liberation theology

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Propaganda and the Public Mind by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian


Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, deindustrialization, European colonialism, experimental subject, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, interchangeable parts, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, one-state solution, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, Washington Consensus

The effect is that there is nothing left in Recife. Except for people roughly my age, people don’t even know about this history anymore. Liberation theology was dismantled. There’s been a lot of commentary in the last couple of weeks about the Pope’s visit to Mexico. I’ve collected these articles, too. The standard one says that liberation theology is extinct. Now there is what they call “post-liberation theology.” There’s a question about just how liberation theology became extinct. Liberation theology was one of the reasons for the regime of terror and repression that spread over the continent, with national security states and state terror—always with U.S. backing. It was an awful period, a real plague in Latin America. The Vatican played its role. Symbolic of that is the fact that the new archbishop in El Salvador is a right-wing Spanish priest who’s also a brigadier in the Salvadoran army.

I didn’t know him, but about two years ago I happened to be in Recife, which was his base. He was one of the leading figures in liberation theology. He made a real difference in Brazil and in the world, and in particular in Recife. The church traditionally had been the church of the rich. He turned it into a church of the poor. He got his priests and nuns to work in the poor areas. Church buildings were given over to educational and health institutions. It made a big change. Recife was one of the leading centers of liberation theology. It was devastated, mainly by violence, but also by the Vatican. The Vatican was strongly opposed to Dom Hélder Câmara. The Vatican doesn’t have guns, but it had its own force. The Pope was able to undermine liberation theology, get rid of the progressive bishops, and put in very reactionary ones. The effect is that there is nothing left in Recife.

Symbolic of that is the fact that the new archbishop in El Salvador is a right-wing Spanish priest who’s also a brigadier in the Salvadoran army. This is the army that murdered Archbishop Romero and the Jesuit intellectuals, along with a few other exploits. That’s symbolic, and they understand it. The new post-liberation theology is semitolerable to elites. The tepid version that gets reported, and it’s not totally false, is that the post-liberation theology pleads with the rich to be nicer to the poor. The new idea is, you evangelize the rich so that they have a social conscience and they’ll drop some more crumbs down on the poor. They’ll accept their social responsibility. The bad kind of liberation theology, which has in some mysterious way become extinct, called on priests to do what Dom Hélder Câmara was doing: organize base communities of poor people who might organize to take their fate into their own hands.

pages: 104 words: 34,784

The Trouble With Brunch: Work, Class and the Pursuit of Leisure by Shawn Micallef


big-box store, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, ghettoisation, Jane Jacobs, knowledge worker, liberation theology, Mason jar, McMansion, new economy, post scarcity, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

And, as Kate and I discovered, the typical urban North American–style brunch, with all of its time-wasting and self-flagellating aspects, has taken root here too, within this larger culture of middle-class enjoyment, right down to the last detail. Reflecting on it later, I was reminded of my graduate work studying liberation theology as a transnational social movement, a theory and practice that began in Latin America in the poorest parts of Catholic parishes. Adherents to liberation theology took to heart biblical notions of helping the poor and were using the Church itself as a means of empowering – liberating – the impoverished. That is, until the movement’s popular spread was stamped out in the 1980s due to its often overtly Marxist tendencies, something the current Pope, Francis, saw during his time as a local priest in Argentina (he is now seemingly making amends for his lack of action during that era).

Churches in the United States and Canada provided sanctuary for people who were unofficially recognized as refugees, putting those providing the sanctuary in legal harm as they were harbouring illegal aliens. I looked at how people in those North American churches, not all of them Catholic, found common cause with those in Latin America, seeing themselves as part of the same liberation theology movement, though their backgrounds and geographic locations were different. In connecting the North American sanctuary movement with liberation theology, I investigated a school of sociology that explained how social movements spread transnationally, between groups of people and individuals who had little direct contact with one another, yet who rallied around the same causes. These connections were often fostered by the same trade winds created by globalization, linking people around common ideals and struggles, even when their bonds were loose.

Bear in mind I was researching and writing in the late 1990s, when the Internet did exist but well before it reached the incredible, unrelenting level of global connectedness it has since achieved, and writing about events that largely played out in the 1980s, when the web was still Al Gore’s dream. That I was consuming a Buenos Aires brunch in a country that was one of the epicentres of liberation theology was purely coincidental, but it did hasten the connection for me. If the near-identical customs of brunch could spread to Argentina, there’s little to stop a sense of class identity and consciousness from forming between brunchers here and elsewhere, just as liberation theology and its sense of mission did two or three decades ago, when we relied on limited analog forms of communication. The brunching class is global, more than a century after this troublesome meal was first imagined as an escape from the rigours of formal class traditions, and just as this food trend travelled far, so could collaborative connections between these creative middle-class people along the same networks.

pages: 330 words: 77,729

Big Three in Economics: Adam Smith, Karl Marx, and John Maynard Keynes by Mark Skousen


Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, delayed gratification, experimental economics, financial independence, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, liberation theology, liquidity trap, means of production, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, open economy, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, price stability, pushing on a string, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school choice, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, unorthodox policies, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game

But what happens after global capitalism runs its course? Desai asks, "Will there ever be Socialism beyond Capitalism?" (Desai 2004,315). Some Marxists, such as David Schweickart, suggest some form of "economic democracy" will develop after the "current late decadent" stage of capitalism plays itself out (Schweickart 2002). The Rise and Fall of Liberation Theology In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a Marxist-driven ideology developed in Latin America, especially among Catholic priests who worked in the barrios and favelas, known as "liberation theology." While rejecting the Marxist extremes of atheism and materialism, these political activists sought to liberate the poor by combining Marxist doctrines of exploitation, class struggle, and imperialism with the Christian theology of compassion for the poor and underprivileged. Popular books carried the titles Communism and the Bible and Theology of Liberation, both published in English by Orbis Books, a subsidiary of the Catholic ministry Maryknoll Fathers and Sisters.

Popular books carried the titles Communism and the Bible and Theology of Liberation, both published in English by Orbis Books, a subsidiary of the Catholic ministry Maryknoll Fathers and Sisters. "Christ led me to Marx," declared Ernesto Cardenal, the Nicaraguan priest, to Pope John Paul II in 1983. "I'm a Marxist who believes in God, follows Christ and is a revolutionary for the sake of his kingdom" (Novak 1991, 13). The father of liberation theology, Gustavo Gutierrez, is a short, mild-mannered professor of theology who wrote about his work with the poor in his native city of Lima, Peru, in Theology of Liberation (1973). Gutierrez explained his "liberation theology" in Marxist terms (McGovern 1980, 181-82): I discovered three things. I discovered that poverty was a destructive thing, something to be fought against and destroyed not merely something which was the object of our charity. Secondly, I discovered that poverty was not accidental. The fact that these people are poor and not rich is not just a matter of chance, but the result of a structure.

To truly liberate Latin America, he and other disciples of Adam Smith advocate open markets, foreign investment, low taxes, opportunities for business creation and ownership of property by all citizens, and political stability under the rule of law—a "liberal, pluralistic, communitarian, public-spirited, dynamic, inventive" nation not unlike the Asian tigers adopted in the recent past (Novak 1991, 32).9 Since the fall of Soviet communism and the socialist central-planning model, liberation theology has lost its steam and most Latin American countries have adopted a more open economy. Consequently, Latin nations have grown rapidly and the percentage of poor has declined. Orbis Books and the Maryknoll Fathers and Sisters ministry no longer publish books on liberation theology. The Next Revolution Only a few years after Marx's masterpiece, Capital, was published, a new breed of European economists came on the scene. These economists corrected the errors of Marx and the classical economists, and brought about a permanent revolution.

What Kind of Creatures Are We? (Columbia Themes in Philosophy) by Noam Chomsky


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, Brownian motion, conceptual framework,, failed state, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, liberation theology, mass incarceration, means of production, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Turing test, wage slave

Individual beliefs are a different matter. That leaves open the door to the lively and impressive tradition of Christian anarchism—for example, Dorothy Day’s Catholic Workers Movement. And to many achievements of the liberation theology that was initiated half a century ago in Vatican II, igniting a vicious U.S. war against the church to destroy the heresy of a return to the radical pacifist message of the Gospels. The war was a success, according to the School of the Americas (since renamed), which trains Latin American killers and torturers and boasts triumphantly that the U.S. Army helped defeat liberation theology.5 So it did, leaving a trail of religious martyrs, part of a hideous plague of repression that consumed the hemisphere. Most of this is out of conventional history, because of the fallacy of wrong agency.

See also acquisition of language; atomic elements of computation; communication; computational procedure; nature of language; origin of language language of thought (LOT): as biological inheritance, 59; Humboldt on, 37; origin of, 13 Lasswell, Harold, 76 Latin America: liberation theology in, xxii, 64, 65–66; U.S. fear of Communist influence in, 77 Lavoisier, Antoine, 108 Leibniz, Gottfried, 33, 53, 86 Leninist vanguardism, xxii Lewis, C. I., 31 Lewontin, Richard: on origin of language, as mystery, xix, 39–40, 125; on “storytelling” about origin of language, xix, 40 liberalism, classical: anarchism as heir to principles of, 62, 63, 71; wrecking of, by capitalism, 62 liberation theology, in Latin America: and principals of anarchism, xxii, 64; U.S. suppression of, 65–66 libertarianism: American vs. traditional forms of, 66; and freedom of the people from guardianship, 80; left and right, unification of, 66 libertarian socialism: anarchism as form of, 62, 63; range of systems included under, 63; U.S. experiments in, 63.

., 124 Brock, William, 108 Brown, Roger, 42 capitalism: and change from price to wage, 73; Dewey on, 70–71; hindering of human development by, xxi; history of U.S. activism against ravages of, 72–75; necessity of state as protector of oppressed in, xxiii, 67; wrecking of classical liberalism by, 62 Carter administration, and U.S. plutocracy, 76 Cartesian dualism, 82–83; as commonsense, 82–83; and creative character of language, 6–7, 93–94, 127; delay in supplanting of, by Newtonian physics, 88; end of, Priestley on, 113–14; and explanatory gap in explaining mental phenomenon, 94; and language as defining feature of humans, 93–94; modern forms of, 30; Newton’s adherence to, xvi, 33–34, 83, 85, 86, 98–99; Newton’s destruction of, xvi–xvii, 30, 33–34, 35, 52, 85, 111–12, 113–14. See also mechanical philosophy; mind-body problem Catholicism: and Christian anarchism, 64; and liberation theology, 65–66 Catholic Workers Movement, 64 causative link to external objects: in animal signals, xviii–xix, 41–42, 126; lack of, in human language, xix, 7, 42–43 chemistry, unification of with physics: and abandonment of erroneous conception of physical laws, 36, 109, 124–25, 143n45; and ignorance hypothesis, 124; parallels of, with research in science of mind, 36, 109–11, 114, 120; pragmatic pursuit of, 106–9 Christian anarchism, 64 Churchland, Patricia, 21 Churchland, Paul, 35, 133n13 civil personality, of women and servants, 46 civil rights activism, and libertarian socialism, 63 Clarke, Desmond, 93–94 coercion, unjustified, dismantling of: as anarchist principle, xxiii, 61, 63–64, 66; Dewey on, 70–71 cognition: lack of accessible evidence on evolution of, xix, 39–40, 125; lack of evolution in, 40; scope of, as product of cognitive limits, 56–57, 59, 105.

pages: 258 words: 63,367

Making the Future: The Unipolar Imperial Moment by Noam Chomsky


Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, full employment, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, liberation theology, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, precariat, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor

During the decade of the “war on terror” declared by the Reagan administration, the horror was similar throughout Central America. The reign of torture, murder and destruction in the region left hundreds of thousands dead. The contrast between the liberation of Soviet satellites and the crushing of hope in U.S. client states is striking and instructive—even more so when we broaden the perspective. The assassination of the Jesuit intellectuals brought a virtual end to “liberation theology,” the revival of Christianity that had its modern roots in the initiatives of Pope John XXIII and Vatican II, which he opened in 1962. Vatican II “ushered in a new era in the history of the Catholic Church,” theologian Hans Kung wrote. Latin American bishops adopted “the preferential option for the poor.” The bishops renewed the radical pacifism of the Gospels that had been put to rest when the Emperor Constantine established Christianity as the religion of the Roman Empire—“a revolution” that in less than a century converted “the persecuted church” to a “persecuting church,” according to Kung.

The bishops renewed the radical pacifism of the Gospels that had been put to rest when the Emperor Constantine established Christianity as the religion of the Roman Empire—“a revolution” that in less than a century converted “the persecuted church” to a “persecuting church,” according to Kung. In the post–Vatican II revival, Latin American priests, nuns and laypersons took the message of the Gospels to the poor and the persecuted, brought them together in base communities, and encouraged them to take their fate into their own hands. Reaction to this heresy was violent repression. In the course of the terror and slaughter, the practitioners of liberation theology were a prime target. Among them are the six martyrs of the church whose execution twenty years ago is now commemorated with a resounding silence, barely broken. Last month [November 2009] in Berlin, the three presidents most involved in the fall of the Wall—George H.W. Bush, Mikhail Gorbachev and Helmut Kohl—discussed who deserves credit. “I know now how heaven helped us,” Kohl said. George H.W.

Gorbachev suggested that the United States needs its own perestroika. No doubts exist about responsibility for demolishing the attempt to revive the church of the Gospels in Latin America during the 1980s. The School of the Americas (since renamed) in Fort Benning, Georgia, which trains Latin American officers, many with gruesome records, proudly announces that the U.S. Army helped to “defeat liberation theology”—assisted, to be sure, by the Vatican, using the gentler hand of expulsion and suppression. The grim campaign to reverse the heresy set in motion by Vatican II received an incomparable literary expression in Dostoyevsky’s parable of the Grand Inquisitor in The Brothers Karamazov. In this tale, set in Seville at “the most terrible time of the Inquisition,” Jesus Christ suddenly appears on the streets, “softly, unobserved, and yet, strange to say, everyone recognized him” and was “irresistibly drawn to him.”

What We Say Goes: Conversations on U.S. Power in a Changing World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian


banking crisis, British Empire, Doomsday Clock, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, informal economy, liberation theology, mass immigration, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

The current pope, Benedict XVI, who has managed to mire himself in controversy around his statements about Islam, was known as the enforcer during the reign of the much revered and hallowed Pope John Paul II.15 He was the guy who apparently purged high-ranking Catholic officials who supported liberation theology. We don’t know the inner workings of the Vatican, but that’s been reported. And it certainly looks like that from his writings. The crime of liberation theology was that it takes the Gospels seriously. That’s unacceptable. The Gospels are radical pacifist material, if you take a look at them. When the Roman emperor Constantine adopted Christianity, he shifted it from a radical pacifist religion to the religion of the Roman Empire. So the cross, which was the symbol of the suffering of the poor, was put on the shield of the Roman soldiers. Since that time, the Church has been pretty much the church of the rich and the powerful—the opposite of the message of the Gospels. Liberation theology, in Brazil particularly, brought the actual Gospels to peasants.

Jordan Jumblatt, Walid Just and Unjust Wars (Walzer) just war theory K Kennan, George Kennedy, John F. Khamenei, Ayatollah Ali Khatami, Mohammad Khmer Rouge Khuzestan Kiernan, Ben King, Martin Luther, Jr. Kirchner, Nestor Kirkpatrick, Jeane Kissinger, Henry Kollek, Teddy Korten, David Krieger, David Kristof, Nicholas Kristol, Bill Kull, Steven Kyoto Protocols L Latin America see also individual nations Lebanon Cedar Revolution see also Hezbollah liberation theology Lippmann, Walter Llewellyn, Tim London Review of Books M McCarthy, Eugene McNamara, Robert Making It (Podhoretz) al-Maliki, Nuri Mallat, Chibli Mamdani, Mahmood manufacturing sector, U.S. Mearsheimer, John media reform Mercosur Mexico microcredit loans Middle East. See individual countries Midstream Milhollin, Gary MIT Monroe Doctrine Montagne, Renée Morales, Evo Mueller, Robert N Nasrallah, Hassan Nasser, Gamal Abdel Nation nationalism, secular National Public Radio (NPR) Nature Nazarbayev, Nursultan neoliberalism Netanyahu, Benjamin New York Times Nicaragua Nixon, Richard North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) North Korea Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty nuclear weapons O Obama, Barack Obrador, Andrés Manuel Lopez oil Operation Miracle Ortega, Daniel Orwell, George O’Shaughnessy, Hugh P Pahlavi, Mohammad Reza (shah of Iran) Pakistan Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid (Carter) Palestinians two-state solution see also Hamas; Israel, the occupied territories Pamuk, Orhan Panama Peck, Edward Pelosi, Nancy Pentagon Papers Peres, Shimon Peru pharmaceutical industry Pico, Juan Hernández Pinochet, Augusto Podhoretz, Norman Porath, Yehoshua Porter, Bernard Powell, Colin Program on International Policy Attitudes Putin, Vladimir Q Qatar, emir of R racism Rand Corporation Reagan, Ronald, administration of Record of the Paper, The (Friel and Falk) Reinhart, Tanya Rice, Condoleezza Rich, Frank Roosevelt, Franklin D.

pages: 316 words: 91,969

Gray Lady Down: What the Decline and Fall of the New York Times Means for America by William McGowan


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, corporate governance, David Brooks, East Village, friendly fire, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, medical residency, New Journalism, obamacare, payday loans, postnationalism / post nation state, pre–internet, uranium enrichment, yellow journalism, young professional

Even some Obama backers, such as Gerald Posner, were dubious: “If the parishioners of Trinity United Church were not buzzing about Reverend Wright’s post 9/11 comments, then it could only seem to be because those comments were not out of character with what he preached from the pulpit many times before.” The “no-go” zone that the Times erected around Obama also encompassed “black liberation theology,” to which Reverend Wright was committed. On the Trinity United website, Wright cited James Cone, a professor at New York’s Union Theological Seminary, as the one who “systematized” this strain of Christianity. Cone had written, “If God is not for us and against white people, then he is a murderer, and we had better kill him.” In the Times, however, black liberation theology came off merely as something “different” from what whites were used to hearing. According to Jodi Kantor’s first article in 2007, black liberation theology “interprets the Bible as the story of the struggles of black people, who by virtue of their oppression are better able to understand Scripture than those who have suffered less.”

According to Jodi Kantor’s first article in 2007, black liberation theology “interprets the Bible as the story of the struggles of black people, who by virtue of their oppression are better able to understand Scripture than those who have suffered less.” A longer analysis by Michael Powell in May 2008, headlined “Race and the Race: A Fiery Theology under Fire,” called Reverend Wright a “man of capacious learning and ego,” and “one of the foremost adherents of this [black liberation] theology.” Powell quoted James Cone in a jocular mood, chuckling as he remarked, “You might say we took our Christianity from Martin and our emphasis on blackness from Malcolm.” For his part, Obama would not give up Wright. But as pressure mounted, he and his campaign decided that Obama should make a major speech on race in America, a speech which some later saw as one of American political history’s great orations, while others dismissed it as a “subject-changing speech.” There was some criticism of the speech at the New York Times.

., “Johnny,” Applebome, Peter Araton, Harvey Archibold, Randal Arian, Sami al- Ashcroft, John Associated Press (AP) Atassi, Dena al- Atlanta Journal-Constitution Atlantic Monthly Atta, Mohammed Audacity of Hope, The (Obama) Auletta, Ken Awad, Nihad Awlaki, Anwar al- Ayers, William (Bill) Backlash (Faludi) Baghdad Museum Baker, Houston Baker, Peter Banderjee, Neela Baquet, Dean Barnard, Anne Barnes and Noble Barstow, David Bart, Peter Bay of Pigs Beck, Glenn Behind the Times (Diamond) Bellafante, Ginia Belluck, Pam Benjamin, Victor Bennett, William Bening, Annette Berger, Joseph Berke, Richard Berman, Paul Bernstein, Nina Bias (Goldberg) Biden, Joe bin Laden, Osama Birach, Michael Birmingham church bombing Black Liberation Army black liberation theology Black Power movement Blair, Dennis C. Blair, Jayson; and Boyd; and Raines Blind Date (Jones) Blodgett, Henry Bloomberg, Michael Blow, Charles Blumenthal, Sidney Body of Lies (film) Bond, Julian Boston Globe; purchase of Boudin, Chesa Boudin, Kathy Boudin, Leonard Bowe, John Bowen, William Bowman, Patricia Boyd, Gerald; and Jayson Blair; memoir; on Miller Boyer, Peter Boyton, Robert Bradbury, Steven G.

Hopes and Prospects by Noam Chomsky


Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate personhood, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling,, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, invisible hand, liberation theology, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, nuremberg principles, one-state solution, open borders, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

A year after Washington’s victory over the Church of the Gospels in El Salvador, the demon of liberation theology emerged again in Haiti with the democratic election of a liberation theology priest, Jean-Bertrand Aristide. As discussed earlier, Washington moved at once to destroy the threat, reinstating the rule of the military and the traditional ruling elite. A few years later the demon raised its head again in Honduras. One of the reasons for Obama’s indirect but sufficient support for the military coup that overthrew the democratically elected government and restored power to the traditional rulers was Zelaya’s moves toward “alliance with liberation-theologian priests and other environmental activists protesting mining and biofuelinduced deforestation.” Meanwhile an ex-bishop tainted by association with liberation theology was elected in Paraguay, overturning decades of dictatorship and elite rule in what was considered a safe dependency.

That’s fair enough, if attention is rigorously guided by the culture of imperialism: focused on their crimes, with ours far removed from sight or memory. The contrast through the 1980s between the liberation of Soviet satellites and the violent crushing of hope in U.S. domains is striking and instructive, and becomes even more so when we broaden the perspective. The assassination of the Jesuit intellectuals was a crushing blow to liberation theology, the remarkable revival of Christianity that had its roots in the initiatives of Pope John XXIII and Vatican II, which he opened in 1962, an event that “ushered in a new era in the history of the Catholic Church,” in the words of the distinguished theologian Hans Küng, “an epoch-making and irrevocable turning point.” Inspired by Vatican II, Latin American bishops adopted “the preferential option for the poor,” renewing the radical pacifism of the Gospels that had been put to rest when the Emperor Constantine established Christianity as the religion of the Roman Empire—instituting “a revolution” that in less than a century converted “the persecuted church” to a “persecuting church” (Küng).

In the wake of the Brazilian coup, the dominoes began to fall, and a monstrous plague of repression spread through the hemisphere under similar murderous tyrannies. Included was the first 9/11, in Chile—by any objective measure far more severe than the second 9/11 in 2001—and also the regime of the killers and torturers in Argentina, perhaps the worst of all of them and Reagan’s special favorite. The plague finally struck Central America in full force throughout the 1980s. In the course of the terror and slaughter, the practitioners of liberation theology were a prime target, among them the martyrs of the Church whose execution in November 1989 was commemorated on the twentieth anniversary with a resounding silence, barely broken. Forgotten almost completely are Julia Elba and Celina Mariset Ramos. The one survivor of the massacre, Father Jon Sobrino, reminds us that they are the symbols of the suffering masses of El Salvador, and the world.8 Or would remind us if we were willing to listen.

Imperial Ambitions: Conversations on the Post-9/11 World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian


British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Westphalian system

The Catholic Church in Latin America in the 1960s and 1970s had really shifted its traditional vocation. It had adopted aspects of liberation theology, and had recognized what’s called “the preferential option for the poor.” Priests, nuns, and lay workers were organizing peasants into communities, where they would read the Gospels and draw lessons about organization that they could use to try to take control of their own lives. And, of course, that immediately made them bitter enemies of the United States, and Washington launched a war to destroy them. For example, one of the publicity points of the School of the Americas, which changed its name in 2000 to the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation, is that the U.S. army helped “defeat liberation theology,” which is accurate.2 The Central American solidarity movement in the United States in the 1980s was something totally new.

El-Baradei, Mohamed elections (2002) (2004) El Salvador embedded journalists Empire as a Way of Life (Williams) Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences England, Lynndie Enlightenment Ethiopia ethnic cleansing Europe European Union (EU) evolution Fairbank, John King Fall, Bernard Falluja FBI fear Figueres, José Filipinos Financial Times First Seminole War Florida, conquest of Fog of War (documentary) Foreign Affairs foreign direct investment (FDI) France Franklin, Bruce freedom of speech freedom of the press Friedman, Thomas Gaddis, John Lewis Gallagher, Nancy Geneva Conventions Germany Glass, Charles Glennon, Michael global warming Gramsci, Antonio Grenada Gromyko, Andrey Grozny Guantánamo Guatemala Gulf War Gurkhas Ha’aretz Habermas, Jürgen Haiti Halliburton Hamas Harris, Zellig Hawaii health care Hegemony or Survival (Chomsky) Heidegger, Martin Hilla Hiroshima Hitler, Adolf Holland, Homeland Security Department Honduras humanitarian intervention Hume, David Huntington, Samuel Hussein, Saddam Hutton Report idealism Ignatieff, Michael Ignatius, David immigrants Chinese imperialism benevolence and costs of racism and India Indian Mutiny Indochina Indonesia industrialization In Retrospect (McNamara) intellectual culture intellectual self-defense intercontinental ballistic missiles International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) International Criminal Court international law Iran coup of 1953 Iraq: British occupation of coup of 1963 debt of democracy and history of U.S. relations with invasion of occupation of propaganda and U.S. elections and Israel Jackson, Andrew Jackson, Robert Jacksonian Democrats Janofsky, Michael Japan Jerusalem Jervis, Robert Johnson, Chalmers Johnson, Lyndon B. Justice Department Kennan, George Kennedy, John F. Kerry, John Kimhi, David Kim II Sung Kinzer, Stephen Kissinger, Henry Kurds Kuwait Kyoto protocol Lancet Lasswell, Harold Latin America Lebanon LeMay, Curtis Lewis, Anthony liberation theology Lippmann, Walter Lloyd George, David London, Jack London Review of Books Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio McCann, Thomas McNamara, Robert Madison, James Mandela, Nelson Mankiw, Gregory “manufacture of consent,” Marshall Plan Mayr, Ernst media Medicaid Mein Kampf (Hitler) mercenary army Mexico Middle East militarization of space military bases Mill, John Stuart Milošević, Slobodan mini nukes missile defense Monroe Doctrine Mossadegh, Mohammed Mussollini, Benito My Lai massacre Nagasaki Nanking Massacre National Security Strategy (2002) Native Americans nativism Nature Nazis Necessary Illusions (Chomsky) Negroponte, John Nehru, Jawaharlal New York Times Magazine Nicaragua Nigeria Nimitz, Chester William 9/11.

Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky


Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden,, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

Central America’s turn—not for the first time—came in the 1980s under the leadership of the “warm and friendly ghost” of the Hoover Institution scholars, who is now revered for his achievements. The murder of the Jesuit intellectuals as the Berlin Wall fell was a final blow in defeating the heresy of liberation theology, the culmination of a decade of horror in El Salvador that opened with the assassination, by much the same hands, of Archbishop Óscar Romero, the “voice for the voiceless.” The victors in the war against the Church declared their responsibility with pride. The School of the Americas (since renamed), famous for its training of Latin American killers, announced as one of its “talking points” that the liberation theology initiated at Vatican II was “defeated with the assistance of the US army.”20 Actually, the November 1989 assassinations were almost a final blow; more effort was yet needed. A year later Haiti had its first free election, and to the surprise and shock of Washington—which had anticipated an easy victory for its own candidate, handpicked from the privileged elite—the organized public in the slums and hills elected Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a popular priest committed to liberation theology.

A year later Haiti had its first free election, and to the surprise and shock of Washington—which had anticipated an easy victory for its own candidate, handpicked from the privileged elite—the organized public in the slums and hills elected Jean-Bertrand Aristide, a popular priest committed to liberation theology. The United States at once moved to undermine the elected government and, after the military coup that overthrew it a few months later, lent substantial support to the vicious military junta and its elite supporters who took power. Trade with Haiti was increased, in violation of international sanctions, and increased further under President Clinton, who also authorized the Texaco oil company to supply the murderous rulers, in defiance of his own directives.21 I will skip the disgraceful aftermath, amply reviewed elsewhere, except to point out that in 2004, the two traditional torturers of Haiti, France and the United States, joined by Canada, forcefully intervened once more, kidnapped President Aristide (who had been elected again), and shipped him off to central Africa.

Kinsley, Michael Kissinger, Henry Kivimäki, Timo Klinghoffer, Leon Knox, Henry Korean War Kornbluh, Peter Krähenbühl, Pierre Krugman, Paul Kull, Steven Küng, Hans Kuperman, Alan Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) Kurds Kuwait labor movement Labor Party (Israel) Laden, Osama bin assassination of Lansdale, Edward Laos Latin America Lawson, Dominic Leahy, Patrick Lebanon Leffler, Melvyn LeoGrande, William Le Pen, Marine Levy, Gideon Lewis, Anthony liberal internationalists liberation theology Liberty, USS, attack Libya Liebknecht, Karl Likud party (Israel) Lincoln, Abraham Linebaugh, Peter Lippmann, Walter Locke, John Lodge, Henry Cabot London Review of Books Luftwaffe Lukes, Steven Luxemburg, Rosa Madison, James Madison, Wisconsin, uprising Madrid negotiations Maechling, Charles, Jr. Magna Carta Malacca Straits Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 Mandela, Nelson Manifest Destiny “Manifesto of the Intellectuals” “Manifesto of the Ninety-Three” Mann, Thomas Mansfield, Lord.

Rogue States by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, deskilling, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, oil shock, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, Tobin tax, union organizing, Washington Consensus

Their hopes are “cruelly dashed” under market arrangements in which “political and financial power is concentrated,” while financial markets fluctuate erratically and “elections can be manipulated.” Guarantees for “the global common good and the exercise of economic and social rights” and “sustainable development of society” must be the core element of “a new vision of global progress in solidarity.”10 A tepid version of the Vatican’s “post-liberation theology,” as it is called, is admissible into the free market of ideas, unlike the liberation theology it replaces. The latter heresy “is almost, if not quite, extinct,”11 commentators inform us. The modalities of extinction have been consigned to their proper place in history, along with the archbishop whose assassination opened the grim decade of Washington’s war against the Church and other miscreants, and the leading Jesuit intellectuals whose assassination by the same US-backed “Latin-style fascists” marked its close.

The Tombstone of Debt Let’s move on to other examples of maintaining socioeconomic supremacy in “our little region over here.” Recently in Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras, there was a meeting of 17 Latin American countries on the debt. The archbishop of Tegucigalpa, president of the Latin American Conference of Bishops, speaking of the debt, said that it “is not one more problem for us to face—it is the problem. The foreign debt is like a tombstone.”7 Latinamerica Press, which comes from Peruvian liberation theology circles, reported what I’m now quoting, but it ought to be on the front pages here. It’s a problem that we’re creating and we’re maintaining. But the conference was not even reported. Then come the data. These are World Bank figures. The data roughly are the following: in the 1970s the Latin American debt was about $60 billion. By 1980 it had reached $200 billion. That’s the result of very explicit World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) policies that were urging banks to make huge loans and urging countries to accept those loans.

Pirates and Emperors, Old and New by Chomsky, Noam


anti-communist, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, drone strike, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, union organizing, urban planning

Few even know the names of the assassinated intellectuals, in dramatic contrast to dissidents in enemy states; one can imagine the reaction if they had not merely been jailed and exiled, but had their brains blown out by elite forces trained and armed by the Kremlin, capping a record of horrendous atrocities. The basic facts are understood. The School of the Americas announces with pride that “liberation theology . . . was defeated with the assistance of the U.S. Army,” thanks in no small measure to the training it provided to military officers of the client-states. The “Victory for U.S. Fair Play” left more than a trail of mutilated corpses and ruined lives, in the midst of ecological disaster. After the U.S. took over again in 1990, Nicaragua declined to the rank of poorest country of the hemisphere after Haiti—which, by coincidence, has been the leading target of U.S. intervention and violence for a century, and now shares with Cuba the distinction of enduring a crushing U.S. embargo.

The reaction throughout makes good sense on the prevailing assumption that the victims are “mere things” whose lives have “no value,” to borrow Hegel’s elegant term for the lower orders. If they try to “raise their heads,” they must be crushed by international terrorism, which will be honored as a noble cause. If they endure in silence, their misery can be ignored. History teaches few lessons with such crystal clarity. Though Central America faded from view in the 1990s, terror elsewhere remained prominent on the policy agenda, and having defeated liberation theology, the U.S. military was directed to new tasks. In the Western hemisphere, Haiti and Colombia became the focus of concern. In Haiti, the U.S. had provided ample support for state violence through the 1980s (as before), but new problems arose in 1990, when to everyone’s surprise, Haiti’s first democratic election was won overwhelmingly by a populist priest, thanks to large-scale popular mobilization in the slums and rural areas that had been ignored.

On recent atrocities, see Americas Watch, Settling into Routine (May 1986), reporting that political killings and disappearances—90 percent at the hands of Duarte’s armed forces—continue at well over four a day, a real improvement in this leading terrorist state, along with numerous other government atrocities. In retrospect, the reality is sometimes conceded, for example by the School of the Americas, which trains Latin American officers for tasks of the kind they accomplished in El Salvador, and proudly proclaims that in the 1980s, “Liberation Theology . . . was defeated with the assistance of the U.S. Army.” Cited by Adam Isacson and Joy Olson, Just the Facts (Washington: Latin America Working Group and Center for International Policy, 1999), ix. 6. Chris Krueger and Kjell Enge, Security and Development Conditions in the Guatemalan Highlands (Washington Office on Latin America, 1985); Alan Nairn, “The Guatemala Connection,” Progressive, May 1986; Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi, The Israeli Connection (Pantheon, 1987). 7.

pages: 181 words: 50,196

The Rich and the Rest of Us by Tavis Smiley

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Corrections Corporation of America, Credit Default Swap, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, ending welfare as we know it, F. W. de Klerk, fixed income, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, job automation, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, mega-rich, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, traffic fines, trickle-down economics, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

In To Heal a Fractured World: The Ethics of Responsibility (New York: Random House, 2005), Rabbi Jonathan Sacks declares that social justice has a central place in Judaism. One of Judaism’s “ethics of responsibility” is the concept of chesed (“deeds of kindness”). Social justice is woven into the history of social work, health care, human rights education, the Global Justice Movement, and numerous grassroots organizations, including The Green Party. “A love that liberates” is more than a touchy-feely aspiration. It is the premise of Liberation Theology—a “bottom-up” movement based on Jesus’s example to fight for the poor against unjust economic, political, or social conditions. This international and interdenominational movement uses social justice as its guide to provide hope and alleviate the poor’s suffering and struggle. Corporate capitalism tends to clash with this kind of social justice. It reduces human life to market calculation and co-modification.

When people are starving, when people have no hope, democracy is threatened. An external threat is not our major concern. It’s the internal rot that’s ominously heading the country toward the point of no return. A dynamite fuse has been lit outside of the communities where the “safe class” resides in luxurious, gated spaces while working people and poor people are struggling in the bankruptcy of the streets. Within the bosom of the Black prophetic tradition, liberation theology, and social justice advocacy, righteous indignation toward poverty is now given moral license to explode. These traditions demand that we reject violence but welcome public outrage at corporate and societal greed. As the poet Ralph Waldo Emerson reminds, “A good indignation brings out all one’s powers.” We are steadfast in our belief that the legacy of social justice remains the last hope for American democracy.

pages: 66 words: 19,580

A Week at the Airport: A Heathrow Diary by Alain de Botton


Airbus A320, fear of failure, invention of the telephone, liberation theology, Pearl River Delta, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Silicon Valley

Because it seemed a pity to end our discussion of metaphysical matters on such a note, I asked the two men to tell me how a traveller might most productively spend his or her last minutes before boarding and take-off. The Reverend was adamant: the task, he said, was to turn one’s thoughts intently to God. ‘But what if one can’t believe in him?’ I pursued. The Reverend fell silent and looked away, as though this were not a polite question to ask of a priest. Happily, his colleague, weaned on a more liberal theology, delivered an equally succinct but more inclusive reply, to which my thoughts often returned in the days to come as I watched planes taxiing out to the runways: ‘The thought of death should usher us towards whatever happens to matter most to us; it should lend us the courage to pursue the way of life we value in our hearts.’ 5 Just beyond the security area was a suite, named after an ill-fated supersonic jet and reserved for the use of first-class passengers.

Rethinking Money: How New Currencies Turn Scarcity Into Prosperity by Bernard Lietaer, Jacqui Dunne


3D printing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, business climate, business process, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, conceptual framework, credit crunch, discounted cash flows,, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, liberation theology, Marshall McLuhan, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, Occupy movement, price stability, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban decay, War on Poverty, working poor

These microloans can be classified into two categories. First, there are loans for personal needs, known as consumption loans, to cover food, clothing, gas, and items for personal hygiene. Second are comparatively larger loans, called production loans, for setting up or in most cases expanding small businesses, such as street stands, shops, and ser vice providers. Segundo’s inspiration came primarily from Liberation Theology, a Christian movement that developed in the Catholic Church in Latin America in the 1950s and 1960s and explores freedom from economic and social injustice. Another major influence on Segundo came from the Spanish cooperative movement of the late 1950s, called Mondragon. It is a federation of cooperatives that currently provides employment to some 83,000 people in a network of 256 companies Strategies for Banking 105 The construction of the Asmoconp, Associação de Moradores do Conjunto Palmeira during the mid- to late 1980s.

See also Mobile phone Internet access: enabling currencies, 60– 61, 117; Human Right, A, and, 165–166, 166; in multicurrency world, 55 Internship, 16–17 Intolerance, 182 Intrinsic risk, 45 Intrinsic value, 64 Investing class, 193–194 Ireland, 96– 98 Irrigation, 187 Isolation, 19 Ithaca Health Alliance (IHA), 163, 164 Ithaca Health Fund (IHF), 164 Ithaca HOURS, 162–165, 163 Job: creation, 119, 145–146, 216; satisfaction, 18; work and, 219–220 John Galt, 113 Jord Arbete Kapital (JAK), 109–113, 111 256 INDEX Junk mail, 152 Jury duty, 83 Juvenile justice, 80, 83 Keynesian stimulus, 23–24, 145–146 Keynesian School of Economics, 35 Knowledge exchange network, 184 Krama, 190 KTA, 157 Kukuyu, 209 !Kung, 46– 48, 196 Kyoto Protocol, 116 Labor certificate, 176–177 Landfill. See Trash Layoff, 12 Leadership, 221–122 Learning currency, 153–155, 201 Learning retention, 154–155 Legal aid, 85 Legal tender, 57– 58, 150 Lehman Brothers, 70 Leverage, 101–102, 152–153 Liberation Theology, 104–105 Library, 21 Liquidity, 145–146, 194 Literacy, 155, 216 Litigation, 18 Loan: with Banco Palmas, 106–107; consumption, 104–105, 106, 107; income and, 108; in Ithaca HOURS, 163–164; with JAK bank, 109–110, 112; microloan, 104–105, 107; production, 104–105, 107; Revolving Loan Fund, 129–130. See also Debt; Student loan Lobbying, 114 Local Capital Project, 128–130 Local currency, 5, 58– 59; BerkShare, 75, 89– 91, 90; BONUS, 170; Chiemgauer, 74–75, 87– 89, 88; in Ireland, 96– 98; Ithaca HOURS as, 163–164; in monetary ecosystem, 199, 200–201; velocity of, 68– 69.

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim


additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intangible asset, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

These were serious issues, and the Church sought to modernize in response, notably through the decisions of the Vatican II council—for instance, by requiring Mass to be given in local languages rather than in Latin. But nothing prepared the Vatican for the competitive challenge of the Pentecostal and charismatic churches, not just at the far limits of its reach but in places like Latin America long considered the faith’s backyard. Already in the 1970s and 1980s, the Church faced internal dissent with the emergence of liberation theology in Brazil and elsewhere in the continent. The threat of liberation theology has diminished, particularly with the spread of democracy in the region.12 But the inroads of the new denominations and the greater intensity of renewalist religious practice (more people attending longer services and adapting more aspects of their life to the church’s requirements) are chipping away at the influence of the once overwhelmingly dominant Catholicism.

See also Economic/financial crises Redeemed Christian Church of God, 196 Referenda, 86, 94, 95, 151 Reforms, 69, 77, 84, 96, 100, 102, 122, 167, 172, 184, 202, 223, 237, 243, 250–254 Regimes, 138, 247 Regulations/deregulation, 29, 30, 32, 36, 48, 49, 101, 167, 168, 169, 170, 172, 174, 184, 187, 190, 212, 228 Reid, Richard, 111 Religion, 4, 5, 10, 16, 18, 23, 24, 25, 33, 41, 44, 66, 67, 75, 78, 154, 193, 217, 225, 231, 233, 244 Evangelicals/fundamentalists/charismatic, 8–9, 73, 106, 194–199 and financial success, 195, 198 liberation theology, 197 See also Catholic Church; Islam Remittances, 60, 63 Repression, 14, 53, 54, 70, 73, 85, 100, 219, 242 Republican Party, 76, 79, 95, 239. See also Tea Party movement Reputations, 7, 162, 166, 174 Research and development (R&D), 182, 183, 229 Resource issues, 15, 18, 23, 29, 43, 52, 75, 102, 125, 169, 171, 174, 175, 226, 230, 231 Revolt of the elites, 48, 49 Revolutionary transformations, 11 Rewards, 24–25, 26, 73 Rid, Thomas, 115, 122, 127–128 Riesman, David, 46 Rights, 74, 200, 247.

pages: 780 words: 168,782

Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl


anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Pearl River Delta, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War

More than a million of them lined the roads to cheer the pontiff during his visit. When he and his aides left the country, they looked down to see the light from countless mirrors held aloft to reflect the sun’s rays at his departing plane. It was a remarkable dress rehearsal for an even bigger trip the pope was planning, to another country where the faith of ordinary people stood at odds with a government’s program of militant secularism. The term Liberation Theology was invented by the Peruvian priest and theologian Gustavo Gutiérrez Merino in 1971. Merino would be accused of swapping out theological terms with political ones and of reducing a spiritual teaching to a materialist social theory. One of the most famous of the liberation theologians was Ernesto Cardenal, the Nicaraguan priest and poet who in July 1979 became the minister of culture in the new Sandinista government that took power in Managua after toppling dictator Anastasio Somoza Debayle.

The next day the pope celebrated mass with representatives of Mexico’s indigenous peoples, whose long history of suffering served to drive home the point that the struggle for justice was an integral part of the church’s mission. He conceded the point that Catholic institutions had sometimes allied themselves with the forces of dictatorship and oppression and went on to stress that, whenever the church took sides, it should always strive to take the side of justice. These were not tactical compromises, made for the sake of calming his critics in the Liberation Theology camp. Christian humanism, and the inviolability of the individual, remained at the core of his thinking. In March he addressed these issues in his first encyclical. Entitled Redemptor Hominis (Redeemer of Man), it offered one of the clearest statements of his personalist philosophy. It is a text that displays a profound anxiety about the rising threat posed to individual human rights by various collectivist systems, including totalitarianism, imperialism, and colonialism: If human rights are violated in time of peace, this is particularly painful and from the point of view of progress it represents an incomprehensible manifestation of activity directed against man, which can in no way be reconciled with any program that describes itself as “humanistic.” . . .

Try as it might, though, even modern political movements have never quite managed to shrug off their scriptural and spiritual origins.4 The Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam—shared the belief that history is the product of a single and unified divine being that is pushing humanity forward toward a particular end; once that end is reached, history will end, and a community of purity and justice will be established for eternity. The European religious wars in the wake of the Reformation, and especially the English Civil War in the seventeenth century, showed how millennial longings for justice and equality gave rise to organizations that had remarkable similarities to twentieth-century revolutionary movements. The syntheses of Marxism and religion attempted by Ali Shariati and the theorists of Catholic liberation theology in the 1970s show that Marx’s thinking was, in a deeper sense, more congenial to Abrahamic prophecy than he might have been willing to acknowledge. So perhaps it should come as little surprise that those who defined themselves as the militant avant-garde of “material progress” should have met with particularly bitter resistance from the forces of organized religion. For many twentieth-century modernizers, the proper “progressive” was an atheist, someone who rejected supernatural explanations of events in favor of a “scientific,” materialist analysis of history.

pages: 351 words: 96,780

Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, Doomsday Clock, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, liberation theology, long peace, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment

Therefore none of their activities “appear to be violations of our neutrality laws,” which “clearly … were not designed for the kind of situation which exists in the world today.”41 The world did not suddenly become extraordinarily dangerous on 9-11, requiring “new paradigms” that dismantle international law and institutions and grant the White House the power to disregard the domestic rule of law. The achievements of international terrorism are excluded from sanitized history, but they are recognized with pride by the perpetrators. The famous School of the Americas, which trains Latin American officers to carry out their missions, proudly announces as one of its “talking points” that the US Army helped to “defeat liberation theology,”42 the heresy to which the Latin American Church succumbed when it adopted “the preferential option for the poor” and was made to suffer its own “terrors of the earth” for this departure from good order. Symbolically, the grim decade of Reagan-Bush I terror was opened, shortly before they took office, by the assassination of a conservative Salvadoran archbishop who had become a “voice for the voiceless,” with thinly veiled complicity of the US-backed security forces; and the decade closed with the murder of six Jesuit Salvadoran intellectuals whose brains were blown out, and their housekeeper and her daughter murdered, by an elite Washington-armed and -trained battalion that had already compiled a record of bloody atrocities.

And though the MPLA “bears a grave responsibility for its country’s plight” in later years, it was “the relentless hostility of the United States [that] forced it into an unhealthy dependence on the Soviet bloc and encouraged South Africa to launch devastating military raids in the 1980s.”50 The many campaigns of international terrorism and economic warfare to overcome “successful defiance” and “left-wing excesses” adopting “the philosophy of the new nationalism” and perhaps even influenced by liberation theology, barely sampled here, are considered insignificant, or perhaps obviously legitimate, as are their bitter consequences. Accordingly, they scarcely enter the enormous current literature and public discussion of international terrorism and Washington’s supposedly new doctrine of “regime change.” At worst they can be dismissed with comforting euphemisms. An occasional casual reference tells us that nothing happened in Cuba beyond “the destabilization campaign known as Operation Mongoose.”

pages: 299 words: 19,560

Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal


1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Rarely if ever examined from the angle of utopianism, these projects are the Paris World’s Fair of 1900 and, in the same year, the photographs commissioned by French banker Albert Kahn and the Socialist Second International led by Frenchman Jean Jaur es; the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 and the League of Nations; the Paris exhibit of 1937 celebrating science, technology The Future of Utopias and Utopianism 251 (especially electric lights), and art; French lawyer Rene Cassin’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948; the French student revolt and the “Prague Spring” of 1968, plus, in the same era, Latin American liberation theology and communities; and the 1992 emergence of visions of global citizenship following the emergence of a powerful European Union through the Maastricht Treaty. In each case, Winter reveals arguments and artifacts that demonstrate the appropriateness of the utopian label, yet without romanticizing the projects. For example, President Woodrow Wilson’s 1919 vision of self-determination for all peoples as the royal road to peace was conspicuously at odds with his contempt for non-whites and non-Europeans.

Buckminster Fuller (Fuller) 249 iPads 187, 193, 219, 222 iPhones 187, 219 iPods 2, 163, 187, 193, 219, 220, 238 Iran 189 Iraq War of 2003 11, 140 Iso, Abe 20 Israel 8, 24 kibbutzim in 24, 196–198 Italy 98 Jaher, Frederick Cople 98 Japan 115, 196 and Chinese science 235 “discovery” by American explorers 235 and guns 234–236 interwar politics 20–21, 170 Japanese rulers’ fear of Westernization 235 Meiji period 20 nuclear industry in 152 socialist movement 20 and space 141 Taisho period 20 and technological development 234–236 Tokugawa period 19, 236 utopianism in 19–20 Jasons (secret group) 105 Jaures, Jean 251, 253 Jefferson, Thomas 242 Jobs, Steve 158, 187, 201 Johnson, President Andrew 94 Johnson, President Lyndon 101, 104, 111, 159 Johnson, Steven 222 Jonestown, Guyana 244 Journey to the Center of the Earth (Verne) 8 Judaism 10 J-wear 141 K-12 school system 215 Edutopia 204 K-12 hardware and software 205–206 K-12 participants 206 Kaczynski, Theodore 84 Kahn, Albert 251, 252–253 Kahn, Herman 238 Kaplan, Fred 191 Karloff, Boris 128 Kateb, George 6–7 Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities 213–215, 216–17 Index 277 Kellogg Commission (Continued ) political and ideological components of report 215 Kellogg Foundation 213 Kelmscott Press 59 Keniston, Kenneth 116 Kennedy President John F 101, 104, 105–106, 111, 192 Kennedy, Senator Ted 104 Khang Yu-Wei 18–19 Kibbutzim, Israel 24, 196–198 Kilby, Jack 158 Kilgore, Senator Harley 100–101, 113, 115–116, 120 Kindle Reader 219, 220, 222 Kondratiev, Nikolai 30 Kondratiev theory 30–31 Koo, Wellington 252 Krauss, Lawrence 202–203 Kumar, Krishan 9–10, 92 Kusiak, Karen 205 labor unrest as a problem 31 Labour Party, UK 114 Lane, Mary E. Bradley 92 Lane, Robert 106–107, 108, 109, 114, 117–118, 119, 122 Laos 104 Lartigue, Jacques-Henri 165 Las Vegas 36 Lasser, David 9 Last Hero, The: A Life of Henry Aaron (Bryant) 191 Latin America 102 and European ideas 21–22 indigenous cultures and movements 21, 23 liberation theology and communities 52 Spanish conquest 21 utopias in 21–23 Lawrence, Francis 212 Lea, Homer 98 278 Index League of Nations 251 Lease, Mary 98 Lee, Ann 26 Lefkowitz, Mary 171 Left Hand of Darkness, The (LeGuin) 92 legitimation crisis in US science and technology 122 LeGuin, Ursula 92 LeMay, General Curtis 105 Lemontey, Pierre Edouard 60 Lenin, Vladimir 104 Lessing, Doris 9 Levitas, Ruth 7 Levittown, Long Island 244 Ley, Willy 9 library usage 218 Life in a Technocracy: What It Might Be Like in 1933 (Loeb) 89, 106, 239, 240 limits to growth 234, 237 Literary Digest 97 “literary intellectuals” 114 “living the dream” 254 Loeb, Harold Albert 89, 90, 95, 96, 239 and politics 109 Loewy, Raymond 34 London, Jack 98 Longxi, Zhang 18 Looking Backward: 2000–1887 (Bellamy) 10, 13, 24, 27, 31–32, 34, 90, 194 attitudes toward 59–60, 254 Lost Horizon 13 Lucas, George 204 Luddites 240, 241 Maastricht Treaty 252 Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America, The (Leo Marx) 84 Machines as the Measure of Men: Science, Technology, and Ideologies of Western Dominance (Adas) 169 Macnie, John 82, 87 Maine and nuclear power 142–157 Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company 142–143, 145, 146–148, 149, 151 as “cargo cult” 147 closure of 148 opposition to 156–157 referenda on 147, 155 utopian and dystopian aspects 156 views of 156–157 Malthus, Thomas 63 Mandela, Nelson 171 Manhattan Project 156 “Manifest Destiny,” American 11 Manuel, Frank and Fritzie 16 Manuel, Frank 6 Mao Tse-Tung 18, 243 utopian vision 19 Mao’s Great Famine (Dikotter) 19 Maraniss, David 191 marginalizing utopias 29, 245 Marx, Karl 32, 53, 60, 66–67, 105, 250–251 Marxism 22 Marx, Leo 84, 85 Massachusetts Institute of Technology 52 Massey, Ranymond 240, 241 Mauchly, John 160 Mayer, Anna-K. 98, 114 Mbeki, Thabo, President of South Africa 171 McDonald, Michael J. 111 McIntyre, Vonda N. 9 McKinley, President William 94 McNamara, Robert 104–105, 106, 112, 113, 166 “McNamara Line” 105 Medieval Machine, The: The Industrial Revolution of the Middle Ages (Gimpel) 236 “megachurches” 11 megaprojects: and climate change 187–188 retreat from 139ff, 157 skepticism toward 141–142 taxpayer support for 122, 150 Megatrends and Megatrends 2000 (Naisbitt and Aburdene) 168 Men Like Gods (Wells) 251 mercantilism 77 Metamorphosis (Ovid) 47 Mexico 23 mice, as subjects of research 125 Micklethwait, John 11 Microsoft 158, 192 “middle landscape” 85 military technology 238 millenarian movements 8 God and millenarianism 8, 10 Christians and millenarianism 8, 10 Judaism and millenarianism 8, 10 Mormonism 10 and Pansophism 54–55 and utopia 55 Miller, Lisa 12 Mitchell, General Billy 142 Mizora: A Prophecy (Lane) 92 Model T car 165 Modern Times in Maine and America, 1890–1930 191 “Modernization” theory 102ff, 114 over-reliance on technology 105 Index 279 Mojave Desert, California 151 monkeys, genetically modified 125 Montgomery, David 212 Montreal Expo 1967 246 Moon and the Ghetto: An Essay on Public Policy Analysis, The (Nelson) 117 Moon landing 139, 140, 141, 190, 200 moon landing fraud claims 141 More, Thomas 23, 42, 58, 247 coining of term utopia 5 and history 164 and utopias 251 utopia described 48–50 see also Utopia Morison, George Shattuck 89–90 Mormonism 10 Morozov, Evgeny 189 Morris, William 17, 32, 58–59, 60, 237, 254 see also News from Nowhere Mosquito Coast, The 202 Mumford, Lewis 1, 106, 245, 246 music, digitization of 221 Mussolini, Benito 98 MySpace 205 Naisbitt, John 161, 162, 168, 186 Nantucket Sound 150 NASA 7, 140 National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC) 213–214 National Park Service 238–239 National Science Foundation (NSF) 99, 100, 115 Native Americans 81 natural user interface 220 Nazi Germany 104, 244 Nazism and utopia 188 280 Index Negroponte, Nicholas 161–162, 163, 186 Nehru, Jawaharlal 172 Nelson, Richard 117 Neo-Confucian thought 19–20 Net Delusion, The: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom (Morozov) 189 Neumann, Franz 109 Neumann, John Von 160 New Atlantis, The (Bacon) 53, 251 Condorcet on 56 New Christianity, The (Le Nouveau Christianisme) (SaintSimon) 57 New Deal 106, 159 New England 3, 24, 27, 147, 150, 156, 249 New Harmony, Indiana. settlement at 60 New Lanark Mills, Scotland 60, 62, 64 New View of Society A (Owen) 62 New World and Old World compared 24, 244 New World Order 242 New World, The; Or, Mechanical System to Perform the Labours of Man and Beast by Inanimate Powers, that Cost Nothing (Etzler) 78 New York City’s New School for Social Research 97 New York Public Library 242, 245, 254 New York World’s Fair World of Tomorrow 1939–1940 164, 240 News from Nowhere (Morris) 17, 32, 59–60, 237 newspapers and digital media 218, 221–222 Newton Message Pad 219 Newton, Isaac 55, 219 Nexi the robot 126 Nixon, President Richard 108, 155 Noble, David F 187, 190, 207, 216 non-utopian reform 244 North Americans, early European perceptions of 244 North Vietnam 105–106 Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History (Lefkowitz) 171 Noyce, Robert 158 Noyes, John Humphrey 10, 27, 28 nuclear industry: France 152 Germany 152 Japan 152 US 142–156 nuclear power 142–157 being “too cheap to meter” 156 changing attitudes toward 146–147 experts and 155–156 leakage of tritium 153 and power station decommissioning 148, 149–150 possibility of disaster 154–155 nuclear weaponry 187 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) 148, 149, 153, 154 Nutty Professor, The 201 Nye, David 81, 168, 169, 190, 237 Nyhan, David 148–149 O’Neil, Gerard 9 Obama, President Barack 140, 151 Office of Science and Technology Policy 108 Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) 117–119, 121 One Laptop per Child 161 Oneida community 10, 24, 27–28 daughter communities 28 open marriage in 27, 199 Oneida Limited 28 “Oneida Perfectionists” 28 ordinary readers and utopian writings 11, 139, 254 Organization Man, The (Whyte) 114–115 original sin 8 Orwell, George 14, 124, 166 Other America, The (Harrington) 101 Ovid 47 Owen, Robert 53, 60–64, 66, 67 and drawbacks of industrialization 62 influence on Japan 196 utopian plans 62–63 see also New Harmony, Indiana, New Lanark Mills ozone layer, monitoring of 121 pacifism 26 Packard, David 158 Page, Larry 158 Palestine 25, 35 Pansophists 48, 52, 53–55 Paradise Within the Reach of All Men, Without Labor, By Powers of Nature and Machinery, The (Etzler) 79 parents, children, and technology 239 Paris exposition 1937 35, 251–252 Paris Peace Conference 1919 251 Paris World’s Fair 1900 251, 253 Pasteur, Louis 120–121 Index 281 Pasteur’s Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation (Stokes) 120 patriot missiles 238 Peale, Norman Vincent 168, 208 Pelle, Kimberly 36 Pentagon 109 People of Plenty: Economic Abundance and the American Character (Potter) 101 Performance Measurement for World Class Manufacturing 212 Perrin, Noel 234, 235 Perry, Commodore Matthew 20 Persian Gulf War 1991 238 Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life 11–12 Pew Research Center for the People 116 phalansteries 29, 64–65 Physics of Star Trek, The (Krauss) 202 Picasso, Pablo 35, 252 Piercy, Marge 92 Pilgrims, US 24 Pindar 47 Plato 13, 47, 48, 50, 123 podcast 218–219 Point East Maritime Village, Wiscasset 150 Pol Pot 243 “Politics of Consensus in an Age of Affluence, The” 106 politics, affluence, and knowledge 106–107 significance of political power 109 Positivism 58 Post Shredded Wheat 191 post-9/11 period 142 “post-colonial” critique of Western imperialism 169–173 post-Millennialists 8, 27 282 Index post-modern skepticism and relativism 160 Postrel, Virginia 161, 164, 186 post-World War II period, beliefs, and projects 160 Potter, David 101, 102 poverty and progress 82 Prague Spring 1968 268 Prakash, Gyan 171, 172 Preface to Democratic Theory, A (Dahl) 106 pre-Millennialists 8 Press and the American Association 116 primitivism 92 Productivity for the Academic World 212 Productivity Press 212 professional forecasting 160–169 failures of 160–161 Progress and Poverty (George) 82 proletariat 66 public faith in government and scientific-technological advance 113 Puffer, Erma 145 Puritans, US 24 “Quick Technological Fixes” 107–108, 117 Quindlen, Anna 221 racism 9, 169, 172 radiation, issues with 144–145, 155 Ramo, Simon 110–111, 112, 113, 122, 160 utopian vision of 110, 166 rationalism 55 Reactionary Modernism (Herf) 104 Read and Go 220 Reader Pocket Edition and Reader Touch Edition 220 Reagan, President Ronald 8, 108, 115, 140, 142, 248 real world and the internet 194–195 Recent Social Trends in the United States (Hoover) 102 recovery narrative 81, 237 Reevely, David 221–222 Religion of Technology, The: The Divinity of Man and the Spirit of Invention (Noble) 187 religion 169 attitudes toward belief 56 declining beliefs 11–12 freedom of religion 168 religious beliefs and utopianism 9–12, 24, 29–30, 31, 90, 96, 239 in US 25, 26, 103 Western 172 Report to the County of Lanark (Owen) 62, 63 Republic (Plato) 13, 47, 48, 50, 123 Rescher, Nicholas 239–240 Research Applied to National Needs” 115 “Returning to Our Roots” 215, 216 Revenge of the Nerds 201 revolution of rising expectations 50 Ricardson, Ralph 240 Rittel, Horst 112 Road Ahead, The (Gates) 163 Robinson, Kim Stanley 9 robotics, development of 126–127 Roddenberry, Gene 200, 201, 202 Rodriquez, Simon 22 Roebling, John 79 Roemer, Kenneth 254 Rogers, Deborah 193 Rome 1960: The Olympics that Changed the World (Maraniss) 191 Roosevelt, President Franklin 102, 159 Rosas, Juan Manuel de 22 Rostow, Walt 104, 105 Roszak, Theodore 111, 112 Rural Electrification Administration 94 Ruskin, John 58, 59, 60 Russ, Joanna 92 Rydell, Robert 36, 37 94, Saddam Hussein 11 Saint-Simon, Henri de 22, 52, 56–58, 65, 66 Sale, Kirkpatrick 117 “salvation by technology” 248 Samurai “technology assessment” 235 Sargent, Lyman Tower 16, 253 Satellite (machine developed by Etzler) 79–80, 81 Saunders, Doug 105 Schindler, Solomon 10 Schuller, Robert 168 Science Advisory Committee 106 science and technology 57 science fiction 8–9, 199–203, and utopias 201 Science in the National Interest 119–122 Science Wars” 159 “science-driven globalization” 8 Science – The Endless Frontier (V.

pages: 1,590 words: 353,834

God's Bankers: A History of Money and Power at the Vatican by Gerald Posner


Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, central bank independence, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, credit crunch, dividend-yielding stocks, European colonialism, forensic accounting, God and Mammon, Index librorum prohibitorum, liberation theology, medical malpractice, Murano, Venice glass, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

In 1966, Cardinal Spellman and other conservative clerics were incensed when the church announced $15 million in aid for North Vietnam at the same time it dispatched two Vatican officials to visit Vietnam (Pope Paul had himself wanted to go as a symbol of support, but it was deemed too dangerous).99 His 1967 reception for Soviet President Nikolai Podgorny marked the first state reception for a communist official at the Vatican, and it sent a chill through entrenched anticommunist warriors in the Curia.100 That same year, Paul issued an encyclical, Populorum Progressio. It was a clarion call for economic and social justice and set a goal of “just distribution” of wealth in Third World countries to help bridge the gap between rich and poor.101 The Wall Street Journal scorned that Papal decree as “souped-up Marxism,” but it would become the rallying cry for a generation of activist priests in Central and Latin America who advocated liberation theology, a volatile mixture of left-wing politics and Catholicism.102,VII Populorum Progressio at first concerned Sindona since it also attacked unrestrained capitalism: “Free market competition, however, should not be abolished, but simply maintained within moral limits.” The Pope, however, did not intend that his message about economic equality in any way limit a buying binge that Sindona had planned with the IOR.

One matter, however, took him by surprise: the severity of a spat between the Jesuits and Paul VI. Jesuit theologians had ignored Paul’s many requests to refrain from intense political activism. The sight of the black-uniformed prelates being dragged away by police at the front lines of massive protests over the war in Vietnam or efforts to ban the bomb were too frequent as far as the Vatican was concerned. Even worse was their enthusiastic dissemination of liberation theology, the combination of Catholicism and Marxism that fueled communist movements in El Salvador and Guatemala. The Jesuits’ Superior General, Pedro Arrupe, was an avowed political leftist and had resisted all requests for moderation from Rome. If John Paul did not bring the Jesuits into line, Arrupe might well judge the new Pope as indecisive as his predecessor.58 It is little wonder that with so many critical matters pending, John Paul sometimes seemed frazzled.

It was not a stretch for Bill Casey and Vernon Walters to convince John Paul that the church’s best interests in Latin and Central America were the same as those of the United States: supporting authoritarian regimes that were at least nominally Catholic. Although John Paul condemned “savage capitalism,” and even told a reporter that there were “kernels or seeds of truth” in Marxism, he nevertheless dramatically changed course from Paul VI when it came to liberation theology, a twentieth-century mixture of Catholicism and left-wing ideologies that emphasized a redistribution of wealth to help the poor, particularly through political activism.40 Marcinkus, from his work with Sindona and Calvi, was more familiar than any other Vatican official with how to move money around Central and Latin America. The money arrangements among U.S. intelligence agencies, covert operatives, and Marcinkus left few footprints.41,III John Paul rewarded Marcinkus for his service in September 1981 by appointing him as the city-state’s pro-president of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, the church’s chief administrator.

pages: 391 words: 22,799

To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton


affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, liberation theology, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration

“If one is prepared to meet the Lord we Â�shouldn’t be overly concerned about leaving the world,” he reasoned, while a physics professor pointed out that human beings could “adapt” to low-level radiation.35 Although spiritual matters tended to trump geopolitics regularly at all three schools, and the argument for Christian aloofness could command a respectful hearing, the events of the 1980s could intrude in terms readily legible to Christian audiences. The orÂ�gaÂ�nized movement opposing Reagan’s Central America policies, after all, had firm bases in a vaÂ�riÂ�ety of Christian institutions and orÂ�gaÂ�niÂ�zaÂ�tions, including not only Catholic communities inspired by liberation theology but also the pacifist evangelical Left.36 A case in point was Dennis Godby, a native Californian and Catholic who had worked on hunger issues in Central America and who raised the area’s concerns for the College of the Ozarks in 1985. Godby had become convinced that the administration’s policies in the isthmus were unjustly costing thousands of lives and conceived of an “Emergency Run for Central America” to draw attention to the crisis.

See Management theory 363 INDEX Investment capÂ�ital, 24–25, 28, 31, 34, 37, 45, 53, 223 Investor-managers, 25, 53 Ixtapalapa Wal-Mart, 256, 258, 260–261 184–185, 213; proportion of Â�women in labor force, 296n1, 311n102, See also Industrial work; Service work; Â�Unions Labor-HEW Appropriations Act, 319n40 Laissez-faire, 4, 32, 70, 126, 146, 182, 194, 218 Lausanne movement, 239–240, 250, 340n69 Leadership training, 178–179, 181, 183, 189, 192, 240. See also Servant leadership Leaders of the Ozarks, 191–192, 201, 213 Lewis Galindo, Gabriel, 227–228, 242 Liability: limited, 13; crisis, 205–207 Liberal arts education, 139, 148–149, 151, 153, 155, 161, 187 Liberalism, 10, 87, 112, 116, 312n2 Liberation theology, 232 Libertarianism, 194 Lluvias de Gracia, 235 Lobbying, 20, 40, 185, 202, 204, 213–214, 257 Lott, Trent, 269 Loveless, Ron, 6–7 Lubbock Christian University, 174, 200, 204, 207, 217 Luxemburg, Rosa, 201 Lynn, Loretta, 43 J.B. Hunt Transport, 34, 46 J.C. Penney chain stores, 25, 47, 80 Jabara, Fran, 155–158, 161 Jesus Christ, 102, 106–107, 110–111, 121, 132, 143, 188, 238–239 Jesus Movement, 97 Jews, 11, 20–22 Job discrimination, 65, 82, 89, 99 John Brown University (formerly John E.

Rethinking Islamism: The Ideology of the New Terror by Meghnad Desai


Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, illegal immigration, income per capita, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, means of production, oil shock, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yom Kippur War

฀Ideology฀ became฀ secular฀ as฀ well.฀ Marxism฀ became฀ the฀ most฀ powerful฀ ideology฀of฀the฀twentieth฀century฀because฀it฀offered฀a฀millenarian฀ hope฀and฀a฀programme฀to฀achieve฀it.฀Other฀ideologies฀–฀anarchism,฀ nationalism,฀Nazism฀–฀also฀flourished฀as฀programmatic฀devices฀for฀ liberation฀or฀for฀restoration฀of฀national฀pride. Religion฀did฀not฀quite฀disappear฀from฀the฀field฀of฀social฀reform฀ however.฀In฀Latin฀America,฀liberation฀theology฀was฀a฀strong฀move- ฀ ฀  ment฀which฀involved฀the฀Church฀in฀reform฀programmes,฀often฀in฀ defiance฀ of฀ the฀ state.฀ The฀ Catholic฀ Church฀ maintained฀ an฀ active฀ social฀ profile฀ partly฀ as฀ a฀ counter฀ to฀ Communism฀ but฀ also฀ to฀ respond฀ to฀ the฀ expectations฀ of฀ its฀ followers฀ for฀ an฀ answer฀ to฀ the฀ myriad฀ social฀ problems฀ they฀ had.฀ Religion฀ became฀ a฀ social฀ but฀ unofficial฀ activity฀ as฀ it฀ took฀ part฀ in฀ reform.฀ What฀ distinguishes฀ Islamism฀ from฀ such฀ efforts฀ is฀ that฀ it฀ is฀ a฀ political฀ ideology฀ with฀ a฀ programme฀ which฀ is฀ explicitly฀ related฀ to฀ power฀ relations.฀ It฀ is฀ this฀which฀has฀surprised฀many฀people฀who฀mistake฀it฀for฀a฀religion฀ seeking฀political฀power.

pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis


barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, jitney, jobless men, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, liberation theology, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

In the face of absolute immiseration, anthropologists describe the dissolution of the 72 Devisch, "Frenzy, Violence, and Ethical Renewal in Kinshasa," p. 625. 73 Abdou Maliq Simone, p. 24. 74 Sedecias Kakule interviewed in "Democratic Republic of the Congo: Torture and Death of an Eight-Year-Old Child," Federation Internationale de L'Acat (Action des Christiens pour L'Abolition de la Torture) (FIATCAT), (October 2003). 75 Rene Devisch, precis of talk ("'Pillaging Jesus:' The Response of Healing Churches of Central Africa to Globalization"), Forum for 'Liberation Theology, Annual Report 1997-98. gift exchanges and reciprocity relations that order Zairean society: unable to afford bride price or become breadwinners, young men, for example, abandon pregnant women and fathers go AWOL.76 Simultaneously, the AIDS holocaust leaves behind vast numbers of orphans and HIV-positive children. There are huge pressures on poor urban families — shorn of their rural kinship support networks, or conversely, overburdened by the demands of lineage solidarity - to jettison their most dependent members.

pages: 230 words: 79,229

Respectable: The Experience of Class by Lynsey Hanley

Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Etonian, full employment, housing crisis, illegal immigration, invisible hand, liberation theology, low skilled workers, mutually assured destruction, Neil Kinnock, Norman Mailer, Own Your Own Home, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent

We have to put the people in this country first.’18) In 2011 Glasman announced that Labour would not be able truly to connect with lost or disgruntled working-class voters unless it were to be seen ‘reaching out’ to the racist, xenophobic English Defence League. At around the same time, Glasman and Cruddas developed a working formula for their party’s future appeal to working-class voters based on ‘family, faith and flag’. Cruddas, from a working-class Catholic family, framed his ideas around Catholic social teaching and liberation theology, which taken together emphasize mutuality, commitment and social continuity. Glasman, for his part, had worked with immigrants from South America, West Africa and Eastern Europe at the East London Communities Organisation (TELCO), through which he developed and led the London Citizens campaign to improve wages and conditions for workers in the East End of London. Crucially, given the irony of his later pronouncements, London Citizens also campaigned to formalize the status of illegal immigrants.

pages: 296 words: 78,112

Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency by Joshua Green

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate raider, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Fractional reserve banking, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, low skilled workers, Nate Silver, nuclear winter, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, urban planning

Everywhere Bannon looked in the modern world, he saw signs of collapse and an encroaching globalist order stamping out the last vestiges of the traditional. He saw it in governmental organizations such as the European Union and political leaders such as German chancellor Angela Merkel, who insisted that countries forfeit their sovereignty, and thus their ability to maintain their national character, to distant secular bureaucrats bent on erasing national borders. He saw it in the Roman Catholic Church, whose elevation of Pope Francis, “a liberal-theology Jesuit” and “pro-immigration globalist,” to replace Pope Benedict XVI so alarmed him that, in 2013, he established Breitbart Rome and took a Vatican meeting with Cardinal Raymond Burke in an effort to prop up Catholic traditionalists marginalized by the new Pope. More than anywhere else, Bannon saw evidence of Western collapse in the influx of Muslim refugees and migrants across Europe and the United States—what he pungently termed “civilizational jihad personified by this migrant crisis.”

pages: 1,327 words: 360,897

Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall


agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Graeber, feminist movement, garden city movement, hive mind, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, liberation theology, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Naomi Klein, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the market place, union organizing, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

In its syndicalist form it continues to appeal to the most progressive urban workers while anarchist communism echoes the ancient aspiration of the poorest peasants to work the land in common without interference from boss or priest. New libertarian tendencies have emerged in the ‘Pedagogy of the Oppressed’ of the Brazilian educationist Paulo Freire and in Ivan Illich’s search for institutional alternatives to the centralized, technocratic State.30 The Liberation Theology developing in Latin America, which combines Marxism and Christianity, and juxtaposes images of Che and Jesus to potent effect in the shanty-towns, has a strong libertarian impulse which may well leave its historical roots behind.31 It is still not impossible that one day genuine anarchy will rise out of the chaos of military dictatorships in Latin America. In the meantime, it has been a driving force in the anti-capitalist and anti-globalization movements which have swept across the Americas. 34 Asia China MODERN ANARCHISM CAME TO China at the beginning of the twentieth century and became the central radical stream until after the First World War and the rise of Marxism-Leninism.

., p. 269 27 See Sam Dolgoff, The Cuban Revolution: A Critical Perspective (Montréal: Black Rose, 1976) for the early anarchist campaign against Castro’s regime 28 See my Cuba Libre, op. cit., pp. 79–80 29 Che Guevara, Socialism and Man (New York: Pathfinder Press, 1968), p. 22 30 See Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970) (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1972), and Ivan Illich’s Celebration of Awareness (1971) (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973) 31 See Linda H. Damico, The Anarchist Dimension of Liberation Theology (New York: P. Lang, 1987) Chapter Thirty-Four 1 See Jack Gray, Modern China in Search of a Political Form (Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 345 2 See Martin Bernal, ‘The Triumph of Anarchism over Marxism, 1906–1907’, China in Revolution: The First Phase, 1906–1913, ed. Mary C. Wright (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971), pp. 67, 70; Gray, Modern China, op. cit., p. 67 3 See Robert A.

(Paris: Didier Erudition, 1986) Crowder, George, Classical Anarchism: The Political Thought of Godwin, Proudhon, Bakunin, and Kropotkin (New York: Oxford University Presss, 1992) Crump, John, Origins of Socialist Thought in Japan (Croom Helm, 1983) D’Agostino, Anthony, Marxism and the Russian Anarchists (San Francisco: Germinal Press, 1977) Damico, Linda H., The Anarchist Dimension of Liberation Theology (New York: Lang, 1987) Davis, J. C., Fear, Myth and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986) Day, Richard, Gramsci is Dead: Anarchist Contributions to the Newest Social Movements (Pluto Press, 2005) De Jasay, A., Against Government: On Government, Anarchy and Politics (New York: Routledge, 1997) De Leon, David, The American as Anarchist: Reflections on Indigenous Radicalism (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978) De Souza, Newton Stadler, O anarquismo da Colônia Cecília (Rio de Janeiro, 1970) Dirlik, Arif, Anarchism in the Chinese Revolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989) Doctor, Adi Hormusji, Anarchist Thought in India (Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1964) Doctor, Adi Hormusji, Sarvodaya: A Political and Economic Study (Bombay: Asia Publishing House, n.d.)

pages: 334 words: 98,950

Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism by Ha-Joon Chang


affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round,, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour mobility, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, mega-rich, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

Very often, we are offered broad ‘religious’ categories, like Christian (which from time to time is lumped together with Judaism into Judaeo-Christian, and which is regularly divided into Catholic and Protestant), Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu and Confucian (this latter category is particularly controversial, because it is not a religion).* Yet think for a minute about these categories.Within the ostensibly homogeneous group ‘Catholic’, we have both the ultra-conservative Opus Dei movement, which has become well-known through Dan Brown’s bestselling novel, The Da Vinci Code, and left-wing liberation theology, epitomized in the famous saying by the Brazilian archbishop of Olinda and Recife, Dom Hélder Câmara: ‘When I give food to the poor, they call me a saint. When I ask why the poor have no food, they call me a communist.’ These two ‘Catholic’ sub-cultures produce people with very different attitudes towards wealth accumulation, income redistribution and social obligations. Or, to take another example, there are ultra-conservative Muslim societies that seriously limit women’s public participation.

pages: 355 words: 106,952

Visit Sunny Chernobyl: And Other Adventures in the World's Most Polluted Places by Andrew Blackwell


carbon footprint, clean water, Google Earth, gravity well, liberation theology, nuclear paranoia, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, place-making, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the scientific method, young professional

He knew everybody, perhaps because he spent his every spare moment on the tiny terrace of his house, greeting passersby, waving, hollering, gossiping. Walking around Santarém with him was like tagging along for a victory lap with a popular former mayor. Acquaintances and friends shouted from windows and sidewalks on every block. We went looking for Father Edilberto Sena not at his church but at the offices of his radio station, which says something about his approach to liberation theology. The station operated from a small, two-story building on a busy street up the hill from the river, and Sena used it to promote his activist causes, beginning with an editorial broadcast every morning. From half a block away, Gil spotted him pulling into a parking spot, and we introduced ourselves on the sidewalk. He was a short man, youthfully sixtysomething, with a pugnacious smile and good English.

pages: 385 words: 111,807

A Pelican Introduction Economics: A User's Guide by Ha-Joon Chang


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, information asymmetry, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberation theology, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, precariat, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, working-age population, World Values Survey

Perhaps they are migrants from rural areas who have lost everything in a flood and thus are desperate for work – any work. But can we really call choices made under such circumstances ‘free’? Aren’t these people acting under compulsion – of having to eat? In this context, we should bear in mind what the Brazilian archbishop of Olinda and Recife, Dom Hélder Câmara, a leading figure of the left-wing Catholic ‘liberation theology’ especially popular in Latin America between the 1950s and the 1970s, said: ‘When I give food to the poor, they call me a saint. When I ask why the poor have no food, they call me a Communist.’ Perhaps we should all be a bit of a ‘Communist’ and question whether the underlying conditions that make the poor so desperate to voluntarily sign up for ‘bad’ jobs are acceptable.* REAL-LIFE NUMBERS Forced labour The ILO estimates that, as of 2012, around 21 million people in the world are engaged in forced labour.

pages: 359 words: 104,870

Extreme Rambling: Walking Israel's Separation Barrier. For Fun. by Mark Thomas


Boycotts of Israel, facts on the ground, liberation theology, one-state solution, urban planning, urban sprawl

Coming from a family of preachers and vicars as I do, I know well the potential for schism and splits: I turned my back on it long ago, opting instead for the calm unity of left-wing politics. ‘This is a new theology,’ continues Nidal. ‘The resistance of love. We declare that the Occupation is a sin against God and humanity and that any theology that justifies the Occupation and its injustices is a heresy.’ I might have left religion a long time ago but the roots run deep, and the ringing bell of liberation theology can still turn my head. With my face visibly lighting up, I say, ‘Is the object to get this into mainstream church thinking?’ ‘Yes, we want to make this a mainstream idea and we want to stop the Bible being used to justify the Occupation and the settlers.’ ‘Are other churches endorsing this idea?’ ‘Yes, churches from all around the world have endorsed it, even the Protestant Church of the Netherlands.

pages: 313 words: 95,077

Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations by Clay Shirky


Andrew Keen, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle,, crowdsourcing,, hiring and firing, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Kuiper Belt, liberation theology, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Merlin Mann, Metcalfe’s law, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, Picturephone, place-making, Pluto: dwarf planet, prediction markets, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Vilfredo Pareto, Yogi Berra

Whether by design or accident, Vatican II, as it came to be called, was more of a feel-good nostrum than an actual recipe for change—it was fine to suggest that the laity somehow constituted the body of the church, but without a mechanism for allowing Catholics to make their feelings known, the practical effect on the hierarchy was minimal. Over the centuries the Catholic Church has been buffeted by incredible institutional pressures, but in all that time every real push for change has come from within the priesthood, from Martin Luther’s 95 Theses in the 1500s to the Liberation Theology of Central and South America in the 1980s. No significant challenge to the hierarchy has ever come directly from the laity—until now. The reaction of the Catholic laity to the abuse scandal is showing us one way in which Vatican II might be implemented, how a collection of individuals previously obstructed from sharing information and opinions across parish lines can have a lasting effect on the church by working together as a group.

pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams


3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

In Venezuela, for instance, the state supported the creation of neighbourhood communes as a way to embed socialism in everyday practices.59 On the other hand, resources for new parties can be mobilised collectively – Podemos, for example, got started through crowd-funding €150,000 – and the vitality of the party can be maintained through constant institutionalised negotiations between local movements, party members and central party structures.60 Podemos, for instance, has aimed to build mechanisms for popular governance while also seeking a way into established institutions.61 It is a multi-pronged approach to social change and offers greater potential for real transformation than either option on its own.62 Meanwhile, Brazil’s Partido dos Trabalhadores has maintained openness to multiple groups (liberation theology groups, peasant movements) while still organising around an essentially union-based core. In the words of one researcher, ‘this combination of grassroots and vanguard constituted a Leninism that was not very Leninist’.63 What all these experiences show, however, is the mass mobilisation of the people is necessary in order to transform the state into a meaningful tool of their interests, and to overcome the blunt division between the power of movements and the power of the state.

pages: 347 words: 99,317

Bad Samaritans: The Guilty Secrets of Rich Nations and the Threat to Global Prosperity by Ha-Joon Chang


affirmative action, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round,, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour mobility, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, mega-rich, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

Very often, we are offered broad ‘religious’ categories, like Christian (which from time to time is lumped together with Judaism into Judaeo-Christian, and which is regularly divided into Catholic and Protestant), Muslim, Jewish, Buddhist, Hindu and Confucian (this latter category is particularly controversial, because it is not a religion).i Yet think for a minute about these categories. Within the ostensibly homogeneous group ‘Catholic’, we have both the ultra-conservative Opus Dei movement, which has become well-known through Dan Brown’s bestselling novel, The Da Vinci Code, and left-wing liberation theology, epitomized in the famous saying by the Brazilian archbishop of Olinda and Recife, Dom Hélder Câmara: ‘When I give food to the poor, they call me a saint. When I ask why the poor have no food, they call me a communist.’ These two ‘Catholic’ sub-cultures produce people with very different attitudes towards wealth accumulation, income redistribution and social obligations. Or, to take another example, there are ultra-conservative Muslim societies that seriously limit women’s public participation.

Powers and Prospects by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, Jacques de Vaucanson, John von Neumann, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, old-boy network, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, theory of mind, Tobin tax, Turing test

To comprehend his words, it is only necessary to carry out the usual translation from Newspeak to ordinary language. The term ‘stability’ means US control, ‘radicalization’ means unacceptable forms of independence, and ‘fundamentalist religious zealotry’ is a special case of the crime of independence. It is immaterial whether the criminals favour secular nationalism, democratic socialism, fascism, liberation theology or ‘fundamentalist religious zealotry’. Surely Israel’s task is not to undermine the world’s most extreme Islamic fundamentalist regime, Saudi Arabia—at least not right now—just as Israel was not called upon to ‘block’ the extremist Islamic fundamentalist forces of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, the US favourite of the 1980s who has been tearing the remnants of Afghanistan to shreds after the Soviet withdrawal while expanding his narcotrafficking; or the Islamic fundamentalist groups that Israel was nurturing in the occupied territories a few years ago, to undermine the secular PLO.

pages: 1,402 words: 369,528

A History of Western Philosophy by Aaron Finkel


British Empire, Eratosthenes, Georg Cantor, George Santayana, invention of agriculture, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Plutocrats, plutocrats, source of truth, the market place, William of Occam

It is derived, no doubt, from love of home and desire for a refuge from danger; we find, accordingly, that it is most passionate in those whose lives are most exposed to catastrophe. Religion seeks permanence in two forms, God and immortality. In God is no variableness neither shadow of turning; the life after death is eternal and unchanging. The cheerfulness of the nineteenth century turned men against these static conceptions, and modern liberal theology believes that there is progress in heaven and evolution in the Godhead. But even in this conception there is something permanent, namely progress itself and its immanent goal. And a dose of disaster is likely to bring men’s hopes back to their older super-terrestrial forms: if life on earth is despaired of, it is only in heaven that peace can be sought. The poets have lamented the power of Time to sweep away every object of their love.

The former is a curious combination of biblical criticism and political theory; the latter deals with political theory only. In biblical criticism Spinoza partially anticipates modern views, particularly in assigning much later dates to various books of the Old Testament than those assigned by tradition. He endeavours throughout to show that the Scriptures can be interpreted so as to be compatible with a liberal theology. Spinoza’s political theory is, in the main, derived from Hobbes, in spite of the enormous temperamental difference between the two men. He holds that in a state of nature there is no right or wrong, for wrong consists in disobeying the law. He holds that the sovereign can do no wrong, and agrees with Hobbes that the Church should be entirely subordinate to the State. He is opposed to all rebellion, even against a bad government, and instances the troubles in England as a proof of the harm that comes of forcible resistance to authority.

Frederick’s endeavours, like those of the other enlightened despots of the time, did not include economic or political reform; all that was really achieved was a claque of hired intellectuals. After his death, it was again in Western Germany that most of the men of culture were to be found. German philosophy was more connected with Prussia than were German literature and art. Kant was a subject of Frederick the Great; Fichte and Hegel were professors at Berlin. Kant was little influenced by Prussia; indeed he got into trouble with the Prussian Government for his liberal theology. But both Fichte and Hegel were philosophic mouthpieces of Prussia, and did much to prepare the way for the later identification of German patriotism with admiration for Prussia. Their work in this respect was carried on by the great German historians, particularly by Mommsen and Treitschke. Bismarck finally persuaded the German nation to accept unification under Prussia, and thus gave the victory to the less internationally minded elements in German culture.

pages: 489 words: 111,305

How the World Works by Noam Chomsky, Arthur Naiman, David Barsamian


affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, capital controls, clean water, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Howard Zinn, income inequality, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, labour market flexibility, land reform, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, transfer pricing, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor

The Mexican Bishops’ Conference strongly endorsed the position the Latin American bishops took when they met at Santa Domingo [in the Dominican Republic] in December 1992. That meeting in Santa Domingo was the first major conference of Latin American bishops since the ones at Puebla [Mexico] and Medellín [Colombia] back in the 1960s and 1970s. The Vatican tried to control it this time to make sure that they wouldn’t come out with these perverse ideas about liberation theology and the preferential option for the poor. But despite a very firm Vatican hand, the bishops came out quite strongly against neoliberalism and structural adjustment and these free-market-for-the-poor policies. That wasn’t reported here, to my knowledge. There’s been significant union-busting in Mexico. Ford and VW are two big examples. A few years ago, Ford simply fired its entire Mexican work force and would only rehire, at much lower wages, those who agreed not to join a union.

pages: 481 words: 120,693

Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else by Chrystia Freeland


activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, call centre, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, double helix, energy security, estate planning, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Gini coefficient, global village, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, high net worth, income inequality, invention of the steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liberation theology, light touch regulation, linear programming, London Whale, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, NetJets, new economy, Occupy movement, open economy, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, Solar eclipse in 1919, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, Washington Consensus, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

“I think it has a lot to do with the way Silicon Valley was formed and the university culture. The egalitarian culture. The liberal culture there. People are often surprised by that. . . . And I always try to explain to people that people actually came to Google not to get wealthy, but to change the world. And I genuinely believe that.” Another way to believe our plutocrats are heroes battling for the collective good is to think of capitalism as a liberation theology—free markets equal free people, as the editorial page of the Wall Street Journal asserts. One of the most convincing settings for this vision is Moscow, where in October 2010 you could hear it ringingly delivered by Pitch Johnson, one of the founders of the venture capital business in Silicon Valley, in a public lecture to business school students about capitalism and innovation. Johnson, who was a fishing buddy of Hewlett-Packard cofounder Bill Hewlett, is a genial octogenarian with a thick white head of hair, glasses, and a Santa Claus waistline.

pages: 522 words: 144,511

Sugar: A Bittersweet History by Elizabeth Abbott


agricultural Revolution, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, flex fuel, land tenure, liberation theology, Mason jar, Ralph Waldo Emerson, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working poor

In 1552, in his sixties, Las Casas produced his sensational Brevísima Relación de la Destrución de las Indias (Very Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indians), his heartbreakingly personal witness to the annihilation of the natives, fifteen million of them by his count. He also wrote powerful books about the Incas of Peru and, until he died at age eighty-two, worked on his Historia de las Indias. He defied the Spanish Inquisition, publishing some books without its permission. Las Casas preached what can only be regarded as sixteenth-century liberation theology, which considers activism in the cause of human rights and social justice integral to Christian faith. For Las Casas, human rights were indistinguishable from practical, lived Christianity. Notre Dame law professor Paolo Carrozza has described Las Casas as “the midwife of modern human rights talk.”39 Las Casas also introduced the principle of restitution for human rights violations. His widely detested Confesionario of 1546 spelled out how this would work.

pages: 494 words: 116,739

Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama


active measures, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser,, end world poverty, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, liberation theology, libertarian paternalism, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K

But capitalism on its own concentrates wealth (and therefore power) in the hands of a few, as so many have noted, from Karl Marx to Thomas Piketty (2014). Other forces are needed to spread growth widely, whether it’s cooperatives, unions, progressive taxation, universal provision of basic needs, private charity, or a combination of these and other factors. Social-enterprise hype glorifies market mechanisms and therefore crowds out important approaches that come with few extrinsic rewards. We need more of what liberation theology calls a “preferential option for the poor” (Farmer 2005, p. 139). 36.Franzen (2010), p. 439. 37.Fisher (2012). 38.McNeil (2010). 39.UNESCO (2012). That still leaves over 50 million children out of school, though. 40.International Committee of the Red Cross (2014). 41.Richard Davidson is a leader in the field of affective neuroscience, which seeks out the physiological underpinnings of emotion.

pages: 467 words: 114,570

Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science by Jim Al-Khalili


agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Book of Ingenious Devices, colonial rule, Commentariolus, Dmitri Mendeleev, Eratosthenes, Henri Poincaré, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Joseph Schumpeter, liberation theology, retrograde motion, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, trade route, William of Occam

We have no reason to believe that al-Kindi himself supported the mihna, of course. He was even critical of some of the ideas of Mu’tazilism itself, as can be found in the opening chapter of his On First Philosophy,7 which he wrote during the reign of al-Mu’tasim. In al-Mutawakkil, we see the first of a line of more conservative caliphs and the beginning of the backlash against the free-thinking and liberal theology of the Mu’tazilite movement. And al-Mutawakkil’s often violent persecution of scholars whose views did not accord with his more fundamentalist version of Islam sees the theological pendulum swinging away from al-Ma’mūn’s mihna to the other extreme; neither ruler endeared himself to those who did not share his views. Even al-Kindi was not spared. While not a Mu’tazilite himself, he broadly sympathized with their views and now suddenly found himself on the wrong side.

Killing Hope: Us Military and Cia Interventions Since World War 2 by William Blum


anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, kremlinology, land reform, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuremberg principles, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, union organizing

Church people working for the CIA in the Third World have typically been involved in gathering information about the activities and attitudes of individual peasants and workers, spotting the troublemakers, recruiting likely agents, preaching the gospel of anti-communism, acting as funding conduits, and serving as a religious "cover" for various Agency operations. An extreme anti-communist, Vekemans was a front-line soldier in the struggle of the Christian Democrats and the Catholic Church against the "liberation theology" then gaining momentum amongst the mote liberal clergy in Latin America and which would lead to the historic dialogue between Christianity and Marxism.17 The operation worked. It worked beyond expectations. Frei received 56 percent of the vote to Allende's 39 percent. The CIA regarded "the anti-communist scare campaign as the most effective activity undertaken", noted the Senate committee.18 This was the tactic directed toward Chilean women in particular.

pages: 475 words: 149,310

Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri


affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, David Graeber, Defenestration of Prague, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global village, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, late capitalism, liberation theology, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Paul Samuelson, private military company, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Richard Stallman, Slavoj Žižek, The Chicago School, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

For detailed information about the drafting and context of the text, see Étienne Gilson’s exhaustive commentary in Descartes, Discours de la méthode, ed. Étienne Gilson (Paris: Vrin, 1930). 72 On the “power of the flesh” in the Pauline tradition, see Henry de Lubac, Catholicisme: Les aspects sociaux du dogme (Paris: Le Cerf, 1941). This book, relying on Patristic and Augustinian foundations, opened up the way for a historical conception of redemption, a tradition that the contemporary forms of “liberation theology” have greatly developed. 73 The concept of the political body served to reinforce theories of the absolutist state in early modern Europe, but the analogy continued throughout modernity. On the conception of the political body as a united living organism in classical German philosophy, from Kant and Fichte to Hegel and Marx, see Pheng Cheah, Spectral Nationality (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003). 74 We will discuss these arguments more fully at the beginning of chapter 3.

pages: 538 words: 138,544

The Story of Stuff: The Impact of Overconsumption on the Planet, Our Communities, and Our Health-And How We Can Make It Better by Annie Leonard


air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, dematerialisation, employer provided health coverage, energy security, European colonialism, Firefox, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, global supply chain, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, liberation theology, McMansion, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, supply-chain management, the built environment, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Wall-E, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

(Confucius, XI.15) Hindu: “That person who lives completely free from desires, without longing... attains peace.” (Bhagavad Gita, II.71) Khalil Gibran: “The lust for comfort murders the passion of the soul, and then walks grinning in the funeral.” (The Prophet) Islamic: “The best kind of wealth is to give up inordinate desires.” (Imam Ali A.S.) Jewish: “Give me neither poverty nor riches.” (Proverbs 30:8) Liberation Theology: “The poverty of the poor is not a call to generous relief action, but a demand that we go and build a different social order.” (Gustavo Gutiérrez) Native American: “Miserable as we seem in thy eyes, we consider ourselves... much happier than thou, in this that we are very content with the little that we have.” (Traditional) Shaker: “Tis a gift to be simple.” (Elder Joseph Brackett) Taoist: “He who knows he has enough is rich.”

pages: 585 words: 165,304

Trust: The Social Virtue and the Creation of Prosperity by Francis Fukuyama


barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, business climate, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Gilder, glass ceiling, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, industrial robot, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mittelstand, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transfer pricing, traveling salesman, union organizing

See in particular his discussion of Amintore Fanfani’s critique of capitalism, published in 1935. 15Novak (1993), pp. 115-143, points in particular to Pope John Paul II’s encyclical Centesimus Annus as marking a break with earlier Vatican positions on capitalism. 16These included Spain, Portugal, virtually all countries in Latin America, as well as Hungary, Poland, and Lithuania. See Samuel Huntington, The Third Wave (Oklahoma City: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991), pp. 74-85. 17Among the places where the fit is less than perfect is the tradition of liberation theology in Latin America, which is overtly hostile to capitalism and often ambivalent about liberal democracy. 18James Q. Wilson has documented at length that this moral side has a natural basis that is evident even in infants and young children who have not yet been “socialized.” See Wilson, The Moral Sense (New York: Free Press, 1993), pp. 121-140. CHAPTER 5. THE SOCIAL VIRTUES 1The classic discussions and elaborations of the Weber hypothesis are to be found in R.

Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky


anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, business climate, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global reserve currency, Howard Zinn, labour market flexibility, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage tax deduction, Paul Samuelson, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce

Well, all of a sudden, in December 1990, these grassroots organizations came out of the woodwork and won the election. Catastrophe. At that point, the only question for people who know anything about American history should have been, “how are they going to get rid of this guy?”—because something like the Aristide victory simply is not tolerable in our sphere: a populist movement based on grassroots support, and a priest infected with liberation theology? That won’t last. And of course, the U.S. instantly started to undermine the Aristide government: investment and aid were cut off, except to the Haitian business community so it could start forming counter-Aristide forces; the National Endowment for Democracy went in to try to set up counter-institutions to subvert the new government, which by an odd accident are exactly the institutions that survived intact after the 1991 coup, though nobody here happened to notice that little coincidence; and so on. 51 But nevertheless, despite all this, within a couple months of the election the Aristide regime was in fact proving itself to be very successful—which of course made it even more dangerous from the perspective of U.S. power.

pages: 649 words: 181,179

Diamonds, Gold, and War: The British, the Boers, and the Making of South Africa by Martin Meredith


back-to-the-land, banking crisis, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, liberation theology, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, trade route

They were known as Doppers, it was said, because they believed in extinguishing the light of the Enlightenment, the Dutch word domper meaning an extinguisher. Kruger himself played a leading role in breaking away from the Transvaal’s main church, the Nederduits Hervormde Kerk, to establish the Dopper Church. Together with a few like-minded colleagues, he recruited a new minister from the Christelike Afgescheiden Gerformeerde Kerk in Holland, a splinter group which had seceded from the state church in 1834, rejecting its liberal theology and its evangelical emphasis on personal devotion and experience. Shortly after the minister’s arrival in the Transvaal in 1858, Kruger joined other dissidents in denouncing the Nederduits Hervormde Kerk as a ‘deluded’ and ‘false’ church and left. The core of Dopper theology, based almost exclusively on the Old Testament, was the Calvinist conception of the sovereignty of God in every aspect of life and acceptance of the Bible as the only source of belief and practice.