David Strachan

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pages: 372 words: 111,573

10% Human: How Your Body's Microbes Hold the Key to Health and Happiness by Alanna Collen

Asperger Syndrome, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, biofilm, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, David Strachan, discovery of penicillin, Drosophila, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, John Snow's cholera map, Kickstarter, Louis Pasteur, Maui Hawaii, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, placebo effect, the scientific method

For everywhere in between the developed world and increasingly rare pockets of tribal culture, the merciless rise persists, sweeping more and more people into this state of unnatural immune overreaction as the generations go by. Since the rise began in the West around the 1950s, the question has always been: What is the underlying cause? For most of the last century, the traditional theory was that allergies are triggered in children when they suffer from infections. In 1989 a British doctor named David Strachan challenged that theory. He did so, in a brief and straightforward paper, by suggesting the exact opposite: that allergies were the result of too few infections. Strachan had studied a national database containing health and social information about a group of over 17,000 British children born in a single week in March 1958, who were followed until they reached the age of twenty-three. Of all the data collected on these children – social class, wealth, location and so on – two things stood out as being connected to their chance of suffering from hay fever.

As anyone who has children knows, toddlerhood can bring a constant stream of sniffles. Young children are a hotbed for bacteria and viruses, as their immune systems are naive to the onslaught of pathogens facing humans every day. Toddlers’ habit of putting everything within reach into their mouths means that their microbes, both good and bad, are spread liberally wherever they go. The more children, the more microbes are left in snail trails of snot and saliva. David Strachan’s suggestion was that children in bigger families were benefiting from the extra infections that their siblings – particularly the older ones – brought home. Somehow, he thought, these infections in the early years of a child’s life carried with them protection from hay fever and other allergies. Quickly dubbed the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, Strachan’s idea was supported by the fact that the rise in allergies was matched by improvements in hygiene standards over time.

The idea has been extended from bacterial and viral infections to parasites, particularly worms, of the tape, pin and hook variety. As with microscopic pathogens, your chances of taking on board a worm have dwindled to nearly nothing in the developed world. It has left a suspicion amongst both scientists and the public that worms had been keeping the immune system occupied, and their absence has now left it overstaffed and underworked. The connection that David Strachan had uncovered between family sizes and allergies bore up in dozens of other studies. A neat theory emerged of exactly how that idea might work. Imagine for a moment that the immune system has two divisions: the army and the navy. Now, please forgive me for the following oversimplification of the armed forces. Let’s assume that the army deals with threats on land, and the navy with threats at sea.


pages: 298 words: 76,727

The Microbiome Solution by Robynne Chutkan M.D.

clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, David Strachan, discovery of penicillin, epigenetics, hygiene hypothesis, Mason jar, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome

Almost a century later, we still don’t know what causes autoimmune illnesses such as Crohn’s, although there’s been lots of speculation—from infections like measles, E. coli, and enterovirus to lifestyle factors like smoking and stress to common and seemingly benign practices like the use of toothpaste and refrigeration. In keeping with Dr. Crohn’s initial theory, emerging evidence suggests that bacteria do indeed play a major role, but it may be their absence rather than their presence that leads to the diagnosis. The Hygiene Hypothesis In the late 1950s, Professor David Strachan, a lecturer at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, embarked on an epidemiological study of hay fever and eczema in British children. These diseases had been steadily increasing since the turn of the century when large populations left the farm for the factory. The study followed seventeen thousand children from birth to adulthood, and the results revealed a startling and unexpected association: both conditions were far less common in large families with lots of early childhood infections from exposure to siblings.

See also salads Baked Root Vegetable Chips, 245–46 Bring on More Root Veggies, 246 Cauliflower Mash with Garlic, 241–42 Curry & Turmeric Roasted Cauliflower, 240–41 Green Bananas, 240 Quinoa with Dried Fruits & Nuts, 242–43 Roasted Asparagus, 244–45 Roasted Brussels Sprouts, 243–44 Roasted Fennel, 244 Simple Chia Seed Pudding, 202–203 sinus infections, 157–59 skin health alternative therapies, 161–62 chemicals in commercial products, 140, 149–50 coconut oil, 145–46 Coconut Oil Exfoliating/Moisturizing Body Scrub, 147 conditions associated with dysbiosis, 82–87 Dry Skin Facial Scrub, 147 Essential Oil Scalp Treatment, 149 manuka honey, 146 Moisturizing Citrus Lotion, 148 Moisturizing Hair Mask for Dry/Damaged Hair, 148 Oily Skin Facial Scrub, 146 Rinse for Oily Hair, 149 topically applied microbes, 140–41 Vanilla Moisturizing Lotion, 148 Warm Brown Sugar Exfoliating/Moisturizing Body Scrub, 147–48 Sliced Kale & Brussels Sprouts Salad, 218 small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), 56, 68–69, 141 smoothies Apple Pie Green Smoothie, 209–10 Blueberry Bliss Smoothie, 211 Creamy Sweet Potato Smoothie, 210 Everything but the Kitchen Sink Smoothie, 211–12 Live Dirty, Eat Clean Signature Smoothie, 208–209 Mint Chip Dessert Smoothie, 262–63 snacks and sweets Banana Blueberry Flaxseed Muffins, 207–208 Chickpea Herbed Crackers, 257–58 Chocolate Mousse, 260–61 Creamy Sweet Potato Smoothie, 210 Dates with Nut Butter, 256–57 Grain-Free Chocolate Chip Cookies, 261–62 Guilt-Free Chocolate Orange Truffles, 259–60 High-Fiber Trail Mix, 255 Live Dirty, Eat Clean “Ice Cream,” 262 Mint Chip Dessert Smoothie, 262–63 No-Bake Energy Balls, 255–56 Omega-Rich Granola, 205–206 Raspberry Chia Seed Jam, 259 Seeded Almond Flour Bread, 258 Simple Chia Seed Pudding, 202–203 soups Bone Broth, 254–55 Chicken & Veggie Immunity Soup, 247–48 Easy Gazpacho with Avocado, 252 Homemade Vegetable Broth, 253–54 Lentil Soup with Leeks, 251 Roasted Butternut Squash Soup, 249–50 Split Pea Soup/Dal, 250 Vibrant Veggie Soup, 246–47 spinach Apple Pie Green Smoothie, 209–10 Artichoke & Spinach Dip, 223–24 Blueberry Bliss Smoothie, 211 Chicken & Veggie Immunity Soup, 247–48 Green Lemonade, 214–15 Lentil Soup with Leeks, 251 Live Dirty, Eat Clean Signature Bowl, 227–28 Live Dirty, Eat Clean Signature Smoothie, 208–209 Mint Chip Dessert Smoothie, 262–63 Vegetable Frittata, 200–201 Vibrant Veggie Soup, 246–47 Split Pea Soup/Dal, 250 spreads. See dips and spreads Steak, Flank, 239 steroids, 53, 157 stool transplant. See fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) Strachan, David, 22–23 strawberries, in Fruit Salsa, 236 stress, 4, 56–57, 143 sugar cravings, 61, 131 sunflower seeds Colorful Kale Salad, 216 Grain-Free & Vegan Veggie Burgers, 231–33 High-Fiber Trail Mix, 255 Omega-Rich Granola, 205–206 Seeded Almond Flour Bread, 258 supplements, 176–78 sweet potatoes Baked Root Vegetable Chips, 245–46 Creamy Sweet Potato Smoothie, 210 Grain-Free & Vegan Veggie Burgers, 231–33 Honey Roasted Chicken, 236–37 Roasted Butternut Squash Soup, 249–50 Roasted Chicken with Vegetables, 237–38 Sweet Potato & Kale Breakfast Hash, 199–200 White Bean Vegetarian Chili, 230–31 sweets.


The Ecotechnic Future: Envisioning a Post-Peak World by John Michael Greer

back-to-the-land, Black Swan, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, David Strachan, deindustrialization, European colonialism, Extropian, failed state, feminist movement, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, hydrogen economy, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, mass immigration, McMansion, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, post-industrial society, Project for a New American Century, Ray Kurzweil, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

: The Gardener’s Guide to Compost, Storey Publishing, 1990, one of the standard handbooks, is my source for much of this ­section. 7. See Joseph Jenkins, The Humanure Handbook: A Guide to Composting ­Human Manure, Chelsea Green, 1999. 8. Carol Steinfeld, Liquid Gold: The Lore and Logic of Using Urine to Grow Plants, Ecowaters, 2007. 9. The “hygiene hypothesis” remains controversial but is supported by epidemiological evidence. See David Strachan, “Hay fever, hygiene, and household size,” British Medical Journal 299 (1989), pp. 1259–1260. 10. See Stu Campbell, The Mulch Book: A Complete Guide for Gardeners, Storey Publishing, 1991. 11. Recent disputes around the ethics of eating animal foods are complex and, in my view, badly in need of clear reasoning — ​enough so that limits of space do not permit a detailed discussion here. It may be clear from the following, however, that I find claims of the immorality of eating animals unconvincing.

Spengler, Oswald, The Decline of the West, tr. Charles Francis Atkinson, Knopf, 1926–1929. Steiner, Rudolf, Agriculture: An Introductory Reader, Biodynamic Agriculture Association, 1958. Steinfeld, Carol, Liquid Gold: The Lore and Logic of Using Urine to Grow Plants, Ecowaters, 2007. Stone, Nehemiah, “Thermal Performance of Straw Bale Wall Systems,” Ecological Building Network, (October 2003), ecobuildnetwork.org. Strachan, David, “Hay fever, hygiene, and household size,” British Medical Journal 299 (1989), pp. 1259–1260. Suskind, Ron, “Faith, certainty, and the presidency of George W. Bush,” New York Times Magazine, 17 October, 2004. Tainter, Joseph A., The Collapse of Complex Societies, Cambridge University Press, 1988. Taleb, Nassim Nicholas, The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, Random House, 2007.


pages: 398 words: 105,917

Bean Counters: The Triumph of the Accountants and How They Broke Capitalism by Richard Brooks

accounting loophole / creative accounting, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blockchain, BRICs, British Empire, business process, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate raider, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Strachan, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, energy security, Etonian, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, forensic accounting, Frederick Winslow Taylor, G4S, intangible asset, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low cost airline, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, railway mania, regulatory arbitrage, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, supply-chain management, The Chicago School, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks

Official or minister Government job Big Four job with year appointed Peter Mandelson Trade and industry secretary, 1998 Consultant, EY, 1999 Alan Milburn Health secretary, 1999–2003 Chairman, PwC Health Industries Oversight Board, 2013 Charles Clarke Education secretary, 2002–4 Home secretary, 2004–6 Consultant, KPMG, 2008 Jacqui Smith Home secretary, 2007–9 Consultant, KPMG, 2010 Ian Pearson Economic secretary to the Treasury, 2008–10 Member, PwC Advisory Board, 2011 Lord (Jack) McConnell First minister (Labour), Scotland, 2001–7 Member, PwC Advisory Board, 2011 Lord (Gus) O’Donnell Cabinet secretary and head of the civil service, 2005 –11 Chair, PwC Public Interest Board, 2015 Lord (Jonathan) Evans Director general, MI5, 2007–13 Member, KPMG Public Interest Committee, 2017 Lord (John) McFall Labour MP and senior member, Treasury select committee, until 2010 Senior adviser to KPMG on regulatory and corporate governance, 2012 Sir Steve Robson Second permanent secretary, Treasury, Financial Services, until 2011 Chair, KPMG Public Interest Committee, 2012 Dave Hartnett Permanent secretary, Tax, HMRC, to 2012 Consultant, Deloitte, 2013 Sir Nicholas Montagu Chairman, HMRC, to 2005 Member, PwC Advisory Board, 2004 Simon Virley Director general, Energy, Department of Energy and Climate Change, to 2015 Head of power and utilities, KPMG, 2015 Sir Leigh Lewis Permanent secretary, Department of Work and Pensions, until 2011 Member, PwC Advisory Board, 2011 Sir John Scarlett Head of MI6, 2004–9 Advisor, PwC, 2010 Lord Strathclyde Leader of the House of Lords, 2010–13 Advisor, PwC, 2010 Paul Kirby Head of No. 10 Policy Unit, 2011–13 (having previously been KPMG consultant) Head of government and public sector, KPMG, 2013 Neil Sherlock Special adviser to the deputy prime minister, 2012–13 Head of reputational strategy, PwC, 2013 Lord (Norman) Warner Health minister, 2003–06 Strategic adviser, Deloitte, 2008 Mark Britnell Director general, Commissioning, NHS, 2007–09 Head of KPMG health services, 2009 Mike Farrar Chief executive, North-West Strategic Health Authority, 2006–11 Chair, PwC Public Sector Health Board Sir Peter Westmacott UK ambassador to United States, 2012–16 Non-executive, EY, 2017 Andrew Mitchell International development secretary, 2010–12 Consultant, EY, 2016 Mats Persson Special adviser on EU to David Cameron 2015–16 Head of international trade, EY, 2016 Paul Skinner Chairman, Infrastructure UK (part of HM Treasury), 2009–13 Chairman, Defence Equipment & Support, 2014–present Member, PwC Advisory Board, 2015 Jon Pain Managing director, Supervision, Financial Services Authority, 2008–11 Partner, regulatory practice, KPMG, 2011 David Strachan Director, Financial Stability, Financial Services Authority, 2008–11 Head of regulatory strategy, Deloitte, 2011 Margaret Cole Managing director, Enforcement & Financial Crimes, Financial Services Authority, to 2012 Chief risk officer and general counsel, PwC, 2012 REGULATION ISSUE If the bean counters get a good deal from Whitehall, it’s nothing next to their treatment from the regulators that they have also captured.

., 142 cyber-security, 272–3 establishment of (1998), 49, 95 and Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission, 145 and Financial Reporting Council, 142, 144, 209, 210 global operations, 235–6 and Goldman Sachs, 134–5, 148 and Google, 271 and GPT, 217, 218 and Heineken, 246 and Hong Kong protests (2014), 251–2 in India, 242 integrated reporting, 18 and Kanebo, 240 and Labour Party, 201 and National Health Service (NHS), 192, 194, 200 and Northern Rock, 126, 127–9, 142–3, 148 and Olympic Games (2012), 196 presentation (2017), 16 and private finance initiative (PFI), 187, 188–91, 196, 249 profits, 5 revolving door, 207, 208 and RSM Tenon, 210, 261 in Russia, 236–8 and Saudi British Joint Business Council, 218 and securitization, 121, 122, 129 and tax avoidance, 157, 165–79, 180, 182, 237, 246, 267–71, 278 thought leadership, 12 total tax contribution survey, 179 and Tyco, 109 in Ukraine, 238 and Vodafone, 165–6 Prince of Wales’s charity, 181 principal/agent problem, 13 Prior, Nick, 190 Privatbank, 238 Private Eye, 169, 180, 215, 255 private finance initiative (PFI), 185–91, 196, 203, 249 Privy Council, 94 Privy Purse, 68 production-line system, 71 productivity growth, 262–3 professional scepticism, 112, 130, 214, 224 professional services, 11, 72, 150, 183, 204–5, 251, 275, 279 Professional Standards Group, 105–7 Project Braveheart, 106 Project Nahanni, 102 Protestant work ethic, 3 Protestantism, 3, 42, 43 Prudential, 157 Public Accounts Committee, 281 Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB), 144–5, 242–3, 253, 261, 274 Puerto Rico, 163 Putin, Vladimir, 17, 237 Qatar, 228 Quakers, 42, 49 Railway Regulation Act (1844), 45 railways United Kingdom, 44–7, 49, 115 United States, 51, 52, 53, 70, 73 Rake, Michael, 144, 149, 150, 162, 181, 257 Raptors, 105 Rayonier, 59 Reagan, Ronald, 80, 84, 154, 184 Reckoning, The (Soll), 27 Redpath, Leopold, 46 regulation, UK, 13, 127, 209–10, 213–14, 259 and Brexit, 273 deregulation (1980s), 95 and financial crisis (2007–8), 127–8, 137–45 Financial Conduct Authority, 140, 149, 281 Financial Reporting Council, 138, 142, 144, 149, 182, 209–10, 213–14, 259, 261 Financial Services Authority, 127, 128, 137, 138, 140 ‘light touch’, 114, 131, 209–10 Railway Regulation Act (1844), 45 self-regulation, 88, 90 regulation, US, 91, 260 Bush administration (2001–2009), 114, 145, 253 Celler–Kefauver Act (1950), 59, 61 competition on price, 79–80 deregulation (1980s), 84–5, 95, 112 derivatives, 122 and Enron, 99 and Lincoln Savings and Loan, 85–7 mark to market, 99 numbers-game era (1990s), 110 Public Company Accounting and Oversight Board, 242–3, 253, 260 Roosevelt, Theodore administration (1901–9), 56–7 Sarbanes–Oxley Act (2002), 114, 122 self-regulation, 61 Trump administration (2017–), 273, 274 and Westec collapse (1966), 63 see also Securities and Exchange Commission Renaissance, 3, 16, 22, 24–37 Renjen, Punit, 275 ‘Repo 105’ technique, 131–3, 149 revolving door, 206–8, 272 Ripley, William Zebina, 57 Robson, Steve, 144, 207 Rockefeller, John Davison, 53, 71 Rolex, 15, 215 Rolls-Royce, 213 Roman numerals, 22 Rome, ancient, 24 Rome, Italy, 25, 27 Roosevelt, Franklin, 58 Roosevelt, Theodore, 56 de Roover, Raymond, 27 Rowland, Roland ‘Tiny’, 66 Royal African Company, 37 Royal Ahold, 238–9 Royal Bank of Scotland, 47, 90, 136–40, 142, 157, 241, 259 Royal London Hospital, 190 RSM Tenon, 210, 261 Russian Federation, 17, 236–8 Ryan, Tim, 134, 148 Saltwater Slavery (Smallwood), 37 Samek, Steve, 103 SANGCOM, 214–19 Sansepolcro, 32 Sarbanes, Paul, 114, 122 Sarbanes–Oxley Act (2002), 114, 122 Sassetti, Francesco, 16, 29, 30, 31, 41 Satyam, 242 Saudi Arabia, 212–19, 221 Saudi British Joint Business Council, 218 Saunders, Stuart, 64 Save South Africa, 250 savings-and-loan mutuals, 84–7, 91, 99 Sberbank, 237 Scarlett, John, 207, 272 Schlich, William, 149 Schumpeter, Joseph, 3 scientific management, 71, 76 Scotland, ix, 42, 47–9, 70, 224 Scuola di Rialto, Venice, 32 Second World War (1939–45), 59, 60, 77, 234 Secret Intelligence Service, 207, 272 Securities Act (1933), 58 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 281 and consulting, 80, 104 and Enron, 99, 104, 108 and Hollinger, 154 Levitt’s ‘Numbers Game’ speech (1998), 96, 98, 104 and Lincoln Savings and Loan, 85, 86 and Penn Central Transport Company, 64 and ‘pooling-of-interest’ accounting, 61, 62 and Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB), 144 PwC India fined (2011), 242 and Xerox, 109–10 securitization, 101–2, 116, 119–23, 125, 129–31, 133–40, 148, 265 Seidler, Lee, 68–9, 79 self-regulation, 6, 61, 88 Serious Fraud Office, 213, 216, 217, 218, 219 Sexton, Richard, 129, 268, 278 shadow banking system, 115 Shanghai, China, 17 Shaxson, Nicholas, 247 Sheraton, 59 Sherlock, Neil, 208 short selling, 112, 115, 116 Siemens, 240 Sikka, Prem, 94 Silicon Valley, California, 82 Simec International Ltd, 214, 215 Sinaloa Cartel, 229 Sinclair, Upton, 14 Singapore, 163 Sino-Forest, 244 Skilling, Jeff, 99–100, 101, 105, 108 Skinner, Paul, 208 Slater, James, 65 slave trade, 4, 37 Smallwood, Stephanie, 37 Smallwood, Trevor, 158 Smartest Guys in the Room, The (McLean and Elkind), 101 Smith, Adam, 13 Smith, Jacqui, 207 Snell, Charles, 40 Social Justice Commission, 184 Soll, Jacob, 27 Sombart, Werner, 3–4, 22 SOS (Short Option Strategy), 159, 162 South Africa, 213, 223–4, 249–50 South Sea Company, 39–41, 42, 44 Soviet Union (1922–91), 236 Spacek, Leonard, 62, 77–8 Spain, 36, 39, 241 special investment vehicles, 115 Spinwatch, 201 Sproul, David, 256, 258 St Bartholomew’s Hospital, London, 190 St Louis, Missouri, 56 Standard & Poor’s, 149 Standard Chartered Bank, 230, 231 Starbucks, 178 steam engine, 43 Stein, Jeffrey, 161 Stephenson, George, 44 Stevens, Mark, 82–3 Stevenson, James, 1st Baron Stevenson, 141 Stiglitz, Joseph, 114 stock market, 68, 69, 92, 96 ‘Go-Go’ years (1960s), 62, 65 and Great Crash (1929), 57, 58 and J. P. Morgan, 54–5 and ‘pooling-of-interest’ accounting, 60–62, 96 railways (UK), 45–7 Stone, Timothy, 188, 189, 190, 204 Strachan, David, 208 Strathclyde, Lord, see Galbraith, Thomas stress testing, 10 subprime mortgages, x, 10, 36, 48, 111–22, 126, 130, 133, 136, 142, 274 Suddeutsche Zeitung, 169, 247 Sullivan, Arthur, 52 Sun City, North West Province, 250 Sunbeam, 97 Sunday Times, 228 Sweden, 246 Switzerland, 163, 178, 219–28, 236, 258 synergies, 60 Syvret, Stuart, 94 Tanzania, 213 Tanzi, Calisto, 239 Tate Modern, London, 16 tax, 46, 67, 81, 93–4, 153–82, 229–30, 246–8 Bermuda, 164 British Virgin Islands, 246 Cayman Islands, 104, 164, 246, 247 Ireland, 163–5, 168 Isle of Man, 247–8 Jersey, 89, 94–5, 158 Luxembourg, 165–77, 267–71, 278 Mauritius, 158 Netherlands, 163, 164–5 Puerto Rico, 163 Russia, 237 Singapore, 163 Switzerland, 163, 178 United Kingdom, 7, 46, 67, 94, 153, 155–9, 163–6, 177–82, 203 United States, 67, 92, 153–5, 159–63, 178, 236, 284 tax avoidance, 17, 84, 93–5, 153–82, 229–30, 246–8 Deloitte, 157, 158, 166, 203 Ernst & Young, 7, 156–7, 162, 180, 182, 246, 247 KPMG, 154–5, 157, 158, 159–62, 180–81, 182, 186, 229–30, 248 PricewaterhouseCoopers, 157, 165–79, 180, 182, 237, 246, 267–71, 278 tax havens, 154–5, 163–79, 203, 216, 246–8 Bahamas, 236 Bermuda, 164, 203 British Virgin Islands, 213, 220, 246 Cayman Islands, 104, 164, 214, 239, 246, 247 Delaware, 92, 236, 284 Ireland, 163–5, 168 Isle of Man, 247–8 Jersey, 89, 94–5, 158 Liechtenstein, 220 Luxembourg, 165–77, 267–71, 278 Mauritius, 158 Netherlands, 163, 164–5 Puerto Rico, 163 Singapore, 163 Switzerland, 163, 178, 230, 236 Tax Justice Network, 169 Taylor, Frederick Winslow, 71, 75 technocratism, 15 Teesside, England, 102 telegraph, 51 Telegraph, 154 Texas, United States, 91, 99–108 Textron, 61 Thatcher, Margaret, 84, 184 Thill, Marc, 174 ‘think straight, talk straight’, 72 thrifts, 84–7, 91, 99 Tier One, 257 Times, The, 66, 137 Tokyo, Japan, 230–31, 234–5 ‘too big to fail’, 40 ‘too critical to fail’, 273 ‘too few to fail’, 161 Tory party, 44 Tornado fighters, 212 Toshiba, 241 Touche Ross, 82, 89, 136 trade unions, 76 Treasure Islands (Shaxson), 247 Treasury, UK, 39, 68, 146, 179, 180, 189, 201, 203 Tribunal d’Arrondissement, 174 Trinidad and Tobago, 221, 223, 224 Trump, Donald, 17, 161, 273, 274 Truth in Securities (1933), 58 Turley, James, 148–9 Turner, Jonathan Adair, Baron Turner of Ecchinswell, 127 Tyco, 109, 264 Tyrie, Andrew, 197–8 UK Tax Planning Post-GAAR: What’s Left?


pages: 218 words: 70,323

Critical: Science and Stories From the Brink of Human Life by Matt Morgan

agricultural Revolution, Atul Gawande, biofilm, Black Swan, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive dissonance, crew resource management, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Strachan, discovery of penicillin, en.wikipedia.org, hygiene hypothesis, job satisfaction, John Snow's cholera map, meta analysis, meta-analysis, personalized medicine, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs

Why would the human immune system attack itself, though? This is a key question asked by researchers over the past hundred years. The German immunologist and Nobel laureate, Paul Ehrlich, coined the term ‘horror autotoxicus’, or the horror of self-toxicity, to describe the body’s aversion to immunological self-destruction. Although we do not yet have a clear answer, we have hints at what may influence this process. Most notably, the immunologist David Strachan published his ‘clean hypothesis’ in 1989, and this has since formed a guiding principle in applied research. It outlines that, in 6 million years of human evolution, the development of the immune system is one of the greatest achievements. It is so important to our survival as a species that it has allowed us to exist alongside other life. We not only live side by side with millions of other life forms, but embrace an ecosystem of microscopic life living on and under our skin.

An argument against the use of Occam’s razor in modern medical education. Med Teach 40, 99–100 (2018). ‘The German immunologist and Nobel laureate, Paul Ehrlich, coined the term ‘horror autotoxicus’, or the horror of self-toxicity, to describe the body’s aversion to immunological self-destruction.’ Horror Autotoxicus and Other Concepts of Paul Ehrlich. JAMA 176, 50–51 (1961). ‘Most notably, the immunologist David Strachan published his “clean hypothesis” in 1989, and this has since formed a guiding principle in applied research.’ Strachan, D. P. Family size, infection and atopy: the first decade of the ‘hygiene hypothesis’. Thorax 55, S2–S10 (2000). 3: SKIN AND BONES ‘In total, the hospital cared for twenty-eight patients, many benefiting from the breakthrough “spray-on skin” developed by the pioneering surgeon, Fiona Wood.’


pages: 382 words: 115,172

The Diet Myth: The Real Science Behind What We Eat by Tim Spector

biofilm, British Empire, Colonization of Mars, cuban missile crisis, David Strachan, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, hygiene hypothesis, Kickstarter, life extension, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, randomized controlled trial, Steve Jobs, twin studies

A study recently found that babies who had their rubber dummies sucked clean by a parent then popped back into their mouths had considerably fewer allergies than those with parents dutifully replacing hygienic sterile dummies.12 The old-fashioned practice of mothers pre-chewing their baby’s food, which is rare in the West nowadays, served both to break down tough starchy foods and meats and to transmit a wide range of helpful microbes via saliva. Licking babies is common in most mammals and in some human cultures, and of course kissing is pretty universal. The Hygiene Hypothesis is an idea you may have heard of. It was developed by a colleague I trained with in epidemiology, David Strachan, whose interest was sparked when he was looking at the national data of children followed up from birth for asthma and eczema. He found a correlation between damp housing conditions and allergy in the UK.13 But the link was not what we might intuitively have expected: the damp, poor conditions and overcrowded families were actually protective, even after adjusting for other possible sources of bias.