white flight

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pages: 273 words: 87,159

The Vanishing Middle Class: Prejudice and Power in a Dual Economy by Peter Temin

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, clean water, corporate raider, Corrections Corporation of America, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, income inequality, intangible asset, invisible hand, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, mortgage debt, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nixon shock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, price stability, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, the scientific method, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, white flight, working poor

Industrial cities found that people were less mobile than jobs, and urban prosperity was replaced by urban joblessness. Black workers moved to Northern cities to find jobs in the Great Migration, only to find that the jobs had disappeared. The Great Migration, which as noted earlier ended in 1970, did not lead to integrated housing in the North. As soon as Southern black workers appeared in Northern cities, white families began to move out of the cities. White flight was responsible for one-half of the increase in segregation in the 1930s. Prosperous white urban residents continued to leave cities for the suburbs after the Second World War, avoiding newly integrated schools. They were encouraged by the GI Bill and other federal policies that provided generous mortgages for suburban houses and highways for suburbanites to drive to work. Pervasive redlining that denied loans to people in urban areas restricted a comparable mortgage stimulus in the cities, and funding for aging urban transportation systems declined.

A test of this policy in the New York area found that banning the box did not help black ex-felons get a job. Employers, prevented from gaining individual information, relied on general information that blacks were more likely to be ex-felons and refused to hire them. Ban the Box policies expose the underlying racism of our society and show how hard it is to help low-wage African Americans get ahead.29 The growing problems of white members of the low-wage sector are equally serious. White flight to the suburbs was by class as well as by race; it stranded poor whites in the inner cities, where they are subject to economic and social pressures similar to those of poor blacks. As noted earlier, there are many more whites than blacks and Latinos in the low-wage sector. The inability to earn an income sufficient to support a family increased among whites in poor urban neighborhoods after 1970.

Public decisions often are made by many people interacting in complex political processes. The records of their discussions typically are brief and often bland. It is harder to find intent in a committee’s actions than in an individual’s actions. The Supreme Court used a traditional indicator in a way that accepted cities’ policies without inquiring into their causes or effects. The 1974 decision in Milliken v. Bradley made it clear that white flight would successfully separate white suburbanites from their new dark-skinned neighbors. The decisions also ensured that black urban communities would lack an adequate fiscal base. The Supreme Court would not combine or otherwise alter existing school districts, and whites fleeing cities for suburbs would be able to separate their children from those of urban blacks. The decision also mandated poverty conditions for the urban school districts, which became poorer and more completely black over time.

pages: 484 words: 131,168

The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

By contrast, in 2000, 30 percent of America's white population lived in counties that provided Republican landslide margins in the 2004 presidential election (see Figure 2.6). The real "white flight" of the past two generations has been whites moving to communities that were becoming staunchly Republican. Figure 2.5 The Immigration Divide Foreign-born citizens move to Democratic counties. Percent of County Population That Is Foreign-Born Sources: Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections, http://www.uselectionatlas.org; U.S. Census of Population, http://www.census.gov. Figure 2.6 The New White Flight Whites have increasingly clustered in the counties that voted Republican in 2004. Share of U.S. White Population Sources: Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections, http://www.uselectionatlas.org; U.S.

Every action produced a self-reinforcing reaction: educated people congregated, creating regional wage disparities, which attracted more educated people to the richer cities—which further increased the disparity in regional economies.* The Big Sort was just beginning with education. Or was it ending with education? It was hard to tell. By the turn of the twenty-first century, it seemed as though the country was separating in every way conceivable. Race An astounding 40 percent of the country's 320 metropolitan areas lost white population in the 1990s. The common notion of "white flight" is as a Caucasian escape from the central cities to the suburbs. In the Big Sort, however, there was a wholesale shift of white residents from one set of cities to another. Whites fled two kinds of cities. They abandoned older factory towns in the North and Midwest. Pittsburgh, Detroit, Buffalo, Hartford, Providence, Cleveland, Milwaukee, Jersey City, and Newark all lost tens of thousands of white residents.

., [>] n, [>]–[>], [>] Boston Globe, [>] Boulder, Colo and civic vitality, [>]–[>], and Deliberation Day research, [>]–[>], [>] n, and Democratic Party, [>], and environmentalism, [>]; Nike and snowboarders in, [>] Bowling Alone (Putnam), [>], [>]–[>] Boyle, Tony, [>] n Bradley, Bill, [>] Bradley Foundation, [>] Brady, Tom, [>] Brammer, Billy Lee, [>] Brandeis University, [>] Breakfast at Tiffany's, [>] Breese, Doug, [>]–[>], [>] The Bridges of God (McGavran), [>]–[>], [>], [>] Brinton, Henry, [>] Britain, [>], [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>] Broad, Eh, [>] Broder, David, [>], [>], [>]–[>] n Brookings Institution, [>] Brooklyn Brothers advertising agency, [>] Brooks, David, [>]–[>], [>] Brownstein, Ronald, [>], [>] Brubaker, Harold, [>] Brueckner, Jan, [>] n Brutus (antifederalist writer), [>], [>] Buckley, William F, [>] Bucknum, Steve, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] Bundy, McGeorge, [>] Burdick, Eugene, [>] n Burnham, Walter Dean, [>], [>], [>] Burns, Conrad, [>] Bush, George W and American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), [>], approval rating for, [>]–[>], [>] n, [>], attitudes toward, based on political party affiliation, [>]; and California vote (2004), [>], [>], [>] n, church membership of, [>], [>], and Colorado vote (2004), [>], [>]; confirmation bias of supporters of, [>]–[>], and environmental issues, [>]; and exit polls on (Election Day 2004), [>]–[>], [>] n, and exurban areas, [>]–[>], and fundamentalists, [>], and Iraq War, [>] n; and marriage gap during 2004 election, [>] n, [>]–[>]; and midterm elections (2006), [>], and Missouri vote (2004), [>], and Oregon vote (2004), [>], [>], political segregation and 2000 and 2004 elections, [>]–[>], [>], [>] n, and presidential campaign (2000), [>], [>], and presidential campaign (2004), [>] n, [>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>]; and question of competence, [>] n; and Republican landslide versus competitive counties (2004), [>], and Republican multigenerational effort for 2000 and 2004 elections, [>]–[>], State of the Union address by, [>], and stem cell research, [>], [>], supporters of, [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>] n, [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>]–[>], and target marketing in 2004 election, [>]; and Texas vote (2000 and 2004), [>], [>]–[>], [>]; and Washington state vote (2000), [>] Calhoun, Craig, [>] California conservative movement in Orange County, [>], [>] n, [>], [>], [>], Crystal Cathedral in Orange County, [>], environmentalism in, [>]; families in, [>]–[>], legislative redistricting in, [>] n, lifestyle communities m, [>]–[>]; migration from, [>], migration to, [>], movies and movie industry in, [>], [>]; North Coast Church in Vista, [>]–[>], and presidential elections, [>]–[>], [>] n, Saddleback Church in Orange County, [>], [>], [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>]; same-sex unions in, [>], sex education in schools in, [>], Silicon Valley in, [>]–[>], [>], [>], stem cell research in, [>]–[>], and textbook treatment of gays and lesbians, [>], Watts riots in, [>], [>], [>], [>]; white flight from Orange County, [>]. See also specific cities Cambridge, Mass., [>], [>] n, [>] Campaigns. See Political campaigns Campbell, David, [>] Canada, [>] Canvassers, [>]–[>], [>] n Carlin, Diana, [>] Carmines, Edward G., [>]–[>] n, [>] Carnahan, Jean, [>] Carnegie Foundation, [>] Carroll, Jackson, [>] Carsey, Thomas, [>]–[>] Carter, Jimmy-competence of, [>] n; on distrust of government and other public institutions, [>]–[>], [>] n, and 1976 election, [>], [>], [>], [>], [>], [>]; and 1980 election, [>], [>], Republicans on, [>] Casey, Bob, Jr., [>] n Castells, Manuel, [>] Catholic Church, and authority of pope, [>], and birth control, [>]; loss of trust in bishops' edicts, [>], and private schools, [>] n, and Second Vatican Council, [>], See also Religion Cato (antifederalist writer), [>] Catskills resorts, [>] Center for Genetics and Society, [>] Chafee, Lincoln, [>] Chamber of Commerce, U.S., [>] The Changing American Voter (Nie et al), [>], [>] n Chapel Hill, N.C., [>] Charles County, Md., [>] Chicago, Ill. creative-class workers in, [>], educational level in, [>] n; as high-tech city, [>], [>] n; megachurch in, [>], migration to, [>], [>], [>] Chicago Tribune, [>]–[>] Chihuly, Dale, [>] Child poverty, [>] Child rearing, [>]–[>] Children's Defense Fund, [>] Cho, David Yonggi, [>], [>] Christian Century, [>] Christian Mass Movements in India (Pickett), [>] Christianity.

pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt

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anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

When it comes to immigrants achieving a role in county government that equates to their population in the county, there are few signs of progress as yet. But the most intriguing question of all is the question of Gwinnett’s demographic future. It is a question of whether the close division of white and nonwhite is sustainable—whether a new round of white flight will take place, into more distant counties such as Jackson or Forsyth, leaving behind a minority-dominated Gwinnett. The white-flight scenario is unconvincing, for several reasons. One is that many of the remaining white home owners are older people who will choose to age in place, rather than taking up new roots in an even more distant exurban county. Another is that this sort of flight means choosing to live many miles away from jobs and amenities, not only those in Atlanta but even those in Gwinnett itself.

And it may happen somewhere down the road, as a result of challenges and problems that are an inevitable part of demographic inversion. One of those is race. The nature of Cleveland Heights’ racial challenge has changed enormously in the past several decades. In the 1960s, it was based on a fear of blockbusting, massive white flight, as occurred in the suburb of East Cleveland immediately to the north—and on liberal concerns about discrimination against black families wishing to move into town. An African American arts center was firebombed in the mid-1960s. Those problems were taken care of. There was no massive white flight, thanks in large part to the quality of much of the housing stock, and church groups and other activist organizations put an end to the problem of discrimination in sales. Cleveland Heights lost about 8 percent of its population in the last decade.

The Hispanic population began to boom in DeKalb County, on the city’s eastern border, and especially in Gwinnett County, the much larger and less developed territory just north of DeKalb. In the late 1990s, Gwinnett was in the midst of a spectacular residential building boom that would boost its overall population from 352,000 to 588,000 in the course of a decade. Much of this can reasonably be described as white flight, a response to the emergence of Atlanta’s African American majority population and its control of city politics. Gwinnett was a largely rural expanse of 437 square miles, 80 percent unincorporated, and in the 1990s it was being packed with subdivision after subdivision, cul-de-sacs and shopping centers and multicar garages. It was developed as a place of safety and homogeneity for white middle-class families, and for many years it was.

pages: 356 words: 91,157

The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida

affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional

See also Karyn Lacy, “The New Sociology of Suburbs: A Research Agenda for Analysis of Emerging Trends,” Annual Review of Sociology 42 (July 2016): 369–384, www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-soc-071312-145657. 5. Alan Berube, William H. Frey, Alec Friedhoff, Emily Garr, Emilia Istrate, Elizabeth Kneebone, Robert Puentes, Adie Tomer, and Howard Wial, “State of Metropolitan America,” Brookings Institution, 2010, www.brookings.edu/research/reports/2010/05/09-metro-america; William H. Frey, “The End of Suburban White Flight,” Brookings Institution, July 23, 2015, www.brookings.edu/blogs/the-avenue/posts/2015/07/23-suburban-white-flight-frey. 6. Elizabeth Kneebone and Alan Berube, Confronting Suburban Poverty in America (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2013). 7. Mary O’Hara, “Alan Berube: We Are Moving Poverty to the Suburbs,” The Guardian, May 6, 2015, www.theguardian.com/society/2015/may/06/alan-berube-moving-poverty-to-suburbs. 8. Elizabeth Kneebone, “The Growth and Spread of Concentrated Poverty, 2000 to 2008–2012,” Brookings Institution, July 31, 2014, www.brookings.edu/research/interactives/2014/concentrated-poverty; Richard Florida, “The Living-in-the-Basement Generation,” Washington Monthly (November/December 2013), www.washingtonmonthly.com/magazine/november_december_2013/features/the_livinginthebasement_genera047358.php; Kristen Lewis and Sarah Burd-Sharps, “Halve the Gap by 2030: Youth Disconnection in America’s Cities,” Social Science Research Council, 2013, http://ssrc-static.s3.amazonaws.com/moa/MOA-Halve-the-Gap-ALL-10.25.13.pdf. 9.

I delved deep into the many challenges that face the rapidly growing cities of the world’s emerging economies, where urbanization is failing to spur the same kind of economic growth and rising living standards that it did for the advanced nations.3 The New Urban Crisis is different from the older urban crisis of the 1960s and 1970s. That previous crisis was defined by the economic abandonment of cities and their loss of economic function. Shaped by deindustrialization and white flight, its hallmark was a hollowing out of the city center, a phenomenon that urban theorists and policymakers labeled the hole-in-the-donut. As cities lost their core industries, they became sites of growing and persistent poverty: their housing decayed; crime and violence increased; and social problems, including drug abuse, teen pregnancy, and infant mortality, escalated. As urban economies eroded and tax revenues declined, cities became increasingly dependent on the federal government for financial support.4 Many of these problems remain with us to this day.

This suburban pattern is found in two very different types of metros: Sunbelt metros such as Atlanta, Dallas, and Houston, and Rustbelt ones like Detroit and Pittsburgh. In Sunbelt metros, the creative class has long been drawn to upscale suburban areas, and although commutes can be arduous, these places remain far more car-dependent than the metros listed above for the back-to-the-city pattern. In Rustbelt metros, whose urban centers were hollowed out long ago by pervasive white flight, the suburbs have long been the preferred locations for the creative class. In some of these places, including Greater Detroit, older suburbs that developed in the early part of the twentieth century along rivers or rail lines have been able to partially re-create the urban characteristics of walkability and mixed-use shopping, dining, and nightlife districts. Despite their differing economic fortunes, these metros are more spread out, are more car-dependent, and have much less mass transit than the superstar cities and knowledge hubs discussed above.

pages: 423 words: 115,336

This Is Only a Test: How Washington D.C. Prepared for Nuclear War by David F. Krugler

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Berlin Wall, City Beautiful movement, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Frank Gehry, full employment, glass ceiling, index card, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, urban planning, Victor Gruen, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Racial discrimination was prevalent. Public schools, playgrounds, and recreation areas were segregated; many trade unions restricted membership to whites. After World War II, black Washingtonians and their allies successfully redoubled ongoing campaigns to dismantle the structure of second-class citizenship. The end of legally protected segregation, most notably the integration of schools in 1954, spurred “white flight” to suburbs in Virginia and Maryland. While Washington’s population began to shrink and the city obtained a black majority, greater Washington continued to grow. In 1948, the metropolitan area population was approaching 1.5 million, but more than 80 percent of the region’s jobs were inside the District.5 Area planners and leaders recognized that solutions for postwar problems required regional cooperation, a need complicated by the federal government’s role as the capital area’s largest employer.

In just two years, 1955–56, approximately 38,000 white residents left the District for the suburbs. Between 1950 and 1957, Montgomery County added more than 130,000 whites to its 1950 population of 164,401, while Fairfax County and Falls Church, Va., more than doubled their white populations. White families moving to the area usually opted for suburban residency, whereas African Americans settled in the District. By 1965, 60 percent of the District’s residents were black.52 White flight was a national trend, but in Washington it overlapped with postwar desegregation. For a democratic nation committed to fighting communism, a segregated capital often proved embarrassing. Foreign visitors and diplomats of color held out their passports to get lunch counter service, a State Department official implored a hotel to honor the reservation of the foreign minister of an African nation.53 In response, both Presidents Truman and Eisenhower publicly committed themselves to desegregating Washington, but as historian Constance McLaughlin Green noted: “The battle for Washington was not to be won merely by a message from the White House.”

Hansen didn’t overlook instances of racial conflict, but he had high hopes for integration, even dubbing it a “miracle of social adjustment.” For every white parent willing to adjust, however, many more preferred to move. By September 1957, the District had lost an estimated 8,000 white pupils, while black enrollment had grown by almost 13,000, making the public school system 70 percent black. McKinley High School itself lost 273 white pupils and added 477 black students.57 White flight was already underway when the schools desegregated, but the transition led more white families to leave the District for the suburbs. U.S. News & World Report used warlike language to describe the changes. Whites were “fleeing the city as Negro neighborhoods crowd up against them” and “[p]ublic parks are, in large measure, being deserted by whites and taken over by Negroes.”58 Hansen himself admitted that “adjustment by change of address” was the choice of many whites.59 Another observer was blunter: “Parents unwilling to send their children to integrated schools have been steadily moving their homes to nearby Maryland and Virginia.”60 Of course, African Americans weren’t “invaders,” and not all whites “retreated” to the suburbs.

pages: 226 words: 59,080

Economics Rules: The Rights and Wrongs of the Dismal Science by Dani Rodrik

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airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, butterfly effect, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, distributed generation, Donald Davies, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, fudge factor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, loss aversion, low skilled workers, market design, market fundamentalism, minimum wage unemployment, oil shock, open economy, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, school vouchers, South Sea Bubble, spectrum auction, The Market for Lemons, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, unorthodox policies, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, white flight

However, not only can these kinds of outcomes be generated in smaller, simpler models, but they actually originate in them. Tipping-point models, referring to a sudden change in aggregate behavior after a sufficient number of individuals make a switch, were first developed and applied to different social settings by Tom Schelling. His paradigmatic example, developed in the 1970s, was the collapse of mixed neighborhoods into complete segregation once a critical threshold of white flight is reached. The potential for multiple equilibria has long been known and studied by economists, often in the context of highly stylized models. I gave an example (our shipbuilder and the coordination game) at the beginning of the chapter. Path dependence is a feature of a large class of dynamic economic models. And so on. A critic might argue that economists treat such models as exceptions to the “normal” cases covered by the workhorse competitive market model.

., 49 real business cycle (RBC) models, 101n reasoning, rule-based vs. case-based forms of, 72 Recession, Great, 115, 134–35, 152–59, 184 recessions: fiscal stimulus and, 74–75, 128, 130, 131–37, 149, 150, 171 inflation and (stagflation), 130–31 reform fatigue, 88 regulation, 143, 155, 158–59, 160–61, 165–66, 208–9 Reinhart, Carmen, 76–78 relativity, general, 113 rents, 119, 120, 149, 150 revenue sharing, 124 reverse causal inference, 115 Ricard, Samuel, 196 Ricardo, David, 52–53, 139, 196 risk, 110, 141, 165 Great Recession and, 153–54, 155, 158, 159 Robinson, James, 206 Rodrik, Dani, 35n Rogoff, Kenneth, 76–78 Rubinstein, Ariel, 20 rule of law, 205 Russia, 166 Rustichini, Aldo, 71n Ryan, Stephen, 107 sales tax, 180–81 Samuelson, Paul, 31, 51–52, 53, 58n, 125, 140n Sandel, Michael, 189, 191–92, 194 Sargent, Tom, 131–32, 134 UC graduation speech and, 147–48 savings: globalization and, 165, 166 in Great Recession, 153 investment and, 129–30, 165–67 scale economies, 108, 122 Schelling, Thomas, 33, 42, 62 Schultz, Theodore W., 75n Schumacher, E. F., 177n Schumpeter, Joseph, 31 science, simplicity and, 179 Scott, Joan, xiv Second Fundamental Theorem of Welfare Economics, 47n segregation, tipping points in white flight and, 42 self-interest, 21, 104, 158, 186–88, 190 Shaw, George Bernard, 151 Shiller, Robert, 154, 157, 159 signaling, 69 Simon, Herbert, 203 Singapore, congestion pricing and, 3 single market (partial-equilibrium) analysis, 56, 58, 91 skill-biased technological change (SBTC), 142–43 skill premium, 138–40, 142 skill upgrading, 140, 141, 142 Smith, Adam, xi 48–49, 50, 98, 116, 182, 203 Smith, John Maynard, 35n Smith, Noah, 148 social choice theory, 36 social media, big data and, 38 social sciences: critical review in, 79–80 economics and, xii–xiii, 45, 181–82, 202–7 universal theories and, 116 Sokal, Alan, 79n “Sokal’s Hoax” (Weinberg), 66n South Africa, 24, 86, 91, 111 South Sea bubble, 154 Soviet Union, 98, 151–52 White and, 1n Spain, 207 speculative capital flow, 2 Spence, Michael, 68 stagflation, 130–31 statistical analysis, 7 Steil, Benn, 1n–2n Stiglitz, Joseph, 31, 68 Stockholm, Sweden, congestion pricing and, 3 Stolper, Wolfgang, 58n, 140n Stolper-Samuelson theorem, 58n, 140n stotting, 35n strategic interactions, economic models and, 61–62, 63 string theory, 113 Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The (Kuhn), 64n Subramanian, Arvind, xv subsidies, 4, 34–35, 75, 105, 149, 193, 194 Sugden, Robert, 112, 172n Summers, Larry, 136, 159 sunk costs, 70, 73 Superiority of Economists, The (Fourcade, Ollion, and Algan), 79n, 200n supply and demand, 3, 13–14, 20, 99, 122, 128–30, 132, 136–37, 170 prices and, 14, 119 taxes and, 14 surrogate mothers, 192 Switzerland, 188 Taiwan, 163 Tanzania, 55 tariffs, 149, 161, 162 taxes, taxation, 14, 17, 27–28, 87, 88, 136, 137, 151, 174, 180–81 carbon emissions and, 188–90, 191–92 entrepreneurship and, 74 fiscal stimulus and, 74, 75, 149, 171 negative income and, 171 technology, income inequality and, 141–43 telecommunications, game theory and, 5, 36 Thailand, 166 Thatcher, Margaret, 49 theories: models vs., 113–45 specific events explained by, 138–44 universal validity of, 114 time-inconsistent preferences, 62–63 “Time to Build and Aggregate Fluctuation” (Kydland and Prescott), 101n tipping points, 42 Tirole, Jean, 208–9 trade, 11, 87, 91, 136, 141, 182–83, 194 in business cycles, 127 comparative advantage in, 52–55, 58n, 59, 139, 170 computational models in tracking of, 41 current account deficits and, 153 general-equilibrium effects and, 41, 56–58, 69n, 91, 120 income inequality in, 139–40 liberalization of, 160, 162–63, 165, 169 outsourcing and, 149 public sector size and, 109–10 second-best theory applied in, 58–61, 163–64, 166 2x2 model of, 52–53 trade creation effect, 59 trade diversion effect, 59 trade unions, 124, 143 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), 41 Transforming Traditional Agriculture (Schultz), 75n transportation, congestion pricing and, 2–3 Truman, Harry S., 151 tulip bubble, 154 Turkey, 166 Ulam, Stanislaw, 51 ultimatum game, 104 unemployment, 102 in business cycles, 125–37 classical view of, 126 in Great Recession, 153 wages and, 118, 150 see also employment Unger, Roberto Mangabeira, xi United States: comparative advantage principle and, 59–60, 139 deficit in, 149 educational vouchers in, 24 federal system in, 187 garment industry in, 57–58 Gold Standard in, 127 Great Depression in, 128 Great Recession in, 115, 134–35, 152–59 housing bubble in, 153–54, 156 immigration issue in, 56–57 income inequality in, 117, 124–25, 138–44 labor productivity and wages in, 123–24, 141 national debt in, 153 outsourcing in, 149 trade agreements of, 41 universal validity, 66–67 Uruguay, 86 validity, external vs. internal types of, 23–24 value, theories of, 117–21 Varian, Hal, 20 verbal models, 34 Vickrey, William, 2–3 Vietnam, 57–58 Vietnam War, 108 “Views among Economists: Professional Consensus or Point-Counterpoint?”

(Gordon and Dahl), 151n voting, social choice theory and, 36 wages: behavioral economics and, 70 in business cycles, 126 currency appreciation and, 60n education and, 173 employment and minimums for, 17–18, 28n, 114, 115, 124, 143, 150, 151 immigration and, 56–57 in labor theory of value, 117–19 productivity and, 120–21, 122–25, 141 second-best theorem and, 61 trade and, 139–40 Wagner, Rodrigo, 111n Walras, Léon, 119 Walzer, Michael, xiv Washington Consensus, 159–67, 169 Watts, Duncan, 39 Wedges between Productivity and Median Compensation Growth, The (Mishel), 124n Weinberg, Stephen, 66n Weinstein, David, 108 welfare, 47–51, 54, 171 “What Debate? Economists Agree the Stimulus Lifted the Economy” (Wolfers), 135n “When Economics Students Rebel” (Wren-Lewis), 197n White, Harry Dexter, 1–2 white flight, segregation and, 42 “Why We Learn Nothing from Regressing Economic Growth on Policies” (Rodrik), 35n Wicksell, Knut, 119 Williamson, John, 159–60 Wolfers, Justin, 135n World Bank, 1n, 2, 87 Washington Consensus and, 160 World War II, 2n, 108, 165 Wren-Lewis, Simon, 197n, 198 “Writing ‘The Market for “Lemons”‘: A Personal and Interpretive Essay” (Akerlof), 69n W. W. Norton, xiv–xv Wylie, Andrew, xiv Yale University, 103, 107, 109 ALSO BY DANI RODRIK The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions, and Economic Growth Has Globalization Gone Too Far?

pages: 440 words: 108,137

The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, old-boy network, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional

., 1 , 2 Matthew effect, 1 , 2 matrix of domination, 1.1-1.2 Medicare, 1 , 2.1-2.2 mentors, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 meritocracy affirmative action and, 1 American promotion of merit, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 , 5 , 6 coping strategies, 1 , 2 credentials, lack of as a barrier, 1.1-1.2 as a desired outcome, 1 discrimination as the antithesis of merit, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7.1-7.2 , 8 , 9.1-9.2 , 10 , 11 education as a merit filter, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 employment opportunities, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 entrepreneurial success, 1 fairness of the system, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5 folklore of, 1 government spending and, 1.1-1.2 , 2 in the hiring process, 1.1-1.2 , 2 human capital factors, 1 , 2 , 3 income based on merit, 1 inheritance as a nonmerit factor, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 , 6 , 7.1-7.2 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13.1-13.2 intergenerational wealth transfers, 1.1-1.2 legacy preferences as nonmerit based, 1.1-1.2 , 2 luck as a nonmerit factor, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 market trends, 1.1-1.2 meritocratic aristocracy, 1.1-1.2 nepotism as nonmeritorious, 1.1-1.2 the new elite as extra-meritorious, 1 noblesse oblige increasing potential for, 1 nonmerit factors suppressing merit, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 Barack Obama as example of, 1.1-1.2 , 2 the past, reverence for, 1 physical attractiveness as a nonmerit factor, 1 , 2 pure merit system, 1.1-1.2 reform movements and, 1 , 2 self-employment as an expression of, 1 social and cultural capital as nonmerit factors, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 , 5.1-5.2 , 6 , 7 , 8.1-8.2 , 9 , 10 , 11 structural mobility and, 1.1-1.2 talents and abilities of the merit formula, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 taxes and nonmerit advantages, 1.1-1.2 Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 Microsoft, 1.1-1.2 middle class America as not middle class, 1 asset building, 1 cultural capital, 1.1-1.2 deferment of gratification, 1 education and, 1 , 2 , 3 Great Recession affecting, 1 home ownership, 1 inner cities, flight from, 1 , 2 Barack Obama, background of, 1.1-1.2 old class vs. new, 1.1-1.2 precarious status of, 1.1-1.2 sports choices of, 1 upper-middle class, 1 , 2 T The Millionaire Mind (Stanley), 1 M millionaires, 1 , 2 , 3 minority groups affirmative action, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 asset accumulation, 1.1-1.2 core employment, underrepresentation in, 1 disadvantages of, 1 discrimination experiences, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 , 5 , 6.1-6.2 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 education issues, 1.1-1.2 as inner city dwellers, 1 opportunities expanding, 1 , 2 , 3 self-employment and, 1 social capital, lack of, 1 , 2 , 3 moral character, 1.1-1.2 , 2 Mormons, 1 Murray, Charles, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 Muslims, 1.1-1.2 N National College Athletic Association (NCAA), 1 nepotism, 1.1-1.2 , 2 net worth affirmative action and, 1 defined, 1 by income group, 1 of minority groups, 1 of Barack Obama family, 1 of one percenters, 1 , 2 , 3 of Walton heirs, 1.1-1.2 wealth scale, 1.1-1.2 new elite, 1 , 2.1-2.2 noblesse oblige, 1.1-1.2 O Obama, Barack, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 Obama, Michelle, 1.1-1.2 occupations attitude as a factor, 1 , 2 blue-collar jobs, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 CEO salaries, 1.1-1.2 , 2 changes in opportunities, 1.1-1.2 , 2 cultural capital and, 1.1-1.2 , 2 the disabled and employment difficulties, 1 discrimination, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 downsizing, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 education linked to, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4.1-4.2 , 5 , 6.1-6.2 , 7.1-7.2 , 8 , 9.1-9.2 , 10.1-10.2 , 11 , 12.1-12.2 , 13 , 14.1-14.2 fastest growing jobs, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 health hazards, 1 nepotism and, 1 , 2 occupational mobility, 1.1-1.2 , 2 occupational segregation, 1 , 2.1-2.2 outsourcing, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 physical attraction and occupational success, 1 self-employment and, 1 self-made men, 1.1-1.2 social capital and occupational opportunities, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 wages, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 , 6.1-6.2 , 7.1-7.2 , 8 white-collar jobs, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 Occupy Wall Street (OWS), 1 old boy networks, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 old money, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 Outliers: The Story of Success (Gladwell), 1 , 2 outsourcing, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ownership class, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 P Paterson, Tim, 1 Peale, Norman Vincent, 1.1-1.2 pensions, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 pink-collar ghetto, 1.1-1.2 poverty children affected by, 1 , 2 culture-of-poverty theory, 1.1-1.2 , 2 full-time work below poverty level, 1 as a matter of attitude, 1 meritocracy and, 1 , 2 minority rates of, 1 , 2 poverty threshold, 1 regional variations in poverty rates, 1.1-1.2 , 2 senior citizens and poverty rates, 1 U.S. poverty rates, 1 T The Power of Positive Thinking (Peale), 1.1-1.2 P Protestants and the Protestant ethic, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 Puritan values, 1.1-1.2 R racism and racial issues affirmative action, 1.1-1.2 athletes and, 1 crime and the legal system, 1.1-1.2 disabilities, disproportionate experience of, 1 discrimination and, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 , 6 , 7 , 8 in education, 1.1-1.2 employment, affecting, 1 Great Recession worsening racial equality, 1 home ownership, 1 ideologies of inequality, as part of, 1 income gaps, 1 language skills and, 1 Obama, election of, 1 , 2 scientific racism, 1.1-1.2 segregation, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 social capital and, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 white flight, 1 , 2 random-walk hypothesis, 1 recession See Great Recession references, 1 , 2 , 3 retirement as part of the American Dream, 1 , 2 delayment as a coping strategy, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 home ownership and funding of, 1 as jeopardized, 1 , 2.1-2.2 proposed supplementation, 1 self-employment and, 1 , 2 , 3 right attitude, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 T The Rise of Meritocracy, 1870–2033:An Essay on Education and Equality (Young), 1 , 2 R Rivera, Lauren, 1 Rosenau, Pauline Vaillancourt, 1.1-1.2 S Schmitt, John, 1.1-1.2 schools See education segregation educational, 1 , 2 , 3 occupational, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 racial, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5 residential, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 of the wealthy, 1.1-1.2 white flight, 1 See also discrimination self-employment American Dream, as exemplifying, 1 franchises, 1 freelancing, 1 , 2 income, 1.1-1.2 irregular economy and, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 petty bourgeoisie and, 1 psychological characteristics, 1 rates of, diminished, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 , 5 , 6 , 7.1-7.2 , 8 risk, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 subcontractors, 1 taxes, 1.1-1.2 , 2 women and minorities, 1.1-1.2 self-help books, 1 , 2 self-made individuals, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 , 5 , 6 sexual harassment, 1.1-1.2 Shapiro, Thomas, 1 , 2.1-2.2 slaves and slavery, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 small businesses, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 , 6 , 7.1-7.2 , 8 , 9 Smith, Adam, 1 social capital benefits of, 1.1-1.2 , 2 defined, 1 , 2 , 3 discrimination and, 1 , 2 economic opportunities, having access to, 1 , 2 , 3 education and, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 mentorship as a form of, 1 nepotism and, 1.1-1.2 , 2 racism and lack of, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 restricted access, effects of, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 social climbing, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 of U.S. presidents, 1.1-1.2 weak ties, 1.1-1.2 social climbing, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 social clubs, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 social mobility athletic and artistic abilities, associated with, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 cultural capital as a factor in, 1 education link, 1 , 2 , 3 hard work as a factor, 1 individual merit, 1 integrity hindering, 1.1-1.2 marrying for money, 1 reduction of opportunities, 1 , 2 during Republican administrations, 1 role of government, 1 , 2 social climbing, 1.1-1.2 , 2 status attainment, 1 through self-employment, 1 social reform movements, 1.1-1.2 Social Register, 1 social reproduction theory, 1.1-1.2 , 2 Social Security, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 Something for Nothing: Luck in America (Lears), 1.1-1.2 T the South, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 , 5 S Stanley, Thomas, 1 status-attainment theory, 1.1-1.2 Stevens, Mitchell, 1 stock market, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 student loans, 1 , 2.1-2.2 success athletic success, 1 , 2.1-2.2 attitudes associated with, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 birth timing and, 1.1-1.2 , 2 cultural capital, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 discrimination, achieving success through, 1 education, as a factor in, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 entrepreneurial success, 1 , 2 , 3 God’s grace, success as sign of, 1 , 2 hard work and, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 , 5 human capital factors, 1 individualism as key to, 1 intelligence as a determinant, 1 luck as important, 1 meritocracy myth and, 1 mind-power ethic as success formula, 1.1-1.2 moral character and, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 parental involvement, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 the right stuff, being made of as key, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 small businesses and, 1 social capital increasing likelihood of, 1 , 2 , 3 suburban living as marker of, 1 10,000 hour rule, 1 women and, 1 , 2 supply side, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6.1-6.2 Survival of the Prettiest (Etcoff), 1.1-1.2 Swift, Adam, 1.1-1.2 T talent and abilities American aristocracy, 1 American Dream, leading to, 1 of athletes and celebrities, 1 education enhancing, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 functional theory of inequality, 1 jobs matched to talent, 1 success achieved through, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 talent-use gap, 1 upward mobility and, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3.1-3.2 taxes capital gains, 1.1-1.2 estate taxes, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 government policies linked with, 1 , 2 incentives and credits, 1.1-1.2 income taxes, lowered by Republicans, 1 irregular economy, avoiding, 1.1-1.2 progressive taxation, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 property taxes and school funding, 1.1-1.2 self-employment and, 1.1-1.2 , 2 Social Security affected by, 1 , 2 the South and lower taxes, 1 tax breaks for the wealthy, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 of urban areas, 1 , 2 Thurow, Lester, 1 , 2.1-2.2 Tocqueville, Alexis de, 1.1-1.2 , 2 tracking, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 , 4 Turner, Frederick Jackson, 1.1-1.2 U Unequal Childhoods (Lareau), 1 upper class charitable giving and, 1 cultural capital, holders of, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4.1-4.2 , 5 deferred gratification, capability of, 1 distinctive lifestyle, 1.1-1.2 , 2 education, 1 , 2 endogamy, tendency towards, 1.1-1.2 as exclusive, 1.1-1.2 , 2 as isolated, 1.1-1.2 one percenters as members, 1 Plymouth Puritans as wellspring, 1 political power, 1.1-1.2 social clubs, frequenting, 1.1-1.2 virtues found in, 1 WASP background of, 1 women of, 1 , 2 , 3 upward mobility attitudes as affecting, 1 barriers to, 1 through college education, 1 credentialism and, 1 downward mobility, vs., 1 through entrepreneurialism, 1 glass ceiling as limiting, 1 integrity as suppressing, 1.1-1.2 irregular economy, as avenue, 1 marriage as a means of, 1.1-1.2 Michelle Obama as example, 1 slowing rates of, 1 See also social climbing See also social mobility V Vedder, Richard, 1 , 2 virtue, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 W Walmart, 1 Walton, Sam, 1 , 2 , 3 wealth accumulation gaps, 1 , 2 , 3 advantages of wealth inheritance, 1 , 2.1-2.2 capital investments, 1 charitable giving and the wealthy, 1 , 2.1-2.2 culture of, 1 , 2 discrimination and, 1 , 2 distribution as skewed, 1.1-1.2 Forbes magazine listings, 1.1-1.2 gambling, attainment through, 1 government intervention, 1.1-1.2 , 2 Great Recession affecting, 1 guilt feelings, 1.1-1.2 hard work as negligible, 1 inequalities of, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 lottery, wealth attainment through, 1 luck as a factor, 1 , 2.1-2.2 , 3 marriage rates, affecting, 1 nepotism aiding in transference of, 1 old money, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 one percenters, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ostentatious displays of, 1 political power, 1.1-1.2 property ownership producing, 1 , 2 pursuit of as a moral issue, 1.1-1.2 , 2 race affecting, 1 social and cultural capital, converted to, 1 , 2 the superwealthy, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4.1-4.2 tax breaks for the wealthy, 1 taxes on, 1.1-1.2 transfers of, 1.1-1.2 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 women and, 1 See also inheritance See also self-employment Weber, Max, 1.1-1.2 welfare, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 white Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs), 1.1-1.2 , 2 white-collar crime, 1.1-1.2 , 2 Wilson, William Julius, 1 , 2 Winfrey, Oprah, 1.1-1.2 Wisconsin school, 1.1-1.2 women attractiveness as a success factor, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 discrimination against, 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5.1-5.2 , 6.1-6.2 , 7.1-7.2 , 8.1-8.2 , 9.1-9.2 , 10 economic disparities, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 educational attainment, 1.1-1.2 , 2 family concerns, 1.1-1.2 , 2.1-2.2 , 3.1-3.2 glass ceiling, experiencing, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4 inferiority, feelings of, 1.1-1.2 labor force participation, increasing, 1.1-1.2 , 2 mentorships, access to, 1 , 2.1-2.2 occupational disparities, 1 , 2 , 3.1-3.2 , 4.1-4.2 , 5.1-5.2 political underrepresentation, 1.1-1.2 self-employment and, 1.1-1.2 as trailing partners, 1 of the upper class, 1 , 2 , 3 working class American Dream and, 1 cultural capital, lack of, 1.1-1.2 , 2 economic instability, 1.1-1.2 education issues, 1 , 2 , 3 hard work and, 1 health risks, 1 home ownership, 1 lower class value stretch, 1 nepotism, effect of, 1 the new lower class, 1 women and incomes, 1 work See hard work See occupations Y Young, Michael, 1 , 2 About the Authors Stephen J.

Subsidized by government highway funds that linked surrounding communities with central cities, this was also a period of rapid expansion of American suburbs. For many, the ranch house in the suburbs with the two-car garage and meticulously maintained lawn symbolized the fulfillment of the dream. Commuters in these bedroom communities, who worked in the urban areas and had access to their cultural amenities, felt shielded from the problems of central cities. For them, it was the best of both worlds. Economic success, resulting in white flight to the suburbs in the postwar period, however, exacerbated the problems of central cities and, in many cases, increased rates of segregation and racial tension. The tax base of urban areas eroded along with public services, including schools, police and fire protection, and urban sanitation. The fulfillment of the dream for some was for others a nightmare of inner-city crime, drugs, unemployment, poverty, and despair.

And even when resorting to more commercial forms of transportation, there is always the more isolated and pampered option of traveling “first class.” The upper-class tendency to isolate itself geographically from the rest of society has been emulated by the upper middle classes. The overall trend is toward greater socioeconomic residential segregation in American society as a whole (Massey, Rothwell, and Domina 2009). The creation of white-flight suburbs in the post–World War II era began a trend that has now extended to the rising popularity of “gated” communities (Blakely and Snyder 1997). Once restricted to the superwealthy and some retirement villages, gated communities are now for the merely privileged. One reason for this self-imposed isolation is security. Those who have more have more to lose. Keeping potential criminals out, however, also has the effect of keeping the rich in.

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The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger

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American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, commoditize, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight

As mentioned in chapter 1, home mortgage guidelines after World War II mandated racial segregation in the new suburbs. “Redlining” of 40 | THE OPTION OF URBANISM predominantly black, poor areas in the city became common practice as growth spiraled outward and banks and federal insurance programs refused to support redevelopment or business investment in the cities. The desegregation of public schools mandated in 1954 hastened white flight to the suburbs, leaving city schools to cope with a disproportionately poor student body. The civil rights movement may have been launched with the successful bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama, but low-income AfricanAmericans ultimately lost the war for better transportation services. As white middle-class riders abandoned bus transit and other public transit systems, the decreasing ridership, political support, and funding meant that there was nominal service to the new suburbs.

There was opposition to “block busting” in the 1960s as well, the practice of scaring generally white homeowners with the advice “sell now before more colored families move into the neighborhood.” The resistance in the early twenty-first century to this kind of change will probably be even more substantial and well organized, due in part to the politically organized nature of the places where these houses are located. The owners of these fringe houses will take a substantial financial loss, just as those engaging in white flight from the cities did in the 1960s. But there are other problems with the scenario of large homes being sold to lower income families or broken up into apartments. The first concerns the cost of energy. Let’s assume that a gasoline-powered vehicle is the probable way to get to this housing in the near and midterm future and that the price of oil will continue to increase faster than inflation, due to both lower production (caused by declining supplies, dislocation due to terrorism, or manipulation by supplier nations) and higher worldwide demand.

Department of Transportation, see Department of Transportation Value latching, 143–144, 196n6 Veterans Administration (VA), 26, 31 Walkable urbanism, 3–10, 18, 21, 27, 58–59, 63, 76–79, 86–176, 191n3, 195n22 commercial, 101 financing, 160–162 infrastructure, 163–171 moral imperative, 175–176 regional-serving, 118, 124–128, 135–139, 173–174, 195n22 rise of, 3–5 Santa Fe, NM, 27, 148, 163, 175 unintended consequences, 138 inclusionary zoning, 141–143 lack of affordable housing, 138–141 value latching, 143–144 zoning, 151–153 Wall Street, 47–50, 58–62, 106, 111–112, 124, 159–162 Washington, D.C., 18, 37, 43, 52, 59, 61, 71, 100–107, 119–123, 128, 132, 135–139, 141, 146, 157, 166, 172–173, 192n8 Wendling, R., 188n56 White, E. B., 18, 178n11 White flight, 40, 145 Wilson, J., 177n4 Wolfe, T., 52, 183n11 Workforce housing, 138–141 Zoning, 5, 10, 26–29, 31, 66, 71, 105, 112, 127, 143–144, 150–152, 156–158, 174 Euclidean zoning, 151, 196n2 A BOUT I SLAND P RESS Island Press is the only nonprofit organization in the United States whose principal purpose is the publication of books on environmental issues and natural resource management. We provide solutions-oriented information to professionals, public officials, business and community leaders, and concerned citizens who are shaping responses to environmental problems.

pages: 537 words: 200,923

City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae

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agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, creative destruction, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration

., 348– 51, 355–57 displacement caused by, 336–41 federal funding for, 306 –7, 319 –20, 321, 322–25 impact of on built environment, 331– 38, 346 –48 impact of on business, 331, 343–46 impact of on residential areas, 330, 336 –343 and modernism, 331–38 and white flight, 341–43 Waddell, Lloyd, 179 Wallingford, Conn., 50, 65 Walsh, Eddie, 288 Walsh, James, 330 Walton, D. S., 129 War Memorial Coliseum, 6–7 Warner, Robert, 256, 257 Warren, David, 384, 385, 414 Waterbury, Conn., 50, 51, 64, 65 Water Street, 40 water transportation, 42–44 Waverly Street Townhouses, 383 Weaver, Robert, 351 Weber, Adna, 21, 400 Weber, Max 435 Weibel, Joseph, 77 Weibel, Theresa, 77 Weibel Brewery, 77 Wenzleck, Roy, 296 West Haven, Conn., 130, 232, 339, 402, 403–4, 473 Westinghouse, George, 16, 23 West River, 44, 47 West Rock, 101 Westville, 89, 101, 127, 138, 168 Westville Manor, 279 Wexler, Harry, 320, 385 Whalley-Goff, 139 Wharton, Edith, 224 White, George, 78 White, Oliver S., 135 White, Roger S., II, 135 white flight, 341–43 Whitney, Eli, 47, 53, 108 Whitney, Eli, III, 164, 172, 187, 205 Whitney Arms Company, 108 Wilbur Cross High School, 170 Willys, John, 225 Vance, Cyrus, 429 Vanderbilt, Merritt D., 326 515 I N D E X as evaluated by HOLC, 267–68, 269– 72, 273 impact of urban renewal on, 330–31, 333–34 Wright, Frank, 250 Winchester, Oliver, 108 Winchester Repeating Arms, 58, 102, 108, 111, 120–22, 159, 217, 218–20, 255, 257, 295, 363 –67 Winchester-Simmons Company, 219 –20 Windsley, Arwildie, 254–56, 260, 277, 280 Windsley, Mary, 256 Winternitz, Milton, 157 Wirtz, Willard, 351 Wolf, Edward, 129 Wolfinger, Raymond, 287, 292, 293, 298 –99, 306–7, 310, 318, 320–21, 464 Woodbridge, Conn., 48 –49, 50, 64, 232, 402–3, 404, 443, 473 Woodruff, Rollin, 205 Wooster Square, 89, 119, 122, 123, 126, 131–32, 167, 168, 272, 338, 342 working-class neighborhoods, 89–90, 101, 116–27, 131–32, 138–40 blacks in, 256–57, 260 civic leaders from, 167–69 Yale Bowl, 196 Yale Center for British Art, 427 Yale Child Study Center, 380 Yale University, 40, 216–17, 427–32 anti-Semitism at, 154 athletics at, 179 leadership of, 246–48 modernist architecture at, 332, 334 New Haven students at, 169–71 professors at, 132–34, 136, 157 tensions with city of New Haven, 171, 248, 428 –31 Yates, Douglas, 413 Ziegler, Adam, 4 zoning, 93, 261–63, 424 Zunder School, 175 –76 516

The long trends that eroded urbanism were all in progress before blacks became centrally important to the city. Centered capitalism was much more sensitive to changing energy costs and shifting market opportunities than it was to racial breakdowns in urban neighborhoods (although, as we will see shortly, race came to be a major concern among mortgage bankers). The decline of urban retailing had a logic that required little attention to race. White flight and decentralized living were sometimes accelerated by racial tension in the central city, but their dynamic was in motion decades before people of color arrived in large numbers. As late as 1961, Robert Dahl would write Who Governs? about New Haven and its politics with only very minor notice of what was then its “Negro” population.10 One historical fact about race asserts itself in every aspect of New Haven’s history after about 1950.

But, most of all, a large number of mainly Italian-American whites were lost to the neighborhood in a very short period of time.44 A major residential story in late twentieth-century New Haven is the decentralization of white households and their replacement by people of color—but on a rough two-for-three basis, two new families of color for three departed white families basis—so that total population in the central city diminished pretty steadily over the decades. Did urban renewal and highway construction cause these shifts? I do not think so, at least not in any simple way. These changes were 342 E X T R A O R D I N A R Y P O L I T I C S under way long before Lee came to power in 1954, and they have continued since. The earliest instances of “white flight” trace to the 1920s, long before blacks arrived in numbers and long before urban renewal began.45 One could say that the visibility of urban renewal, reinforcing the certification of workingclass neighborhoods as slums, may have sent a signal that encouraged departure. And, certainly, the highways made it easier to move into relatively distant suburbs and still hold on to a city job. These are credible guesses.

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How the Other Half Banks: Exclusion, Exploitation, and the Threat to Democracy by Mehrsa Baradaran

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access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, credit crunch, David Graeber, disintermediation, diversification, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, income inequality, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Own Your Own Home, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, savings glut, the built environment, the payments system, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, union organizing, white flight, working poor

Most suburban homes had racial covenants that prohibited their sale to nonwhites, leaving nonwhites completely cut off from the federal subsidies. Both the private and public sectors used these maps for years and prevented minorities from benefiting from the subsidized mortgage loans used to grow the capital and wealth of the lower and middle classes. Redlining not only blocked the flow of beneficial credit to nonwhites, but it also led to the deterioration of many inner-city neighborhoods. The eventual downturn that “white flight” created in these urban areas also resulted in “bank flight” as private business followed the white customers out. The social contract forged during the Great Depression stabilized U.S. banking for several decades. For fifty years, the banking sector experienced measured growth and success while the rest of the economy generally thrived. This growth and stability coincided with exceptional international economic growth.

These reforms reflected both an extension of the civil rights legislation of the era and a reaction to market conditions. As the banking sector suffered competition from the capital markets in the 1970s and 1980s, banks increasingly shed lower-income and minority customers and closed branches in low-income neighborhoods in order to cut costs—a rebirth of redlining, but this time, not as obviously discriminatory. The “white flight” started in the 1930s increased in the 1970s and 1980s as many more banks abandoned these areas for those more profitable.92 Businesses left, people lost jobs, banks continued to close, and crime increased, accelerating the downward spiral. Many of these communities have yet to recover from the exodus of businesses caused by the bank departures during that era. If access to credit enables people to escape poverty, discriminatory barriers to credit were cutting off a portion of the population from upward mobility.

Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press: 2014), 80. 90. Martin Luther King Jr., “I Have a Dream,” accessed March 19, 2015, www.thekingcenter.org/archive/document/i-have-dream-1. 91. Richard Scott Carnell, Jonathan R. Macey, and Geoffrey P. Miller, The Law of Banking and Financial Institutions, 350 (New York: Aspen Publishers, 2009). 92. Jan Blakeslee, “ ‘White Flight’ to the Suburbs: A Demographic Approach,” University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty Newsletter Vol. 3, No. 2 (1978–1979), 1. 93. Warren L. Dennis, “The Community Re-investment Act of 1977: Its Legislative History and Its Impact on Applications for Changes in Structure Made by Depository Institutions to the Four Federal Financial Supervisory Agencies” (working paper no. 24, Purdue University, 1978), accessed March 19, 2015, faculty.msb.edu/prog/CRC/pdf/wp24.pdf, 4 (quoting Congressional Record, daily ed.

pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

To the contrary, our suburban expansion was largely government-driven, and completely lacking in incentives to integrate different housing types or incomes among the new construction. In a sense, our government did half its job: it provided the means of escape from the city—highways and cheap home loans—while neglecting to allocate those means fairly. The resulting social stratification of suburban development—compounded by racially based white flight—continues today. Inevitable or not, the fact remains that the inner city is now where America’s least privileged are most concentrated, a condition exacerbated by sprawl. Two aspects of suburbanization contribute dramatically to the plight of the urban poor: government investment in suburb-serving highways has left many inner-city neighborhoods sundered by high-speed traffic, and disinvestment by fleeing corporations robs city residents of adequate access to jobs.

Postal Service Utah utilities, underground Ventura, Michael Vermont Vero Beach (Florida) Veterans Administration (VA) villages, new, see new towns and villages Virginia Beach (Virginia) Virginia Department of Transportation Visual Preference Survey walkable neighborhoods, see pedestrian-friendly design Wall Street Journal, The Warwick (New York) Washington, George Washington, D.C.; Georgetown; L’Enfant plan for; Rock Creek Park Washington State; see also Seattle welfare reform West Hollywood (California) West Palm Beach (Florida) wetlands white flight White Mountain Survey, Inc. Whiz Kids Who Framed Roger Rabbit (film) Whyte, William Williamsburg (Virginia) Wilson, Woodrow Winter Park (Florida) work centers, neighborhood Wright, Frank Lloyd Wyndcrest (Maryland) yield streets zoning; of building types; crime control and; developers and; gentrification and; history of; inner-city; mixed-use, see mixed-use development; public transit and; regional planning and; rewriting ordinances; single-use, see single-use zoning Notes a Bill Morrish and Catherine Brown have done much to document this new frontier of decline, the “inner ring,” at the Design Center for American Urban Landscape at the University of Minnesota.

If They had already gotten in, then its purpose was to confine Them to limited areas. The exact identity of Them varied a bit around the country. Blacks, Latinos and poor people qualified. Catholics, Jews and Orientals were targets in many places” (Peter Hall, Cities of Tomorrow, 60). It has been well documented by Robert Fishman and others how racism was a large factor in the disappearance of the middle class from the center city (“white flight”), and how zoning law clearly manifests the desire to keep away what one has left behind. f Data given by Nelson Rising at the second Congress for the New Urbanism, Los Angeles, May 21, 1994. From 1970 to 1990, Los Angeles grew 45 percent in population and 300 percent in size (Christopher Leinberger, Robert Charles Lesser & Co. original research). According to the Population Environment Balance newsletter, we pave an area equal to the size of the state of Delaware every year.

pages: 289 words: 99,936

Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age by Virginia Eubanks

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affirmative action, Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, game design, global village, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low-wage service sector, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, race to the bottom, rent control, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban planning, web application, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

After the 1950 census, however, Troy’s population began to decline; it was 72,763, in 1950, 62,007 in 1970, and 54,269 in 1990, a loss of nearly 5,000 residents per decade. In 2000, the population dipped below 50,000 for the first time in the twentieth century (to a mere 49,107, only 60 percent of its record high in 1925). It is projected to decrease still further. 3. In the early 2000s, we began to see the first appreciable reverse in the decades old trend of white flight from cities and metropolitan areas across the United States. Reverse white flight is particularly pronounced in Manhattan, 150 miles south of Troy, where the African American and Hispanic populations have stagnated or declined and median family incomes and house values have skyrocketed since 2000. Many individuals and families have been priced out of the New York City metropolitan area, and more were unsettled by the events of September 11, 2001.

Word among homeowners, downtown businesses, commercial developers, and local government officials was that Troy, long challenged by a stagnant economy1 and declining population base,2 was turning itself around, injecting new life into its downtown and revitalizing the local economy by attracting out-of-town property buyers, shoppers, businesses, and tourists. These claims were buoyed by a number of factors that converged right around the turn of the millennium. Reverse white flight, the impacts of the events of 50 Chapter 4 September 11, and the skyrocketing cost of living in the New York City metropolitan area combined to usher white, middle-class individuals and families back into the small historic cities that line the Hudson River between Manhattan and Albany.3 There was a nationwide speculative real estate boom, one that whipped the property markets of small, riverfront cities like Troy into a particularly remarkable frenzy.4 New economy boosters saw the city as a centerpiece for the region’s broader revitalization strategy: high-technology economic development.

pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, call centre, carried interest, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, TaskRabbit, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

Little wonder the tone of our politics has shifted so markedly from hope to nostalgia.37 Unlike during the early Industrial Revolution, today’s poor are not intentionally being displaced. Instead they are being silently priced out of their homes. They are falling victim to creeping gentrification, or what Spike Lee, the American film-maker, calls ‘the motherfuckin’ Christopher Columbus Syndrome’.38 In the US they call this reverse white flight, as the offspring of the suburban well-to-do reclaim the downtown wards and boroughs their parents and grandparents fled in the post-war era. The term gentrification was coined by Ruth Glass, a British academic, who was commenting on an early version of the trend in 1960s London. Today, no single London borough has a working-class majority. More of Britain’s poor live in suburbia, or ‘slumburbia’, than in the cities nowadays.39 This is creating a new kind of poverty, where the poor are increasingly pushed out of sight.

., 201 Thoreau, Henry David, 127–8 Thrower, Randolph, 132 Tillerson, Rex, 147–8, 161 Toil Index, 35–6 Trans-Pacific Trade Partnership, 73, 167 transport, 54, 55, 56–7, 58, 61; self-driving vehicles, 54, 57, 60, 68 Trump, Donald: admiration for Putin, 7, 129, 135; and America First movement, 117; autocratic/authoritarian nature of, 133, 169, 171, 178–9; Bannon as Surkov of, 173; Chinese view of, 85–6, 140; confusion as strategic goal, 79, 86, 127, 128, 130, 131, 173, 178–9, 195–6; foreign policy, 167–70, 178–80, 181–4; ignorance of how other countries think, 161, 167–9; inaugural address, 135, 146; Andrew Jackson comparisons, 113–14; and male voters, 57; as mortal threat to democracy, 97, 104, 111, 126, 133–6, 138, 139, 161, 169–70, 178–84, 203–4; and Muslim ban, 135, 181, 182; narcissism of, 170; need for new Mark Felt/Deep Throat, 136; and nuclear weapons, 175, 176; offers cure worse than the disease, 14, 181; plan to deport Mexican immigrants, 114, 135; poorly educated as base, 103, 123; promised border wall, 94–5; protectionism of, 19–20, 73, 149; and pro wrestling, 124; stealing of the left’s clothes, 101, 103; stoking of racism by, 97; support for plutocracy, 193, 195, 196, 199–200; and Taiwan, 145, 166–7, 168; targeting of Muslims, 135, 181–3, 195–6; and Twitter, 70, 146; and UFC, 126; urban–hinterland split in 2016 vote, 47–8, 119, 120, 130, 135; and US political system, 131, 133–5; US–China war scenario, 145–53, 161; victory in US presidential election, 5, 6–7, 11–12, 15, 28, 47–8, 79, 87, 96–8, 111, 120, 194–5 Trump: The Game (board game), 7 Tsai Ing-Wen, 151 Tunisia, 12, 82 Turkey, 12, 82, 137, 140, 175 Twitter, 34, 53, 70, 146 Uber, 63 UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship), 125–6, 127 UK Independence Party (UKIP), 90, 98, 100, 101–2, 190; xenophobia during Brexit campaign, 100–1 Ukraine: Orange Revolution (2004), 79; Putin’s annexation of Crimea (2014), 8, 173 United States of America (USA): 1968 Democratic Convention, 188–9; 2016 presidential election, 5, 6–7, 11–12, 15, 28, 47–8, 79, 87–8, 91–8, 119, 130, 133, 135; 9/11 terrorist attacks, 79–80, 81, 182; America First movement, 117; civil rights victories (1960s), 190; ‘complacent classes’ in, 40; Constitution, 112–13, 163; and containment of China, 25–6, 145–6, 157–61, 165; decline of established parties, 89; declining hegemony of, 14, 21–2, 26–8, 140–1, 200–1; domestic terrorist attacks, 182, 183; elite–heartland divide, 47–8, 119, 130, 135; foreign policy since WW2, 183–4; gig economy, 63–5; gilded age, 42–3; growth after 2008 crisis, 30–1; growth of inequality in modern era, 43, 44–8, 49, 50–1; history in popular imagination, 163; Lend-Lease aid to Britain, 169; middle-income problem in, 35–41; Monroe Doctrine (1823), 164–5; murder rate in suburbs, 47; nineteenth-century migration to, 41; Operation Iraqi Freedom, 8, 81, 85, 156; opioid-heroin epidemic, 37–8; Patriot Act, 80; political system, 112–13, 131–6, 163; post-Cold War triumphalism, 6, 71; primacy in Asia Pacific, 26, 157, 160–1; racial/ethnic make-up of, 94–6; relations with Soviet Union see Cold War; relative decline of, 170; ‘reverse white flight’ in, 46; technological leap forward (from 1870), 58–9; vanishing class mobility in, 43–6; ‘war on terror’, 80–1, 140, 183; Washington’s ‘deep state’, 133–4 Universal Basic Income (UBI) proposals, 196–7 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 8–9, 10 Vance, J.D., 108 Venezuela, 82 Versailles Conference (1919), 154 Vienna, Congress of (1814–15), 7 Vietnam, 166 Wallace, George, 113 Walters, Johnnie M., 132 ‘war on terror’, US, 80–1, 140, 183 Warsh, Kevin, 150 Washington Consensus, 29–30, 71, 77, 78–9, 158–9 Washington Post, 132 Weber, Max, 162 welfare systems, 42, 101–3, 191, 198 Western thought: on China, 158–9, 161–2; conceit of primacy of, 4–5, 8–9, 85, 158–9, 162; declining influence of, 200–1; idea of progress, 4, 8, 11–12, 37; modernity concept, 24, 162; non-Western influences on, 24–5; see also democracy, liberal; liberalism, Western WhatsApp, 54 White, Hugh, 25, 158 Wilders, Geert, 102 Wilentz, Sean, 114 Williamson, John, 29 Wilson, Woodrow, 115 Woodward, Bob, 132 Wordsworth, William, 3 World Bank, 84 World Trade Organization (WTO), 26, 72, 149, 150 Wright, Thomas, 180 WWE (World Wrestling Entertainment), 124–5 Xi Jinping, 19–20, 26, 27, 146, 149, 168, 170; and US–China war scenario, 150, 152 Yellen, Janet, 150 Yeltsin, Boris, 78, 79 Young, Michael, 45–6 YouTube, 54 Zakaria, Fareed, 13, 119

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Our Kids: The American Dream in Crisis by Robert D. Putnam

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assortative mating, correlation does not imply causation, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, full employment, George Akerlof, helicopter parent, impulse control, income inequality, index card, jobless men, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Occupy movement, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, school choice, selection bias, Socratic dialogue, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the built environment, upwardly mobile, Walter Mischel, white flight, working poor

Just 15 minutes south along Peachtree Road, virtually in the shadows of Atlanta’s downtown skyscrapers, lies one of the most drug- and crime-ridden ghettos in America—an area of boarded-up houses, barred windows, and concrete playgrounds, where idle men cluster on street corners. Here the population is 95 percent black, with a median household income of $15,000 and a child poverty rate of about 75 percent. Throughout its history, Atlanta has been plagued by racial division.1 By 1970, de jure segregation was gone, but white flight into the suburbs was well under way. Between 1960 and 1980, the white share of the central city’s population plunged from 62 percent to 33 percent, while between 1960 and 2000 the fraction of the metro population living in Atlanta itself fell from 37 percent to 9 percent—the most centrifugal dispersion of any major metropolitan area in America. By 1970 the city had become the black center of a white doughnut, effectively maintaining de facto segregation in schools, housing, and much of social life.

., 136–38, 138, 170 schools and, 169–71, 171 pregnancy: marital, 203, 205 nonmarital, 61–62, 66–72, 66, 75, 78, 162, 204, 243, 245 teen, 2, 70, 196, 203–5, 245–46 trends in, 64–66, 73–75 premarital sex: family structure and, 62 teens and, 196, 203–5 Pretenders, The (band), 1 prison, see imprisonment, parental private schools, 52, 173, 194 Progressive Era, 244, 253, 256 property taxes, 165 prostitution, 152 public education system: Common School movement and, 160 equal opportunity and, 32 High School movement and, 160 Land-Grant College movement and, 160–61 see also class gap, education and public policy, 75–76 Q qualitative research, 263–74 constraints of, 272–84 life stories as, 263 model for, 265–66 participants and, 265–67 sample and, 270–71 Sandelson and, 265 Silva and, 270–71, 269–71 topics of, 267–68 quantitative research, 274–77 data sets and, 277 life stories as, 274 PCHS class of ’59 survey, 274–75 statistics of, 276–77 survey results, 276 R race: in 1950s, 12–19 in 21st century, 18, 91 affluence and, 84–92 class gap and, 76, 161–62 college scholarships and, 14, 17 in discrimination and segregation, 81–83 socializing and, 16–18 racism, 18–19 reading, 87, 143, 249 real estate: good schools and, 164 in Port Clinton, Ohio, 22 property taxes and, 165 white flight and, 81 Reardon, Sean, 161–62, 280 “rearview mirror” method, 44 relative mobility, 41–42 religion: child development and, 89–90 church attendance and, 224–25, 225 communities and, 197, 201–4, 223–26 see also churches research: field, 264 financial support and, 266 leadership of, 266 undergraduate, 265 see also qualitative research; quantitative research residential segregation: affordable housing and, 251–52 income and, 38–39, 38 schools and, 163–64, 251–52 residential sorting, 163 Ricardo, 137, 139, 141, 143, 146, 148, 165, 229 Riis, Jacob, 41 Rocky (film), 191–92 Rotary Club, 8 row houses, 192 Rust Belt, 30, 73, 264 S Sampson, Robert, 170, 217–18 San Diego, Calif., 135 Santa Ana, Calif.: as America’s most troubled city, 136 gangs in, 136, 170 poverty in, 136–37, 138, 170 Santa Ana High School, 59, 136–38, 148, 153–58, 163–64, 166–67, 169–70 characteristics of, 136 SATs (scholastic aptitude tests): as academic measure, 137, 142, 246 competitive pressure and, 139 preparation for, 144, 147, 197, 206 savvy gap, 213–16 Sawhill, Isabel, 79, 229, 245 Scarcity (Mullainathan and Shafir), 130 scholarships, 8 for black students, 14, 17 for Latino students, 141 school choice, 97, 164–65 school climate, 97, 153–54, 171–73 schools, schooling, 135–90 AP classes and, 39, 143, 168, 168, 173 Catholic, 84, 201, 254–55 class divergence and, 160 class gap and, 137, 138, 160–73 discipline problems in, 171 drugs and violence in, 153–54, 170 educational attainment and, 183–90, 189, 190 extracurricular activities and, 174–83, 177 finances of, 165–66 fund-raising and, 137, 147, 167 government policies and, 251–58 inequality in, 137, 138 Latino communities and, 158–60 opportunity gap and, 251–58 peer influence in, 11, 160-73, 197, 214, 236 poverty in, 169–70, 171 private schools and, 52, 173, 194 public education system and, 160–61 residential segregation and, 163–64, 251–52 solutions for problems in, 251–58 tracking and, 143, 173 see also education; specific schools Science Olympiad, 144 Schlozman, Kay, 236 Scott, Helen Hope Montgomery, 191 seat belts, sociological, 224 SeaWorld, 151 Section 8 housing assistance, 60 security, emotional, 53, 115 segregation, residential, 38–39, 38, 163–64, 251–52 “Self-Reliance” (Emerson), 261 serve-and-return interactions, 110, 123, 126 sexual norms, 73 Shafir, Eldar, 130 Shonkoff, Jack, 109–12 shotgun marriages, 62 Silva, Jennifer: field research and, 264 research methods appendix and, 263–74 Simone, 83, 84–92, 101, 110, 117–19, 122, 128, 143, 164, 166, 174, 206 single-parent families: changing family structure and, 69–71, 70, 92–101 in 1970s, 21, 62 nonmarital births and, 66–68, 66 parental imprisonment and, 76 social class: education and, 44–45 language and, 29, 116 parenting style and, 119–22, 120 see also class gap social isolation, 16–17, 28, 211 social mobility, 31–34, 43–44 social networks: affluence and, 209–10, 209 churches as, 4, 10, 89–90, 201, 206 class gap and, 207–10, 208 communities and, 207–13 Internet and, 211–12, 269 social safety net, and communities, 132, 206, 229, 246–47, 254, 258–59, 261, 264, 265 social trust, 95, 201, 219–20 socioeconomic status (SES), 189–90 Sofia, 132, 137, 148–58, 160–61, 165, 168, 171, 172, 175, 178, 182, 185, 188, 216, 234, 256, 269 soft skills, 174–76 spending, parental, 125–26, 126 Spock, Benjamin, 117 sports: class gap and, 178, 179 as equalizer, 4, 97 pay-to-play policies and, 180–81, 258 Title IX and, 175 Stephanie, 83, 92–101, 110–11, 114, 117, 120–21, 123, 128, 163, 167, 263, 267 step-parents, 63, 93 step-siblings, 57, 63 stress: competitive, 144–45 financial, 130–31, 131 parental, 130–32 toxic, 111–14 suburbs, 261, 265 summer learning gap, 86–87, 143, 162 Sun Belt, 80 Supporting Healthy Marriage program, 244 T teachers: Talent Transfer Initiative and, 253 teacher flight and, 253 teacher quality and, 137 teacher salaries and, 165–66 team sports, see sports technology, 143, 212, 257, 265 see also computers; Internet teen pregnancy, 203–5, 245–46 television, 3, 57, 89, 91, 93, 117, 119, 123, 128, 162 test scores: K-12 education and, 161–62 see also SATs Tiger Moms, 145, 159 time, child-parent relationships and, 126–28, 127 Tolstoy, Leo, 61 tough love, 88, 96, 100–101, 120, 195 toxic stress, 111–14 tracking, 143, 173 traditional families, 61–62 traditional marriage, 7, 12, 62, 72 trailer parks, 22, 57 travel, 53 Troy High School, 137, 142, 143–48, 163, 165 characteristics of, 138 competitive pressure at, 139, 144–45 curriculum of, 143–44, 213 extracurricular activities in, 145–47 fund-raising and, 147 Newsweek ranking of, 143 Tiger Moms and, 145 trust: building of, 270 social, 95, 201, 219–21 trust funds, 6 U unemployment, 20, 136 United Auto Workers (UAW), 8 upward mobility: gender and, 11 parental spending and, 125 PCHS class of ’59 and, 4, 7 race and, 18 2nd generation immigrants and, 141 trends in, 228–29 V values, 75, 240 Verba, Sidney, 236 verbal parenting, 120 veterans, 160–61 violence: in New Orleans, La., 102–3 in Santa Ana, Calif., 136 in schools, 153–54, 170 in South, 13 vocabulary gap, 92 vocational education, 255–56 volunteer work, 157, 259 voting, 235–37, 235 W Waldfogel, Jane, 122, 248 Waltham, Mass., 270, 272 War on Drugs, 76 Washbrook, Elizabeth, 122 weak ties, 198, 208–10, 208, 209 wealth gap, 31, 37 welfare system: costs of, 232 family structure and, 75 medical insurance and, 202 reforms of, 244 Wendy, 24–25, 29, 92, 143, 266 Weston, Mass., 270 white flight, 81 Y youth: church programs for, 202–4 Facebook and, 205, 269 recreation, 199 voting and, 235–37, 235 YouthBuild network, 256 Simon & Schuster 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2015 by Robert D.

., 136 in schools, 153–54, 170 in South, 13 vocabulary gap, 92 vocational education, 255–56 volunteer work, 157, 259 voting, 235–37, 235 W Waldfogel, Jane, 122, 248 Waltham, Mass., 270, 272 War on Drugs, 76 Washbrook, Elizabeth, 122 weak ties, 198, 208–10, 208, 209 wealth gap, 31, 37 welfare system: costs of, 232 family structure and, 75 medical insurance and, 202 reforms of, 244 Wendy, 24–25, 29, 92, 143, 266 Weston, Mass., 270 white flight, 81 Y youth: church programs for, 202–4 Facebook and, 205, 269 recreation, 199 voting and, 235–37, 235 YouthBuild network, 256 Simon & Schuster 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2015 by Robert D. Putnam All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form whatsoever. For information address Simon & Schuster Subsidiary Rights Department, 1230 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020.

pages: 549 words: 162,164

Failure Is Not an Option: Mission Control From Mercury to Apollo 13 and Beyond by Gene Kranz

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V2 rocket, white flight

Simon & Schuster and colophon are registered trademarks of Simon & Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-7432-1447-1 With love to my wife, Marta, and our children, Carmen, Lucy, Joan, Mark, Brigid, and Jean Contents 1 | The Four-Inch Flight 2 | "Liftoff; the Clock Is Running" 3 | "God Speed, John Glenn" 4 | The Brotherhood 5 | The Making of a Rocket Man 6 | Gemini—The Twins 7 | White Flight 8 | The Spirit of 76 9 | The Angry Alligator 10 | A Fire on the Pad 11 | Out of the Ashes 12 | The X Mission 13 | The Christmas Story 14 | 1969—The Year of Apollo 15 | SimSup Wins the Final Round 16 | "We Copy You Down, Eagle" 17 | "What the Hell Was That?" 18 | The Age of Aquarius 19 | Coming Home 20 | Shepard's Return 21 | What Do You Do After the Moon?

The overall mission responsibility now rested clearly with Chris Kraft, his flight directors, and the remote site CapComs. Slayton sent his astronauts to the remote sites as observers for one final mission. Hunter transferred to Goddard Space Flight Center and performed as the Madrid tracking station manager during Apollo. Hunter had fought the battle and lost, but he helped to win the war for Flight Control. 7 WHITE FLIGHT As we celebrated the success of Grissom and Young on Gemini 3, the Russians were also celebrating. We would soon learn that five days earlier, Lieutenant Colonel Aleksei Leonov had become the world’s first space walker, venturing outside the cabin and stepping into the void. On his return Leonov delivered a speech from the top of Lenin’s tomb, flanked by the Kremlin leadership. Leonov predicted that “The time is drawing close when people will pass over from orbital flights around the Earth to interplanetary flights, and will go to the Moon, Mars, and Venus.”

The words of the proclamations are written by one’s peers, the only people who matter in our business. Mine read, Whereas his leadership and inspiration molded the flight control team, which was vital to the first rendezvous, manned lunar exploration, and the study of man, Earth, stars, and technology. Be it resolved that on behalf of the personnel of the Flight Control Division, the color “White” be retired from the list of active flight control teams to forever stand in tribute to “White Flight,” Eugene F. Kranz. My proclamation now joined with those of the pioneer flight directors on the wall of the third-floor Mission Control room at the Johnson Space Center. Over the years other proclamations would be added, including one recognizing the honorary Gray flight director, Bill Tindall. We were all members of the Brotherhood who opened the door to space. EPILOGUE The success of the early American space program was a tribute to the leadership of a politically adept NASA Administrator and a relatively small number of engineers, scientists, and project managers who formed and led NASA in the early years.

pages: 377 words: 115,122

Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking by Susan Cain

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8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, game design, hive mind, index card, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, traveling salesman, Walter Mischel, web application, white flight

“inner scorecard”: Some psychologists would relate Warren Buffett’s self-direction not necessarily to introversion but to a different phenomenon called “internal locus of control.” CHAPTER 8: SOFT POWER 1. Mike Wei: The interviews with Mike Wei and others from Cupertino, related throughout this chapter, were conducted with the author at various stages between 2006 and 2010. 2. article called “The New White Flight”: Suein Hwang, “The New White Flight,” Wall Street Journal, November 19, 2005. 3. 53 were National Merit Scholarship … 27 percent higher than the nationwide average: Monta Vista High School website, as of May 31, 2010. 4. Talking is simply not a focus: Richard C. Levin, “Top of the Class: The Rise of Asia’s Universities,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2010. 5. the San Jose Mercury News ran an article: Sarah Lubman, “East West Teaching Traditions Collide,” San Jose Mercury News, February 23, 1998. 6.

“It’s really Chinese to pursue your own education like that. My mother has the kind of strength that not everyone can see.” By all indications, Mike has made his parents proud. His e-mail username is “A-student,” and he’s just won a coveted spot in Stanford University’s freshman class. He’s the kind of thoughtful, dedicated student that any community would be proud to call its own. And yet, according to an article called “The New White Flight” that ran in the Wall Street Journal just six months previously, white families are leaving Cupertino in droves, precisely because of kids like Mike. They are fleeing the sky-high test scores and awe-inspiring study habits of many Asian-American students. The article said that white parents feared that their kids couldn’t keep up academically. It quoted a student from a local high school: “If you were Asian, you had to confirm you were smart.

Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right by Jennifer Burns

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anti-communist, bank run, barriers to entry, centralized clearinghouse, collective bargaining, creative destruction, desegregation, feminist movement, financial independence, George Gilder, invisible hand, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, lone genius, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, side project, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, union organizing, urban renewal, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog

Rand’s views may be taken as an early iteration of a race-neutral discourse about individual rights that nonetheless had important consequences for federal and state racial policy, particularly in suburbia. Books that explore the discourse surrounding racial issues include Matthew Lassiter, The Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006); Kevin Kruse, White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007); Donald T. Critchlow and Nancy MacLean, Debating the American Conservative Movement: 1945 to the Present (New York: Rowman and Little. eld, 2009). 43. For details on the JBS, see Donald T. Critchlow, The Conservative Ascendancy: How the GOP Right Made Political History (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 56–59; Jonathan M.

Goldwater’s success was once understood to have inspired Richard Nixon’s Southern Strategy, . first articulated in Kevin Phillips, The Emerging Republican Majority (New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1969), but the importance of the Southern Strategy has been questioned by Matthew Lassiter, who suggests it is better understood as a suburban strategy (Lassiter, The Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South). Byron Schafer and Richard Johnston, The End of Southern Exceptionalism: Class, Race, and Partisan Change in the Postwar South (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), make a similar argument. Other books that engage this critical question include Kruse, White Flight, 252–55; Thomas B. Edsell and Mary Edsell, Chain Reaction: The Impact of Race, Rights, and Taxes on American Politics (New York: Norton, 1991); Jason Sokol, There Goes My Everything: White Southerners in the Age of Civil Rights 1945–1975 (New York: Knopf, 2006), 272–75; Dan Carter, The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, The Origins of the New Conservatism, and The Transformation of American Politics (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000); Michael Flamm, Law and Order: Street Crime, Civil Unrest, and the Crisis of Liberalism in the 1960s (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005); Joseph Lowndes, From the New Deal to the New Right: Race and the Southern Origins of Modern Conservatism (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008); Joseph Crespino, In Search of Another Country: Mississippi and Conservative Counterrevolution (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007); Rick Perlstein, Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America (New York: Scribner, 2008). 48.

“The Conservative Youth Movement: A Study in Right Wing Political Culture in Activism, 1950–1980.” PhD diss., University of Virginia, 2001. Kresge, Stephen, and Leif Wenar, eds. Hayek on Hayek: An Autobiographical Dialogue. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994. Kripal, Jeffrey J. Esalen: America and the Religion of No Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. Kruse, Kevin. White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007. Kuklick, Bruce. The Rise of American Philosophy: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1860–1930. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977. Kyle, Richard. The New Age Movement in American Culture. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1995. Lassiter, Matthew. The Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South.

pages: 284 words: 85,643

What's the Matter with White People by Joan Walsh

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, full employment, global village, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, mass immigration, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban decay, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

It wasn’t just Chicago; the entire country was learning that the civil rights revolution wasn’t going to stop with voting rights in the South. Undoing the legacy of racism and segregation required big change in the North as well. Fair housing laws and school busing orders provoked a huge backlash, as whites resisted integration—sometimes violently, as in Chicago, and sometimes stealthily, with the destructive guerrilla tactic known as “white flight.” Those efforts at integration were necessary, however painful. Once again, though, they had the greatest impact on the whites who had the least, who felt that their piece of the American Dream was already so small, they shouldn’t be asked to share it. For the most part, the politicians and the judges who imposed housing and busing laws didn’t live in the neighborhoods they were changing. King’s Chicago defeat emboldened a growing Black Power movement that was tiring of the preacher’s message of nonviolence and integration.

Bush on Moynihan on Obama on War on Poverty and Wilson on Union League Club United Association of Colored Waiters United Auto Workers United Farm Workers United Federation of Teachers (UFT) University of California, enrollment of University of Wisconsin–Madison Urban Strategies Council US Chamber of Commerce USDA, Sherrod and “vast right-wing conspiracy” Vietnam War Virginia, slave codes of Volcker, Paul Von Brunn, James Von Drehle, David voter registration, same-day Voting Rights Act Wages of Whiteness, The (Roediger) Wagner, Robert Waldman, Michael Walker, Scott Wallace, George Wallace, Gerald Wall Street Journal Walsh, Connie (uncle) Walsh, John Patrick (“Cosmas Maurice”) (father) alcoholism of biographical information death of on Hard Hat Riots Long Island lifestyle of marriage of on New York City of 1960s/1970s views on Carter views on Nixon Walsh, Gene (uncle) Walsh, Joan biographical information Human Services Committee (California State Assembly) work of marriage of Salon television appearances by (See also individual names of television programs and networks) Urban Strategies Council work of writing career of See also individual names of family members Walsh, Joan (black Jamaican woman) Walsh-DeVries, Nora (daughter) Walters, Ron War on Poverty funding for The Other America (Harrington) and poverty rate change from 1970s to present Washington, George Washington, Harold Washington Post Waters, Maxine Watts (Los Angeles race riots, 1960s) Webster, Jack Weinstein, James West, Cornel West, Kanye West Indies, slavery and Weyrich, Paul White, Walter White, William Allen whites critics of Obama poverty rates and projected as minority population “white flight” “whiteness studies” “white privilege” See also race relations William H. Sadlier Williams, Maggie Wilson, Joe Wilson, William Julius Winner Take All Politics (Hacker, Pierson) Wirtz, W. Willard Wisconsin 1970s lifestyle in Walker and public workers Wolfe, Tom Wood, Fernando Wright, Rev. Jeremiah X, Malcolm Zandi, Mark Zeidler, Frank

Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

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Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, linked data, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

You can see this already in the statistics: 22% of women in the UK say that they don’t expect to have children and 44% of American adults are single (up from 9% in the mid-1950s). Home alone The number of urban singles is driving everything from a growth in late-night convenience retailing (for example buying a single portion of chicken fillet at 1 a.m.) to how the tables and chairs are laid out in your local McDonald’s. Reasons for this urban renaissance are various. Twenty years ago it seemed as though everyone was moving out of the cities. In the US the term “white flight” was coined to describe white, middle-class families fleeing inner-city crime and grime to start new lives in the suburbs. Nowadays the reverse is happening. Known as boomerang migration, singles and childless couples are flooding back into cities like New York, London and Melbourne because that’s where the action is and the commute isn’t. Indeed, by the year 2050 if this trend continues, most inner cities will be made up almost entirely of rich singles, wealthy families and gay couples with high disposable incomes and liberal political persuasions.

A 311 Index ‘O’ Garage 170 3D printers 56 accelerated education 57 accidents 159, 161–6, 173, 246 ACNielsen 126 adaptive cruise control 165 Adeg Aktiv 50+ 208 advertising 115–16, 117, 119 Africa 70, 89, 129, 174, 221, 245, 270, 275, 290, 301 ageing 1, 10, 54, 69, 93, 139, 147–8, 164, 188, 202, 208, 221, 228–9, 237, 239, 251, 261, 292, 295, 297–8 airborne networks 56 airlines 272 allergies 196–7, 234, 236 Alliance Against Urban 4x4s 171 alternative energy 173 alternative futures viii alternative medicine 244–5 alternative technology 151 amateur production 111–12 Amazon 32, 113–14, 121 American Apparel 207 American Express 127–8 androids 55 Angola 77 anti-ageing drugs 231, 237 anti-ageing foods 188 anti-ageing surgery 2, 237 antibiotics 251 anxiety 10, 16, 30, 32, 36, 37, 128, 149, 179, 184, 197, 199, 225, 228, 243, 251, 252, 256, 263, 283–4, 295–6, 300, 301, 305 Apple 61, 115, 121, 130, 137–8, 157 Appleyard, Bryan 79 Argentina 210 Armamark Corporation 193 artificial intelliegence 22, 40, 44, 82 131, 275, 285–6, 297, 300 Asda 136, 137 Asia 11, 70, 78, 89, 129, 150, 174, 221, 280, 290, 292 Asimov, Isaac 44 Asos.com 216 asthma 235 auditory display software 29 Australia 20–21, 72–3, 76, 92, 121, 145, 196, 242, 246, 250, 270, 282 Austria 208 authenticity 32, 37, 179, 194, 203–11 authoritarianism 94 automated publishing machine (APM) 114 automation 292 automotive industry 154–77 B&Q 279 baby boomers 41, 208 bacterial factories 56 Bahney, Anna 145 Bahrain 2 baking 27, 179, 195, 199 Bangladesh 2 bank accounts, body double 132 banknotes 29, 128 banks 22, 123, 135–8, 150, 151 virtual 134 Barnes and Noble 114 bartering 151 BBC 25, 119 Become 207 Belgium 238 313 314 benriya 28 Berlusconi, Silvio 92 Best Buy 223 biofuel 64 biomechatronics 56 biometric identification 28, 35, 52, 68, 88, 132 bionic body parts 55 Biosphere Expeditions 259 biotechnology 40, 300 blended families 20 blogs 103, 107, 109, 120 Blurb 113 BMW 289 board games 225 body double bank accounts 132 body parts bionic 55 replacement 2, 188, 228 Bolivia 73 Bollywood 111 books 29, 105, 111–25 boomerang kids 145 brain transplants 231 brain-enhancing foods 188 Brazil 2, 84, 89, 173, 247, 254, 270, 290 Burger King 184 business 13, 275–92 Bust-Up 189 busyness 27, 195, 277 Calvin, Bill 45 Canada 63, 78, 240 cancer 251 car sharing 160, 169, 176 carbon credits 173 carbon footprints 255 carbon taxes 76, 172 cars classic 168–9 driverless 154–5 flying 156, 165 hydrogen-powered 12, 31, 157, 173 pay-as-you-go 167–8 self-driving 165 cascading failure 28 cash 126–7, 205 cellphone payments 129, 213 cellphones 3, 25, 35, 51, 53, 120, 121, FUTURE FILES 129, 156, 161, 251 chicken, Christian 192 childcare robots 57 childhood 27, 33–4, 82–3 children’s database 86 CHIME nations (China, India, Middle East) 2, 10, 81 China 2, 10, 11, 69–72, 75–81, 88, 92–3, 125, 137, 139–40, 142, 151, 163, 174–5, 176, 200, 222, 228, 247, 260, 270–71, 275, 279, 295, 302 choice 186–7 Christian chicken 192 Christianity, muscular 16, 73 Chrysler 176 cinema 110–11, 120 Citibank 29, 128 citizen journalism 103–4, 108 City Car Club 168 Clarke, Arthur C. 58–9 Clarke’s 187 classic cars 168–9 climate change 4, 11, 37, 43, 59, 64, 68, 74, 77–9, 93, 150, 155, 254, 257, 264, 298–9 climate-controlled buildings 254, 264 cloning 38 human 23, 249 CNN 119 coal 176 Coca-Cola 78, 222–3 co-creation 111–12, 119 coins 29, 128, 129 collective intelligence 45–6 Collins, Jim 288 comfort eating 200 Comme des Garçons 216 community 36 compassion 120 competition in financial services 124–5 low-cost 292 computers disposable 56 intelligent 23, 43 organic 56 wearable 56, 302 computing 3, 33, 43, 48, 82 connectivity 3, 10, 11, 15, 91, 120, Index 233, 261, 275–6, 281, 292, 297, 299 conscientious objection taxation 86 contactless payments 123, 150 continuous partial attention 53 control 36, 151, 225 convenience 123, 178–9, 184, 189, 212, 223, 224 Coren, Stanley 246 corporate social responsibility 276, 282, 298 cosmetic neurology 250 Costa Rica 247 Craig’s List 102 creativity 11, 286; see also innovation credit cards 141–3, 150 crime 86–9 forecasting 86–7 gene 57, 86 Croatia 200 Crowdstorm 207 Cuba 75 cultural holidays 259, 273 culture 11, 17–37 currency, global 127, 151 customization 56, 169, 221–2, 260 cyberterrorism 65, 88–9 Cyc 45 cynicism 37 DayJet 262 death 237–9 debt 123–4, 140–44, 150 defense 63, 86 deflation 139 democracy 94 democratization of media 104, 108, 113 demographics 1, 10, 21, 69, 82, 93, 202, 276, 279–81, 292, 297–8 Denmark 245 department stores 214 deregulation 11, 3 Destiny Health 149 detox 200 Detroit Project 171 diagnosis 232 remote 228 digital downloads 121 evaporation 25 315 immortality 24–5 instant gratification syndrome 202 Maoism 47 money 12, 29, 123, 126–7, 129, 132, 138, 150, 191 nomads 20, 283 plasters 241 privacy 25, 97, 108 readers 121 digitalization 37, 292 Dinner by Design 185 dirt holidays 236 discount retailers 224 Discovery Health 149 diseases 2, 228 disintegrators 57 Disney 118–19 disposable computers 56 divorce 33, 85 DNA 56–7, 182 database 86 testing, compulsory 86 do-it-yourself dinner shops 185–6 dolls 24 doorbells 32 downshifters 20 Dream Dinners 185 dream fulfillment 148 dressmaking 225 drink 178–200 driverless cars 154–5 drugs anti-ageing 231, 237 performance-improving 284–5 Dubai 264, 267, 273 dynamic pricing 260 E Ink 115 e-action 65 Earthwatch 259 Eastern Europe 290 eBay 207 e-books 29, 37, 60, 114, 115, 302 eco-luxe resorts 272 economic collapse 2, 4, 36, 72, 221, 295 economic protectionism 10, 15, 72, 298 economy travel 272 316 Ecuador 73 education 15, 18, 82–5, 297 accelerated 57 lifelong learning 290 Egypt 2 electricity shortages 301 electronic camouflage 56 electronic surveillance 35 Elephant 244 email 18–19, 25, 53–4, 108 embedded intelligence 53, 154 EMF radiation 251 emotional capacity of robots 40, 60 enclosed resorts 273 energy 72, 75, 93 alternative 173 nuclear 74 solar 74 wind 74 enhancement surgery 249 entertainment 34, 121 environment 4, 10, 11, 14, 64, 75–6, 83, 93, 155, 171, 173, 183, 199, 219–20, 252, 256–7, 271, 292, 301 epigenetics 57 escapism 16, 32–3, 121 Estonia 85, 89 e-tagging 129–30 e-therapy 242 ethical bankruptcy 35 ethical investing 281 ethical tourism 259 ethics 22, 24, 41, 53, 78, 86, 132, 152, 194, 203, 213, 232, 238, 249–50, 258, 276, 281–2, 298–9 eugenics 252 Europe 11, 70, 72, 81, 91, 141, 150, 174–5, 182, 190, 192, 209 European Union 15, 139 euthanasia 238, 251 Everquest 33 e-voting 65 experience 224 extended financial families 144 extinction timeline 9 Facebook 37, 97, 107 face-recognition doors 57 fakes 32 family 36, 37 FUTURE FILES family loans 145 fantasy-related industries 32 farmaceuticals 179, 182 fast food 178, 183–4 fat taxes 190 fear 10, 34, 36, 38, 68, 150, 151, 305 female-only spaces 210–11, 257 feminization 84 financial crisis 38, 150–51, 223, 226, 301 financial services 123–53, 252 trends 123–5 fish farming 181 fixed-price eating 200 flashpacking 273 flat-tax system 85–6 Florida, Richard 36, 286, 292 flying cars 165 food 69–70, 72, 78–9, 162, 178–201 food anti-ageing 188 brain-enhancing 188 fast 178, 183–4 functional 179 growing your own 179, 192, 195 history 190–92 passports 200 slow 178, 193 tourism 273 trends 178–80 FoodExpert ID 182 food-miles 178, 193, 220 Ford 169, 176, 213, 279–80 forecasting 49 crime 86–7 war 49 Forrester Research 132 fractional ownership 168, 175, 176, 225 France 103, 147, 170, 189, 198, 267 Friedman, Thomas 278–9, 292 FriendFinder 32 Friends Reunited 22 frugality 224 functional food 179 Furedi, Frank 68 gaming 32–3, 70, 97, 111–12, 117, 130, 166, 262 Gap 217 Index gardening 27, 148 gas 176 GE Money 138, 145 gendered medicine 244–5 gene silencing 231 gene, crime 86 General Motors 157, 165 Generation X 41, 281 Generation Y 37, 41, 97, 106, 138, 141–2, 144, 202, 208, 276, 281, 292 generational power shifts 292 Genes Reunited 35 genetic enhancement 40, 48 history 35 modification 31, 182 testing 221 genetics 3, 10, 45, 251–2 genomic medicine 231 Germany 73, 147, 160, 170, 204–5, 216–17, 261, 267, 279, 291 Gimzewski, James 232 glamping 273 global currency 127 global warming 4, 47, 77, 93, 193, 234 globalization 3, 10, 15–16, 36–7, 63–7, 72–3, 75, 81–2, 88, 100, 125, 139, 143, 146, 170, 183, 189, 193–5, 221, 224, 226, 233–4, 247–8, 263, 275, 278–80, 292, 296, 299 GM 176 Google 22, 61, 121, 137, 293 gout 235 government 14, 18, 36, 63–95, 151 GPS 3, 15, 26, 50, 88, 138, 148, 209, 237, 262, 283 Grameen Bank 135 gravity tubes 57 green taxes 76 Greenpeace 172 GRIN technologies (genetics, robotics, internet, nanotechnology) 3, 10, 11 growing your own food 178, 192, 195 Gucci 221 Gulf States 125, 260, 268 H&M 217 habitual shopping 212 Handy, Charles 278 317 Happily 210 happiness 63–4, 71–2, 146, 260 health 15, 82, 178–9, 199 health monitoring 232, 236, 241 healthcare 2, 136, 144, 147–8, 154, 178–9, 183–4, 189–91, 228–53, 298; see also medicine trends 214–1534–7 Heinberg, Richard 74 Helm, Dieter 77 Heritage Foods 195 hikikomori 18 hive mind 45 holidays 31, 119; see also tourism holidays at home 255 cultural 259 dirt 236 Hollywood 33, 111–12 holographic displays 56 Home Equity Share 145 home baking 225 home-based microgeneration 64 home brewing 225 honesty 152 Hong Kong 267 hospitals 228, 241–3, 266 at home 228, 238, 240–42 hotels 19, 267 sleep 266 human cloning 23, 249 Hungary 247 hybrid humans 22 hydrogen power 64 hydrogen-powered cars 12, 31, 157, 173 Hyperactive Technologies 184 Hyundai 170 IBM 293 identities, multiple 35, 52 identity 64, 71 identity theft 88, 132 identity verification, two-way 132 immigration 151–2, 302 India 2, 10, 11, 70–72, 76, 78–9, 81, 92, 111, 125, 135, 139, 163, 174–5, 176, 247, 249–50, 254, 260, 270, 275, 279, 302 indirect taxation 86 318 individualism 36 Indonesia 2, 174 industrial robots 42 infinite content 96–7 inflation 151 information overlead 97, 120, 159, 285; see also too much information innovation 64, 81–2, 100, 175, 222, 238, 269, 277, 286–8, 291, 297, 299 innovation timeline 8 instant gratification 213 insurance 123, 138, 147–50, 154, 167, 191, 236, 250 pay-as-you-go 167 weather 264 intelligence 11 embedded 53, 154 implants 229 intelligent computers 23, 43 intelligent night vision 162–3 interaction, physical 22, 25, 97, 110, 118, 133–4, 215, 228, 243, 276, 304 interactive media 97, 105 intergenerational mortgages 140, 144–5 intermediaries 123, 135 internet 3, 10, 11, 17–18, 25, 68, 103, 108, 115–17, 124, 156, 240–41, 261, 270, 283, 289, 305 failure 301 impact on politics 93–4 sensory 56 interruption science 53 iPills 240 Iran 2, 69 Ishiguro, Hiroshi 55 Islamic fanaticism 16 Italy 92, 170, 198–9 iTunes 115, 130; see also Apple Japan 1, 18, 26, 28–9, 54–5, 63, 80–81, 114, 121, 128–9, 132, 140, 144–5, 147, 174, 186, 189, 192, 196, 198, 200, 209–10, 223, 240, 260, 264, 271, 279, 291 jetpacks 60 job security 292 journalism 96, 118 journalism, citizen 103–4, 107 joy-makers 57 FUTURE FILES Kaboodle 207 Kapor, Mitchell 45 Kenya 128 keys 28–9 Kindle 60, 121 Kramer, Peter 284 Kuhn, Thomas 281 Kurzweil, Ray 45 Kuwait 2 labor migration 290–91 labor shortages 3, 80–81, 289–90 Lanier, Jaron 47 laser shopping 212 leisure sickness 238 Let’s Dish 185 Lexus 157 libraries 121 Libya 73 life-caching 24, 107–8 lighting 158, 160 Like.com 216 limb farms 249 limited editions 216–17 live events 98, 110, 304 localization 10, 15–16, 116, 128, 170, 178, 189, 193, 195, 215, 220, 222–3, 224, 226, 255, 270, 297 location tagging 88 location-based marketing 116 longevity 188–9, 202 Longman, Philip 71 low cost 202, 219–22 luxury 202, 221, 225, 256, 260, 262, 265–6, 272 machinamas 112 machine-to-machine communication 56 marketing 115–16 location-based 116 now 116 prediction 116 Marks & Spencer 210 Maslow, Abraham 305–6 masstigue 223 materialism 37 Mayo Clinic 243 McDonald’s 130, 168, 180, 184 McKinsey 287 Index meaning, search for 16, 259, 282, 290, 305–6 MECU 132 media 96–122 democratization of 104, 108, 115 trends 96–8 medical outsourcing 247–8 medical tourism 2, 229, 247 medicine 188, 228–53; see also healthcare alternative 243–4 gendered 244–5 genomic 231 memory 229, 232, 239–40 memory loss 47 memory pills 231, 240 memory recovery 2, 228–9, 239 memory removal 29–30, 29, 240 Menicon 240 mental health 199 Meow Mix 216 Merriman, Jon 126 metabolomics 56 meta-materials 56 Metro 204–5 Mexico 2 micromedia 101 micro-payments 130, 150 Microsoft 137, 147, 293 Middle East 10, 11, 70, 81, 89, 119, 125, 129, 139, 174–5, 268, 301 migration 3, 11, 69–70, 78, 82, 234, 275, 290–91 boomerang 20 labor 290–91 Migros 215 military recruitment 69 military vehicles 158–9 mind-control toys 38 mindwipes 57 Mitsubishi 198, 279 mobile payments 123, 150 Modafinil 232 molecular biology 231 monetization 118 money 123–52 digital 12, 29, 123, 126–7, 129, 132, 138, 150, 191 monitoring, remote 154, 168, 228, 242 monolines 135, 137 319 mood sensitivity 41, 49, 154, 158, 164, 187–8 Morgan Stanley 127 mortality bonds 148 Mozilla Corp. 289 M-PESA 129 MTV 103 multigenerational families 20 multiple identities 35, 52 Murdoch, Rupert 109 muscular Christianity 16, 73 music industry 121 My-Food-Phone 242 MySpace 22, 25, 37, 46, 97, 107, 113 N11 nations (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, South Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Turkey, Vietnam) 2 nanoelectronics 56 nanomedicine 32 nanotechnology 3, 10, 23, 40, 44–5, 50, 157, 183, 232, 243, 286, 298 napcaps 56 narrowcasting 109 NASA 25, 53 nationalism 16, 70, 72–3, 139, 183, 298, 302 natural disasters 301 natural resources 2, 4, 11, 64, 298–9 Nearbynow 223 Nestlé 195 Netherlands 238 NetIntelligence 283 networkcar.com 154 networks 28, 166, 288 airborne 56 neural nets 49 neuronic whips 57 neuroscience 33, 48 Neville, Richard 58–9 New Economics Foundation 171 New Zealand 265, 269 newspapers 29, 102–9, 117, 119, 120 Nigeria 2, 73 Nike 23 nimbyism 63 no-frills 224 Nokia 61, 105 Norelift 189 320 Northern Rock 139–40 Norwich Union 167 nostalgia 16, 31–2, 51, 169–70, 179, 183, 199, 203, 225, 303 now marketing 116 nuclear annihilation 10, 91 nuclear energy 74 nutraceuticals 179, 182 Obama, Barack 92–3 obesity 75, 190–92, 199, 250–51 oceanic thermal converters 57 oil 69, 72–3, 93, 151, 174, 176, 272, 273, 301 Oman 2, 270 online relationships 38 organic computers 56 organic food 200, 226 osteoporosis 235 outsourcing 224, 292 Pakistan 2 pandemics 4, 10, 16, 59, 72, 128, 232, 234, 272, 295–7, 301 paper 37 parasite singles 145 passwords 52 pictorial 52 pathogens 233 patient simulators 247 patina 31 patriotism 63, 67, 299 pay-as-you-go cars 167–8 pay-as-you-go insurance 167 payments cellphone 129, 213 contactless 123, 150 micro- 130, 150 mobile 123, 150 pre- 123, 150 PayPal 124, 137 Pearson, Ian 44 performance-improving drugs 284–5 personal restraint 36 personal robots 42 personalization 19, 26, 56, 96–8, 100, 102–3, 106, 108–9, 120, 138, 149, 183, 205–6, 223, 244–5, 262, 267, 269 Peru 73 FUTURE FILES Peters, Tom 280 Pharmaca 244 pharmaceuticals 2, 33, 228, 237 Philippines 2, 212, 290 Philips 114 Philips, Michael 232–3 photographs 108 physical interaction 22, 25, 97, 110, 118, 133–4, 215, 228, 243, 276, 304 physicalization 96–7, 101–2, 106, 110, 120 pictorial passwords 52 piggy banks 151 Pink, Daniel 285 plagiarism 83 polarization 15–16, 285 politics 37, 63–95, 151–2 regional 63 trends 63–5 pop-up retail 216, 224 pornography 31 portability 178, 183–4 power shift eastwards 2, 10–11, 81, 252 Prada 205–6, 216 precision agriculture 181–2 precision healthcare 234–7 prediction marketing 116 predictions 37, 301–2 premiumization 223 pre-payments 123, 150 privacy 3, 15, 41, 50, 88, 154, 165–7, 205, 236, 249, 285, 295 digital 25, 97, 108 Procter & Gamble 105, 280 product sourcing 224 Prosper 124, 135 protectionism 67, 139, 156, 220, 226, 301 economic 10, 15, 72, 299 provenance 178, 193, 226 proximity indicators 32 PruHealth 149 psychological neoteny 52 public ownership 92 public transport 171 purposeful shopping 212 Qatar 2 quality 96–7, 98, 101, 109 Index quantum mechanics 56 quantum wires 56 quiet materials 56 radiation, EMF 251 radio 117 randominoes 57 ranking 34, 83, 109, 116, 134, 207 Ranking Ranqueen 186 reality mining 51 Really Cool Foods 185 rebalancing 37 recession 139–40, 202, 222 recognition 36, 304 refrigerators 197–8 refuge 121 regeneration 233 regional food 200 regional politics 63 regionality 178, 192–3 regulation 124, 137, 143 REI 207 Reid, Morris 90 relationships, online 38 religion 16, 58 remote diagnosis 228 remote monitoring 154, 168, 228, 242 renting 225 reputation 34–5 resistance to technology 51 resorts, enclosed 273 resource shortages 11, 15, 146, 155, 178, 194, 254, 300 resources, natural 2, 4, 11, 64, 73–4, 143, 298–9 respect 36, 304 restaurants 186–8 retail 20–21, 202–27, 298 pop-up 216, 224 stealth 215 theater 214 trends 202–3 Revkin, Andy 77 RFID 3, 24, 50, 121, 126, 149, 182, 185, 192, 196, 205 rickets 232 risk 15, 124, 134, 138, 141, 149–50, 162, 167, 172, 191, 265, 299–300, 303 Ritalin 232 321 road pricing 166 Robertson, Peter 49 robogoats 55 robot department store 209 Robot Rules 44 robotic assistants 54, 206 concierges 268 financial advisers 131–2 lobsters 55 pest control 57 soldiers 41, 55, 60 surgery 35, 41, 249 robotics 3, 10, 41, 44–5, 60, 238, 275, 285–6, 292, 297 robots 41, 54–5, 131, 237, 249 childcare 57 emotional capacity of 40, 60 industrial 42 personal 42 security 209 therapeutic 41, 54 Russia 2, 69, 72, 75, 80, 89, 92–3, 125, 174, 232, 254, 270, 295, 302 safety 32, 36, 151, 158–9, 172–3, 182, 192, 196 Sainsbury’s 215 Salt 187 sanctuary tourism 273 satellite tracking 166–7 Saudi Arabia 2, 69 Schwartz, Barry 186 science 13, 16, 40–62, 300 interruption 53 trends 40–42 scramble suits 57 scrapbooking 25, 108, 225 Sears Roebuck 137 seasonality 178, 193–4 second-hand goods 224 Second Life 133, 207–8 securitization 124, 140 security 16, 31, 151 security robots 209 self-driving cars 165 self-medication 242 self-publishing 103, 113–14 self-reliance 35, 75 self-repairing roads 57 322 self-replicating machines 23, 44 Selfridges 214 sensor motes 15, 50, 196 sensory internet 56 Sharia-based investment 125 Shop24 209 shopping 202–27 habitual 212 laser 212 malls 211–5 purposeful 212 slow 213 social 207 Shopping 2.0 224 short-wave scalpels 57 silicon photonics 56 simplicity 169–70, 179, 186, 202, 218, 224, 226, 272 Singapore 241 single-person households 19–20, 202–3, 208–9, 221, 244, 298, 304 skills shortage 293, 302 sky shields 57 sleep 159–60, 188, 228, 231, 246–7, 265 sleep debt 96, 266 sleep hotels 266 sleep surrogates 57 slow food 178, 193 slow shopping 213 slow travel 273 smart devices 26–7, 28, 32, 35, 44, 50, 56, 57, 164, 206, 207 smart dust 3, 15, 50, 196 smartisans 20 Smartmart 209 snakebots 55 social networks 97, 107, 110, 120, 133, 217, 261 social shopping 207 society 13, 15–16, 17–37 trends 15–16 Sodexho 193 solar energy 74 Sony 114, 121 South Africa 84, 149, 242 South America 82, 270 South Korea 2, 103, 128–9 space ladders 56 space mirrors 47 space tourism 271, 273 FUTURE FILES space tugs 57 speed 164, 202, 209, 245, 296–7 spirituality 16, 22, 282, 298, 306 spot knowledge 47 spray-on surgical gloves 57 St James’s Ethics Centre 282 stagflation 139 starch-based plastics 64 stealth retail 215 stealth taxation 86 Sterling, Bruce 55 storytelling 203 Strayer, David 161 street signs 162–3 stress 32, 96, 235, 243, 245–6, 258–9, 265, 257–9, 275, 277, 283–5 stress-control clothing 57 stupidity 151, 302 Stylehive 207 Sudan 73 suicide tourism 236 Super Suppers 185 supermarkets 135–6, 184–6, 188, 191–2, 194, 202–3, 212, 215, 218–19, 224, 229 surgery 2, 31 anti-ageing 2, 237 enhancement 249 Surowiecki, James 45 surveillance 35, 41 sustainability 4, 37, 74, 181, 193–5, 203, 281, 288, 298–9 Sweden 84 swine flu 38, 251, 272 Switzerland 168, 210, 215 synthetic biology 56 Taco Bell 184 Tactical Numerical Deterministic Model 49 tagging, location 86, 88 Taiwan 81 talent, war for 275, 279, 293; see also labor shortages Target 216 Tasmania 267 Tata Motors 174, 176 taxation 85–6, 92, 93 carbon 76, 172 conscientious objection 86 Index fat 190 flat 85–6 green 76 indirect 86 stealth 86 Tchibo 217 technology 3, 14–16, 18, 22, 26, 28, 32, 37, 40–62, 74–5, 82–3, 96, 119, 132, 147–8, 154, 157, 160, 162, 165–7, 178, 182, 195–8, 208, 221, 229, 237, 242–3, 249, 256, 261, 265–6, 268, 275–6, 280, 283–4, 292, 296–7, 300 refuseniks 30, 51, 97 trends 40–42 telemedicine 228, 238, 242 telepathy 29 teleportation 56 television 21, 96, 108, 117, 119 terrorism 67, 91, 108, 150, 262–3, 267, 272, 295–6, 301 Tesco 105, 135–6, 185, 206, 215, 219, 223 Thailand 247, 290 therapeutic robots 41, 54 thermal imaging 232 things that won’t change 10, 303–6 third spaces 224 ThisNext 207 thrift 224 Tik Tok Easy Shop 209 time scarcity 30, 96, 102, 178, 184–6, 218, 255 time shifting 96, 110, 116 time stamps 50 timeline, extinction 9 timeline, innovation 8 timelines 7 tired all the time 246 tobacco industry 251 tolerance 120 too much choice (TMC) 29, 202, 218–19 too much information (TMI) 29, 51, 53, 202, 229; see also information overload tourism 254–74 cultural 273 ethical 259 food 273 323 local 273 medical 2, 229, 247 sanctuary 273 space 271, 273 suicide 238 tribal 262 Tourism Concern 259 tourist quotas 254, 271 Toyota 48–9, 157 toys, mind-control 38 traceability 195 trading down 224 transparency 3, 15, 143, 152, 276, 282, 299 transport 15, 154–77, 298 public 155, 161 trends 154–6 transumerism 223 travel 2, 3, 11, 148, 254–74 economy 272 luxury 272 slow 273 trends 254–6 trend maps 6–7 trends 1, 5–7, 10, 13 financial services 123–5 food 178–80 healthcare 228–9 media 96–8 politics 63–5 retail 202–3 science and technology 40–42 society 15–16 transport 154–6 travel 254–6 work 275–7 tribal tourism 262 tribalism 15–16, 63, 127–8, 183, 192, 220, 260 trust 82, 133, 137, 139, 143, 192, 203, 276, 282–3 tunnels 171 Turing test 45 Turing, Alan 44 Turkey 2, 200, 247 Twitter 60, 120 two-way identity verification 132 UAE 2 UFOs 58 324 UK 19–20, 72, 76, 84, 86, 90–91, 100, 102–3, 105, 128–9, 132, 137, 139–42, 147–9, 150, 163, 167–8, 170–71, 175, 185, 195–6, 199, 200, 206, 210, 214–16, 238, 259, 267–8, 278–9, 284, 288 uncertainty 16, 30, 34, 52, 172, 199, 246, 263, 300, 303 unemployment 151 Unilever 195 University of Chicago 245–6 urban rental companies 176 urbanization 11, 18–19, 78, 84, 155, 233 Uruguay 200 US 1, 11, 19–21, 23, 55–6, 63, 67, 69, 72, 75, 77, 80–83, 86, 88–90, 92, 104–5, 106, 121, 129–33, 135, 139–42, 144, 147, 149, 150, 151, 162, 167, 169–71, 174, 185, 190–3, 195, 205–6, 209, 211, 213, 216, 218, 220, 222–3, 237–8, 240–8, 250, 260, 262, 267–8, 275, 279–80, 282–4, 287, 291 user-generated content (UGC) 46, 97, 104, 289 utility 224 values 36, 152 vending machines 209 Venezuela 69, 73 verbal signatures 132 VeriChip 126 video on demand 96 Vietnam 2, 290 Vino 100 113 Virgin Atlantic 261 virtual adultery 33 banks 134 economy 130–31 protests 65 reality 70 sex 32 stores 206–8 vacations 32, 261 worlds 157, 213, 255, 261, 270, 305 Vocation Vacations 259–60 Vodafone 137 voice recognition 41 voice-based internet search 56 voicelifts 2, 237 FUTURE FILES Volkswagen 175 voluntourism 259 Volvo 164 voting 3, 68, 90–91 Walgreens 244 Wal-Mart 105, 136–7, 215, 219–20, 223, 244, 282 war 68–9, 72 war for talent 275, 279; see also labor shortages war forecasting 49 water 69–70, 74, 77–9, 199 wearable computers 55 weather 64 weather insurance 264 Web 2.0 93, 224 Weinberg, Peter 125 wellbeing 2, 183, 188, 199 white flight 20 Wikipedia 46, 60, 104 wild swimming 273 Wilson, Edward O. 74 wind energy 74 wine producers 200 wisdom of idiots 47 Wizard 145 work 275–94 trends 275–94 work/life balance 64, 71, 260, 277, 289, 293 worldphone 19 xenophobia 16, 63 YouTube 46, 103, 107, 112 Zara 216–17 Zipcar 167 Zopa 124, 134

pages: 441 words: 96,534

Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan, Seth Solomonow

autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

Instead of designing streets from afar and focusing on moving car traffic, planners need only look to the street and follow its use to find the solutions for its problems. “There is no logic that can be superimposed on the city,” Jacobs wrote more than half a century ago; “people make it, and it is to them, not buildings, that we must fit our plans.” But instead of launching an urban renaissance, Death and Life was accompanied by years of urban decay and depopulation. White flight brought urban disinvestment as millions of city dwellers fled to suburbs, taking their taxes with them. Combined with the loss of industry and manufacturing within cities, the mass abandonment starved transportation infrastructure and slowed development within cities. Some cities fought back against highway projects as New York did and created new transit systems—and called on the federal government to take a bigger role in fostering public transportation.

See Traffic fatalities Walking lanes, 76, 77, 77 WalkNYC, 129, 130, 130, 131, 131–32, 133, 134 Wall Street, 73, 137 Wall Street Journal, 178, 201–2 Washington Post, 146 Washington Square Park, 12, 281 Wayfinding maps, in New York City, 129–32, 130, 131, 133, 134 Weekend Walks, 123 Weiner, Anthony, 174 Weinshall, Iris, 168, 171–72, 265 Wenceslas Square (Prague), 3 West Side Highway, 14–15 White, Paul Steely, 8, 177, 230 White flight, 10 Wickquasgeck Path, 73 Wider roads, 50–52, 54, 63–64 Wiley-Schwartz, Andy, 38, 89, 124 Williamsburg Bridge, 44 Willis Avenue Bridge, 144–45 Wolfson, Howard, 176, 181 Woloch, David, 163 Working Families Party, 238 Works Progress Administration (WPA), 15 World Health Organization (WHO), 228 World’s Fair (1939), 17 World’s Fair (1964), 233 Y Yanev, Bojidar, 271 Z Zipcar, 184, 284–85 “Zip” generation, 183–84, 284–85 Zip lines, during Summer Streets, 122 Looking for more?

pages: 123 words: 32,382

Grouped: How Small Groups of Friends Are the Key to Influence on the Social Web by Paul Adams

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Airbnb, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, information retrieval, invention of the telegraph, planetary scale, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, sentiment analysis, social web, statistical model, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, white flight

In their book Connected: The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives (Little, Brown, 2009), Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler draw on a large body of research to illustrate how we are influenced by our friends’ friends’ friends. Examples they use include giving up smoking and losing weight. 2. See Albert-László Barabási’s book Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means (Plume, 2003). 3. See the research paper “White flight in networked publics? How race and class shaped American teen engagement with MySpace and Facebook,” first published in 2009 by danah boyd. 4. For an in depth discussion on the structure of our social network and how it’s shaped by evolution, see the 2010 book How Many Friends Does One Person Need? by Robin Dunbar. Nicholas Christakis and James Fowler have also studied this in modern groups.

pages: 391 words: 22,799

To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton

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affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, liberation theology, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration

The€Impact of Race, Rights, and Taxes on American Politics (New York: Norton, 1991); Bruce J. Schulman, From Cotton Belt to Sun Belt: Federal Policy, Economic Development, and the Transformation of the South, 1938–1980 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991); Thomas Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996). More recently, see Kevin M. Kruse, White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007); Matthew D. Lassiter, The Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2007); and Robert O. Self, American Babylon: Race and the Struggle for Postwar Oakland (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005); and see below at note 8. Ira Katznelson, When Affirmative Action Was White: An Untold History of Racial Inequality in Twentieth Century America (New York: W.W.

Lisa McGirr, Suburban Warriors: The Origins of the New American Right (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001); Thomas Allan Scott, Cobb County, Georgia, and the Origins of the Suburban South: A Twentieth-Century History (Marietta, GA: Cobb Landmarks and Historical Society, 2003); Philip Scranton, The Second Wave: Southern Industrialization from the 1940s to the 1970s (Athens: The University of Georgia Press, 2001); Jeff Sharlet, “Soldiers of Christ I: Inside America’s Most Powerful Megachurch,” Harper’s, May 2005, 41–54. 16. On Arkansas, see Jeannie Whayne, “Dramatic Departures: Political, Demographic, and Economic Realignment,” in Arkansas: A Narrative History, Jeannie M. Whayne, et al. (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2002), 372–73; on the national realignment, see Kevin M. Kruse, White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006); Matthew D. Lassiter, The Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006); McGirr, Suburban Warriors. 17. Bethany E. Moreton, “The Soul of the Service Economy: Wal-Mart and the Making of Christian Free Enterprise” (Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 2006), 47–49. 18.

pages: 177 words: 50,167

The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics by John B. Judis

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, Winter of Discontent

It is not widely recognized, but the IMF illustrates similar brazenness in the current debate on Greece’s debt burden.” Finally, rightwing populist campaigns and groups have held racist or nativist or xenophobic views, but their complaints point to genuine problems. George Wallace’s call for segregation forever was clearly racist, but he was right about the pitfalls of busing children of different races from one urban neighborhood to another. It did result in white flight to the suburbs and was in that sense self-defeating. Trump, Buchanan, the National Front, and the Danish People’s Party have courted nativist sentiments in attacking illegal and legal immigration, but they are right that unskilled immigration has tended to pull down wages and burden the public sector. Writes Cambridge University economist Ha-Joon Chang, “Wages in rich countries are determined more by immigration control than anything else, including any minimum wage legislation.

pages: 181 words: 50,196

The Rich and the Rest of Us by Tavis Smiley

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Corrections Corporation of America, Credit Default Swap, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, ending welfare as we know it, F. W. de Klerk, fixed income, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, job automation, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, mega-rich, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, traffic fines, trickle-down economics, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

Harold Shultz, senior fellow of the study, explains: “There is reason to believe that if a building is in trouble, other owners are dissuaded to make investment in their properties because they fear that it is not worth the investment.” When property owners sense decline, they stop investing, and maintenance of their properties goes by the wayside. City code violations increase, which leads to more foreclosures. Rental rates are lowered for low-income people, and all the social baggage that accompanies poverty invades previously stable neighborhoods. Like in the days of “white flight”—when white Americans exited the nation’s cities based on negative perceptions of declining property values in racially mixed communities that led to self-filling prophecies—today’s foreclosure crisis means that once-promising neighborhoods face the threat of becoming deteriorating slums. President Obama, in his 2012 State of the Union address, announced a federal program to help struggling homeowners avoid foreclosures and save about $3,000 per year on their mortgages.

pages: 261 words: 64,977

Pity the Billionaire: The Unexpected Resurgence of the American Right by Thomas Frank

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, big-box store, bonus culture, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, financial innovation, housing crisis, invisible hand, money market fund, Naomi Klein, obamacare, payday loans, profit maximization, profit motive, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, union organizing, Washington Consensus, white flight, Works Progress Administration

page=2. 12. The story by Amy Gardner ran in the Washington Post on February 18, 2010; the main figure she followed, Representative Rick Boucher of western Virginia, was defeated in November. 13. “57 percent [of whites with no college education] wanted to repeal the health care law—even though they are uninsured at much higher rates than whites with more advanced education.” Ronald Brownstein, “White Flight,” National Journal, January 7, 2011, http://nationaljournal.com/magazine/in-2012-obama-may-need-a-new-coalition-20110105?page=1. See also Brownstein’s article “Populists Versus Managers,” National Journal, December 17, 2010, http://www.nationaljournal.com/magazine/populists-versus-managers-in-the-gop-race-20101217. Chapter 3. Hold the Note and Change the Key 1. “Simply working people”: John M.

pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher

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Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar

In Denver, the trendy Lower Downtown, “LoDo,” neighborhood has emerged amid what was once a red-light district. In Boston, a West Coast development firm is building a twenty-story residential tower in Fort Point, the former industrial district that was the setting for much of the Martin Scorsese movie The Departed. This is, of course, a stark contrast to the destruction and decay that once plagued our cities, which in the ’60s saw street riots, in the ’70s suffered from white flight, and in the ’80s and ’90s experienced an influx of crime, prostitution, and a crack epidemic that ravaged urban areas across our nation. It’s hard to imagine now, but in New York, it wasn’t all that long ago that Times Square was dangerous, prostitutes trolled the Meatpacking District, and Central Park’s Belvedere Castle was boarded up and covered with graffiti. In 1975, the New York Daily News ran the now-famous headline “Ford to City: Drop Dead,” referring to Gerald Ford’s reluctance to bail the city out from bankruptcy and encapsulating a sentiment that our cities weren’t worth saving.

pages: 255 words: 75,172

Sleeping Giant: How the New Working Class Will Transform America by Tamara Draut

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, always be closing, battle of ideas, big-box store, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, full employment, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, payday loans, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional

In 2010, 5.8 million people weren’t allowed to vote because of a criminal conviction, with black Americans more likely to be disenfranchised. In three states—Florida, Virginia, and Kentucky—more than 20 percent of black Americans were disenfranchised.51 Imagine if the cumulative resources spent on the war on drugs had instead been allocated to rebuilding the communities left barren by closing factories and isolated by white flight. Today almost one in twelve black men is behind bars, a staggering loss to families, neighborhoods, and society.52 And for the partners and wives left behind, most of whom are working-class, the challenges of making enough money to get ahead have only intensified with the rise of the bargain-basement economy. Nearly half of all child-care and home care workers have to supplement the incomes they earn from their jobs with public assistance.53 These are the “welfare queens” that Reagan was so fond of demonizing and that President Bill Clinton called to mind in his successful effort to “end welfare as we know it.”

pages: 279 words: 76,796

The Unbanking of America: How the New Middle Class Survives by Lisa Servon

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, basic income, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, employer provided health coverage, financial exclusion, financial independence, financial innovation, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, gig economy, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, late fees, Lyft, M-Pesa, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, Occupy movement, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, precariat, Ralph Nader, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, too big to fail, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor, Zipcar

“It is going through a gradual reinvention,” writes the author, “with restaurants opening, scruffy buildings getting spiffed up, and apartments being built on gap-toothed lots.” But the South Bronx is still the poorest area in the United States. Forty percent of its residents live below the poverty line, and nearly half used food stamps in the year 2010. The federal government’s Home Owners’ Loan Corporation triggered massive white flight from the area when it gave vast sections of the area its lowest rating—a D—in 1937. Home to waves of Polish, Russian, Italian, German, and Irish immigrants through the 1940s, the area flipped from being two-thirds non-Latino white in 1950 to being two-thirds black or Puerto Rican in 1960. In 1969 the New York City welfare department was accused of “dumping” poor black and Puerto Rican families into public housing complexes like Mitchel Houses in the South Bronx, and in that same year the New York City Master Plan deemed 25 percent of the Bronx’s rental units to be “dilapidated or deteriorating.”

pages: 265 words: 74,941

The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work by Richard Florida

banking crisis, big-box store, blue-collar work, car-free, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial innovation, Ford paid five dollars a day, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labour mobility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, total factor productivity, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

The devastation of Detroit may be rooted in the inability of the U.S. auto industry to remain competitive, but the city’s sprawling, highly segregated economic landscape allowed the tremendous misery to become concentrated in the city’s almost completely hollowed-out core. Pittsburgh was quite literally formed in the First Reset. It has a relatively compact geography. Its core is quite functional, and there are numerous, stable working-class, middle-class, and affluent neighborhoods in the city. Detroit is a city and region of the Second Reset built along multilane roads and highways that radiate out of the city core. The city and region witnessed massive white flight during the late 1960s and 1970s, leaving the city core almost abandoned. Large swaths of the city are burned out. Poverty is highly concentrated. The landscape is postapocalyptic—with a small area of secured “Renaissance” towers, casinos, and stadiums ringed by abandoned lots and burned-out buildings. Not only did middle-class and immigrant families leave for the suburbs in search of lower crime and better schools, Detroit lost many of its young professionals, its gay community, and its creative class to older suburbs such as Ferndale and Royal Oak.

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

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3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

This has made the Memphis aerotropolis sprawl from day one, from the ghost parks on the west side to Billy Dunavant’s turf on the east, to the rolling fields south of the airport, where it has jumped the fence and keeps plowing deeper into Mississippi, unconstrained by anything except on-ramps to I-55. Its core atrophies while vitality flows to the outermost rings, applying still more pressure to keep moving. There is a price for this, and one community that has paid it is Elvis Presley’s own, Whitehaven. Hanging on to the western edge of the airport, the former pastureland surrounding Graceland has devolved due to white flight and sprawl from an affluent neighborhood to a fraying, predominantly African-American one (“Blackhaven”) within two generations. The local foreclosure rate is twice the national average; residents have seen two decades of wage gains disappear with their homes. The previous tenants fled first to the city’s eastern suburbs and later across the border. The city followed, incorporating bits and pieces of the outlying county to preserve both its integrity and its tax base, but has hit a political wall at the state line of DeSoto County, Mississippi.

We’re in a crisis right now in Michigan, and this can be the silver lining in turning things around to where we want to go. It’s up to us.” The Utopia of the Machine How did Detroit manage to drive into a ditch? Check all that apply: auto companies failing or pushing out to the suburbs and beyond, leaving behind a skyline full of tombstones; the freeways dredged through city streets, encouraging residents to follow; black and white flight after the ’67 riots; hostility to mass transit and any kind of planning; infighting; corruption; Toyota; Honda; Nissan; Hyundai. Some attribute it to the unalterable ebb and flow of history—Detroit as a cadaver worthy of Spengler or Toynbee—to absolve themselves of any blame. Ficano’s nemesis, L. Brooks Patterson, the country-club Republican running suburban Oakland County, unwittingly echoes Amos Hawley: “Detroit’s history has gone the way of Rome and Athens and Constantinople.

pages: 619 words: 197,256

Apollo by Charles Murray, Catherine Bly Cox

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cuban missile crisis, fault tolerance, index card, old-boy network, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, V2 rocket, War on Poverty, white flight

Cooper was scheduled to be in orbit for thirty-four hours, which was longer than even Kraft could handle on his own, so he appointed his deputy, Englishman John Hodge (part of the AVRO group), to be the second flight director. They adopted colors to identify themselves. Kraft was Red Flight, so the men working his shifts would be the Red Team; and Hodge was Blue Flight. When Gemini began in 1965, Kraft added three more flight directors. The first two were Gene Kranz, White Flight, who had been acting as Kraft’s assistant flight director during Mercury, and Glynn Lunney, Black Flight, the youngest of the original members of the Space Task Group. After Gemini VII in December 1965, Kraft stepped down as a flight director to leave more time for his responsibilities as head of the Flight Operations Directorate. Cliff Charlesworth became the next flight director, choosing green as his color.

Note the mechanical calculator beside the console. (NASA) Green Flight Cliff Charlesworth, the oldest and most normal of the initial three Apollo flight directors who defined the role for their successors. This photo was taken moments after the launch of Apollo 11. The climbing Saturn V is visible on the monitor to the left—a view that none of flight controllers had—but Charlesworth is watching his columns of numbers. (NASA) White Flight Gene Kranz, “General Savage,” fighter pilot in the 1950s, Kraft’s right-hand man in Mercury and Gemini, Flight for the first lunar descent, Flight when the explosion on Thirteen occurred, director of Flight Operations during the first years of the shuttle, in one of his trademark white vests. (NASA) Black Flight Glynn Lunney, “the quickest mind in the MOCR,” who directed the transfer into the lunar module after the explosion, making up procedures on the run and getting the job done faster than any team was able to do it in the simulation of similar catastrophes thereafter.

pages: 370 words: 100,856

Moonshot: The Inside Story of Mankind's Greatest Adventure by Dan Parry

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en.wikipedia.org, Norman Mailer, V2 rocket, white flight

At launch, when the crew had been wearing their pressure-suits while strapped into their couches, they had been hemmed in by the grey instrument panels and barely had room to move. Most of the windows had been covered by a protective shroud, and sitting in a gloomy half-light they had been confronted by a vast array of instruments and switches. Now, with the windows uncovered, sunlight flooded the cabin, bouncing off the men's white flight-suits and the bright surfaces of the storage lockers. What had once appeared to be no more than a means of getting from A to B now looked like a bright living space. As the men freely floated about their new home, Columbia had the sterile look of a clean, state-of-the-art spacecraft. The era of cramped capsules had been replaced by a taste of the future. ( ) Apollo 11 was spared the sense of trepidation that had accompanied the Block II command module's first outing into deep space.

pages: 269 words: 104,430

Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez

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barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar

One Brookings Institution study determined that if blacks owned cars at the same rates as whites, it would eliminate nearly half the T H E C AT C H : T H E R I C H G E T R I C H E R 115 difference in black and white jobless rates.21 Without a car, inner city residents, who generally work more irregular hours, must rely on public transit with its scarce service outside of rush hour, leading to their being late or missing work altogether.22 In cities with poor public transit, having a car significantly increases one’s chances of getting a job.23 As noted earlier, recent job growth is greatest on the suburban ring, leaving a skewed ratio of workers to jobs in the inner city. But it is no simple matter of an unemployed person changing where he or she lives. The lack of affordable housing and the prevalence of housing discrimination limit that option. How did this happen? White flight to the suburbs during the post–World War II period was facilitated by massive public investment in the roads to get them there. This radically expanded the existing spatial segregation of minority communities, and was followed by the growth of jobs in suburban locations, which has further disadvantaged inner city African American families without cars, for whom such a commute by public transit is either very difficult or impossible.

pages: 537 words: 99,778

Dreaming in Public: Building the Occupy Movement by Amy Lang, Daniel Lang/levitsky

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Bay Area Rapid Transit, bonus culture, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deindustrialization, facts on the ground, glass ceiling, housing crisis, Kibera, late capitalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Port of Oakland, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, the medium is the message, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor

We have organized resistance to racism, sexism, homophobia, Islamophobia, ableism and the criminalization of youth, to the systematic destruction of the environment in poor communities of color, to the dehumanization of people with disabilities, and so many other injustices – as they manifest in our daily lives and are reflected in practices that dictate access and distribution of resources, as well as policies at the local, state and national levels. Detroit is moving beyond just protest. Because we have survived the most thorough disinvestment of capital that any major US city has ever seen; because we have survived ‘white flight’ and ‘middle-class flight,’ state takeovers, corruption and the dismantling of our public institutions; because the people who remained in Detroit are resilient and ingenious, Detroiters have redefined what ‘revolution’ looks like. Detroit is modeling life AFTER capitalism. In Detroit, ‘revolution’ means ‘putting the neighbor back in the hood’ through direct actions that restore community. It means maintaining public welfare programs for residents who are without income which protect said low-income families from facing utility shutoffs and homelessness.

pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

They bear witness to a struggle on the part of those who feel alienated and dispossessed to repossess the country that they love by any means. Such social tensions offer possibilities for capitalist exploitation. In US cities in the 1960s the practice of blockbusting neighbourhoods was widespread (it still persists). The idea was to introduce a black family into an all-white neighbourhood in the hope of stimulating white fear and white flight. Falling property values created opportunities for speculators to purchase housing cheaply before selling dear to minority populations. The responses of the threatened white populations varied from violent resistance (such as the firebombing of the home of any black family who tried to move in) through to more moderate attempts (sometimes mandated by civil rights laws) to integrate as peacefully as possible.

pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

Interestingly, one of the few dissenting voices came from Frank Lloyd Wright, then nearing ninety years of age, who complained that the garden court “has all the evils of a village street and none of its charms.” Gruen’s design for Southdale would become the single most influential new building archetype of the postwar era. Just as Louis Sullivan’s original skyscrapers had defined the urban skylines of the first half of the twentieth century, Gruen’s shopping mall proliferated around the globe, first in suburban American towns newly populated by white flight émigrés from metropolitan centers. Shopping meccas like L.A.’s Beverly Center became cultural landmarks, and the default leisure activity of hanging at the mall would define an entire generation of “Valley girls.” But as mall culture went global, Gruen’s design became increasingly prominent in the downtown centers of new megacities. Originally conceived as a way to escape the harsh winters of Minnesota, Gruen’s enclosed public space accelerated the mass migration to desert or tropical climates made possible by the invention of air-conditioning.

pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

.● Apparently, the data are beginning to support the city planners’ bold contention that time wasted in traffic is unproductive. In contrast, the Portland metro area is now home to more than twelve hundred technology companies. Like Seattle and San Francisco, it is one of the places where educated millennials are heading in disproportionate numbers. This phenomenon is what the demographer William Frey has in mind when he says: “A new image of urban America is in the making. What used to be white flight to the suburbs is turning into ‘bright flight’ to cities that have become magnets for aspiring young adults who see access to knowledge-based jobs, public transportation and a new city ambiance as an attraction.”36 The conventional wisdom used to be that creating a strong economy came first, and that increased population and a higher quality of life would follow. The converse now seems more likely: creating a higher quality of life is the first step to attracting new residents and jobs.

pages: 319 words: 103,707

Against Everything: Essays by Mark Greif

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1960s counterculture, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, Desert Island Discs, Donald Trump, income inequality, informal economy, Norman Mailer, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, Ronald Reagan, technoutopianism, telemarketer, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, white flight

These were the most visible emblems of a small and surprising subculture, where the source of a priori knowledge seemed to be nostalgia for suburban whiteness. As the White Negro had once fetishized blackness, the White Hipster fetishized the violence, instinctiveness, and rebelliousness of lower-middle-class “white trash.” “I love being white, and I think it’s something to be proud of,” Vice founder Gavin McInnes told The New York Times in 2003. This recalled the seventies culture of white flight to the suburbs, and the most uncanny thing about the turn-of-the-millennium hipsters is that symbolically, in their styles and attitudes, they seemed to announce that whiteness and capital were flowing back into the formerly impoverished city. They wore what they were in economic and structural terms—because for reasons mysterious to the participants, those things suddenly seemed “cool” for an urban setting.

pages: 271 words: 83,944

The Sellout: A Novel by Paul Beatty

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affirmative action, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, desegregation, El Camino Real, haute couture, illegal immigration, Lao Tzu, late fees, mass incarceration, p-value, publish or perish, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, telemarketer, theory of mind, War on Poverty, white flight, yellow journalism

How do you racially segregate an already segregated school? Hominy, the race reactionary, was no help. He loved the idea of bringing back segregated education, because he thought the idea would make Dickens more attractive to white resettlement. That the city would return to being the thriving white suburb of his youth. Cars with tail fins. Straw hats and sock hops. Episcopalians and ice cream socials. It would be the opposite of white flight, he said. “The Ku Klux influx.” But when I’d ask him how, he’d just shrug and, like a conservative senator without any ideas, filibuster me with unrelated stories about the good ol’ days. “Once, in an episode called ‘Pop Quisling,’ Stymie tried to avoid taking a history test he hadn’t studied for by setting his desk on fire, but of course he ended up burning down the entire school and the gang had to take the test on top of a fire truck ’cause Miss Crabtree didn’t play that shit.”

pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

Their baseline expectations about the number of hours spent behind the wheel of a car every month kept shifting. The expectation was sustained by housing policies like the GI Bill that discriminated in favor of new housing, and by tax policies that discriminated against renters. It was enabled by transportation policies like the orgy of road building financed by the Highway Trust Fund. It was reinforced by white flight, by the almost deliberate destruction of inner city neighborhoods, and even by the well-intentioned but unhelpful Progressive disdain for city living. And it survived for decades. Eventually, though, it turned out to be a losing game. For millions of people—not just Millennials, but also Baby Boomers in the process of downsizing their homes—the costs of suburban living started to outweigh the benefits.

The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight

.”* Similarly, when a city annexes territory, it takes it out of the reach of another municipality, and it can use the newly annexed territory as a jumping-off point to further extend its boundaries. The city planned to go to where the growth was happening, or was likely to happen, and capture it. The mostly white families who lived in these areas would be brought into the Denver public school system, thereby easing busing pressures and mitigating white flight by other parents who did not want their white children to be the minority within their schools. Just as important, these land acquisitions would bring more of the region’s wealth into the city of Denver. Colorado municipalities depended largely on sales taxes for their budgets. As the annexed territory developed, the department stores, hardware stores, and strip malls within it would contribute to a stronger bottom line for the city.

pages: 523 words: 129,580

Eternity by Greg Bear

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index card, life extension, white flight, white picket fence

Rhita shifted the box with the clavicle to one arm and covered her left ear, wincing at the din. As they walked around their wagon, she saw the two beecraft squatting on the apron, sullen and nondescript brown with patches of yellow and white. They seemed ugly and ungainly compared to the fighters, like flying houses. Their wide horizontal blades drooped, man-sized nacelles on the tips coming within three arms of the ground on each side. A few men in red and white flight outfits stood beside the beecraft, engaged in conversation, watching the wagons’ passengers disembark. Climbing down from the back of the next wagon in line was the Kelt and a small contingent of the palace guard; all to protect her, she real-She stifled a sudden urge to drop the clavicle and run into the desert. A whistling breeze riffled little lines of sand on the asphalt, scattering grains about her feet.

pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

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agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

The university completion rate among the Latino-born of L.A. almost doubled, from 9.5 percent in 1970 to 18.8 percent in 2000.6 Mike Davis, the Los Angeles historian given to apocalyptic visions of failed and oppressed slums of Latin America, became ecstatic at the effect of Latinization on the slums of his own city: “Tired, sad little homes undergo miraculous revivifications: their peeling facades repainted, sagging roofs and porches rebuilt, and yellowing lawns replanted in cacti and azaleas. Cumulatively the sweat equity of 75,000 or so Mexican and Salvadorean homeowners has become an unexcelled constructive force (the opposite of white flight) working to restore debilitated neighborhoods to trim respectability … they also have a genius for transforming dead urban spaces into convivial social spaces.”7 By the middle of this century’s first decade, the rapid investment and mobility of the Central American arrival city had become the dominant force in L.A.’s politics and economy. On one hand, the demand for inner-city home ownership by Central American villagers created a boom in home-sale revenues for older African American families, whose homes had held little value in the three decades after the Watts riots of 1965 but who suddenly found a steady demand for their homes.

pages: 717 words: 150,288

Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

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airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence

Right up to the start of the twenty-first century, the capture of strategic and politically important cities has remained ‘the ultimate symbol of conquest and national survival’.52 Moreover, ever since the demise of obvious systems of urban fortifications, the design, planning and organization of cities has been shaped by strategic and geopolitical concerns – a topic neglected in mainstream urban studies.53 In addition to providing the famous ‘machine for living’ and bringing light and air to the urban masses, modernist planners and architects envisaged the situating of housing towers within parks as a means of reducing the vulnerability of cities to aerial bombing. Such towers were also designed to raise urbanites above the killer gas then expected to lie within the bombs.54 Along with the ‘white flight’ to the suburbs, early Cold War urban planning in the US sought to see US cities ‘through the bombardier’s eye’,55 and actively tried to stimulate decentralization and sprawl as means of reducing the nation’s vulnerability to a pre-emptive Soviet nuclear attack.56 And it is often forgotten that the massive US interstate highway system was initially labelled a ‘defense highway’ system and was partly designed to sustain military mobilization and evacuation in the event of global nuclear war.

pages: 459 words: 118,959

Confidence Game: How a Hedge Fund Manager Called Wall Street's Bluff by Christine S. Richard

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activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate raider, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, diversification, Donald Trump, family office, financial innovation, fixed income, forensic accounting, glass ceiling, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, money market fund, moral hazard, old-boy network, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, short selling, statistical model, white flight, zero-sum game

The building, which was closed in 1976, was surrounded by a tall chain-link fence on which someone has posted a “For Sale” sign. In the 1960s, there were 80,000 students in the Pittsburgh public school system. By 2006, the number was closer to 25,000. The Hill district, which rises just beyond downtown Pittsburgh, was cut off physically from the hub of the city by the construction of a civic arena in the late 1960s. Race riots, white flight, and the decline of the steel industry share the blame for the neighborhood’s demise. In the 1980s, the district became the inspiration for the television police drama Hill Street Blues. My list showed Caulis Negris-controlled properties scattered up and down the street, though some were impossible to identify. A few houses stood like Roman ruins with roofs gone and vines creeping up the walls.

pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar

This project was also fueled by fear: not just fear of the noise, fumes, and dirt of industry, but fear of exposure to other people. It is impossible to decouple America’s suburban spread from race and class tension. Racial segregation was de facto federal policy for years. The U.S. Federal Housing Administration, which appraised neighborhoods, regularly excluded entire black communities from mortgage insurance until the advent of civil rights legislation in the 1960s. The policy gutted inner cities, while “white flight” fueled layer after layer of new suburban dispersal. So-called exclusionary zoning, which on the surface bans only certain kinds of buildings and functions from a neighborhood, served the deeper purpose of excluding people who fall beneath a certain income bracket. The tactic still works today. If you want to keep poor people out of your community, all you really need to do is ban duplexes and apartment buildings—which is exactly what new suburbs were permitted to do.

pages: 396 words: 117,149

The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World by Pedro Domingos

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3D printing, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Arthur Eddington, basic income, Bayesian statistics, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, Black Swan, Brownian motion, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, constrained optimization, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, future of work, global village, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, information retrieval, job automation, John Markoff, John Snow's cholera map, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, NP-complete, off grid, P = NP, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, planetary scale, pre–internet, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, zero-sum game

The S curve is the shape of phase transitions of all kinds: the probability of an electron flipping its spin as a function of the applied field, the magnetization of iron, the writing of a bit of memory to a hard disk, an ion channel opening in a cell, ice melting, water evaporating, the inflationary expansion of the early universe, punctuated equilibria in evolution, paradigm shifts in science, the spread of new technologies, white flight from multiethnic neighborhoods, rumors, epidemics, revolutions, the fall of empires, and much more. The Tipping Point could equally well (if less appealingly) be entitled The S Curve. An earthquake is a phase transition in the relative position of two adjacent tectonic plates. A bump in the night is just the sound of the microscopic tectonic plates in your house’s walls shifting, so don’t be scared.

pages: 453 words: 142,717

The Last Man on the Moon: Astronaut Eugene Cernan and America's Race in Space by Eugene Cernan, Donald A. Davis

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Berlin Wall, Eratosthenes, full employment, Isaac Newton, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, V2 rocket, white flight

Doctors and I disagree to this day over whether I lost consciousness, but I recall settling to the bottom, my hands clutching the controls, still trying to fly the thing. Fortunately, the chopper had not flipped over and I was sitting upright, harnessed securely to the seat, and had not been pinned by the crumbling wreckage or the twisted steel panel of dials near my knees. Streams of bright bubbles rose past my eyes and I realized I was underwater, disoriented and unsure about what had happened. My heavy white flight helmet, buckled tightly beneath my chin, was filled with air and trying to pull away from my head, choking me like a hangman’s noose. I unsnapped the strap and the helmet rocketed away from my head, heading for the surface in a rush, as if gravity had been reversed and it was falling upward. I did a quick internal inventory, and felt no sharp pains of broken bones or ruptured organs, no jagged metal sticking into my gut, but I knew that if I didn’t do something quickly, I would drown.

pages: 422 words: 131,666

Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff

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affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game

The ideal of home ownership was the fruit of a public-relations strategy crafted after World War II—corporate and government leaders alike believed that home owners would have more of a stake in an expanding economy and greater allegiance to free-market values than renters. Functionally, though, it led to a self-perpetuating cycle: The more that wealthier white people retreated to the enclaves prepared for them, the poorer the areas they were leaving became, and the more justified they felt in leaving. While the first real wave of “white flight” was from the cities to the suburbs, the more recent, camouflaged version has been from the suburbs back into the expensive cities. Of course, these upper-middle-class migrants were themselves the targets of the mortgage industry, whose clever lending instruments mirror World Bank policies for their exploitative potential. The World Bank’s loans come with “open markets” policies attached that ultimately surrender indebted nations and their resources to the control of distant corporations.

pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

‘Happily, it is possible to date the death of Modern Architecture to a precise moment in time …’ wrote Charles Jencks, in a famous statement in 1977. ‘Modern Architecture died in St. Louis, Missouri on July 15, 1972 at 3:32 pm (or thereabouts) when the infamous Pruitt-Igoe scheme, or rather several of its slab blocks, were given the final coup de grâce by dynamite.’25 Built in the 1950s, the Pruitt-Igoe project became in the 1960s and 1970s a symbol of the racialised decay of inner urban cores and white flight as the middle classes rushed to the suburbs. Redlining, deindustrialisation and the growing emergence of racialised ghettos in Pruitt-Igoe and similar projects allowed mainstream media to demonise such places and their inhabitants. Pruitt-Igoe thus emerged as a symbol of urban decay, collapse and hopelessness. Its spectacular erasure was widely used as shorthand for a period in the US where ‘those who lived in cities no longer cared for them, and those who lived elsewhere feared and detested them.’26 The fact that communal housing was widely deemed to chime with socialist thinking didn’t help.

pages: 692 words: 127,032

Fool Me Twice: Fighting the Assault on Science in America by Shawn Lawrence Otto

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Berlin Wall, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cepheid variable, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, commoditize, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dean Kamen, desegregation, double helix, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fudge factor, ghettoisation, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, sharing economy, smart grid, Solar eclipse in 1919, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, War on Poverty, white flight, Winter of Discontent, working poor, yellow journalism, zero-sum game

Imagine that al-Qaeda is in charge of a country the size of the Soviet Union and has nuclear weapons trained on the United States, and you can get a sense of the fear that was driving the nation. We knew what these weapons could do, and we knew they could be used again. Our only option was to plan for an attack on American soil. This knowledge changed American culture and its relationship to science. For example, it has long been the prevailing opinion that American suburbs developed as a result of the increased use of the car, GI Bill—funded home construction, and white flight from desegregated schools after the 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. But in reality the trend had started several years before Brown. In 1945, the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists began advocating for “dispersal,” or “defense through decentralization” as the only realistic defense against nuclear weapons, and the federal government realized this was an important strategic move.

pages: 468 words: 123,823

A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare

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affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Schools, for a variety of reasons, tend to be inferior, further reducing opportunities for upward mobility, given the close correlation between education and income.17 Crime tends to be higher, and residents are much more likely to be the victims of violence.18 Finally, physically isolating poor people results in fewer encounters between people who are not poor and people who are: poverty is therefore an abstraction, easily dismissed or understood only through the propaganda of the privileged, contributing again to so many forming “but the vaguest notion” of poverty.19 The causes of concentrated poverty today are less clear, although sociologist William Julius Wilson’s explanation, despite challenges and refinements, still predominates: middle-class “white flight” from the central cities to the suburbs sapped cities of tax revenue from higher earners and left behind a poorer population that contributed less in taxes and needed more in public services. Exacerbating the problem, with deindustrializa-tion the jobs available to less-skilled and less-educated urbanites moved away, creating a “spatial mismatch.”20 Even before, from at least 1864 to 1923, there was an American “ethnic cleansing,” in which entire counties were forcibly emptied of blacks.21 Government itself has fostered segregation: with the complicity of the Federal Housing Administration, banks and mortgage companies for many years engaged in redlining, a policy of refusing to extend loans to African Americans for homes in predominantly white neighborhoods, or at all.

Eastern USA by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, jitney, license plate recognition, Mason jar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, the High Line, the payments system, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

George Washington was sworn in here as the republic’s first president in 1789, and when the Civil War broke out, New York City, which supplied a significant contingent of volunteers to defend the Union, became an organizing center for the movement to emancipate slaves. Throughout the 19th century successive waves of immigrants – Irish, German, English, Scandinavian, Slavic, Italian, Greek and central European Jewish – led to a swift population increase, followed by the building of empires in industry and finance, and a golden age of skyscrapers. After WWII New York City was the prem- ier city in the world, but it suffered from a new phenomenon: ‘white flight’ to the suburbs. By the 1970s the graffiti-ridden subway system had become a symbol of New York’s civic and economic decline. But NYC regained much of its swagger in the 1980s, led by colorful three-term mayor Ed Koch. The city elected its first African American mayor, David Dinkins, in 1989, but ousted him after a single term in favor of Republican Rudolph Giuliani (a 2008 primary candidate for US president).

The work available brought huge influxes of immigrants from Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia and southern and eastern Europe. For decades after the Civil War, a great number of African Americans also migrated to the region’s urban centers from the South. The area prospered during WWII and throughout the 1950s, but was followed by 20 years of social turmoil and economic stagnation. Manufacturing industries declined, which walloped Rust Belt cities such as Detroit and Cleveland with high unemployment and ‘white flight’ (ie white middle-class families who fled to the suburbs). The 1980s and ’90s brought urban revitalization. The region’s population increased, notably with newcomers from Asia and Mexico. Growth in the service and high-tech sectors resulted in economic balance, although manufacturing industries such as car making and steel still played a big role, meaning that when the economic crisis hit in 2008, Great Lakes towns felt the pinch first and foremost.

pages: 559 words: 169,094

The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America by George Packer

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, big-box store, citizen journalism, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, smart grid, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, urban planning, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, white picket fence, zero-sum game

Between 1979 and 1980, bankruptcies in Youngstown doubled, and in 1982, unemployment in the Mahoning Valley reached almost 22 percent—the highest anywhere in the country. Black workers, who had only recently entered the better mill jobs, were hit especially hard. Houses on the east side, parts of the south side, and even Smokey Hollow on the edge of downtown emptied out with foreclosures and white flight. The vacancies began an epidemic of house burnings, two or more incidents a day throughout the eighties. On the wall by the pay phone at Cyrak’s, a well-known mob bar, there was a number you could call to have a house torched at less than half the cost of having it demolished by the city. But during a decade of hundreds of arson fires, only two people were convicted of anything—a black woman who killed her two children in an insurance fire, and the city official in charge of demolitions, who used the mob to get the job done.

pages: 641 words: 182,927

In Pursuit of Privilege: A History of New York City's Upper Class and the Making of a Metropolis by Clifton Hood

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affirmative action, British Empire, David Brooks, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, family office, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, jitney, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Scientific racism, selection bias, Steven Levy, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, urban planning, We are the 99%, white flight

Urban historians have recently explored the history of suburbs and of suburbanization, but this new scholarship concentrates on working-class, lower-middle-class, and African American communities. Almost none of it deals with the elite suburbs that this chapter analyzes. Andrew Wiese, Places of Their Own: African American Suburbanization in the Twentieth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004); Becky N. Nicolaides, My Blue Heaven: Life and Politics in the Working-Class Suburbs of Los Angeles, 1920–1965 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002); Kevin M. Kruse, White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005); and Becky Nicolaides and Andrew Wiese, eds., The Suburb Reader (New York: Routledge, 2006). Among the few recent studies to examine upper-class suburbs is a work of cultural geography, James S. Duncan and Nancy G. Duncan’s Landscapes of Privilege: The Politics of the Aesthetic in an American Suburb (New York: Routledge, 2004). 87.

Debtor Nation: The History of America in Red Ink (Politics and Society in Modern America) by Louis Hyman

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asset-backed security, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, card file, central bank independence, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, Gini coefficient, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, market fundamentalism, means of production, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, p-value, pattern recognition, profit maximization, profit motive, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, statistical model, technology bubble, the built environment, transaction costs, union organizing, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Johnston Cities of Knowledge: Cold War Science and the Search for the Next Silicon Valley by Margaret Pugh O’Mara 378 SERIES LIST Labor Rights Are Civil Rights: Mexican American Workers in Twentieth-Century America by Zaragosa Vargas More Equal Than Others: America from Nixon to the New Century by Godfrey Hodgson Pocketbook Politics: Economic Citizenship in Twentieth-Century America by Meg Jacobs Taken Hostage: The Iran Hostage Crisis and America’s First Encounter with Radical Islam by David Farber Defending America Military Culture and the Cold War Court-Martial by Elizabeth Lutes Hillman Morning in America: How Ronald Reagan Invented the 1980s by Gil Troy Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman’s Crusade by Donald T. Critchlow The Silent Majority: Suburban Politics in the Sunbelt South by Matthew D. Lassiter White Flight: Atlanta and the Making of Modern Conservatism by Kevin M. Kruse Troubling the Waters: Black-Jewish Relations in the American Century by Cheryl Lynn Greenberg In Search of Another Country: Mississippi and the Conservative Counterrevolution by Joseph Crespino The Shifting Grounds of Race: Black and Japanese Americans in the Making of Multiethnic Los Angeles by Scott Kurashige Americans at the Gate: The United States and Refugees during the Cold War by Carl J.

pages: 941 words: 237,152

USA's Best Trips by Sara Benson

Albert Einstein, California gold rush, car-free, carbon footprint, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, if you build it, they will come, indoor plumbing, McMansion, mega-rich, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, the High Line, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration

* * * Out of many contenders, there are two excellent sleeping options in Virginia’s capital: the Massad House Hotel, a cozy, centrally located study in Tudor-style budget bliss; and one of the poshest palaces of Dixie patricians, the Jefferson Hotel, a modern execution of the moonlight-and-magnolia cliché. Petersburg, just south of Richmond, is the blue-collar sibling city to the Virginia capital, its center gutted by white flight following desegregation. Petersburg National Battlefield Park marks the spot where Northern and Southern soldiers spent almost a quarter of the war in a protracted, trench-induced stand-off. The Battle of the Crater, made well known in Charles Frazier’s Cold Mountain, was an attempt by Union soldiers to break this stalemate by tunneling under the Confederate lines and blowing up their fortifications; the end result was Union soldiers caught in the hole wrought by their own sabotage, killed like fish in a barrel.

pages: 1,364 words: 272,257

Jerusalem: The Biography by Simon Sebag-Montefiore

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, California gold rush, Etonian, facts on the ground, haute couture, Khartoum Gordon, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, sexual politics, spice trade, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, Yom Kippur War

Michael Bar-Zohar, Shimon Peres: A Biography 87-90. Bar-Zohar, Ben-Gurion on Dayan's sex life 118-19. Dayan character: Ariel Sharon, Warrior 76, 127, 222. 29 Wall liberated: Dayan 13-17. On Dayan: author conversation with Shimon Peres. Ashton 118-20, Shlaim, Lion of Jordon 248-51 and 258. Hussein weeps for city: Noor, Queen of Jordan, Leap of Faith, 75-7. EPILOGUE 1 1967-present: population Wasserstein 212, 328-38; peace plans 345; white flight of secular Jews, falling proportion of Jews from 74 per cent in 1967 to 68 per cent in 2000. Forty peace plans for Jerusalem: Shlaim, Israel and Palestine 229, also 25-36; on Jerusalem 253-60. Population in 2000 including 140,000 Orthodox Jews: Loupo and Chen, 'Ultra-Orthodox', Ahimeir and Bar-Simon-Tov, Forty Years in Jerusalem 65-95. Population 2008: figures based on Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies.

pages: 1,797 words: 390,698

Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn

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affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional

Like many a central city in older metropolitan regions in the East and Midwest where the industrial and mercantile economy had created a troika of economic power, wealth, and prestige that gave rise to a great many institutions of cultural excellence and supported a great many nonprofit social-service institutions and philanthropic organizations, New York City during the 1960s experienced profound economic and social change that shook the foundations of its civic self. The forces of “deindustrialization, disinvestment, racial change, and suburbanization that began full force in the 1950s [and] culminated in the racial conflict of the late 1960s and the fiscal crisis of the mid-1970s” had profound impacts—white flight, property abandonment, arson, crime, deep social unrest—which devastated the physical and social fabric of New York City. “One might well have been excused for thinking, based on the evidence, that New York was headed over the same cliff from which Detroit had already plunged,” remarked urban expert and political scientist John Mollenkopf.23 “This did not happen,” he added. “After 1977, the city and its metropolitan region experienced a remarkable recovery.”

USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar

George Washington was sworn in here as the republic’s first president in 1789, and when the Civil War broke out, New York City, which supplied a significant contingent of volunteers to defend the Union, became an organizing center for the movement to emancipate slaves. Throughout the 19th century successive waves of immigrants – Irish, German, English, Scandinavian, Slavic, Italian, Greek and central European Jewish – led to a swift population increase, followed by the building of empires in industry and finance, and a golden age of skyscrapers. After WWII New York City was the prem- ier city in the world, but it suffered from a new phenomenon: ‘white flight’ to the suburbs. By the 1970s the graffiti-ridden subway system had become a symbol of New York’s civic and economic decline. But NYC regained much of its swagger in the 1980s, led by colorful three-term mayor Ed Koch. The city elected its first African American mayor, David Dinkins, in 1989, but ousted him after a single term in favor of Republican Rudolph Giuliani (a 2008 primary candidate for US president).

The work available brought huge influxes of immigrants from Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia and southern and eastern Europe. For decades after the Civil War, a great number of African Americans also migrated to the region’s urban centers from the South. The area prospered during WWII and throughout the 1950s, but was followed by 20 years of social turmoil and economic stagnation. Manufacturing industries declined, which walloped Rust Belt cities such as Detroit and Cleveland with high unemployment and ‘white flight’ (ie white middle-class families who fled to the suburbs). The 1980s and ’90s brought urban revitalization. The region’s population increased, notably with newcomers from Asia and Mexico. Growth in the service and high-tech sectors resulted in economic balance, although manufacturing industries such as car making and steel still played a big role, meaning that when the economic crisis hit in 2008, Great Lakes towns felt the pinch first and foremost.

pages: 1,497 words: 492,782

The Complete Novels Of George Orwell by George Orwell

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British Empire, fixed income, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, the market place, traveling salesman, union organizing, white flight

The Burmese bullock-cart drivers seldom grease their axles, probably because they believe that the screaming keeps away evil spirits, though when questioned they will say that it is because they are too poor to buy grease. They passed a whitewashed wooden pagoda, no taller than a man and half hidden by the tendrils of creeping plants. Then the track wound into the village, which consisted of twenty ruinous, wooden huts roofed with thatch, and a well beneath some barren date-palms. The egrets that roosted in the palms were streaming homewards over the treetops like white flights of arrows. A fat yellow woman with her longyi hitched under her armpits was chasing a dog round a hut, smacking at it with a bamboo and laughing, and the dog was also laughing in its fashion. The village was called Nyaunglebin–‘the four peepul trees’; there were no peepul trees there now, probably they had been cut down and forgotten a century ago. The villagers cultivated a narrow strip of fields that lay between the town and the jungle, and they also made bullock carts which they sold in Kyauktada.