern, “Google Execs Saved Millions on Private Jet Flights Using Cheaper NASA Fuel,” Guardian, December 12, 2013. 79 Paul Goldberger, “Exclusive Preview: Google’s New Build-from-Scratch Googleplex,” Vanity Fair, February 22, 2013. 80 Allen Martin, “Google Launches Private SF Bay Ferry Service to Shuttle Workers,” CBS Local News, January 7, 2014. 81 Philop Matier and Andrew Ross, “Google Barge Mystery Unfurled, SFGate, November 8, 2013. 82 Tony Romm, “Senate Investigators: Apple Sheltered $44 Billion from Taxes,” Politico, May 20, 2103. 83 Bob Duggan, “Are Tech Giants’ Offices the Cathedrals of the Future?,” BigThink.com, December 12, 2013. 84 Thomas Schulz, “From Apple to Amazon: The New Monuments to Digital Domination,” Spiegel Online, November 29, 2013. 85 Brandon Bailey, “Mark Buys Four Houses Near His Palo Alto Home,” San Jose Mercury News, October 11, 2013. 86 Allison Arieff, “What Tech Hasn’t Learned from Urban Planning,” New York Times, December 13, 2013. 87 Charlotte Allen, “Silicon Chasm: The Class Divide on America’s Cutting Edge,” Weekly Standard, December 2, 2013. 88 Tom Foremski, “Fortune Asks ‘Why Does America Hate Silicon Valley?’,” Silicon Valley Watcher, October 4, 2013. Conclusion 1 Thomas Friedman, “The Square People, Part One,” New York Times, May 13, 2014. See also “The Square People, Part Two,” New York Times, May 17, 2014. 2 Edward Luce, “America Must Dump Its Disrupters in 2014,” Financial Times, December 22, 2014. 3 Nick Cohen, “Beware the Lure of Mark Zuckerberg’s Cool Capitalism,” Observer, March 30, 2013. 4 Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture (University of Chicago Press, 2008). 5 For more on Apple, Steve Jobs, and Foxconn, see my TechCrunchTV interview with Mike Daisey, who starred in the Broadway hit The Agony and Ecstasy of Steve Jobs: “Apple and Foxconn, TechCrunchTV, February 1, 2011. 6 Lyn Stuart Parramore, “What Does Apple Really Owe Taxpayers?

pages: 193 words: 98,671

The Inmates Are Running the Asylum by Alan Cooper

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Albert Einstein, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Menlo Park, natural language processing, new economy, pets.com, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, urban planning

Alan introduced a taxonomy for software design in 1995 with his best-selling first book, About Face: The Essentials of User Interface Design. Alan and co-author Robert Reimann published a significantly revised edition, About Face: The Essentials of Interaction Design, in 2003. Alan's wife, Susan Cooper, is President and CEO of Cooper. They have two teenage sons, Scott and Marty, neither of whom is a nerd. In addition to software design, Alan is passionate about general aviation, urban planning, architecture, motor scooters, cooking, model trains, and disc golf, among other things. Please send him email at inmates@cooper.com or visit Cooper's Web site at www.cooper.com .

pages: 346 words: 101,255

The Big Necessity: The Unmentionable World of Human Waste and Why It Matters by Rose George

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American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Anton Chekhov, Bob Geldof, Celtic Tiger, clean water, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, informal economy, job satisfaction, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, land reform, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Steven Pinker, urban planning

Its headquarters consist of a tiny wooden shack on a slum street in Temeke, where the Gulper is temporarily serving as a coat peg. Mohando has agreed to run the Gulper business in principle, but first he needs the nuts and bolts. Sugden has come to Dar to help source the equipment, and I tag along. Not from any interest in Tanzanian aluminum factories, but because I want to see how a big vision—to remove the seas of shit that drown so many cities—can be built from little things. The complexities of urban planning make my head spin. But I can grasp a tank, a motorbike, and a pump. A piki piki—a motorbike with attached trailer—has been sourced in a suburb of Dar. Finding the right tank to attach to the trailer is trickier. Aluminum is the first suggestion, but after several hours of searching, Sugden learns that there are no fundis in Dar who know how to weld it. The mood is demoralized and lunch is suggested.

pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

CHAPTER 6: THE DANISH RESPONSE this page: Information about Denmark’s environmental track record, including its level of carbon dioxide emissions since 1990, comes from figures available through the State of Green, a government-backed initiative to raise international awareness of the country’s green credentials (www.stateofgreen.com). this page: The argument for the relationship between urban population density and vibrant cities is well documented. Jane Jacobs, for one, argued convincingly against urban sprawl in her seminal work The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which has influenced thoughts on urban planning since its publication in 1961. CHAPTER 7: ZERO-SUM WORLD this page: The figures for Venezuela’s oil exports to the United States come from the EIA. US oil imports from Venezuela reached a high of 1.77 million barrels a day in 1997. (www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=pet&s=mttimusve2&f=a) this page: The figure for the number of licensed American drivers comes from the US Federal Highway Administration, an agency within the Department of Transportation (www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/onh00/onh2p4.htm).

pages: 359 words: 104,870

Extreme Rambling: Walking Israel's Separation Barrier. For Fun. by Mark Thomas

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Boycotts of Israel, facts on the ground, liberation theology, one-state solution, urban planning, urban sprawl

Arieh looks at me, wide-eyed: ‘Because we are in a struggle for the future of Jerusalem, and one of the ways to protect Jerusalem is to stop it being divided. One way to do this is to connect one hill to another, one neighbourhood to another neighbourhood. To connect Jerusalem to E1 and to the city of Ma’ale Adumim.’ Then, lowering his voice almost as if he is worried others might hear, he confides, ‘If we will not do that, the other side, the Arabs, will; they are trying to connect the Arab villages.’ The notion that his urban plan will effectively cut the West Bank in two and destroy any peace plan can only be a cause of joy to him. Arieh has no intention of seeing a Palestinian state, as such a thing would be, ‘the end of a Jewish state’. Anyway, peace doesn’t seem to be his bag: first and foremost, the land is his and Palestinians have no right to it. ‘The Bible is your map, isn’t it?’ I ask him. ‘Yes. What is yours?’

pages: 314 words: 83,631

Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet by Andrew Blum

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air freight, cable laying ship, call centre, Donald Davies, global village, Hibernia Atlantic: Project Express, if you build it, they will come, inflight wifi, invisible hand, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mercator projection, Network effects, New Urbanism, packet switching, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

I was less interested in the aggregate statistics than in the specifics, the parts of all this online detritus that I could touch. I knew that data centers which once occupied closets had expanded to fill whole floors of buildings; that floors had grown into subdivided warehouses; and that warehouses have transformed into purpose-built campuses, as in The Dalles. What had before been afterthoughts, physically speaking, had now acquired their own architecture; soon, they’d need urban planning. A data center was once like a closet, but now was more like a village. The ever-increasing size of my own appetite for the Internet made it clear why. What was less clear to me was where. What were these enormous buildings doing way up on the Columbia Plateau? The Internet’s efficiency at moving traffic—and the success of exchange points at serving as hubs for that traffic—has left the question of where data sleeps remarkably open-ended.

pages: 402 words: 98,760

Deep Sea and Foreign Going by Rose George

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Admiral Zheng, air freight, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, bank run, cable laying ship, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Costa Concordia, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Filipino sailors, global supply chain, Google Earth, intermodal, London Whale, Malacca Straits, Panamax, pattern recognition, profit maximization, Skype, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, William Langewiesche

It is very important to concentrate on hitting the US economy with every available means.’ Bin Laden was not a Bin Laden – a powerful, business-minded family that uses shipping in its construction empire – for nothing. In 2004, Al-Qaeda reportedly recruited a maritime expert. In 2010, US security sources revealed that the organization had been working out how best to blow up oil tankers. Though, as the urban planning academic Stephen Cohen writes, why bother with intercontinental missiles or explosives when you can just ship everything you need in parts, and assemble it at the required destination? ‘Containers… are the poor man’s missiles: you no longer have to be a big powerful government to create catastrophe.’ This is not hypothetical. In 2003, ABC News shipped depleted uranium from Jakarta to Los Angeles in an attempt to expose the weaknesses in port barriers.

pages: 323 words: 94,406

To the Edge of the World: The Story of the Trans-Siberian Express, the World's Greatest Railroad by Christian Wolmar

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anti-communist, Cape to Cairo, land reform, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, railway mania, refrigerator car, stakhanovite, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban planning

., p. 113. 19 Cited in my earlier books Fire & Steam and The Great Railway Revolution. 20 It is, though, barely a 15-minute walk across the river from the station, as I discovered on my trip on the Trans-Siberian in November 2012. 21 Tupper, To the Great Ocean, p. 183. 22 Soon after renamed Sir William Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., which eventually became part of Vickers Armstrong. 23 Tupper, To the Great Ocean, p. 228. 24 Ivan V. Nevzgodine, ‘The Impact of the TS Railway on the Architecture and Urban Planning of Siberian Cities’, in Ralf Roth and Marie Noelle Polino (eds), The City and the Railway in Europe (Ashgarth, 2003), p. 85. 25 Ibid., p. 87. 26 Martin Page, The Lost Pleasures of the Great Trains (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1975), p. 169. 27 Felix Patrikeef and Harold Shukman, Railways and the Russo-Japanese War (Routledge, 2007), p. 3. 28 Quoted in Nevzgodine, ‘The Impact of the TS Railway’, p. 86. 29 Patrikeef and Shukman, Railways and the Russo-Japanese War, p. 45. 30 Ibid. 31 Marks, Road to Power, p. 189. 32 Ibid. 33 From Pushechnikov’s account of his work on the line, quoted in Marks, Road to Power, p. 190. 34 Ibid., p. 189. 35 Ibid., p. 130.

pages: 305 words: 73,935

The Cohousing Handbook: Building a Place for Community by Chris Scotthanson, Kelly Scotthanson

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Buy land – they’re not making it any more, card file, index card, off grid, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl

☞ ENVIRONMENT 151 required to purchase and support a car could be better used in many other ways. In planning for your community you have the opportunity to rethink the way you want to relate to the car. What transportation is really required, individually and as a community? How can the car be used more wisely? Typically we dream of the private retreat of a single-family detached home. The current model of suburban living developed rapidly after the Second World War. Architect and urban planning visionary Paolo Soleri calculates that over 70% of the land in the Los Angeles metropolitan area is devoted to the car. This includes streets and right-of-ways, but it also includes parking lots, driveways, Attach homes • Shared walls conserve heating and cooling energy, and reduce exterior siding. • Stacked apartments conserve further energy and reduce roofing. Build small • Less material in construction. • Reduced heating and cooling energy. • Less maintenance and repair.

pages: 378 words: 110,518

Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future by Paul Mason

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Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, capital controls, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Claude Shannon: information theory, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, deglobalization, deindustrialization, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Downton Abbey, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, financial repression, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, means of production, Metcalfe's law, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, Pearl River Delta, post-industrial society, precariat, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Transnistria, union organizing, universal basic income, urban decay, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto, wages for housework, women in the workforce

After 1848, with new markets, new technologies and an expanded money supply, Engels recognized the takeoff of ‘a new industrial era’ – what Kondratieff would dub the second long cycle – which would run until the 1890s. And he identified something crucial to its technological paradigm: cooperation between labour and capital. The system was now so profitable that the British bosses no longer needed to use the methods of Oliver Twist. The workday was limited to ten hours, child labour was reduced, diseases of poverty were suppressed by urban planning. Now, wrote Engels, employers were apt ‘to avoid unnecessary squabbles, to acquiesce in the existence and power of trade unions’.13 The British workforce had expanded to include millions of unskilled, poor and precarious workers. But Engels recognized a ‘permanent improvement’ for two specific groups: the factory workers and those in ‘the great trade unions’ – by which he meant skilled jobs dominated by adult men.

pages: 278 words: 93,540

The Full Catastrophe: Travels Among the New Greek Ruins by James Angelos

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bank run, Berlin Wall, centre right, death of newspapers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, income inequality, moral hazard, Plutocrats, plutocrats, urban planning

The highest-profile cases centered around the few politicians caught laundering or embezzling tens of millions of euros. But many smaller-scale corruption cases emerged among civil servants also wishing to partake. For instance, six women working for the nation’s largest social security organization were accused of assigning some 11 million euros in fraudulent benefits; they were charged with money laundering and other crimes. Sixty-five urban planning department employees in and around Athens were charged with felonies for systematically and arbitrarily reducing or waiving fines for building code violations (presumably, the disappearing fines did not benefit only the building owners). At the end of 2013, Greece’s finance minister wrote a letter to Greek banks asking them to provide account information on hundreds of tax auditors suspected of having undeclared income and assets of apocryphal origins, the Greek newspaper Ethnos reported.

pages: 317 words: 87,566

The Happiness Industry: How the Government and Big Business Sold Us Well-Being by William Davies

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1960s counterculture, Airbnb, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, corporate governance, dematerialisation, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, intangible asset, invisible hand, joint-stock company, lifelogging, market bubble, mental accounting, nudge unit, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, theory of mind, urban planning, Vilfredo Pareto

Hudson Yards will be one of the most ambitious examples of what the NYU research team term a ‘quantified community’, in which the entire fabric of the development will be used to mine data to be analysed by academics and businesses. The behaviourist project initiated by Watson, of treating humans like white rats to be stimulated in search of a response, is now becoming integrated into the principles of urban planning. One of the key ways in which the age of big data differs from that of the survey is that big data is collected by default, without any intention to analyse it. Surveys are costly to carry out and need to be carefully designed around specific research questions. By contrast, the main thing with transactional data is that researchers are in a position to collect as much of it as possible first and worry about their research questions second.

pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Autonomous vehicles Implications: In September 2014, California will issue the first license plates for driverless cars. Starting with delivery vehicles and then taxis, predictions call for existing road capacity to increase 8-10 times once a critical mass of AVs is reached. Ridesharing is an intermediate step toward fully automated transportation, which may have a bigger visible impact on society than anything else, including sustainability, urban planning (almost no parking lots) and fewer traffic fatalities. Note that most of these technologies and trends were unknown a decade ago, and all were non-existent thirty years ago. No doubt even more technologies and trends, as yet unknown, will emerge in even the next five years as convergences and intersection points drive an ever-faster pace of change. For five decades, predictions around Moore’s Law have promised acceleration, and we are now seeing what that really means.

pages: 380 words: 104,841

The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

NASA used 3D printing to build a prototype of a two-man Space Exploration Vehicle (an oversized SUV astronauts can live in while they explore Mars). A USC professor, Behrokh Khoshnevis, has devised a method known as Contour Crafting for printing out an entire house, layer by layer—including the plumbing, wiring, and other infrastructure—in twenty hours. When 3D printers are linked to geological maps, houses can be made to fit their terrain perfectly. Khoshnevis is designing both single houses and colonies for urban planning, or for use after hurricanes, tornadoes, and other natural disasters when fully functional emergency houses will be 3D-printed from the ground up. Boeing is 3D-printing seven hundred parts for its fleet of 747s; it’s already installed twenty thousand such parts on military aircraft. The military’s innovative design branch, DARPA, which began funding 3D printers two decades ago, finds them invaluable for repairing fighter jets in combat or supporting ground troops on the front lines.

pages: 252 words: 13,581

Cape Town After Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City by Tony Roshan Samara

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conceptual framework, deglobalization, ghettoisation, global village, illegal immigration, late capitalism, moral panic, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, structural adjustment programs, unemployed young men, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, working poor

This perception is extremely important for the City. As high levels of crime and grime in the business district and tourist areas pose a direct threat to this industry which represents the livelihood of thousands of Capetonians, its protection will always be a factor that influences the policing environment. It is in this sense that the tourist economy and its relationship to crime in Cape Town are indicative of a much broader trend in urban planning for the city, whereby crime is identified as the primary obstacle or challenge to development, and in turn shapes—some would say distorts—governance. There are in fact a number of clearly stated policies and plans for general urban governance, most of which explicitly address the crime problem, and some of which are essentially crime-combating plans that adopt a language of development. The major initiative in Cape Town is the IDP, the five-year plan that guides budget priorities and the overall allocation of resources.

pages: 306 words: 92,704

After the Berlin Wall by Christopher Hilton

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peter Eisenman, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce

She points out that soon after the fall of The Wall, Dresden ‘with 465,000 inhabitants was expected to be a main centre of economic growth. The city, especially the city centre, therefore, got under extreme investment pressure. But the desire to invest soon was confronted by a problematic urban structure. Not only the total annihilation by Allied air raids on 13 February 1945, but also the post-war reconstruction under socialist urban planning left deep scars in the townscape. ‘Right beside the historical sights like Zwinger and Semper Opera one can find empty sites of enormous size, residential areas and old buildings falling into ruins. On the one hand, structural investments in the repeatedly destroyed city centre were urgently and quickly needed to restore the central functions, especially the retail business. On the other hand urban planners and local architects – supported by the public opinion – felt obliged to restore the significant townscape with a great deal of sensitivity for the cultural history.

pages: 299 words: 19,560

Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal

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1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

UtopianStudiesisapeer-reviewedpublicationoftheSocietyforUtopian Studies,publishingscholarlyarticlesonawiderangeofsubjectsrelatedto utopias, utopianism, utopian literature, utopian theory, and intentional communities. Contributing authors come from a diverse range of fields, including American studies, architecture, the arts, classics, cultural studies, economics, engineering, environmental studies, gender studies, history, languages and literatures, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and urban planning. Each issue also includes dozens of reviews of recent books. Despite this overflow of intellectual riches, the exhibit was extremely well organized and very accessible to the proverbial general public. Most of these treasures were placed in forty-four new steel, glass, and stone exhibition cases, with special lighting that, for preservation purposes, was kept low. “Utopia: The Search for the Ideal Society in the Western World.”

pages: 391 words: 99,963

The Weather of the Future by Heidi Cullen

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, availability heuristic, back-to-the-land, bank run, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, mass immigration, megacity, millennium bug, out of africa, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, urban planning, Y2K

I may have been there in my head, but the real experience was a whole different ball game. As with most things in life, including global warming, there is something important to be said for personal experience. Weiss’s previous excavations had shown that between 4,600 and 4,400 years ago, Tell Leilan grew about sixfold in size, from 37 acres to more than 200 acres.1 The city’s residential quarters showed signs of urban planning, including straight streets lined with potsherds and with drainage lanes; and its acropolis contained several storerooms for grain distribution. But sometime around 4,200 years ago, this society began to fall apart and archaeological evidence indicates a mass exodus from Tell Leilan to points south. Tell Leilan was abandoned and sat empty for some 300 years. It was probably during this abandonment period that the city lament was composed.

pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

In the 1966 film introducing Disney World, Disney spends almost no time discussing the amusement-park component of the project (what would eventually become the Magic Kingdom). Instead, he focuses extensively on his “city of tomorrow,” showing prototypes and sketches that look strikingly like the futurist cityscapes imagined by Le Corbusier almost fifty years before. But the legend of Walt’s avant-garde urban planning has a strange twist to it, one that has received less coverage over the years. In preparation for the EPCOT project, Disney went on a national tour of visionary, cutting-edge experiments in planning and community design, seeking inspiration for his own radical new city. What were the primary sacred sites for such a pilgrimage? Two shopping malls on the East Coast, as well as a new Neiman Marcus department store in Texas.

pages: 343 words: 93,544

vN: The First Machine Dynasty (The Machine Dynasty Book 1) by Madeline Ashby

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big-box store, iterative process, natural language processing, place-making, traveling salesman, urban planning

She drew a circle in the centre of the box with one finger. "There. And then the houses go here," she dotted the ring around the park, speckling the sand to remind herself where the neighbourhoods would go, "and then there should be some places for people to work, so their commutes are short." She drew Ws in the sand near the homes. Javier raised his brows. "I had no idea you had such a kink for urban planning." Amy started building her first house. "I just wanted to make it better than it was," she said. "The old way, everyone would be on the road all the time. But this way, people get home earlier to do fun stuff." Javier smiled. "Wow. You really can't wait to go home, can you?" Amy's hands hovered motionless over the houses she'd just imagined. To her horror, her eyes filled with tears.

pages: 327 words: 97,720

Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection by John T. Cacioppo

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Alfred Russel Wallace, biofilm, butterfly effect, Celebration, Florida, corporate governance, delayed gratification, experimental subject, impulse control, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, Rodney Brooks, Ted Kaczynski, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Walter Mischel

In Yinchuan, the capital of the Ningxia region, officials are spending over a billion dollars a year to create a huge government complex, a five-star hotel, and a residential compound for entrepreneurs, in the hope that the infrastructure will attract private real estate development. Dozens of other provincial towns have the same aspiration, hoping to turn peasant villagers into citizens of the global economy overnight. Lu Dadao, a Beijing expert on urban planning, told the Times reporter Jim Yardley: “They want it to happen fast, and they want it to be big. They have all taken up urbanization without considering what the natural speed of it should be.” In terms of health and well-being, science tells us that there are unintended negative consequences when, as Walter Lippmann put it a century ago, “we have changed our environment more quickly than we know how to change ourselves.”13 Here in the United States, progressive architects and developers have heeded Jane Jacobs’s call to take the imperatives of social connection more seriously.

pages: 353 words: 91,211

The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History Since 1900 by David Edgerton

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agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, creative destruction, deglobalization, dematerialisation, desegregation, deskilling, endogenous growth, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, interchangeable parts, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, V2 rocket

In Texaco the history of Martinique is divided into the age of the ajoupas (shelters) and longhouses, the age of straw, the age of crate wood, the age of asbestos (fibro-cement) and the age of concrete, reflecting the key materials of the shanty towns.26 In the age of asbestos, asbestos-cement sheet was used for walls; the roofs were of corrugated iron. Thereafter the people bought the occasional bag of cement to make their world more stable and secure. One of the characters in the book is a new model urbanist who began to understand this new kind of city. Indeed, ‘self-help housing’ and ‘auto construcción’ became terms of art in urban planning, recognising that houses were being built in vast numbers, well outside the standard networks of modernity. Corrugated iron, asbestos-cement and cement were not invented in the poor world, they were first exported to it, and then locally produced. The growth of the poor world went along with a massive increase in use of these ‘old’ technologies from the rich world, and yet also, importantly, it was a story of the spread of distinctive technologies often adapted from ‘old’ technologies.

pages: 316 words: 90,165

You Are Here: From the Compass to GPS, the History and Future of How We Find Ourselves by Hiawatha Bray

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, British Empire, call centre, crowdsourcing, Dava Sobel, digital map, don't be evil, Edmond Halley, Edward Snowden, Firefox, game design, Google Earth, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, license plate recognition, lone genius, openstreetmap, polynesian navigation, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFID, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, trade route, turn-by-turn navigation, uranium enrichment, urban planning, V2 rocket, Zipcar

NASA followed up with a series of Tiros and Nimbus satellites, with constantly improving image quality. The GOES weather satellites now in service can distinguish objects down to 1 kilometer in size, which is adequate for watching weather patterns, if not much else. In 1972 the United States launched the Earth Resources Technology Satellite, or ERTS-1, designed to shoot pictures of the earth for use in environmental research, land-use management, and urban planning. The concept had been proposed in 1965, but met with opposition from the intelligence community. As with weather satellites, ERTS-l’s images would be made available to scientists and the general public. The new satellite used better imaging technology, capable of producing photos with a resolution of 80 meters, or 262 feet. That is still far from military grade, but dramatically better than anything previously available to civilians.

pages: 383 words: 98,179

Last Trains: Dr Beeching and the Death of Rural England by Charles Loft

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Beeching cuts, computer age, Downton Abbey, full employment, intermodal, price mechanism, railway mania, urban planning

As the extent to which rail could attract freight from road would have only a marginal effect on the road programme, rail investment would continue to be judged on its likely rate of return. The second key issue Hall identified was urban traffic. Although it was the publication of Buchanan’s report on Traffic in Towns, in November 1963, that highlighted this problem publicly, the Transport and Housing ministries had begun laying the foundations of a joint group on traffic and urban planning in the spring of 1961. Hall’s report warned that ‘rail transport in the cities which have it is an asset which should not be lightly eroded’.195 The ministry had already taken this issue up with Beeching and suggested that it might wish to have advance consultation before urban services were proposed for closure. Traffic surveys were being conducted in a number of towns by the time Reshaping was published and Beeching was persuaded to omit urban services losing some £25 million a year from the report, over half as much again as the total direct saving from closures.

Pirates and Emperors, Old and New by Chomsky, Noam

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, drone strike, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, union organizing, urban planning

Figures of the Barak Ministry reveal that the rate of new construction increased steadily from 1993 to 2000, when it reached five times the level of 1993, 31/2 times 1994, to be increased further under the Sharon–Peres government.36 In July 2000, contracts were awarded for 522 new dwellings in Israel’s Har Homa, a project on land expropriated from an Arab enclave in southeast Jerusalem that has lost 90 percent of its land since Israel’s takeover in 1967 through “town planning” (a euphemism for replacing Arabs by Jews, reminiscent of some uses of “urban planning” in the U.S.). The Har Homa project, on Jabal Abu Ghneim, completes Israel’s encirclement of the vastly expanded “Jerusalem” region. The project was initiated in the last months of Shimon Peres’s Labor government, put on hold after strong domestic and international protest during Benjamin Netanyahu’s Likud Administration, resumed energetically (and without protest) under Barak. For the Israeli far right, however, Labor’s Har Homa project was much less significant than its E-1 program, which received much less publicity.

pages: 446 words: 108,844

The Driver: My Dangerous Pursuit of Speed and Truth in the Outlaw Racing World by Alexander Roy

Bonfire of the Vanities, Google Earth, urban planning, urban sprawl

It’s always a kind of a natural given who that goes to because they’ve done it in the craziest way. That’s the kind of thing we’re into, more than who comes in first. Every morning each car will receive a route card indicating the next checkpoint. So that’s it. The only rule is to get to the checkpoints safely. So have a safe drive and I hope to see all of you in Miami.” CHAPTER 10 Two Minutes to Midnight What about the police? Although I’d taken criminology and urban planning in college, and although I’d tried to apply these to studies of traffic congestion in scholarly journals such as Transportation, Econometrica, and the American Economic Review, no researcher had ever investigated their convergence with gross flouting of the law by large groups of high-speed cars. Short of planning a bank heist on a mafioso’s secret account, my task was the world’s coolest, most gratuitous, and illegal homework assignment of all time.

pages: 346 words: 90,371

Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing by Josh Ryan-Collins, Toby Lloyd, Laurie Macfarlane, John Muellbauer

agricultural Revolution, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bretton Woods, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, deindustrialization, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, garden city movement, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, mortgage debt, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, working poor, working-age population

A key part of the model was the funding mechanism which saw the increment on land values that arose as the community developed from rural to urban collected and then continuously reinvested in community improvements. Howard subsequently went on to lead the development of nearby Welwyn Garden City in the 1920s. Although Howard’s garden city proposal was never more widely adopted, his ideas are recognised as having influenced urban planning throughout the world. And despite a famous attempt to privatise the land in the 1960s, to this day the community-controlled Letchworth Heritage Foundation is the largest landowner in the town, using income generated from the estate to fund its charitable objectives and provide services for the community. An entirely different attempt to address the problem of rent systemically came in the form of taxation.

The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight

Metros anchor nine of the ten key New York regions: Albany in the Capital Region, Syracuse in Central New York, Rochester in the Finger Lakes, Poughkeepsie in the Mid-Hudson region, Utica in the Mohawk Valley, Binghamton in the Southern Tier, Buffalo in Western New York, and the New York City metro, which is shared by the New York City, Long Island, and the Mid-Hudson regions. The North Country region does not contain a metropolitan area. 48. Bruce Katz was one of the judges of the first year’s regional strategies, along with four other experts on national and state economic development and urban planning with experience in the public, private, and academic sectors: Cesar Perales, secretary, New York Department of State; Joan McDonald, commissioner, New York State Department of Transportation; Walter D. Broadnax, professor of public administration at the Maxwell School of Syracuse University; and Dall W. Forsythe, senior fellow at the Wagner School of Public Service, New York University. 49.

pages: 3,292 words: 537,795

Lonely Planet China (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Shawn Low

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bike sharing scheme, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, indoor plumbing, land reform, mass immigration, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, young professional

Pudong – the financial, skyscraper hub – is modern but charmless, with sights falling into the observation deck/skyscraper towers/museums bag. The Bund & People's Square 1Top Sights 1Shanghai MuseumC6 2The BundG3 3Yuyuan Gardens & BazaarH7 1Sights 4Chenxiangge NunneryG6 5East Nanjing RoadE3 6Post MuseumF1 7Rockbund Art MuseumG2 8Shanghai Gallery of ArtG4 9Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA Shanghai)C5 10Shanghai Urban Planning Exhibition HallC5 11Tomorrow SquareB5 2Activities, Courses & Tours 12Huangpu River CruiseH5 4Sleeping 13Astor House HotelG1 14Captain HostelG4 15Chai Living ResidencesE1 16Fairmont Peace HotelG3 17Jinjiang InnD4 18Marvel HotelD6 19Mingtown E-Tour Youth HostelB6 20Mingtown Hiker Youth HostelF2 21Mingtown Nanjing Road Youth HostelE3 22Peninsula HotelG2 23Sofitel Hyland HotelE4 24Waldorf AstoriaH4 25Yangtze Boutique ShanghaiC4 5Eating 26Hongyi PlazaF3 27Huanghe Road Food StreetB4 28Jiajia Soup DumplingsB4 29Kebabs on the GrilleB6 Lobby, PeninsulaG2 30Lost HeavenG5 31M on the BundG4 32Mr & Mrs BundG3 33Nanxiang Steamed Bun RestaurantD5 34Shanghai GrandmotherG4 South MemoryF3 35Wu Fang ZhaiD6 36Wuyue RenjiaH6 37Yang's Fry DumplingsB4 38Yunnan Road Food StreetE6 39Yuxin ChuancaiE4 6Drinking & Nightlife 40Bar RougeG3 41BarbarossaB5 Glamour BarG4 42Huxinting TeahouseH7 Long BarH4 43New HeightsG4 44Old Shanghai TeahouseG7 Sir Elly's TerraceG2 45VueH1 3Entertainment Fairmont Peace Hotel Jazz BarG3 46Shanghai Concert HallD7 47Shanghai Grand TheatreB6 48Yifu TheatreD5 7Shopping Amy Lin's PearlsA5 49Apple StoreF3 50Han City Fashion & Accessories PlazaA5 51Old StreetG7 52Shanghai Museum Art StoreC6 53Shanghai No 1 Department StoreC4 54Shanghai No 1 Food StoreD4 55Suzhou CobblersG4 Information 56Bank of ChinaG2 57China Mobile (Bund)G2 58CitibankG3 59Main China Post OfficeF1 60Tourist Information & Service CentreG7 61Tourist Information & Service CentreD4 Transport 62Bund Train Ticket OfficeF2 63Domestic Boat Tickets ShopH5 64Pu'an Rd Bus StationC7 The Bund The area around the Bund is the tourist centre of Shanghai and is the city’s most famous mile.

Shanghai Gallery of ArtGALLERY ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; www.shanghaigalleryofart.com; 3rd fl, 3 on the Bund, 3 East Zhongshan No1 Rd; h11am-7pm; mEast Nanjing Rd)F Take the lift up to the 3rd floor of 3 on the Bund to this neat and minimalist art gallery for glimpses of current directions in highbrow and conceptual Chinese art. It's all bare concrete pillars, ventilation ducts and acres of wall space; there are a couple of divans where you can sit to admire the works on view. SHaNGHaI IN… ONE DAY Rise with the sun for early morning riverside scenes on the Bund as the vast city stirs from its slumber. Then stroll down East Nanjing Rd to People’s Sq and either the Shanghai Museum or the Shanghai Urban Planning Exhibition Hall. After a dumpling lunch on Huanghe Rd food street, hop on the metro at People’s Sq to shuttle east to Pudong. Explore the fun and interactive Shanghai History Museum or contemplate the Bund from the breezy Riverside Promenade, then take high-speed lifts to some of the world’s highest observation decks, in the Shanghai Tower or Shanghai World Financial Center. Stomach rumbling?

The excellent museum shop sells postcards, a rich array of books, and faithful replicas of the museum's ceramics and other pieces. There are a few overpriced shops and teahouses inside the museum, as well as a snack bar, a cloakroom and an ATM. Expect to spend half, if not most of, a day here and note that the entrance is from East Yan'an Rd. Get here early as only 8000 people are allowed in daily. Shanghai Urban Planning Exhibition HallMUSEUM (Shanghai Chengshi Guihua Zhanshiguan MAP GOOGLE MAP ; 100 Renmin Ave, entrance on Middle Xizang Rd; adult ¥30; h9am-5pm Tue-Sun, last entry 4pm; mPeople’s Sq) Some cities romanticise their past; others promise good times in the present. Only in China are you expected to visit places that haven’t even been built yet. The highlight here is the 3rd floor, where you’ll find an incredible model layout of the megalopolis-to-be, plus a dizzying Virtual World 3-D wraparound tour.

pages: 549 words: 116,200

With a Little Help by Cory Doctorow

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autonomous vehicles, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, death of newspapers, don't be evil, game design, Google Earth, high net worth, lifelogging, margin call, Mark Shuttleworth, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Ponzi scheme, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, sensible shoes, skunkworks, Skype, traffic fines, traveling salesman, Turing test, urban planning, Y2K

He'd grown up hearing his dad wax rhapsodic about the amazing computer he'd invented, so his relevance filters were heavily tilted to BIGMAC news. He'd heard the whole story, and was surprised to discover that he was putative half-owner of BIGMAC's sourcecode. He was only too glad to promise to turn it over to the trust when it was created. He said he thought he could talk his younger brother, a post-doc in Urban Planning at the University of Michigan, into it. "Rusty never really got what Dad saw in that thing, but he'll be happy to offload any thinking about it onto me, and I'll dump it onto you. He's busy, Rusty." 2877 I thanked him and addressed BIGMAC, who had been listening in on the line. "I think we've got a plan." # 2878 It was a good plan. Good plans are easy. Executing good plans is hard. 2879 Peyton didn't get fired.

pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

National Civic Review 89, no. 3 (2000): 193-202. Gane, N. “Speed Up or Slow Down? Social Theory in the Information Age.” Information, Communication & Society 9, no. 1 (2006): 20-38. Gladney, G. A. “Technologizing of the Word: Toward a Theoretical and Ethical Understanding.” Journal of Mass Media Ethics 6, no. 2 (1991): 93-105. Graham, S., and S. Marvin. “Planning Cybercities? Integrating Telecommunications into Urban Planning.” Town Planning Review 70, no. 1 (1999): 89-114. Grier, David Alan. When Computers Were Human. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005. Grint, K., and S. Woolgar. “On Some Failures of Nerve in Constructivist and Feminist Analyses of Technology.” Science, Technology & Human Values 20, no. 3 (1995): 286. Halleck, DeeDee. Hand-Held Visions: The Impossible Possibilities of Community Media.

pages: 493 words: 139,845

Women Leaders at Work: Untold Tales of Women Achieving Their Ambitions by Elizabeth Ghaffari

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Albert Einstein, AltaVista, business process, cloud computing, Columbine, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, follow your passion, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, high net worth, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, performance metric, pink-collar, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

I worked a lot with Ruth Galanter [a Los Angeles councilwoman] on the various community groups such as the Venice Town Council, a group called COAST, and other organizations. I was doing a lot of legal work on a volunteer basis for those groups and then for Heal the Bay. Then people started calling me, asking me to do similar kinds of legal work as a paid attorney. I didn’t solicit legal work deliberately—it happened because people who needed legal advice were aware that I did that kind of work. I did environmental work, urban planning, and administrative law. A lot of the work I did related to permitting and development issues concerning the city charter, the regulations, or California law. I helped people understand the required procedure for approving an environmental impact report. A great deal of environmental law work actually concerns itself with administrative law because that’s how it’s carried out. I had moved my offices around to various places—from Century City to Venice Boulevard, then Carthay Circle for a while.

pages: 421 words: 120,332

The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith

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Bretton Woods, BRICs, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K

Most power plants use “wet” cooling towers—or even open ponds—to deliberately evaporate water into the atmosphere, providing cooling in the same way that evaporating sweat cools your skin. Evaporation losses from power plants are much smaller than the total withdrawal but are still significant in water-stressed areas. In very dry places, it becomes increasingly difficult to guarantee enough water for cooling purposes at all. In the first study of its kind, Martin Pasqualetti, a professor in the School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning at Arizona State University,239 scrutinized how much water consumption (i.e., evaporation) Arizona’s different energy technologies require in order to produce one megawatt-hour of electricity. What he found may surprise you: Water Losses Embedded in Arizona Electricity Generation From Pasqualetti’s data we learn that the water consumption of energy production is not only large, but varies tremendously depending on the type of energy being used.

pages: 618 words: 159,672

Fodor's Rome: With the Best City Walks and Scenic Day Trips by Fodor's Travel Publications Inc.

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call centre, Donald Trump, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mason jar, mega-rich, Murano, Venice glass, urban planning, young professional

. | Piazzale Basile, junction Via Veneto and Corso d’Italia, Villa Borghese | 00196. PIAZZA DEL POPOLO Very round, very explicitly defined, and very photogenic, the Piazza del Popolo—the People’s Square—is one of Rome’s biggest. With twin churches (and two adjacent ritzy caffè) at one end and the Porta del Popolo—Rome’s northern city gate—at the other, this square was laid out in its present form by papal architect Giuseppe Valadier (1762–1839). Part of an earlier urban plan, the three streets to the south radiate straight as spokes to other parts of the city, forming the famed “tridente” that nicknames this neighborhood. The center is marked with an obelisk taken from Egypt, one so old it makes the Pantheon look like the Sears Tower: it was carved for Ramses II in the 13th century BC. Today, it is guarded by four water-gushing lions and steps that mark the end of many a sunset passeggiata.

pages: 497 words: 143,175

Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies by Judith Stein

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War

The American stimulus and recovery lubricated the upturn of the rest of the world. Satisfied with the state of the economy in 1977, Carter set out to doctor the world, negotiating the Panama Canal treaties and the Camp David accords, which produced an Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty in 1978. The laundry list of proposed Democratic reforms—a consumer agency, national health insurance, full employment, extensive urban plans—reflected the belief that the economy was on the mend and that there was plenty of money now to complete the social agenda of the 1960S. Looked at this way, the Keynesian world was seemingly born anew. But the economy also revealed surging imports, balance-of-payment deficits, a falling dollar, and, critically, low productivity. Consumed by the tinkering necessary to stabilize the economy, Keynesians had no answers to these troubling signs and allowed conservatives to fill the intellectual void with solutions, mainly transferring capital from government to rich individuals, who would presumably invest to improve plummeting productivity.

pages: 519 words: 160,846

One Day in December: Celia Sánchez and the Cuban Revolution by Nancy Stout

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AltaVista, back-to-the-land, land reform, Mason jar, union organizing, urban planning

She left the jeep at a crowded drop-off point, the one most people used when they arrived or departed from town. Sunday was market day, and the whole town was teeming with people, and, almost immediately, she noticed her brother, Manuel Enrique, as he drove by looking for her. She was completely surprised to see him, but relieved that he looked past and seemed not to see her. She headed for a nearby bar. Celia walked slowly and naturally to La Rosa. The building is still there, now an urban planning office with a plaque on the wall to commemorate December 2, 1956, the day heroine Celia Sánchez stepped inside to talk with the bartender. La Rosa stood on a corner, and its customers could enter from either street. Both doors were double panels of solid wood, swinging open from ground to ceiling. The barroom was not large, with only a few tables. The bartender, Enrique de la Rosa, was one of Celia’s hand-picked militants.

pages: 379 words: 114,807

The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth by Fred Pearce

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Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, British Empire, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate raider, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, index fund, Jeff Bezos, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, smart cities, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks

I asked a number of conservationists, administrators, lawyers, and others in both South Sudan and Abu Dhabi. Nobody admitted to knowing. The Al Ain Wildlife Park and Resort outside Abu Dhabi, which is owned by the Abu Dhabi royal family, denies any link. “There are very wealthy people behind it, but the truth is complex” was the nearest I got. The only known official is the chairman, Falah al Ahbabi, a civil servant who is also the general manager of the Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council. His day job is to “green” the city, a centerpiece of which is the expansion of the existing wildlife park into a 2,200-acre complex with thousands more animals and “themed African, Arabian and Asian safari encampments.” There are those who fear—on the basis of what has happened at other wildlife reserves elsewhere in Africa operated by mysterious people from the Gulf emirates—that some of Boma’s animals may end up in the new wildlife park.

pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

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23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

I worry that the generation currently in charge is too scared of the terrorists, and too quick to give corporations anything they want. I hope I’m wrong. THE BIG DATA TRADE-OFF Most of this book is about the misuse and abuse of our personal data, but the truth is, this data also offers incredible value for society. Our data has enormous value when we put it all together. Our movement records help with urban planning. Our financial records enable the police to detect and prevent fraud and money laundering. Our posts and tweets help researchers understand how we tick as a society. There are all sorts of creative and interesting uses for personal data, uses that give birth to new knowledge and make all of our lives better. Our data is also valuable to each of us individually, to conceal or disclose as we want.

pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

But this unquestioning acceptance, and refusal to envision alternative explanations, leads to a festering of inconsistencies that pile up until a tipping point is reached where the existing paradigm is torn apart and replaced with a new explanatory paradigm better able to marshal the anomalies, insights, and new developments into a comprehensive new narrative. The capitalist paradigm, long accepted as the best mechanism for promoting the efficient organization of economic activity, is now under siege on two fronts. On the first front, a new generation of interdisciplinary scholarship that has brought together previously distinct fields—including the ecological sciences, chemistry, biology, engineering, architecture, urban planning, and information technology—is challenging standard economic theory (which is wedded to the metaphors of Newtonian physics) with a new theoretical economics grounded in the laws of thermodynamics. Standard capitalist theory is virtually silent on the indissoluble relationship between economic activity and the ecological constraints imposed by the laws of energy. In classical and neoclassical economic theory, the dynamics that govern Earth’s biosphere are mere externalities to economic activity—small, adjustable factors of little real consequence to the working of the capitalist system as a whole.

pages: 310 words: 34,482

Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time by Steven Osborn

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3D printing, A Pattern Language, additive manufacturing, air freight, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, c2.com, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mason jar, means of production, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, Oculus Rift, patent troll, popular electronics, QR code, Rodney Brooks, Shenzhen was a fishing village, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software as a service, special economic zone, speech recognition, subscription business, telerobotics, urban planning, web application, Y Combinator

He is the owner and creator of Dangerous Prototypes (dangerousprototypes.com), an ­electronics blog with a focus on DIY electronic projects and tools. Ian’s most popular creation, the Bus Pirate, is the equivalent of an open-source electronics Swiss-army knife. The Bus Pirate is a go-to tool for beginners and experienced hardware hackers to communicate with and debug electronics components. Steven Osborn: Ian, tell me a little bit about yourself and how you got started in electronics. Ian Lesnet: I was doing a PhD in urban planning and regional development, and I wanted to use wireless sensor networks to measure things in cities. So I got a grant to buy some Smart Dust wireless sensor equipment, from a company spun out of [University of California] Berkeley that came up with the technology. I simulated everything, and everything looked good to go, but then once it was on the ground, once I was using the equipment, it was just flaky.

pages: 418 words: 128,965

The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires by Tim Wu

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Alfred Russel Wallace, Apple II, barriers to entry, British Empire, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, corporate raider, creative destruction, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Menlo Park, open economy, packet switching, PageRank, profit motive, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, sexual politics, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, zero-sum game

Oversimplified as this may seem, we shall find the idea more easily acceptable if we consider that bigness, or oversize, is really much more than just a social problem.… Whenever something is wrong, something is too big.”10 Kohr’s student, the economist E. F. Schumacher, in 1973 wrote Small Is Beautiful: Economics As If People Mattered, developing the concept of “enoughness” and sustainable development.11 Jane Jacobs, the great theorist of urban planning, expresses a no less incendiary disdain for centralization, and as in Hayek, the indictment is based on an inherent neglect of humanity. In her classic The Death and Life of Great American Cities, she relies on careful firsthand observations made while walking around cities and new developments to determine how Olympian planners like Robert Moses were going wrong.12 There was no understanding, let alone regard, for the organic logic of the city’s neighborhoods, a logic discernible only on foot.

pages: 538 words: 147,612

All the Money in the World by Peter W. Bernstein

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, currency peg, David Brooks, Donald Trump, estate planning, family office, financial innovation, George Gilder, high net worth, invisible hand, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Norman Mailer, PageRank, Peter Singer: altruism, pez dispenser, popular electronics, Renaissance Technologies, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, school vouchers, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the new new thing, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, traveling salesman, urban planning, wealth creators, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

She has contributed to a variety of book projects, including The New York Times Practical Guide to Practically Everything and the TurboTax Income Tax Handbook. (Chapters 1, 5, 11, 12) Gwen Kinkead, a prizewinning journalist and author, was a senior editor at Worth and Fortune magazines, and has contributed to The New Yorker and the New York Times. (Chapters 4, 7, 8) Alex Ulam is a New York City–based freelance writer who specializes in architecture and urban planning. His work has appeared in Architectural Record, Landscape Architecture, Wired, Archaeology, and the National Post of Canada. (Chapter 6) Introduction The Forbes 400 is the dominant symbol of wealth in America. It recalls the earlier 400 list of Mrs. Astor but differs from hers in one telling respect. Whereas the original 400 referred to the collection of socially prominent New York families who filled the ballroom of Mrs.

pages: 466 words: 146,982

Venice: A New History by Thomas F. Madden

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big-box store, buy low sell high, centre right, colonial rule, Columbine, Costa Concordia, double entry bookkeeping, facts on the ground, financial innovation, indoor plumbing, invention of movable type, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Murano, Venice glass, spice trade, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning

Of course, the emperor also took in an opera at La Fenice, which had to abandon its boxes of democratically equal sizes to make room for the construction of an enormous imperial box at the very center of the theater. Yet for all the pomp, the city that had transfixed generations of poets and artists left Napoleon cold. It was, he believed, a hodgepodge of old and new without character or discipline. Shortly after his departure, the royal government announced a plan to reform and renew its cityscape. Napoleon wanted to introduce to Venice the modern style of urban planning, which included classical forms, geometric simplicity, manicured public parks, and broad avenues. These were the principles on which Paris was being rebuilt, as were other cities such as Washington, D.C., across the ocean. In an urban environment as thoroughly built up as Venice, though, this necessarily meant demolitions. The Riva degli Schiavoni was cleared, widened, and extended all the way to Castello.

pages: 404 words: 124,705

The Village Effect: How Face-To-Face Contact Can Make Us Healthier, Happier, and Smarter by Susan Pinker

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assortative mating, Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, facts on the ground, game design, happiness index / gross national happiness, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, Occupy movement, old-boy network, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, Ray Oldenburg, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Pinker, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tony Hsieh, urban planning, Yogi Berra

We have a strong sense of the people we meet up with online, and the medium is not the message, they write, adding this odd postscript: “People rarely interact with strangers over the internet.”26 Yet there is an undeniable fact: due to the convenience and power of the Internet, many of us now live, shop, go to school, and work alone. With classes now posted online and the proliferation of MOOCs (massive open online courses), many college students don’t bother to leave their rooms. Just as the sidewalk vanished in much of American urban planning in the mid-twentieth century, when the car became the dominant form of transportation, the post office, newsstand, bookstore, and video store—all places where we crossed paths just a few years ago—are becoming obsolete. True, there are lots of online conversations and apps that connect people, and cafés are more common on street corners than supermarkets. In effect the Internet has allowed us to be more choosy about whom we meet, at least in person.

pages: 366 words: 123,151