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The Vanishing Middle Class: Prejudice and Power in a Dual Economy by Peter Temin
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, clean water, corporate raider, Corrections Corporation of America, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, income inequality, intangible asset, invisible hand, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, mortgage debt, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nixon shock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, price stability, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, the scientific method, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, white flight, working poor
The FTE sector is eager to enlarge military spending and they support militarization of government services that they cannot do without. Police in the United States have become paramilitary organizations. The Pentagon gives them surplus military equipment, and the police use the same equipment in the United States that the military used in Iraq. This can be seen in the reaction to the tragic events in Ferguson, Missouri, when a policeman shot and killed Michael Brown, an unarmed black teenager who was about to start college, in the late summer of 2014. The community was outraged by this apparently random killing of a black teenager, and there were massive public demonstrations in the following evenings. The police showed up for one of the evening demonstrations in a fortified military personnel carrier. This was a dramatic sign that the police were at war with the black residents of Ferguson.1 Another sign was the killing of a sniper who shot at police officers in Dallas while they were protecting a peaceful protest in 2016.
But since Congress appropriated only a small part of the planned spending, it is not clear how much of this limited plan will be done. Both candidates for president in 2016 campaigned on promises to repair our infrastructure, but recent history does not suggest that these promises will be kept.22 Notes 1. Jargowsky 2015, 13. 2. Caraley 1992. 3. Troesken 2006, 140. 4. Rocheleau 2016. 5. Bosman 2016a; Wines, McGeehan, and Schwartz 2016. 6. Schwartz 2016b. 7. Belkin 1999; Jargowsky 2015. Ferguson, Missouri, where a white policeman shot an unarmed young black man in 2014, was 75 percent white in 1990, but it had become two-thirds black by 2010 as white flight spread from inner cities to inner suburbs. 8. Newman 1972. 9. Wilson 1996, 2009; Murray 2012. 10. MacDonald 1999; Swarns 2015. 11. Goffman 2014. 12. Chetty, Hendren, and Katz 2016; Chyn 2016; Wolfers 2016. 13. Heckman 1989. 14. The eight criteria are capacity, condition, funding, future need, operation and maintenance, public safety, resilience, and innovation. 15.
Board of Education and, 116, 119, 171n16 concepts of government and, 89 elitism and, 52, 66, 74, 161 equal protection clause and, 58, 67, 102 FTE (finance, technology, and electronics) sector and, 15, 20–21 gender, 49 (see also Women) Investment Theory of Politics and Jim Crow policies and, 27, 49, 51–53, 58, 65–66, 104, 107, 154 juries and, 56, 59 low-wage sector and, 38, 153 mass incarceration and, 105 mortgages and, 117 poll taxes and, 58, 65 public education and, 117 racial, 15, 20–21, 38, 51–54, 56, 58, 66, 89, 105, 117, 153, 171n29 redlining and, 34, 53 segregation and, 53 (see also Segregation) statistical, 171n29 War on Drugs and, 27, 37–38, 53, 55, 104, 106 white rage and, 51, 101, 104 Disengagement, 35, 117 Diversity, 49, 51, 128, 156 Dix, Dorothea, 107 Dodd-Frank Financial Reform Act Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, 93 Dow Jones Industrial Index, 23 Draft, 16 Dropouts, 42, 45, 108, 158 Drug laws, 104, 171n24 Dual economy African Americans and, 9–13 college and, 3, 8, 11–12 farmers and, 6–11 financial crisis of 2008 and, 4, 9, 12 FTE and, 9–13, 168n10 (see also FTE [Finance, Technology, and Electronics] sector) human capital and, 11–12 immigrants and, 10 income distribution and, 3–5 inequality and, 10 integration and, 13 labor and, 6–7 Latinos and, 9–10, 13, 54–55 Lewis model and, xiii, xvii, 5–12, 62, 82, 89, 124, 158 low-wage sector and, 4, 8, 9–13 (see also Low-wage sector) social capital and, 12 taxes and, 10, 12 transition and, 41–46 wages and, 3–13 Dukakis, Michael, 109 Dylan, Bob, xii Elephant, 150 Earned Income Tax Credit, 79 Edwards, John, 3 Elitism, 52, 66, 74, 161 Emergency managers, 35–36 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 84, 93, 130 Environmental racism, xv Equal protection clause, 58, 67, 102 Equity, 30, 111 Eurodollars, 16, 23 Evans, Walker, 52 Exchange rates, 15–16, 23, 32, 169n3 Expected wage, 8 Facebook, 122 Fannie Mae, 138 Farmers African Americans and, 50–51 agricultural issues and, xi, 6, 31, 63 cotton and, xi, 59, 115 dual economy and, 6–11 as economic maximizers, 168n13 indentured servants and, 50 Investment Theory of Politics and, 62, 66 migrant workers and, 11 poor, 6 race and, 50, 52 subsistence, 5–6, 8, 10, 62 Federal funding, 35, 37, 93, 129 Federalism, 21–22, 35, 44, 65, 83, 103, 110 Federal Reserve System, 15–16, 93 Ferguson, Missouri, 102–103 Fernandez, Nelson, 103–104 Fifteenth Amendment, 15, 56, 58 Filibusters, 19 Financial crisis of 2008 concepts of government and, 91, 95 cross-country comparison and, 150–151 debt and, 138–141, 143, 154, 158 dual economy and, 4, 10, 12 FTE (finance, technology, and electronics) sector and, 17 housing boom and, 164 Investment Theory of Politics and, 174n15 labor and, 158 low-wage sector and, 38 private equity firms and, 111 public education and, 118–119, 128 S&L crisis and, 17 transition and, 45 very rich and, 80 Financial Times magazine, 61, 135 FIRE (finance, insurance, and real estate) sector, 80 Flint, Michigan, water crisis, xv, 35–36, 129–130 Food stamps, 79 Forbes 400 list, 77, 82–83, 85, 92 Ford, Gerald, 168n2 Foster, Timothy, 59 401(k) plans, 33–34 Fourteenth Amendment, 51, 58 Freddy Mac, 138 Freeland, Chrystia, 3, 79 FTE (finance, technology, and electronics) sector African Americans and, 15, 20, 22 birth of, 27 capital and, 11–13, 23–24, 42–45, 153, 164 CEO earnings and, 24 cities and, 130, 135–136, 179n18 college and, 10, 24–25, 41–46 concepts of government and, 87, 92, 94, 96 conservatives and, 16–22 cross-country comparison and, 147, 149 debt and, 137–144 democracy and, 21 demographics of, 10 deregulation and, 16–23, 32, 44, 85 discrimination and, 15, 20–21 dual economy and, 9–13, 168n10 expansion of, 30 financial crisis of 2008 and, 17 globalization and, 29 Great Gatsby Curve, The, and, 46 Great Migration and, 20 hourglass job profile and, 28–29 human capital and, 23, 44 ignoring needs of poor by, 80, 135, 142, 153–155 immigrants and, 20 income distribution and, 22 industry and, 16, 18, 20, 23, 25 infrastructure and, 36, 154 Investment Theory of Politics and, 67–70, 74–75 labor and, 13, 19–21, 24, 153 Lewis model and, 20, 36, 101, 105, 153 liberals and, 17, 19, 21–22, 105 low-wage sector and, 11–13, 25, 27–29, 32–37, 153–155, 170n6 mass incarceration and, 101–106, 109, 112–114 middle class and, 96, 144, 147, 153, 155 military and, 102–104, 109–110, 112, 127, 143 North and, 20 political choice by, 153 public education and, 115, 117, 119, 122, 127–128 race and, 9–10, 49, 55 S&L crisis and, 17 slavery and, 17, 22 Social Security and, 33, 45, 52, 69–70, 79, 90, 93, 141, 174n15 South and, 15, 17, 20, 22 taxes and, 15, 17–18, 22–24, 155 transition and, 11, 41–46, 154 unemployment and, 16, 21 unions and, 18–22, 28–29, 32–34, 64, 80–81, 116, 120 very rich and, 77–81 wages and, 16, 20–23, 25 World War I era and, 20–21 World War II era and, 15, 21 Garland, Merrick, 96 Gates, Bill, 121 Geithner, Timothy, 139 General Motors (GM), 33–34 Gerrymandering, 96 GI Bill, 34, 43, 52, 65 Globalization competition and, 8, 28–29, 33, 55, 148, 151, 155, 161 FTE (finance, technology, and electronics) sector and, 29 low-wage sector and, 28–29, 33 Goldin, Claudia, xiii Great Depression, 21, 52–53, 80, 93 Great Gatsby Curve, The, 46 Great Migration African Americans and, xi–xii, xiv, 20, 27–29, 34–35, 52–55, 104, 116–117, 125 company boundaries and, 29–30 FTE (finance, technology, and electronics) sector and, 20 Latinos and, 55 length of, 20, 27–28 Lewis model and, 20 low-wage sector and, 27–29, 34–35 mass incarceration and, 104 Michigan and, 35 mortgages and, 34 public education and, 116–117, 125 urbanization and, 20 Growth miracles, 6 Halliburton, 143 Hamilton, Derrick, 173n17 Handlin, Mary, 50 Handlin, Oscar, 50 Hayek, Friedrich, 21–22, 81 Head Start, 126–127, 156 Health care Aetna and, 142 Affordable Care Act and, xv, 18, 57, 91–92, 95, 141–142 concepts of government and, 92 low-wage sector and, 154 mass incarceration and, 108–109, 113 Medicare/Medicaid and, xv, 91, 93, 142 Piketty on, 156 universal, 79 women and, 56–57 Heckman, James, 124 Hedge fund managers, xv, 23–24, 82, 167n1, 179n5 Helms, Jesse, 80 Heritage Foundation, 17–18, 22 Heroin, 104 High school, 25, 119–121, 126 Hispanics.
The Complacent Class: The Self-Defeating Quest for the American Dream by Tyler Cowen
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, business climate, circulation of elites, clean water, David Graeber, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, East Village, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Google Glasses, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, income inequality, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, security theater, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Great Moderation, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, working-age population, World Values Survey
These trends of increasing segregation show up in the aggregate numbers, but if you think about it, you probably can see it in some of the details of your own life, at least in many parts of this country. Circa 2016, you can see a black president on your television or internet screen, but that doesn’t mean you’re going to see more neighbors of a different race than you would have seen a few decades ago. Or if you do, you’re much less likely to see such individuals outside of your income class, even if they are not of your race. The Ferguson, Missouri, and Baltimore riots of 2015 took a lot of people by surprise, especially a lot of white people, and the proximate cause of these events was an accumulating pattern of police violence and misbehavior. But the deeper underlying roots of these and subsequent events were that the civil rights movement never really triumphed, and since then some economic forces have brought a lot of reversals when it comes to racial justice and fair treatment.
If a riot was likely, more likely than not it would be defused by the deliberate application of crowd management techniques. Starting in the 1970s, police hired consultants, when necessary, for assistance in responding to extreme events. The result was that American public sector servants have nudged the citizenry closer to order in lieu of inflaming marchers with batons and tear gas. To be sure, the recent trouble in Ferguson, Missouri, and Baltimore, Maryland, has represented cracks in this façade, a theme to which I return to later. In both cases, the initial police behavior was violent, and the subsequent police response to protests induced crowd violence, which then spiraled out of control, especially in Ferguson. The local police responded to protests with tear gas, helicopters, and smoke bombs, when they should have behaved more deliberately and taken steps to defuse the tensions.
Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Corrections Corporation of America, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Satyajit Das, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks
The terror threat was hyped daily in the media, so a massive market existed to keep a sense of insecurity permanently afloat across the country. Wandering around the exhibition hall, I saw a Homeland Security Evidence Collection Kit for $1,000, which included a range of objects, including tweezers, a tape measure, and a urine specimen jar—apparently the perfect accessory for police authorities in the post-9/11 environment. While I was in Salt Lake City there were riots in Ferguson, Missouri, over the police killing of a young black man, Michael Brown. Television images showed a militarized police force looking as if they were equipped to face insurgents in Iraq. A Department of Defense program allowed the transfer of excess military equipment to local police forces. With massive budget hikes, local law enforcement increasingly claimed that it needed to prepare for war and terrorism.
35, 112–13, 139–40, 221 detention centers access 252–3, 299, 359n31 Australia 271, 274, 276, 278–9, 280–5, 285–305, 356n2, 357n11 conditions 66–71, 79, 299–304, 334n14, 357n11 costs 96, 281–3, 304 economic logic of privatization 289–99 Greece 64–71, 76, 77–80, 96, 98, 336n14 guards 64–5, 68–9 house rules 232–4 medical care 77–80, 266, 295 price-gouging 292 privatization 13, 98, 230–5, 245–51, 280–5, 289–99 racism 65, 259–60, 294 sexual abuse 252–8 size 76 staff numbers 294 staff pain and suffering 296–8 United Kingdom 230–5, 245–51, 252–8, 263–7 United States of America 211–28 workers’ health and safety 298 working conditions 297–8 Detention Watch Network 216, 222, 227–8 diabetes 14 Digicel 122 Dilley, Texas 221 disaster capitalism, definition 6–9 disaster, definition 9 disaster economics 322n18 disaster relief NGO-ization of 137–41 privatization 108–9 Droneshield 205 drones (UAVs) 97–8 drug abuse 37–9, 102 drug trade, Afghanistan 37–9 Dubai 45 Duma, William 186 Dungavel detention centre 266 Dupuy, Alex 133 Dutton, Peter 281 Duvalier, Francois (“Papa Doc”) 109–10 Duvalier, Jean-Claude (“Baby Doc”) 110–12 DynCorp 16, 26–7, 124 ecological damage, copper mining 173 Ecolog International 29 economic empowerment 162 economic exploitation, Haiti 132, 133–6 Economist 117 eco-system damage, Haiti 130 Eldorado Gold 100 Elie, Patrick 119–22 El Refugio 223 embassies, security of 30 embedded journalism 10, 26, 324n5 enlightened dictatorship 2 environmental destruction 157–8, 173, 273–4 Eppright, Fred 136 equality 311 Equatorial Guinea 14 Etienne, Yanick 126–8 Eurasian Minerals 120 Eurobank 101 European Central Bank 72 European Commission 72, 73 European Court of Human Rights 68 European External Border Surveillance System 97 European Refugee Fund 66 European Union asylum seeker numbers 96 development aid 324n3 and drones 97–8 and Greece 12 questions of identity 103–4 refugee crisis 95–8 Euro, the, Greece and 84 Evans, Tim 306 Evergreen Aviation 34 Evros 66–7 executions 199 Executive Outcomes 180 exploitation 107–8 Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) 190–1 extraordinary rendition 16, 34 extremism 25 ExxonMobil LNG pipeline 166 Facebook 308 Fahim (Afghan engineer) 46–8 Farage, Nigel 236 Farmer, Paul 113–14, 139 fascism 85 Fatal Assistance (aid) 118–19 Ferguson, Missouri, riots in 203 Fiji 346–7n41 Financial Times 6, 191, 242 Finn, Noel 255 fiscal policy 84 Fisher, Nigel 122 Flores, Anton 223 Flynn, Michael T. 55 Fonteyne, Jean-Pierre 357n4 food aid 3, 145–6 food and drink multinationals 14 Foreign Policy 6, 45, 123 fossil fuel industry 8–9 Four Horseman International 60 fracking 8–9 France 99, 120, 311 fraud 240–1 Friedmann, Alex 216, 222 Frontex 67, 96, 97 Frontex Plus 95 Funk, McKenzie 9 Fyssas, Pavlos, murder of 90 G4S 13, 16, 23, 57, 230–5, 235, 240, 248, 255, 256–8, 258–60, 264, 277, 278, 280, 282, 283–4, 289, 290 Gaddafi, Muammar 16, 30 Gap 132 Garoute, Hans P. 147–9 Gates Foundation 202 General Atomics 31 GEO Group 124, 197, 199, 200, 201, 202, 227, 255, 266 Georgia Detention Watch 223 Georgia Latino Alliance for Human Rights (GLAHR) 224 Georgia, USA 199–200 immigrants 211–28 Stewart immigration detention centre 211–22 Germany 75, 84, 239 Gertler, Dan 120 Ghana 339n38 Ghani, Ashraf 27, 32, 45, 62 Gibney, Matthew J. 284 Gilbert, Sylvie 190 Glass, Charles 27 global capitalism, Klein’s critique of 7–8 Global Detention Project 68 global financial crisis, 2008 3, 72, 239, 309 Global Solutions Limited (GSL) 289–90 Golden Dawn 12, 71, 72, 74, 75, 78, 80, 104 aims 91–2 anti-Semitism 90–1 appeal 87 and the Greek Orthodox Church 88 iconography 89–90, 92 and immigration 88–9, 92 leadership 86, 91 Luqman trial 94 opposition 93–5 patriotism 88 popularity 85–6 and privatization 92–3 relationship with police 86 supporters 86, 87 violence 92, 94 worldview 87–93 Goldman Sachs 4 Gopal, Anand 32–3, 46–7 Gopnik, Adam 196 Government Accountability Office (US) 35 government, role of 4 Grainger 206 Grayling, Chris 261–2 Grayson, John 235, 262 Greece 4, 12, 64–104 ANEL (Independent Greeks) 73 anti-Semitism 93 asylum seeker infrastructure 66–8, 76–7 asylum seekers 64–71, 75–7, 77–80, 89 Asylum Service 66–7 austerity 71–5, 99–103, 307–8 closed hospitality centers 67–8 corruption 64, 72 debt crisis 71–5, 84 detention centers 64–71, 76, 77–80, 96, 98, 334n14 economic policies 12, 73 election, 2015 72–3, 91, 101 and the Euro 84 Eurozone exit 95 foreign investment 100–1 and Germany 75 Golden Dawn 12, 71, 72, 74, 75, 78, 80, 85–95, 104 healthcare system 80–4 Health Ministry 82 immigrants 74, 88–9, 92 immigration policy 96 medical care, asylum seekers 77–80 Ministry of Public Order and Citizen Protection 76 police brutality 83 potato movement 78 poverty rate 98–9 press freedom 74, 75 pressure on 73 privatization 72, 98, 100–2, 307–8 privatization of the detention network 77 questions of identity 103–4 racism 71, 80 reception centers 67 refugee crisis 95–8 sovereignty 104 suicide rate 102 Syntagma Square protest, 2014 70 Syriza 12, 72–5, 83, 91, 95, 103 unemployment 67, 99 Greek Council for Refugees 66 greenhouse gases 1–2 Green Prison 204 green technology, prisons 204 Greenwald, Glenn 219 Greg (PMC contractor) 60–1 Greiner, Robert 15 GTL 210 Guantánamo Bay 28, 240 Guardian 75, 261 Guatemala 134 Gulf War, First 25 Gulf War, Second 60 Gurkhas 20, 22, 25 Habib-Ur-Rahman 46–8 Hadawal, Khan Afzal 61 HADOM 140 Haidari, M.
W. 33, 34 Sisalem, Aladdin 281 al-Sisi, Abdel Fattah 2 Smart Borders 97 Smart, Frank 209 Smeets, Alice 137 Snowden, Edward 15, 55, 219, 359n32 social-impact bonds 4 social media 75 social sensitivity 21 social spending, cuts 6–7 Solnit, Rebecca 311 Solomon Islands 176, 346n28 Solon, Vivian Alvarez 289 Somalia 26 Somare, Michael 170, 171, 191 Sonapi 131 Sontag, Deborah 113 Sopko, John 62 South Africa 196 Southern Center for Human Rights 199 South Korea 117 South Sudan 14 South Yorkshire Migration Asylum Action Group 235 sovereignty Greece 104 Haiti 135, 146, 152 Papua New Guinea 156, 175–6, 176–8, 191, 192 and private military companies 22–3 Soviet Union 33, 37 Spaccia, Angela 5 Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction 35 Spicer, Tim 33, 180 Sri Lanka, Boxing Day tsunami, 2004 11 Stathis, Epaminondas N. 87–91 Stavridis, Stelios 102 Stewart Immigration Detention Center, Lumpkin, Georgia 211–22 Stillman, Sarah 29 Sturm, Axel 185–6 suicide attacks 41–2 suicide rates 102, 209, 217, 332n83 Supreme Foodservice AG 29 surveillance 6, 15, 237–8 sustainable development 2, 162 sweatshops 149, 341n65 Syntagma Square protest, 2014, Greece 70 Syria 14 Syriza 12, 72–5, 83, 91, 95, 103 Taibbi, Matt 3–4, 309–10 Takaung, Philip 179 Taliban barbarism 25 drug trade 37 fear of resurgent 44–5 fractured 63 overthrow 31 in Pakistan 31 suicide attacks 41 targeting 55 and women 47, 330n59 Tapakau, Patricia 183–4 Task Force 377 331n69 taxation, global 6 Taylor, Peter 185, 186 Tepper Aviation 34 terrorism, September 11 terrorist attacks, 2001 7, 33 Tethys Petroleum 50 Texas 197 Tex-Net 206 Thatcher, Margaret 234, 238–9, 310 Thehan (asylum seeker) 253–4 Theonil (PNG resident) 167–9 This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate (Klein) 8 Thomas, Jean-Louis Saint 131 Thomson, Gordon 273–4, 275 Thorburn, James 232 three-strike laws 198 Tiefer, Charles 35 Time Warner 5 torture 15 tourism 152 Trans-Afghanistan pipeline 25 Transfield 283, 358n25 transparency 10, 191, 249, 310 prisons 225–6 private military companies 34 privatization 246, 290–1 Treatment Advocacy centre 201 Tribelnig, Stuart 259 Triple Canopy 108 Tsiolkas, Christos 103–4 Tsipras, Alexis 72, 73–4, 74, 93, 95 Tuckey, Wilson 278 Tunisia 128 Twitter 308 Tzanetea, Revekka 78–80 UK Border Agency 241 Unilever 267 Union of Christmas Island Workers (UCIW) 273, 275 United Kingdom and Afghanistan 49–50 asylum seekers 230–5, 244, 245–51, 252–8, 258–63 contractor privacy 248–9 deportations 258–63 detention centers 230–5, 245–51, 252–8, 263–7 elite salaries 239 health services privatization 244–5 housing demand 234 immigration policy 243–4 inequality 242–3 Liberal Democrats 252 living standards 243 opposition to privatization 251 outsourcing contractors 240–2 prisons 240, 264–5 privatization 13, 230–68, 237–9, 310 racism 259–60 rent increases 4 scale of privatization 244 slumification 234 Welfare to Work program 261–2 United Nations 16, 68, 126, 277 and Haitian cholera outbreak 113–14, 115–16 Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs 139 Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries policy 344n19 United Nations Environment Programme 157 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 37 United States of America Afghan dependence on 45 aid contracts 123–5 American Correctional Association (ACA) conference, 2014 202–11 arms sales 110–11 Assessing Progress in Haiti Act 124 Commission on Wartime Contracting 34 corporate pillaging of Haiti 111–12 cost of Afghan war 45 Defense Logistics Agency 29 deportations 212, 227–8 detention centers 211–28 executions 199 farm subsidies 122–3 female prison population 197 food assistance 3 foreign policy 5, 152 Government Accountability Office 35 Haiti colonialism 109–13 Haiti Economic Lift Program 133 Haiti policy 115–16, 116–20, 134 immigrants 195, 196, 198–9, 211–28 incarceration rates 195–6, 200, 204 inequality 2–4 investment in Haiti 116–20 military bases 28 obsession with imprisonment 198 opposition to private prisons 223–8 and Papua New Guinea 170–1 police brutality 203 prison bed mandate 226–7 prison population 196, 204, 228 prison quotas 226–7, 228 prisons 195–229 private prison operators 196–8 privatization 4, 5, 13 the Reagan Revolution 3 rice exports 122–3 riots, Ferguson, Missouri 203 role of government 4 sentencing reform 198 southern border 212 three-strike laws 198 Urban Shield conference 203–4 use of contractors 28–31 waste reduction 30 youth detention 208 Unocal 25 unregulated capitalism, Haiti 135–6 Urban Shield conference 203–4 URS 172 USAID 28, 38, 108, 123–5, 130, 134, 135, 142, 146–7, 152, 327–8n46, 331–2n77 US Department of Defense 28, 30 US Geological Society 49 US–Korea Free Trade Agreement 133 US special forces 55 U.S.
3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar
Within two weeks, solvers from outside the university—none in the fields of computational biology or life sciences—had produced genomics algorithms a hundred times faster than the current solution. The miracle of finding the right person at the right time is also transforming political activism. An activist and writer known by her Twitter handle, @FeministaJones, led an organizing movement for a national moment of silence (#nmos14) in response to the police killing of Michael Brown, a black teenager walking down the middle of a street at midday in Ferguson, Missouri, on August 9, 2014. Within just three days, Jones’s digital organizing—mostly on Twitter, Facebook, and Google Docs—resulted in thousands of people in tens of cities nationwide coming together. And while the mainstream media reported on the case slowly and sporadically with a handful of reporters, it was people in the right place—protesters, bystanders, eyewitnesses—who live-tweeted up-to-date news, videos, and photographs of events unfolding in Ferguson.
See also Capitalism; Collaborative economy Edge cases, innovation, 167–170 Elder care, challenge solution, 174 Emergencies and crises, crowdsourcing, 85 Employees, lack of flexibility, 189 Employment, shifting implications, 59–60 Employment status, employee vs. freelancer, 156–157 Energy, renewables, 94–95 Equity crowdfunding, 204–205 Ethiopia Toto Agriculture Portal, 42 Etsy, 229–230 benefits to peers, 51 Race to the Top Award, 230 social and environmental benefits, 201 Excess capacity beating law of physics, 73–78 Craigslist, 24–25 FOSS, 42–44 joined with platforms and peers, 72–73 large-scale uses, 33–34 Lyft, 67–68 map applications, 29–30 opening, 38–44 peers’ assets leveraged, 214 physical spaces, 31–32 reCAPTCHA, 27–28 recognizing, 22–33 sharing as tapping, 16–19 shipping, 94 Skype, 23–24 slicing and aggregating, 37–38 smartphone uses, 25–27 solar energy, 95 unshared experience, 40 ways platforms use, 37–42 Experimentation. See Controlled kernel; Innovation Expertise, peers as source, 81–85 Exponential learning, 78–81, 146, 185–186 Facebook allowing users to communicate, 128 fallout from experiment, 135–136 as power user, 119–120 Failure, 100. See also GoLoco Farm-to-fork program, 235–237 Farmville, dependence on Facebook, 119–120 FedEx, employment status, 156 Ferguson, Missouri, protests through social media, 83–84 Field, Matan, 215 Financing angel and capital investors, 9–11 crowdfunding, 202–205 options for platform building, 199–203 Flexibility, 56–57, 188–189 Flexicurity, 190 Forbes’ “Best Countries for Business,” 190 Forest fires, Indonesia, NGO’s work, 230–232 Free and open-source software (FOSS), 25 and community, 134–135 crowdfunded and privately financed, 207–211 as excess capacity, 42–44 power of communities, 219–220 volunteer coordinator, 210–211 Free riders, problems and opportunities, 166 Freelancers no perks or protections, 252 U.S. numbers, 157–158 Freight, excess capacity, 94 Future, near, Peers Inc, 88–89 G-Auto, 239–243 GE, partnering with Quirky, 63–64 Gebbia, Joe, 58 General Public License (GPL), 205–207 Gift crowdfunding, 203–205 GitHub, 43, 45, 209–210 GlaxoSmithKline, edge case innovation, 170 Global events, 350.org, 233 Global Forest Watch, 228, 230–232 Global Positioning System.
Four Futures: Life After Capitalism by Peter Frase
3D printing, Airbnb, basic income, bitcoin, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, fixed income, full employment, future of work, high net worth, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), iterative process, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, litecoin, mass incarceration, means of production, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, price mechanism, private military company, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart meter, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck
The 2015 documentary Peace Officer tells the story of Dub Lawrence, a former Utah county sheriff who became a police critic after his son-in-law was shot by a SWAT team officer during a standoff that was originally precipitated by a domestic violence call from his girlfriend.27 At the street level, too, the threat of police violence is constant, especially for the black and brown. In July 2014, New York City resident Eric Garner died after being placed in a chokehold by officers, for the suspected crime of selling untaxed loose cigarettes. His death provoked an uproar in part because the incident was caught on a cell phone camera, but also because it brought attention to something that is all too routine. Soon after, Mike Brown was shot down in the streets of Ferguson, Missouri, giving more fuel to a national movement. Although exact details of the encounter are disputed, all agree that Brown was unarmed and that the officer who shot him started a confrontation over the grave crime of walking in the street. These events echoed many similar incidents around the country, an unceasing drumbeat of violence over the years. In Oakland, for example, there was the police execution of Oscar Grant.
Sleeping Giant: How the New Working Class Will Transform America by Tamara Draut
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, always be closing, battle of ideas, big-box store, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ending welfare as we know it, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, full employment, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, occupational segregation, payday loans, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, white flight, women in the workforce, young professional
Because race has always been classed and class has always been raced, most of these city- or state-based organizations understand the connections between corporate power, police brutality, underfunded public schools, and low-paying jobs. There’s a new beltway of activism flowing through the South, from Atlanta, Georgia, all the way down to Miami, Florida, and on over to Jackson, Mississippi. Phillip Agnew is the director of Dream Defenders, based in Florida, and was one of the handful of young activists invited to the White House to meet with President Obama about the protests in Ferguson, Missouri. Agnew, whom I met at a Demos gala when we honored Dream Defenders with a Transforming America Award, brought the house down in his acceptance speech. Like so many other leaders, he and his group are joining the chorus of activists supporting Black Lives Matter while continuing to do local organizing and work to change policies and laws. In an interview, he seamlessly laid out the breadth of the challenge and what animates working-class people whose struggles form the backbone of the second wave of civil rights activism: “The values that our country is supposed to be built on—equal opportunity for all, the ability of all to represent our values at the ballot box—this country has never done that.
The Geek Feminist Revolution by Kameron Hurley
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, clean water, commoditize, desegregation, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, Kickstarter, means of production, Skype, women in the workforce
To say, “This is the stuff of circuses and mistakes. This is the stuff of nightmares.” It’s easier to reject,10 fear,11 and destroy12 what we don’t understand. It’s impossible to understand what we’re never allowed to see. Even if, in many cases, what we never see is ourselves.13 * * * I passed a man and his son headed to a football game one day. The news was, at the time, all about the protest and unrest in the city of Ferguson, Missouri, where peaceful protests in reaction to the shooting of an unarmed teenager were met with an increasingly violent police response. One would think there would be a profound backlash against this militarized police response, no matter the race of the victim. But one would be wrong.14 The boy and his father crossing the street to the stadium were white; the boy was about eight or nine years old, and he asked, “Dad, what if it had been a black cop shooting a black kid?
Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams
3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
In Argentina, for instance, unemployed workers’ movements blockaded major streets in order to make themselves heard and were central to the overthrow of the government.82 Expelled from the wage, shorn of a workplace, blockading urban arteries becomes a primary means of exerting political power.83 The surge in freeway blockades in the wake of the August 2014 police killing of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, demonstrates the increasing prevalence of this type of struggle.84 Similar tactics take on other aspects of capitalist reproduction with the same basic objective, including rent strikes and debt strikes. Port blockades also have potential as a tactic, and computer modelling can offer insights into how to avoid scattershot and ineffective political action.85 These new tactics must, of course, be situated within a larger strategic plan, or risk becoming so many temporary movements that erupt only to disappear without a trace.
Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives by Tim Harford
affirmative action, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, assortative mating, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Basel III, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Erdős number, experimental subject, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Frank Gehry, game design, global supply chain, Googley, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, Inbox Zero, income inequality, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, microbiome, out of africa, Paul Erdős, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Turing test, urban decay, William Langewiesche
In the United States, neighborhoods are increasingly segregated—economically, politically, almost any way one cares to look at the data.29 We have an unprecedented choice of news outlets. Americans, Canadians, Australians, and Brits can easily read The Times of India or The Japan Times. But we don’t. Instead, conservatives watch Fox News and liberals watch MSNBC.30 There’s the Internet, of course, a cornucopia of news and opinion, but we sample its riches selectively—often without realizing how the selection is made. Consider the way that the troubles of Ferguson, Missouri, were covered by social media in the summer of 2014 after a police officer, Darren Wilson, shot and killed a young black man, Michael Brown. Night after night of confrontation between police and protesters barely made a ripple on Facebook. The most likely explanation for that is that Facebook is set up for sharing good news. You signal your approval of a post by clicking “Like,” which feels like an inappropriate response to a photograph of a masked protester or a line of riot cops.
The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida
affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional
Furthermore, the violent crime rate—which has been declining across the United States—fell three times faster in America’s primary cities than it did in their suburbs between 1990 and 2008. Murders actually rose by 16.9 percent in the suburbs between 2001 and 2010, while falling by 16.7 percent in cities.11 And the suburbs have been the sites of many, if not most, of America’s mass shootings, from Columbine to Sandy Hook. Suburban governments and police departments have been slow to adjust to these new realities. That became agonizingly apparent to the whole world when Ferguson, Missouri, a St. Louis suburb of 21,000, spun out of control in the wake of the police killing of Michael Brown in 2015. Over two-thirds (67 percent) of Ferguson’s population is black, but only four of the town’s fifty-four police officers were black at the time. Ferguson is hardly a typical case—it had suffered from many local traumas, from a failed airport expansion, in which thousands of homeowners were displaced by eminent domain, to long-standing racial red-lining.
23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day
For example, the police are increasingly averse to being monitored. All over the US, police harass and prosecute people who videotape them, and some jurisdictions have ruled it illegal. Cops in Chicago have deliberately obscured cameras, apparently attempting to conceal their own behavior. The San Diego Police Department denies all requests for police videos, claiming that they’re part of ongoing investigations. During the 2014 protests in Ferguson, Missouri, after the police killed an unarmed black man, police routinely prevented protesters from recording them, and several reporters were arrested for documenting events. Los Angeles police even went so far as to sabotage court-mandated voice recorders in their patrol cars. Governments and corporations routinely resist transparency laws of all kinds. But the world of secrecy is changing. Privacy-law scholar Peter Swire writes about a declining half-life of secrets.
Fallen Astronauts: Heroes Who Died Reaching for the Moon by Colin Burgess, Kate Doolan
Slayton felt that Bassett would work well with Frank Borman and Bill Anders (both of whom would eventually fly on the Apollo 8 mission). If he performed well on that flight, there was a high probability he would later command his own lunar landing mission and become one of a handful of men to walk on the moon. When he confided this in Jeannie, she could see that he was thrilled, almost beyond words. Charlie Bassett, it seemed, was definitely on his way to the moon. Kenneth Stovall from Ferguson, Missouri, was employed as a company linesman by Union Electric. He was walking through a substation parking lot near the McDonnell Plant when he heard the T-38 approaching from the east. He remembered it descending at "a fairly sharp angle." As he watched, the pilot cut in the afterburners, desperately throwing on extra power. Moments later the aircraft disappeared from view behind some stationary boxcars on the elevated railroad tracks skirting the northern side of the airfield.
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
Far more radical proposals have been offered to restore the city to its previous size and sense of purpose: making it a tax-free zone, creating a Detroit-only visa for hardworking Latin and Asian immigrants, and giving Detroit to Canada, which provides a much larger federal share (approximately 20 percent) of city budgets than America does (less than 10 percent). Dozens of other cities are also on life support, in deep debt, and without viable business models. Fiscal stress makes municipal welfare a token gesture at best. Many of these cities are also so deeply divided by wealth and race that they have become tinderboxes—the 2014 Ferguson, Missouri, riots were only the most widely reported episode. They are so poor and unequal they should be treated like underdeveloped countries.9 Washington is haphazardly helping them pay for police officers and commuter buses, backing bonds to cover pensions, and offering investment rebates and tax credits for job creation and business start-ups. But creating a few jobs isn’t a sustainable economic strategy.
The Way of the Gun: A Bloody Journey Into the World of Firearms by Iain Overton
air freight, airport security, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, clean water, Columbine, David Attenborough, Etonian, Ferguson, Missouri, gender pay gap, gun show loophole, illegal immigration, interchangeable parts, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, More Guns, Less Crime, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Y2K, Yom Kippur War
The problem is that, in a post-9/11 world, the US police have become what Balko calls ‘a protected class’. Few politicians want to oppose them, so they are rarely held to account successfully, and, despite a growing media focus on their actions, no one seems to be effectively restricting their powers. Instead, America just keeps arming its law enforcement officers with military-grade equipment. It was something that was glaringly obvious on the streets of Ferguson, Missouri, in the summer of 2014. When Michael Brown, an unarmed black teenager, was shot and killed on August 9 by Darren Wilson, a white police officer, protests riled the area for weeks. The world looked on as the streets of an American town seemed to descend into a war zone – masked police with tear gas, beanbag rounds, flash grenades and rubber bullets descended on Ferguson. A policeman was filmed saying, ‘Bring it, you fucking animals, bring it’, and the issue of the militarisation of America’s police became the focus of endless media columns and articles.
The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge by Matt Ridley
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, altcoin, anthropic principle, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Corn Laws, cosmological constant, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Edward Snowden, endogenous growth, epigenetics, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, George Santayana, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hydraulic fracturing, imperial preference, income per capita, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, land reform, Lao Tzu, long peace, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Necker cube, obamacare, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, price mechanism, profit motive, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce
Oxford University Press. On governments as organised crime, Williamson, Kevin D. 2013. The End is Near and it’s Going to be Awesome. HarperCollins; Nock, A.J. 1939. The criminality of the state. The American Mercury March 1939; and Morris, Ian 2014. War: What is it Good For?. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. Also Robert Higgs, Some basics of state domination and public submission. Blog.independent.org 27 April 2104. On Ferguson, Missouri, Paul, Rand. We must demilitarize the police. Time 14 August 2014. Balko, Radley 2013. Rise of the Warrior Cop. PublicAffairs. On Lao Tzu, Blacksburg, A. 2013. Taoism and Libertarianism – From Lao Tzu to Murray Rothbard. Thehumanecondition.com. Lord Acton’s letter to Mary Gladstone (24 April 1881), published in Letters of Lord Acton to Mary Gladstone (1913) p. 73. Michael Cloud quoted in Frisby, Dominic 2013.
Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman
3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
The high school has a student council that is predominantly white, but it also has a black male leadership group, a female leadership group, a Latino one, and an African–Middle Eastern one. “These groups meet every other week and talk about their responsibility to the school,” said Meyers. “They elect captains and if they have a grievance they come and see me.” In the wake of the police shooting in Ferguson, Missouri, students staged a walkout and created a group called Students Organizing Against Racism, or SOAR. “If kids have a voice, with mentoring from teachers, it can make a huge difference,” said Meyer. “They cannot be coming to a school and feeling like they are visiting someone else’s school.” Metz remarked that when he was the high school principal he got to “talk to a lot of seniors when they go out the door and almost always their biggest regret is that they didn’t mix with more kids.
Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War
This is why companies and wealthy individuals spend millions on search engine optimisation. If, due to some small change in the algorithm, ‘Bates Motel + Fairvale’ disappears from the top 10 results, that could be the commercial kiss of death for that delightful hostelry. The internet scholar Zeynep Tufekci argues that Facebook’s News Feed algorithm unintentionally buried news of the first days of protests against the killing of a black youth by a white policeman in the town of Ferguson, Missouri, in summer 2014.51 The psychologist Robert Epstein, an outspoken critic of Google, goes further, talking of a search engine manipulation effect. In a study conducted with 1,800 undecided voters in India’s 2014 parliamentary election, he claimed to have shifted votes by an average of 12.5 percent to particular candidates simply by improving their placings in search results found by the individual voter.52 An extreme example of algorithmic choice could be provided by Google’s computer-driven car.